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Sample records for bacterial surface layer

  1. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  2. Crystalline Bacterial Surface Layer (S-Layer) Opens Golden Opportunities for Nanobiotechnology in Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Narges; Chand, Nima; Rassa, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the successful recrystallization of bacterial S-layer arrays of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 at textile surfaces to create a novel method and material. Optimum bacterial growth was obtained at approximately 45 °C, pH 5.0, and 14 h pi. The cells were resuspended in guanidine hydrochloride and the 43 kDa S-protein was dialyzed and purified. The optimum reassembly on the polypropylene fabric surface in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reflectance, and uniformity (spectrophotometry) was obtained at 30 °C, pH 5.0 for 30 minutes in the presence of 2 gr/l (liquor ratio; 1:40) of the S-protein. Overall, our data showed that the functional aspects and specialty applications of the fabric would be very attractive for the textile and related sciences, and result in advanced technical textiles.

  3. Monodisperse gold nanoparticles formed on bacterial crystalline surface layers (S-layers) by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieluweit, S. [Center for Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Pum, D. [Center for Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Sleytr, U.B. [Center for Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Kautek, W. [Department for Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wolfgang.kautek@univie.ac.at

    2005-12-15

    The fabrication of patterned arrays of nanoparticles whose electronic, optical and magnetic properties will find technological applications, such as ultra-high-density memories, is currently one of the most important objectives of inorganic material research. In this study, the in situ electroless nucleation of ordered two-dimensional arrays of gold nanoparticles (5 nm in size) by using bacterial S-layers as molecular templates and their characterization by small spot X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy (XPS) is presented. This yielded the elemental composition of the nanoclusters, which consisted of almost entirely elemental gold, and possible side reactions on the cluster and protein surface. The preferential deposition of the gold nanoparticles on the S-layer suggests that topography and functional groups are important for superlattice formation.

  4. Metallization of bacterial surface layer by cross-beam pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompe, Wolfgang; Mertig, Michael; Kirsch, Remo; Gorbunov, Andre A.; Sewing, Andreas; Engelhardt, Harald; Mensch, Axel

    1996-04-01

    We present first results on thin film metal deposition on the regular bacterial surface layer of Sporsarcina urea by pulsed laser deposition. To prevent structural damage of the biological specimen a recently developed cross beam technique is applied providing an effective filtering of the most energetic plasma particles. The deposited films are examined by low voltage scanning electron microscopy. The surface profile of the S-layer adsorbed onto mica substrate was investigated by atomic force microscopy. A lattice constant of 13.2 nm has been measured. The lattice parameters and the structural appearance of the protein layer is in reasonable agreement with the results of an electron microscopical 3D structural analysis.

  5. Formation and manipulation of regular metallic nanoparticle arrays on bacterial surface layers: an advanced TEM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertig, M.; Wahl, R.; Lehmann, M.; Simon, P.; Pompe, W.

    The template-directed formation of regular nanoparticle arrays on two-dimensional crystalline protein layers after their treatment with metal salt complexes was studied by transmission electron microscopy. For these investigations, bacterial surface layers (S layers), recrystallized in vitro into sheets and tube-shaped protein crystals with typical dimensions in the micrometer range, were used as the template. As identified by electron holography and scanning force microscopy, the S-layer tubes form alternating double layers when deposited onto a solid substrate surface. Two distinct pathways for the metal particle formation at the templates have been found: the site-specific growth of metal clusters by chemical reduction of the metal salt complexes, and the electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles in the transmission electron microscope. Both mechanisms lead to regular arrays with particle densities > 6×1011cm-2. Nanoparticle formation by electron exposure takes exclusively place in the flat-lying double-layered protein tubes, where a sufficient amount of metal complexes can be accumulated during sample preparation.

  6. The surface layer of Tannerella forsythia contributes to serum resistance and oral bacterial coaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotahira, Naohiro; Oogai, Yuichi; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Yamada, Sakuo; Fukutsuji, Kenji; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2013-04-01

    Tannerella forsythia is an anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium involved in the so-called "red complex," which is associated with severe and chronic periodontitis. The surface layer (S-layer) of T. forsythia is composed of cell surface glycoproteins, such as TfsA and TfsB, and is known to play a role in adhesion/invasion and suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression. Here we investigated the association of this S-layer with serum resistance and coaggregation with other oral bacteria. The growth of the S-layer-deficient mutant in a bacterial medium containing more than 20% non-heat-inactivated calf serum (CS) or more than 40% non-heat-inactivated human serum was significantly suppressed relative to that of the wild type (WT). Next, we used confocal microscopy to perform quantitative analysis on the effect of serum. The survival ratio of the mutant exposed to 100% non-heat-inactivated CS (76% survival) was significantly lower than that of the WT (97% survival). Furthermore, significant C3b deposition was observed in the mutant but not in the WT. In a coaggregation assay, the mutant showed reduced coaggregation with Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, and Porphyromonas gingivalis but strong coaggregation with Fusobacterium nucleatum. These results indicated that the S-layer of T. forsythia plays multiple roles in virulence and may be associated with periodontitis.

  7. Surface layers of Xanthomonas malvacearum, the cause of bacterial blight of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, J P; Formanek, H

    1981-01-01

    Mureins were isolated from two strains of Xanthomonas malvacearum, a phytopathogenic bacterium causing bacterial blight of cotton. The purity of murein was 70-95 % and the amino acid and amino sugar components (glutamic acid, alanina, meso-disminopimelic acid, muramic acid and glucosamine) were present at the molar ratio of 1:1.9:1:l.12.0.85. The bacterium secreted a copious amount of slime which masked itd surface structure. The slime was composed of densley interwoven network of filamentous material originating from the cell surface and extended into the medium without and discernable boundary. The slime was secreted through surface layers pores by force, giving the effect of a spray or jet. Slime also played a role in chain formatin of baterial cells.

  8. Bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Pacific sector of the western Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukki Han

    Full Text Available From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1 surface seawater, (2 ice core, and (3 melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

  9. Bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Pacific sector of the western Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dukki; Kang, Ilnam; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

  10. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: emorenog@ucm.es [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-06-07

    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  11. Proteins dominate in the surface layers formed on materials exposed to extracellular polymeric substances from bacterial cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wikieł, Agata J; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo T; Eloy, Pierre; Genet, Michel J; Moura, José J G; Sand, Wolfgang; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C; Rouxhet, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the surface conditioning layers formed by different types of solutions (from isolated EPS to whole culture media), involving different bacterial strains relevant for biocorrosion were compared, as they may influence the initial step in biofilm formation. Different substrata (polystyrene, glass, steel) were conditioned and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Peak decomposition and assignment were validated by correlations between independent spectral data and the ubiquitous presence of organic contaminants on inorganic substrata was taken into account. Proteins or peptides were found to be a major constituent of all conditioning layers and polysaccharides were not present in appreciable concentrations; the proportion of nitrogen which may be due to DNA was lower than 15%. There was no significant difference between the compositions of the adlayers formed from different conditioning solutions, except for the adlayers produced with tightly bound EPS extracted from D. alaskensis.

  12. A bacterial glycan core linked to surface (S)-layer proteins modulates host immunity through Th17 suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settem, R P; Honma, K; Nakajima, T; Phansopa, C; Roy, S; Stafford, G P; Sharma, A

    2013-03-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a pathogen implicated in periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues often leading to tooth loss. This key periodontal pathogen is decorated with a unique glycan core O-glycosidically linked to the bacterium's proteinaceous surface (S)-layer lattice and other glycoproteins. Herein, we show that the terminal motif of this glycan core acts to modulate dendritic cell effector functions to suppress T-helper (Th)17 responses. In contrast to the wild-type bacterial strain, infection with a mutant strain lacking the complete S-layer glycan core induced robust Th17 and reduced periodontal bone loss in mice. Our findings demonstrate that surface glycosylation of this pathogen may act to ensure its persistence in the host likely through suppression of Th17 responses. In addition, our data suggest that the bacterium then induces the Toll-like receptor 2-Th2 inflammatory axis that has previously been shown to cause bone destruction. Our study provides a biological basis for pathogenesis and opens opportunities in exploiting bacterial glycans as therapeutic targets against periodontitis and a range of other infectious diseases.

  13. Nano-layered magnesium fluoride reservoirs on biomaterial surfaces strengthen polymorphonuclear leukocyte resistance to bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Geyong; Zhou, Huaijuan; Wang, Qiaojie; Wang, Jiaxing; Tan, Jiaqi; Li, Jinhua; Jin, Ping; Shen, Hao

    2017-01-05

    Biomaterial-related bacterial infections cause patient suffering, mortality and extended periods of hospitalization, imposing a substantial burden on medical systems. In this context, understanding of nanomaterials-bacteria-cells interactions is of both fundamental and clinical significance. Herein, nano-MgF2 films were deposited on titanium substrate via magnetron sputtering. Using this platform, the antibacterial behavior and mechanism of the nano-MgF2 films were investigated in vitro and in vivo. It was found that, for S. aureus (CA-MRSA, USA300) and S. epidermidis (RP62A), the nano-MgF2 films possessed excellent anti-biofilm activity, but poor anti-planktonic bacteria activity in vitro. Nevertheless, both the traditional SD rat osteomyelitis model and the novel stably luminescent mouse infection model demonstrated that nano-MgF2 films exerted superior anti-infection effect in vivo, which cannot be completely explained by the antibacterial activity of the nanomaterial itself. Further, using polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the critical immune cells of innate immunity, a complementary investigation of MgF2-bacteria-PMNs co-culturing revealed that the nano-MgF2 films improved the antibacterial effect of PMNs through enhancing their phagocytosis and stability. To our knowledge, this is the first time of exploring the antimicrobial mechanism of nano-MgF2 from the perspective of innate immunity both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the research results, a plausible mechanism is put forward for the predominant antibacterial effect of nano-MgF2in vivo, which may originate from the indirect immune enhancement effect of nano-MgF2 films. In summary, this study of surface antibacterial design using MgF2 nanolayer is a meaningful attempt, which can promote the host innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. This may give us a new understanding towards the antibacterial behavior and mechanism of nano-MgF2 films and pave the way towards their clinical applications.

  14. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  15. Surface micropattern limits bacterial contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Ethan E.; Manna, Dipankar; Mettetal, Michael R; May, Rhea M.; Dannemiller, Elisa M; Chung, Kenneth K.; Brennan, Anthony B; Reddy, Shravanthi T

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial surface contamination contributes to transmission of nosocomial infections. Chemical cleansers used to control surface contamination are often toxic and incorrectly implemented. Additional non-toxic strategies should be combined with regular cleanings to mitigate risks of human error and further decrease rates of nosocomial infections. The Sharklet micropattern (MP), inspired by shark skin, is an effective tool for reducing bacterial load on surfaces without toxic additiv...

  16. Bacterial motility on abiotic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gibiansky, Maxsim

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured microbial communities which are widespread both in nature and in clinical settings. When organized into a biofilm, bacteria are extremely resistant to many forms of stress, including a greatly heightened antibiotic resistance. In the early stages of biofilm formation on an abiotic surface, many bacteria make use of their motility to explore the surface, finding areas of high nutrition or other bacteria to form microcolonies. They use motility appendages, incl...

  17. Locomotion of bacteria in liquid flow and the boundary layer effect on bacterial attachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangchao@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Liao, Qiang, E-mail: lqzx@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchen@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhu, Xun, E-mail: zhuxun@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2015-06-12

    The formation of biofilm greatly affects the performance of biological reactors, which highly depends on bacterial swimming and attachment that usually takes place in liquid flow. Therefore, bacterial swimming and attachment on flat and circular surfaces with the consideration of flow was studied experimentally. Besides, a mathematical model comprehensively combining bacterial swimming and motion with flow is proposed for the simulation of bacterial locomotion and attachment in flow. Both experimental and theoretical results revealed that attached bacteria density increases with decreasing boundary layer thickness on both flat and circular surfaces, the consequence of which is inherently related to the competition between bacterial swimming and the non-slip motion with flow evaluated by the Péclet number. In the boundary layer, where the Péclet number is relatively higher, bacterial locomotion mainly depends on bacterial swimming. Thinner boundary layer promotes bacterial swimming towards the surface, leading to higher attachment density. To enhance the performance of biofilm reactors, it is effective to reduce the boundary layer thickness on desired surfaces. - Highlights: • Study of bacterial locomotion in flow as an early stage in biofilm formation. • Mathematical model combining bacterial swimming and the motion with flow. • Boundary layer plays a key role in bacterial attachment under flow condition. • The competition between bacterial swimming and the motion with flow is evaluated.

  18. Bacterial S-layer protein coupling to lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weygand, M.; Wetzer, B.; Pum, D.

    1999-01-01

    The coupling of bacterial surface (S)-layer proteins to lipid membranes is studied in molecular detail for proteins from Bacillus sphaericus CCM2177 and B. coagulans E38-66 recrystallized at dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) monolayers on aqueous buffer. A comparison of the monolayer...... that the phosphatidylethanolamine headgroups must reorient toward the surface normal to accommodate such changes. In terms of the protein structure (which is as yet unknown in three dimensions), the electron density profile reveals a thickness I(z) approximate to 90 Angstrom of the recrystallized S-layer and shows water......-filled cavities near its center. The protein volume fraction reaches maxima of >60% in two horizontal sections of the S-layer, close to the lipid monolayer and close to the free subphase. In between it drops to similar to 20%. Four S-layer protein monomers are located within the unit cell of a square lattice...

  19. 细菌S-layer蛋白的研究新进展%Recent Advance in Surface Layer Protein of Bacterial Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董妍玲; 潘学武

    2010-01-01

    S-layer(Surface layer)是由单分子蛋白质或糖蛋白重复排列形成的二维生物膜结构,是古细菌和细菌中最常见的细胞表面结构之一.S-layer蛋白具有特有的在亚纳米水平上的多孔晶格结构、在体外重新结晶及与外源蛋白融合进行表面展示等特性,在纳米技术和生物技术方面应用广泛.综述了细菌S-layer蛋白的研究及应用进展.

  20. The structure of bacterial S-layer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Howorka, Stefan; Keller, Walter

    2011-01-01

    S-layers are self-assembled paracrystalline protein lattices that cover many bacteria and almost all archaea. As an important component of the bacterial cell envelope, S-layers can fulfill various biological functions and are usually the most abundantly expressed protein species in a cell. Here we review the structures of the best characterized S-layer proteins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as methods to determine their molecular architecture.

  1. The Exosporium Layer of Bacterial Spores: a Connection to the Environment and the Infected Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, George C

    2015-12-01

    Much of what we know regarding bacterial spore structure and function has been learned from studies of the genetically well-characterized bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Molecular aspects of spore structure, assembly, and function are well defined. However, certain bacteria produce spores with an outer spore layer, the exosporium, which is not present on B. subtilis spores. Our understanding of the composition and biological functions of the exosporium layer is much more limited than that of other aspects of the spore. Because the bacterial spore surface is important for the spore's interactions with the environment, as well as being the site of interaction of the spore with the host's innate immune system in the case of spore-forming bacterial pathogens, the exosporium is worthy of continued investigation. Recent exosporium studies have focused largely on members of the Bacillus cereus family, principally Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus. Our understanding of the composition of the exosporium, the pathway of its assembly, and its role in spore biology is now coming into sharper focus. This review expands on a 2007 review of spore surface layers which provided an excellent conceptual framework of exosporium structure and function (A. O. Henriques and C. P. Moran, Jr., Annu Rev Microbiol 61:555-588, 2007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093224). That review began a process of considering outer spore layers as an integrated, multilayered structure rather than simply regarding the outer spore components as independent parts.

  2. Uncertainties in Surface Layer Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, W.

    2015-12-01

    A central problem for micrometeorologists has been the relationship of air-surface exchange rates of momentum and heat to quantities that can be predicted with confidence. The flux-gradient profile developed through Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) provides an integration of the dimensionless wind shear expression where is an empirically derived expression for stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. Empirically derived expressions are far from universally accepted (Garratt, 1992, Table A5). Regardless of what form of these relationships might be used, their significance over any short period of time is questionable since all of these relationships between fluxes and gradients apply to averages that might rarely occur. It is well accepted that the assumption of stationarity and homogeneity do not reflect the true chaotic nature of the processes that control the variables considered in these relationships, with the net consequence that the levels of predictability theoretically attainable might never be realized in practice. This matter is of direct relevance to modern prognostic models which construct forecasts by assuming the universal applicability of relationships among averages for the lower atmosphere, which rarely maintains an average state. Under a Cooperative research and Development Agreement between NOAA and Duke Energy Generation, NOAA/ATDD conducted atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research using Duke renewable energy sites as research testbeds. One aspect of this research has been the evaluation of legacy flux-gradient formulations (the ϕ functions, see Monin and Obukhov, 1954) for the exchange of heat and momentum. At the Duke Energy Ocotillo site, NOAA/ATDD installed sonic anemometers reporting wind and temperature fluctuations at 10Hz at eight elevations. From these observations, ϕM and ϕH were derived from a two-year database of mean and turbulent wind and temperature observations. From this extensive measurement database, using a

  3. Water molecules orientation in surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingo, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The water molecules orientation has been investigated theoretically in the water surface layer. The surface molecule orientation is determined by the direction of a molecule dipole moment in relation to outward normal to the water surface. Entropy expressions of the superficial molecules in statistical meaning and from thermodynamical approach to a liquid surface tension have been found. The molecules share directed opposite to the outward normal that is hydrogen protons inside is equal 51.6%. 48.4% water molecules are directed along to surface outward normal that is by oxygen inside. A potential jump at the water surface layer amounts about 0.2 volts.

  4. Bacterial adhesion and biofilms on surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Roger Garrett; Manmohan Bhakoo; Zhibing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion has become a significant problem in industry and in the domicile,and much research has been done for deeper understanding of the processes involved.A generic biological model of bacterial adhesion and population growth called the bacterial biofilm growth cycle,has been described and modified many times.The biofilm growth cycle encompasses bacterial adhesion at all levels,starting with the initial physical attraction of bacteria to a substrate,and ending with the eventual liberation of cell dusters from the biofilm matrix.When describing bacterial adhesion one is simply describing one or more stages of biofilm development,neglecting the fact that the population may not reach maturity.This article provides an overview of bacterial adhesion.cites examples of how bac-terial adhesion affects industry and summarises methods and instrumentation used to improve our understanding of the adhesive prop-erties of bacteria.

  5. Comparative study of the surface layer density of liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, E.; Fernández, E. M.; Duque, D.; Delgado-Buscalioni, R.; Tarazona, P.

    2009-11-01

    Capillary wave fluctuations blur the inherent structure of liquid surfaces in computer simulations. The intrinsic sampling method subtracts capillary wave fluctuations and yields the intrinsic surface structure, leading to a generic picture of the liquid surface. The most relevant magnitude of the method is the surface layer density ns that may be consistently determined from different properties: the layering structure of the intrinsic density profiles, the turnover rate for surface layer particles, and the hydrodynamic damping rate of capillary waves. The good agreement among these procedures provides evidence for the physical consistency of the surface layering hypothesis, as an inherent physical property of the liquid surfaces. The dependence of the surface compactness, roughness, and exchange rate with temperature is analyzed for several molecular interaction models.

  6. Model castings with composite surface layer - application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in foundingprocess a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase inhardness and aberasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generallyapplied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. In range of studies was made cast steel test castings withcomposite surface layer, which usability for industrial applications was estimated by criterion of hardness and aberasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral and quality of joint cast steel – (Fe-Cr-C. Based on conducted studies a thesis, that composite surface layer arise from liquid state, was formulated. Moreover, possible is control of composite layer thickness and its hardness by suitable selection of parameters i.e. thickness of insert, pouring temperature and solidification modulus of casting. Possibility of technology application of composite surface layer in manufacture of cast steel slide bush for combined cutter loader is presented.

  7. Leidenfrost Vapor Layer Stabilization on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan; Patankar, Neelesh; Marston, Jeremy; Chan, Derek; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We have performed experiments to investigate the influence of the wettability of a superheated metallic sphere on the stability of a thin vapor layer during the cooling of a sphere immersed in water. For high enough sphere temperatures, a continuous vapor layer (Leidenfrost regime) is observed on the surface of non-superhydrophobic spheres, but below a critical sphere temperature the layer becomes unstable and explosively switches to nuclear boiling regime. In contrast, when the sphere surface is textured and superhydrophobic, the vapor layer is stable and gradually relaxes to the sphere surface until the complete cooling of the sphere, thus avoiding the nuclear boiling transition altogether. This finding could help in the development of heat exchange devices and of vapor layer based drag reducing technologies.

  8. Stable water layers on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Jhan; Tai, Lin-Ai; Chen, Hung-Jen; Chang, Pin; Yang, Chung-Shi; Yew, Tri-Rung

    2016-02-17

    Liquid layers adhered to solid surfaces and that are in equilibrium with the vapor phase are common in printing, coating, and washing processes as well as in alveoli in lungs and in stomata in leaves. For such a liquid layer in equilibrium with the vapor it faces, it has been generally believed that, aside from liquid lumps, only a very thin layer of the liquid, i.e., with a thickness of only a few nanometers, is held onto the surface of the solid, and that this adhesion is due to van der Waals forces. A similar layer of water can remain on the surface of a wall of a microchannel after evaporation of bulk water creates a void in the channel, but the thickness of such a water layer has not yet been well characterized. Herein we showed such a water layer adhered to a microchannel wall to be 100 to 170 nm thick and stable against surface tension. The water layer thickness was measured using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and the water layer structure was characterized by using a quantitative nanoparticle counting technique. This thickness was found for channel gap heights ranging from 1 to 5 μm. Once formed, the water layers in the microchannel, when sealed, were stable for at least one week without any special care. Our results indicate that the water layer forms naturally and is closely associated only with the surface to which it adheres. Our study of naturally formed, stable water layers may shed light on topics from gas exchange in alveoli in biology to the post-wet-process control in the semiconductor industry. We anticipate our report to be a starting point for more detailed research and understanding of the microfluidics, mechanisms and applications of gas-liquid-solid systems.

  9. Smear layer--materials surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, J D

    1992-01-01

    SEM and TEM photomicrographs were presented of the smear layer and several dentin-adhesive interfaces. It was shown that as the wetting and penetration of the dentin adhesive increased, the shear bond strength also increased. Three categories of dentin adhesives were presented. Category one included Scotchbond, Dentin Adhesit and Gluma, with shear bond strength values between 5 and 7 MPa; the second category, dentin adhesives based on Dr. Bowen's research, included Tenure and Mirage Bond, with shear bond strengths between 8 and 14 MPa; the third category included Superbond and Scotchbond 2, with shear bond strength values up to 20 MPa. Failures occurred at the interface or in the resin adhesive for materials in categories one and two; failures occurred through the dentin or composite for materials in category three.

  10. Selective detection of bacterial layers with terahertz plasmonic antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrier, Audrey; Schaafsma, Martijn C; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Bergquist, Jonas; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2012-11-01

    Current detection and identification of micro-organisms is based on either rather unspecific rapid microscopy or on more accurate but complex and time-consuming procedures. In a medical context, the determination of the bacteria Gram type is of significant interest. The diagnostic of microbial infection often requires the identification of the microbiological agent responsible for the infection, or at least the identification of its family (Gram type), in a matter of minutes. In this work, we propose to use terahertz frequency range antennas for the enhanced selective detection of bacteria types. Several microorganisms are investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: a fast, contactless and damage-free investigation method to gain information on the presence and the nature of the microorganisms. We demonstrate that plasmonic antennas enhance the detection sensitivity for bacterial layers and allow the selective recognition of the Gram type of the bacteria.

  11. Selective detection of bacterial layers with terahertz plasmonic antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Berrier, Audrey; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Bergquist, Jonas; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Current detection and identification of micro-organisms is based on either rather unspecific rapid microscopy or on more accurate complex, time-consuming procedures. In a medical context, the determination of the bacteria Gram type is of significant interest. The diagnostic of microbial infection often requires the identification of the microbiological agent responsible for the infection, or at least the identification of its family (Gram type), in a matter of minutes. In this work, we propose to use terahertz frequency range antennas for the enhanced selective detection of bacteria types. Several microorganisms are investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: a fast, contactless and damage-free investigation method to gain information on the presence and the nature of the microorganisms. We demonstrate that plasmonic antennas enhance the detection sensitivity for bacterial layers and allow the selective recognition of the Gram type of the bacteria.

  12. Surface-layer gusts for aircraft operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, G.S.; Kristensen, L.

    1992-01-01

    We use Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to extend the Kristensen et al. (1991) aviation gust estimation technique from the neutral to the diabatic surface layer. Example calculations demonstrate the importance of this correction. Simple stability class methods using only standard aviation surface ...

  13. Bacterial filamentation accelerates colonization of adhesive spots embedded in biopassive surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Emge, Philippe; Avalos Vizcarra, Ima; Kollmannsberger, Philip; Vogel, Viola

    2013-12-01

    Sessile bacteria adhere to engineered surfaces and host tissues and pose a substantial clinical and economical risk when growing into biofilms. Most engineered and biological interfaces are of chemically heterogeneous nature and provide adhesive islands for bacterial attachment and growth. To mimic either defects in a surface coating of biomedical implants or heterogeneities within mucosal layers (Peyer's patches), we embedded micrometre-sized adhesive islands in a poly(ethylene glycol) biopassive background. We show experimentally and computationally that filamentation of Escherichia coli can significantly accelerate the bacterial surface colonization under physiological flow conditions. Filamentation can thus provide an advantage to a bacterial population to bridge non-adhesive distances exceeding 5 μm. Bacterial filamentation, caused by blocking of bacterial division, is common among bacterial species and can be triggered by environmental conditions or antibiotic treatment. While great awareness exists that the build-up of antibiotic resistance serves as intrinsic survival strategy, we show here that antibiotic treatment can actually promote surface colonization by triggering filamentation, which in turn prevents daughter cells from being washed away. Our combined microfabrication and computational approaches provide quantitative insights into mechanisms that enable biofouling of biopassive surfaces with embedded adhesive spots, even for spot distances that are multiples of the bacterial length.

  14. Multipole surface solitons in layered thermal media

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis

    2008-01-01

    We address the existence and properties of multipole solitons localized at a thermally insulating interface between uniform or layered thermal media and a linear dielectric. We find that in the case of uniform media, only surface multipoles with less than three poles can be stable. In contrast, we reveal that periodic alternation of the thermo-optic coefficient in layered thermal media makes possible the stabilization of higher order multipoles.

  15. Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: q.zhao@dundee.ac.uk; Liu, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Peng, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-31

    Stainless steel disks were implanted with N{sup +}, O{sup +} and SiF{sub 3} {sup +}, respectively at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The surface properties of the implanted surfaces were analyzed, including surface chemical composition, surface topography, surface roughness and surface free energy. Bacterial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, which frequently cause medical device-associated infections was evaluated under static condition and laminar flow condition. The effect of contact time, growth media and surface properties of the ion-implanted steels on bacterial adhesion was investigated. The experimental results showed that SiF{sub 3} {sup +}-implanted stainless steel performed much better than N{sup +}-implanted steel, O{sup +}-implanted steel and untreated stainless steel control on reducing bacterial attachment under identical experimental conditions.

  16. A simple technique to assess bacterial attachment to metal surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    . Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method was developed to evaluate bacterial adhesion to metal surface. The method was calibrated using a bacterium Vibrio sp. and aluminium as a model organism and substratum, respectively. The method involves staining...

  17. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The crystal violet microplate adhension assay was modified to evaluate bacterial adhesion to metal and non-metal surfaces. Both viable cell count and the absorbance of the crystal violet stained cells attached to aluminium increased over the period...

  18. Surface state and normal layer effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemm, R.A.; Ledvij, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Liu, S.H. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-08-01

    In addition to the conducting CuO{sub 2} (S) layers, most high-T{sub c} superconductors also contain other conducting (N) layers, which are only superconducting due to the proximity effect. The combination of S and N layers can give rise to complicated electronic densities of states, leading to quasilinear penetration depth and NMR relaxation rate behavior at low temperatures. Surface states can also complicate the analysis of tunneling and, photoemission measurements. Moreover, geometrical considerations and in homogeneously trapped flux axe possible explanations of the paramagnetic Meissner effect and of corner and ring SQUID experiments. Hence, all of the above experiments could be consistent with isotropic s-wave superconductivity within the S layers.

  19. Extracellular polymeric bacterial coverages as minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Saa, A; Saa, Alberto; Teschke, Omar

    2005-01-01

    Surfaces formed by extracellular polymeric substances enclosing individual and some small communities of {\\it Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans} on plates of hydrophobic silicon and hydrophilic mica are analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy imaging. Accurate nanoscale descriptions of such coverage surfaces are obtained. The good agreement with the predictions of a rather simple but realistic theoretical model allows us to conclude that they correspond, indeed, to minimal area surfaces enclosing a given volume associated with the encased bacteria. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first shape characterization of the coverage formed by these biomolecules, with possible applications to the study of biofilms.

  20. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Marston, Jeremy O; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model.

  1. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Barriers to bacterial motility on unsaturated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2013-01-01

    characterized by complex 3D geometry and variable hydration. To approach these questions we take advantage of the Porous Surface Model (PSM) a unique experimental platform that allows direct monitoring of microbial motion under precisely controlled matric potential. Using gfp-tagged Pseudomonas strains...

  3. Bacterial cell surface structures in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Nataniel; Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Radziejewska-Lebrecht, Joanna; Skurnik, Mikael

    2012-06-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a widespread member of the family of Enterobacteriaceae that contains both non-virulent and virulent isolates. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially belonging to serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8 and O:9 are etiologic agents of yersiniosis in animals and humans. Y. enterocolitica cell surface structures that play a significant role in virulence have been subject to many investigations. These include outer membrane (OM) glycolipids such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) and several cell surface adhesion proteins present only in virulent Y. enterocolitica, i.e., Inv, YadA and Ail. While the yadA gene is located on the Yersinia virulence plasmid the Ail, Inv, LPS and ECA are chromosomally encoded. These structures ensure the correct architecture of the OM, provide adhesive properties as well as resistance to antimicrobial peptides and to host innate immune response mechanisms.

  4. Surface roughness scattering in multisubband accumulation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Han; Reich, K. V.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation layers with very large concentrations of electrons where many subbands are filled became recently available due to ionic liquid and other new methods of gating. The low-temperature mobility in such layers is limited by the surface roughness scattering. However, theories of roughness scattering so far dealt only with the small-density single subband two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Here we develop a theory of roughness-scattering limited mobility for the multisubband large concentration case. We show that with growing 2D electron concentration n the surface dimensionless conductivity σ /(2 e2/h ) first decreases as ∝n-6 /5 and then saturates as ˜(d aB/Δ2)≫1 , where d and Δ are the characteristic length and height of the surface roughness and aB is the effective Bohr radius. This means that in spite of the shrinkage of the 2DEG thickness and the related increase of the scattering rate the 2DEG remains a good metal.

  5. S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus sp. inhibit bacterial infection by blockage of DC-SIGN cell receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Ruzal, Sandra M; Cordo, Sandra M

    2016-11-01

    Many species of Lactobacillus sp. possess Surface(s) layer proteins in their envelope. Among other important characteristics S-layer from Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to the cellular receptor DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin; CD209), which is involved in adhesion and infection of several families of bacteria. In this report we investigate the activity of new S-layer proteins from the Lactobacillus family (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus kefiri) over the infection of representative microorganisms important to human health. After the treatment of DC-SIGN expressing cells with these proteins, we were able to diminish bacterial infection by up to 79% in both gram negative and mycobacterial models. We discovered that pre-treatment of the bacteria with S-layers from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus brevis reduced bacteria viability but also prevent infection by the pathogenic bacteria. We also proved the importance of the glycosylation of the S-layer from Lactobacillus kefiri in the binding to the receptor and thus inhibition of infection. This novel characteristic of the S-layers proteins may contribute to the already reported pathogen exclusion activity for these Lactobacillus probiotic strains; and might be also considered as a novel enzymatic antimicrobial agents to inhibit bacterial infection and entry to host cells.

  6. Surface Properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoodIII, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rulison, Christopher [Augustine Scientific; Borup, Rodney [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2010-01-01

    The wetting properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs) were quantified by surface characterization measurements and modeling of material properties. Single-fiber contact-angle and surface energy (both Zisman and Owens-Wendt) data of a wide spectrum of GDL types is presented to delineate the effects of hydrophobic post-processing treatments. Modeling of the basic sessile-drop contact angle demonstrates that this value only gives a fraction of the total picture of interfacial wetting physics. Polar forces are shown to contribute 10-20 less than dispersive forces to the composite wetting of GDLs. Internal water contact angles obtained from Owens-Wendt analysis were measured at 13-19 higher than their single-fiber counterparts. An inverse relationship was found between internal contact angle and both Owens-Wendt surface energy and % polarity of the GDL. The most sophisticated PEMFC mathematical models use either experimentally measured capillary pressures or the standard Young-Laplace capillary-pressure equation. Based on the results of the Owens-Wendt analysis, an advancement to the Young-Laplace equation is proposed for use in these mathematical models, which utilizes only solid surface energies and fractional surface coverage of fluoropolymer. Capillary constants for the spectrum of analyzed GDLs are presented for the same purpose.

  7. Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to {approx}3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect

  8. Wear measurement by surface layer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatchley, C.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of these projects was to demonstrate the capability for precisely but remotely measuring small increments of wear, erosion or corrosion in utility components using detectors mounted outside the system to monitor the presence of radionuclide surface markers. These gamma ray emitting markers are produced by surface layer activation (SLA) using a high energy particle beam from a Van de Graaff or cyclotron particle accelerator. The work was divided into three major projects: (1) determination of the feasibility of applying SLA based surface monitoring techniques to key power plant systems; (2) a field demonstration of SLA monitoring in steam turbine components subject to severe solid particle erosion; and (3) a field demonstration of SLA wear or corrosion monitoring of components in boiler auxiliaries. In the field tests, surface material removal was successfully measured from both selected systems, demonstrating the feasibility of the technique for long term diagnostic condition monitoring. Three bearing components in a boiler circulation pump were monitored almost continuously for a period of over 5 months until the pump was stopped due to electrical problems unrelated to the wear measurements. Solid particle erosion from two stop valve bypass valves was measured during a series of nine startup cycles. Both test demonstrations confirmed the earlier feasibility estimates and showed how SLA markers can be used to provide valuable diagnostic information to plant operators. 22 refs., 63 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Surface display of proteins by Gram-negative bacterial autotransporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourez Michael

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Expressing proteins of interest as fusions to proteins of the bacterial envelope is a powerful technique with many biotechnological and medical applications. Autotransporters have recently emerged as a good tool for bacterial surface display. These proteins are composed of an N-terminal signal peptide, followed by a passenger domain and a translocator domain that mediates the outer membrane translocation of the passenger. The natural passenger domain of autotransporters can be replaced by heterologous proteins that become displayed at the bacterial surface by the translocator domain. The simplicity and versatility of this system has made it very attractive and it has been used to display functional enzymes, vaccine antigens as well as polypeptides libraries. The recent advances in the study of the translocation mechanism of autotransporters have raised several controversial issues with implications for their use as display systems. These issues include the requirement for the displayed polypeptides to remain in a translocation-competent state in the periplasm, the requirement for specific signal sequences and "autochaperone" domains, and the influence of the genetic background of the expression host strain. It is therefore important to better understand the mechanism of translocation of autotransporters in order to employ them to their full potential. This review will focus on the recent advances in the study of the translocation mechanism of autotransporters and describe practical considerations regarding their use for bacterial surface display.

  10. X-ray lattice strain determination in surface layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A.J.; Pantleon, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The present article describes several aspects of lattice strain determination in surface layers by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. Several possibilities and the origins of stress in surface layers are illustrated by the following three cases: 200 nm thick Mo layers on glass substrates; 5.5 m.......5 microns thick TiN layers on heat treatable steel and 21 microns thick gamma prime-Fe4N1-x layers on iron....

  11. High resolution imaging of surface patterns of single bacterial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greif, Dominik; Wesner, Daniel [Experimental Biophysics and Applied Nanoscience, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Regtmeier, Jan, E-mail: jan.regtmeier@physik.uni-bielefeld.de [Experimental Biophysics and Applied Nanoscience, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Anselmetti, Dario [Experimental Biophysics and Applied Nanoscience, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    We systematically studied the origin of surface patterns observed on single Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterial cells by comparing the complementary techniques atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Conditions ranged from living bacteria in liquid to fixed bacteria in high vacuum. Stepwise, we applied different sample modifications (fixation, drying, metal coating, etc.) and characterized the observed surface patterns. A detailed analysis revealed that the surface structure with wrinkled protrusions in SEM images were not generated de novo but most likely evolved from similar and naturally present structures on the surface of living bacteria. The influence of osmotic stress to the surface structure of living cells was evaluated and also the contribution of exopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by imaging two mutant strains of the bacterium under native conditions. AFM images of living bacteria in culture medium exhibited surface structures of the size of single proteins emphasizing the usefulness of AFM for high resolution cell imaging.

  12. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajoure, Meloud, E-mail: Tajoore2000@yahoo.com [MechanicalEng.,HIHM,Gharian (Libya); Tajouri, Ali, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com [Materials and Metallurgical Eng., UOT, Tripoli (Libya); Akreem, Mosbah, E-mail: makreem@yahoo.com [Industrial Research Centre,Tripoli (Libya)

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  13. Subfilter Scale Fluxes in the Marine Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Subfilter Scale Fluxes in the Marine Surface Layer Peter P. Sullivan National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, CO 80307-3000 Phone... layer research is to identify and quantify coupling mechanisms that connect the atmospheric boundary layer and surface waves. Large-eddy simulation...Ocean Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (OHATS), specifically directed at the measurement of SFS variables in the marine surface layer in the presence

  14. Bacterial adhesion to glass and metal-oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baikun; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-07-15

    Metal oxides can increase the adhesion of negatively-charged bacteria to surfaces primarily due to their positive charge. However, the hydrophobicity of a metal-oxide surface can also increase adhesion of bacteria. In order to understand the relative contribution of charge and hydrophobicity to bacterial adhesion, we measured the adhesion of 8 strains of bacteria, under conditions of low and high-ionic strength (1 and 100 mM, respectively) to 11 different surfaces and examined adhesion as a function of charge, hydrophobicity (water contact angle) and surface energy. Inorganic surfaces included three uncoated glass surfaces and eight metal-oxide thin films prepared on the upper (non-tin-exposed) side of float glass by chemical vapor deposition. The Gram-negative bacteria differed in lengths of lipopolysaccharides on their outer surface (three Escherichia coli strains), the amounts of exopolysaccharides (two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains), and their known relative adhesion to sand grains (two Burkholderia cepacia strains). One Gram positive bacterium was also used that had a lower adhesion to glass than these other bacteria (Bacillus subtilis). For all eight bacteria, there was a consistent increase in adhesion between with the type of inorganic surface in the order: float glass exposed to tin (coded here as Si-Sn), glass microscope slide (Si-m), uncoated air-side float glass surface (Si-a), followed by thin films of (Co(1-y-z)Fe(y)Cr(z))3O4, Ti/Fe/O, TiO2, SnO2, SnO2:F, SnO2:Sb, A1(2)O3, and Fe2O3 (the colon indicates metal doping, a slash indicates that the metal is a major component, while the dash is used to distinguish surfaces). Increasing the ionic strength from 1 to 100 mM increased adhesion by a factor of 2.0 +/- 0.6 (73% of the sample results were within the 95% CI) showing electrostatic charge was important in adhesion. However, adhesion was not significantly correlated with bacterial charge and contact angle. Adhesion (A) of the eight strains was

  15. Acoustic tomography in the atmospheric surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ziemann

    Full Text Available Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques.

  16. Exploring Scintillometry in the Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogensis, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate observation methods of heat and momentum exchange and key variables that characterise turbulence in the atmospheric stable surface layer (SSL), a layer defined as the lower part of the stable boundary layer (SBL) where surface fluxes do not change

  17. Bacterial gliding fluid dynamics on a layer of non-Newtonian slime: Perturbation and numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Asghar, Z; Anwar Bég, O; Sajid, M

    2016-05-21

    Gliding bacteria are an assorted group of rod-shaped prokaryotes that adhere to and glide on certain layers of ooze slime attached to a substratum. Due to the absence of organelles of motility, such as flagella, the gliding motion is caused by the waves moving down the outer surface of these rod-shaped cells. In the present study we employ an undulating surface model to investigate the motility of bacteria on a layer of non-Newtonian slime. The rheological behavior of the slime is characterized by an appropriate constitutive equation, namely the Carreau model. Employing the balances of mass and momentum conservation, the hydrodynamic undulating surface model is transformed into a fourth-order nonlinear differential equation in terms of a stream function under the long wavelength assumption. A perturbation approach is adopted to obtain closed form expressions for stream function, pressure rise per wavelength, forces generated by the organism and power required for propulsion. A numerical technique based on an implicit finite difference scheme is also employed to investigate various features of the model for large values of the rheological parameters of the slime. Verification of the numerical solutions is achieved with a variational finite element method (FEM). The computations demonstrate that the speed of the glider decreases as the rheology of the slime changes from shear-thinning (pseudo-plastic) to shear-thickening (dilatant). Moreover, the viscoelastic nature of the slime tends to increase the swimming speed for the shear-thinning case. The fluid flow in the pumping (generated where the organism is not free to move but instead generates a net fluid flow beneath it) is also investigated in detail. The study is relevant to marine anti-bacterial fouling and medical hygiene biophysics.

  18. Analysis of bacterial-surface-specific antibodies in body fluids using bacterial flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Kathrin; Fadlallah, Jehane; Toska, Albulena; Sterlin, Delphine; Balmer, Maria L; Macpherson, Andrew J; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin; Slack, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Antibacterial antibody responses that target surfaces of live bacteria or secreted toxins are likely to be relevant in controlling bacterial pathogenesis. The ability to specifically quantify bacterial-surface-binding antibodies is therefore highly attractive as a quantitative correlate of immune protection. Here, binding of antibodies from various body fluids to pure-cultured live bacteria is made visible with fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibodies and measured by flow cytometry. We indicate the necessary controls for excluding nonspecific binding and also demonstrate a cross-adsorption technique for determining the extent of cross-reactivity. This technique has numerous advantages over standard ELISA and western blotting techniques because of its independence from scaffold binding, exclusion of cross-reactive elements from lysed bacteria and ability to visualize bacterial subpopulations. In addition, less than 10(5) bacteria and less than 10 μg of antibody are required per sample. The technique requires 3-4 h of hands-on experimentation and analysis. Moreover, it can be combined with automation and mutliplexing for high-throughput applications.

  19. Dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP) and proline from the surface of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus inhibit bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M; Rempt, M; Gebser, B; Grueneberg, J; Pohnert, G; Weinberger, F

    2012-01-01

    It was demonstrated previously that polar and non-polar surface extracts of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus collected during winter from the Kiel Bight (Germany) inhibited bacterial attachment at natural concentrations. The present study describes the bioassay-guided identification of the active metabolites from the polar fraction. Chromatographic separation on a size-exclusion liquid chromatography column and bioassays identified an active fraction that was further investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This fraction contained the metabolites dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), proline and alanine. DMSP and proline caused the anti-attachment activity. The metabolites were further quantified on the algal surface together with its associated boundary layer. DMSP and proline were detected in the range 0.12-1.08 ng cm(-2) and 0.09-0.59 ng cm(-2), respectively. These metabolites were tested in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1000 ng cm(-2) against the attachment of five bacterial strains isolated from algae and sediment co-occurring with F. vesiculosus. The surface concentrations for 50% inhibition of attachment of these strains were always vesiculosus were also tested, but proved to be the least sensitive. This study shows that DMSP and proline have an ecologically relevant role as surface inhibitors against bacterial attachment on F. vesiculosus.

  20. Identification and characterization of the surface-layer protein of Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Omar; Brailsford, Alan; Wright, Anne; Faraar, Jeremy; Campbell, Jim; Fairweather, Neil

    2007-09-01

    Many bacterial species produce a paracrystalline layer, the surface layer, which completely surrounds the exterior of the cell. In some bacteria, the surface layer is implicated in pathogenesis. Two proteins present in cell wall extracts from Clostridium tetani have been investigated and identified one of these has been unambiguously as the surface-layer protein (SLP). The gene, slpA, has been located in the genome of C. tetani E88 that encodes the SLP. The molecular mass of the protein as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is considerably larger than that predicted from the gene; however the protein does not appear to be glycosylated. Furthermore, analysis of five C. tetani strains, including three recent clinical isolates, shows considerable variation in the sizes of the SLP.

  1. The Exosporium Layer of Bacterial Spores: a Connection to the Environment and the Infected Host

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Much of what we know regarding bacterial spore structure and function has been learned from studies of the genetically well-characterized bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Molecular aspects of spore structure, assembly, and function are well defined. However, certain bacteria produce spores with an outer spore layer, the exosporium, which is not present on B. subtilis spores. Our understanding of the composition and biological functions of the exosporium layer is much more limited than that of oth...

  2. Surface Instability of a Vertically Oscillating Granular Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Lei; MIAO Guo-Qing; WEI Rong-Jue

    2001-01-01

    In the study of the surface instability of a vertically oscillating granular layer, we obtained experimentally thephase diagram for the surface states of the layer in the driving frequency-acceleration plane, and measured thedispersion relation for the surface waves in a granular layer in comparison to that in viscous fluids. Our experiments show that the onset dimensionless acceleration increases with the driving frequency, and the wavelengthof the surface waves increases with the depth of granular layer. These experimental results are in agreement withour theoretical model qualitatively.

  3. Structure of a bacterial cell surface decaheme electron conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas A; Edwards, Marcus J; Gates, Andrew J; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye F; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alexander S; Marshall, Matthew J; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas J; Fredrickson, James K; Zachara, John M; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J

    2011-06-07

    Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular intercytochrome electron exchange along "nanowire" appendages. We present a 3.2-Å crystal structure of one of these decaheme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the 10 hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65-Å octaheme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45-Å tetraheme chain that connects two extended Greek key split β-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g., minerals), soluble substrates (e.g., flavins), and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.

  4. Inhibition of bacterial surface colonization by immobilized silver nanoparticles depends critically on the planktonic bacterial concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Stacy M; Bertuccio, Alex J; Cao, Feng; Lowry, Gregory V; Tilton, Robert D

    2016-04-01

    Immobilization of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on surfaces has been proposed as a method to inhibit biofouling or as a possible route by which incidental releases of AgNPs may interfere with biofilms in the natural environment or in wastewater treatment. This study addresses the ability of planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria to colonize surfaces with pre-adsorbed AgNPs. The ability of the AgNP-coated surfaces to inhibit colonization was controlled by the dissolved silver in the system, with a strong dependence on the initial planktonic cell concentration in the suspension, i.e., a strong inoculum effect. This dependence was attributed to a decrease in dissolved silver ion bioavailability and toxicity caused by its binding to cells and/or cell byproducts. Therefore, when the initial cell concentration was high (∼1×10(7)CFU/mL), an excess of silver binding capacity removed most of the free silver and allowed both planktonic growth and surface colonization directly on the AgNP-coated surface. When the initial cell concentration was low (∼1×10(5)CFU/mL), 100% killing of the planktonic cell inoculum occurred and prevented colonization. When an intermediate initial inoculum concentration (∼1×10(6)CFU/mL) was sufficiently large to prevent 100% killing of planktonic cells, even with 99.97% initial killing, the planktonic population recovered and bacteria colonized the AgNP-coated surface. In some conditions, colonization of AgNP-coated surfaces was enhanced relative to silver-free controls, and the bacteria demonstrated a preferential attachment to AgNP-coated, rather than bare, surface regions. The degree to which the bacterial concentration dictates whether or not surface-immobilized AgNPs can inhibit colonization has significant implications both for the design of antimicrobial surfaces and for the potential environmental impacts of AgNPs.

  5. Bacterial diversity in the bottom boundary layer of the inner continental shelf of Oregon, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Bertagnolli, AD

    2011-06-21

    There have been few studies of the bacterial community within the bottom boundary layer (BBL) the turbulent region of the water column above the benthos in shallow seas. Typically, the BBL has large amounts of particulate organic matter suspended by turbulence, and it is often the first region of the water column to become hypoxic when oxygen declines. Communities at the surface (5 m) and in the BBL (1 to 10 m above the sea floor) were compared by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Multivariate statistical methods (hierarchical clustering, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM)) indicated that the microbial community of the BBL is distinct from the surface community. ANOSIM supported the distinction between surface and BBLs (R values 0.427 and 0.463, based on analysis with restriction enzymes BsuR1 and Hin6I, respectively, p < 0.1%). Six terminal restriction fragments showed an increase in abundance with depth. Cloning, screening and sequencing identified these as a novel environmental clade (Eastern North Pacific Chromatiales (ENPC) clade), the ARTIC96BD-19 clade of Gammaproteobacteria, the 6N14 and Agg8 clades of the phylum Planctomycetes, the OM60/NOR5 clade of Gammaproteobacteria, and uncultivated members of the Roseobacter clade in the MB11C09 and ULA23 subgroups. To the best of our knowledge, this analysis is the first to focus on the unique composition of microbial communities of the BBL in shallow, inner-shelf regions off the coast of Oregon, USA, and the first to report that an uncharacterized clade of Chromatiales is indigenous in this habitat.

  6. White Layer of Hard Turned Surface by Sharp CBN Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-ping; SONG He-chuan; C.Richard Liu

    2005-01-01

    White layers in hard turned surfaces were identified and measured as a function of turning parameters based on the Taguchi method. It reveals that white layers generate on the machine surface in the absence of tool flank wear, and white layer depth varies with the different combinations of hard turning parameters. Turning speed has the most important impact on white layer depth, feed rate follows, and cutting depth at last. The white layer generation consequently suggests a strong couple relation to the heat generation and thermal process of hard turning operation. White layer disappears under an optimal combination of turning parameters by Taguchi method. It suggests that a superior surface integrity without white layer is feasible under some selected combinations of turning parameters by a sharp CBN cutting tool.

  7. Diamond nucleation on surface of C60 thin layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国伟; 袁放成; 刘大军; 何金田; 张兵临

    1997-01-01

    Diamond nucleation on the surface of C60 thin layers and intermediate layer of Si substrates are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cross-section SEM images of diamond films show that diamond grains really nucleate on the surface of C60 thin layers. The SEM images of diamond nucleating sites show the nucleating aggregation of diamond on C60 surfaces. The preferential oriented diamond films are observed. The plasma pre-treatment of C60 sublimating layers is a key factor for diamond nucleation.

  8. Layers of Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Robust Water Repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    In nature, birds exhibit multiple layers of superhydrophobic feathers that repel water. Inspired by bird feathers, we utilize porous superhydrophobic surfaces and compare the wetting and dewetting characteristics of a single surface to stacks of multiple surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces were submerged in water in a closed chamber. Pressurized gas was regulated to measure the critical pressure for the water to fully penetrate through the surfaces. In addition to using duck feathers, two-tier porous superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated to serve as synthetic mimics with a controlled surface structure. The energy barrier for the wetting transition was modeled as a function of the number of layers and their orientations with respect to each other. Moreover, after partial impalement into a subset of the superhydrophobic layers, it was observed that a full dewetting transition was possible, which suggests that natural organisms can exploit their multiple layers to prevent irreversible wetting.

  9. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2012-03-07

    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  10. A cell cycle and nutritional checkpoint controlling bacterial surface adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretha Fiebig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In natural environments, bacteria often adhere to surfaces where they form complex multicellular communities. Surface adherence is determined by the biochemical composition of the cell envelope. We describe a novel regulatory mechanism by which the bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, integrates cell cycle and nutritional signals to control development of an adhesive envelope structure known as the holdfast. Specifically, we have discovered a 68-residue protein inhibitor of holdfast development (HfiA that directly targets a conserved glycolipid glycosyltransferase required for holdfast production (HfsJ. Multiple cell cycle regulators associate with the hfiA and hfsJ promoters and control their expression, temporally constraining holdfast development to the late stages of G1. HfiA further functions as part of a 'nutritional override' system that decouples holdfast development from the cell cycle in response to nutritional cues. This control mechanism can limit surface adhesion in nutritionally sub-optimal environments without affecting cell cycle progression. We conclude that post-translational regulation of cell envelope enzymes by small proteins like HfiA may provide a general means to modulate the surface properties of bacterial cells.

  11. Analysis of the cell surface layer ultrastructure of the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekot, Gerhard; Posch, Gerald; Oh, Yoo Jin; Zayni, Sonja; Mayer, Harald F; Pum, Dietmar; Messner, Paul; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Schäffer, Christina

    2012-06-01

    The Gram-negative oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia is decorated with a 2D crystalline surface (S-) layer, with two different S-layer glycoprotein species being present. Prompted by the predicted virulence potential of the S-layer, this study focused on the analysis of the arrangement of the individual S-layer glycoproteins by a combination of microscopic, genetic, and biochemical analyses. The two S-layer genes are transcribed into mRNA and expressed into protein in equal amounts. The S-layer was investigated on intact bacterial cells by transmission electron microscopy, by immune fluorescence microscopy, and by atomic force microscopy. The analyses of wild-type cells revealed a distinct square S-layer lattice with an overall lattice constant of 10.1 ± 0.7 nm. In contrast, a blurred lattice with a lattice constant of 9.0 nm was found on S-layer single-mutant cells. This together with in vitro self-assembly studies using purified (glyco)protein species indicated their increased structural flexibility after self-assembly and/or impaired self-assembly capability. In conjunction with TEM analyses of thin-sectioned cells, this study demonstrates the unusual case that two S-layer glycoproteins are co-assembled into a single S-layer. Additionally, flagella and pilus-like structures were observed on T. forsythia cells, which might impact the pathogenicity of this bacterium.

  12. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-05-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record.

  13. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-05-25

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer "ghosts" during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record.

  14. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them.

  15. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  16. Photocatalytic bacterial inactivation by TiO2-coated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Silvia; Bonetta, Sara; Motta, Francesca; Strini, Alberto; Carraro, Elisabetta

    2013-10-04

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the photoactivated antibacterial activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-coated surfaces. Bacterial inactivation was evaluated using TiO2-coated Petri dishes. The experimental conditions optimized with Petri dishes were used to test the antibacterial effect of TiO2-coated ceramic tiles. The best antibacterial effect with Petri dishes was observed at 180, 60, 30 and 20 min of exposure for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas putida and Listeria innocua, respectively. The ceramic tiles demonstrated a photoactivated bactericidal effect at the same exposure time. In general, no differences were observed between the antibacterial effect obtained with Petri dishes and tiles. However, the photochemical activity of Petri dishes was greater than the activity of the tiles.Results obtained indicates that the TiO2-coated surfaces showed a photoactivated bactericidal effect with all bacteria tested highlighting that the titania could be used in the ceramic and building industry for the production of coated surfaces to be placed in microbiologically sensitive environments, such as the hospital and food industry.

  17. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z X; Zhang, C; Huang, X F; Liu, W B; Yang, Z G

    2015-08-13

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content.

  18. Relevance of glycosylation of S-layer proteins for cell surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Bernhard; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2015-06-01

    Elucidating the building principles and intrinsic features modulating certain water-associated processes (e.g., surface roughness in the nanometer scale, surface hydration and accompanied antifouling property, etc.) of surface structures from (micro)organisms is nowadays a highly challenging task in fields like microbiology, biomimetic engineering and (bio)material sciences. Here, we show for the first time the recrystallization of the wild-type S-layer glycoprotein wtSgsE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a and its recombinantly produced non-glycosylated form, rSgsE, on gold sensor surfaces. Whereas the proteinaceous lattice of the S-layer proteins is forming a rigid layer on the sensor surface, the glycan chains are developing an overall soft, highly dissipative film. Interestingly, to the wtSgsE lattice almost twice the amount of water is bound and/or coupled in comparison with the non-glycosylated rSgsE with the preferred region being the extending glycan residues. The present results are discussed in terms of the effect of the glycan residues on the recrystallization, the adjoining hydration layer, and the nanoscale roughness and fluidic behavior. The latter features may turn out to be one of the most general ones among bacterial and archaeal S-layer lattices.

  19. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...... the tower may lead to excitation with frequencies of the same order of magnitude. Therefore, dynamic soil-structure interaction has to be accounted for in order to get an accurate prediction of the structural response. In this paper the particular problem of a rigid foundation on a layered subsoil...

  20. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...... the tower may lead to excitation with frequencies of the same order of magnitude. Therefore, dynamic soilstructure interaction has to be accounted for in order to get an accurate prediction of the structural response. In this paper the particular problem of a rigid foundation on a layered subsoil...

  1. Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Figure 1 were a highly viscous fluid, such as honey , the boundary layer would be thick while if the fluid were water, a low-viscosity fluid, the boundary...drag has become even more important. In response to this need, and with the benefit of modern technology, the drag-reduction field is replete with...manufactured with “riblets,” small ridges on the order of fractions of millimeters, built-into the hull or skin that seek to reduce frictional drag. The

  2. Nanoscale Surface Modification of Layered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Aaron

    2011-11-01

    A scanning electron microscope can magnify a sample many times greater than a standard microscope, down to nanoscale dimensions. It can also be used to form patterns on the surfaces of certain materials, a technique used to create microchips. We have developed a technique that simplifies and expedites this process using an unmodified scanning electron microscope. Using this technique, we are able to alter the surface chemistry in a controlled pattern on a special class of materials called transition metal dichalcogenides. These materials have many useful applications: industrial lubricants; high strength nanocomposites; advanced solar cells; and next generation electronics. Altering the surface chemistry of these materials at the nanoscale results in unusual quantum behavior, which is useful in nanotechnology.

  3. Process Conditions of Forming the Surface Layer of Aluminum Powder Product by Layer-by-layer Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents data on state of the art in selective laser sintering of products. Layer-by-layer sintering is shown to be a future-oriented technology, making it possible to synthesize products of metal powder materials. Factors, influencing the quality of a sintered product, are revealed in the paper. It presents outcomes of experiments, focused on the dependence of surface layer thickness of sintered aluminum powder PA-4 on laser processing conditions. Basic factors, influencing the quality of a sintered surface layer include laser power, speeds of scanning and moving the laser beam on the layer of powder. Thickness of the sintered layer varies from 0.74 to 1.55 mm, as the result of changing the laser processing conditions.

  4. Polydopamine as an intermediate layer for silver and hydroxyapatite immobilisation on metallic biomaterials surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidin, Syafiqah; Chevallier, Pascale; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hermawan, Hendra; Mantovani, Diego

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant is more susceptible to bacterial infection as the micro-structure surface which is beneficial for osseointegration, could also become a reservoir for bacterial colonisation. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibacterial effect of silver (Ag) to the biomineralised HA by utilising a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer for Ag and HA immobilisation. Sufficient catechol groups in polydopamine were required to bind chemically stainless steel 316 L, Ag and HA elements. Different amounts of Ag nanoparticles were metallised on the polydopamine grafted stainless steel by varying the immersion time in silver nitrate solution from 12 to 24 h. Another polydopamine layer was then formed on the metallised film, followed by surface biomineralisation in 1.5 Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution for 3 days. Several characterisation techniques including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact Angle showed that Ag nanoparticles and HA agglomerations were successfully immobilised on the polydopamine film through an element reduction process. The Ag metallisation at 24 h has killed the viable bacteria with 97.88% of bactericidal ratio. The Ag was ionised up to 7 days which is crucial to prevent bacterial infection during the first stage of implant restoration. The aged functionalised films were considered stable due to less alteration of its chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability properties. The ability of the functionalised film to coat complex and micro scale metal make it suitable for dental and orthopaedic implants application.

  5. Forces involved in bacterial adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Niels P; Norde, Willem; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2008-10-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, the hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent bacterial adhesion (F(prev)) and to detach adhering bacteria (F(det)) were evaluated for hydrophilic glass, hydrophobic, dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS)-coated glass and six different bacterial strains, in order to test the following three hypotheses. 1. A strong hydrodynamic shear force to prevent adhesion relates to a strong hydrodynamic shear force to detach an adhering organism. 2. A weak hydrodynamic shear force to detach adhering bacteria implies that more bacteria will be stimulated to detach by passing an air-liquid interface (an air bubble) through the flow chamber. 3. DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek) interactions determine the characteristic hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent adhesion and to detach adhering micro-organisms as well as the detachment induced by a passing air-liquid interface. F(prev) varied from 0.03 to 0.70 pN, while F(det) varied from 0.31 to over 19.64 pN, suggesting that after initial contact, strengthening of the bond occurs. Generally, it was more difficult to detach bacteria from DDS-coated glass than from hydrophilic glass, which was confirmed by air bubble detachment studies. Calculated attractive forces based on the DLVO theory (F(DLVO)) towards the secondary interaction minimum were higher on glass than on DDS-coated glass. In general, all three hypotheses had to be rejected, showing that it is important to distinguish between forces acting parallel (hydrodynamic shear) and perpendicular (DLVO, air-liquid interface passages) to the substratum surface.

  6. Turbulence Structure of the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer and Transition to the Outer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, K. G.

    We present a new model of the structure of turbulence in the unstable atmospheric surface layer, and of the structural transition between this and the outer layer. The archetypal element of wall-bounded shear turbulence is the Theodorsen ejection amplifier (TEA) structure, in which an initial ejection of air from near the ground into an ideal laminar and logarithmic flow induces vortical motion about a hairpin-shaped core, which then creates a second ejection that is similar to, but larger than, the first. A series of TEA structures form a TEA cascade. In real turbulent flows TEA structures occur in distorted forms as TEA-like (TEAL) structures. Distortion terminates many TEAL cascades and only the best-formed TEAL structures initiate new cycles. In an extended log layer the resulting shear turbulence is a complex, self-organizing, dissipative system exhibiting self-similar behaviour under inner scaling. Spectral results show that this structure is insensitive to instability. This is contrary to the fundamental hypothesis of Monin--Obukhov similarity theory. All TEAL cascades terminate at the top of the surface layer where they encounter, and are severely distorted by, powerful eddies of similar size from the outer layer. These eddies are products of the breakdown of the large eddies produced by buoyancy in the outer layer. When the outer layer is much deeper than the surface layer the interacting eddies are from the inertial subrange of the outer Richardson cascade. The scale height of the surface layer, zs, is then found by matching the powers delivered to the creation of emerging TEAL structures to the power passing down the Richardson cascade in the outer layer. It is zs = u* 3ks, where u*s friction velocity, k is the von Káán constant and s is the rate of dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy in the outer layer immediately above the surface layer. This height is comparable to the Obukhov length in the fully convective boundary layer. Aircraft and tower

  7. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas-solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin - even non-uniform - atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid.

  8. Surface plasmon polariton modulator with optimized active layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A multilayered waveguide, which supports surface plasmon polaritons, is considered as an absorption modulator. The waveguide core consists of a silicon nitride layer and ultrathin layer with the varied carrier density embedded between two silver plates, which also serve as electrodes. Under...... package CST Microwave Studio in the frequency domain. We explore different permittivities of the ITO layer, which can be achieved by utilizing different anneal conditions. To increase transmittance and enhance modulation depth or efficiency, we propose to pattern the continuous active layer. Dependence...

  9. Development of bacterial biofilms on artificial corals in comparison to surface-associated microbes of hard corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Sweet

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the differences in bacterial communities associated with corals versus those in their surrounding environment. However, these environmental samples often represent vastly different microbial micro-environments with few studies having looked at the settlement and growth of bacteria on surfaces similar to corals. As a result, it is difficult to determine which bacteria are associated specifically with coral tissue surfaces. In this study, early stages of passive settlement from the water column to artificial coral surfaces (formation of a biofilm were assessed. Changes in bacterial diversity (16S rRNA gene, were studied on artificially created resin nubbins that were modelled from the skeleton of the reef building coral Acropora muricata. These models were dip-coated in sterile agar, mounted in situ on the reef and followed over time to monitor bacterial community succession. The bacterial community forming the biofilms remained significantly different (R = 0.864 p<0.05 from that of the water column and from the surface mucus layer (SML of the coral at all times from 30 min to 96 h. The water column was dominated by members of the α-proteobacteria, the developed community on the biofilms dominated by γ-proteobacteria, whereas that within the SML was composed of a more diverse array of groups. Bacterial communities present within the SML do not appear to arise from passive settlement from the water column, but instead appear to have become established through a selection process. This selection process was shown to be dependent on some aspects of the physico-chemical structure of the settlement surface, since agar-coated slides showed distinct communities to coral-shaped surfaces. However, no significant differences were found between different surface coatings, including plain agar and agar enhanced with coral mucus exudates. Therefore future work should consider physico-chemical surface properties as

  10. Influence of the nano-micro structure of the surface on bacterial adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Díaz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials failures are frequently associated to the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface. The aim of this work is to study the adhesion of non motile bacteria streptococci consortium and motile Pseudomonas fluorescens. Substrates with micro and nanopatterned topography were used. The influence of surface characteristics on bacterial adhesion was investigated using optical and epifluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Results showed an important influence of the substratum nature. On microrough surfaces, initial bacterial adhesion was less significant than on smooth surfaces. In contrast, nanopatterned samples showed more bacterial attachment than the smooth control. It was also noted a remarkable difference in morphology, orientation and distribution of bacteria between the smooth and the nanostructured substrate. The results show the important effect of substratum nature and topography on bacterial adhesion which depended on the relation between roughness characteristics dimensions and bacterial size.

  11. Erosion resistance of Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layers with different compositions and microstructures can be obtained by submerged arc welding with welding wire of the low carbon steel and high alloy bonded flux. With the increase of Cr and C in the layers the microstructures are changed from hypoeutectoid steel, hypereutectoid steel to hypoeutectic iron and hypereutectic iron. When the weld surfacing layers belong to the alloyed cast irons the erosion resistance can be raised with the eutectic increase and the austenite decrease. Good erosion resistance can be obtained when the proportion of the primary carbides is within 10 %. The experimental results lay a foundation to make double-metal percussive plates by surfacing wear resistant layers on the substrates of the low carbon steels.

  12. Immobilization of bacterial S-layer proteins from Caulobacter crescentus on iron oxide-based nanocomposite: synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of zincite-coated Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda

    2014-05-05

    Zinc oxide was coated on Fe2O3 nanoparticles using sol-gel spin-coating. Caulobacter crescentus have a crystalline surface layer (S-layer), which consist of one protein or glycoprotein species. The immobilization of bacterial S-layers obtained from C. crescentus on zincite-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide was investigated. The SDS PAGE results of S-layers isolated from C. crescentus showed the weight of 50 KDa. Nanoparticles of the Fe2O3 and zinc oxide were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an average size of 50 nm were successfully prepared by the proper deposition of zinc oxide onto iron oxide nanoparticles surface annealed at 450 °C. The samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  13. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2015-10-22

    Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or "feiras" in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  14. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$ notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  15. First-order chemistry in the surface-flux layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1997-01-01

    We have discussed the behavior of a non-conserved scalar in the stationary, horizontally homogeneous, neutral surface-flux layer and, on the basis of conventional second-order closure, derived analytic expressions for flux and for mean concentration of a gas, subjected to a first-order removal...... process, The analytic flux solution showed a clear deviation from the constant flux, characterizing a conserved scalar in the surface-flux layer. It decreases with height and is reduced by an order of magnitude of the surface flux at a height equal to about the typical mean distance a molecule can travel...

  16. Metagenomic Analysis of Bacterial Communities of Antarctic Surface Snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Anna; Medvedeva, Sofia; Shmakov, Sergey; Logacheva, Maria D; Krylenkov, Vjacheslav; Severinov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of bacteria present in surface snow around four Russian stations in Eastern Antarctica was studied by high throughput sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Considerable class- and genus-level variation between the samples was revealed indicating a presence of inter-site diversity of bacteria in Antarctic snow. Flavobacterium was a major genus in one sampling site and was also detected in other sites. The diversity of flavobacterial type II-C CRISPR spacers in the samples was investigated by metagenome sequencing. Thousands of unique spacers were revealed with less than 35% overlap between the sampling sites, indicating an enormous natural variety of flavobacterial CRISPR spacers and, by extension, high level of adaptive activity of the corresponding CRISPR-Cas system. None of the spacers matched known spacers of flavobacterial isolates from the Northern hemisphere. Moreover, the percentage of spacers with matches with Antarctic metagenomic sequences obtained in this work was significantly higher than with sequences from much larger publically available environmental metagenomic database. The results indicate that despite the overall very high level of diversity, Antarctic Flavobacteria comprise a separate pool that experiences pressures from mobile genetic elements different from those present in other parts of the world. The results also establish analysis of metagenomic CRISPR spacer content as a powerful tool to study bacterial populations diversity.

  17. Metagenomic Analysis of Bacterial Communities of Antarctic Surface Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLopatina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of bacteria present in surface snow around four Russian stations in Eastern Antarctica was studied by high throughput sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Considerable class- and genus-level variation between the samples was revealed indicating a presence of inter-site diversity of bacteria in Antarctic snow. Flavobacterium was a major genus in one sampling site and was also detected in other sites. The diversity of flavobacterial type II-C CRISPR spacers in the samples was investigated by metagenome sequencing. Thousands of unique spacers were revealed with less than 35% overlap between the sampling sites, indicating an enormous natural variety of flavobacterial CRISPR spacers and, by extension, high level of adaptive activity of the corresponding CRISPR-Cas system. None of the spacers matched known spacers of flavobacterial isolates from the Northern hemisphere. Moreover, the percentage of spacers with matches with Antarctic metagenomic sequences obtained in this work was significantly higher than with sequences from much larger publically available environmental metagenomic database. The results indicate that despite the overall very high level of diversity, Antarctic Flavobacteria comprise a separate pool that experiences pressures from mobile genetic elements different from those present in other parts of the world. The results also establish analysis of metagenomic CRISPR spacer content as a powerful tool to study bacterial populations diversity.

  18. Fructose-enhanced reduction of bacterial growth on nanorough surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmus NG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Naside Gozde Durmus1, Erik N Taylor1, Fatih Inci3,4, Kim M Kummer1, Keiko M Tarquinio5, Thomas J Webster1,21School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3Bio-Acoustic-MEMS in Medicine (BAMM Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, MA, USA; 4Istanbul Technical University, Molecular Biology-Genetics and Biotechnology Program, Mobgam, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Patients on mechanical ventilators for extended periods of time often face the risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. During the ventilation process, patients incapable of breathing are intubated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC endotracheal tubes (ETTs. PVC ETTs provide surfaces where bacteria can attach and proliferate from the contaminated oropharyngeal space to the sterile bronchoalveolar area. To overcome this problem, ETTs can be coated with antimicrobial agents. However, such coatings may easily delaminate during use. Recently, it has been shown that changes in material topography at the nanometer level can provide antibacterial properties. In addition, some metabolites, such as fructose, have been found to increase the efficiency of antibiotics used to treat Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections. In this study, we combined the antibacterial effect of nanorough ETT topographies with sugar metabolites to decrease bacterial growth and biofilm formation on ETTs. We present for the first time that the presence of fructose on the nanorough surfaces decreases the number of planktonic S. aureus bacteria in the solution and biofilm formation on the surface after 24 hours. We thus envision that this method has the potential to impact the future of surface engineering of

  19. Layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes on the surface of condensed DNA particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, V S; Loomis, A; Hagstrom, J E; Budker, V G; Wolff, J A

    1999-08-01

    DNA can be condensed with an excess of poly-cations in aqueous solutions forming stable particles of submicron size with positive surface charge. This charge surplus can be used to deposit alternating layers of polyanions and polycations on the surface surrounding the core of condensed DNA. Using poly-L-lysine (PLL) and succinylated PLL (SPLL) as polycation and polyanion, respectively, we demonstrated layer-by-layer architecture of the particles. Polyanions with a shorter carboxyl/backbone distance tend to disassemble binary DNA/PLL complexes by displacing DNA while polyanions with a longer carboxyl/backbone distance effectively formed a tertiary complex. The zeta potential of such complexes became negative, indicating effective surface recharging. The charge stoichiometry of the DNA/PLL/SPLL complex was found to be close to 1:1:1, resembling poly-electrolyte complexes layered on macrosurfaces. Recharged particles containing condensed plasmid DNA may find applications as non-viral gene delivery vectors.

  20. Forces involved in bacterial adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, N.P.; Norde, W.; Meil, H.C.; Busscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, the hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent bacterial adhesion (F-prev) and to detach adhering bacteria (F-det) were evaluated for hydrophilic glass, hydrophobic, dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS)-coated glass and six different bacterial strains, in order to test the fol

  1. Forces involved in bacterial adhesion to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, Niels P.; Norde, Willem; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2008-01-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, the hydrodynamic shear forces to prevent bacterial adhesion (F(prev)) and to detach adhering bacteria (F(det)) were evaluated for hydrophilic glass, hydrophobic, dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS)-coated glass and six different bacterial strains, in order to test the f

  2. Laser alloying of the plain carbon steel surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Radziszewska

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available As an example of the types of features observed after laser alloying, the addition of Ta to mild carbon steel is described. The system is of interest because such alloying is beneficial in improving surface related properties. The paper describes the microstructure and properties (phase and chemical composition, microhardness of the laser alloyed surface layer. In the investigation the optical microscope, the scanning electron microscope (SEM, chemical (EDS microanalysis composition and microhardness testing methods have been used. Specimens of 0,17 %C plain steel were coated with Ta powder layers. The paints containing organic components were used as the binders during deposition of Ta powder layers on the sample surface. The thickness of Ta deposited layers amounted to 0,16 mm. The specimens were then swept through high power (of nominal power 2,5 kW CW CO2 laser radiation at different speeds.The surface alloyed layers varied in microstructure consisted of fiber like Ta2C + γ eutectics, chemical composition and microhardness. The EDS analyses revealed the enrichment of tantalum in the laser alloyed zone (LAZ. The changes of process parameters had an influence on the hardness of alloyed surface layers: by increasing scanning velocity (from 12 mm/s to 20 mm/s and decreasing laser power (from 1,8 kW to 1,35 kW, the hardness diminished. The wear tests were also carried out which showed that laser alloying of plain carbon steel surface layer led to improvement of their wear resistance.

  3. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Hershberger, Jeffrey G.

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  4. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko, E-mail: leena-sisko.johansson@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, PO Box 16100, FI‐00076 AALTO (Finland); Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland)

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  5. Bacterial Cell Surface Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Park, D.; Reed, D.; Fujita, Y.; Yung, M.; Anderko, A.; Eslamimanesh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) play a critical role in many emerging clean energy technologies, including high-power magnets, wind turbines, solar panels, hybrid/electric vehicle batteries and lamp phosphors. In order to sustain demand for such technologies given current domestic REE shortages, there is a need to develop new approaches for ore processing/refining and recycling of REE-containing materials. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags (LBTs), short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements, on its cell surface S-layer protein. Under optimal conditions, LBT-displayed cells adsorbed greater than 5-fold more REE than control cells lacking LBTs. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Importantly, binding of REE onto our engineered strains was much more favorable compared to non-REE metals. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

  6. Surface modes in sheared boundary layers over impedance linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambley, E. J.

    2013-08-01

    Surface modes, being duct modes localized close to the duct wall, are analysed within a lined cylindrical duct with uniform flow apart from a thin boundary layer. As well as full numerical solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, simplified mathematical models are given where the duct lining and boundary layer are lumped together and modelled using a single boundary condition (a modification of the Myers boundary condition previously proposed by the author), from which a surface mode dispersion relation is derived. For a given frequency, up to six surface modes are shown to exist, rather than the maximum of four for uniform slipping flow. Not only is the different number and behaviour of surface modes important for frequency-domain mode-matching techniques, which depend on having found all relevant modes during matching, but the thin boundary layer is also shown to lead to different convective and absolute stability than for uniform slipping flow. Numerical examples are given comparing the predictions of the surface mode dispersion relation to full solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, and the accuracy with which surface modes are predicted is shown to be significantly increased compared with the uniform slipping flow assumption. The importance of not only the boundary layer thickness but also its profile (tanh or linear) is demonstrated. A Briggs-Bers stability analysis is also performed under the assumption of a mass-spring-damper or Helmholtz resonator impedance model.

  7. Plasma-enhanced deposition of antifouling layers on silicone rubber surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongquan

    In food processing and medical environments, biofilms serve as potential sources of contamination, and lead to food spoilage, transmission of diseases or infections. Because of its ubiquitous and recalcitrant nature, Listeria monocytogenes biofilm is especially hard to control. Generating antimicrobial surfaces provide a method to control the bacterial attachment. The difficulty of silver deposition on polymeric surfaces has been overcome by using a unique two-step plasma-mediated method. First silicone rubber surfaces were plasma-functionalized to generate aldehyde groups. Then thin silver layers were deposited onto the functionalized surfaces according to Tollen's reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that silver particles were deposited. By exposing the silver coated surfaces to L. monocytogenes, it was demonstrated that they were bactericidal to L. monocytogenes. No viable bacteria were detected after 12 to 18 h on silver-coated silicone rubber surfaces. Another antifouling approach is to generate polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin layer instead of silver on polymer surfaces. Covalent bond of PEG structures of various molecular weights to cold-plasma-functionalized polymer surfaces, such as silicone rubber, opens up a novel way for the generation of PEG brush-like or PEG branch-like anti-fouling layers. In this study, plasma-generated surface free radicals can react efficiently with dichlorosilane right after plasma treatment. With the generation of halo-silane groups, this enables PEG molecules to be grafted onto the modified surfaces. XPS data clearly demonstrated the presence of PEG molecules on plasma-functionalized silicone rubber surfaces. AFM images showed the changed surface morphologies as a result of covalent attachment to the surface of PEG molecules. Biofilm experiment results suggest that the PEG brush-like films have the potential ability to be the next

  8. Water content distribution in the surface layer of Maoping slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuewu; CHEN Huixin; LIU Qingquan; GONG Xin; ZHANG Dawei; LI Lianxiang

    2005-01-01

    The water content distribution in the surface layer of Maoping slope has been studied by testing the water content at 31 control sites. The water content profiles at these sites have also been determined. The water content distributions at different segments have been obtained by using the Kriging method of geostatistics. By comparing the water content distributions with the landform of the slope, it was shown that the water content is closely dependent on the landform of the slope. The water content distribution in the surface layer provided a fundamental basis for landslide predication and treatment.

  9. Chromized Layers Produced on Steel Surface by Means of CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KASPRZYCKA Ewa; BOGDA(N)SKI Bogdan; JEZIORSKI Leopold; JASI(N)SKI J(o)zef; TORBUS Roman

    2004-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposition of chromium on the surface of carbon steel has been investigated using a novel CVD method that combines the low cost of pack cementation method with advantages of vacuum technique. The processes have been performed in chromium chlorides atmosphere at a low pressure range from 1 to 800 hPa, the treatment temperature 800 to 950℃. Studies of the layers thickness, the phase composition, Cr, C and Fe depth profiles in diffusion zone have been conducted. The effect of the vacuum level during the process and the process parameters such as time and temperature on layer diffusion growth on the carbon steel surface has been investigated.

  10. Stress distribution and surface instability of an inclined granular layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng He-Peng; Jiang Yi-Min; Peng Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Static granular materials may avalanche suddenly under continuous quasi-static drives.This phenomenon,which is important in many engineering applications,can be explained by analyzing the stability of the elastic solutions.We show this for a granular layer driven by its inclination angle in gravity,where the elastic problem can be solved generally and analytically.It is found that a loss of stability may occur only at the free surface of the layer.This result is considered to be relevant for understanding surface avalanches and the flows observed experimentally.

  11. Wetting layer of copper on the tantalum (001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupraz, Maxime; Poloni, Roberta; Ratter, Kitti; Rodney, David; De Santis, Maurizio; Gilles, Bruno; Beutier, Guillaume; Verdier, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The heteroepitaxial interface formed by copper deposited onto the tantalum (001) surface is studied by surface x-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations. The analysis of the crystal truncation rods reveals the presence of a wetting layer of copper made of two atomic planes pseudomorphic to the tantalum substrate, with the upper most atomic planes significantly deformed. These findings are in total agreement with the results of density-functional-theory calculations. The presence of the wetting layer confirms a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and is thought to explain the extremely fast atomic diffusion of copper during the dewetting process in the solid state at high temperature.

  12. ALTERNATIVE FOR PHENOL BIODEGRADATION IN OIL CONTAMINATED WASTEWATERS USING AN ADAPTED BACTERIAL BIOFILM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kopytko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The project studied the biodegradation potential of phenols in an industrial wastewater from an oil field in the province of Santander, Colombia. An elevated potential was established, according to three important factors: the great abundance of microorganisms found in the wastewater and sludge samples collected, the bacterial adaptation to high phenol concentrations (10 mg/l and the elevated elimination efficiencies (up to 86% obtained in the laboratory tests. The laboratory scale treatment system, which consisted of fixed-bed bioreactors with adapted bacterial biofilm, was optimized using a 22 factorial experimental design. The selected variables, studied in their maximum and minimum level were: HRT (hydraulic retention time and the presence or absence of GAC (granular activated carbon layer. The response variable was phenol concentration. The optimum treatment conditions for low and high phenol concentrations (2.14 y 9.30 mg/l, were obtained with the presence of GAC and 18 hours of HRT. The best result for the intermediate phenol concentration (6.13 mg/l was obtained with a 24 hour HRT and the presence of GAC. Nevertheless, the presence of the GAC layer was not significantly important in terms of phenol removal. Moreover, the increase of HRT from 18 to 24 hours, showed no significant improvement in phenol removal.

  13. Surface physicochemistry and ionic strength affects eDNA's role in bacterial adhesion to abiotic surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viduthalai R Regina

    Full Text Available Extracellular DNA (eDNA is an important structural component of biofilms formed by many bacteria, but few reports have focused on its role in initial cell adhesion. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of eDNA in bacterial adhesion to abiotic surfaces, and determine to which extent eDNA-mediated adhesion depends on the physicochemical properties of the surface and surrounding liquid. We investigated eDNA alteration of cell surface hydrophobicity and zeta potential, and subsequently quantified the effect of eDNA on the adhesion of Staphylococcus xylosus to glass surfaces functionalised with different chemistries resulting in variable hydrophobicity and charge. Cell adhesion experiments were carried out at three different ionic strengths. Removal of eDNA from S. xylosus cells by DNase treatment did not alter the zeta potential, but rendered the cells more hydrophilic. DNase treatment impaired adhesion of cells to glass surfaces, but the adhesive properties of S. xylosus were regained within 30 minutes if DNase was not continuously present, implying a continuous release of eDNA in the culture. Removal of eDNA lowered the adhesion of S. xylosus to all surfaces chemistries tested, but not at all ionic strengths. No effect was seen on glass surfaces and carboxyl-functionalised surfaces at high ionic strength, and a reverse effect occurred on amine-functionalised surfaces at low ionic strength. However, eDNA promoted adhesion of cells to hydrophobic surfaces irrespective of the ionic strength. The adhesive properties of eDNA in mediating initial adhesion of S. xylosus is thus highly versatile, but also dependent on the physicochemical properties of the surface and ionic strength of the surrounding medium.

  14. New evidence for TiO2 uniform surfaces leading to complete bacterial reduction in the dark: critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesic, Jelena; Rtimi, Sami; Laub, Danièle; Roglic, Goran M; Pulgarin, Cesar; Kiwi, John

    2014-11-01

    This study presents new evidence for the events leading to Escherichia coli reduction in the absence of light irradiation on TiO2-polyester (from now on TiO2-PES. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the diffusion of TiO2 NP's aggregates with the E. coli outer lipo-polyssacharide (LPS) layer is shown to be a prerequisite for the loss of bacterial cultivability. Within 30 min in the dark the TiO2 aggregates interact with E. coli cell wall leading within 120 min to the complete loss of bacterial cultivability on a TiO2-PES 5% TiO2 sample. The bacterial reduction was observed to increase with a higher TiO2 loading on the PES up to 5%. Bacterial disinfection on TiO2-PES in the dark was slower compared to the runs under low intensity simulated sunlight light irradiation. The interaction between the TiO2 aggregates and the E. coli cell wall is discussed in terms of the competition between the TiO2 units collapsing to form TiO2-aggregates at a physiologic pH-value followed by the electrostatic interaction with the bacteria surface. TiO2-PES samples were able to carry repetitive bacterial inactivation. This presents a potential for practical applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evidence was found for the reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+ contributing to redox interactions between TiO2-PES and the bacterial cell wall. Insight is provided into the mechanism of interaction between the E. coli cell wall and TiO2 NP's. The properties of the TiO2-PES surface like percentage atomic concentration, TiO2-loading, optical absorption, surface charge and crystallographic phases are reported in this study.

  15. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins, sca

  16. Quantized layer growth at liquid-crystal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocko, B. M.; Braslau, A.; Pershan, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    of the specular reflectivity is consistent with a sinusoidal density modulation, starting at the surface and terminating abruptly, after an integral number of bilayers. As the transition is approached the number of layers increases in quantized steps from zero to five before the bulk undergoes a first...

  17. Surface modification of layered zirconium phosphate with PNIPAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhen; Zhao, Di; Medina, Ilse B Nava; Diaz, Agustin; Wang, Huiliang; Clearfield, Abraham; Mannan, M Sam; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-04-04

    A new method was reported to modify layered zirconium phosphate (ZrP) with thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM (poly N-isopropylacrylamide). PNIPAM was proved to be covalently grafted onto ZrP. (60)Co γ-rays irradiation produced peroxide groups on the surface which, upon heating, initiated free radical polymerization and subsequent attachment of PNIPAM.

  18. Convective boundary layers driven by nonstationary surface heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, R.; Jonker, H.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the response of dry convective boundary layers to nonstationary surface heat fluxes is systematically investigated. This is relevant not only during sunset and sunrise but also, for example, when clouds modulate incoming solar radiation. Because the time scale of the associated change

  19. Removal of surface layers from plated materials: upgrading of scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapper, G.; Sloterdijk, W.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper a description is given of a method developed for the purpose of removing surface layers from plated materials. The principle of separation is based on the difference in vapour pressures and stabilities with the formation of metal chlorides. A series of pyrolytic experiments was carried

  20. DESIGN AND CALCULATION OF AERODROMECOAING WITH HEATED SURFACE LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Piskunov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The developed constructions with heated by surface layers for aerodromes and auto roads when developed composition of electroconductive concrete reinforced with chemical electrical conductive fibres being used was researched. The experimentally obtained characteristics of ended conductive concrete reinforced with fibers were presented. Calculation by developed heated construction of shell was made.

  1. Surface layer proteins isolated from Clostridium difficile induce clearance responses in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura E; Lynch, Mark; Marszalowska, Izabela; Kristek, Maja; Rochfort, Keith; O'Connell, Mary; Windle, Henry; Kelleher, Dermot; Loscher, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea worldwide, and if the bacterium is not cleared effectively it can pose a risk of recurrent infections and complications such as colitis, sepsis and death. In this study we demonstrate that surface layer proteins from the one of the most frequently acquired strains of C. difficile, activate mechanisms in murine macrophage in vitro that are associated with clearance of bacterial infection. Surface layer proteins (SLPs) isolated from C. difficile induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased macrophage migration and phagocytotic activity in vitro. Furthermore, we also observed up-regulation of a number of cell surface markers on the macrophage, which are important in pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. The effects of SLPs on macrophages were reversed in the presence of a p38 inhibitor, indicating the potential importance of this signalling protein in how SLP activates the immune system. In conclusion this study shows that surface layer proteins from a common strain of C. difficile can activate a clearance response in macrophage and suggests that these proteins are important in clearance of C. difficile infection. Understanding how the immune system clears C. difficile infection could offer important insights for new treatment strategies.

  2. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-09-13

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating.

  3. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Layer-by-layer assembly surface modified microbial biomass for enhancing biorecovery of secondary gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Nengwu; Kang, Naixin; Cao, Yanlan; Shi, Chaohong; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Qin, Benqian

    2017-02-01

    Enhancement of the biosorption capacity for gold is highly desirable for the biorecovery of secondary gold resources. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI) was grafted on Shewanella haliotis surface through layer-by-layer assembly approach so as to improve the biosorption capacity of Au(III). Results showed that the relative contribution of amino group to the biosorption of Au(III) was the largest one (about 44%). After successful grafting 1, 2 and 3-layer PEI on the surface of biomass, the biosorption capacity significantly enhanced from 143.8mg/g to 597.1, 559.1, and 536.8mg/g, respectively. Interestingly, the biomass modified with 1-layer PEI exhibited 4.2 times higher biosorption capacity than the untreated control. When 1-layer modified biomass was subjected to optimizing the various conditions by response surface methodology, the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity could reach up to 727.3mg/g. All findings demonstrated that PEI modified S. haliotis was effective for enhancing gold biorecovery.

  5. Surface layer similarity in the nocturnal boundary layer: the application of Hilbert-Huang transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence statistics such as flux-variance relationship is critical information in measuring and modeling carbon, water, energy, and momentum exchanges at the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Using a recently proposed mathematical technique, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT, this study highlights its possibility to quantify impacts of non-turbulent flows on turbulence statistics in the stable surface layer. The HHT is suitable for the analysis of non-stationary and intermittent data and thus very useful for better understanding of the interplay of the surface layer similarity with complex nocturnal environment. Our analysis showed that the HHT can successfully sift non-turbulent components and be used as a tool to estimate the relationships between turbulence statistics and atmospheric stability in complex environment such as nocturnal stable boundary layer.

  6. Polydopamine as an intermediate layer for silver and hydroxyapatite immobilisation on metallic biomaterials surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidin, Syafiqah, E-mail: syafiqahsaidin@gmail.com [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Chevallier, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.chevallier@crsfa.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq, E-mail: rafiq@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Hermawan, Hendra, E-mail: hendra.hermawan@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Mantovani, Diego, E-mail: Diego.Mantovani@gmn.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant is more susceptible to bacterial infection as the micro-structure surface which is beneficial for osseointegration, could also become a reservoir for bacterial colonisation. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibacterial effect of silver (Ag) to the biomineralised HA by utilising a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer for Ag and HA immobilisation. Sufficient catechol groups in polydopamine were required to bind chemically stainless steel 316 L, Ag and HA elements. Different amounts of Ag nanoparticles were metallised on the polydopamine grafted stainless steel by varying the immersion time in silver nitrate solution from 12 to 24 h. Another polydopamine layer was then formed on the metallised film, followed by surface biomineralisation in 1.5 Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution for 3 days. Several characterisation techniques including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact Angle showed that Ag nanoparticles and HA agglomerations were successfully immobilised on the polydopamine film through an element reduction process. The Ag metallisation at 24 h has killed the viable bacteria with 97.88% of bactericidal ratio. The Ag was ionised up to 7 days which is crucial to prevent bacterial infection during the first stage of implant restoration. The aged functionalised films were considered stable due to less alteration of its chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability properties. The ability of the functionalised film to coat complex and micro scale metal make it suitable for dental and orthopaedic implants application. - Highlights: • Successful immobilisation of Ag and HA on SS316L functionalised with polydopamine • Development of antibacterial film at 97.88% bactericidal ratio • The functionalised films were stable under ageing test at 7 days.

  7. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected.

  8. Influencing factors on elastic-plastic deformation of multi-layered surfaces under sliding contact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Li; PAN Xin-xiang; XU Jiu-jun; CHENG Dong

    2004-01-01

    Stress distribution in the gradient multi-layered surface under a sliding contact was investigated using finite element method(FEM). The main structure parameters of layered surface discussed are total layer thickness,layer number and elastic modulus ratio of layer to the substrate. A model of multi-layered surface contact with rough slider was studied. The effect of the surface structure parameters on the elastic-plastic deformation was analyzed.

  9. Surface Properties of Bacterially-Influenced CaCO3 Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, J. A.; Pillar, V. D.; Ajo-Franklin, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration, the underground storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), will be an essential component of climate change mitigation. Carbonate minerals are a promising form of stable CO2 storage, but their natural formation is slow. Many microbes can increase the rate of carbonate mineral formation; however the mechanisms of such mineralization are largely unknown. Hypothesized mechanisms include metabolic processes altering pH and supersaturation, as well as cell surface properties of EPS, cell membrane, and S-layers that may alter mineral nucleation. This work investigates these mechanisms by allowing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to form in the presence or absence of various microbes that are expected to impact these mechanisms. Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Syn. sp. 6803) were added to solutions of varying calcium ion concentrations, receiving ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3, by diffusion. The resulting CaCO3 was imaged with an optical microscope in tandem with fluorescent imaging of the bacteria. Surprisingly, formation of calcite was accelerated by the presence of either E. coli or Syn. Sp. 6803 relative to abiotic solutions. This rate acceleration also occurred for metabolically inactive bacteria, indicating that metabolic change was not the operating mechanism. Rather since the calcite crystals increased in number as the cell density increased and both species had similar effects on formation of calcite, we suggest that both bacterial species could play a role in nucleation of calcite crystals. Fluorescent images show that both species of bacteria cluster on the edges and crevices of the crystals, further supporting this idea. Bacterial surface charge was assessed using zeta potential measurements and correlated to biomineralization experiments. From these results, we postulate that the charged bacterial surfaces attract Ca2+ ions, serving as nucleation sites for CaCO3, thereby accelerating crystal formation. These

  10. Impact of lux gene insertion on bacterial surface properties and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Srinivasa Ranga, Vijay Penagonda; Mao, Yongjun; Chen, Kevin; Qiao, Hanzi

    2008-03-01

    Genetic markers have been in popular use for tracing microbial movement in the environment. However, the impact of genetic marker insertion on microbial surface properties and consequent transport is often ignored. For this research, we investigated the impact of luminescence-based genetic marker insertion on bacterial surface properties and transport. Typical Gram-positive bacterial strains of Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus mitis and Micrococcus luteus were used as model bacterial strains in this research. We manipulated gene transfer to observe the impact of lux gene insertion on bacterial surface properties based on contact angle measurements, and we conducted column experiments to evaluate the impact of lux gene insertion on bacterial transport. After lux gene insertion, bacterial interactions with the porous media increased, demonstrating stronger deposition potential in the porous media. Accordingly, retention of the daughter strains increased. Lux gene insertion also resulted in an increase in bacterial dispersion and equilibrium adsorption in the porous media. The bacterial deposition coefficient was found to correlate with the free energy of interactions between bacteria and the porous media.

  11. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  12. Primary role of electron work function for evaluation of nanostructured titania implant surface against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda-Cepa, M; Syrek, K; Brzychczy-Wloch, M; Sulka, G D; Kotarba, A

    2016-09-01

    The electron work function as an essential descriptor for the evaluation of metal implant surfaces against bacterial infection is identified for the first time. Its validity is demonstrated on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to nanostructured titania surfaces. The established correlation: work function-bacteria adhesion is of general importance since it can be used for direct evaluation of any electrically conductive implant surfaces.

  13. Chemical mediation of bacterial surface colonisation by secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maximilien, Ria; de Nys, Rocky; Holmström, Carola;

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of halogenated furanones from the red alga Delisea pulchra on colonisation of surfaces by marine bacteria. Bacterial abundance on the surface of D. pulchra, assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was significantly lower than on the surfaces of 3 co-occurrin...

  14. Surface properties of solids and surface acoustic waves: Application to chemical sensors and layer characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.

    1995-09-01

    A general phenomenological approach is given for the description of mechanical surface properties of solids and their influence on surface acoustic wave propogation. Surface properties under consideration may be changes of the stress distribution in subsurface atomic layers, the presence of adsorbed gas molecules, surface degradation as a result of impacts from an aggressive environment, damage due to mechanical manufacturing or polishing, deposition of thin films or liquid layers, surface corrugations, etc. If the characteristic thickness of the affected layers is much less than the wavelengths of the propagating surface waves, then the effects of all these irregularities can be described by means of non-classical boundary conditions incorporating the integral surface parameters such as surface tension, surface moduli of elasticity and surface mass density. The effect of surface properties on the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves is analysed in comparison with the results of traditional approaches, in particular with Auld's energy perturbation method. One of the important implications of the above-mentioned boudnary conditions is that they are adequate for the description of the effect of rarely distributed adsorbed atoms or molecules. This allows, in particular, to obtain a rigorous theoretical description of chemical sensors using surface acoustic waves and to derive analytical expressions for their sensitivity.

  15. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active layer of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schostag, Morten; Stibal, Marek; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Baelum, Jacob; Tas, Neslihan; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, Janet K.; Semenchuk, Phillip; Prieme, Anders

    2015-04-30

    The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which likely affect bacterial activity and community structure. We studied seasonal variations in the bacterial community of active layer soil from Svalbard (78°N) by co-extracting DNA and RNA from 12 soil cores collected monthly over a year. PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes (DNA) and reverse transcribed transcripts (cDNA) were quantified and sequenced to test for the effect of low winter temperature and seasonal variation in concentration of easily degradable organic matter on the bacterial communities. The copy number of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed no distinct seasonal changes indicating potential bacterial activity during winter despite soil temperatures well below -10°C. Multivariate statistical analysis of the bacterial diversity data (DNA and cDNA libraries) revealed a season-based clustering of the samples, and, e.g., the relative abundance of potentially active Cyanobacteria peaked in June and Alphaproteobacteria increased over the summer and then declined from October to November. The structure of the bulk (DNA-based) community was significantly correlated with pH and dissolved organic carbon, while the potentially active (RNA-based) community structure was not significantly correlated with any of the measured soil parameters. A large fraction of the 16S rRNA transcripts was assigned to nitrogen-fixing bacteria (up to 24% in June) and phototrophic organisms (up to 48% in June) illustrating the potential importance of nitrogen fixation in otherwise nitrogen poor Arctic ecosystems and of phototrophic bacterial activity on the soil surface.

  16. Campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins are transported by a type I secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Shedd, O L; Ray, K C; Beins, M H; Jorgensen, J P; Blaser, M J

    1998-12-01

    The virulence of Campylobacter fetus, a bacterial pathogen of ungulates and humans, is mediated in part by the presence of a paracrystalline surface layer (S-layer) that confers serum resistance. The subunits of the S-layer are S-layer proteins (SLPs) that are secreted in the absence of an N-terminal signal sequence and attach to either type A or B C. fetus lipopolysaccharide in a serospecific manner. Antigenic variation of multiple SLPs (encoded by sapA homologs) of type A strain 23D occurs by inversion of a promoter-containing DNA element flanked by two sapA homologs. Cloning and sequencing of the entire 6.2-kb invertible region from C. fetus 23D revealed a probable 5.6-kb operon of four overlapping genes (sapCDEF, with sizes of 1,035, 1,752, 1,284, and 1,302 bp, respectively) transcribed in the opposite direction from sapA. The four genes also were present in the invertible region of type B strain 84-107 and were virtually identical to their counterparts in the type A strain. Although SapC had no database homologies, SapD, SapE, and SapF had predicted amino acid homologies with type I protein secretion systems (typified by Escherichia coli HlyBD/TolC or Erwinia chrysanthemi PrtDEF) that utilize C-terminal secretion signals to mediate the secretion of hemolysins, leukotoxins, or proteases from other bacterial species. Analysis of the C termini of four C. fetus SLPs revealed conserved structures that are potential secretion signals. A C. fetus sapD mutant neither produced nor secreted SLPs. E. coli expressing C. fetus sapA and sapCDEF secreted SapA, indicating that the sapCDEF genes are sufficient for SLP secretion. C. fetus SLPs therefore are transported to the cell surface by a type I secretion system.

  17. Bacterial surface antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies used to detect beer spoilage pediococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, M S; Ingledew, W M; Lee, S Y; Ziola, B

    1999-08-01

    Fourteen monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were isolated that react with surface antigens of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms, including P. damnosus, P. pentosaceous, P. acidilactici, and unspeciated isolates. Immunoblotting, enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) of protease- and neuraminidase-treated surface antigen extracts, carbohydrate competition EIAs, and cardiolipin EIAs were used to characterize the bacterial antigens involved in Mab binding. Antigen stability in situ was tested by protease treatment or surface antigen extraction of washed bacteria. In most cases, the Mabs bind to Pediococcus surface antigens that appear to be covalently bound cell wall polymers resistant to alteration or removal from the bacterial surface. These bacterial surface antigen reactive Mabs show good potential for rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay detection of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms.

  18. Layer-by-layer rose petal mimic surface with oleophilicity and underwater oleophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-chin; Zacharia, Nicole S

    2015-01-20

    Surfaces designed with specific wetting properties are still a key challenge in materials science. We present here a facile preparation of a surface assembled by the layer-by-layer technique, using a colloidal dispersion of ionomer particles and linear polyethylene imine. The colloidal ethylene-co-methacrylic acid (EMAA) particles are on the order of half a micron in size with surface features from 40 to 100 nm in width. The resultant surface has roughness on two length scales, one on the micron scale due to the packing of particles and one on the nanoscale due to these surface features on the EMAA particles. This hierarchical structure results in a hydrophobic surface with good water pinning properties (∼550 μN). We show that there is a balance between maximizing contact angle and water pinning force. Furthermore, this surface is oleophilic with regard to many organic solvents, also demonstrating underwater oleophobicity, and given the difference in wetting between aqueous and organic phases, this material may be a candidate material for oil/water separations.

  19. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottesen Andrea R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. Results The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Conclusions Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an

  20. Interaction between surface and atmosphere in a convective boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Anirban

    Solar heating of the surface causes the near surface air to warm up and with sufficient buoyancy it ascends through the atmosphere as surface-layer plumes and thermals. The cold fluid from the upper part of the boundary layer descends as downdrafts. The downdrafts and thermals form streamwise roll vortices. All these turbulent coherent structures are important because they contribute most of the momentum and heat transport. While these structures have been studied in depth, their imprint on the surface through energy budget in a convective atmospheric boundary layer has received little attention. The main objective of the present study is to examine the turbulence-induced surface temperature fluctuations for different surface properties and stratification. Experiments were performed to measure atmospheric turbulence using sonic anemometers, fine wire thermocouples and LIDAR; and surface temperature using an infra-red camera over grass and artificial turf fields. The surface temperature fluctuations were found to be highly correlated to the turbulent coherent structures and follow the processes postulated in the surface renewal theory. The spatio-temporal scales and advection speed of the surface temperature fluctuation were found to match with those of turbulent coherent structures. A parametric direct numerical simulation (DNS) study was then performed by solving the solid-fluid heat transport mechanism numerically for varying solid thermal properties, solid thickness and strength of stratification. Even though there were large differences in the friction Reynolds and Richardson numbers between the experiments and numerical simulations, similar turbulent characteristics were observed. The ejection (sweep) events tend to be aligned with the streamwise direction to form roll vortices with unstable stratification. The solid-fluid interfacial temperature fluctuations increase with the decreases in solid thermal inertia; and with the increase in solid thickness to

  1. The studies of scale surface produced on outer diffusion layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Augustyn-Pieniążek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study at attempt was made to examine the scale formed on ferritic-austenitic duplex type steel subjected to previous thermochemical treatment. The treatment consisted in diffusion aluminising in a metallising mixture composed of Fe-Al powder. As an activator, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl added in an amount of 2 wt.% was used. Then, both the base material and samples with the diffusiondeposited surface layers were oxidised at 1000°C in the air. Thus formed scales were identified by light microscopy, SEM and X-ray phase analysis. The aim of the oxidation tests carried out under isothermal conditions was to compare the scale morphology when obtained on untreated substrate material and on the surface layers rich in aluminium.

  2. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadathil, Pankajakshan; Gopalakrishna, V. V.; Muraleedharan, P. M.; Reddy, G. V.; Araligidad, Nilesh; Shenoy, Shrikant

    2002-10-01

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay of Bengal, such as occurrence time, characteristics, stability, inter-annual variability and generating mechanisms. Spatially organized temperature inversion occurs in the coastal waters of the western and northeastern Bay during winter (November-February). Although the inversion in the northeastern Bay is sustained until February (with remnants seen even in March), in the western Bay it becomes less organized in January and almost disappears by February. Inversion is confined to the fresh water induced seasonal halocline of the surface layer. Inversions of large temperature difference (of the order of 1.6-2.4°C) and thin layer thickness (10-20 m) are located adjacent to major fresh water inputs from the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Krishna and Godavari rivers. The inversion is stable with a mean stability of 3600×10 -8 m -1. Inter-annual variability of the inversion is significantly high and it is caused by the inter-annual variability of fresh water flux and surface cooling in the northern Bay. Fresh water flux leads the occurrence process in association with surface heat flux and advection. The leading role of fresh water flux is understood from the observation that the two occurrence regions of inversion (the western and northeastern Bay) have proximity to the two low salinity (with values about 28-29‰) zones. In the western Bay, the East India Coastal Current brings less saline and cold water from the head of the Bay to the south-west Bay, where it advects over warm, saline water, promoting temperature inversion in this region in association with the surface heat loss. For inversion occurring in the northeastern Bay (where the surface water gains heat from atmosphere), surface advection of the less saline

  3. Studies of stability of blade cascade suction surface boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xue-zhi; YAN Pei-gang; HAN Wan-jin

    2007-01-01

    Compressible boundary layers stability on blade cascade suction surface was discussed by wind tunnel experiment and numerical solution. Three dimensional disturbance wave Parabolized Stability Equations(PSE) of orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates in compressible flow was deducted. The surface pressure of blade in wind tunnel experiment was measured. The Falkner-Skan equation was solved under the boundary conditions of experiment result, and velocity, pressure and temperature of average flow were obtained. Substituted this result for discretization of the PSE Eigenvalue Problem, the stability problem can be solved.

  4. Surface-plasmons lasing in double-graphene-layer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinov, A. A. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Aleshkin, V. Ya. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ryzhii, V. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Electronics, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-28

    We consider the concept of injection terahertz lasers based on double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures with metal surface-plasmon waveguide and study the conditions of their operation. The laser under consideration exploits the resonant radiative transitions between GLs. This enables the double-GL laser room temperature operation and the possibility of voltage tuning of the emission spectrum. We compare the characteristics of the double-GL lasers with the metal surface-plasmon waveguides with those of such laser with the metal-metal waveguides.

  5. Aspects of the atmospheric surface layers on Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Landberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    and mean flow on Mars is found to obey the same scaling laws as on Earth. The largest micrometeorological differences between the two atmospheres are associated with the low air density of the Martian atmosphere. Together with the virtual absence of water vapour, it reduces the importance...... of the atmospheric heat flux in the surface energy budget. This increases the temperature variation of the surface forcing the near-surface temperature gradient and thereby the diabatic heat flux to higher values than are typical on the Earth, resulting in turn in a deeper daytime boundary layer. As wind speed...... is much like that of the Earth, this larger diabatic heat flux is carried mostly by larger maximal values of T-*, the surface scale temperature. The higher kinematic viscosity yields a Kolmogorov scale of the order of ten times larger than on Earth, influencing the transition between rough and smooth flow...

  6. Diffusion Carbide Layers, Formed on the Surface of Steel in the Vacuum Titanizing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KASPRZYCKAEwa; SENATORSKIJan; NAKONIECZNYAleksander; BABULTomasz

    2004-01-01

    Diffusion layers produced on carbon steel surface in vacuum titanizing process were investigated. Studies of layers thickness, their morphology, titanium, carbon and iron concentration depth profiles in the diffusion zone of titanized layers were carried out. The effect of process parameters such as time and temperature on the kinetics of layer growth on steel surface was investigated. Tribocorrosion resistance of titanized layers was determined.

  7. Nano and Microscale Topographies for the Prevention of Bacterial Surface Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary V. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial surface fouling is problematic for a wide range of applications and industries, including, but not limited to medical devices (implants, replacement joints, stents, pacemakers, municipal infrastructure (pipes, wastewater treatment, food production (food processing surfaces, processing equipment, and transportation (ship hulls, aircraft fuel tanks. One method to combat bacterial biofouling is to modify the topographical structure of the surface in question, thereby limiting the ability of individual cells to attach to the surface, colonize, and form biofilms. Multiple research groups have demonstrated that micro and nanoscale topographies significantly reduce bacterial biofouling, for both individual cells and bacterial biofilms. Antifouling strategies that utilize engineered topographical surface features with well-defined dimensions and shapes have demonstrated a greater degree of controllable inhibition over initial cell attachment, in comparison to undefined, texturized, or porous surfaces. This review article will explore the various approaches and techniques used by researches, including work from our own group, and the underlying physical properties of these highly structured, engineered micro/nanoscale topographies that significantly impact bacterial surface attachment.

  8. The effect of silver impregnation of surgical scrub suits on surface bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A I; Halladay, L J; Cripps, P

    2012-06-01

    Silver-impregnated fabrics are widely used for their antibacterial and antifungal effects, including for clinical clothing such as surgical scrub suits (scrubs). This study investigated whether silver impregnation reduces surface bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. Using agar contact plates, abdominal and lumbar areas of silver-impregnated nylon or polyester/cotton scrubs were sampled for surface bacterial contamination before (0 h) and after 4 and 8h of use. The number of bacterial colonies on each contact plate was counted after 24 and 48 h incubation at 37°C. Standard basic descriptive statistics and mixed-effects linear regression were used to investigate the association of possible predictors of the level of bacterial contamination of the scrubs with surface bacterial counts. Silver-impregnated scrubs had significantly lowered bacterial colony counts (BCC) at 0 h compared with polyester/cotton scrubs. However, after 4 and 8h of wear, silver impregnation had no effect on BCC. Scrub tops with higher BCC at 0 h had significantly higher BCC at 4 and 8h, suggesting that contamination present at 0 h persisted during wear. Sampling from the lumbar area was associated with lower BCC at all three time points. Other factors (contamination of the scrub top with a medication/drug, restraint of patients, working in the anaesthesia recovery area) also affected BCC at some time points. Silver impregnation appeared to be ineffective in reducing bacterial contamination of scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital.

  9. Effect of impurities in the description of surface nanobubbles: Role of nonidealities in the surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study [ S. Das, J. H. Snoeijer and D. Lohse Phys. Rev. E 82 056310 (2010)], we provided quantitative demonstration of the conjecture [ W. A. Ducker Langmuir 25 8907 (2009)] that the presence of impurities at the surface layer (or the air-water interface) of surface nanobubbles can substa

  10. Tailored surface engineering of pigments by layer-by-layer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähne, Lars; Schneider, Julia; Lewe, Dirk; Petersen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of layer-by-layer encapsulation technology for the improvement of dye pigments used for tattoos or permanent make-up. The formation of core-shell structures is possible by coating pigments with thin films of several different polyelectrolytes using this technology. The physicochemical surface properties, such as charge density and chemical functionality, can be reproducibly varied in a wide range. Tailoring the surface properties independently from the pigment core allows one to control the rheological behaviour of pigment suspensions, to prevent aggregation between different pigments, to reduce the cytotoxicity, and to influence the response of phagocytes in order to have similar or the same uptake and bioclearance for all pigments. These properties determine the durability and colour tone stability of tattoos and permanent make-up.

  11. Amorphous surface layers in Ti-implanted Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Picraux, S.T.

    1979-01-01

    Implanting Ti into high-purity Fe results in an amorphous surface layer which is composed of not only Fe and Ti, but also C. Implantations were carried out at room temperature over the energy range 90 to 190 keV and fluence range 1 to 2 x 10/sup 16/ at/cm/sup 2/. The Ti-implanted Fe system has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ion backscattering and channeling analysis, and (d,p) nuclear reaction analysis. The amorphous layer was observed to form at the surface and grow inward with increasing Ti fluence. For an implant of 1 x 10/sup 17/ Ti/cm/sup 2/ at 180 keV the layer thickness was 150 A, while the measured range of the implanted Ti was approx. 550 A. This difference is due to the incorporation of C into the amorphous alloy by C being deposited on the surface during implantation and subsequently diffusing into the solid. Our results indicate that C is an essential constituent of the amorphous phase for Ti concentrations less than or equal to 10 at. %. For the 1 x 10/sup 17/ Ti/cm/sup 2/ implant, the concentration of C in the amorphous phase was approx. 25 at. %, while that of Ti was only approx. 3 at. %. A higher fluence implant of 2 x 10/sup 17/ Ti/cm/sup 2/ produced an amorphous layer with a lower C concentration of approx. 10 at. % and a Ti concentration of approx. 20 at. %.

  12. Study of near-surface layers of Omerelu area using low velocity layer (LVL method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajani, O.O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important that we have good knowledge of the soil type so as to appreciate the enormous resources we are stepping on. It is more compelling for oil explorationists to know more as this will go a long way to determine the success or failure of search for minerals. Seismic methods give a good overview of a wide area though they involve greater logistics and operational requirements than some other geophysical methods. The purpose of present study is to determine the depth of the weathered layer and velocities of near-surface layers over the investigated area. Twelve sample points were picked with a grid system spread over a perimeter of approximately 4km x 4km. The in-house UpSphere computer program was utilised to analyse and display result in a way that makes final interpretation very easy. This program actually removed the burden of plotting the graphs and the contour maps manually. The depth of weathered layer in the study area varies between 12m and 13m. The velocities of the weathered layer and the consolidated layer vary between 500 m/s – 550 m/s and 1790 m/s – 1875 m/s respectively. Also the dip is in the north east – south west direction.

  13. Pentanol and Benzyl Alcohol Attack Bacterial Surface Structures Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Takehisa; Miyahara, Yoshiko; Morii, Noriyuki; Okano, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium tolerates hygiene agents like benzalkonium chloride (BAC), and infection with this organism is an important public health issue. Here, we found that the combination of BAC with particular alcohols at nonlethal concentrations in terms of their solitary uses significantly reduced bacterial viability after only 5 min of exposure. Among the alcohols, Raman spectroscopic analyses showed that pentanol (pentyl alcohol [PeA]) and benzyl alcohol (BzA) accelerated the cellular accumulation of BAC. Fluorescence spectroscopic assays and morphological assays with giant vesicles indicated that PeA rarely attacked membrane structures, while BzA increased the membrane fluidity and destabilized the structures. Other fluorescent spectroscopic assays indicated that PeA and BzA inactivate bacterial membrane proteins, including an efflux pump for BAC transportation. These findings suggested that the inactivation of membrane proteins by PeA and BzA led to the cellular accumulation but that only BzA also enhanced BAC penetration by membrane fluidization at nonlethal concentrations. PMID:26519389

  14. In pursuit of protein targets: proteomic characterization of bacterial spore outer layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas; Hossain, Abeer H; Djajasaputra, André; Permpoonpattana, Patima; Ter Beek, Alexander; Dekker, Henk L; Cutting, Simon M; Brul, Stanley; de Koning, Leo J; de Koster, Chris G

    2013-10-04

    Bacillus cereus, responsible for food poisoning, and Clostridium difficile, the causative agent of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), are both spore-forming pathogens involved in food spoilage, food intoxication, and other infections in humans and animals. The proteinaceous coat and the exosporium layers from spores are important for their resistance and pathogenicity characteristics. The exosporium additionally provides an ability to adhere to surfaces eventually leading to spore survival in food. Thus, studying these layers and identifying suitable protein targets for rapid detection and removal of spores is of the utmost importance. In this study, we identified 100 proteins from B. cereus spore coat, exosporium and 54 proteins from the C. difficile coat insoluble protein fraction. In an attempt to define a universal set of spore outer layer proteins, we identified 11 superfamily domains common to the identified proteins from two Bacilli and one Clostridium species. The evaluated orthologue relationships of identified proteins across different spore formers resulted in a set of 13 coat proteins conserved across the spore formers and 12 exosporium proteins conserved in the B. cereus group, which could be tested for quick and easy detection or targeted in strategies aimed at removal of spores from surfaces.

  15. MODIFICATION OF SURFACE LAYERS FOR SILICATE GLASSES BY ELECTRON IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Brunov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research results of silicate glass surface layers modification by the influence of electron beams with 5-50 keV energies and 20-50 mC/cm2 doses are presented. It is shown that during the glasses exposure to an electron beam with 20-50 keV electron energies, a gradient optical waveguide with increased refractive index on waveguide axis Δn = 0.01-0.04 is formed in the surface layer. Сhemical etching rate is increased in the exposed area by up to two times which is related to glass grid destruction. Depending on irradiation dose thin film or silver nanoparticles with the size less than 20nm are formed on the surface of the silver containing glasses for electron energies less than 10 keV. Silver films drawn on the surface of the glass are dissolved into the glass bulk for electron energies 20-50 keV and 20-50 mC/cm2 dose. Basic mechanisms causing these effects are: chemical bonds breaking of spatial glass grid by high energy electrons, formation of negative volume charge inside the glass and field migration of positive metal ions into the volume charge region. Achieved results can be used in photonics, integral optics and nanoplasmonics device fabrication.

  16. In-situ surface hardening of cast iron by surface layer metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Sebastian F., E-mail: s.fischer@gi.rwth-aachen.de [Foundry Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Muschna, Stefan, E-mail: smuschna@yahoo.de [Foundry Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas, E-mail: sekretariat@gi.rwth-aachen.de [Foundry Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Bünck, Matthias, E-mail: m.buenck@access-techcenter.de [Access e.V., Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-10-06

    Abrasive wear is a serious problem in many cast iron castings used in industry. To minimize failure and repair of these components, different strategies exist to improve their surface microhardness thus enhancing their wear resistance. However, most of these methods lead to very brittle and/or expensive castings. In the current work a new method for surface hardening is presented which utilizes surface layer metallurgy to generate in-situ a boron-enriched white cast iron surface layer with a high microhardness on a gray cast iron casting. To do this, sand molds are coated with a ferroboron suspension and cast with a cast iron melt. After solidification, a 100–900 µm thick layer of boron-enriched ledeburite is formed on the surface of the casting which produces an increase in the average microhardness from 284 HV{sub 0.1}±52 HV{sub 0.1} to 505 HV{sub 0.1}±87 HV{sub 0.1}. Analyses of the samples' core reveal a typical cast iron microstructure which leads to the conclusion that the coating mainly affects the castings' surface. By varying the grain size of the ferroboron powder in the coatings, it is shown that a powder size ≤100 µm is most suitable to create a boron-enriched ledeburite surface layer possessing high hardness values.

  17. Influence of Surface Energy Effects on Elastic Fields of a Layered Elastic Medium under Surface Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supakorn Tirapat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of a layered elastic half space under the action of axisymmetric surface loading and the influence of the surface energy effects. The boundary value problems for the bulk and the surface are formulated based on classical linear elasticity and a complete Gurtin-Murdoch constitutive relation. An analytical technique using Love’s representation and the Hankel integral transform is employed to derive an integral-form solution for both displacement and stress fields. An efficient numerical quadrature is then applied to accurately evaluate all involved integrals. Selected numerical results are presented to portray the influence of various parameters on elastic fields. Numerical results indicate that the surface stress displays a significant influence on both displacement and stress fields. It is also found that the layered half space becomes stiffer with the presence of surface stresses. In addition, unlike the classical elasticity solution, size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is noted. The present analytical solutions provide fundamental understanding of the influence of surface energy on layered elastic materials. It can also be used as a benchmark solution for the development of numerical techniques such as FEM and BEM, for analysis of more complex problems involving a layered medium under the influence of surface energy effects.

  18. Study on tribological properties of multi-layer surface texture on Babbitt alloys surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Zhao, Feifei; Li, Yan; Li, Pengyang; Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng

    2016-12-01

    To improve tribological properties of Babbitt alloys, multi-layer surface texture consisted of the main grooves and secondary micro-dimples are fabricated on the Babbitt substrate through laser pulse ablation. The tribological behaviors of multi-layer surface texture are investigated using a rotating type pin-on-disc tribo-meter under variation sliding speeds, and the film pressure distributions on the textured surfaces are simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for elucidating the possible mechanisms. The results suggest that: (i) the multi-layer surface texture can reduce friction coefficient of Babbitt alloy, which has lowest friction coefficient of 0.03, in case of the groove parameter of 300 μm width and 15% of area density; (ii) the improvement effect may be more sensitive to the groove area density and the siding speed, and the textured surface with lower area density has lower friction coefficient under high sliding speed. Based on the reasons of (i) the secondary micro-dimples on Babbitt alloy possesses a hydrophobicity surface and (ii) the CFD analysis indicates that main grooves enhancing hydrodynamic effect, thus the multi-layer surface texture is regarded as dramatically improve the lubricating properties of the Babbitt alloy.

  19. Lightness constancy through transparency: internal consistency in layered surface representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manish

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetric lightness matching was employed to measure how the visual system assigns lightness to surface patches seen through partially-transmissive surfaces. Observers adjusted the luminance of a comparison patch seen through transparency, in order to match the lightness of a standard patch seen in plain view. Plots of matched-to-standard luminance were linear, and their slopes were consistent with Metelli's alpha. A control experiment confirmed that these matches were indeed transparency based. Consistent with recent results, however, when observers directly matched the transmittance of transparent surfaces, their matches deviated strongly and systematically from Metelli's alpha. Although the two sets of results appear to be contradictory, formal analysis reveals a deeper mutual consistency in the representation of the two layers. A ratio-of-contrasts model is shown to explain both the success of Metelli's model in predicting lightness through transparency, and its failure to predict perceived transmittance--and hence is seen to play the primary role in perceptual transparency.

  20. Nanoscale Structuring of Surfaces by Using Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Nicolas; Hess, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Controlled structuring of surfaces is interesting for a wide variety of areas, including microelectronic device fabrication, optical devices, bio(sensing), (electro-, photo)catalysis, batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, and sorption. A unique feature of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the possibility to form conformal uniform coatings on arbitrarily shaped materials with controlled atomic-scale thickness. In this Minireview, we discuss the potential of ALD for the nanoscale structuring of surfaces, highlighting its versatile application to structuring both planar substrates and powder materials. Recent progress in the application of ALD to porous substrates has even made the nanoscale structuring of high-surface-area materials now feasible, thereby enabling novel applications, such as those in the fields of catalysis and alternative energy.

  1. Combined surface acoustic wave and surface plasmon resonance measurement of collagen and fibrinogen layer physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Friedt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We use an instrument combining optical (surface plasmon resonance and acoustic (Love mode surface acoustic wave device real-time measurements on a same surface for the identification of water content in collagen and fibrinogen protein layers. After calibration of the surface acoustic wave device sensitivity by copper electrodeposition and surfactant adsorption, the bound mass and its physical properties – density and optical index – are extracted from the complementary measurement techniques and lead to thickness and water ratio values compatible with the observed signal shifts. Such results are especially usefully for protein layers with a high water content as shown here for collagen on an hydrophobic surface. We obtain the following results: collagen layers include 70±20% water and are 16±3 to 19±3 nm thick for bulk concentrations ranging from 30 to 300 μg/ml. Fibrinogen layers include 50±10% water for layer thicknesses in the 6±1.5 to 13±2 nm range when the bulk concentration is in the 46 to 460 μg/ml range.

  2. Near-Surface Boundary Layer Turbulence Along a Horizontally-Moving, Surface-Piercing Vertical Wall

    CERN Document Server

    Washuta, Nathan; Duncan, James H

    2016-01-01

    The complex interaction between turbulence and the free surface in boundary layer shear flow created by a vertical surface-piercing wall is considered. A laboratory-scale device was built that utilizes a surface-piercing stainless steel belt that travels in a loop around two vertical rollers, with one length of the belt between the rollers acting as a horizontally-moving flat wall. The belt is accelerated suddenly from rest until reaching constant speed in order to create a temporally-evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially-evolving boundary layer that would exist along a surface-piercing towed flat plate. Surface profiles are measured with a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence system and sub-surface velocity fields are recorded using a high-speed planar particle image velocimetry system. It is found that the belt initially travels through the water without creating any significant waves, before the free surface bursts with activity close to the belt surface. These free surface ripples travel away...

  3. Nanoscale Cell Wall Deformation Impacts Long-Range Bacterial Adhesion Forces on Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yun; Harapanahalli, Akshay K.; Busscher, Henk J.; Norde, Willem; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria occurs on virtually all natural and synthetic surfaces and is crucial for their survival. Once they are adhering, bacteria start growing and form a biofilm, in which they are protected against environmental attacks. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is mediated by a combination of

  4. Nanoscale cell wall deformation impacts long-range bacterial adhesion forces on surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Harapanahalli, A.K.; Busscher, H.J.; Norde, W.; Mei, van der H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria occurs on virtually all natural and synthetic surfaces and is crucial for their survival. Once they are adhering, bacteria start growing and form a biofilm, in which they are protected against environmental attacks. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is mediated by a combination of

  5. Role of leaf surface sugars in colonization of plants by bacterial epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, J; Lindow, S E

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between nutrients leached onto the leaf surface and the colonization of plants by bacteria was studied by measuring both the abundance of simple sugars and the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens on individual bean leaves. Data obtained in this study indicate that the population size of epiphytic bacteria on plants under environmentally favorable conditions is limited by the abundance of carbon sources on the leaf surface. Sugars were depleted during the course of bacterial colonization of the leaf surface. However, about 20% of readily utilizable sugar, such as glucose, present initially remained on fully colonized leaves. The amounts of sugars on a population of apparently identical individual bean leaves before and after microbial colonization exhibited a similar right-hand-skewed distribution and varied by about 25-fold from leaf to leaf. Total bacterial population sizes on inoculated leaves under conditions favorable for bacterial growth also varied by about 29-fold and exhibited a right-hand-skewed distribution. The amounts of sugars on leaves of different plant species were directly correlated with the maximum bacterial population sizes that could be attained on those species. The capacity of bacteria to deplete leaf surface sugars varied greatly among plant species. Plants capable of supporting high bacterial population sizes were proportionally more depleted of leaf surface nutrients than plants with low epiphytic populations. Even in species with a high epiphytic bacterial population, a substantial amount of sugar remained after bacterial colonization. It is hypothesized that residual sugars on colonized leaves may not be physically accessible to the bacteria due to limitations in wettability and/or diffusion of nutrients across the leaf surface.

  6. PAH Mineralization and Bacterial Organotolerance in Surface Sediments of the Charleston Harbor Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen saturation controls PAH biodegradation in freshwater estuary sediments. Microb Ecol 49(2):226–235. doi: 10.1007/s00248-004-0279-0. PMID...15965718 Boyd TJ, Smith DC, Apple JK, Hamdan LJ, Osburn CL, Montgomery MT (2008) Evaluating PAH biodegradation relative to bacterial carbon demand in...ORIGINAL PAPER PAH mineralization and bacterial organotolerance in surface sediments of the Charleston Harbor estuary Michael T. Montgomery Æ Thomas

  7. Soil moisture sensor calibration for organic soil surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Simone; Andreasen, Mie; Vuollet, Johanna; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Jonard, François; Weihermüller, Lutz; Zakharova, Elena; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Yann H.

    2016-04-01

    This paper's objective is to present generic calibration functions for organic surface layers derived for the soil moisture sensors Decagon ECH2O 5TE and Delta-T ThetaProbe ML2x, using material from northern regions, mainly from the Finnish Meteorological Institute's Arctic Research Center in Sodankylä and the study area of the Danish Center for Hydrology (HOBE). For the Decagon 5TE sensor such a function is currently not reported in the literature. Data were compared with measurements from underlying mineral soils including laboratory and field measurements. Shrinkage and charring during drying were considered. For both sensors all field and lab data showed consistent trends. For mineral layers with low soil organic matter (SOM) content the validity of the manufacturer's calibrations was demonstrated. Deviating sensor outputs in organic and mineral horizons were identified. For the Decagon 5TE, apparent relative permittivities at a given moisture content decreased for increased SOM content, which was attributed to an increase of bound water in organic materials with large specific surface areas compared to the studied mineral soils. ThetaProbe measurements from organic horizons showed stronger nonlinearity in the sensor response and signal saturation in the high-level data. The derived calibration fit functions between sensor response and volumetric water content hold for samples spanning a wide range of humus types with differing SOM characteristics. This strengthens confidence in their validity under various conditions, rendering them highly suitable for large-scale applications in remote sensing and land surface modeling studies. Agreement between independent Decagon 5TE and ThetaProbe time series from an organic surface layer at the Sodankylä site was significantly improved when the here-proposed fit functions were used. Decagon 5TE data also well-reflected precipitation events. Thus, Decagon 5TE network data from organic surface layers at the Sodankylä and

  8. Soil moisture sensor calibration for organic soil surface layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bircher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper's objective is to present generic calibration functions for organic surface layers derived for the soil moisture sensors Decagon ECH2O 5TE and Delta-T ThetaProbe ML2x, using material from northern regions, mainly from the Finish Meteorological Institute's Arctic Research Center in Sodankylä and the study area of the Danish Center for Hydrology HOBE. For the Decagon 5TE sensor such a function is currently not reported in literature. Data were compared with measurements from underlying mineral soils including laboratory and field measurements. Shrinkage and charring during drying were considered. For both sensors all field and lab data showed consistent trends. For mineral layers with low soil organic matter (SOM content the validity of the manufacturer's calibrations was demonstrated. Deviating sensor outputs in organic and mineral horizons were identified: for the Decagon 5TE apparent relative permittivities at a given moisture content decreased for increased SOM content, which was attributed to an increase of bound water in organic materials with large surface areas compared to the studied mineral soils. ThetaProbe measurements from organic horizons showed stronger non-linearity in the sensor response and signal saturation in the high level data. The derived calibration fit functions between sensor response and volumetric water content hold for samples spanning a wide range of humus types with differing SOM characteristics. This strengthens confidence in their validity under various conditions, rendering them highly suitable for large-scale applications in remote sensing and land surface modeling studies. Agreement between independent Decagon 5TE and ThetaProbe time series from an organic surface layer at the Sodankylä site was significantly improved when the here proposed fit functions were used. Decagon 5TE data also well-reflected precipitation events. Thus, Decagon 5TE network data from organic surface layers at the Sodankyl

  9. Defensive remodeling: How bacterial surface properties and biofilm formation promote resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuri, Reut; Shprung, Tal; Shai, Yechiel

    2015-11-01

    Multidrug resistance bacteria are a major concern worldwide. These pathogens cannot be treated with conventional antibiotics and thus alternative therapeutic agents are needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered to be good candidates for this purpose. Most AMPs are short and positively charged amphipathic peptides, which are found in all known forms of life. AMPs are known to kill bacteria by binding to the negatively charged bacterial surface, and in most cases cause membrane disruption. Resistance toward AMPs can be developed, by modification of bacterial surface molecules, secretion of protective material and up-regulation or elimination of specific proteins. Because of the general mechanisms of attachment and action of AMPs, bacterial resistance to AMPs often involves biophysical and biochemical changes such as surface rigidity, cell wall thickness, surface charge, as well as membrane and cell wall modification. Here we focus on the biophysical, surface and surrounding changes that bacteria undergo in acquiring resistance to AMPs. In addition we discuss the question of whether bacterial resistance to administered AMPs might compromise our innate immunity to endogenous AMPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides.

  10. Processing and properties of electrodeposited layered surface coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    clacks and spalls off early on. For thick, non-compliant coatings, much thicker coatings can be formed. Fracture resistance must be considered in relation to both specimen and loading geometries. Since the inherent bending moment causes a maximum tensile stress at the coating surface, the loading......Hard chromium, produced by conventional dir ect curl ent (DC) electrodeposition, cannot be deposited to thicknesses gl enter than about 5 mu m because of the buildup of processing stresses which cause channel cracks in the coating. Much thicker chromium coatings map be produced by depositing...... a layered structure using alternate DC plating and periodic current reversal (PR). Such layering produces a through thickness stepped gradient in residual stresses. Most importantly a bending moment develops in the coating whenever the substrate is compliant. For thin, compliant substrates, the coating...

  11. Monte Carlo study of the molecular mechanisms of surface-layer protein self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejs, Christine; Mitra, Mithun K.; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2011-03-01

    The molecular mechanisms guiding the self-assembly of proteins into functional or pathogenic large-scale structures can be only understood by studying the correlation between the structural details of the monomer and the eventual mesoscopic morphologies. Among the myriad structural details of protein monomers and their manifestations in the self-assembled morphologies, we seek to identify the most crucial set of structural features necessary for the spontaneous selection of desired morphologies. Using a combination of the structural information and a Monte Carlo method with a coarse-grained model, we have studied the functional protein self-assembly into S(surface)-layers, which constitute the crystallized outer most cell envelope of a great variety of bacterial cells. We discover that only few and mainly hydrophobic amino acids, located on the surface of the monomer, are responsible for the formation of a highly ordered anisotropic protein lattice. The coarse-grained model presented here reproduces accurately many experimentally observed features including the pore formation, chemical description of the pore structure, location of specific amino acid residues at the protein-protein interfaces, and surface accessibility of specific amino acid residues. In addition to elucidating the molecular mechanisms and explaining experimental findings in the S-layer assembly, the present work offers a tool, which is chemical enough to capture details of primary sequences and coarse-grained enough to explore morphological structures with thousands of protein monomers, to promulgate design rules for spontaneous formation of specific protein assemblies.

  12. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.

    2013-09-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Structure-phase states of the nickel surface layers after electroexplosive carburizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Budovskikh; E.; A.; Bagautdinov; A.; Y.; Ivanov; Yu.; F.; Martusevich; E.; V.; Gromov; V.; E.

    2005-01-01

    The layer by layer study of the structure-phase states of the nickel surface layer carburizing with use the phenomena of the electrical explosion has conducted by the method TEM of the fine foils.……

  14. Aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion of semiconductor nanoplates into single-crystalline 2D nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and ionic surface capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Muwei; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-02-25

    A controllable aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion has been proposed to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and well-retained hexagonal shapes. The appropriate oxidizing agent, such as H2O2, Fe(NO3)3, and HNO3, could not only corrode the layered-crystalline-structured Bi2Te3 nanoplates layer-by-layer to be a single quintuple layer, but also replace the organic barriers to be ionic ligands on the surface synergistically. AFM analysis was used to confirm the layer-by-layer exfoliation from the side to the center. Together with precise XRD, LRTEM and HRTEM characterizations, the controllable oxidation reaction enabled aqueous layer-by-layer corrosion mechanism has been studied.

  15. Formation of nanocrystalline surface layers in various metallic materials by near surface severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Sato, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Yoritoshi Minamino and Yuichiro Koizumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the various kinds of metallic materials sheets were severely deformed by wire-brushing at ambient temperature to achieve nanocrystalline surface layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the near surface severe plastic deformation (NS-SPD were characterized by means of TEM. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 200 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all the severely scratched metallic materials, which are Ti-added ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS304, 99.99 wt.%Al, commercial purity aluminum (A1050 and A1100, Al–Mg alloy (A5083, Al-4 wt.%Cu alloy, OFHC-Cu (C1020, Cu–Zn alloy (C2600 and Pb-1.5%Sn alloy. In case of the 1050-H24 aluminum, the depth of the surface nanocrystalline layer was about 15 μm. It was clarified that wire-brushing is an effective way of NS-SPD, and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials.

  16. Intermittency and energy fluxes in the surface layer of free-surface turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Troiani, Guido; Olivieri, Angelo; Casciola, Carlo Massimo

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing hot-wire velocity data taken in an open channel flow, an unambiguous definition of surface-layer thickness is here provided in terms of the cross-over scale between backward and forward energy fluxes. It is shown that the turbulence in the surface layer does not conform to the classical description of two-dimensional turbulence, since the direct energy cascade persists at scales smaller than the cross-over scale, comparable with the distance from the free-surface. The multifractal analysis of the one-dimensional surrogate of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in terms of generalized dimensions and singularity spectrum indicates that intermittency is strongly depleted in the surface layer, as shown by the singularity spectrum contracted to a single point. The combination of intermittency indicators and energy fluxes allowed to identify the specific nature of the surface layer as alternative to classical paradigms of three- and two-dimensional turbulence which cannot fully capture the gl...

  17. Surface characterization of bacterial cells relevant to the mineral industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, PK; Rao, KH

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Acidithiobacilli group are widely used in the mineral processing industry in bioleaching and biobeneficiation operations. Paenibacillus polymyxa has also found application in biobeneficiation studies. Microbial adhesion to mineral surface is an essential step,for both biobe

  18. Abundance of bacterial and diatom fouling on various surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi

    of exposure and thereafter an irreversible attachment was observed until the end of sampling (144 hr). Nitzschia sp was found to be most abundant on surfaces as well as in the subsurface waters. The other forms present included Navicula sp, Grammatophora sp...

  19. A numerical model for chemical reaction on slag layer surface and slag layer behavior in entrained-flow gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns with slag layer accumulation, chemical reaction on slag layer surface, and slag layer flow, heat and mass transfer on the wall of entrained-flow coal gasifier. A slag layer model is developed to simulate slag layer behaviors in the coal gasifier. This 3-D model can predict temperature, slag particle disposition rate, disposition particle composition, and syngas distribution in the gasifier hearth. The model is used to evaluate the effects of O2/coal ratio on slag layer behaviors.

  20. Plasma Nitriding of Austenitic Stainless Steel with Severe Surface Deformation Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shi-jun; GAO Yu-zhou; WANG Liang; SUN Jun-cai; HEI Zu-kun

    2004-01-01

    The dc glow discharge plasma nitriding of austenite stainless steel with severe surface deformation layer is used to produce much thicker surface modified layer. This kind of layers has useful properties such as a high surface hardness of about 1500 Hv 0.1 and high resistance to frictional wear. This paper presents the structures and properties of low temperature plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel with severe surface deformation layer.

  1. Production, secretion, and cell surface display of recombinant Sporosarcina ureae S-layer fusion proteins in Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Denise; Ostermann, Kai; Rödel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Monomolecular crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) have broad application potential in nanobiotechnology due to their ability to generate functional supramolecular structures. Here, we report that Bacillus megaterium is an excellent host organism for the heterologous expression and efficient secretion of hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged versions of the S-layer protein SslA from Sporosarcina ureae ATCC 13881. Three chimeric proteins were constructed, comprising the precursor, C-terminally truncated, and N- and C-terminally truncated forms of the S-layer SslA protein tagged with the human influenza hemagglutinin epitope. For secretion of fusion proteins, the open reading frames were cloned into the Escherichia coli-Bacillus megaterium shuttle vector pHIS1525. After transformation of the respective plasmids into Bacillus megaterium protoplasts, the recombinant genes were successfully expressed and the proteins were secreted into the growth medium. The isolated S-layer proteins are able to assemble in vitro into highly ordered, crystalline, sheetlike structures with the fused HA tag accessible to antibody. We further show by fluorescent labeling that the secreted S-layer fusion proteins are also clustered on the cell envelope of Bacillus megaterium, indicating that the cell surface can serve in vivo as a nucleation point for crystallization. Thus, this system can be used as a display system that allows the dense and periodic presentation of S-layer proteins or the fused tags.

  2. Evolution of vortex-surface fields in transitional boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Zhao, Yaomin; Xiong, Shiying

    2016-11-01

    We apply the vortex-surface field (VSF), a Lagrangian-based structure-identification method, to the DNS database of transitional boundary layers. The VSFs are constructed from the vorticity fields within a sliding window at different times and locations using a recently developed boundary-constraint method. The isosurfaces of VSF, representing vortex surfaces consisting of vortex lines with different wall distances in the laminar stage, show different evolutionary geometries in transition. We observe that the vortex surfaces with significant deformation evolve from wall-parallel planar sheets through hairpin-like structures and packets into a turbulent spot with regeneration of small-scale hairpins. From quantitative analysis, we show that a small number of representative or influential vortex surfaces can contribute significantly to the increase of the drag coefficient in transition, which implies a reduced-order model based on VSF. This work has been supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472015, 11522215 and 11521091), and the Thousand Young Talents Program of China.

  3. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces of variable roughness and hydrophobicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Iversen, Anders

    adhesion. Sol-gel technology and the recent availability of organic modified silicas have lead to development of hybrid organic/inorganic glass ceramic coatings with specialised surface properties. In this study we investigate bacterial adhesion and the subsequent biofilm formation on stainless steel (SS......) and compare it to two nanostructured sol-gel coatings with variable hydrophobicity. Test surfaces were characterised with respect to surface roughness by atomic force microscopy, surface hydrophobicity by contact angle (CA) measurements, protein adsorption by quartz crystal microbalance analyses....... The bacterial communities were identified by clone libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization. We initially compared surfaces of relatively similar hydrophobicity (CA=60-79º) but different roughness. The roughness (Ra) was 300nm for SS type 2B, 6nm for electro polished SS, and 0.2 nm for sol-gel...

  4. Covalent Attachment of Poly(ethylene glycol) to Surfaces, Critical for Reducing Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingshott, Peter; Wei, Jiang; Bagge, Dorthe

    2003-01-01

    on both substrates, as judged by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Also, ToF-SIMS imaging showed that both substrates were chemically uniform after each surface modification step. Thus, the two surfaces differ only in the mode of attachment...... of PEI to the substrate. In bacterial adhesion experiments, the optimal SS-PEG surface was not capable of reducing the number of adherent Pseudomonas sp. when compared to the controls. However, the PET-PEG surface reduced the level of adhesion by between 2 and 4 orders of magnitude for up to 5 h. ToF-SIMS...... analysis showed that both PEG surfaces adsorbed low but comparable levels of proteinaceous growth medium components (tryptic soy broth), as indicated by the addition of unique amino acid fragment ions in the spectra, most likely small peptides. Thus, bacterial adhesion was strongly dependent on the PEG...

  5. Bubbles & Turbulence in the Ocean Surface Layer & Topographic Interactions in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Bubbles & Turbulence in the Ocean Surface Layer & Topographic Interactions in Coastal Waters David Farmer Institute of Ocean Sciences 9860 West...ocean surface layer , and their relationship to wave breaking, turbulence and the effects of buoyancy, gas dissolution and advection by coherent...cases, bubble size distributions were measured, along with other characteristics of the surface layer . Our approach has involved determination of the

  6. Can the Bacterial Community of a High Arctic Glacier Surface Escape Viral Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassner, Sara M E; Anesio, Alexandre M; Girdwood, Susan E; Hell, Katherina; Gokul, Jarishma K; Whitworth, David E; Edwards, Arwyn

    2016-01-01

    Glacial ice surfaces represent a seasonally evolving three-dimensional photic zone which accumulates microbial biomass and potentiates positive feedbacks in ice melt. Since viruses are abundant in glacial systems and may exert controls on supraglacial bacterial production, we examined whether changes in resource availability would promote changes in the bacterial community and the dynamics between viruses and bacteria of meltwater from the photic zone of a Svalbard glacier. Our results indicated that, under ambient nutrient conditions, low estimated viral decay rates account for a strong viral control of bacterial productivity, incurring a potent viral shunt of a third of bacterial carbon in the supraglacial microbial loop. Moreover, it appears that virus particles are very stable in supraglacial meltwater, raising the prospect that viruses liberated in melt are viable downstream. However, manipulating resource availability as dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous in experimental microcosms demonstrates that the photic zone bacterial communities can escape viral control. This is evidenced by a marked decline in virus-to-bacterium ratio (VBR) concomitant with increased bacterial productivity and number. Pyrosequencing shows a few bacterial taxa, principally Janthinobacterium sp., dominate both the source meltwater and microcosm communities. Combined, our results suggest that viruses maintain high VBR to promote contact with low-density hosts, by the manufacture of robust particles, but that this necessitates a trade-off which limits viral production. Consequently, dominant bacterial taxa appear to access resources to evade viral control. We propose that a delicate interplay of bacterial and viral strategies affects biogeochemical cycling upon glaciers and, ultimately, downstream ecosystems.

  7. Can the Bacterial Community of a High Arctic Glacier Surface Escape Viral Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassner, Sara M. E.; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Hell, Katherina; Gokul, Jarishma K.; Whitworth, David E.; Edwards, Arwyn

    2016-01-01

    Glacial ice surfaces represent a seasonally evolving three-dimensional photic zone which accumulates microbial biomass and potentiates positive feedbacks in ice melt. Since viruses are abundant in glacial systems and may exert controls on supraglacial bacterial production, we examined whether changes in resource availability would promote changes in the bacterial community and the dynamics between viruses and bacteria of meltwater from the photic zone of a Svalbard glacier. Our results indicated that, under ambient nutrient conditions, low estimated viral decay rates account for a strong viral control of bacterial productivity, incurring a potent viral shunt of a third of bacterial carbon in the supraglacial microbial loop. Moreover, it appears that virus particles are very stable in supraglacial meltwater, raising the prospect that viruses liberated in melt are viable downstream. However, manipulating resource availability as dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous in experimental microcosms demonstrates that the photic zone bacterial communities can escape viral control. This is evidenced by a marked decline in virus-to-bacterium ratio (VBR) concomitant with increased bacterial productivity and number. Pyrosequencing shows a few bacterial taxa, principally Janthinobacterium sp., dominate both the source meltwater and microcosm communities. Combined, our results suggest that viruses maintain high VBR to promote contact with low-density hosts, by the manufacture of robust particles, but that this necessitates a trade-off which limits viral production. Consequently, dominant bacterial taxa appear to access resources to evade viral control. We propose that a delicate interplay of bacterial and viral strategies affects biogeochemical cycling upon glaciers and, ultimately, downstream ecosystems. PMID:27446002

  8. Hydration-controlled bacterial motility and dispersal on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Wang, G.; Gulez, Gamze;

    2010-01-01

    hydrated habitats, where water dynamics result in fragmented aquatic habitats connected by micrometric films, is debated. Here, we quantify the spatial dynamics of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and its nonflagellated isogenic mutant as affected by the hydration status of a rough porous surface using...... an experimental system that mimics aquatic habitats found in unsaturated soils. The flagellar motility of the model soil bacterium decreased sharply within a small range of water potential (0 to −2 kPa) and nearly ceased in liquid films of effective thickness smaller than 1.5 μm. However, bacteria could rapidly...

  9. Bacterial, Archaeal, and Fungal Diversity of Spacecraft-Associated Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; La Duc, Myron; Vaishampayan, Parag

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of contaminant microbiota to extraterrestrial settings could have profound repercussions on the scientific integrity of in-situ and sample-return based life detection experiments. Thus a key challenge lies in providing a comprehensive account of the molecular signatures of microorganisms resident on spacecraft hardware. It will be essential to know which organisms pose the greatest threat of contamination based on recurrent isolation and/or detection on spacecraft associated surfaces, so that their presence can be preferably eliminated, or at least recognized and discriminated from any authentic extraterrestrial biosignatures. The advent of high-throughput molecular biological methodologies has dramatically increased the resolution and sensitivity of detection of various microbial lineages in mixed assemblages. At present, NASA is developing such enabling technologies capable of providing a detailed, comprehensive census of the microorganisms present on spacecraft surfaces. Establishing such a genetic inventory will prove invaluable when working to meet the anticipated requirements for potential future missions to return samples from Mars.

  10. Bio-Nanofabrication: Structuring Polymer Thin Films via Bacterial S-layer Proteins for Subsequent Use with Subtractive Nanofabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Mandy B.; Amponsah, Ebenezer K.; Bergkvist, Magnus

    2007-03-01

    Bio-molecule assisted lithography is a novel approach to create ordered patterns on the micro and nanometer size scale on thin films. The technique bears the potential to utilize self assembling properties of bio-molecules and to be integrated with conventional nanofabrication techniques. In the past, bacterial cell wall proteins (S-layers proteins) have been utilized to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. The work presented here employs S-layer proteins to shape UV-curable resist via an S-layer imprinted parylene template. Using this technique we can replicate S-layer patterns in resist thereby rendering the shape more resistant to subtractive nanofabrication techniques. The technique also demonstrates the adequacy of Nano Imprint Lithography to produce complex patterns not achievable with conventional lithography.

  11. Effect of Surface Attachment on Synthesis of Bacterial Cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter spp. synthesize a pure form of hydrophilic cellulose that has several industrial specialty applications. Literature reports have concentrated on intensive investigation of static and agitated culture in liquid media containing high nutrient concentrations optimized for maximal cellulose production rates. The behavior of these bacteria on semisolid and solid surfaces has not been specifically addressed. The species Gluconacetobacter hansenii was examined for cellulose synthesis and colony morphology on a range of solid supports, including cotton linters, and on media thickened with agar, methyl cellulose, or gellan. The concentration and chemical structure of the thickening agent were found to be directly related to the formation of contiguous cellulose pellicules. Viability of the bacteria following freezer storage was improved when the bacteria were frozen in their cellulose pellicules.

  12. Exploring the bronzing effect at the surface of ink layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Mathieu; Mallet, Maxime; Deboos, Alexis; Chavel, Pierre; Kuang, Deng-Feng; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Besbes, Mondher; Cazier, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the optical phenomenon responsible for the colored shine that sometimes appears at the surface of ink layers in the specular direction, often called bronzing or gloss differential. It seems to come from the wavelength-dependent refractive index of the ink, which induces a wavelength-dependent reflectance of the ink-air interface. Our experiments on cyan and magenta inkjet inks confirm this theory. Complex refractive indices can be obtained from measurements of the spectral reflectance and transmittance of a transparency film coated with the ink. We propose a correction of the classical Clapper-Yule model in order to include the colored gloss in the prediction of the spectral reflectance of an inked paper. We also explored effects of scattering by the micrometric or nanometric roughness of the ink surface. The micrometric roughness, easy to model with a geometrical optics model, can predict the spreading of the colored gloss over a large cone. Electromagnetic models accounting for the effect of the nanometric roughness of the surface also predict the attenuation of short wavelengths observed under collimated illumination.

  13. Surface Treatments and Functional Coatings for Biocompatibility Improvement and Bacterial Adhesion Reduction in Dental Implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Mandracci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of dental implants is a key process in the production of these medical devices, and especially titanium implants used in the dental practice are commonly subjected to surface modification processes before their clinical use. A wide range of treatments, such as sand blasting, acid etching, plasma etching, plasma spray deposition, sputtering deposition and cathodic arc deposition, have been studied over the years in order to improve the performance of dental implants. Improving or accelerating the osseointegration process is usually the main goal of these surface processes, but the improvement of biocompatibility and the prevention of bacterial adhesion are also of considerable importance. In this review, we report on the research of the recent years in the field of surface treatments and coatings deposition for the improvement of dental implants performance, with a main focus on the osseointegration acceleration, the reduction of bacterial adhesion and the improvement of biocompatibility.

  14. Crustose coralline algal species host distinct bacterial assemblages on their surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Jennifer M; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J

    2015-11-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are important components of many marine ecosystems. They aid in reef accretion and stabilization, create habitat for other organisms, contribute to carbon sequestration and are important settlement substrata for a number of marine invertebrates. Despite their ecological importance, little is known about the bacterial communities associated with CCA or whether differences in bacterial assemblages may have ecological implications. This study examined the bacterial communities on four different species of CCA collected in Belize using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. CCA were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinomycetes. At the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, each CCA species had a unique bacterial community that was significantly different from all other CCA species. Hydrolithon boergesenii and Titanoderma prototypum, CCA species that facilitate larval settlement in multiple corals, had higher abundances of OTUs related to bacteria that inhibit the growth and/or biofilm formation of coral pathogens. Fewer coral larvae settle on the surfaces of Paragoniolithon solubile and Porolithon pachydermum. These CCA species had higher abundances of OTUs related to known coral pathogens and cyanobacteria. Coral larvae may be able to use the observed differences in bacterial community composition on CCA species to assess the suitability of these substrata for settlement and selectively settle on CCA species that contain beneficial bacteria.

  15. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Bilger, G; Jones, D; Symietz, I

    2002-01-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (alpha,alpha) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction sup 1 H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of m...

  16. A macromolecular model for the endothelial surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, James; Danova-Okpetu, Darina; Grest, Gary

    2006-03-01

    The endothelial surface layer (ESL) is a micron-scale macromolecular lining of the luminal side of blood vessels composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, polysaccharides and associated plasma proteins all in dynamic equilibrium. It has numerous physiological roles including the regulation of blood flow and microvascular permeability, and active participation in mechanotransduction and stress regulation, coagulation, cell adhesion, and inflammatory response. The dynamic structure and the mechanical properties of the ESL are crucial for many of its physiological properties. We present a topological model for the ESL composed of three basic macromolecular elements: branched proteoglycans, linear polysaccharide chains, and small plasma proteins. The model was studied using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and compared with scaling theories for associating tethered polymers. We discuss the observed dynamical and mechanical properties of the ESL captured by this model, and the possible physical insight it provides into the physiological behavior of the ESL.

  17. Measurement of atmospheric surface layer turbulence using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Brandon; Smith, Lorli; Schlagenhauf, Cornelia; Bailey, Sean

    2016-11-01

    We describe measurements of the turbulence within the atmospheric surface layer using highly instrumented and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Results from the CLOUDMAP measurement campaign in Stillwater Oklahoma are presented including turbulence statistics measured during the transition from stably stratified to convective conditions. The measurements were made using pre-fabricated fixed-wing remote-control aircraft adapted to fly autonomously and carry multi-hole pressure probes, pressure, temperature and humidity sensors. Two aircraft were flown simultaneously, with one flying a flight path intended to profile the boundary layer up to 100 m and the other flying at a constant fixed altitude of 50 m. The evolution of various turbulent statistics was determined from these flights, including Reynolds stresses, correlations, spectra and structure functions. These results were compared to those measured by a sonic anemometer located on a 7.5 m tower. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant #CBET-1351411 and by National Science Foundation award #1539070, Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUDMAP).

  18. Cone model for two surface foundations on layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wenhua

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the cone model is applied to the vibration analysis of two foundations on a layered soil half space. In the analysis, the total stress field in the subsoil is divided into the free-field and the scattering field. Seed's simplified method is adopted for the free-field analysis,while the cone model is proposed for analyzing the dynamic scattering stress wave field.The shear stress field and the compressive stress field in the layered stratum with two scattering sources are calculated by shear cone and compressive cone, respectively. Furthermore, the stress fields in the subsoil with two foundations are divided into six zones, and the P wave and S wave are analyzed in each zone. Numerical results are provided to illustrate features of the added stress field for two surface foundations under vertical and horizontal sinusoidal force excitation. The proposed cone model may be useful in handling some of the complex problems associated with multi-scattering sources.

  19. Surface topology and electronic structure of layered strontium ruthenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, Robert; Klinke, Melanie; Waelsch, Michael; Mietke, Sebastian; Matzdorf, Rene [Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Kassel (Germany); Peng, Jin; Mao, Zhiqiang [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In complex materials the interplay of properties like crystal structure, electronic structure and magnetism results in very interesting physical phenomena. The Ruddlesden-Popper series of layered Strontium Ruthenates Sr{sub n+1}Ru{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} describes one class of these materials. The double and triple layer systems behave like a Fermi liquid up to the transition temperature of 15 K and 24 K, respectively. In both compounds the local density of states (LDOS) shows a peak within the dip-like feature around the Fermi energy E{sub F}. Using low-temperature (LT) STM and STS we studied the temperature dependence of the LDOS in the range from 4.7 to 35 K. By increasing the temperature the peak within the dip in the LDOS at E{sub F} is only affected by thermal broadening. The surface unit cell of the Strontium Ruthenates exhibits a c(2 x 2) super structure, which is stable from 4.7 K up to room temperature as shown by our atomically resolved LT STM images and room temperature LEED experiments.

  20. Bacterial Adhesion and Surface Roughness for Different Clinical Techniques for Acrylic Polymethyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa de Medeiros Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the effect of different surface finishing and polishing protocols on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion (S. sanguinis to polymethyl methacrylates (PMMA. Fifty specimens were divided into 5 groups (n=10 according to their fabrication method and surface finishing protocol: LP (3 : 1 ratio and laboratory polishing, NF (Nealon technique and finishing, NP (Nealon technique and manual polishing, MF (3 : 1 ratio and manual finishing, and MP (3 : 1 ratio and manual polishing. For each group, five specimens were submitted to bacterial adhesion tests and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two additional specimens were subjected to surface topography analysis by SEM and the remaining three specimens were subjected to surface roughness measurements. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA. The mean bacterial counts were as follows: NF, 19.6±3.05; MP, 5.36±2.08; NP, 4.96±1.93; MF, 7.36±2.45; and LP, 1.56±0.62 (CFU. The mean surface roughness values were as follows: NF, 3.23±0.15; MP, 0.52±0.05; NP, 0.60±0.08; MF, 2.69±0.12; and LP, 0.07±0.02 (μm. A reduction in the surface roughness was observed to be directly related to a decrease in bacterial adhesion. It was verified that the laboratory processing of PMMA might decrease the surface roughness and consequently the adhesion of S. sanguinis to this material.

  1. Bacterial Adhesion and Surface Roughness for Different Clinical Techniques for Acrylic Polymethyl Methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Lucas Costa de Medeiros; da Silva-Neto, João Paulo; Dantas, Talita Souza; Naves, Lucas Zago; das Neves, Flávio Domingues; da Mota, Adérito Soares

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess the effect of different surface finishing and polishing protocols on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion (S. sanguinis) to polymethyl methacrylates (PMMA). Fifty specimens were divided into 5 groups (n = 10) according to their fabrication method and surface finishing protocol: LP (3 : 1 ratio and laboratory polishing), NF (Nealon technique and finishing), NP (Nealon technique and manual polishing), MF (3 : 1 ratio and manual finishing), and MP (3 : 1 ratio and manual polishing). For each group, five specimens were submitted to bacterial adhesion tests and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two additional specimens were subjected to surface topography analysis by SEM and the remaining three specimens were subjected to surface roughness measurements. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA. The mean bacterial counts were as follows: NF, 19.6 ± 3.05; MP, 5.36 ± 2.08; NP, 4.96 ± 1.93; MF, 7.36 ± 2.45; and LP, 1.56 ± 0.62 (CFU). The mean surface roughness values were as follows: NF, 3.23 ± 0.15; MP, 0.52 ± 0.05; NP, 0.60 ± 0.08; MF, 2.69 ± 0.12; and LP, 0.07 ± 0.02 (μm). A reduction in the surface roughness was observed to be directly related to a decrease in bacterial adhesion. It was verified that the laboratory processing of PMMA might decrease the surface roughness and consequently the adhesion of S. sanguinis to this material.

  2. Surface-associated fucoxanthin mediates settlement of bacterial epiphytes on the rockweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M; Rempt, M; Grosser, K; Pohnert, G; Weinberger, F

    2011-04-01

    The chemical defence against microfouling in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus was investigated and an inhibitor of bacterial settlement was isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation of non-polar surface extracts. UV-vis and mass spectrometry were used to identify the compound as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. The metabolite was tested at the natural concentration (in a surface volume based assay) against the settlement of four bacterial strains isolated from F. vesiculosus and 11 strains isolated from co-occurring algae and marine sediment. Surface concentrations between 1.4 and 6 μg cm(-2) resulted in 50% inhibition of four of these isolates, which were studied in more detail using a surface area-based assay, while a fifth isolate proved to be less sensitive. The presence of fucoxanthin on the surface of F. vesiculosus was demonstrated with two different surface extraction methods. Fucoxanthin was detected at concentrations between 0.7 and 9 μg cm(-2) on the algal surface. Fucoxanthin was still present at the algal surface after removal of associated diatoms through mechanical cleaning and germanium dioxide treatment and was thus mainly produced by F. vesiculosus rather than by diatoms. Thus, the photosynthetic pigment fucoxanthin appears to be ecologically relevant as a surface-associated antimicrobial agent, acting against the settlement of bacteria on the surface of the macroalga F. vesiculosus.

  3. Surface Roughness and Dislocation Distribution in Compositionally Graded Relaxed SiGe Buffer Layer with Inserted Strained Si Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2005-03-01

    We report the experimental investigation of surface roughness and dislocation distribution of 1 μm-thick, compositionally graded, relaxed SiGe buffer layer with a final Ge surface content of 30%. Tensile-strained Si layers are inserted at various locations in the graded buffer during SiGe epitaxial growths. Slight reduction in surface roughness from about 10.3 nm to about 7.8 nm by inserting two 20 nm thick tensile-strained Si layers followed by SiGe growths. It turns out that majority of the residual surface roughness is developed during the SiGe growths on top of the topmost strain Si layer. The surface immediately after the growth of tensile strained Si is very flat with about 1.1 nm RMS roughness and without crosshatch morphology. Cross-sectional TEM shows clear signs of increased interaction between dislocation half-loops at the top surface of the strained Si layers. Our observation shows that although thin Si layers under tensile-strain are effective in reducing cross-hatch, they could in the meantime impede dislocation propagation leading to higher threading dislocation density. Considerations for an optimized scheme exploiting the flattening function of tensile-strained layers will be discussed.

  4. Global ocean wind power sensitivity to surface layer stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Scott B.; Zender, Charles S.

    2009-05-01

    Global ocean wind power has recently been assessed (W. T. Liu et al., 2008) using scatterometry-based 10 m winds. We characterize, for the first time, wind power at 80 m (typical wind turbine hub height) above the global ocean surface, and account for the effects of surface layer stability. Accounting for realistic turbine height and atmospheric stability increases mean global ocean wind power by +58% and -4%, respectively. Our best estimate of mean global ocean wind power is 731 W m-2, about 50% greater than the 487 W m-2 based on previous methods. 80 m wind power is 1.2-1.5 times 10 m power equatorward of 30° latitude, between 1.4 and 1.7 times 10 m power in wintertime storm track regions and >6 times 10 m power in stable regimes east of continents. These results are relatively insensitive to methodology as wind power calculated using a fitted Weibull probability density function is within 10% of power calculated from discrete wind speed measurements over most of the global oceans.

  5. Effect of treatment time on characterization and properties of nanocrystalline surface layer in copper induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farzad Kargar; M Laleh; T Shahrabi; A Sabour Rouhaghdam

    2014-08-01

    Nanocrystalline surface layers were synthesized on pure copper by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) at various treatment times. The microstructural features of the surface layers produced by SMAT were systematically characterized by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness and surface roughness measurements were also carried out. It is found that the thickness of the deformed layer increased from 50 to 500 m with increasing treatment time from 10 to 300 min, while the average grain size of the top surface layer decreased from 20 to 7 nm. Hardness of the all SMATed samples decreased with depth. Furthermore, the hardness of the top surface layer of the SMATed samples was at least two times higher than that of the un-treated counterpart. Surface roughness results showed different trend with treatment time. Amounts of PV and a values first sharply increased and then decreased.

  6. Comparison of bacterial cells and amine-functionalized abiotic surfaces as support for Pd nanoparticle synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Corte, Simon; Bechstein, Stefanie; Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing demand for catalytic Pd nanoparticles has motivated the search for sustainable production methods. An innovative approach uses bacterial cells as support material for synthesizing Pd nanoparticles by reduction of Pd(II) with e.g. hydrogen or formate. Nevertheless, drawbacks...... nanoparticles, and that abiotic surfaces could support the Pd particle synthesis as efficiently as bacteria. In this study, we explore the possibility of replacing bacteria with amine-functionalized materials, and we compare different functionalization strategies. Pd nanoparticles formed on the support...... of microbially supported Pd catalysts are the low catalytic activity compared to conventional Pd nanocatalysts and the possible poisoning of the catalyst surface by sulfur originating from bacterial proteins. A recent study showed that amine groups were a key component in surface-supported synthesis of Pd...

  7. Light structures phototroph, bacterial and fungal communities at the soil surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence O Davies

    Full Text Available The upper few millimeters of soil harbour photosynthetic microbial communities that are structurally distinct from those of underlying bulk soil due to the presence of light. Previous studies in arid zones have demonstrated functional importance of these communities in reducing soil erosion, and enhancing carbon and nitrogen fixation. Despite being widely distributed, comparative understanding of the biodiversity of the soil surface and underlying soil is lacking, particularly in temperate zones. We investigated the establishment of soil surface communities on pasture soil in microcosms exposed to light or dark conditions, focusing on changes in phototroph, bacterial and fungal communities at the soil surface (0-3 mm and bulk soil (3-12 mm using ribosomal marker gene analyses. Microbial community structure changed with time and structurally similar phototrophic communities were found at the soil surface and in bulk soil in the light exposed microcosms suggesting that light can influence phototroph community structure even in the underlying bulk soil. 454 pyrosequencing showed a significant selection for diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Nostoc punctiforme and Anabaena spp., in addition to the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The soil surface also harboured distinct heterotrophic bacterial and fungal communities in the presence of light, in particular, the selection for the phylum Firmicutes. However, these light driven changes in bacterial community structure did not extend to the underlying soil suggesting a discrete zone of influence, analogous to the rhizosphere.

  8. INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE DETACHMENT OF DIFFERENTLY STRUCTURED DUST LAYERS FROM SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eberhard Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    A technique is presented for creating surface-adhering dust layers under defined conditions, and characterizing and stressing the layers created. The procedure described is shown to be suitable for the quantitative evaluation of the effects of different parameters such as particle size, porosity and surface roughness etc. on the stability of particle layers.

  9. Characterization of Floating Surface Layers of Lipids and Lipopolymers by Surface-Sensitive Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Peter; Lösche, Mathias

    Nanotechnology and molecular (bio-)engineering are making ever deepening inroads into everybodys daily life. Physicochemical and biotechnological achievements in the design of physiologically active supramolecular assemblies have brought about the quest for their submolecular-level characterization. We employ surface-sensitive scattering techniques for the investigation of planar lipid membranes - floating monolayers on aqueous surfaces - to correlate structural, functional and dynamic aspects of biomembrane models. This chapter surveys recent work on the submolecular structure of floating phospholipid monolayers - where the advent of third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources has driven the development of realistic, submolecular-scale quasi-chemical models - as well as of more complex systems: cation binding to anionic lipid surfaces; conformational changes of lipopolymers undergoing phase transitions; the conformational organization of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositides, as examples of physiologically important lipids; and the adsorption of peptides (neuropeptide Y, NPY) or solvents (dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO) onto phospholipid surface layers.

  10. The Effect of Polyterpenol Thin Film Surfaces on Bacterial Viability and Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanometer scale surface topography of a solid substrate is known to influence the extent of bacterial attachment and their subsequent proliferation to form biofilms. As an extension of our previous work on the development of a novel organic polymer coating for the prevention of growth of medically significant bacteria on three-dimensional solid surfaces, this study examines the effect of surface coating on the adhesion and proliferation tendencies of Staphylococcus aureus and compares to those previously investigated tendencies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on similar coatings. Radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used to coat the surface of the substrate with thin film of terpinen-4-ol, a constituent of tea-tree oil known to inhibit the growth of a broad range of bacteria. The presence of the coating decreased the substrate surface roughness from approximately 2.1 nm to 0.4 nm. Similar to P. aeruginosa, S. aureus presented notably different patterns of attachment in response to the presence of the surface film, where the amount of attachment, extracellular polymeric substance production, and cell proliferation on the coated surface was found to be greatly reduced compared to that obtained on the unmodified surface. This work suggests that the antimicrobial and antifouling coating used in this study could be effectively integrated into medical and other clinically relevant devices to prevent bacterial growth and to minimize bacteria-associated adverse host responses.

  11. Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, A. K.; Hochbaum, A. I.; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

  12. Comparison of Rock Varnish Bacterial Communities with Surrounding Non-Varnished Rock Surfaces: Taxon-Specific Analysis and Morphological Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alfonso; Ahmed, Engy; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Sikorski, Johannes; Overmann, Jörg; Holmström, Sara J M; Brusetti, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    Rock varnish is a thin layer of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides with embedded clay minerals that contain an increased Mn/Fe ratio compared to that of the Earth's crust. Even if the study of rock varnish has important implications in several fields, the composition of epilithic bacterial communities and the distribution of taxa on varnish surfaces are still not wholly described. The aim of this study was (i) to identify the bacterial taxa which show the greatest variation between varnish and non-varnish environments, collected from the same rock, and (ii) to describe the morphology of epilithic communities through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Triplicate samples of rock surfaces with varnish and triplicate samples without varnish were collected from five sites in Matsch Valley (South Tyrol, Italy). The V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Fifty-five ubiquitous taxa have been examined to assess variation between varnish and non-varnish. Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria along with minor taxa such as Solirubrobacterales, Conexibaxter, and Rhodopila showed significant variations of abundance, diversity, or both responding to the ecology (presence/absence of varnish). Other taxa, such as the genus Edaphobacter, showed a more marked spatial variation responding to the sampling site. SEM images showed a multitude of bacterial morphologies and structures involved in the process of attachment and creation of a suitable environment for growth. The features emerging from this analysis suggest that the highly oxidative Fe and Mn-rich varnish environment favors anoxigenic autotrophy and establishment of highly specialized bacteria.

  13. Inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on stainless steel by layer-by-layer deposition and surface-initiated atom-transfer-radical polymerization for combating biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S J; Pehkonen, S O; Ting, Y P; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2009-03-01

    To improve the biocorrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) and to confer the bactericidal function on its surface for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, well-defined inorganic-organic hybrid coatings, consisting of the inner compact titanium oxide multilayers and outer dense poly(vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium) brushes, were successfully developed. Nanostructured titanium oxide multilayer coatings were first built up on the SS substrates via the layer-by-layer sol-gel deposition process. The trichlorosilane coupling agent, containing the alkyl halide atom-transfer-radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, was subsequently immobilized on the titanium oxide coatings for surface-initiated ATRP of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP). The pyridium nitrogen moieties of the covalently immobilized 4VP polymer, or P(4VP), brushes were quaternized with hexyl bromide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium salt on the SS surfaces. The excellent antibacterial efficiency of the grafted polycations, poly(vinyl-N-pyridinium bromide), was revealed by viable cell counts and atomic force microscopy images of the surface. The effectiveness of the hybrid coatings in corrosion protection was verified by the Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements.

  14. Bacterial Diversity of Gut Content in Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and Its Habitat Surface Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fei; TAN Jie; SUN Huiling; YAN Jingping

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the bacterial diversity of gut content of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and its habitat surface sediment in a bottom enhancement area using PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. Bacte-rial diversity evaluation showed that the value of the Shannon-Wiener index of gut content in different intestinal segments of A. ja-ponicus varied between 2.88 and 3.00, lower than that of the surrounding sediment (3.23). Phylogenetic analysis showed that bacte-rial phylotypes in gut content and the surrounding sediment of A. japonicus were closely related to Proteobacteria includingγ-,α-,δ-andε-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicute, and Actinobacteria, of whichγ-proteobacteria were predominant. These results sug-gested that the sea cucumber A. japonicus was capable of feeding selectively, and PCR-DGGE was applicable for characterizing the bacterial community composition in gut content and the surrounding sediment of sea cucumber. Further investigation targeting longer 16S rDNA gene fragments and/or functional genes was recommended for obtaining more information of the diversity and function of bacterial community in the gut content of sea cucumber.

  15. The bacterial flora of the skin surface following routine MAL-PDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryld, Lars Eeik; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy using methylated 5-aminolevulate (MAL-PDT) appears to have an effect on non-neoplastic skin diseases, for example acne vulgaris and rosacea, for which antibiotics are sometimes used, and a possible antibiotic effect of PDT has previously been suggested. It does, however, also cause local immunosuppression and post-treatment barrier defects, which may promote infection. At the same time, PDT-induced therapeutic skin damage is sometimes confused with secondary bacterial infection by non-dermatologists. The possible changes in bacterial flora associated with MAL-PDT were therefore studied in 47 patients undergoing treatment. Skin swabs were taken immediately before applying the MAL and instantly after light irradiation. Bacterial growth was identified in 18 cases. No statistically significant changes were seen, either in the specific species found or the estimated bacterial density on the skin surface. The observations do not support the notion that routine MAL-PDT affects the bacterial flora of the skin in a clinically significant manner. Therefore, the possible antibacterial effect of routine MAL-PDT is probably not the main explanation of its apparent effect on non-neoplastic skin disease.

  16. Bacterial Adhesion and Surface Roughness for Different Clinical Techniques for Acrylic Polymethyl Methacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess the effect of different surface finishing and polishing protocols on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion (S. sanguinis) to polymethyl methacrylates (PMMA). Fifty specimens were divided into 5 groups (n = 10) according to their fabrication method and surface finishing protocol: LP (3 : 1 ratio and laboratory polishing), NF (Nealon technique and finishing), NP (Nealon technique and manual polishing), MF (3 : 1 ratio and manual finishing), and MP (3 : 1 ratio...

  17. Ordering layers of [bmim][PF6] ionic liquid on graphite surfaces: molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maolin, Sha; Fuchun, Zhang; Guozhong, Wu; Haiping, Fang; Chunlei, Wang; Shimou, Chen; Yi, Zhang; Jun, Hu

    2008-04-01

    Microscopic structures of room temperature ionic liquid (IL) [bmim][PF6] on hydrophobic graphite surfaces have been studied in detail by molecular dynamics simulation. It is clearly shown that both the mass and electron densities of the surface adsorbed ionic liquid are oscillatory, and the first peak adjacent to the graphite surface is considerably higher than others, corresponding to a solidlike IL bottom layer of 6 angstroms thick. Three IL layers are indicated between the graphite surface and the inner bulk IL liquid. The individually simulated properties of single-, double-, and triple-IL layers on the graphite surface are very similar to those of the layers between the graphite surface and the bulk liquid, indicating an insignificant effect of vapor-IL interface on the ordered IL layers. The simulation also indicates that the imidazolium ring and butyl tail of the cation (bmim+) of the IL bottom layer lie flat on the graphite surface.

  18. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  19. Immobilization of bacterial S-layer proteins from Caulobacter crescentus on iron oxide-based nanocomposite: Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of zincite-coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda

    Zinc oxide was coated on Fe2O3 nanoparticles using sol-gel spin-coating. Caulobacter crescentus have a crystalline surface layer (S-layer), which consist of one protein or glycoprotein species. The immobilization of bacterial S-layers obtained from C. crescentus on zincite-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide was investigated. The SDS PAGE results of S-layers isolated from C. crescentus showed the weight of 50 KDa. Nanoparticles of the Fe2O3 and zinc oxide were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an average size of 50 nm were successfully prepared by the proper deposition of zinc oxide onto iron oxide nanoparticles surface annealed at 450 °C. The samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  20. Hydrodynamic model of bacterial tumbling near a non-slip surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; Molaei, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    To swim forward, wild type Escherichia coli bacteria rotate their helical flagella CCW to form a bundle; to tumble, one or more flagella rotate CW to initiate flagella unbundling and polymorphic transformation that leads to a significant change in cell orientation in comparison to original swimming direction. These random change of direction increases bacterial dispersion and also is long speculated to be a mechanism for perichtricous bacteria to escape from a surface. Our recent experimental results show that the tumbling frequency is substantially suppressed near a solid surface by 50%, and the bacterium tends to start a new run in the direction parallel to the surface. This suppression occurs at two cell length (including flagella) away from the surface whereby steric hindrance plays less significant role. Here we propose an analytical model based on hydrodynamic interaction between flagella and the solid surface. We utilize Slender Body Theory combined with the image system of the singularities for the Stoke-flow to quantify the flow around the bacterial flagella in the presence of a no-slip surface. The model includes two non-identical rigid helical flagella representing a bundle and single flagellum. We have showed that in the bulk, a repulsive force among flagella initiates the unbundling and consequently tumbling; however, in presence of a solid surface, the force is strongly mitigated that stabilize the bundle and suppress the tumbling. NIH, NSF, GoMRI.

  1. Vertical distribution of bacterial community is associated with the degree of soil organic matter decomposition in the active layer of moist acidic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Min Jin; Jung, Ji Young; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Kim, Mincheol; Ro, Hee-Myong; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2016-11-01

    The increasing temperature in Arctic tundra deepens the active layer, which is the upper layer of permafrost soil that experiences repeated thawing and freezing. The increasing of soil temperature and the deepening of active layer seem to affect soil microbial communities. Therefore, information on soil microbial communities at various soil depths is essential to understand their potential responses to climate change in the active layer soil. We investigated the community structure of soil bacteria in the active layer from moist acidic tundra in Council, Alaska. We also interpreted their relationship with some relevant soil physicochemical characteristics along soil depth with a fine scale (5 cm depth interval). The bacterial community structure was found to change along soil depth. The relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and candidate phylum WPS-2 rapidly decreased with soil depth, while those of Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and candidate AD3 rapidly increased. A structural shift was also found in the soil bacterial communities around 20 cm depth, where two organic (upper Oi and lower Oa) horizons are subdivided. The quality and the decomposition degree of organic matter might have influenced the bacterial community structure. Besides the organic matter quality, the vertical distribution of bacterial communities was also found to be related to soil pH and total phosphorus content. This study showed the vertical change of bacterial community in the active layer with a fine scale resolution and the possible influence of the quality of soil organic matter on shaping bacterial community structure.

  2. Surface Electroelastic Love Waves in Layered System with a Piezoelectric Substrate and Two Isotropic Layers of Any Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danoyan Z.N.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the existence and behaviour of electroelastic Love waves in three-layered system of a piezoelectric substrate of classes 6, 4, 6mm, 4mm and attached to her two isotropic layers (conductor-dielectric, conductor-conductor of any thickness is investigated, depending on the physicomechanical characteristics of layered system and relative thicknesses of layers. The characteristic equation of a required surface wave is investigated in case of a basic soft layer. The research is based on properties of the electromechanical factor of surface wave given in the work [1-5]. Existence of a Love wave of a gap type caused by extremely piezoelectric effect in particular is shown. The structure and behavior of modes of Love waves are investigated. The qualitative diagrams of “dispersive” curves of modes of Love waves are given . The relation between electroelastic Love waves, pure-elastic Love waves, and Bleustein-Gulyaev waves is discussed.

  3. Fabrication of a platform to isolate the influences of surface nanotopography from chemistry on bacterial attachment and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Easton, Christopher D; Crawford, Russell J; McArthur, Sally L

    2015-03-26

    Billions of dollars are spent annually worldwide to combat the adverse effects of bacterial attachment and biofilm formation in industries as varied as maritime, food, and health. While advances in the fabrication of antifouling surfaces have been reported recently, a number of the essential aspects responsible for the formation of biofilms remain unresolved, including the important initial stages of bacterial attachment to a substrate surface. The reduction of bacterial attachment to surfaces is a key concept in the prevention or minimization of biofilm formation. The chemical and physical characteristics of both the substrate and bacteria are important in understanding the attachment process, but substrate modification is likely the most practical route to enable the extent of bacterial attachment taking place to be effectively controlled. The microtopography and chemistry of the surface are known to influence bacterial attachment. The role of surface chemistry versus nanotopography and their interplay, however, remain unclear. Most methods used for imparting nanotopographical patterns onto a surface also induce changes in the surface chemistry and vice versa. In this study, the authors combine colloidal lithography and plasma polymerization to fabricate homogeneous, reproducible, and periodic nanotopographies with a controllable surface chemistry. The attachment of Escherichia coli bacteria onto carboxyl (plasma polymerized acrylic acid, ppAAc) and hydrocarbon (plasma polymerized octadiene, ppOct) rich plasma polymer films on either flat or colloidal array surfaces revealed that the surface chemistry plays a critical role in bacterial attachment, whereas the effect of surface nanotopography on the bacterial attachment appears to be more difficult to define. This platform represents a promising approach to allow a greater understanding of the role that surface chemistry and nanotopography play on bacterial attachment and the subsequent biofouling of the surface.

  4. Rate of evolution of the specific surface area of surface snow layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, Axel; Legagneux, Loïc; Dominé, Florent

    2003-02-15

    The snowpack can impact atmospheric chemistry by exchanging adsorbed or dissolved gases with the atmosphere. Modeling this impact requires the knowledge of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow and its variations with time. We have therefore measured the evolution of the SSA of eight recent surface snow layers in the Arctic and the French Alps, using CH4 adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The SSA of fresh snow layers was found to decrease with time, from initial values in the range 613-1540 cm2/g to values as low as 257 cm2/g after 6 days. This is explained by snow metamorphism, which causes modifications in crystal shapes, here essentially crystal rounding and the disappearance of microstructures. A parametrization of the rate of SSA decrease is proposed. We fit the SSA decrease to an exponential law and find that the time constant alpha(exp) (day(-1)) depends on temperature according to alpha(exp) = 76.6 exp (-1708/7), with Tin kelvin. Our parametrization predicts that the SSA of a snow layer evolving at -40 degrees C will decrease by a factor of 2 after 14 days, while a similar decrease at -1 degrees C will only require 5 days. Wind was found to increase the rate of SSA decrease, but insufficient data did not allow a parametrization of this effect.

  5. Fluid dynamics and noise in bacterial cell-cell and cell-surface scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Drescher, Knut; Cisneros, Luis H; Ganguly, Sujoy; Goldstein, Raymond E; 10.1073/pnas.1019079108

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial processes ranging from gene expression to motility and biofilm formation are constantly challenged by internal and external noise. While the importance of stochastic fluctuations has been appreciated for chemotaxis, it is currently believed that deterministic long-range fluid dynamical effects govern cell-cell and cell-surface scattering - the elementary events that lead to swarming and collective swimming in active suspensions and to the formation of biofilms. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the bacterial flow field generated by individual swimming Escherichia coli both far from and near to a solid surface. These experiments allowed us to examine the relative importance of fluid dynamics and rotational diffusion for bacteria. For cell-cell interactions it is shown that thermal and intrinsic stochasticity drown the effects of long-range fluid dynamics, implying that physical interactions between bacteria are determined by steric collisions and near-field lubrication forces. This dom...

  6. Quantitative characterization of the influence of the nanoscale morphology of nanostructured surfaces on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vikram Singh

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection of implants and prosthetic devices is one of the most common causes of implant failure. The nanostructured surface of biocompatible materials strongly influences the adhesion and proliferation of mammalian cells on solid substrates. The observation of this phenomenon has led to an increased effort to develop new strategies to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, primarily through nanoengineering the topology of the materials used in implantable devices. While several studies have demonstrated the influence of nanoscale surface morphology on prokaryotic cell attachment, none have provided a quantitative understanding of this phenomenon. Using supersonic cluster beam deposition, we produced nanostructured titania thin films with controlled and reproducible nanoscale morphology respectively. We characterized the surface morphology; composition and wettability by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. We studied how protein adsorption is influenced by the physico-chemical surface parameters. Lastly, we characterized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion on nanostructured titania surfaces. Our results show that the increase in surface pore aspect ratio and volume, related to the increase of surface roughness, improves protein adsorption, which in turn downplays bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. As roughness increases up to about 20 nm, bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are enhanced; the further increase of roughness causes a significant decrease of bacterial adhesion and inhibits biofilm formation. We interpret the observed trend in bacterial adhesion as the combined effect of passivation and flattening effects induced by morphology-dependent protein adsorption. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces are significantly influenced by nanoscale morphological

  7. Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae and Related Proteins in Other Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Gunnar; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Areschoug, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is the major cause of invasive bacterial disease, including meningitis, in the neonatal period. Although prophylactic measures have contributed to a substantial reduction in the number of infections, development of a vaccine remains an important goal. While much work in this field has focused on the S. agalactiae polysaccharide capsule, which is an important virulence factor that elicits protective immunity, surface proteins have received incre...

  8. Seasonal variability in bacterial and fungal diversity of the near-surface atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Robert M; Clements, Nicholas; Emerson, Joanne B; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Hannigan, Michael P; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's lower atmosphere where they often represent an important component of atmospheric aerosols with the potential to impact human health and atmospheric dynamics. However, the diversity, composition, and spatiotemporal dynamics of these airborne microbes remain poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes across two aerosol size fractions at urban and rural sites in the Colorado Front Range over a 14-month period. Coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter samples were collected at weekly intervals with both bacterial and fungal diversity assessed via high-throughput sequencing. The diversity and composition of the airborne communities varied across the sites, between the two size fractions, and over time. Bacteria were the dominant type of bioaerosol in the collected air samples, while fungi and plants (pollen) made up the remainder, with the relative abundances of fungi peaking during the spring and summer months. As bacteria made up the majority of bioaerosol particles, we analyzed the bacterial communities in greater detail using a bacterial-specific 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach. Overall, bacterial taxonomic richness and the relative abundances of specific bacterial taxa exhibited significant patterns of seasonality. Likewise, airborne bacterial communities varied significantly between sites and across aerosol size fractions. Source-tracking analyses indicate that soils and leaves represented important sources of bacteria to the near-surface atmosphere across all locations with cow fecal bacteria also representing an important source of bioaerosols at the more rural sites during early fall and early spring. Together, these data suggest that a complex set of environmental factors, including changes in atmospheric conditions and shifts in the relative importance of available microbial sources, act to control the composition of microbial bioaerosols in rural and

  9. Methods of improvement in hardness of composite surface layer on cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    J. Szajnar; P. Wróbel; T. Wróbel

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in founding process a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy and next its remelting with use of welding technology TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generally applied welding te...

  10. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchmanj, David L; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L; Murray, Alison E

    2012-10-23

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation.

  11. Interactions of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides with Gold Nanorod Surfaces Investigated by Refractometric Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadeer, Nardine S; Fülöp, Gergő; Chen, Si; Käll, Mikael; Murphy, Catherine J

    2015-11-11

    The interface between nanoparticles and bacterial surfaces is of great interest for applications in nanomedicine and food safety. Here, we demonstrate that interactions between gold nanorods and bacterial surface molecules are governed by the nanoparticle surface coating. Polymer-coated gold nanorod substrates are exposed to lipopolysaccharides extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, and attachment is monitored using localized surface plasmon resonance refractometric sensing. The number of lipopolysaccharide molecules attached per nanorod is calculated from the shift in the plasmon maximum, which results from the change in refractive index after analyte binding. Colloidal gold nanorods in water are also incubated with lipopolysaccharides to demonstrate the effect of lipopolysaccharide concentration on plasmon shift, ζ-potential, and association constant. Both gold nanorod surface charge and surface chemistry affect gold nanorod-lipopolysaccharide interactions. In general, anionic lipopolysaccharides was found to attach more effectively to cationic gold nanorods than to neutral or anionic gold nanorods. Some variation in lipopolysaccharide attachment is also observed between the three strains studied, demonstrating the potential complexity of bacteria-nanoparticle interactions.

  12. Microstructure of Ni / WC Surface Composite Layer on Gray Iron Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guirong; SONG Wenming; MA Ying; LU Jinjun; HAO Yuan; LI Yuandong; WANG Haitang

    2011-01-01

    The surface infiltrated composite (Ni/WC) layers on gray iron substrate were fabricated through a vacuum infiltration casting technique (VICT) using Ni-based composite powder with different WC particles content as raw materials.The microstructures of surface infiltrated composite layer,the interface structures between surface composite layer and the substrate,the changes of macro-hardness with the increasing of WC content and the micro-hardness distribution are investigated.The infiltrated composite layer includes a surface composite layer and a transition layer,and the thickness of the transition layer decreases with the increasing content of WC.The thickness of transition layer with 20%WC content in the surface infiltrated composite layer was 170 μrn which was the thickest for all transition layers with different WC content.The surface composite layer was mainly composed of WC,W2C,FeB and NiB,along with Ni-Cr-Fe,Ni (Cr) solid solution,Ni (Si) solid solution and Ni (Fe) solid solution.The transition layer was composed of Ni (Cr) solid solution,Ni (Fe) solid solution,Ni (Si) solid solution,Fe (Ni) solid solution and eutectic.The surface macrohardness and micro-hardness of the infiltrated layer had been evaluated.The macro-hardness of the surface composite layer decreases with the WC content increasing,and the average macro-hardness is HRC60.The distribution of micro-hardness presents gradient change.The average micro-hardness of the infiltrated layer is about HV 1000.

  13. Initial Bacterial Adhesion on Different Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Implant Surfaces in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprini Karygianni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2 h: 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a, B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO2 coating (B2a, B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO2 coatings (B2b. Bovine enamel slabs (BES served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM; DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22% were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80% were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential.

  14. Cell surface hydrophobicity is conveyed by S-layer proteins - A study in recombinant lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, H.C. van der; Belt-Gritter, B. van de; Pouwels, P.H.; Martinez, B.; Busscher, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cell surface hydrophobicity is one of the most important factors controlling adhesion of microorganisms to surfaces. In this paper, cell surface properties of lactobacilli and recombinant lactobacilli with and without a surface layer protein (SLP) associated with cell surface hydrophobicity were det

  15. Accurate Sound Velocity Measurement in Ocean Near-Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarralde, D.; Xu, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate sound velocity measurement is essential in oceanography because sound is the only wave that can propagate in sea water. Due to its measuring difficulties, sound velocity is often not measured directly but instead calculated from water temperature, salinity, and depth, which are much easier to obtain. This research develops a new method to directly measure the sound velocity in the ocean's near-surface layer using multi-channel seismic (MCS) hydrophones. This system consists of a device to make a sound pulse and a long cable with hundreds of hydrophones to record the sound. The distance between the source and each receiver is the offset. The time it takes the pulse to arrive to each receiver is the travel time.The errors of measuring offset and travel time will affect the accuracy of sound velocity if we calculated with just one offset and one travel time. However, by analyzing the direct arrival signal from hundreds of receivers, the velocity can be determined as the slope of a straight line in the travel time-offset graph. The errors in distance and time measurement result in only an up or down shift of the line and do not affect the slope. This research uses MCS data of survey MGL1408 obtained from the Marine Geoscience Data System and processed with Seismic Unix. The sound velocity can be directly measured to an accuracy of less than 1m/s. The included graph shows the directly measured velocity verses the calculated velocity along 100km across the Mid-Atlantic continental margin. The directly measured velocity shows a good coherence to the velocity computed from temperature and salinity. In addition, the fine variations in the sound velocity can be observed, which is hardly seen from the calculated velocity. Using this methodology, both large area acquisition and fine resolution can be achieved. This directly measured sound velocity will be a new and powerful tool in oceanography.

  16. Bacterial community dynamics in surface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A M; Ma, J; Murinda, Shelton; Reddy, G B

    2016-02-15

    Constructed wetlands are generally used for the removal of waste from contaminated water. In the swine production system, wastes are traditionally flushed into an anaerobic lagoon which is then sprayed on agricultural fields. However, continuous spraying of lagoon wastewater on fields can lead to high N and P accumulations in soil or lead to runoff which may contaminate surface or ground water with pathogens and nutrients. In this study, continuous marsh constructed wetland was used for the removal of contaminants from swine waste. Using pyrosequencing, we assessed bacterial composition within the wetland using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) which showed that bacterial composition from manure influent and lagoon water were significantly different (P=0.001) from the storage pond to the final effluent. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that different bacterial populations were significantly impacted by ammonium--NH4 (P=0.035), phosphate--PO4(3-) (P=0.010), chemical oxygen demand--COD (P=0.0165), total solids--TS (P=0.030), and dissolved solids--DS (P=0.030) removal, with 54% of the removal rate explained by NH4+PO4(3-) according to a partial CCA. Our results showed that different bacterial groups were responsible for the composition of different wetland nutrients and decomposition process. This may be the major reason why most wetlands are very efficient in waste decomposition.

  17. Identification of Bacterial Surface Antigens by Screening Peptide Phage Libraries Using Whole Bacteria Cell-Purified Antisera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun-Fei; Zhao, Dun; Yu, Xing-Long; Hu, Yu-Li; Li, Run-Cheng; Ge, Meng; Xu, Tian-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Liao, Hua-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial surface proteins can be good vaccine candidates. In the present study, we used polyclonal antibodies purified with intact Erysipelothrix rhusiopthiae to screen phage-displayed random dodecapeptide and loop-constrained heptapeptide libraries, which led to the identification of mimotopes. Homology search of the mimotope sequences against E. rhusiopthiae-encoded ORF sequences revealed 14 new antigens that may localize on the surface of E. rhusiopthiae. When these putative surface proteins were used to immunize mice, 9/11 antigens induced protective immunity. Thus, we have demonstrated that a combination of using the whole bacterial cells to purify antibodies and using the phage-displayed peptide libraries to determine the antigen specificities of the antibodies can lead to the discovery of novel bacterial surface antigens. This can be a general approach for identifying surface antigens for other bacterial species. PMID:28184219

  18. Surface physicochemistry and ionic strength affects eDNA's role in bacterial adhesion to abiotic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regina, Viduthalai R.; Lokanathan, Arcot R.; Modrzynski, Jakub Jan;

    2014-01-01

    DNA-mediated adhesion depends on the physicochemical properties of the surface and surrounding liquid. We investigated eDNA alteration of cell surface hydrophobicity and zeta potential, and subsequently quantified the effect of eDNA on the adhesion of Staphylococcus xylosus to glass surfaces functionalised...... ionic strengths. No effect was seen on glass surfaces and carboxyl-functionalised surfaces at high ionic strength, and a reverse effect occurred on amine-functionalised surfaces at low ionic strength. However, eDNA promoted adhesion of cells to hydrophobic surfaces irrespective of the ionic strength...... with different chemistries resulting in variable hydrophobicity and charge. Cell adhesion experiments were carried out at three different ionic strengths. Removal of eDNA from S. xylosus cells by DNase treatment did not alter the zeta potential, but rendered the cells more hydrophilic. DNase treatment impaired...

  19. DLC coatings for UHMWPE: relationship between bacterial adherence and surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, G; Terriza, A; Ortiz-Pérez, A; Molina-Manso, D; Mahillo, I; Yubero, F; Puértolas, J A; Manrubia-Cobo, M; Gómez Barrena, E; Esteban, J

    2012-10-01

    Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopedic surgery. This work presents a thorough study of several plasma-based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond-like carbon (DLC), fluorine-doped DLC (F-DLC), and a high-fluorine-content-carbon-fluor polymer (CF(X)). The coatings were obtained by a radio-frequency plasma-assisted deposition on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples and physicochemical properties of the coated surfaces were correlated with their antibacterial performance against collection and clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. The fluorine content and the relative amount of C-C and C-F bonds were controlled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrophobicity and surface tension by contact angle measurements. Surface roughness was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy. Additional nanoidentation studies were performed for DLC and F-DLC coatings. Unpaired t test and regression linear models evaluated the adherence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis on raw and coated UHMWPE samples. Comparing with UHMWPE, DLC/UHMWPE was the least adherent surface with independence of the bacterial species, finding significant reductions (p ≤ 0.001) for nine staphylococci strains. Bacterial adherence was also significantly reduced in F-DLC/ UHMWPE and CFx/UHMWPE for six strains.

  20. Visualization of sialic acid produced on bacterial cell surfaces by lectin staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Hitomi; Toda, Munetoyo; Mine, Toshiki; Nakada, Hiroshi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Oligosaccharides containing N-acetylneuraminic acid on the cell surface of some pathogenic bacteria are important for host-microbe interactions. N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacterial pathogens. For example, cell surface sialyloligosaccharide moieties of the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae are involved in virulence and adhesion to host cells. In this study, we have established a method of visualizing Neu5Ac linked to a glycoconjugate on the bacterial cell surface based on lectin staining. Photobacterium damselae strain JT0160, known to produce a-2,6-sialyltransferase, was revealed to possess Neu5Ac by HPLC. Using the strain, a strong Sambucus sieboldiana lectin-binding signal was detected. The bacteria producing α-2,6-sialyltransferases could be divided into two groups: those with a lot of α-2,6-linked Neu5Ac on the cell surface and those with a little. In the present study, we developed a useful method for evaluating the relationship between Neu5Ac expression on the cell surface and the degree of virulence of marine bacteria.

  1. Local scaling characteristics of Antarctic surface layer turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, several studies have validated Nieuwstadt's local scaling hypothesis by utilizing turbulence observations from the mid-latitude, nocturnal stable boundary layers. In this work, we probe into the local scaling characteristics of polar, long-lived stable boundary layers by analyzing turbulence data from the South Pole region of the Antarctic Plateau.

  2. Surface tension-driven convection patterns in two liquid layers

    CERN Document Server

    Juel, A; McCormick, W D; Swift, J B; Swinney, H L; Juel, Anne; Burgess, John M.; Swinney, Harry L.

    1999-01-01

    Two superposed liquid layers display a variety of convective phenomena that are inaccessible in the traditional system where the upper layer is a gas. We consider several pairs of immiscible liquids. Once the liquids have been selected, the applied temperature difference and the depths of the layers are the only independent control parameters. Using a perfluorinated hydrocarbon and silicone oil system, we have made the first experimental observation of convection with the top plate hotter than the lower plate. Since the system is stably stratified, this convective flow is solely due to thermocapillary forces. We also have found oscillatory convection at onset in an acetonitrile and n-hexane system heated from below.

  3. Investigation of the Surface Properties of Titanium Biomaterial with Oxide Layer of Rutile Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Nan; Chen Yuanru; Xiao Jing; Xue Zhennan; Liu Xianghuai

    1994-01-01

    Structural characteristics of titanium oxide layer on titanium matrix were investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy(AES) and X-ray diffraction, It has been identified that the titanium oxide layers have rutile structure. The mechanical properties of its surface were ineasured by microhardness test, pin-on-disc wear experiment and scratch adhesion test. The blood-compatibility of the titanium oxide layers of different thickness was studied by blood clotting time measurement. It is shown that as the thickness of the titanium oxide layers increases, the surface mechanical properties and bloodcompatibility of these layers are obviously improved.

  4. Adhesion of different bacterial strains to low-temperature plasma treated biomedical PVC catheter surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi Rad, A; Ayhan, H; Kisa, U; Pişkin, E

    1998-01-01

    In this study, firstly five different bacteria (i.e. Coagulase positive and negative staphylococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) with their different strains were isolated and used. The contact angle, surface free energy, p-xylene adhesion, and zeta potential of these bacteria were in the range of 43-69 deg, 45.4-61.8 erg cm(-2), 2.3-80.3%, and from -650.2 to + 17.5 mV, respectively. Most of the bacteria were negatively charged. Attachment of these bacteria to PVC catheter and its DMAEMA- and AAc-plasma treated forms were investigated. Bacterial attachment to the hydrophobic PVC catheter was high. Both plasma treatments caused significant drops in bacterial attachment in most of the cases. The effects of AAc-plasma treatment was more significant.

  5. Spatially controlled bacterial adhesion using surface-patterned poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsko, Peter; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Libera, Matthew

    2009-02-01

    We constructed surface-patterned hydrogels using low-energy focused electron beams to locally crosslink poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) thin films on silanized glass substrates. Derived from electron-beam lithography, this technique was used to create patterned hydrogels with well-defined spatial positions and degrees of swelling. We found that cells of the bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis adhered to and grew on the silanized glass substrates. These cells did not, however, adhere to surfaces covered by high-swelling lightly crosslinked PEG hydrogels. This finding is consistent with the cell-repulsiveness generally attributed to PEGylated surfaces. In contrast, S. epidermidis cells did adhere to surfaces covered by low-swelling highly crosslinked hydrogels. By creating precise patterns of repulsive hydrogels combined with adhesive hydrogels or with exposed glass substrate, we were able to spatially control the adhesion of S. epidermidis. Significantly, adhesive areas small enough to trap single bacterial cells could be fabricated. The results suggest that the lateral confinement imposed by cell-repulsive hydrogels hindered the cell proliferation and development into larger bacterial colonies.

  6. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Pedro R; Roll, Katharina; Bergauer, Kristin; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the diversity and community structure of dominant archaeal and bacterial communities associating with the mucus of three common reef-building coral species (Porites astreoides, Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella annularis) over different spatial scales on a Caribbean fringing reef. Sampling locations included three reef sites, three reef patches within each site and two depths. Reference sediment samples and ambient water were also taken for each of the 18 sampling locations resulting in a total of 239 samples. While only 41% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) characterized by T-RFLP were shared between mucus and the ambient water or sediment, for archaeal OTUs this percentage was 2-fold higher (78%). About half of the mucus-associated OTUs (44% and 58% of bacterial and archaeal OTUs, respectively) were shared between the three coral species. Our multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, PERMANOVA and CCA) showed that while the bacterial community composition was determined by habitat (mucus, sediment or seawater), host coral species, location and spatial distance, the archaeal community composition was solely determined by the habitat. This study highlights that mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities differ in their degree of community turnover over reefs and in their host-specificity.

  7. SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT AND EARLY BIOFILM FORMATION: SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three common finishing treatments of stainless steel that are used for equipment during poultry processing were tested for resistance to bacterial contamination. Methods were developed to measure attached bacteria and to identify factors that make surface finishes susceptible or ...

  8. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  9. EFFECT OF ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH ON SURFACE LAYER DESTRUCTION IN INSULATION CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.G. Gontar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of theoretical and experimental studies of surface layer destruction in electrical insulation under lightning surge pulses are given, their impact on the insulation construction durability shown. Causes of water treeing in the surface layers of polymer insulation are analyzed.

  10. Metallurgical investigations of dry sliding surface layer in phosphorous iron/steel friction pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Surface layer behaviors of composition concentration and micro-hardness were inves-tigated on phosphorous cast irons after dry sliding. The experimental results indicate that thehardness and chemical composition unevenly distribute in the surface layer. The sliding conditionand microstructure of the pin specimen have greatly effects on the distributions.

  11. Solute leaching in a sandy soil with a water-repellent surface layer: a simulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de G.H.; Vries, de P.

    1996-01-01

    Many sandy soils in the Netherlands have a water-repellent surface layer covering a wettable soil with a shallow groundwater table. Fingers form in the water-repellent surface layer and rapidly transport water and solutes to the wettable soil in which the streamlines diverge. Although several field

  12. Analysis of Laser Surface Hardened Layers of Automobile Engine Cylinder Liner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-bo; YU Gang; GUO Jian; SHANG Quan-yi; ZHANG Zhen-guo; GU Yi-jie

    2007-01-01

    Gray cast iron that is used for automobile engine cylinder liners was laser surface hardened using Nd∶YAG quasi-continuous and CO2 continuous wave laser, respectively. The macromorphology and microstructure of the laser surface hardened layers were investigated using an optical microscope. Geometric dimensions including depth and width and microhardness distribution of the hardened layers were also examined in order to evaluate the quality of the hardened layers.

  13. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. S.; Sun, S. L.; Cheng, Y. L.; Chen, G. S.; Chin, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO4. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  14. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.S., E-mail: jsfang@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Sun, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi-Nan University, Nan-Tou 54561, Taiwan (China); Chen, G.S.; Chin, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO{sub 4}. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  15. Layer-by-Layer Method for the Synthesis and Growth of Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks (SURMOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shekhah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A layer-by-layer method has been developed for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs and their deposition on functionalized organic surfaces. The approach is based on the sequential immersion of functionalized organic surfaces into solutions of the building blocks of the MOF, i.e., the organic ligand and the inorganic unit. The synthesis and growth of different types of MOFs on substrates with different functionalization, like COOH, OH and pyridine terminated surfaces, were studied and characterized with different surface characterization techniques. A controlled and highly oriented growth of very homogenous films was obtained using this method. The layer-by-layer method offered also the possibility to study the kinetics of film formation in more detail using surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, this method demonstrates the potential to synthesize new classes of MOFs not accessible by conventional methods. Finally, the controlled growth of MOF thin films is important for many applications like chemical sensors, membranes and related electrodes.

  16. Architects at the bacterial surface - sortases and the assembly of pili with isopeptide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Budzik, Jonathan M; Oh, So-Young; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-03-01

    The cell wall envelope of Gram-positive bacteria can be thought of as a surface organelle for the assembly of macromolecular structures that enable the unique lifestyle of each microorganism. Sortases - enzymes that cleave the sorting signals of secreted proteins to form isopeptide (amide) bonds between the secreted proteins and peptidoglycan or polypeptides - function as the principal architects of the bacterial surface. Acting alone or with other sortase enzymes, sortase construction leads to the anchoring of surface proteins at specific sites in the envelope or to the assembly of pili, which are fibrous structures formed from many protein subunits. The catalysis of intermolecular isopeptide bonds between pilin subunits is intertwined with the assembly of intramolecular isopeptide bonds within pilin subunits. Together, these isopeptide bonds endow these sortase products with adhesive properties and resistance to host proteases.

  17. Titanium Surface Priming with Phase-Transited Lysozyme to Establish a Silver Nanoparticle-Loaded Chitosan/Hyaluronic Acid Antibacterial Multilayer via Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhong

    Full Text Available The formation of biofilm around implants, which is induced by immediate bacterial colonization after installation, is the primary cause of post-operation infection. Initial surface modification is usually required to incorporate antibacterial agents on titanium (Ti surfaces to inhibit biofilm formation. However, simple and effective priming methods are still lacking for the development of an initial functional layer as a base for subsequent coatings on titanium surfaces. The purpose of our work was to establish a novel initial layer on Ti surfaces using phase-transited lysozyme (PTL, on which multilayer coatings can incorporate silver nanoparticles (AgNP using chitosan (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA via a layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly technique.In this study, the surfaces of Ti substrates were primed by dipping into a mixture of lysozyme and tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP to obtain PTL-functionalized Ti substrates. The subsequent alternating coatings of HA and chitosan loaded with AgNP onto the precursor layer of PTL were carried out via LbL self-assembly to construct multilayer coatings on Ti substrates.The results of SEM and XPS indicated that the necklace-like PTL and self-assembled multilayer were successfully immobilized on the Ti substrates. The multilayer coatings loaded with AgNP can kill planktonic and adherent bacteria to 100% during the first 4 days. The antibacterial efficacy of the samples against planktonic and adherent bacteria achieved 65%-90% after 14 days. The sustained release of Ag over 14 days can prevent bacterial invasion until mucosa healing. Although the AgNP-containing structure showed some cytotoxicity, the toxicity can be reduced by controlling the Ag release rate and concentration.The PTL priming method provides a promising strategy for fabricating long-term antibacterial multilayer coatings on titanium surfaces via the LbL self-assembly technique, which is effective in preventing implant-associated infections

  18. Rough SERS substrate based on gold coated porous silicon layer prepared on the silicon backside surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, H.; Haji, L.; Moadhen, A.

    2017-04-01

    We report in this paper a novel method to elaborate rough Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate. A single layer of porous silicon was formed on the silicon backside surface. Morphological characteristics of the porous silicon layer before and after gold deposition were influenced by the rough character (gold size). The reflectance measurements showed a dependence of the gold nano-grains size on the surface nature, through the Localized Surface Plasmon (LSP) band properties. SERS signal of Rhodamine 6G used as a model analyte, adsorbed on the rough porous silicon layer revealed a marked enhancement of its vibrational modes intensities.

  19. Effect of Surface Layer on Electromechanical Stability of Tweezers and Cantilevers Fabricated from Conductive Cylindrical Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keivani, Maryam; Koochi, Ali; Sedighi, Hamid M.; Abadyan, Mohamadreza; Farrokhabadi, Amin; Shahedin, Abed Moheb

    2016-12-01

    Herein, the impact of surface layer on the stability of nanoscale tweezers and cantilevers fabricated from nanowires with cylindrical cross section is studied. A modified continuum based on the Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is applied for incorporating the presence of surface layer. Considering the cylindrical geometry of the nanowire, the presence of the Coulomb attraction and dispersion forces are incorporated in the derived formulations. Three different approaches, i.e. numerical differential quadrature method (DQM), an approximated homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and developing lumped parameter model (LPM) have been employed to solve the governing equations. The impact of surface layer on the instability of the system is demonstrated.

  20. Evaluation of Mercaptobenzothiazole Anticorrosive Layer on Cu Surface by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hideaki; Sugiura, Osamu; Matsumura, Yoshiyuki; Kinoshita, Masaharu

    2007-05-01

    Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) anticorrosive layer on copper surface prepared in MBT solutions was analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The results showed that MBT anticorrosive layer was formed on Cu2O layer in the MBT solution at temperatures higher than 50 °C. Additionally, it was confirmed that MBT anticorrosive layer was formed in the MBT solution at room temperature by adding about 20 wt % acetone to the solution. From polishing experiments of MBT anticorrosive layer and benzotriazole (BTA) layer, it was revealed that MBT anticorrosive layer was physically stronger than BTA layer. It is considered that dishing amount in Cu chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) can be reduced by using MBT. However, MBT anticorrosive layer was not formed in the MBT solution including Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) suggesting that slurry should be composed without H2O2 in order to use MBT for Cu CMP.

  1. Theoretical Analysis of Interference Nanolithography of Surface Plasmon Polaritons without a Match Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-quan; LIANG Hui-Min; SHI Sha; DU Jing-Lei

    2009-01-01

    Interference nanolithography techniques based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPP) are hardly ever achieved by experiments at present.One key reason is that suitable liquid materials are difficult to find as the match layer connects the metal film and the resist.We redesign a Kretschmann-Raether structure for interference lithography.A polymer layer is coated under the metal film,and an air layer is placed between the polymer layer and the resist layer.This design not only avoids the above-mentioned question of the match layer,but also can form a soft contact between the polymer layer and the resist layer and can protect the exposure pattern.Simulation results confirm that a device with an appropriately thick polymer layer can form high intensity and contrast interference fringes with a critical dimension of about λ/7 in the resist.In addition,the fabrication of the device is very easy.

  2. Surface contact stimulates the just-in-time deployment of bacterial adhesins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanglai; Brown, Pamela J B; Tang, Jay X; Xu, Jing; Quardokus, Ellen M; Fuqua, Clay; Brun, Yves V

    2012-01-01

    The attachment of bacteria to surfaces provides advantages such as increasing nutrient access and resistance to environmental stress. Attachment begins with a reversible phase, often mediated by surface structures such as flagella and pili, followed by a transition to irreversible attachment, typically mediated by polysaccharides. Here we show that the interplay between pili and flagellum rotation stimulates the rapid transition between reversible and polysaccharide-mediated irreversible attachment. We found that reversible attachment of Caulobacter crescentus cells is mediated by motile cells bearing pili and that their contact with a surface results in the rapid pili-dependent arrest of flagellum rotation and concurrent stimulation of polar holdfast adhesive polysaccharide. Similar stimulation of polar adhesin production by surface contact occurs in Asticcacaulis biprosthecum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Therefore, single bacterial cells respond to their initial contact with surfaces by triggering just-in-time adhesin production. This mechanism restricts stable attachment to intimate surface interactions, thereby maximizing surface attachment, discouraging non-productive self-adherence, and preventing curing of the adhesive.

  3. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa chemotaxis methyltransferase CheR1 impacts on bacterial surface sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schmidt

    Full Text Available The characterization of factors contributing to the formation and development of surface-associated bacterial communities known as biofilms has become an area of intense interest since biofilms have a major impact on human health, the environment and industry. Various studies have demonstrated that motility, including swimming, swarming and twitching, seems to play an important role in the surface colonization and establishment of structured biofilms. Thereby, the impact of chemotaxis on biofilm formation has been less intensively studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a very complex chemosensory system with two Che systems implicated in flagella-mediated motility. In this study, we demonstrate that the chemotaxis protein CheR1 is a methyltransferase that binds S-adenosylmethionine and transfers a methyl group from this methyl donor to the chemoreceptor PctA, an activity which can be stimulated by the attractant serine but not by glutamine. We furthermore demonstrate that CheR1 does not only play a role in flagella-mediated chemotaxis but that its activity is essential for the formation and maintenance of bacterial biofilm structures. We propose a model in which motility and chemotaxis impact on initial attachment processes, dispersion and reattachment and increase the efficiency and frequency of surface sampling in P. aeruginosa.

  4. Expression, secretion and antigenic variation of bacterial S-layer proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Pouwels, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The function of the S-layer, a regularly arranged structure on the outside of numerous bacteria, appears to be different for bacteria living in different environments. Almost no similarity exists between the primary sequences of S-proteins, although their amino acid composition is comparable. S-prot

  5. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Yun, Kyusik

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml-1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml-1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml-1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside.

  6. Surface growth of a motile bacterial population resembles growth in a chemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Daniel A; Mayo, Avraham; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2012-12-07

    The growth behavior in well-mixed bacterial cultures is relatively well understood. However, bacteria often grow in heterogeneous conditions on surfaces where their growth is dependent on spatial position, especially in the case of motile populations. For such populations, the relation between growth, motility and spatial position is unclear. We developed a microscope-based assay for quantifying in situ growth and gene expression in space and time, and we observe these parameters in populations of Escherichia coli swimming in galactose soft agar plates. We find that the bacterial density and the shape of the motile population, after an initial transient, are constant in time. By considering not only the advancing population but also the fraction that lags behind, we propose a growth model that relates spatial distribution, motility and growth rate. This model, that is similar to bacterial growth in a chemostat predicts that the fraction of the population lagging behind is inversely proportional to the velocity of the motile population. We test this prediction by modulating motility using inducible expression of the flagellar sigma factor FliA. Finally, we observe that bacteria in the chemotactic ring express higher relative levels of the chemotaxis and galactose metabolism genes fliC, fliL and galE than those that stay behind in the center of the plate.

  7. Turbulent boundary layer on perforated surfaces with vector injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroshenko, V. M.; Zaichik, L. I.; Klimov, A. A.; Ianovskii, L. S.; Kondratev, V. I.

    1980-10-01

    The paper presents an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on perforated plates with uniform vector injection at various angles to gas flow. It was shown that with strong injection at angles oriented in the flow direction the intensity of turbulent pulsation is decreased, while injection at angles in the opposite direction increase the intensity. A relationship was established between the critical parameters of the boundary layer injection angles; it was concluded that the asymptotic theory of Kutateladze and Leontiev can be used for determining the coefficient of friction of vector injection.

  8. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF FREE-SURFACE FLOWS WITH BOTTOM AND SURFACE-LAYER PRESSURE TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kun; JIN Sheng; LIU Gang

    2009-01-01

    A new non-hydrostatic numerical model with the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on structured grids was constructed and discussed. The algorithm is based upon a staggered finite difference Crank-Nicholson scheme on a Cartesian grid. The eddy viscosity coefficient was calculated by the efficient k-ε turbulence model. A new surface-layer non-hydrostatic treatment and a local cell bottom treatment were introduced so that the three-dimensional model is fully non-hydrostatic and is free of any hydrostatic assumption. The developed model is second-order accuracy in both time and space when semi-implicit coefficient is set to 0.5. The validity of the present solution algorithm was demonstrated from its application to the three-dimension channel flow and the wave propagation over a submerged bar problems.

  9. Electrical Double Layer and Charge Regulation for a Homotattic Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmud; House

    1997-03-15

    The spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential near a charge-regulated homotattic surface containing zones with altering ionization ability is studied in the framework of the Debye approximation. In contrast to the constant-charge case traditionally discussed in the literature, charge regulation causes inhomogeneity of the surface charge distribution within each zone at the surface. Possible methods of solution of the charge regulation problem are outlined, and the results of a model calculation are reported.

  10. Surface structure of thin pseudomorphous GeSi layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, A. I.; Timofeev, V. F.; Pchelyakov, O. P.

    2015-11-01

    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was used to study the evolution of thin GexSi1-x film surface superstructures s in the course of molecular beam epitaxy. The (2 × N) superstructure of the epitaxial film surface at periodicity N from 14 to 8, the latter being characteristic of pure germanium at the Si(1 0 0) surface. The epitaxial film thickness that is required for the formation of the (2 × 8) superstructure depends on the deposition temperature and germanium content in the solid solution. The germanium segregation on the growing film surface is shown to be responsible for the observed superstructural changes.

  11. A model of the planetary boundary layer over a snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstam, I.; Melendez, R.

    1979-01-01

    A model of the planetary boundary layer over a snow surface has been developed. It contains the vertical heat exchange processes due to radiation, conduction, and atmospheric turbulence. Parametrization of the boundary layer is based on similarity functions developed by Hoffert and Sud (1976), which involve a dimensionless variable, dependent on boundary-layer height and a localized Monin-Obukhov length. The model also contains the atmospheric surface layer and the snowpack itself, where snowmelt and snow evaporation are calculated. The results indicate a strong dependence of surface temperatures, especially at night, on the bursts of turbulence which result from the frictional damping of surface-layer winds during periods of high stability, as described by Businger (1973). The model also shows the cooling and drying effect of the snow on the atmosphere, which may be the mechanism for air mass transformation in sub-Arctic regions.

  12. Thermal Stability of Surface Layer Microstructures of Commercially Pure Titanium Treated by High Energy Shot Peening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-juan; CHEN Chun-huan; REN Rui-ming

    2004-01-01

    Commercially pure titanium was treated by high energy shot peening, and annealed at a series of temperatures. The surface layers are characterized by means of scan electronic microscope, X-Ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscope and micro-hardness testing machine. The results showed that microhardness of surface layers decreases with anneal temperature, the tendency of microhardness is similar to unannealed one, in other words, the more close to the surface, the more rapidly the hardness decreases, after reaches the depth of 50 μm, the decrease becomes steadily. But the sub-surface microhardness decreased suddenly over 500 ℃, From 550 ℃ to 650 ℃, the microhardness of surface layers almost unchanged.Observing by TEM and SEM, the grain sizes of pure titanium surface layers have increased below 500 ℃; Deformation twins begin disappearing obviously at 550 ℃; The nano-scaled grains within about 10 micrometers from surface existed even at 550℃.Surface nanocrystallization is well known as one of important methods to improve surface properties. The thermal stability of nanocrystalline microstructures was related to their preparation and application. The commercial pure Ti thermal stability of nanocrystalline and deformed microstructures induced by high-energy-shot-peening (HESP) technique was investigated. The nanostructured surface and deformed sub-surface layers of specimens were prepared through HESP treatment. The thermal stability was characterized through XRD analyses of surface layers, SEM and TEM microstructure observation and microhardness measurement of specimens annealed in different temperature in the air after HESP treatments. The results showed that after HESP treatment, the microhardness of surface layers increased with treatment time, especially in the rang of about 40 micrometers from the surface, the microhardness increase was obvious. The surface microhardness decreased gradually with annealing temperature, but the sub-surface

  13. Inverse method for the determination of elastic properties of coating layers by the surface ultrasonic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jun; YANG Zhen; XU Jin-quan

    2005-01-01

    As the coated materials are widely applied in engineering, estimation of the elastic properties of coating layers is of great practical importance. This paper presents an inversion algorithm for determining the elastic properties of coating layers from the given velocity dispersion of surface ultrasonic waves. Based on the dispersive equation of surface waves in layered half space,an objective function dependent on coating material parameters is introduced. The density and wave velocities, which make the object function minimum, are taken as the inversion results. Inverse analyses of two parameters (longitudinal and transverse velocities) and three parameters (the density, longitudinal and transverse velocities) of the coating layer were made.

  14. A transducing bacteriophage for Caulobacter crescentus uses the paracrystalline surface layer protein as a receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Edwards; Smit, J

    1991-01-01

    The bacteriophage phi Cr30, a transducing phage for Caulobacter crescentus strains, required the paracrystalline surface (S) layer for infectivity. Wild-type strains were phage resistant when rsaA, the gene for the 130K S-layer protein, was interrupted with an antibiotic resistance cassette. Strains that had lost the S layer by mutation were phage resistant, as were mutants that produce an S layer but which do not attach the structure to the cell surface. Phage sensitivity was restored to 130...

  15. Electrical conductivity of reconstructed Si(111) surface with sodium-doped C60 layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, D. A.; Ryzhkova, M. V.; Borisenko, E. A.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical conductance of sodium-doped C60 ultra-thin layers (1-6 monolayers) grown on the Na-adsorbed Si(111)√3 × √3-Au surface has been studied in situ by four-point probe technique, combined with low-energy electron diffraction observations. Evidence of conductance channel formation through the C60 ultrathin layer is demonstrated as a result of Na dosing of 3 and 6 monolayers thick C60 layers. The observed changes in surface conductivity can be attributed to the formation of fulleride-like NaC60 and Na2C60 compound layers.

  16. Characterization and Properties of Nanostructured Surface Layer in a Low Carbon Steel Subjected to Surface Mechanical Attrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A nanostructured surface layer was synthesized on a Iow carbon steel by using surface mechanical attrition (SMA)technique. The refined microstructure of the surface layer was characterized by means of different techniques,and the hardness variation along the depth was examined. Experimental results show that the microstructure isinhomogeneous along the depth. In the region from top surface to about 40μm deep, the grain size increases fromabout 10 nm to 100 nm. In the adjacent region of about 40~80μm depth, the grain size increases from about 100nm to 1000 nm. The grain refinement can be associated with the activity of dislocations. After the SMA treatment,the hardness of the surface layer is enhanced significantly compared with that of the original sample, which canprimarily be attributed to the grain refinement.

  17. Rare Arsenic-Antimony-Sulphide Bio-immobilization and Bacterial S-layer Preservation in Siliceous Sediments from Champagne Pool Hot-Spring, Waiotapu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, V. R.; Renaut, R. W.; Jones, B.; Ferris, F. G.

    2003-12-01

    Champagne Pool is a large (65 m diameter, 150 m deep) hot spring in the Waiotapu geothermal area of North Island, New Zealand. The spring discharges water of a mildly acid chloride type, with a pH of 5.2, a constant temperature of 75 oC and a silica concentration of 460 ppm. Siliceous sinter, loose sediments, and flocs suspended in the spring water are composed of opaline silica and metal-rich sulfides that contain many well-preserved, mineralized microbes. Detailed analysis by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry has shown that bacterial cell wall and capsular material is preserved by the immobilization of high levels of As (up to 33 wt%), Sb (up to 60 wt%), and S (up to 20 wt%) in the organic matrix. Significant precipitate formation is absent (and when present only small microcrysts form), suggesting much of the As-Sb-S has accumulated through adsorption processes. When extensive biomineral precipitates are present upon the cell wall, they are composed of Al rich amorphous silicates. This suggests a 2-step biomineralization process whereby As and Sb sulfur complexes are adsorbed onto the cell surface polymers first, followed by inorganically driven precipitation of the supersaturated amorphous silica phase. Despite the lack of detailed preservation, biomineralization commonly preserves S-layers, an ordered mosaic of proteins on the outer surface of the cell wall. These are the finest ultrastructural details thus far found preserved by hot-spring biomineralization. Preserved S-layers exhibited either a hexagonal (p6) or square (p4) lattice structure with unit-unit spacing of 9.7 +/- 1.6 nm. Because S-layer morphology varies considerably between species it can be used as a fingerprint to aid identification of microfossils. By considering both S-layer morphology and the hot-spring habitat (pH, Eh, temp etc) it is suggested the S-layers preserved here belong to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum or Desulfotomaculum nigrifacans. To

  18. Surface tailored organobentonite enhances bacterial proliferation and phenanthrene biodegradation under cadmium co-contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Asit [Future Industries Institute (formerly Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal (India); Biswas, Bhabananda [Future Industries Institute (formerly Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), ACT Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Sarkar, Binoy, E-mail: binoy.sarkar@unisa.edu.au [Future Industries Institute (formerly Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), ACT Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Patra, Ashok K. [Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal (India); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@newcastle.edu.au [Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), ACT Building, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Co-contamination of soil and water with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metals makes biodegradation of the former extremely challenging. Modified clay-modulated microbial degradation provides a novel insight in addressing this issue. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and phenanthrene degradation performance of Mycobacterium gilvum VF1 in the presence of a palmitic acid (PA)-grafted Arquad® 2HT-75-based organobentonite in cadmium (Cd)-phenanthrene co-contaminated water. The PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) adsorbed a slightly greater quantity of Cd than bentonite at up to 30 mg L{sup −1} metal concentration, but its highly negative surface charge imparted by carboxylic groups indicated the potential of being a significantly superior adsorbent of Cd at higher metal concentrations. In systems co-contained with Cd (5 and 10 mg L{sup −1}), the Arquad® 2HT-75-modified bentonite (AB) and PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) resulted in a significantly higher (72–78%) degradation of phenanthrene than bentonite (62%) by the bacterium. The growth and proliferation of bacteria were supported by ABP which not only eliminated Cd toxicity through adsorption but also created a congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. The macromolecules produced during ABP–bacteria interaction could form a stable clay-bacterial cluster by overcoming the electrostatic repulsion among individual components. Findings of this study provide new insights for designing clay modulated PAH bioremediation technologies in mixed-contaminated water and soil. - Highlights: • Surface tailored organobentonite synthesised and characterised • Modified clay adsorbs Cd and reduces toxicity to Mycobacterium gilvum. • It creates congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. • It enhances phenanthrene biodegradation in metal co-contaminated condition.

  19. Surface charge-switching polymeric nanoparticles for bacterial cell wall-targeted delivery of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Lu, Timothy K; Puscasu, Vlad A; Yoon, Christopher J; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2012-05-22

    Bacteria have shown a remarkable ability to overcome drug therapy if there is a failure to achieve sustained bactericidal concentration or if there is a reduction in activity in situ. The latter can be caused by localized acidity, a phenomenon that can occur as a result of the combined actions of bacterial metabolism and the host immune response. Nanoparticles (NP) have shown promise in treating bacterial infections, but a significant challenge has been to develop antibacterial NPs that may be suitable for systemic administration. Herein we develop drug-encapsulated, pH-responsive, surface charge-switching poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(L-histidine)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG) nanoparticles for treating bacterial infections. These NP drug carriers are designed to shield nontarget interactions at pH 7.4 but bind avidly to bacteria in acidity, delivering drugs and mitigating in part the loss of drug activity with declining pH. The mechanism involves pH-sensitive NP surface charge switching, which is achieved by selective protonation of the imidazole groups of PLH at low pH. NP binding studies demonstrate pH-sensitive NP binding to bacteria with a 3.5 ± 0.2- to 5.8 ± 0.1-fold increase in binding to bacteria at pH 6.0 compared to 7.4. Further, PLGA-PLH-PEG-encapsulated vancomycin demonstrates reduced loss of efficacy at low pH, with an increase in minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.3-fold as compared to 2.0-fold and 2.3-fold for free and PLGA-PEG-encapsulated vancomycin, respectively. The PLGA-PLH-PEG NPs described herein are a first step toward developing systemically administered drug carriers that can target and potentially treat Gram-positive, Gram-negative, or polymicrobial infections associated with acidity.

  20. Hypothetical protein Avin_16040 as the S-layer protein of Azotobacter vinelandii and its involvement in plant root surface attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Pauline Woan Ying; Jong, Bor Chyan; Najimudin, Nazalan

    2015-11-01

    A proteomic analysis of a soil-dwelling, plant growth-promoting Azotobacter vinelandii strain showed the presence of a protein encoded by the hypothetical Avin_16040 gene when the bacterial cells were attached to the Oryza sativa root surface. An Avin_16040 deletion mutant demonstrated reduced cellular adherence to the root surface, surface hydrophobicity, and biofilm formation compared to those of the wild type. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the cell surface topography, the deletion mutant displayed a cell surface architectural pattern that was different from that of the wild type. Escherichia coli transformed with the wild-type Avin_16040 gene displayed on its cell surface organized motifs which looked like the S-layer monomers of A. vinelandii. The recombinant E. coli also demonstrated enhanced adhesion to the root surface.

  1. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and analysis of associated bacterial communities on food industry surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J; García, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products.

  2. Vibrational fingerprinting of bacterial pathogens by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premasiri, W. Ranjith; Moir, D. T.; Ziegler, Lawrence D.

    2005-05-01

    The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of vegetative whole-cell bacteria were obtained using in-situ grown gold nanoparticle cluster-covered silicon dioxide substrates excited at 785 nm. SERS spectra of Gram-negative bacteria; E. coli and S. typhimurium, and Gram-positive bacteria; B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. thuringeinsis and B. anthracis Sterne, have been observed. Raman enhancement factors of ~104-105 per cell are found for both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria on this novel SERS substrate. The bacterial SERS spectra are species specific and exhibit greater species differentiation and reduced spectral congestion than their corresponding non-SERS (bulk) Raman spectra. Fluorescence observed in the 785 nm excited bulk Raman emission of Bacillus species is not apparent in the corresponding SERS spectra. The surface enhancement effect allows the observation of Raman spectra at the single cell level excited by low incident laser powers (blood serum, has an observable effect on the bacterial SERS spectra. However, reproducible, species specific SERS vibrational fingerprints are still obtained. The potential of SERS for detection and identification of bacteria with species specificity on these gold nanoparticle coated substrates is demonstrated by these results.

  3. Formation and Characterization of Stacked Nanoscale Layers of Polymers and Silanes on Silicon Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosie; Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.

    2008-10-01

    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Complete and consistent formation of nanoscale layers of silanes and polymers is a necessary first step for chemical patterning. We explored methods of silanizing silicon substrates for the purpose of functionalizing the surfaces. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was characterized by use of ellipsometry, water contact angle, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We found that forming the highest quality functionalized surfaces was accomplished through use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Specifically, surfaces were plasma cleaned and hydrolyzed before the silane was applied. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was also characterized for the polymer layer using ellipsometry, water contact angle, and AFM.

  4. Investigation of thermal processes during test operation of ingot mould with composite surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of grey cast iron EN-GJL-200 ingot mould, by put directly in founding process a composite surface layer on the basis of corundum Al2O3 and quartz sand SiO2. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance of cast steel and cast iron castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generally applied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. The results of studies show, that is positive influence of composite surface layer with ceramic particles on increase in life of cast iron ingot moulds.

  5. Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    index. In the boundary layer, atmospheric temperature fluctuations are primarily responsible for the variations in refractive index at ultraviolet...parameterization of the atmospheric emissivity, in the early 1980s a parallel study of the SEB was conducted by the US Army Waterways Experiment Station...period of rotation of the atmosphere can be defined as TI = 2π/fc. At most mid- latitude locations this period is approximately 17 h. This quantity is

  6. Surface-Engineered Fire Protective Coatings for Fabrics through Sol-Gel and Layer-by-Layer Methods: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabric flammability is a surface-confined phenomenon: in fact, the fabric surface represents the most critical region, through which the mass and heat transfers, responsible for fueling the flame, are controlled and exchanged with the surroundings. More specifically, the heat the fabric surface is exposed to is transferred to the bulk, from which volatile products of thermal degradation diffuse toward the surface and the gas phase, hence feeding the flame. As a consequence, the chemical and physical characteristics of the fabric surface considerably affect the ignition and combustion processes, as the surface influences the flux of combustible volatile products toward the gas phase. In this context, it is possible to significantly modify (and improve the fire performance of textile materials by “simply” tailoring their surface: currently, one of the most effective approaches exploits the deposition of tailored coatings able to slow down the heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during the fire stages. This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the design of inorganic, hybrid, or organic flame-retardant coatings suitable for the fire protection of different fabric substrates (particularly referring to cotton, polyester, and their blends. More specifically, the use of sol-gel and layer-by-layer (LbL methods is thoroughly discussed; then, some recent examples of flame retardant coatings are presented, showing their potential advances and their current limitations.

  7. Properties Evaluation of Thin Microhardened Surface Layer of Tool Steel after Wire EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboslav Straka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results of experimental research on the thin microhardened surface layer of a machined surface that occurs in materials using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM with brass wire electrode. The direct influence of microhardened surface layer on resulting machined surface quality of tool steel EN X210Cr12 (W.-Nr. 1.2080 was examined. The aim of the experiment was to contribute to the knowledge of mutual interactions between main WEDM technological parameters, the influence of these parameters on the total affected depth, and on the variation of microhardness of sub-surface layers of machined surface. Based on the microhardness experimental measurements, mathematical models were established by the Least Square Method (LSM in order to simulate and predict final quality of machined surface after WEDM. Recommendations are given for setting the main technological parameters of the discharge process concerning minimization of total microhardened surface layer depth and microhardened surface layer homogeneity along the whole cross-section profile of the machined surface.

  8. In Situ Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Compound Layer during Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment of Zirconium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNCai-yun; XIEJi-jia; WUXiao-lei; HONGYou-shi; LIUGang; LUJian; LUKe

    2004-01-01

    The surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) technique was developed to synthesize a nanocrystalline (NC) layer on the surface of metallic materials for upgrading their overall properties and performance. In this paper, by means of SMAT to a pure zirconium plate at the room temperature, repetitive multidirectional peening of steel shots (composition (wt%): 1C, 1.5Cr, base Fe) severely deformed the surface layer. A NC surface layer consisting of the intermetallic compound FeCr was fabricated on the surface of the zirconium. The microstructure characterization of the surface layer was performed by using X-ray diffraction analysis, optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations. The NC surface layer was about 25μm thick and consisted of the intermetallic compound FeCr with an average grain size of 25+10 nm. The deformation-induced fast diffusion of Fe and Cr from the steel shots into Zr occurred during SMAT, leading to the formation of intermetallic compound. In addition, the NC surface layer exhibited an ultrahigh nanohardness of 10.2 GPa.

  9. Mass sensitivity of layered shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave devices for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Trinchi, Adrian; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Holland, Anthony; Galatsis, Kosmas

    2001-11-01

    Layered Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices that allow the propagation of Love mode acoustic waves will be studied in this paper. In these devices, the substrate allows the propagation of Surface Skimming Bulks Waves (SSBWs). By depositing layers, that the speed of Shear Horizontal (SH) acoustic wave propagation is less than that of the substrate, the propagation mode transforms to Love mode. Love mode devices which will be studied in this paper, have SiO2 and ZnO acoustic guiding layers. As Love mode of propagation has no movement of particles component normal to the active sensor surface, they can be employed for the sensing applications in the liquid media.

  10. Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken

  11. Autowaves in near-surface layer of magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, V.V. [Stavropol State University, 1 Pushkin st., Stavropol 355009 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: fmf@stavsu.ru; Iljuch, P.M. [Stavropol Branch of Moskow Apparatus Bilding and Informatics Academy, 25 Kulakova st., Stavropol 355000 (Russian Federation); Kandaurova, N.V. [Stavropol Branch of Moskow Apparatus Bilding and Informatics Academy, 25 Kulakova st., Stavropol 355000 (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, E.A. [Stavropol State University, 1 Pushkin st., Stavropol 355009 (Russian Federation)

    2005-03-15

    Autowaves processes in a magnetic fluids in an electric and magnetic fields has been investigated. Different type of autowaves in near-surface region of electrochemical cell has been found. Equation of autowave process has been described.

  12. The structure of the cysteine protease and lectin-like domains of Cwp84, a surface layer-associated protein from Clostridium difficile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, William J. [University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JG (United Kingdom); Kirby, Jonathan M. [Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JG (United Kingdom); Thiyagarajan, Nethaji [University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Chambers, Christopher J.; Davies, Abigail H. [University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JG (United Kingdom); Roberts, April K.; Shone, Clifford C. [Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JG (United Kingdom); Acharya, K. Ravi, E-mail: bsskra@bath.ac.uk [University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The crystal structure of Cwp84, an S-layer protein from Clostridium difficile is presented for the first time. The cathepsin L-like fold of cysteine protease domain, a newly observed ‘lectin-like’ domain and several other features are described. Clostridium difficile is a major problem as an aetiological agent for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. The mechanism by which the bacterium colonizes the gut during infection is poorly understood, but undoubtedly involves a myriad of components present on the bacterial surface. The mechanism of C. difficile surface-layer (S-layer) biogenesis is also largely unknown but involves the post-translational cleavage of a single polypeptide (surface-layer protein A; SlpA) into low- and high-molecular-weight subunits by Cwp84, a surface-located cysteine protease. Here, the first crystal structure of the surface protein Cwp84 is described at 1.4 Å resolution and the key structural components are identified. The truncated Cwp84 active-site mutant (amino-acid residues 33–497; C116A) exhibits three regions: a cleavable propeptide and a cysteine protease domain which exhibits a cathepsin L-like fold followed by a newly identified putative carbohydrate-binding domain with a bound calcium ion, which is referred to here as a lectin-like domain. This study thus provides the first structural insights into Cwp84 and a strong base to elucidate its role in the C. difficile S-layer maturation mechanism.

  13. Characteristics of surface layer proteins from two new and native strains of Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak Qamsari, Elahe; Kasra Kermanshahi, Rouha; Erfan, Mohammad; Ghadam, Parinaz; Sardari, Soroush; Eslami, Neda

    2017-02-01

    In this work, some important characteristics of surface layer (S-layer) proteins extracted from two new and native Lactobacillus strains, L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7, were investigated. The presence of S-layer on the external surface of L.brevis KM3 was displayed by thin sectioning and negative staining. SDS-PAGE analysis were shown same dominant protein bands approximately around 48kDa for both S-layer proteins. Moreover, the S-layer reappeared when LiCl treated cells were allowed to grow again. Protein secondary structure and thermal behavior were evaluated by using circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Both S-layer proteins had high content of β-sheet and low amount of α-helix. The thermograms of lyophilized S-layer proteins of L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7 showed one transition peak at 67.9°C and 59.14°C, respectively. To determine monodispersity of extracted S-layer proteins, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used. The results indicated that the main population of S-layer molecules in two tested lactobacillus strains were composed of monomer with an expected diameter close to 10nm. Furthermore, Zeta potential measurements were showed positive potential for both S-layer proteins, as expected. Our results could be used as the basis for biotechnological applications of these two new S-layer proteins.

  14. Extraction of Aerosol-Deposited Yersinia pestis from Indoor Surfaces To Determine Bacterial Environmental Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Ryan A.; Yeager, John J.; Leroux, Brian; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Dabisch, Paul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health and decontamination decisions following an event that causes indoor contamination with a biological agent require knowledge of the environmental persistence of the agent. The goals of this study were to develop methods for experimentally depositing bacteria onto indoor surfaces via aerosol, evaluate methods for sampling and enumerating the agent on surfaces, and use these methods to determine bacterial surface decay. A specialized aerosol deposition chamber was constructed, and methods were established for reproducible and uniform aerosol deposition of bacteria onto four coupon types. The deposition chamber facilitated the control of relative humidity (RH; 10 to 70%) following particle deposition to mimic the conditions of indoor environments, as RH is not controlled by standard heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Extraction and culture-based enumeration methods to quantify the viable bacteria on coupons were shown to be highly sensitive and reproducible. To demonstrate the usefulness of the system for decay studies, Yersinia pestis persistence as a function of surface type at 21°C and 40% RH was determined to be >40%/min for all surfaces. Based upon these results, at typical indoor temperature and RH, a 6-log reduction in titer would expected to be achieved within 1 h as the result of environmental decay on surfaces without active decontamination. The developed approach will facilitate future persistence and decontamination studies with a broad range of biological agents and surfaces, providing agent decay data to inform both assessments of risk to personnel entering a contaminated site and decontamination decisions following biological contamination of an indoor environment. IMPORTANCE Public health and decontamination decisions following contamination of an indoor environment with a biological agent require knowledge of the environmental persistence of the agent. Previous studies on Y. pestis persistence have

  15. Macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) recognizes glycosylated surface (S)-layer of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthamani, Sreedevi; Settem, Rajendra P.; Honma, Kiyonobu; Kay, Jason G.

    2017-01-01

    The oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia is implicated in the development of periodontitis, a common inflammatory disease that leads to the destruction of the gum and tooth supporting tissues, often leading to tooth loss. T. forsythia is a unique Gram-negative organism endowed with an elaborate protein O-glycosylation system that allows the bacterium to express a glycosylated surface (S)-layer comprising two high molecular weight glycoproteins modified with O-linked oligosaccharides. The T. forsythia S-layer has been implicated in the modulation of cytokine responses of antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages, that play a significant role during inflammation associated with periodontitis. The macrophage-inducible C-type lectin receptor (Mincle) is an FcRγ-coupled pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes a wide variety of sugar containing ligands from fungal and bacterial pathogens. In this study, we aimed to determine if Mincle might be involved in the recognition of T. forsythia S-layer and modulation of cytokine response of macrophages against the bacterium. Binding studies using recombinant Mincle-Fc fusion protein indicated a specific Ca2+-dependent binding of Mincle to T. forsythia S-layer. Subsequent experiments with Mincle-expressing and Mincle-knockdown macrophages revealed a role for Mincle/S-layer interaction in the induction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophages stimulated with T. forsythia as well as its S-layer. Together, these studies revealed Mincle as an important macrophage receptor involved in the modulation of cytokine responses of macrophages against T. forsythia, and thus may play a critical role in orchestrating the host immune response against the bacterium. PMID:28264048

  16. Macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) recognizes glycosylated surface (S)-layer of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthamani, Sreedevi; Settem, Rajendra P; Honma, Kiyonobu; Kay, Jason G; Sharma, Ashu

    2017-01-01

    The oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia is implicated in the development of periodontitis, a common inflammatory disease that leads to the destruction of the gum and tooth supporting tissues, often leading to tooth loss. T. forsythia is a unique Gram-negative organism endowed with an elaborate protein O-glycosylation system that allows the bacterium to express a glycosylated surface (S)-layer comprising two high molecular weight glycoproteins modified with O-linked oligosaccharides. The T. forsythia S-layer has been implicated in the modulation of cytokine responses of antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages, that play a significant role during inflammation associated with periodontitis. The macrophage-inducible C-type lectin receptor (Mincle) is an FcRγ-coupled pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes a wide variety of sugar containing ligands from fungal and bacterial pathogens. In this study, we aimed to determine if Mincle might be involved in the recognition of T. forsythia S-layer and modulation of cytokine response of macrophages against the bacterium. Binding studies using recombinant Mincle-Fc fusion protein indicated a specific Ca2+-dependent binding of Mincle to T. forsythia S-layer. Subsequent experiments with Mincle-expressing and Mincle-knockdown macrophages revealed a role for Mincle/S-layer interaction in the induction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophages stimulated with T. forsythia as well as its S-layer. Together, these studies revealed Mincle as an important macrophage receptor involved in the modulation of cytokine responses of macrophages against T. forsythia, and thus may play a critical role in orchestrating the host immune response against the bacterium.

  17. Oral bacterial adhesion forces to biomaterial surfaces constituting the bracket-adhesive-enamel junction in orthodontic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Chen, Yangxi; de Vries, Joop; Ren, Yijin

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to biomaterial surfaces constituting the bracket-adhesive-enamel junction represents a growing problem in orthodontics, because bacteria can adversely affect treatment by causing demineralization of the enamel surface around the brackets. It is important to know the forces with wh

  18. Molecule Recognition Imaging and Highly Ordered Gold Nanoparticle Templating of Functional Bacterial S-Layer Nanoarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jilin TANG; Andreas Ebner; Helga Badelt-Lichtblau; Christian Rankl; Michael Leitner; Hermann J.Gruber; Uwe B.Sleytr; Nicola Ilk; Peter Hinterdorfer

    2009-01-01

    @@ Molecular recognition between receptors and their cognate ligands plays an important role in life sciences.Such specific interactions include those between complementary strands of DNA,enzyme and substrate,antigen and antibody,lectin and carbohydrate,ligands and cell surface receptors as well as between cell adhesion proteins.

  19. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans

    OpenAIRE

    Arbing, Mark A.; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J.; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two “homologous” tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-la...

  20. Stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance of permeable pavement layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Lv, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Zhen-Zhen

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the laboratory-scale permeable pavement layers, including a surface permeable brick layer, coarse sand bedding layers (thicknesses = 2, 3.5, and 5 cm), and single-graded gravel sub-base layers (thicknesses = 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm), were built to evaluate stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance. And, the infiltration rate (I) and concentrations of suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen (TN) were measured under the simulated rainfall intensity of 72.4 mm/h over duration of 60 min. The results indicate that the thickness factor primarily influences the infiltration rate and pollutant removal rate. The highest steady infiltration rate was for surface brick layer 51.0 mm/h, for 5-cm sand bedding layer 32.3 mm/h, and for 30-cm gravel sub-base layer 42.3 mm/h, respectively. The SS average removal rate was relative higher (79.8 ∼ 98.6 %) for all layers due to the interception and filtration. The average removal rates of TP and COD were for surface layer 71.2 and 24.1 %, for 5-cm bedding layer 54.8 and 9.0 %, and for 20-cm sub-base layer 72.2 and 26.1 %. Ammonia nitrogen and TN cannot steadily be removed by layers according to the experiment results. The optimal thickness of bedding sands was 5 cm, and that of sub-base gravels was 20 ∼ 30 cm.

  1. Influence of magnetic field on microstructure and properties of Ni60 plasma surfacing layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhengjun; Sun Jinggang; Liu Duo; Wang Jibing; Zhang Guiqing

    2005-01-01

    In order to control the shape and distribution of hardening phase in plasma surfacing deposit, a longitudinal DC magnetic field was applied during plasma surfacing of nickel-based alloy Ni60. Hardness, wearing resistance, microstructure and phase constituent of the plasma surfacing layer were investigated. It was revealed that the hardness and wearing resistance of the Ni60 plasma surfacing layer could gotten significantly enhanced through introducing magnetic field. The mechanical properties of the surfacing deposit were optimal when magnetic field current is 1 A. The metallurgical analysis showed that the microstructure of the Ni60 plasma surfacing layer was mainly composed of γ solid solution and some hardening phase particles such as Cr7 C3 with an application of the magnetic field.

  2. Surface band-gap narrowing in quantized electron accumulation layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; Veal, T D; McConville, C F; Zúñiga-Pérez, J; Muñoz-Sanjosé, V; Hopkinson, M; Rienks, E D L; Jensen, M Fuglsang; Hofmann, Ph

    2010-06-25

    An energy gap between the valence and the conduction band is the defining property of a semiconductor, and the gap size plays a crucial role in the design of semiconductor devices. We show that the presence of a two-dimensional electron gas near to the surface of a semiconductor can significantly alter the size of its band gap through many-body effects caused by its high electron density, resulting in a surface band gap that is much smaller than that in the bulk. Apart from reconciling a number of disparate previous experimental findings, the results suggest an entirely new route to spatially inhomogeneous band-gap engineering.

  3. N-acetyl-L-cysteine affects growth, extracellular polysaccharide production, and bacterial biofilm formation on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Ann-Cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

    2003-08-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Using 10 different bacterial strains isolated from a paper mill, we found that the mode of action of NAC is chemical, as well as biological, in the case of bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces. The initial adhesion of bacteria is dependent on the wettability of the substratum. NAC was shown to bind to stainless steel, increasing the wettability of the surface. Moreover, NAC decreased bacterial adhesion and even detached bacteria that were adhering to stainless steel surfaces. Growth of various bacteria, as monocultures or in a multispecies community, was inhibited at different concentrations of NAC. We also found that there was no detectable degradation of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by NAC, indicating that NAC reduced the production of EPS, in most bacteria tested, even at concentrations at which growth was not affected. Altogether, the presence of NAC changes the texture of the biofilm formed and makes NAC an interesting candidate for use as a general inhibitor of formation of bacterial biofilms on stainless steel surfaces.

  4. Investigation of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete. II: Properties of Steel Surface Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Van Breugel, K.; Lodhi, Z.F.; Ye, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface (using as-received low carbon construction steel) in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP).

  5. Rapid Melt and Resolidification of Surface Layers Using Intense, Pulsed Ion Beams Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Timothy J.

    1998-10-02

    The emerging technology of pulsed intense ion beams has been shown to lead to improvements in surface characteristics such as hardness and wear resistance, as well as mechanical smoothing. We report hereon the use of this technology to systematically study improvements to three types of metal alloys - aluminum, iron, and titanium. Ion beam tieatment produces a rapid melt and resolidification (RMR) of the surface layer. In the case of a predeposited thin-fihn layer, the beam mixes this layer into the substrate, Ieading to improvements that can exceed those produced by treatment of the alloy alone, In either case, RMR results in both crystal refinement and metastable state formation in the treated surface layer not accessible by conventional alloy production. Although more characterization is needed, we have begun the process of relating these microstructural changes to the surface improvements we discuss in this report.

  6. FORMING A PARTING LAYER OF COATING ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOULD DURING DIE-CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pivovarchik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the study of the possibility of accumulation of the lubricating layer coating on the surface of the separation process of foundry equipment with high pressure die casting aluminum alloys.

  7. Formation of Nanoscale Intermetallic Phases in Ni Surface Layer at High Intensity Implantation of Al Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.A.Bozhko; S.V.Fortuna; I.A.Kurzina; I.B.Stepanov; E.V.Kozlov; Yu.P. Sharkeev

    2004-01-01

    The results of experimental study of nanoscale intermetallic formation in surface layer of a metal target at ion implantation are presented. To increase the thickness of the ion implanted surface layer the high intensive ion implantation is used. Compared with the ordinary ion implantation, the high intensive ion implantation allows a much thicker modified surface layer. Pure polycrystalline nickel was chosen as a target. Nickel samples were irradiated with Al ions on the vacuum-arc ion beam and plasma flow source "Raduga-5". It was shown that at the high intensity ion implantation the fine dispersed particles of Ni3Al, NiAl intermetallic compounds and solid solution Al in Ni are formed in the nickel surface layer of 200 nm and thicker. The formation of phases takes place in complete correspondence with the Ni-Al phase diagram.

  8. On inferring isoprene emission surface flux from atmospheric boundary layer concentration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Dries, van den K.; Pino, D.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the dependence of the inferred isoprene surface emission flux from atmospheric concentration on the diurnal variability of the convective boundary layer (CBL). A series of systematic numerical experiments carried out using the mixed-layer technique enabled us to study the sensitivity of i

  9. Combined effects of surface conditions, boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on diurnal SOA evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.H.H.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Jimenez, J.L.; Farmer, D.K.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Mammarella, I.

    2012-01-01

    We study the combined effects of land surface conditions, atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on the diurnal evolution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer, using a model that contains the essentials of all these components. First, we evaluate the mod

  10. Seasonal cyclogenesis and the role of near-surface stratified layer in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.

    The role of the near-surface stratified layer developed due to the spread of low salinity waters under the influence of freshwater influx on the cyclogenesis over the Bay of Bengal is addressed. The seasonal variation of the Effective Oceanic Layer...

  11. Snow specific surface area simulation using the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Snow grain size is a key parameter for modeling microwave snow emission properties and the surface energy balance because of its influence on the snow albedo, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. A model of the specific surface area (SSA) of snow was implemented in the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS) version 3.4. This offline multilayer model (CLASS-SSA) simulates the decrease of SSA based on snow age, snow temperature and t...

  12. Bacterial adherence on fluorinated carbon based coatings deposited on polyethylene surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terriza, A; Del Prado, G; Perez, A Ortiz; Martinez, M J; Puertolas, J A; Manso, D Molina; Gonzalez-Elipe, A R; Yubero, F; Barrena, E Gomez; Esteban, J, E-mail: antonia.terriza@icmse.csic.es

    2010-11-01

    Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopaedic surgery. In this work we present a thorough study of several plasma based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond like carbon (DLC), fluorine doped DLC (F-DLC) and a high fluorine content carbon-fluor polymer (CF{sub X}). The study correlates the surface chemistry and hydrophobicity of the coating surfaces with their antibacterial performance. The coatings were deposited by RF-plasma assisted deposition at room temperature on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples. Fluorine content and relative amount of C-C and C-F bond types was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hydrophobicity by water contact angle measurements. Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to non-coated and coated UHMWPE samples was evaluated. Comparisons of the adherence performance were evaluated using a paired t test (two materials) and a Kruskall Wallis test (all the materials). S. aureus was statistically significant (p< 0.001) less adherent to DLC and F-DLC surfaces than S. epidermidis. Both bacteria showed reduction of adherence on DLC/UHMWPE. For S. aureus, reduction of bacterial adherence on F-DLC/UHMWPE was statistically significant respect to all other materials.

  13. Bacterial whole-cell biocatalysts by surface display of enzymes: toward industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüürmann, Jan; Quehl, Paul; Festel, Gunter; Jose, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Despite the first report on the bacterial display of a recombinant peptide appeared almost 30 years ago, industrial application of cells with surface-displayed enzymes is still limited. To display an enzyme on the surface of a living cell bears several advantages. First of all, neither the substrate nor the product of the enzymatic reaction needs to cross a membrane barrier. Second, the enzyme being linked to the cell can be separated from the reaction mixture and hence the product by simple centrifugation. Transfer to a new substrate preparation results in multiple cycles of enzymatic conversion. Finally, the anchoring in a matrix, in this case, the cell envelope stabilizes the enzyme and makes it less accessible to proteolytic degradation and material adsorption resulting in continuous higher activities. These advantages in common need to balance some disadvantages before this application can be taken into account for industrial processes, e.g., the exclusion of the enzyme from the cellular metabolome and hence from redox factors or other co-factors that need to be supplied. Therefore, this digest describes the different systems in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that have been used for the surface display of enzymes so far and focuses on examples among these which are suitable for industrial purposes or for the production of valuable resources, not least in order to encourage a broader application of whole-cell biocatalysts with surface-displayed enzymes.

  14. The surface layer of austempered ductile iron investment castings properties

    OpenAIRE

    D. Myszka; M. Kłębczyk; Zych, A.; L. Kwiatkowski

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a unique process of carbonnitriding and nitriding the precision casting surfaces of austempered ductile iron. The results of the research are pointing that adequate process parameters allow to obtain multiple increase of wear resistance and a significant increase of corrosion resistance. Also, changes of cast microstructure and hardness are presented.

  15. The surface layer of austempered ductile iron investment castings properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Myszka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a unique process of carbonnitriding and nitriding the precision casting surfaces of austempered ductile iron. The results of the research are pointing that adequate process parameters allow to obtain multiple increase of wear resistance and a significant increase of corrosion resistance. Also, changes of cast microstructure and hardness are presented.

  16. Research on synthetic aperture radar imaging technology of one-dimensional layered rough surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wei-Jie; Tong Chuang-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A quick and exact imaging method for one-dimensional layered rough surfaces is proposed in this paper to study the scattering characteristics of a layered medium that exists widely in nature.The boundary integral equations of layered rough surfaces are solved by using the propagation-inside-layer expansion combined with the forward and backward spectral acceleration method (PILE+FB-SA),and the back scattering data are obtained.Then,a conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging procedure called back projection method is used to generate a two-dimensional (2D) image of the layered rough surfaces.Combined with the relative dielectric permittivity of realistic soil,the random rough surfaces with Gauss spectrum are used to simulate the layered medium with rough interfaces.Since the back scattering data are computed by using the fast numerical method,this method can be used to study layered rough surfaces with any parameter,which has a great application value in the detection and remote sensing areas.

  17. Site-specific immobilization of protein layers on gold surfaces via orthogonal sortases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Parthasarathy, Ranganath; Boder, Eric T

    2015-04-01

    We report a site-specific, sortase-mediated ligation to immobilize proteins layer-by-layer on a gold surface. Recombinant fluorescent proteins with a Sortase A recognition tag at the C-terminus were immobilized on peptide-modified gold surfaces. We used two sortases with different substrate specificities (Streptococcus pyogenes Sortase A and Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A) to immobilize layers of GFP and mCherry site-specifically on the gold surface. Surfaces were characterized using fluorescence and atomic force microscopy after immobilizing each layer of protein. Fluorescent micrographs showed that both protein immobilization on the modified gold surface and protein oligomerization are sortase-dependent. AFM images showed that either homogenous protein monolayers or layers of protein oligomers can be generated using appropriately tagged substrate proteins. Using Sortase A variants with orthogonal peptide substrate specificities, site-specific immobilization of appropriately tagged GFP onto a layer of immobilized mCherry was achieved without disruption of the underlying protein layer.

  18. The near-neutral atmospheric surface layer: turbulence and non-stationarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M; McKeon, B J; Holmes, H

    2007-03-15

    The neutrally stable atmospheric surface layer is used as a physical model of a very high Reynolds number, canonical turbulent boundary layer. Challenges and limitations with this model are addressed in detail, including the inherent thermal stratification, surface roughness and non-stationarity of the atmosphere. Concurrent hot-wire and sonic anemometry data acquired in Utah's western desert provide insight to Reynolds number trends in the axial velocity statistics and spectra.

  19. Boron Diffused Thermoluminescent Surface Layer in LiF TLDs for Skin Dose Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Majborn, Benny

    1980-01-01

    A new high-temperature glow peak produced in a thin surface layer of LiF TLDs by diffusion of boron into the LiF material has been studied for skin dose assessments in personnel dosimetry.......A new high-temperature glow peak produced in a thin surface layer of LiF TLDs by diffusion of boron into the LiF material has been studied for skin dose assessments in personnel dosimetry....

  20. Nanostructured Hardening of Hard Alloys Surface Layers Through Electron Irradiation in Heavy Inert Gas Plasma Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovcharenko, V. E.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Ivanov, K. V.; Mokhovikov, A. A.; Baohai, Yu; Hua, Xu Yun

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents research and experimental findings which prove that metal ceramic composite surface layer contains micro constituents’ hierarchies in the form of secondary nano sized inclusions inside ceramic phases. These inclusions have typical dimensions from several tens to several hundreds of nano meters. It has been shown that multi level structure-phase condition, developed in a nano sized area, effects physical and tribological properties of a metal ceramic composite surface layer.

  1. Understanding surface interactions in aqueous miscible organic solvent treated layered double hydroxides.

    OpenAIRE

    Erastova, Valentina; Degiacomi, Matteo T.; O'Hare, Dermot; Greenwell, H. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Layered materials are of interest for use in a wealth of technological applications, many of which require a high surface area for optimal properties and performance. Recently, an industrially scalable method to create high surface area layered double hydroxide (LDH) materials, which may be readily dispersed in non-polar solvents, has been developed. This method involves treatment of LDHs with aqueous miscible organic (AMO) solvents. Here, molecular modeling is exploited to elucidate the AMO ...

  2. Highly stable surface functionalization of microgas chromatography columns using layer-by-layer self-assembly of silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Shakeel, Hamza; Lovette, John; Rice, Gary W; Heflin, James R; Agah, Masoud

    2013-09-03

    A controllable and high-yield surface functionalization of silicon microchannels using layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of SiO2 nanoparticles (SNPs) is presented. The application of SNPs (45 nm average diameter) coating as a stationary phase for chromatographic separation is also demonstrated with surface functionalization using chloroalkylsilanes. This method facilitates a simple, low-cost, and parallel processing scheme that also provides homogeneous and stable nanoparticle-based stationary phases with ease of control over the coating thickness. The SNP-functionalized microfabricated columns with either single capillary channels (1 m long, 150 μm wide, 240 μm deep) or very narrow multicapillary channels (25 cm long, 30 μm wide, 240 μm deep, 16 parallel channels) successfully separated a multicomponent gas mixture with a wide range of boiling points with high reproducibility.

  3. Enabling organosilicon chemistries on inert polymer surfaces with a vapor-deposited silica layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Ashurst, W R

    2009-10-06

    Given the large surface area-to-volume ratios commonly encountered in microfluidics applications, the ability to engineer the chemical properties of surfaces encountered in these applications is critically important. However, as various polymers are rapidly replacing glass and silicon as the chosen materials for microfluidics devices, the ability to easily modify the surface chemistry has been diminished by the relatively inert nature of some commonly employed polymer surfaces, such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This paper describes the low-temperature, vapor-phase deposition of robust silica layers to PMMA, polystyrene, and PDMS surfaces, which enables the functionalization of these surfaces by standard organosilane chemistries. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy are used to characterize the silica layers that form on these surfaces. Aqueous immersion experiments indicate that the silica layer has excellent stability in aqueous environments, which is a prerequisite for microfluidics applications, but for PMMA surfaces, low adhesion of the silica layer to the underlying substrate is problematic. For PDMS substrates, the presence of the silica layer helps to slow the process of hydrophobic recovery, which is an additional advantage.

  4. Influence of poly(ethylene oxide)-based copolymer on protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion on stainless steel: modulation by surface hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Rouxhet, Paul G; Chudziak, Dorota; Telegdi, Judit; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the adhesion of Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021, a typical aerobic marine microorganism, on stainless steel (SS) substrate. More particularly, the potential effect on adhesion of adsorbed poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer is investigated. Bacterial attachment experiments were carried out using a modified parallel plate flow chamber, allowing different surface treatments to be compared in a single experiment. The amount of adhering bacteria was determined via DAPI staining and fluorescence microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the surface chemical composition of SS and hydrophobized SS before and after PEO-PPO-PEO adsorption. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model protein, was investigated to test the resistance of PEO-PPO-PEO layers to protein adsorption. The results show that BSA adsorption and Pseudomonas 2021 adhesion are significantly reduced on hydrophobized SS conditioned with PEO-PPO-PEO. Although PEO-PPO-PEO is also found to adsorb on SS, it does not prevent BSA adsorption nor bacterial adhesion, which is attributed to different PEO-PPO-PEO adlayer structures on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The obtained results open the way to a new strategy to reduce biofouling on metal oxide surfaces using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer.

  5. On the coupling between a supersonic boundary layer and a flexible surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1992-01-01

    The coupling between a two-dimensional, supersonic, laminar boundary layer and a flexible surface is studied using direct numerical computations of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the plate equation. The flexible surface is forced to vibrate by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence emanated by a sound source located on the side of the flexible surface opposite to the boundary layer. The effect of the source excitation frequency on the surface vibration and boundary layer stability is analyzed. We find that, for frequencies near the fifth natural frequency of the surface or lower, large disturbances are introduced in the boundary layer which may alter its stability characteristics. The interaction between a stable two-dimensional disturbance of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) type with the vibrating surface is also studied. We find that the disturbance level is higher over the vibrating flexible surface than that obtained when the surface is rigid, which indicates a strong coupling between flow and structure. However, in the absence of the sound source the disturbance level over the rigid and flexible surfaces are identical. This result is due to the high frequency of the TS disturbance which does not couple with the flexible surface.

  6. Surface tailored organobentonite enhances bacterial proliferation and phenanthrene biodegradation under cadmium co-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asit; Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Patra, Ashok K; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-04-15

    Co-contamination of soil and water with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metals makes biodegradation of the former extremely challenging. Modified clay-modulated microbial degradation provides a novel insight in addressing this issue. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and phenanthrene degradation performance of Mycobacterium gilvum VF1 in the presence of a palmitic acid (PA)-grafted Arquad® 2HT-75-based organobentonite in cadmium (Cd)-phenanthrene co-contaminated water. The PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) adsorbed a slightly greater quantity of Cd than bentonite at up to 30mgL(-1) metal concentration, but its highly negative surface charge imparted by carboxylic groups indicated the potential of being a significantly superior adsorbent of Cd at higher metal concentrations. In systems co-contained with Cd (5 and 10mgL(-1)), the Arquad® 2HT-75-modified bentonite (AB) and PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) resulted in a significantly higher (72-78%) degradation of phenanthrene than bentonite (62%) by the bacterium. The growth and proliferation of bacteria were supported by ABP which not only eliminated Cd toxicity through adsorption but also created a congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. The macromolecules produced during ABP-bacteria interaction could form a stable clay-bacterial cluster by overcoming the electrostatic repulsion among individual components. Findings of this study provide new insights for designing clay modulated PAH bioremediation technologies in mixed-contaminated water and soil.

  7. Isolated Bacterial Spores at High-velocity Survive Surface Impacts in Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel; Barney, Brandon

    We present experiments in which bacterial spores were found to survive being accelerated in vacuum to velocities in the range 30-120 m/s and impacted on a dense target. In these experiments, spores of Bacillus subtilis spores were charged using electrospray at atmospheric pressure, dried, and then introduced into high vacuum. Through choice of skimmers and beam tubes, different velocity ranges were achieved. An image-charge detector observed the charged spores, providing total charge and velocity. The spores then impacted a glass target within a collection vessel. After the experiment, the collection vessel contents were extracted and cultured. Several positive and negative controls were used, including the use of antibiotic-resistant spores and antibiotic-containing (rifampicin) agar for culturing. These impact velocities are of particular interest for possible transport of bacterial spores from Mars to Phobos, and may have implications for planetary protection in a Phobos sample return mission. In addition, bacteria may reach similar velocities during a spacecraft crash (e.g., within components, or from spacecraft to surface materials during impact, etc.), raising concerns about forward contamination. The velocities of interest to transport of life between planets (panspermia) are somewhat higher, but these results complement shock-based experiments and contribute to the general discussion of impact survivability of organisms.

  8. Formation of nanocrystalline layers by surface severe plastic deformation and pulsed plasma electrolytic carburizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliofkhazraei, M; Rouhaghdam, A Sabour

    2010-07-01

    Surfaces of various kinds of metallic materials spheres were treated by nanocrystalline surface severe plastic deformation and then pulsed nanocrystalline plasma electrolytic carburizing to study nanocrystalline substrate effect on formation and nano-hardness of hard nanocrystalline layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the nanocrystalline surface severe plastic deformation were characterized by means of high resolution scanning electron microscope. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 15 to 90 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all metallic materials, which are low carbon steel and commercially pure titanium. The effect of substrate nanocrystallization on growth kinetics and hardness of formed nanocrystalline carbide layer was studied with the means of figure analysis and nanohardness tests. Figure analysis show the length to diameter ratio and distribution curve of nanocrystals and it has been found that the achieved properties of hard layer (growth rate, nano-hardness, nanostructure...) are related to these factors. It was also clarified that these techniques and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials. Results indicate that the resultant hardened carburized layers exhibited excellent hardness profile. Investigation of the layer characteristics showed strong dependence followed from the treatment experimental parameters as well as the shape of nanocrystals.

  9. Investigation on electromagnetic scattering from rough soil surface of layered medium using the small perturbation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Xin-Cheng; Guo Li-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering from a rough surface of layered medium is investigated, and the formulae of the scattering coefficients for different polarizations are derived using the small perturbation method. A rough surface with exponential correlation function is presented for describing a rough soil surface of layered medium, the formula of its scattering coefficient is derived by considering the spectrum of the rough surface with exponential correlation function; the curves of the bistatic scattering coefficient of HH polarization with variation of the scattering angle are obtained by numerical calculation. The influence of the permittivity of layered medium, the mean layer thickness of intermediate medium, the roughness surface parameters and the frequency of the incident wave on the bistatic scattering coefficient is discussed. Numerical results show that the influence of the permittivity of layered medium, the mean layer thickness of intermediate medium, the rms and the correlation length of the rough surface, and the frequency of the incident wave on the bistatic scattering coefficient is very complex.

  10. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of the bacteria diversity in surface and subsurface peat layers of a northern wetland, with focus on poorly studied phyla and candidate divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia M Serkebaeva

    Full Text Available Northern peatlands play a key role in the global carbon and water budget, but the bacterial diversity in these ecosystems remains poorly described. Here, we compared the bacterial community composition in the surface (0-5 cm depth and subsurface (45-50 cm peat layers of an acidic (pH 4.0 Sphagnum-dominated wetland, using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The denoised sequences (37,229 reads, average length ∼430 bp were affiliated with 27 bacterial phyla and corresponded to 1,269 operational taxonomic units (OTUs determined at 97% sequence identity. Abundant OTUs were affiliated with the Acidobacteria (35.5±2.4% and 39.2±1.2% of all classified sequences in surface and subsurface peat, respectively, Alphaproteobacteria (15.9±1.7% and 25.8±1.4%, Actinobacteria (9.5±2.0% and 10.7±0.5%, Verrucomicrobia (8.5±1.4% and 0.6±0.2%, Planctomycetes (5.8±0.4% and 9.7±0.6%, Deltaproteobacteria (7.1±0.4% and 4.4%±0.3%, and Gammaproteobacteria (6.6±0.4% and 2.1±0.1%. The taxonomic patterns of the abundant OTUs were uniform across all the subsamples taken from each peat layer. In contrast, the taxonomic patterns of rare OTUs were different from those of the abundant OTUs and varied greatly among subsamples, in both surface and subsurface peat. In addition to the bacterial taxa listed above, rare OTUs represented the following groups: Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydia, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Elusimicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Spirochaetes, AD3, WS1, WS4, WS5, WYO, OD1, OP3, BRC1, TM6, TM7, WPS-2, and FCPU426. OTU richness was notably higher in the surface layer (882 OTUs than in the anoxic subsurface peat (483 OTUs, with only 96 OTUs common to both data sets. Most members of poorly studied phyla, such as the Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes and the candidate division TM6, showed a clear preference for growth in either oxic or anoxic conditions. Apparently, the bacterial communities in surface and

  11. Properties of laser alloyed surface layers on magnesium base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galun, R.; Weisheit, A.; Mordike, B.L. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik)

    1998-01-01

    The investigations have shown that laser surface alloying is a promising process to improve the wear and corrosion properties of magnesium base alloys without affecting the initial bulk properties like the low density. With an alloying element combination of aluminium and nickel the wear rate in the scratch test was reduced by 90% compared to untreated pure magnesium. Additionally the corrosion resistance was improved by laser alloying with this element combination. Because of distortion or crack formation in the case of large area treatments, the laser alloying should be limited to the treatment of smaller areas. In the near future this process could be an interesting alternative to surface coating or to a partially reinforcement with ceramic fibres or particles. (orig.)

  12. Design of Matched Absorbing Layers for Surface Plasmon-Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de la Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a procedure for designing metal-metal boundaries for the strong attenuation of surface plasmon-polaritons without the introduction of reflections or scattering effects. Solutions associated with different sets of matching materials are found. To illustrate the results and the consequences of adopting different solutions, we present calculations based on an integral equation formulation for the scattering problem and the use of a nonlocal impedance boundary condition.

  13. Suppression effects of dental glass-ceramics with polarization-induced highly dense surface charges against bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Kosuke; Koizumi, Hiroki; Horiuchi, Naohiro; Nakamura, Miho; Okura, Toshinori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Nagai, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and antibacterial ability capacity of surface-improved dental glass-ceramics by an electrical polarization process. Commercially available dental glass-ceramic materials were electrically polarized to induce surface charges in a direct current field by heating. The surface morphology, chemical composition, crystal structure, and surface free energy (SFE) were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and water droplet methods, respectively. The antibacterial capacity was assessed by a bacterial adhesion test using Streptococcus mutans. Although the surface morphology, chemical composition, and crystal structure were not affected by electrical polarization, the polar component and total SFE were enhanced. After 24 h incubation at 37ºC, bacterial adhesion to the polarized samples was inhibited. The electrical polarization method may confer antibacterial properties on prosthetic devices, such as porcelain fused to metal crowns or all ceramic restorations, without any additional bactericidal agents.

  14. Wear and Corrosion Properties of Mo Surface-modiifed Layer in TiNi Alloy Prepared by Plasma Surface Alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongqian; WANG Zhenxia; YANG Hongyu; SHAN Xiaolin; LIU Xiaoping; YU Shengwang; HE Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance and restrain nickel release of TiNi alloys, the Mo modified layers on TiNi substrates were obtained using the double glow plasma surface alloying technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to investigate the morphology, composition and structure. Microhardness test and scratch test were performed to analyze the microhardness and coating/substrate adhesion. Tribological and electrochemical behaviors of the Mo modified layers on TiNi were tested by the reciprocating wear instrument and electrochemical measurement system. The Ni concentrations in Hanks’ solution where surface electrochemical tests took place were measured by mass spectrometry. The surface-modiifed layer contained a Mo deposition layer and a Mo diffusion layer. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the modiifed layers were composed of Mo, MoTi, MoNi, and Ti2Ni. The microhardnesses of the Mo modiifed layers treated at 900℃and 950℃ were 832.8 HV and 762.4 HV, respectively, which was about 3 times the microhardness of the TiNi substrate. Scratch tests indicated that the modified layers possessed good adhesion with the substrate. Compared with as-received TiNi alloy, the modiifed alloys exhibited signiifcant improvement of wear resistance against Si3N4 with low normal loads during the sliding tests. Mass spectrometry displayed that the Mo alloy layers had successfully inhibited the Ni release into the body.

  15. Preparation of miniantibodies to Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 surface antigens and their use for bacterial detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Staroverov, Sergei A; Guliy, Olga I; Ignatov, Oleg V; Fomin, Alexander S; Vidyasheva, Irina V; Karavaeva, Olga A; Bunin, Viktor D; Burygin, Gennady L

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the first preparation of miniantibodies to Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 surface antigens by using a combinatorial phage library of sheep antibodies. The prepared phage antibodies were used for the first time for lipopolysaccharide and flagellin detection by dot assay, electro-optical analysis of cell suspensions, and transmission electron microscopy. Interaction of A. brasilense Sp245 with antilipopolysaccharide and antiflagellin phage-displayed miniantibodies caused the magnitude of the electro-optical signal to change considerably. The electro-optical results were in good agreement with the electron microscopic data. This is the first reported possibility of employing phage-displayed miniantibodies in bacterial detection aided by electro-optical analysis of cell suspensions.

  16. Modulation of Candida albicans virulence by bacterial biofilms on titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Wilson, Melanie; Lewis, Michael; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; da Silva, Wander José; Williams, David W

    2016-01-01

    Whilst Candida albicans occurs in peri-implant biofilms, its role in peri-implantitis remains unclear. This study therefore examined the virulence of C. albicans in mixed-species biofilms on titanium surfaces. Biofilms of C. albicans (Ca), C. albicans with streptococci (Streptococcus sanguinis, S. mutans) (Ca-Ss-Sm) and those incorporating Porphyromonas gingivalis (Ca-Pg and Ca-Ss-Sm-Pg) were developed. Expression of C. albicans genes associated with adhesion (ALS1, ALS3, HWP1) and hydrolytic enzymes (SAP2, SAP4, SAP6, PLD1) was measured and hyphal production by C. albicans quantified. Compared with Ca biofilms, significant (palbicans expressed virulence factors in biofilms that could contribute to peri-implantitis, but this was dependent on associated bacterial species.

  17. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer creation for cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walasek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed description of the process of creation of a surface alloy layer (using high-carbon ferrochromium on the cast steel casting. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer is based on the known theories [5,6]. The proposed course of formation of the layers has been extended to decarburization stage of steel. The research included proving the presence of carbon-lean zone. The experiment included the analysis of the distribution of elements and microhardness measurement.

  18. Anisotropy Characteristics of Magnetostatic Surface Wave Propagating in YIG/Dielectric/Metal Layered Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hui Yang; Huai-Wu Zhang; Ying-Li Liu

    2007-01-01

    The anisotropy of magnetostatic surface wave (MSSW) propagating in finite width YIG/dielectric/metal layered structure is analyzed. This problem is solved by finding the rigorous solution of each layer from Maxwell equation and the appropriate transmission Green's function matrix (G). From the relationship of Green's function matrixes of dielectric layer and ferrite layer, the dispersion equation is obtained.The MSSW filter is designed to verify the dispersion characteristics. The experiment results are in good agreement with the calculating data from the model.

  19. Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves by a Nonuniform Plasma Layer Covering a Metal Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong-Mei; FA Peng-Ting

    2008-01-01

    Reflection coefficients of electromagnetic waves in a nonuniform plasma layer with electrons, positive ions and negative ions, covering a metal surface are investigated by using the finite-difference-time-domain method. It is shown that the reflection coefficients are influenced greatly by the density gradient on the layer edge, layer thickness and electron proportion, i.e., the effect of the negative ions. It is also found that low reflection or high attenuation can be reached by properly choosing high electron proportion, thick plasma layer, and smooth density gradient in the low frequency regime, but sharp density gradient in the high frequency regime.

  20. Tribological Characteristic of Titanium Alloy Surface Layers Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tribological properties of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V composite surface layers Ti/TiN were produced during laser surface gas nitriding by means of a novel high power direct diode laser with unique characteristics of the laser beam and a rectangular beam spot. Microstructure, surface topography and microhardness distribution across the surface layers were analyzed. Ball-on-disk tests were performed to evaluate and compare the wear and friction characteristics of surface layers nitrided at different process parameters, base metal of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and also the commercially pure titanium. Results showed that under dry sliding condition the commercially pure titanium samples have the highest coefficient of friction about 0.45, compared to 0.36 of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 0.1-0.13 in a case of the laser gas nitrided surface layers. The volume loss of Ti6Al4V samples under such conditions is twice lower than in a case of pure titanium. On the other hand the composite surface layer characterized by the highest wear resistance showed almost 21 times lower volume loss during the ball-on-disk test, compared to Ti6Al4V samples.

  1. Trapping and depth profile of tritium in surface layers of metallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, M., E-mail: masao@ctg.u-toyama.ac.jp [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Chen, Z. [The Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Nisimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Akamaru, S.; Torikai, Y.; Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ashikawa, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Oya, Y.; Okuno, K. [Radiochemistry Research Laboratory, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Hino, T. [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Tritium amount retained in surface layers and release behavior from surface layers were examined using SS316L samples exposed to plasmas in the Large Helical Device and a commercial Cu-Be alloy plate. BIXS analyses and observation by SEM indicate that carbon and titanium deposited on the plasma-facing surface of the SS316L samples. Larger amount of tritium was trapped in the plasma-facing surface in comparison with the polished surface. Higher enrichment of tritium in surface layers was similarly found in the polished surface of both samples. The amount of surface tritium in both samples was almost same, while the bulk concentration of tritium in Cu-Be was much lower than that in SS316L. Tritium release from the SS316L and Cu-Be samples into water was examined by immersion experiments. Tritium elution was observed for both samples, but changes in the residual tritium amount in surface layers were different from each other.

  2. Polyethylenimine surface layer for enhanced virus immobilization on cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiliket, Ghania; Ladam, Guy; Nguyen, Quang Trong; Lebrun, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Thin regenerated cellulose films are prepared by hydrolysis of cellulose acetate (CA). A polycation, namely polyethylenimine (PEI), is then adsorbed onto the films. From QCM-D analysis, PEI readily adsorbs from a 0.1% w/v solution in NaCl 0.2 M (ca. 100 ng cm-2). Further PEI adsorption steps at higher PEI concentrations induce a linear growth of the PEI films, suggesting that free adsorption sites still exist after the initial adsorption. The adsorbed PEI chains are resistant to variations of the ionic strength up to NaCl 1 M. Promisingly, the adsorption of T4D bacteriophages are 15-fold more efficient onto the PEI-treated, compared to the native regenerated cellulose films, as measured by QCM-D. This confirms the strong affinity between the negatively charged viruses and PEI, even at low PEI concentration, probably governed by strong electrostatic attractive interactions. This result explains the remarkable improvement of the affinity of medical masks for virus droplets when one of their cellulose layers was changed by two-PEI-functionalized cellulose-based filters.

  3. Hematite Surface Activation by Chemical Addition of Tin Oxide Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Waldemir M; Souza, Flavio L

    2016-09-05

    In this study, the effect of tin (Sn(4+) ) modification on the surface of hematite electrodes synthesized by an aqueous solution route at different times (2, 5, 10, 18, and 24 h) is investigated. As confirmed from X-ray diffraction results, the as-synthesized electrode exhibits an oxyhydroxide phase, which is converted into a pure hematite phase after being subjected to additional thermal treatment at 750 °C for 30 min. The tin-modified hematite electrode is prepared by depositing a solution of Sn(4+) precursor on the as-synthesized electrode, followed by thermal treatment under the same abovementioned conditions. This modification results in an enhancement of the photocurrent response for all hematite electrodes investigated and attains the highest values of around 1.62 and 2.3 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 and 1.4 V versus RHE, respectively, for electrodes obtained in short synthesis times (2 h). Contact angle measurements suggest that the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode provides a more hydrophilic surface, which favors a chemical reaction at the interface between the electrode and electrolyte. This result generates new perspectives for understanding the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode surface, which is in contrast with several studies previously reported; these studies state that the enhancement in photocurrent density is related to either the induction of an increased donor charge density or shift in the flat-band potential, which favors charge separation.

  4. Parabolic Flight Evaluation of Bacterial Adhesion on Multiple Antimicrobial Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the development of a test method and the evaluation of the effectiveness of antimicrobial technologies in reduced gravity based on parabolic flight experiments. Microbial growth is a common occurrence on fully immersed wetted surfaces in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems despite the use of chemical and/or physical \\disinfection. Many materials and surface treatments with antimicrobial properties are commercially available but none have been vetted for spaceflight applications. Herein a test method is explained that included ground and reduced gravity parabolic flight experiments with a standard microorganism recovered from spacecraft, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, added at a concentration of 1 x 10(exp 5) cells per milliliter (mL) onto challenge material coupon surfaces. Several experimental materials were observed to slightly reduce microbial attachment in reduced gravity flight experiments, but none were capable of eliminating all challenge bacteria. Lunar gravity had an increased antimicrobial effect in 28 out of 36 test coupons compared to microgravity when provided otherwise identical conditions for growth, suggesting trace .amounts of gravity may be required for maximum antimicrobial performance. Bacterial cells exposed to variable gravity had more than twice as ,much intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) when compared to control cells exposed only to Earth gravity due to a short duration response to environmental stress. An ATP luminescence assay was the method most amenable to development of an in-flight microbial monitoring assay

  5. Trapping Surface Electrons on Graphene Layers and Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Niesner, D.; Fauster, Th.; Dadap, J. I.; Zaki, N.; Knox, K. R.; Yeh, P. -C.; Bhandari, R.; Osgood, R. M.; Petrović, M; Kralj, M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission to map the bound, unoccupied electronic structure of the weakly coupled graphene/Ir(111) system. The energy, dispersion, and lifetime of the lowest three image-potential states are measured. In addition, the weak interaction between Ir and graphene permits observation of resonant transitions from an unquenched Shockley-type surface state of the Ir substrate to graphene/Ir image-potential states. The image-potential-state l...

  6. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne; Jensen, Bjarne Bo

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘CO2 emission reduction by exploitation of rolling resistance modeling of pavements’ (COOEE) was started in 2011 to establish a scientific background for development of novel pavement types and asset management solutions that minimize the rolling resistance for cars and trucks...... Rolling Resistance coefficient that could improve energy efficiency of the roads. In particular, two new types of Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were developed and compared to a reference one; both mixtures have a relatively small maximum grain-size, 6 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Surface measurements...

  7. Contribution of material’s surface layer on charge state distribution in laser ablation plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaki, Masafumi, E-mail: rogus@asagi.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Steski, Dannie; Kanesue, Takeshi [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Ikeda, Shunsuke [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To generate laser ablation plasma, a pulse laser is focused onto a solid target making a crater on the surface. However, not all the evaporated material is efficiently converted to hot plasma. Some portion of the evaporated material could be turned to low temperature plasma or just vapor. To investigate the mechanism, we prepared an aluminum target coated by thin carbon layers. Then, we measured the ablation plasma properties with different carbon thicknesses on the aluminum plate. The results showed that C{sup 6+} ions were generated only from the surface layer. The deep layers (over 250 nm from the surface) did not provide high charge state ions. On the other hand, low charge state ions were mainly produced by the deeper layers of the target. Atoms deeper than 1000 nm did not contribute to the ablation plasma formation.

  8. On stratification, barotropic tides, and secular changes in surface tidal elevations: Two-layer analytical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wetzel, Alfredo N; Cerovecki, Ivana; Hendershott, Myrl C; Karsten, Richard H; Miller, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    In this study the influence of stratification on surface tidal elevations in a two-layer analytical model is examined. The model assumes linearized, non-rotating, shallow-water dynamics in one dimension with astronomical forcing and allows for arbitrary topography. Both large scale (barotropic) and small scale (baroclinic) components of the surface tidal elevation are shown to be affected by stratification. It is also shown that the topography and basin boundaries affect the sensitivity of the barotropic surface tide to stratification significantly. In a companion paper it is shown that the barotropic tide in two-layer numerical models run in realistic global domains differs from its value in one-layer numerical models by amounts qualitatively consistent with analytic predictions from this paper. The analytical model also roughly predicts the sensitivity to perturbations in stratification in the two-layer domain model. Taken together, this paper and the companion paper therefore provide a framework to underst...

  9. Critical CuI buffer layer surface density for organic molecular crystal orientation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwangseok; Kim, Jong Beom; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Lee, Dong Ryeol

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the critical surface density of the CuI buffer layer inserted to change the preferred orientation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) crystals grown on the buffer layer. X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed to obtain the density profiles of the buffer layers and out-of-plane and 2D grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to determine the preferred orientations of the molecular crystals. Remarkably, it was found that the preferred orientation of the CuPc film is completely changed from edge-on (1 0 0) to face-on (1 1 -2) by a CuI buffer layer with a very low surface density, so low that a large proportion of the substrate surface is bare.

  10. Leaching and Redistribution of Nutrients in Surface Layer of Red Soils in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The leaching and redistribution of nutrients in the surface layer of 4 types of red soils in Southeast China were studied with a lysimeter experiment under field conditions. Results showed that the leaching concentrated in the rainy season (from April to June). Generally, the leaching of soil nutrients from the surface layer of red soils was in the order of Ca > Mg > K > NO3-N. In fertilization treatment, the total amount of soil nutrients leached out of the surface layer in a red soil derived from granite was the highest in all soils. The uptake by grass decreased the leaching of fertilizer ions in surface layer, particularly for NO3-N. Soil total N and exchangeable K, Ca and Mg in the surface layer decreased with leaching and grass uptake during the 2 years without new fertilization of urea, Ca(H2PO4)2, KCl, CaCO3 and MgCO3. Ca moved from the application layer (0~5 cm) of fertilizer and accumulated in the 10~30 cm depth in the soils studied except that derived from Quaternary red clay. The deficiency of soil exchangeable K will become a serious degradation process facing the Southeast China.

  11. CHARACTERIZING SURFACE LAYERS IN NITINOL USING X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopfel, R.; Mehta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitinol is a shape memory alloy whose properties allow for large reversible deformations and a return to its original geometry. This nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy has become a material used widely in the biomedical fi eld as a stent to open up collapsed arteries. Both ambient and biological conditions cause surface oxidation in these devices which in turn change its biocompatibility. The thickness of oxidized layers can cause fractures in the material if too large and can allow for penetration if too thin. Depending on the type and abundance of the chemical species on or near the surface, highly toxic metal ions can leak into the body causing cell damage or even cell death. Thus, biocompatibility of such devices is crucial. By using highly surface sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the surface of these structures, it is possible to decipher both layer composition and layer thickness. Two samples, both of which were mechanically polished, were investigated. Of the two samples, one was then exposed to a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution to mimic the chemical properties of blood, while the other remained unexposed. Although both samples were found to have oxide layers of appropriate thickness (on the order of a few nm), it was found that the sample exposed to the saline solution had a slightly thicker oxide layer and more signifi cantly, a phosphate layer very near the surface suggesting toxic metal components are well contained within the sample. These are considerable indications of a biocompatible device.

  12. Effects of concentration of Ag nanoparticles on surface structure and in vitro biological responses of oxide layer on pure titanium via plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Ryong; Kim, Yeon Sung; Kim, Gye Won [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hae Woong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young Gun, E-mail: younggun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Hyuk, E-mail: dhshin@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were embedded into the oxide surface without any compositional changes. • Oxide layer from the electrolyte with 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles could disinfect all bacteria. • With increasing Ag nanoparticles, bone-forming ability and cell proliferation rate decrease. - Abstract: This study was to investigate how Ag nanoparticles with various concentrations affect the surface structure and in vitro biological properties of oxide layers on the pure titanium produced by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. For this aim, PEO processes were carried out at an AC current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} for 300 s in potassium pyrophosphate (K{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) electrolytes containing 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Structural investigations using scanning electron microscopy evidenced that the oxide layers showed the successful incorporation of Ag nanoparticles, and the topographical deformation of the porous surface was found when the concentration of Ag nanoparticles was more than 0.1 g/l. Based on the anti-bacterial activity of all oxide layers, the Ag nanoparticles uniformly spread were of considerable importance in triggering the disinfection of E. coli bacteria. The bone forming abilities and cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation rates of oxide layers produced in electrolytes containing 0 and 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles were higher than those containing 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Consequently, the oxide layer on pure titanium via PEO process in the electrolyte with 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles exhibited better the bioactivity accompanying the anti-bacterial activity.

  13. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h and 97.1% (18 h, as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l by 80.5% (3 h and 89.0% (18 h, was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l. No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved

  14. Response surface methodology for optimization of medium for decolorization of textile dye Direct Black 22 by a novel bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, Sarayu; Shrivastava, Shalini; Divecha, Jyoti; Madamwar, Datta

    2008-02-01

    Decolorization and degradation of polyazo dye Direct Black 22 was carried out by distillery spent wash degrading mixed bacterial consortium, DMC. Response surface methodology (RSM) involving a central composite design (CCD) in four factors was successfully employed for the study and optimization of decolorization process. The hyper activities and interactions between glucose concentration, yeast extract concentration, dye concentration and inoculum size on dye decolorization were investigated and modeled. Under optimized conditions the bacterial consortium was able to decolorize the dye almost completely (>91%) within 12h. Bacterial consortium was able to decolorize 10 different azo dyes. The optimum combination of the four variables predicted through RSM was confirmed through confirmatory experiments and hence this bacterial consortium holds potential for the treatment of industrial waste water. Dye degradation products obtained during the course of decolorization were analyzed by HPTLC.

  15. Turbulent Structures and Coherence in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träumner, K.; Damian, Th.; Stawiarski, Ch.; Wieser, A.

    2015-01-01

    Organized structures in turbulent flow fields are a well-known and still fascinating phenomenon. Although these so-called coherent structures are obvious from visual inspection, quantitative assessment is a challenge and many aspects e.g., formation mechanisms and contribution to turbulent fluxes, are discussed controversially. During the "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction" Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) from April to May 2013, an advanced dual Doppler lidar technique was used to image the horizontal wind field near the surface for approximately 300 h. A visual inspection method, as well as a two-dimensional integral length scale analysis, were performed to characterize the observations qualitatively and quantitatively. During situations with forcing due to shear, the wind fields showed characteristic patterns in the form of clearly bordered, elongated areas of enhanced or reduced wind speed, which can be associated with near-surface streaks. During calm situations with strong buoyancy forcing, open cell patterns in the horizontal divergence field were observed. The measurement technique used enables the calculation of integral length scales of both horizontal wind components in the streamwise and cross-stream directions. The individual length scales varied considerably during the observation period but were on average shorter during situations with compared to strongly stable situations. During unstable situations, which were dominated by wind fields with structures, the streamwise length scales increased with increasing wind speed, whereas the cross-stream length scales decreased. Consequently, the anisotropy increased from 1 for calm situations to values of 2-3 for wind speeds of 8-10. During neutral to stable situations, the eddies were on average quite isotropic in the horizontal plane.

  16. Tunable Dipole Surface Plasmon Resonances of Silver Nanoparticles by Cladding Dielectric Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaotong; Li, Dabing; Sun, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhiming; Song, Hang; Jiang, Hong; Chen, Yiren

    2015-07-28

    The tunability of surface plasmon resonance can enable the highest degree of localised surface plasmon enhancement to be achieved, based on the emitting or absorbing wavelength. In this article, tunable dipole surface plasmon resonances of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are realized by modification of the SiO2 dielectric layer thicknesses. SiO2 layers both beneath and over the Ag NPs affected the resonance wavelengths of local surface plasmons (LSPs). By adjusting the SiO2 thickness beneath the Ag NPs from 5 nm to 20 nm, the dipole surface plasmon resonances shifted from 470 nm to 410 nm. Meanwhile, after sandwiching the Ag NPs by growing SiO2 before NPs fabrication and then overcoating the NPs with various SiO2 thicknesses from 5 nm to 20 nm, the dipole surface plasmon resonances changed from 450 nm to 490 nm. The SiO2 cladding dielectric layer can tune the Ag NP surface charge, leading to a change in the effective permittivity of the surrounding medium, and thus to a blueshift or redshift of the resonance wavelength. Also, the quadrupole plasmon resonances were suppressed by the SiO2 cladding layer because the dielectric SiO2 can suppress level splitting of surface plasmon resonances caused by the Ag NP coupling effect.

  17. Land-surface and boundary layer processes in a semi-arid heterogeneous landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochum, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The European Field Experiment in a Desertification-threatened Area (EFEDA) provides a comprehensive land-surface dataset for a semiarid Mediterranean environment. It is used here to study heat and moisture transport processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), to derive grid-scale surface flux

  18. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, Hauke; van Franeker, Jan-Andries; Cisewski, Boris; Leach, Harry; Van de Putte, Anton P.; Meesters, Erik (H. W. G.); Bathmann, Ulrich; Wolff, Wirn J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0-2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  19. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Franeker, van J.A.; Cisewski, B.; Leach, H.; Putte, van de A.P.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Bathmann, U.; Wolff, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0–2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  20. Derivation of the three-layer model for surface second-harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    We develop explicit expressions for the surface second-harmonic radiation yield using the three layer model. We derive expressions that can be applied to systems without and symmetry considerations, and then reduce them for the (111), (110), and (100) surface symmetries.

  1. Data-driven inversion of GPR surface reflection data for lossless layered media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, E.C.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Two wavefields can be retrieved from the measured reflection response at the surface. One is the Green’s function at a chosen virtual receiver depth level in a layered model generated by a source at the surface. The other wavefield consists of the upgoing and downgoing parts of a wavefield that focu

  2. A mechanical model for surface layer formation on self-lubricating ceramic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Jiupeng; Valefi, Mahdiar; Rooij, de Matthijn; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    To predict the thickness of a self-lubricating layer on the contact surface of ceramic composite material containing a soft phase during dry sliding test, a mechanical model was built to calculate the material transfer of the soft second phase in the composite to the surface. The tribological test,

  3. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  4. Laser-induced oxidation of titanium substrate: Analysis of the physicochemical structure of the surface and sub-surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J., E-mail: arkadiusz.antonczak@pwr.edu.pl [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Skowroński, Łukasz; Trzcinski, Marek [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Kinzhybalo, Vasyl V. [Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+, Stabłowicka 147, 54-066 Wrocław (Poland); Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Łazarek, Łukasz K.; Abramski, Krzysztof M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Chemical structure of the films induced by laser on titanium surface was analyzed. • It was shown that outer layer of this films consist of oxides doped with nitrogen. • The optical properties of the laser-induced oxynitride films were characterized. • We found that the films demonstrated significant absorption in the band of 300–580 nm. • The morphology of the layers as a function of the laser fluence was investigated. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the analysis of the complex chemical structure of the layers made on titanium in the process of the heating of its surfaces in an atmospheric environment, by irradiating samples with a nanosecond-pulsed laser. The study was carried out for electroplated, high purity, polycrystalline titanium substrates using a Yb:glass fiber laser. All measurements were made for samples irradiated in a broad range of accumulated fluence, below the ablation threshold. It has been determined how the complex index of refraction of both the oxynitride layers and the substrate vary as a function of accumulated laser fluence. It was also shown that the top layer of the film produced on titanium, which is transparent, is not a pure TiO{sub 2} as had been supposed before. The XPS and XRD analyses confirmed the presence of nitrogen compounds and the existence of nonstoichiometric compounds. By sputtering of the sample's surface using an Ar{sup +} ion gun, the changes in the concentration of individual elements as a function of the layer's cross-section were determined. Lastly, an analysis of the surface morphology has also been carried out, explaining why the layers crack and exfoliate from their substrate.

  5. Experimental Study on Surface Characteristics of Laser Cladding Layer Regulated by High-Frequency Microforging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiang Fang; Zhou, Ju; Qiu, Chang Jun; He, Bin; Ye, Jiang; Yuan, Bo; Pi, Zhengqing

    2011-03-01

    High-frequency microforging technology is used to produce micrometer-scale plastic deformation on the surface of material out of the vibration impact of a forging punch, and the cumulative effect of its various frequencies on micrometer-scale plastic deformation can cause changes of surface microstructure and mechanical properties. This study used (1) a self-made machine to treat NiCrBSi alloy, (2) a mechanical comparator and optical microscopy (OM) to study the geometric characteristics of plastic deformation, (3) OM and scanning electric microscopy (SEM) to observe influence on surface microstructure and cracking behavior of the laser cladding layer under microforging, (4) x-ray diffractometer (XRD) to measure the surface residual stress of laser cladding layer before and after forging, and (5) microhardness tester and wearing experimental machine to study changes of microhardness, friction coefficient, and wear characteristics of laser cladding layer after microforging. The results have shown that high-frequency microforging could produce plastic deformation about 150 μm deep on the surface of NiCrBSi alloy clad by laser. Regular dendrite and eutectic crystallization microstructure, which is a peculiar characteristic of the laser cladding layer, was broken into pieces and formed residual compression residual stress on the surface. Resistance to cracking of laser cladding layer improved greatly, microhardness and wearability increased, and the friction coefficient did not under go a noticeable change.

  6. Effect of surface layer thickness on buckling and vibration of nonlocal nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Kai-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Ming, E-mail: wenmingz@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhong, Zuo-Yang; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2014-01-31

    In this Letter, the buckling and vibration behavior of nonlocal nanowires by incorporating surface elasticity is investigated. A modified core–shell model is developed to depict the size effect of Young's modulus and validated by the reported experimental data. Our results show that the buckling load and natural frequency of nanowires increase when the effect of surface layer thickness is taken into account. Moreover, as the diameter of nanowires is smaller than 50 nm, the influence of surface layer thickness becomes obvious. This work can be helpful in characterizing and predicting the buckling and vibration behavior of NWs.

  7. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbing, Mark A.; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J.; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P. (UCLA)

    2012-09-05

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two 'homologous' tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-layer. The molecular features of our hexameric S-layer model recapitulate those visualized by medium resolution electron microscopy studies of microbial S-layers and greatly expand our molecular view of S-layer dimensions, porosity, and symmetry. The S-layer model reveals a negatively charged molecular sieve that presents both a charge and size barrier to restrict access to the cell periplasmic-like space. The {beta}-sandwich folds of the S-layer protein are structurally homologous to eukaryotic virus envelope proteins, suggesting that Archaea and viruses have arrived at a common solution for protective envelope structures. These results provide insight into the evolutionary origins of primitive cell envelope structures, of which the S-layer is considered to be among the most primitive: it also provides a platform for the development of self-assembling nanomaterials with diverse functional and structural properties.

  8. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbing, Mark A; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P

    2012-07-17

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two "homologous" tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-layer. The molecular features of our hexameric S-layer model recapitulate those visualized by medium resolution electron microscopy studies of microbial S-layers and greatly expand our molecular view of S-layer dimensions, porosity, and symmetry. The S-layer model reveals a negatively charged molecular sieve that presents both a charge and size barrier to restrict access to the cell periplasmic-like space. The β-sandwich folds of the S-layer protein are structurally homologous to eukaryotic virus envelope proteins, suggesting that Archaea and viruses have arrived at a common solution for protective envelope structures. These results provide insight into the evolutionary origins of primitive cell envelope structures, of which the S-layer is considered to be among the most primitive: it also provides a platform for the development of self-assembling nanomaterials with diverse functional and structural properties.

  9. Suppressing bacterial interaction with copper surfaces through graphene and hexagonal-boron nitride coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Carolina; Montero-Silva, Francisco; Henríquez, Ricardo; Flores, Marcos; Garín, Carolina; Ramírez, Cristian; Moreno, Macarena; Correa, Jonathan; Seeger, Michael; Häberle, Patricio

    2015-04-01

    Understanding biological interaction with graphene and hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) membranes has become essential for the incorporation of these unique materials in contact with living organisms. Previous reports show contradictions regarding the bacterial interaction with graphene sheets on metals. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the interaction of bacteria with copper substrates coated with single-layer graphene and h-BN. Our results demonstrate that such graphitic coatings substantially suppress interaction between bacteria and underlying Cu substrates, acting as an effective barrier to prevent physical contact. Bacteria do not "feel" the strong antibacterial effect of Cu, and the substrate does not suffer biocorrosion due to bacteria contact. Effectiveness of these systems as barriers can be understood in terms of graphene and h-BN impermeability to transfer Cu(2+) ions, even when graphene and h-BN domain boundary defects are present. Our results seem to indicate that as-grown graphene and h-BN films could successfully protect metals, preventing their corrosion in biological and medical applications.

  10. Dynamics of cathode spots in low-pressure arc plasma removing oxide layer on steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Liu, H. X.; Zhang, Y. C.; Li, H.; Zhu, X. D.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of cathode spots has been investigated in low-pressure arc plasma for removing oxide layer on low carbon steel surfaces. The motion of cathode spots was observed with a high speed camera, and the arc voltage was analyzed by fast Fourier transform. The spots move on clean steel surface as a random walk, and the low-frequency components dominated the voltage waveform. However, the spots on steel surfaces with oxide layer tend to burn on the rim of the eroded area formed in the previous arcing, and the low-frequency components decrease correspondingly. The "color" of the colored random noise for arc voltage varies from the approximate brown noise for clean steel surface to pink noise for thick oxide layer, where the edge effect of boundary is considered to play a significant role.

  11. Efficiency of silver nanoparticles against bacterial contaminants isolated from surface and ground water in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Dosoky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal efficiency of silver nanoparticles (AgNP was evaluated against bacteria isolated from surface and ground water samples in Egypt. The AgNP were synthesized by typical one-step synthesis protocol, and were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The bactericidal efficiency of AgNP was evaluated by its application in three concentrations i.e., 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 ppm to water sample, and allowed to interact with bacteria for different duration e.g., 5 min 15 min, 30 min, 1 h and 2 h. Then, the bactericidal efficiency of AgNPs was determined by comparing the counted bacteria before and after the treatments. Higher mean values of total bacterial count (TBC, total coliform count (TCC, and total streptococcal count (TFS were detected in surface water than in ground water. Also, the results showed that TBC, TCC and TFS exceeded permissible limits. Application of AgNP at different concentration, the number of bacteria in TBC was significantly reduced in all AgNP-exposed samples as compared to the control group (p<0.05. The highest concentration of AgNP exhibited highest bactericidal efficiency in TBC, where, after two hours, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 mg/L AgNP was found to be sufficient to inhibit 91.85, 89.14 and 74.92%, and 92.33, 85.23 and 53.17% in TBC of surface and ground water, respectively. Moreover, the inhibition efficiency of the highest concentration (0.1 ppm against TCC reached to 98.10 and 99.88% in surface water and 95.54 and 99.20% in ground water after 1 h and 2 h, respectively. Similar results were found against TFS count. The AgNPs were found to be effective against bacteria of water origin.

  12. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  13. Surface roughness and dislocation density in InP/InGaAs layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Denis P.; Laframboise, Sylvain

    2004-12-01

    A subtle roughening of the surface of a buried 60 nm InGaAs epitaxial layer was detected using a combination of sample cleaving, selective chemical etching and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). In our technology, InGaAs is the photo-absorbing layer of Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) grown layers used in the monolithic integration of active photo detectors and a passive mux/demux. Conventional Photo-Luminescence (PL) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques used to monitor and optimize the growth of epitaxial layers did not show this microscopic surface roughness. The appearance of roughness in the InGaAs layer was linked to very large changes in the dislocation density of the layers grown over the rough surface. Increases of up to three orders of magnitude in the Etch Pit Density (EPD from 104 to 107 cm-2) were revealed using a standard Huber Etch. The Huber Etch also showed the preferred formation of "pairs" of dislocations threading out from a common point on the rough InGaAs surface. Changes in growth conditions resulted in the complete elimination of roughness and of excessive dislocation densities

  14. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, A.G., E-mail: nik@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G.Yu.; Oks, E.M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oztarhan, A. [Izmir University, Izmir 35140 (Turkey); Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E.S. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  15. Structural insights into alginate binding by bacterial cell-surface protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtrirath, Kanate; Murata, Kousaku; Hashimoto, Wataru

    2015-03-02

    A gram-negative Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 inducibly forms a mouth-like pit on the cell surface in the presence of alginate and directly incorporates polymers into the cytoplasm via the pit and ABC transporter. Among the bacterial proteins involved in import of alginate, a cell-surface EfeO-like Algp7 shows an ability to bind alginate, suggesting its contribution to accumulate alginate in the pit. Here, we show identification of its positively charged cluster involved in alginate binding using X-ray crystallography, docking simulation, and site-directed mutagenesis. The tertiary structure of Algp7 was determined at a high resolution (1.99Å) by molecular replacement, although no alginates were included in the structure. Thus, an in silico model of Algp7/oligoalginate was constructed by docking simulation using atomic coordinates of Algp7 and alginate oligosaccharides, where some charged residues were found to be potential candidates for alginate binding. Site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and five purified mutants K68A, K69A, E194A, N221A, and K68A/K69A were subjected to a binding assay. UV absorption difference spectroscopy along with differential scanning fluorimetry analysis indicated that K68A/K69A exhibited a significant reduction in binding affinity with alginate than wild-type Algp7. Based on these data, Lys68/Lys69 residues of Algp7 probably play an important role in binding alginate.

  16. Diffusion of C and Cr During Creation of Surface Layer on Cast Steel Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnar J.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In paper a method of improvement in utility properties of unalloyed cast steel casting in result of diffusion of C and Cr in process of creation of surface layer is presented. The aim of paper was determination of diffusion range of basic elements of alloyed surface layer. Moreover a quantitative analysis of carbides phase strengthens alloyed surface layer of casting was carried out. The results of studies shown that important factors of surface layer creation are maximal temperature Tmax on granular insert – cast steel boundary dependent of pouring temperature, granularity Zw of Fe-Cr-C alloy insert and thickness of casting wall gśo. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that with increase of thickness of casting wall increases range of diffusion in solid state in Fe-Cr-C grains and in liquid state. Moreover the range of Tmax = 13001500oC favours creation of the proper alloyed surface layers on cast steel.

  17. A quality-control procedure for surface temperature and surface layer inversion in the XBT data archive from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.; Pattanaik, J.; Ratnakaran, L.

    and surface layer temperature inversion. XBT surface temperatrues (XST) are compared with the surface temperature from simultaneous CTD observations from four cruises and the former were found to be erroneous in a number of stations. XSTs are usually corrected...

  18. Surface (S)-layer proteins of Deinococcus radiodurans and their utility as vehicles for surface localization of functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Chitra Seetharam; Basu, Bhakti; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The radiation resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans contains two major surface (S)-layer proteins, Hpi and SlpA. The Hpi protein was shown to (a) undergo specific in vivo cleavage, and (b) closely associate with the SlpA protein. Using a non-specific acid phosphatase from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, PhoN as a reporter, the Surface Layer Homology (SLH) domain of SlpA was shown to bind deinococcal peptidoglycan-containing cell wall sacculi. The association of SlpA with Hpi on one side and peptidoglycan on the other, localizes this protein in the 'interstitial' layer of the deinoccocal cell wall. Gene chimeras of hpi-phoN and slh-phoN were constructed to test efficacy of S-layer proteins, as vehicles for cell surface localization in D. radiodurans. The Hpi-PhoN protein localized exclusively in the membrane fraction, and displayed cell-based phosphatase activity in vivo. The SLH-PhoN, which localized to both cytosolic and membrane fractions, displayed in vitro activity but no cell-based in vivo activity. Hpi, therefore, emerged as an efficient surface localizing protein and can be exploited for suitable applications of this superbug.

  19. Anhydride-functional silane immobilized onto titanium surfaces induces osteoblast cell differentiation and reduces bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria, E-mail: maria.godoy.gallardo@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Guillem-Marti, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.guillem.marti@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sevilla, Pablo, E-mail: psevilla@euss.es [Department of Mechanics, Escola Universitària Salesiana de Sarrià (EUSS), C/ Passeig de Sant Bosco, 42, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Manero, José M., E-mail: jose.maria.manero@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gil, Francisco J., E-mail: francesc.xavier.gil@upc.edu [Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research in NanoEngineering (CRNE) — UPC, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial infection in dental implants along with osseointegration failure usually leads to loss of the device. Bioactive molecules with antibacterial properties can be attached to titanium surfaces with anchoring molecules such as silanes, preventing biofilm formation and improving osseointegration. Properties of silanes as molecular binders have been thoroughly studied, but research on the biological effects of these coatings is scarce. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro cell response and antibacterial effects of triethoxysilypropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA) silane anchored on titanium surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed a successful silanization. The silanized surfaces showed no cytotoxic effects. Gene expression analyses of Sarcoma Osteogenic (SaOS-2) osteoblast-like cells cultured on TESPSA silanized surfaces reported a remarkable increase of biochemical markers related to induction of osteoblastic cell differentiation. A manifest decrease of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation at early stages was observed on treated substrates, while favoring cell adhesion and spreading in bacteria–cell co-cultures. Surfaces treated with TESPSA could enhance a biological sealing on implant surfaces against bacteria colonization of underlying tissues. Furthermore, it can be an effective anchoring platform of biomolecules on titanium surfaces with improved osteoblastic differentiation and antibacterial properties. - Highlights: • TESPSA silane induces osteoblast differentiation. • TESPSA reduces bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. • TESPSA is a promising anchoring platform of biomolecules onto titanium.

  20. Potential Environmental Factors Affecting Oil-Degrading Bacterial Populations in Deep and Surface Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-01-01

    Understanding bacterial community dynamics as a result of an oil spill is important for predicting the fate of oil released to the environment and developing bioremediation strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the roles of temperature, water chemistry (nutrients), and initial bacterial community in selecting oil degraders through a series of incubation experiments. Surface (2 m) and bottom (1537 m) waters, collected near the Deepwater Horizon site, were amended with 200 ppm light Louisiana sweet crude oil and bacterial inoculums from surface or bottom water, and incubated at 4 or 24°C for 50 days. Bacterial community and residual oil were analyzed by pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results showed that temperature played a key role in selecting oil-degrading bacteria. Incubation at 4°C favored the development of Cycloclasticus, Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, and Reinekea, while 24°C incubations enhanced Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Phaeobacter, and Roseobacter. Water chemistry and the initial community also had potential roles in the development of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities. Pseudoalteromonas, Oleibacter, and Winogradskyella developed well in the nutrient-enriched bottom water, while Reinekea and Thalassobius were favored by low-nutrient surface water. We revealed that the combination of 4°C, crude oil and bottom inoculum was a key factor for the growth of Cycloclasticus, while the combination of surface inoculum and bottom water chemistry was important for the growth of Pseudoalteromonas. Moreover, regardless of the source of inoculum, bottom water at 24°C was a favorable condition for Oleibacter. Redundancy analysis further showed that temperature and initial community explained 57 and 19% of the variation observed, while oil and water chemistry contributed 14 and 10%, respectively. Overall, this study revealed the relative roles of temperature, water

  1. Quorum sensing signal production and microbial interactions in a polymicrobial disease of corals and the coral surface mucopolysaccharide layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L Zimmer

    Full Text Available Black band disease (BBD of corals is a complex polymicrobial disease considered to be a threat to coral reef health, as it can lead to mortality of massive reef-building corals. The BBD community is dominated by gliding, filamentous cyanobacteria with a highly diverse population of heterotrophic bacteria. Microbial interactions such as quorum sensing (QS and antimicrobial production may be involved in BBD disease pathogenesis. In this study, BBD (whole community samples, as well as 199 bacterial isolates from BBD, the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML of apparently healthy corals, and SML of apparently healthy areas of BBD-infected corals were screened for the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs and for autoinducer-2 (AI-2 activity using three bacterial reporter strains. AHLs were detected in all BBD (intact community samples tested and in cultures of 5.5% of BBD bacterial isolates. Over half of a subset (153 of the isolates were positive for AI-2 activity. AHL-producing isolates were further analyzed using LC-MS/MS to determine AHL chemical structure and the concentration of (S-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD, the biosynthetic precursor of AI-2. C6-HSL was the most common AHL variant detected, followed by 3OC4-HSL. In addition to QS assays, 342 growth challenges were conducted among a subset of the isolates, with 27% of isolates eliciting growth inhibition and 2% growth stimulation. 24% of BBD isolates elicited growth inhibition as compared to 26% and 32% of the bacteria from the two SML sources. With one exception, only isolates that exhibited AI-2 activity or produced DPD inhibited growth of test strains. These findings demonstrate for the first time that AHLs are present in an active coral disease. It is possible that AI-2 production among BBD and coral SML bacteria may structure the microbial communities of both a polymicrobial infection and the healthy coral microbiome.

  2. Study of the amorphization of surface silicon layers implanted by low-energy helium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomov, A. A.; Myakon'kikh, A. V.; Oreshko, A. P.; Shemukhin, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural changes in surface layers of Si(001) substrates subjected to plasma-immersion implantation by (2-5)-keV helium ions to a dose of D = 6 × 1015-5 × 1017 cm-2 have been studied by highresolution X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, and spectral ellipsometry. It is found that the joint application of these methods makes it possible to determine the density depth distribution ρ( z) in an implanted layer, its phase state, and elemental composition. Treatment of silicon substrates in helium plasma to doses of 6 × 1016 cm-2 leads to the formation of a 20- to 30-nm-thick amorphized surface layer with a density close to the silicon density. An increase in the helium dose causes the formation of an internal porous layer.

  3. Electrical conductivity of reconstructed Si(111) surface with sodium-doped C{sub 60} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukanov, D. A., E-mail: tsukanov@iacp.dvo.ru; Saranin, A. A. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Ryzhkova, M. V.; Borisenko, E. A. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Zotov, A. V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Department of Electronics, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok 690600 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-05

    Electrical conductance of sodium-doped C{sub 60} ultra-thin layers (1–6 monolayers) grown on the Na-adsorbed Si(111)√3 × √3-Au surface has been studied in situ by four-point probe technique, combined with low-energy electron diffraction observations. Evidence of conductance channel formation through the C{sub 60} ultrathin layer is demonstrated as a result of Na dosing of 3 and 6 monolayers thick C{sub 60} layers. The observed changes in surface conductivity can be attributed to the formation of fulleride-like NaC{sub 60} and Na{sub 2}C{sub 60} compound layers.

  4. Aerodynamically-driven condensate layer thickness distributions on isothermal cylindrical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.; Gunes, D.; Nazih-Anous, N.

    A simple yet rather general mathematical model is presented for predicting the distribution of condensate layer thickness when aerodynamic shear is the dominant mechanism of liquid flow along the surface. The Newtonian condensate film is treated using well-known thin-layer (lubrication theory) approximations, and condensate supply is taken to be the result of either convective diffusion or inertial impaction. Illustrative calculations for a circular cylinder in a crossflow at Re = 100,000 reveal the consequences of alternate condensate arrival mechanisms and the existence of thicker reverse-flow films behind the position of gas boundary-layer separation. The present formulation is readily generalized to include transient liquid layer flows on noncircular objects of variable surface temperature, as encountered in turbine-blade materials testing or operation.

  5. Physical mechanism and numerical simulations of surface layer temperature inversion in tropical ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Haimei; LI Bingrui; ZHANG Qinghua; LIU Zhiliang

    2005-01-01

    The one-dimensional Kraus-Tumer mixed layer model improved by Liu is developed to consider the effect of salinity and the equations of temperature and salinity under the mixed layer. On this basis, the processes of growth and death of surface layer temperature inversion is numerically simulated under different environmental parameters. At the same time, the physical mechanism is preliminarily discussed combining the observations at the station of TOGA-COARE 0°N, 156°E. The results indicate that temperature inversion sensitively depends on the mixed layer depth, sea surface wind speed and solar shortwave radiation, etc., and appropriately meteorological and hydrological conditions often lead to the similarly periodical occurrence of this inversion phenomenon.

  6. Surface-modified nanoparticles as a new, versatile, and mechanically robust nonadhesive coating: Suppression of protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, P.F.; Currie, E.P.K.; Thies, J.C.; Mei, van der H.C.; Busscher, H.J.; Norde, W.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of surface-modified silica nanoparticles, chemically grafted with acrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) groups, and the ability of the resulting crosslinked coatings to inhibit protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion are explored. Water contact angles, nanoindentation, and atomic

  7. Surface-modified nanoparticles as a new, versatile, and mechanically robust nonadhesive coating : Suppression of protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, P. F.; Currie, E. P. K.; Thies, J. C.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Norde, W.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of surface-modified silica nanoparticles, chemically grafted with acrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) groups, and the ability of the resulting crosslinked coatings to inhibit protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion are explored. Water contact angles, nanoindentation, and atomic

  8. Surface structure and surface kinetics of InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy: A HREELS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Ananta R., E-mail: aacharya@georgiasouthern.edu, E-mail: anantaach@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia 30460 (United States); Thoms, Brian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Nepal, Neeraj [American Association for Engineering Education, 1818 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20034 (United States); Eddy, Charles R. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The surface bonding configuration and kinetics of hydrogen desorption from InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy have been investigated. High resolution electron energy loss spectra exhibited loss peaks assigned to a Fuchs–Kliewer surface phonon, N-N and N-H surface species. The surface N-N vibrations are attributed to surface defects. The observation of N-H but no In-H surface species suggested N-terminated InN. Isothermal desorption data were best fit by the first-order desorption kinetics with an activation energy of (0.88 ± 0.06) eV and pre-exponential factor of (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5 }s{sup −1}.

  9. Attachment and invasion of Neisseria meningitidis to host cells is related to surface hydrophobicity, bacterial cell size and capsule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N Bartley

    Full Text Available We compared exemplar strains from two hypervirulent clonal complexes, strain NMB-CDC from ST-8/11 cc and strain MC58 from ST-32/269 cc, in host cell attachment and invasion. Strain NMB-CDC attached to and invaded host cells at a significantly greater frequency than strain MC58. Type IV pili retained the primary role for initial attachment to host cells for both isolates regardless of pilin class and glycosylation pattern. In strain MC58, the serogroup B capsule was the major inhibitory determinant affecting both bacterial attachment to and invasion of host cells. Removal of terminal sialylation of lipooligosaccharide (LOS in the presence of capsule did not influence rates of attachment or invasion for strain MC58. However, removal of either serogroup B capsule or LOS sialylation in strain NMB-CDC increased bacterial attachment to host cells to the same extent. Although the level of inhibition of attachment by capsule was different between these strains, the regulation of the capsule synthesis locus by the two-component response regulator MisR, and the level of surface capsule determined by flow cytometry were not significantly different. However, the diplococci of strain NMB-CDC were shown to have a 1.89-fold greater surface area than strain MC58 by flow cytometry. It was proposed that the increase in surface area without changing the amount of anchored glycolipid capsule in the outer membrane would result in a sparser capsule and increase surface hydrophobicity. Strain NMB-CDC was shown to be more hydrophobic than strain MC58 using hydrophobicity interaction chromatography and microbial adhesion-to-solvents assays. In conclusion, improved levels of adherence of strain NMB-CDC to cell lines was associated with increased bacterial cell surface and surface hydrophobicity. This study shows that there is diversity in bacterial cell surface area and surface hydrophobicity within N. meningitidis which influence steps in meningococcal pathogenesis.

  10. Bacterial microflora isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in areas where air pollution is very high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 1976 bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Erwinia and Cellulomonas were isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in protective belts around several industrial plants. It was found that the qualitative and quantitative composition of the surface bacterial microflora changes in dependence on the degree of resistance of the poplars to the action of the dust emitted by the industrial establishment and containing high amounts of heavy metals.

  11. Anomalous hexagonal superstructure of aluminum oxide layer grown on NiAl(110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Pawel; Chaunchaiyakul, Songpol; Minagawa, Yuto; Yajima, Nami; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Saito, Akira; Kuwahara, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    A modified method for the fabrication of a highly crystallized layer of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface is reported. The fabrication method involves the multistep selective oxidation of aluminum atoms on a NiAl(110) surface resulting from successive oxygen deposition and annealing. The surface morphology and local electronic structure of the novel aluminum oxide layer were investigated by high-resolution imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy. In contrast to the standard fabrication method of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface, the proposed method produces an atomically flat surface exhibiting a hexagonal superstructure. The superstructure exhibits a slightly distorted hexagonal array of close-packed bright protrusions with a periodicity of 4.5 ± 0.2 nm. Atomically resolved STM imaging of the aluminum oxide layer reveals a hexagonal arrangement of dark contrast spots with a periodicity of 0.27 ± 0.02 nm. On the basis of the atomic structure of the fabricated layer, the formation of α-Al2O3(0001) on the NiAl(110) surface is suggested.

  12. Methods of improvement in hardness of composite surface layer on cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in founding process a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy and next its remelting with use of welding technology TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generally applied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. However the results of studies show, that is possible to connection of both methods founding and welding of surface hardening of cast steel castings. In range of experimental plan was made test castings with composite surface layer, which next were remelted with energy 0,8 and 1,6 kJ/cm. Usability for industrial applications of test castings was estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  13. IMPACT OF VIBRATORY AND ROTATIONAL SHOT PEENING ONTO SELECTED PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM ALLOY SURFACE LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zaleski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of tests on impact of vibratory and rotational shot peening of the Ti6A12Mo2Cr titanium alloy onto the processed object surface roughness and surface layer microhardness. The external surfaces of ring-shaped samples were shot peened. The preceding process consisted of turning with a cubic boron nitride blade knife. Steel beads, having a diameter of 6 mm, were used as a processing medium. The variable parameters of shot peening were vibrator amplitude and shot peening time. The range of recommended technological parameters for vibratory and rotational shot peening was determined. As a result of shot peening, the surface roughness could be reduced by approximately 4 times and the surface layer could be hardened to the depth of approximately 0.4 mm.

  14. Function mechanism of carbide layer on surface of La2O3-Mo cathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ion implanting method has been taken for implanting lanthanum ions into the surface layer of molybdenum wires in order to study the function of carbide layer on the surface of La2O3-Mo cathode in the emission. The function mechanism has been discussed by using XPS and AES methods. The results show that the carbide layer mainly acts as a reduction reagent to produce metallic lanthanum. Moreover, it can store the activator substance and carry them to the surface. Based on the research results, the carbonization technique has been changed. By applying the new technique, the lifetime of the La2O3-Mo cathode has been improved from 14  h to more than 1  000  h—the minimum lifetime for practical uses.

  15. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P.; Gromov, Viktor E.; Budovskikh, Evgenii A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.; Soskova, Nina A.

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB2, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO2) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  16. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P., E-mail: luda.baschenko@gmail.com; Gromov, Viktor E., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru; Budovskikh, Evgenii A., E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru; Soskova, Nina A., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yurii F., E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB{sub 2}, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO{sub 2}) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  17. Microstructural Evolution of Surface Layer of TWIP Steel Deformed by Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A nanocrystalline layer was synthesized on the surface of TWIP steel samples by surface mechanical attri- tion treatment (SMAT) under varying durations. Microhardness variation was examined along the depth of the de- formation layer. Microstructural characteristics of the surface at the TWIP steel SMATed for 90 min were observed and analyzed by optical microscope, x-ray diffraction, transmission and high-resolution electron microscope. The re- sults show that the orientation of austenite grains weakens, and a-martensite transformation occurs during SMAT. During the process of SMAT, the deformation twins generate and divide the austenite grains firstly~ then a-martens- ite transformation occurs beside and between the twin bundles~ after that the martensite and austenite grains rotate to accommodate deformation, and the orientations of martensite and between martensite and residual austenite increase; lastly the randomly oriented and uniform-sized nanocrystallir~e layers are formed under continuous deformation.

  18. Effect of irradiation by argon ions on hydrogen transport through the surface oxide layer of zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsin, A. E.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Gumarov, A. I.; Kashapov, N. F.; Luchkin, A. G.; Vakhitov, I. R.; Yanilkin, I. V.; Tagirov, L. R.

    2016-09-01

    Effect of zirconium irradiation by 1 keV Ar+ ions on hydrogen transport through the surface oxide layer is studied. It is shown that deuterium trapping under subsequent irradiation of the Ar-treated sample by deuterium atoms of thermal energies in D2 + 30at.% O2 gas mixture is 2 times less than trapping in the untreated sample. Besides, irradiation of the untreated sample by D-atoms provokes desorption of ≈25% of hydrogen contained therein, whereas hydrogen desorption from the ion-treated zirconium surface does not occur. It is proposed that oxygen depletion of the surface oxide layer, caused by ion bombardment, is a reason of mitigation of the hydrogen transport through this layer in both directions.

  19. Enhancement of effective electromechanical coupling factor by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave device structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Teshigahara, Akihiko; Iwaki, Takao; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a drastic enhancement of the effective coupling factor K\\text{e}2 by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures such as the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure. This phenomenon occurs when the piezoelectric layer exhibits a high acoustic wave velocity. The mass loading decreases the SAW velocity and causes SAW energy confinement close to the top surface where an interdigital transducer is placed. It is shown that this phenomenon is obvious even when an amorphous SiO2 film is deposited on the top surface for temperature compensation. This K\\text{e}2 enhancement was also found in various combinations of electrode, piezoelectric layer, and/or substrate materials. The existence of this phenomenon was verified experimentally using the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure.

  20. Surface modification of oxide layer on Si using highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M., E-mail: msakurai@kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Liu, S.; Sakai, S. [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohtani, S. [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Terui, T. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Sakaue, H.A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Surface modification using highly charged ions is presented. The surface of a Si wafer which is covered with a native oxide layer is used as a sample. The sample was irradiated with Ar{sup 11+} ions at a fluence of 10{sup 13}–10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. The Ar{sup 11+} ions were obtained from an electron beam ion source (Kobe EBIS). The surface was investigated using secondary electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. The obtained results suggest that the native oxide layer is sputtered by the irradiation of Ar{sup 11+} ions and that the structural modification makes the density of the oxide layer lower and the electric conductivity higher.

  1. Are the surface layer homology domains essential for cell surface display and glycosylation of the S-layer protein from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesch, Bettina; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2013-02-01

    Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) cells are decorated with a two-dimensional (2D) crystalline array comprised of the glycosylated S-layer protein SpaA. At its N terminus, SpaA possesses three consecutive surface layer (S-layer) homology (SLH) domains containing the amino acid motif TRAE, known to play a key role in cell wall binding, as well as the TVEE and TRAQ variations thereof. SpaA is predicted to be anchored to the cell wall by interaction of the SLH domains with a peptidoglycan (PG)-associated, nonclassical, pyruvylated secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP). In this study, we have analyzed the role of the three predicted binding motifs within the SLH domains by mutating them into TAAA motifs, either individually, pairwise, or all of them. Effects were visualized in vivo by homologous expression of chimeras made of the mutated S-layer proteins and enhanced green fluorescent protein and in an in vitro binding assay using His-tagged SpaA variants and native PG-containing cell wall sacculi that either contained SCWP or were deprived of it. Experimental data indicated that (i) the TRAE, TVEE, and TRAQ motifs are critical for the binding function of SLH domains, (ii) two functional motifs are sufficient for cell wall binding, regardless of the domain location, (iii) SLH domains have a dual-recognition function for the SCWP and the PG, and (iv) cell wall anchoring is not necessary for SpaA glycosylation. Additionally, we showed that the SLH domains of SpaA are sufficient for in vivo cell surface display of foreign proteins at the cell surface of P. alvei.

  2. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E

    1985-01-01

    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant.

  3. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, t...

  4. Turbulent dusty boundary layer in an ANFO surface-burst explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, A. L.; Ferguson, R. E.; Chien, K. Y.; Collins, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty, turbulent boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The blast wave was generated by the detonation of a 600-T hemisphere of ANFO, similar to those used in large-scale field tests. The surface was assumed to be ideally noncratering but contained an initial loose layer of dust. The dust-air mixture in this fluidized bed was modeled as a dense gas (i.e., an equilibrium model, valid for very small-diameter dust particles). The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws. Shock interactions with dense layer generated vorticity near the wall, a result that is similar to viscous, no-slip effects found in clean flows. The resulting wall shear layer was unstable, and rolled up into large-scale rotational structures. These structures entrained dense material from the wall layer and created a chaotically striated flow. The boundary layer grew due to merging of the large-scale structures and due to local entrainment of the dense material from the fluidized bed. The chaotic flow was averaged along similarity lines (i.e., lines of constant values of x = r/Rs and y = z/Rs where R(sub s) = ct(exp alpha)) to establish the mean-flow profiles and the r.m.s. fluctuating-flow profiles of the boundary layer.

  5. Tribological Properties of the Fe-Al-Cr Alloyed Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was deposited onto the surface of Q235 low-carbon steel via double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM) to improve the steel's wear resistance. After the DGPSM treatment, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer grown on the Q235 low-carbon steel was homogeneous and compact and had a thickness of 25 µm. The layer was found to be metallurgically adhered to the substrate. The frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of the sample with a Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer (treated sample) were both lower than those of the bare substrate (untreated sample) at the measured temperatures (25, 250 and 450 °C). The results indicated that the substrate and the alloyed layer suffered oxidative wear and abrasive wear, respectively, and that the treated samples exhibited much better tribological properties than did the substrate. The formation of Fe2AlCr, Fe3Al(Cr), FeAl(Cr), Fe(Cr) sosoloid and Cr23C6 phases in the alloyed layer dramatically enhanced the wear resistance of the treated sample. In addition, the alloyed layer's oxidation film exhibited a self-healing capacity with lubrication action that also contributed to the improvement of the wear resistance at high temperature. In particular, at 450 °C, the specific wear rate of treated sample was 2.524 × 10-4 mm3/N m, which was only 45.2% of the untreated sample.

  6. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering ability and some UV protection, all achieved using an environmentally friendly coating process, which is beneficial to retain the natural appearance of wood and improve indoor air quality and comfort.

  7. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Haung, Chiung-Fang [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Division of Family and Operative Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Shyu, Shih-Shiun [Department of Dentistry, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chou, Yen-Ru [Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); Peng, Pei-Wen, E-mail: apon@tmu.edu.tw [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  8. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  9. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  10. Comparison of mechanical properties of surface layers with use of nanoindentation and microindentation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeleňák

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a mutual comparison of different methods for evaluation of mechanical properties of surface layers. Mechanical properties were tested with the use of nanoindentation and microindentation tests. Different loads and constant deformation speed were used in both cases. For the evaluation of mechanical properties, the AISI 304 type Chromium-Nickel steel commonly used in mechanical engineering industry was tested. Knowledge of relations and differences between nano and micromechanical properties is necessary for understanding of mechanical processes continuously occurring in surface layers during cutting processes.

  11. Effectiveness of Protective Action of Coatings from Moisture Sorption into Surface Layer of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the sorption process of surface layers of sand moulds covered by zirconium and zirconium - graphite alcohol coatings are presented in the paper. Investigations comprised two kinds of sand grains (silica sand and reclaimed sand of moulding sand with furan resin. Tests were performed under conditions of a high relative air humidity 75 - 85% and a constant temperature within the range 28 – 33°C. To evaluate the effectiveness of coatings protective action from moisture penetration into surface layers of sand moulds gravimetric method of quantitavie moisture sorption and ultrasonic method were applied in measurements.

  12. Metal Surface Modification for Obtaining Nano- and Sub-Nanostructured Protective Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledovskykh, Volodymyr; Vyshnevska, Yuliya; Brazhnyk, Igor; Levchenko, Sergiy

    2017-03-01

    Regularities of the phase protective layer formation in multicomponent systems involving inhibitors with different mechanism of protective action have been investigated. It was shown that optimization of the composition of the inhibition mixture allows to obtain higher protective efficiency owing to improved microstructure of the phase layer. It was found that mechanism of the film formation in the presence of NaNO2-PHMG is due to deposition of slightly soluble PHMG-Fe complexes on the metal surface. On the basis of the proposed mechanism, the advanced surface engineering methods for obtaining nanoscaled and sub-nanostructured functional coatings may be developed.

  13. Macro-carriers of plastic deformation of steel surface layers detected by digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanitsa, D. G., E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Ustinov, A. M., E-mail: artemustinov@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Potekaev, A. I., E-mail: potekaev@spti.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kopanitsa, G. D., E-mail: georgy.kopanitsa@mail.com [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a study of characteristics of an evolution of deformation fields in surface layers of medium-carbon low-alloy specimens under compression. The experiments were performed on the “Universal Testing Machine 4500” using a digital stereoscopic image processing system Vic-3D. A transition between stages is reflected as deformation redistribution on the near-surface layers. Electronic microscopy shows that the structure of the steel is a mixture of pearlite and ferrite grains. A proportion of pearlite is 40% and ferrite is 60%.

  14. Linking the Presence of Surfactant Associated Bacteria on the Sea Surface and in the Near Surface Layer of the Ocean to Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Bryan; Dean, Cayla; Kurata, Naoko; Soloviev, Alex; Tartar, Aurelien; Shivji, Mahmood; Perrie, William; Lehner, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Several genera of bacteria residing on the sea surface and in the near-surface layer of the ocean have been found to be involved in the production and decay of surfactants. Under low wind speed conditions, these surfactants can suppress short gravity capillary waves at the sea surface and form natural sea slicks. These features can be observed with both airborne and satellite-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR). We have developed a new method for sampling the sea surface microlayer that has reduced contamination from the boat and during lab handling of samples. Using this new method, a series of experiments have been conducted to establish a connection between the presence of surfactant-associated bacteria in the upper layer of the ocean and sea slicks. DNA analysis of in situ samples taken during a RADARSAT-2 satellite overpass in the Straits of Florida during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill showed a higher abundance of surfactant-associated bacterial genera in the slick area as compared to the non-slick area. These genera were found to be more abundant in the subsurface water samples collected as compared to samples taken from the sea surface. The experiment was repeated in the Straits of Florida in September 2013 and was coordinated with TerraSAR-X satellite overpasses. The observations suggest that the surfactants contributing to sea slick formation are produced by marine bacteria in the organic matter-rich water column and move to the sea surface by diffusion or advection. Thus, within a range of wind-wave conditions, the organic materials present in the water column (such as dissolved oil spills) can be monitored with SAR satellite imagery. In situ sampling was also performed in the Gulf of Mexico in December 2013 during RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X satellite overpasses. Areas near natural oil seeps identified from archived TerraSAR-X imagery were targeted for in situ sampling. A number of samples from this location have been analyzed to determine the

  15. Delivery of surface-mediated non-viral gene nanoparticles from ultrathin layer-by-layer multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An efficient and safe gene delivery system remains a challenge in the development of gene therapy.Polycation-based gene nanoparticles are a typical non-viral gene delivery system,which are able to transfect cells in vitro and in vivo.This paper reported a facile method for constructing biodegradable multilayers via layer-by-layer self-assembly,in which the polycation-based gene nanoparticles were loaded.Through this surface-mediated delivery system,adherent cells on the multilayer could be transfected in situ.Gene nanoparticles-loaded multilayers transfect cells with higher efficiency than naked DNA-loaded multilayers because of the complex configuration of the DNA.DNA nanoparticles/PGA multilayers constructed on the scaffold surface could also realize in situ transfection on the adherent cells.The well-structured,easy-processed multilayers may provide a novel approach to precisely controlled delivery of gene nanoparticles,which may have potential applications for gene therapy in tissue engineering and medical implants.

  16. Layer-by-layer TiO(2)/WO(3) thin films as efficient photocatalytic self-cleaning surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrocinio, Antonio Otavio T; Paula, Leonardo F; Paniago, Roberto M; Freitag, Janna; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2014-10-08

    New TiO2/WO3 films were produced by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and successfully applied as self-cleaning photocatalytic surfaces. The films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates from the respective metal oxide nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method. Thirty alternative immersions in pH = 2 TiO2 and pH = 10 WO3 sols resulted in ca. 400 nm thick films that exhibited a W(VI)/Ti(IV) molar ratio of 0.5, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, along with atomic force images, showed that the resulting layers are constituted by aggregates of very small nanoparticles (films were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The films behave as nanoscale heterojunctions, and the presence of WO3 nanoparticles caused a decrease in the optical band gap of the bilayers compared to that of pure LbL TiO2 films. The TiO2/WO3 thin films exhibited high hydrophilicity, which is enhanced after exposition to UV light, and they can efficiently oxidize gaseous acetaldehyde under UV(A) irradiation. Photonic efficiencies of ξ = 1.5% were determined for films constituted by 30 TiO2/WO3 bilayers in the presence of 1 ppm of acetaldehyde, which are ∼2 times higher than those observed for pure LbL TiO2 films. Therefore, these films can act as efficient and cost-effective layers for self-cleaning, antifogging applications.

  17. Effect of GABA, a Bacterial Metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens Surface Properties and Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. J. Feuilloley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different bacterial species and, particularly Pseudomonas fluorescens, can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and express GABA-binding proteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of GABA on the virulence and biofilm formation activity of different strains of P. fluorescens. Exposure of a psychotropic strain of P. fluorescens (MF37 to GABA (10−5 M increased its necrotic-like activity on eukaryotic (glial cells, but reduced its apoptotic effect. Conversely, muscimol and bicuculline, the selective agonist and antagonist of eukaryote GABAA receptors, respectively, were ineffective. P. fluorescens MF37 did not produce biosurfactants, and its caseinase, esterase, amylase, hemolytic activity or pyoverdine productions were unchanged. In contrast, the effect of GABA was associated to rearrangements of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS structure, particularly in the lipid A region. The surface hydrophobicity of MF37 was marginally modified, and GABA reduced its biofilm formation activity on PVC, but not on glass, although the initial adhesion was increased. Five other P. fluorescens strains were studied, and only one, MFP05, a strain isolated from human skin, showed structural differences of biofilm maturation after exposure to GABA. These results reveal that GABA can regulate the LPS structure and cytotoxicity of P. fluorescens, but that this property is specific to some strains.

  18. A novel quantitative kinase assay using bacterial surface display and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Troeira Henriques

    Full Text Available The inhibition of tyrosine kinases is a successful approach for the treatment of cancers and the discovery of kinase inhibitor drugs is the focus of numerous academic and pharmaceutical laboratories. With this goal in mind, several strategies have been developed to measure kinase activity and to screen novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Nevertheless, a general non-radioactive and inexpensive approach, easy to implement and adapt to a range of applications, is still missing. Herein, using Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase, an oncogenic target and a model protein for cancer studies, we describe a novel cost-effective high-throughput screening kinase assay. In this approach, named the BacKin assay, substrates displayed on a Bacterial cell surface are incubated with Kinase and their phosphorylation is examined and quantified by flow cytometry. This approach has several advantages over existing approaches, as using bacteria (i.e. Escherichia coli to display peptide substrates provides a self renewing solid support that does not require laborious chemical strategies. Here we show that the BacKin approach can be used for kinetic and mechanistic studies, as well as a platform to characterize and identify small-molecule or peptide-based kinase inhibitors with potential applications in drug development.

  19. Permeation Properties and Pore Structure of Surface Layer of Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the nature of permeation properties and pore structure of concrete surface layers containing fly ash. Concretes containing different dosages of fly ash as a replacement for cement (15% and 30% by weight of total cement materials, respectively were investigated. Concrete without any fly ash added was also employed as the reference specimen. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the surface layer properties of concrete including chloride transport, apparent water permeability and pore structure. The results demonstrate that incorporation of fly ash, for the early test period, promotes the chloride ingress at the surface layer of concrete but substituting proportions of fly ash may have little impact on it. With the process of chloride immersion, the chloride concentration at the surface layer of concrete with or without fly ash was found to be nearly the same. In addition, it is suggested that the water permeability at the concrete surface area is closely related to the fly ash contents as well as the chloride exposure time. Pore structure was characterized by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. The modification of pore structure of concrete submersed in distilled water is determined by the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash and the calcium leaching effect. The pozzolanic reaction was more dominant at the immersion time of 180 days while the calcium leaching effect became more evident after 270 days.

  20. Critical heat flux maxima resulting from the controlled morphology of nanoporous hydrophilic surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; Azizian, Reza; Bucci, Matteo; McKrell, Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Rubner, Michael; Cohen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Porous hydrophilic surfaces have been shown to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling heat transfer. In this work, the separate effects of pore size and porous layer thickness on the CHF of saturated water at atmospheric pressure were experimentally investigated using carefully engineered surfaces. It was shown that, for a fixed pore diameter (˜20 nm), there is an optimum layer thickness (˜2 μm), for which the CHF value is maximum, corresponding to ˜115% enhancement over the value for uncoated surfaces. Similarly, a maximum CHF value (˜100% above the uncoated surface CHF) was observed while changing the pore size at a constant layer thickness (˜1 μm). To explain these CHF maxima, we propose a mechanistic model that can capture the effect of pore size and pore thickness on CHF. The good agreement found between the model and experimental data supports the hypothesis that CHF is governed by the competition between capillary wicking, viscous pressure drop and evaporation, as well as conduction heat transfer within the porous layer. The model can be used to guide the development of engineered surfaces with superior boiling performance.

  1. A stable lithium-rich surface structure for lithium-rich layered cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangryun; Cho, Woosuk; Zhang, Xiaobin; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Choi, Jang Wook

    2016-11-01

    Lithium ion batteries are encountering ever-growing demand for further increases in energy density. Li-rich layered oxides are considered a feasible solution to meet this demand because their specific capacities often surpass 200 mAh g-1 due to the additional lithium occupation in the transition metal layers. However, this lithium arrangement, in turn, triggers cation mixing with the transition metals, causing phase transitions during cycling and loss of reversible capacity. Here we report a Li-rich layered surface bearing a consistent framework with the host, in which nickel is regularly arranged between the transition metal layers. This surface structure mitigates unwanted phase transitions, improving the cycling stability. This surface modification enables a reversible capacity of 218.3 mAh g-1 at 1C (250 mA g-1) with improved cycle retention (94.1% after 100 cycles). The present surface design can be applied to various battery electrodes that suffer from structural degradations propagating from the surface.

  2. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2015-08-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets.

  3. Spectroscopic study on uranyl carboxylate complexes formed at the surface layer of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Thomas; Rossberg, Andre; Barkleit, Astrid; Steudtner, Robin; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2015-02-14

    The complexation of U(vi) at the proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) of the archaeal strain Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was investigated over a pH range from pH 1.5 to 6 at the molecular scale using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and U L(III)-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The S-layer, which represents the interface between the cell and its environment, is very stable against high temperatures, proteases, and detergents. This allowed the isolation and purification of S-layer ghosts (= empty cells) that maintain the size and shape of the cells. In contrast to many other microbial cell envelope compounds the studied S-layer is not phosphorylated, enabling the investigation of uranyl carboxylate complexes formed at microbial surfaces. The latter are usually masked by preferentially formed uranyl phosphate complexes. We demonstrated that at highly acidic conditions (pH 1.5 to 3) no uranium was bound by the S-layer. In contrast to that, at moderate acidic pH conditions (pH 4.5 and 6) a complexation of U(vi) at the S-layer via deprotonated carboxylic groups was stimulated. Titration studies revealed dissociation constants for the carboxylic groups of glutamic and aspartic acid residues of pK(a) = 4.78 and 6.31. The uranyl carboxylate complexes formed at the S-layer did not show luminescence properties at room temperature, but only under cryogenic conditions. The obtained luminescence maxima are similar to those of uranyl acetate. EXAFS spectroscopy demonstrated that U(vi) in these complexes is mainly coordinated to carboxylate groups in a bidentate binding mode. The elucidation of the molecular structure of these complexes was facilitated by the absence of phosphate groups in the studied S-layer protein.

  4. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadathil, Pankajakshan; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; Prasanna Kumar, S.; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Rao, R. R.; Neetu, S.; Hegde, Akshay

    2016-08-01

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable impacts on climate and postmonsoon tropical cyclones. Lack of systematic measurements from the BoB in the past prevented a thorough investigation of the SLTI spatiotemporal variability, their formation mechanisms, and their contribution to the surface temperature variations. The present study benefits from the recent Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) buoys located in BoB along 90°E at 4°N, 8°N, 12°N, and 15°N over the 2006-2014 period. Analysis of data from these RAMA buoys indicates that SLTI forms after the summer monsoon and becomes fully developed during winter (December-February). SLTI exhibits a strong geographical dependency, with more frequent (80% times during winter) and intense inversions (amplitude, ΔT ˜ 0.7°C) occurring only in the northern BoB compared to central and southern Bay. SLTI also exhibits large interannual and intraseasonal variations, with intraseasonal amplitude significantly larger (ΔT ˜ 0.44°C) than the interannual amplitude (˜0.26°C). Heat budget analysis of the mixed layer reveals that the net surface heat loss is the most dominant process controlling the formation and maintenance of SLTI. However, there are instances of episodic advection of cold, low-saline waters over warm-saline waters leading to the formation of SLTI as in 2012-2013. Vertical processes contribute significantly to the mixed layer heat budget during winter, by warming the surface layer through entrainment and vertical diffusion.

  5. Modulating the bacterial surface with small RNAs: a new twist on PhoP/Q-mediated lipopolysaccharide modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Kallipolitis, Birgitte; Valentin-Hansen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Summary In recent years, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as important regulatory components in bacterial stress responses and in bacterial virulence. Many of these are conserved in related species and act on target mRNAs by sequence complementarity. They are tightly controlled...... of bacterial surface properties by regulating lipopolysaccharide modification. The small RNA is expressed as part of the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system that plays a major role in virulence of pathogenic species. This work expands the list of global regulators known to control small RNA expression...... at the transcription level, and are frequently elements of global regulatory systems. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella, almost one-third of the functional characterized small RNAs participate in control of outer membrane protein production. A subset of these genes is under the control of the sigma...

  6. Self-assembled poly(ethylene glycol)-co-acrylic acid microgels to inhibit bacterial colonization of synthetic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qichen; Uzunoglu, Emel; Wu, Yong; Libera, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    We explored the use of self-assembled microgels to inhibit the bacterial colonization of synthetic surfaces both by modulating surface cell adhesiveness at length scales comparable to bacterial dimensions (∼1 μm) and by locally storing/releasing an antimicrobial. Poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] and poly(ethylene glycol)-co-acrylic acid [PEG-AA] microgels were synthesized by suspension photopolymerization. Consistent with macroscopic gels, a pH dependence of both zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter was observed in AA-containing microgels but not in pure PEG microgels. The microgels were electrostatically deposited onto poly(l-lysine) (PLL) primed silicon to form submonolayer surface coatings. The microgel surface density could be controlled via the deposition time and the microgel concentration in the parent suspension. In addition to their intrinsic antifouling properties, after deposition, the microgels could be loaded with a cationic antimicrobial peptide (L5) because of favorable electrostatic interactions. Loading was significantly higher in PEG-AA microgels than in pure PEG microgels. The modification of PLL-primed Si by unloaded PEG-AA microgels reduced the short-term (6 h) S. epidermidis surface colonization by a factor of 2, and the degree of inhibition increased when the average spacing between microgels was reduced. Postdeposition L5 peptide loading into microgels further reduced bacterial colonization to the extent that, after 10 h of S. epidermidis culture in tryptic soy broth, the colonization of L5-loaded PEG-AA microgel-modified Si was comparable to the very small level of colonization observed on macroscopic PEG gel controls. The fact that these microgels can be deposited by a nonline-of-sight self-assembly process and hinder bacterial colonization opens the possibility of modifying the surfaces of topographically complex biomedical devices and reduces the rate of biomaterial-associated infection.

  7. Helioseismic Imaging of Supergranulation throughout the Sun’s Near-Surface Shear Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Benjamin J.; Hindman, Bradley W.; Toomre, Juri

    2016-06-01

    We present measurements of the Sun’s sub-surface convective flows and provide evidence that the pattern of supergranulation is driven at the surface. The pattern subsequently descends slowly throughout the near-surface shear layer in a manner that is inconsistent with a 3D cellular structure. The flow measurements are obtained through the application of a new helioseismic technique based on traditional ring analysis. We measure the flow field over the course of eleven days and perform a correlation analysis between all possible pairs of depths and temporal separations. In congruence with previous studies, we find that the supergranulation pattern remains coherent at the surface for slightly less than two days and the instantaneous surface pattern is imprinted to a depth of 7 Mm. However, these correlation times and depths are deceptive. When we admit a potential time lag in the correlation, we find that peak correlation in the convective flows descends at a rate of 10-40 m s-1 (or equivalently 1-3 Mm per day). Furthermore, the correlation extends throughout all depths of the near-surface shear layer. This pattern-propagation rate is well matched by estimates of the speed of downflows obtained through the anelastic approximation. Direct integration of the measured speed indicates that the supergranulation pattern that first appears at the surface eventually reaches the bottom of the near-surface shear layer a month later. Thus, the downflows have a Rossby radius of deformation equal to the depth of the shear layer and we suggest that this equality may not be coincidental.

  8. Spectroscopic detection of atom-surface interactions in an atomic vapour layer with nanoscale thickness

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, K A; Hughes, I G; Sargsyan, A; Sarkisyan, D; Adams, C S

    2015-01-01

    We measure the resonance line shape of atomic vapor layers with nanoscale thickness confined between two sapphire windows. The measurement is performed by scanning a probe laser through resonance and collecting the scattered light. The line shape is dominated by the effects of Dicke narrowing, self-broadening, and atom-surface interactions. By fitting the measured line shape to a simple model we discuss the possibility to extract information about the atom-surface interaction.

  9. Self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatically coordinated 2D hetero-layered hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun; Lu, Wanheng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Zhu, Hai; Xu, Qing-Hua; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2017-02-01

    At present, the technological groundwork of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) hetero-layered structures realized by successive thin film epitaxial growth is in principle constrained by lattice matching prerequisite as well as low yield and expensive production. Here, we artificially coordinate ultrathin 2D hetero-layered metal chalcogenides via a highly scalable self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatic coupling approach. Specifically, bulk metal chalcogenides are spontaneously exfoliated into ultrathin layers in a surfactant/intercalator-free medium, followed by unconstrained electrostatic coupling with a dissimilar transition metal dichalcogenide, MoSe2, into scalable hetero-layered hybrids. Accordingly, surface and interfacial-dominated photocatalysis reactivity is used as an ideal testbed to verify the reliability of diverse 2D ultrathin hetero-layered materials that reveal high visible-light photoreactivity, efficient charge transfer and intimate contact interface for stable cycling and storage purposes. Such a synthetic approach renders independent thickness and composition control anticipated to advance the development of `design-and-build' 2D layered heterojunctions for large-scale exploration and applications.

  10. Influence of Surface Transition Layers on Phase Transformation and Pyroelectric Properties of Ferroelectric Thin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Pu-Nan; L(U) Tian-Quan; CHEN Hui; CAO Wen-Wu

    2008-01-01

    Taking into account surface transition layers (STLs), we study the phase transformation and pyroelectric properties of ferroelectric thin films by employing the transverse Ising model (TIM) in the framework of the mean field approximation. The distribution functions representing the intra-layer and inter-layer couplings between the two nearest neighbour pseudo-spins are introduced to characterize STLs. Compared with the results obtained by the traditional treatments for the thin films using only the single surface transition layer (SSL), it is shown that the STL model reflects a more realistic and comprehensive situation of films. The effects of various parameters on the phase transformation properties have shown that STL can make the Curie temperature of the film higher or lower than that of the corresponding bulk material, and the thickness of STL is a key factor influencing the film properties. For a film with definite thickness, there exists a critical STL thickness at which ferroelectricity will disappear when the intra-layer and inter-layer interactions are weak.

  11. Determination of regional surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous landscapes by integrating satellite remote sensing with boundary layer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: satellite remote sensing, surface layer observations, atmospheric boundary layer observations, land surface variables, vegetation variables, land surface heat fluxes, validation, heterogeneous landscape, GAME/Tibet

  12. Receptivity of the Boundary Layer to Vibrations of the Wing Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernots, Tomass; Ruban, Anatoly; Pryce, David; Laminar Flow Control UK Group Team

    2014-11-01

    In this work we study generation of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves in the boundary layer due to elastic vibrations of the wing surface. The flow is investigated based on the asymptotic analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations at large values of the Reynolds number. It is assumed that in the spectrum of the wing vibrations there is a harmonic which comes in resonance with the T-S wave on the lower branch of the stability curve. It was found that the vibrations of the wing surface produce pressure perturbations in the flow outside the boundary layer which can be calculated with the help of the piston theory. As the pressure perturbations penetrate into the boundary layer, a Stokes layer forms on the wing surface which appears to be influenced significantly by the compressibility of the flow, and is incapable of producing the T-S waves. The situation changes when the Stokes layer encounters an roughness; near which the flow is described using the triple-deck theory. The solution of the triple-deck problem can be found in an analytic form. Our main concern is with the flow behaviour downstream of the roughness and, in particular, with the amplitude of the generated Tollmien-Schlichting waves. This research was performed in the Laminar Flow Control Centre (LFC-UK) at Imperial College London. The centre is supported by EPSRC, Airbus UK and EADS Innovation Works.

  13. Using of standard marine radar for determination of a water surface and an atmosphere near-surface layer parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatov, Nikolay A.; Bakhanov, Victor V.; Ermoshkin, Aleksei V.; Kazakov, Vasily I.; Kemarskaya, Olga N.; Titov, Victor I.; Troitskaya, Yulia I.

    2014-10-01

    At present time radar methods of the seas and oceans diagnostics are actively developing. Using of the radar stations based on satellites and planes allows to receive information on a sea surface and a atmosphere near-surface layer with coverage of big water surface areas independently of day time. The developed methods of satellite radio images processing can be applied to marine radar stations. In Institute of Applied Physics RAS works on sea surface diagnostics systems development on the basis of standard marine radar are actively conducted. Despite smaller coverage of the territory in comparison with satellite data, marine radar have possibility to record spatially temporary radar images and to receive information on a surrounding situation quickly. This work deals with results of the researches which were conducted within the international expedition in the Atlantic Ocean in the autumn of 2012 on a route Rotterdam (Netherlands) - Ushuaya (Argentina) - Antarctica — Ushuaya. During this expedition a complex measurements of a sea surface, a atmosphere near-surface layer parameters and subsurface currents in the wide range of hydroweather conditions, including the storm were carried out. The system developed in IAP RAS on the basis of a marine radar ICOM MR-1200RII and the ADC (Analog Digital Converter) block for data recording on the personal computer was used. Display of a non-uniform near-surface current on sea surface radar images in storm conditions is shown. By means of the high-speed anemometer and meteorological station the measurements of the atmosphere parameters were carried out. Comparison of the anemometer data with calculated from radar images is carried out. Dependence of radar cross section from wind speed in the wide range of wind speeds, including storm conditions is investigated. Possibility of marine radar using for surface waves intensity and ice situation estimates also as icebergs detection is shown.

  14. The mechanism of changes in the surface layer of grey cast iron automotive brake disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a model, describing the run of tribological processes in the surface layer of grey cast iron automotive brake discs. Grey cast iron discs mating with non-asbestos organic brake pads were chosen for the investigations, as the most widely used materials in car brakes. Samples for surface analysis were prepared from disc operating in stand and road conditions. Stand tests were pin-on-disc kind. Operating parameters for the stand tests were chosen on the basis of results of our earlier research. Topography of brake disc surface was evaluated by surface roughness measurements. The surface layer was examined with use of metallography and scanning electron microscopy. In order to differentiate structures of grey cast iron brake discs SE and BSE modes were used in scanning electron microscopy. Chemical investigations of samples were done by X-ray analysis linked with SEM. Studies showed influence of grey cast iron structures on tribological processes taking place in a brake friction pair. The surface layer of grey cast iron discs was described and features and functions of separated structures were presented. On the basis of the obtained results a physical model of friction mechanism was created. Special attention was paid to the influence of graphite on the run of tribological processes and mechanism of compaction and removal of wear debris.

  15. A unified account of perceptual layering and surface appearance in terms of gamut relativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Vladusich

    Full Text Available When we look at the world--or a graphical depiction of the world--we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke. Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance--based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity--that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications.

  16. Planetary boundary layer depth in Global climate models induced biases in surface climatology

    CERN Document Server

    Davy, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Earth has warmed in the last century with the most rapid warming occurring near the surface in the arctic. This enhanced surface warming in the Arctic is partly because the extra heat is trapped in a thin layer of air near the surface due to the persistent stable-stratification found in this region. The warming of the surface air due to the extra heat depends upon the amount of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere, which is described by the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In this way the depth of the ABL determines the effective response of the surface air temperature to perturbations in the climate forcing. The ABL depth can vary from tens of meters to a few kilometers which presents a challenge for global climate models which cannot resolve the shallower layers. Here we show that the uncertainties in the depth of the ABL can explain up to 60 percent of the difference between the simulated and observed surface air temperature trends and 50 percent of the difference in temperature variability...

  17. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Asta, Mark D; Xin, Huolin L; Doeff, Marca M

    2014-03-27

    The present study sheds light on the long-standing challenges associated with high-voltage operation of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Using correlated ensemble-averaged high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially resolved electron microscopy and spectroscopy, here we report structural reconstruction (formation of a surface reduced layer, to transition) and chemical evolution (formation of a surface reaction layer) at the surface of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 particles. These are primarily responsible for the prevailing capacity fading and impedance buildup under high-voltage cycling conditions, as well as the first-cycle coulombic inefficiency. It was found that the surface reconstruction exhibits a strong anisotropic characteristic, which predominantly occurs along lithium diffusion channels. Furthermore, the surface reaction layer is composed of lithium fluoride embedded in a complex organic matrix. This work sets a refined example for the study of surface reconstruction and chemical evolution in battery materials using combined diagnostic tools at complementary length scales.

  18. [Investigation of the surface layer of 3D-matrices for tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernonosova, V S; Kvon, R I; Kiseleva, E V; Stepanova, A O; Laktionov, P P

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning is a convenient and promising manufacturing method a variety of materials for tissue engineering. 3D matrices fabricated by electrospinning from solutions of polycaprolactone with human serum albumin or gelatin in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol were studied. The microstructure of the 3D matrices and surface of the fibers were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Protein distribution in the surface layer was studied by modification of protein amino groups with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenazine and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown, that concentration of the proteins in the surface layer of fibers exceeded their concentration in the initial electrospun solution up to 12 times and the surface layer was enriched in the protein inversely to the concentration of the protein in solution. The minor part of the proteins was released from fibers during first 30-60 min after swelling in water. Treatment of matrices with proteinase K hydrolyzed about 1/3 of the surface exposed human serum albumin. Thus, both methods can be used to study the surface content of the materials produced by electrospinning from blends of synthetic and natural polymers, however X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy appears to be more convenient and informative.

  19. A unified account of perceptual layering and surface appearance in terms of gamut relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony; McDonnell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    When we look at the world--or a graphical depiction of the world--we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard) independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow) and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke). Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance--based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity--that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a) qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b) quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c) unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications.

  20. Reduced bacterial growth and increased osteoblast proliferation on titanium with a nanophase TiO2 surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Garima Bhardwaj, Thomas J Webster Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Background: The attachment and initial growth of bacteria on an implant surface dictates the progression of infection. Treatment often requires aggressive antibiotic use, which does not always work. To overcome the difficulties faced in systemic and local antibiotic delivery, scientists have forayed into using alternative techniques, which includes implant surface modifications that prevent initial bacterial adhesion, foreign body formation, and may offer a controlled inflammatory response.Objective: The current study focused on using electrophoretic deposition to treat titanium with a nanophase titanium dioxide surface texture to reduce bacterial adhesion and growth. Two distinct nanotopographies were analyzed, Ti-160, an antimicrobial surface designed to greatly reduce bacterial colonization, and Ti-120, an antimicrobial surface with a topography that upregulates osteoblast activity while reducing bacterial colonization; the number following Ti in the nomenclature represents the atomic force microscopy root-mean-square roughness value in nanometers.Results: There was a 95.6% reduction in Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria for the Ti-160-treated surfaces compared to the untreated titanium alloy controls. There was a 90.2% reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative bacteria on Ti-160-treated surfaces compared to controls. For ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli, there was an 81.1% reduction on the Ti-160-treated surfaces compared to controls. Similarly for surfaces treated with Ti-120, there was an 86.8% reduction in S. aureus, an 82.1% reduction in P. aeruginosa, and a 48.6% reduction in ampicillin-resistant E. coli. The Ti-120 also displayed a 120.7% increase at day 3 and a 168.7% increase at day 5 of osteoblast proliferation over standard titanium alloy control surfaces.Conclusion: Compared to untreated surfaces

  1. Mass transport in a thin layer of power-law mud under surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Bai, Yuchuan; Xu, Dong

    2017-02-01

    The mass transport velocity in a two-layer system is studied theoretically. The wave motion is driven by a periodic pressure load on the free water surface, and mud in the lower layer is described by a power-law rheological model. Perturbation analysis is performed to the second order to find the mean Eulerian velocity. A numerical iteration method is employed to solve the non-linear governing equation at the leading order. The influence of rheological properties on fluid motion characteristics including the flow field, the surface displacement, the mass transport velocity, and the net discharge rates are investigated based on theoretical results. Theoretical analysis shows that under the action of interfacial shearing, a recirculation structure may appear near the interface in the upper water layer. A higher mass transport velocity at the interface does not necessarily mean a higher discharge rate for a pseudo-plastic fluid mud.

  2. [XPS characterization of auto-reconditioning layer on worn metal surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, He; Zhang, Zheng-ye; Li, Sheng-hua; Jin, Yuan-sheng

    2005-06-01

    An auto-reconditioner package for in situ reconditioning of worn surfaces of machinery parts under normal running was applied to diesel engines of DF locomotives. A reconditioning layer was generated on the cylinder bore after running a mileage of 300,000 km, and no wear was measured for the piston rings and cylinder bores. Evaluations with SEM, nanohardness tester and XPS indicated that the protective layer assumed a thickness of 8-10 microm, a nano-hardness twice as high as that of the cast iron substrate, and a main elemental composition of Fe, O and C corresponding to the existence of Fe3O4 and Fe3C. A possible formation mechanism of the protective layer was suggested based on the mechanochemical activation of metal surfaces and the catalytic activation of the auto-reconditioner molecules.

  3. The development of self-expanding peripheral stent with ion-modified surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotkov, Alexander I.; Kashin, Oleg A.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.; Krukovskii, Konstantin V.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir M.; Borisov, Dmitry P.; Kretov, Evgenii I.

    2016-11-01

    In work researches of chemical composition of surface layers of self-expanding stents of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and their functional and mechanical properties after plasma immersion processing by ions of silicon (Si). It is established that in the treatment in the inner and outer surfaces of stents formed doped silicon layer with a thickness of 80 nm. The formation of the doped layer does not impair the functional properties of the stent. At human body temperature, the stent is fully restore its shape after removing the deforming load. The resulting graph of loading of stents during their compression between parallel plates. The research results allow the conclusion that Si-doped stents are promising for treatment of peripheral vascular disease. However, related studies on laboratory animals are required.

  4. Surface Wave Propagation in a Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusion Material under an Inviscid Liquid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the propagation of Rayleigh type surface waves in an isotropic microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half space under a layer of inviscid liquid. The secular equation for surface waves in compact form is derived after developing the mathematical model. The dispersion curves giving the phase velocity and attenuation coefficients with wave number are plotted graphically to depict the effect of an imperfect boundary alongwith the relaxation times in a microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half space under a homogeneous inviscid liquid layer for thermally insulated, impermeable boundaries and isothermal, isoconcentrated boundaries, respectively. In addition, normal velocity component is also plotted in the liquid layer. Several cases of interest under different conditions are also deduced and discussed.

  5. Mass Transport in a Thin Layer of Bi-Viscous Mud Under Surface Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NG Chiu-on; FU Sau-chung; BAI Yu-chuan(白玉川)

    2002-01-01

    The mass transport in a thin layer of non-Newtonian bed mud under surface waves is examined with a two-fluidStokes boundary layer model. The mud is assumed to be a bi-viscous fluid, which tends to resist motion for small-appliedstresses, but flows readily when the yield stress is exceeded. Asymptotic expansions suitable for shallow fluid layers areapplied, and the second-order solutions for the mass transport induced by surface progressive waves are obtained numeri-cally. It is found that the stronger the non-Newtonian behavior of the mud, the more pronounced intermittency of theflow. Consequently, the mass transport velocity is diminished in magnitude, and can even become negative (i. e., oppo-site to wave propagation) for a certain range of yield stress.

  6. Chemical characterization of the regularly arranged surface layers of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleytr, U B; Thorne, K J

    1976-04-01

    Clostridum thermosaccharolyticum and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum possess as outermost cell wall layer a tetragonal or hexagonal ordered array of macromolecules. The subunits of the surface layer can be detached from isolated cell walls with urea (8M) or guanidine-HCl (4 to 5 M). Triton X-100, dithiothreitol, ethylenediaminetetracetate, and KCl (3 M) had no visible effect on the regular arrays. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophroesis showed that, in both organisms, the surface layer is composed of glycoprotein of molecular weight 140,000. The glycoprotein from both microorganisms has a predominantly acidic amino acid composition and an acidic isoelectric point after isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels. The glycocomponent is composed of glucose, galactose, mannose, and rhamnose.

  7. The surface layer observed by a high-resolution sodar at DOME C, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Argentini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One year field experiment has started on December 2011 at the French - Italian station of Concordia at Dome C, East Antarctic Plateau. The objective of the experiment is the study of the surface layer turbulent processes under stable/very stable stratifications, and the mechanisms leading to the formation of the warming events. A sodar was improved to achieve the vertical/time resolution needed to study these processes. The system, named Surface Layer sodar (SL-sodar, may operate both in high vertical resolution (low range and low vertical resolution (high range modes. In situ turbulence and radiation measurements were also provided in the framework of this experiment. A few preliminary results, concerning the standard summer diurnal cycle, a summer warming event, and unusually high frequency boundary layer atmospheric gravity waves are presented.

  8. Surface acoustic wave resonators on a ZnO-on-Si layered medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. J.; Schwartz, S. S.; Gunshor, R. L.; Pierret, R. F.

    1983-02-01

    The adaptation of surface acoustic wave resonator technology to a ZnO-on-Si layered medium is presented. Several distributed reflector schemes are considered, including shorted and isolated metallic strips, as well as grooves etched in the ZnO layer. In the case of etched groove reflectors, a first-order velocity perturbation arises due to the dispersive nature of the layered medium. Unique resonator design considerations result from the reflector array velocity and reflectivity characteristics. Transverse mode resonances are characterized and their effect on resonator response eliminated by a novel transducer design. A technique for temperature compensating the devices by use of a thermal SiO2 layer is discussed.

  9. CVD Delta-Doped Boron Surface Layers for Ultra-Shallow Junction Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarubbi, F.; Nanver, L.K.; Scholtes, T.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    A new doping technique is presented that uses a pure boron atmospheric/low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP/LPCVD) in a commercially available epitaxial reactor to form less than 2-nm-thick δ-doped boron-silicide (BxSi) layers on the silicon surface. For long exposure B segregates at the surfa

  10. Glomerular endothelial surface layer acts as a barrier against albumin filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, M.J.; Berg, B.M. van den; Avramut, M.C.; Faas, F.G.; Vlag, J. van der; Rops, A.L.; Ravelli, R.B.; Koster, B.J.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Vink, H.; Rabelink, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Glomerular endothelium is highly fenestrated, and its contribution to glomerular barrier function is the subject of debate. In recent years, a polysaccharide-rich endothelial surface layer (ESL) has been postulated to act as a filtration barrier for large molecules, such as albumin. To test this hyp

  11. Surface dynamics of organic layers explored by scanning probe microscopy techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Hairong

    2015-01-01

    Organic thin layers, especially self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), on well-defined solid surfaces have attracted tremendous attention owing to their interesting physical and chemical behavior as well as potential applications. The aim of this PhD thesis was to study the structural properties, electro

  12. Photo-oxidation: Major sink of oxygen in the ocean surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, W.W.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; Ruardij, P.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the oxygen demand associated with photochemical processes in the surface layer of oceans and seas worldwide is of the same order of magnitude as the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis of the world's marine phytoplankton. Both estimates are of necessity quite rough

  13. Photo-oxidation : Major sink of oxygen in the ocean surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, W. W. C.; Laane, R. W. P. M.; Ruardij, P.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the oxygen demand associated with photochemical processes in the surface layer of oceans and seas worldwide is of the same order of magnitude as the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis of the world's marine phytoplankton. Both estimates are of necessity quite rough

  14. Structure fragmentation of a surface layer of commercial purity titanium during ultrasonic impact treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozelskaya, Anna, E-mail: annakozelskaya@gmail.com; Kazachenok, Marina, E-mail: kms@ispms.tsc.ru; Sinyakova, Elena, E-mail: mea@ispms.tsc.ru; Pochivalov, Yurii, E-mail: pochiv@ispms.tsc.ru; Perevalova, Olga, E-mail: perevalova52@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Panin, Alexey, E-mail: pav@ispms.tsc.ru; Hairullin, Rustam, E-mail: hairullin@list.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The mechanisms of surface layer fragmentation of titanium specimens subjected to ultrasonic impact treatment is investigated by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. It is shown that the twin boundaries Σ7b and Σ11b are unable to be strong obstacles for propagation of dislocations and other twins.

  15. On Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Using Diazonium Chemistry To Introduce the Initiator Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Lillethorup, Mie; Ceccato, Marcel;

    2011-01-01

    of bromine shows a gradual transition from mushroom to brush-type conformation of the surface anchored chains in both polar and nonpolar reaction medium. Interestingly, it is revealed that very thick polymer brushes, on the order of 1 μm, can be obtained at high bromine content of the initiator layer...

  16. Thermographic investigation of surface temperature of the evaporating liquid layer under the action of gas flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreta Aleksei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the temperature field on the surface of horizontal liquid layer (Ethanol evaporating into gas flow (Air has been performed. Temperature gradient of the gas-liquid interface has been measured with the help of Titanium 570M IR camera. Shear stresses on gas-liquid interface induced by thermocapillary effect and inert gas flow have been defined.

  17. Tensile strength of oxygen plasma-created surface layer of PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Taiki; Noda, Haruka; Matsui, Tsubasa S.; Jile, Huge; Deguchi, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commonly used silicone elastomer with broad applications. Particularly for bioengineering use, PDMS is treated with oxygen plasma with which its surface is oxidized to allow positive interaction with water and live cells. In exchange for the acquisition of hydrophilicity, the oxidized PDMS becomes mechanically brittle so that resulting formation of cracks affects the system in various ways. However, tensile strength (TS), which is an inherent capacity of a material to withstand tensile loads before breaking and is thus a key parameter limiting the use of the material, remains unclear regarding oxidized PDMS. Here we determine the TS of oxide layers created on the surface of PDMS based on micro-stretch experiments using a custom-made device. We show that the surface layer displays cracks upon tensile loading of small strains of within 10% to have a TS of ~10-100 kPa, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of unmodified PDMS. We further show that the TS sharply decreases with oxidation duration to become highly brittle, while the thickness of the resulting oxide layer finally reaches a plateau even with prolonged plasma treatment. Consequently, we suggest that gradual surface modification of PDMS takes place only within a finite region even with prolonged plasma treatment, as distinct from previously held assumptions. These quantitative data provide critical design information for the oxide layer of plasma-hydrophilized PDMS.

  18. Tuning of turbulent boundary layer anisotropy for improved surface pressure and trailing-edge noise modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2014-01-01

    The modeling of the surface pressure spectrum beneath a turbulent boundary layer is investigated, focusing on the case of airfoil flows and associated trailing edge noise prediction using the so-called TNO model. This type of flow is characterized by the presence of an adverse pressure gradient a...

  19. Relation between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Impact Factors under Severe Surface Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhuan Ao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a comprehensive analysis on the diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL in summer of Badain Jaran Desert and discussed deeply the effect of surface thermal to ABL, including the Difference in Surface-Air Temperature (DSAT, net radiation, and sensible heat, based on limited GPS radiosonde and surface observation data during two intense observation periods of experiments. The results showed that (1 affected by topography of the Tibetan Plateau, the climate provided favorable external conditions for the development of Convective Boundary Layer (CBL, (2 deep CBL showed a diurnal variation of three- to five-layer structure in clear days and five-layer ABL structure often occurred about sunset or sunrise, (3 the diurnal variation of DSAT influenced thickness of ABL through changes of turbulent heat flux, (4 integral value of sensible heat which rapidly converted by surface net radiation had a significant influence on the growth of CBL throughout daytime. The cumulative effect of thick RML dominated the role after CBL got through SBL in the development stage, especially in late summer, and (5 the development of CBL was promoted and accelerated by the variation of wind field and distribution of warm advection in high and low altitude.

  20. Study on mechanics of driving drum with superelastic convexity surface covering-layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.J.; Sui, X.H.; Miao, D.J. [Shandong University of Science & Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2008-09-15

    Belt conveyor is one of the main transport equipment in coal mine and the driving drum is its key part. With the method of bionic design, the mushroom morphological structure is applied to the design of covering-layer structure of driving drum surface of belt conveyor. Superelastic rubber with large deformation is adopted as the covering-layer material. Nonlinear constitutive model of rubber, which is of superelasticity and large deformation, is established. The stress states and deformation principles of driving drums including both bionic covering-layer and common covering-layer are obtained by static intensity analysis with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software ANSYS. The values of the stress and strain on the driving drum surface are gotten and the dangerous area is determined. FEA results show that the superelastic convexity surface structure can enlarge the contact area between the driving drum and viscoelastic belt. The results also show that in comparison with common driving drum, the bionic surface driving drum can not only increase the friction coefficient between drum and belt but also prolong its service life.

  1. Complex Boronized Layer on the Hot-dip Aluminized Steels and Its Surface Performances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xin-min; LI Dian-kai; WANG Lan; CHEN Kang-min

    2004-01-01

    Plain carbon steels were dipped in molten aluminum bath at 720℃±5℃ and diffused for 1, 2.5 and 6 hours respectively and then boronized at 950℃ for 6 hours. The oxidation, hot-corrosion and abrasion resistance behavior were examined. The experimental results showed the compounds of the aluminized layer, from the surface to the matrix, were composed of Fe2Al5 ( η -phase )、 Fe3Al ( β 1-phase ) and α phase. The microstructure of aluminized plus complex boronized were similar to that simplex boronized. The XRD analysis results indicated that there existed Fe2B、 Fe2AlB2 and Fe2Al5 in this kind of layer. The simplex aluminized layers still remained bright gray appearance when oxidized at 950℃, but complex boronized layer was not able to resist oxidization at the temperature. Both the layers of complex boronized and aluminized had the same anti-oxidization level in the circulative oxidization tests, and also good anti-corrosion ability in molten salt medium. Under dry abrasive conditions, wear resistance of complex boronized layer was superior to the aluminized layer.

  2. Complex Boronized Layer on the Hot-dip Aluminized Steels and Its Surface Performances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOXin-min; LIDian-kai; WANGLan; CHENKang-min

    2004-01-01

    Plain carbon steels were dipped in molten aluminum bath at 720℃±5℃ and diffused for 1.2.5 and 6 hours respectively and then horonized at 950℃ for 6 hours. The oxidation, hot-corrosion and abrasion resistance behavior were examined. The experimental results showed the compounds of the aluminized layer, from the surface to the matrix, were composed of Fe2Al5(η-phase/.Fe3Al(β1-phase)and α phase. The microstructure of aluminized plus complex boronized were similar to that simplex boronized. The XRD analysis results indicated that there existed Fe.B. Fe2AlB2 and Fe2Al5 in this kind of layer, The simplex aluminized layers still remained bright gray appearance when oxidized at 950℃, but complex horonized layer was not able to resist oxidization at the temperature. Both the layers of complex botanized and aluminized had the same anti-oxidizatian level in the circulative oxidization tesfs, and also good anti-corrosion abilily in molten salt medium. Under dry abrasive conditions, wear resistance of complex botanized layer was superior to the aluminized layer.

  3. Characterization of Nanocrystallizatin Surface Layer of 0.4C-1Cr Low Alloy Steel Prepared by Ultrasonic Particulate Peening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bao; LIU Yu-liang; ZHAO Xin-qi; WU Jie; SONG Hong-wei; XIONG Tian-ying

    2004-01-01

    A nanostructured surface layer was fabricated in a quenched and tempered 0.4C-1Cr low alloy steel by ultrasonic particulate peening technique. The microstructure of the nanocrystalline surface layer was characterized by means of TEM and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Experimental results reveal that both cementite and ferrite nanocrystals with an average size of 5 nm were formed in the surface layer of the steel, phase transformation of austenite and dissolution of cementite maybe occur in the process of ultrasonic particulate peening.

  4. Characterization of Nanocrystallizatin Surface Layer of 0.4C-1Cr Low Alloy Steel Prepared by Ultrasonic Particulate Peening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJun-bao; LIUYu-liang; ZHAOXin-qi; WUJie; SONGHong-wei; XIONGTian-ying

    2004-01-01

    A nanostructured surface layer was fabricated in a quenched and tempered 0.4C-ICr low alloy steel by ultrasonic particulate peening technique. The microstructure of the nanocrystalline surface layer was characterized by means of TEM and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Experimental results reveal that both cementite and ferrite nanocrystals with an average size of 5 nm were formed in the surface layer of the steel, phase transformation of austenite and dissolution of cementite maybe occur in the process of ultrasonic particulate peening.

  5. Analysis of corrosion layers in ancient Roman silver coins with high resolution surface spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keturakis, Christopher J. [Operando Molecular Spectroscopy and Catalysis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Notis, Ben [Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02453 (United States); Blenheim, Alex [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, PA 16802 (United States); Miller, Alfred C.; Pafchek, Rob [Zettlemoyer Center for Surface Studies, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Notis, Michael R., E-mail: mrn1@lehigh.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Wachs, Israel E., E-mail: iew0@lehigh.edu [Operando Molecular Spectroscopy and Catalysis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Five ancient silver alloy coins (225 BCE–244 CE) were analyzed using surface characterization techniques. • Both destructive and non-destructive surface characterization methods were developed. • Alloying with copper, even in small amounts, leads to the formation of an outer Cu{sub 2}O corrosion layer. - Abstract: Determination of the microchemistry of surface corrosion layers on ancient silver alloy coins is important both in terms of understanding the nature of archaeological environmental conditions to which these ancient coins were exposed and also to help in their conservation. In this present study, five ancient silver alloy coins (225 BCE–244 CE) were used as test vehicles to measure their immediate surface microchemistry and evaluate the appropriateness and limitations of High Sensitivity-Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (HS-LEIS, 0.3 nm depth analysis), High Resolution-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HR-XPS, 1–3 nm depth analysis) and High Resolution-Raman Spectroscopy (HR-Raman, ∼1000 nm depth analysis). Additional information about the deeper corrosion layers, up to ∼300–1000 nm, was provided by dynamic HS-LEIS and HR-Raman spectroscopy. While not archeologically significant, the use of these coins of small commercial value provides data that is more representative of the weaker signals typically obtained from ancient corroded objects, which can be in stark contrast to pristine data often obtained from carefully prepared alloys of known composition. The oldest coins, from 225 to 214 BCE, possessed an outermost surface layer containing Cu{sub 2}O, Na, Al, Pb, and adsorbed hydrocarbons, while the more recent coins, from 98 to 244 CE, contained Cu{sub 2}O, Ag, N, F, Na, Al, S, Cl, and adsorbed hydrocarbons in similar corresponding surface layers. It thus appears that alloying with copper, even in small amounts, leads to the formation of an outer Cu{sub 2}O layer. Depth profiling revealed the presence of K, Na, Cl, and

  6. 'Should I stay or should I go?' Bacterial attachment vs biofilm formation on surface-modified membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Roy; Freger, Viatcheslav; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jintae; Herzberg, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    A number of techniques are used for testing the anti-biofouling activity of surfaces, yet the correlation between different results is often questionable. In this report, the correlation between initial bacterial deposition (fast tests, reported previously) and biofilm growth (much slower tests) was analyzed on a pristine and a surface-modified reverse osmosis membrane ESPA-1. The membrane was modified with grafted hydrophilic polymers bearing negatively charged, positively charged and zwitter-ionic moieties. Using three different bacterial strains it was found that there was no general correlation between the initial bacterial deposition rates and biofilm growth on surfaces, the reasons being different for each modified surface. For the negatively charged surface the slowest deposition due to the charge repulsion was eventually succeeded by the largest biofilm growth, probably due to secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that mediated a strong attachment. For the positively charged surface, short-term charge attraction by quaternary amine groups led to the fastest deposition, but could be eventually overridden by their antimicrobial activity, resulting in non-consistent results where in some cases a lower biofilm formation rate was observed. The results indicate that initial deposition rates have to be used and interpreted with great care, when used for assessing the anti-biofouling activity of surfaces. However, for a weakly interacting 'low-fouling' zwitter-ionic surface, the positive correlation between initial cell deposition and biofilm growth, especially under flow, suggests that for this type of coating initial deposition tests may be fairly indicative of anti-biofouling potential.

  7. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  8. Evidence of extensive diversity in bacterial adherence mechanisms that exploit unanticipated stainless steel surface structural complexity for biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elisabeth M; Li, Dongyang; Shahrooei, Mohammad; Yu, Bin; Muruve, Daniel; Irvin, Randall T

    2013-04-01

    Three protease-resistant bioorganic 304 stainless steel surfaces were created through the reaction of synthetic peptides consisting of the D-enantiomeric isomer (D-K122-4), the retro-inverso D-enantiomeric isomer (RI-K122-4), and a combination of the two peptides (D+RI) of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PilA receptor binding domain with steel surfaces. The peptides used to produce the new materials differ only in handedness of their three-dimensional structure, but they reacted with the steel to yield materials that differed in their surface electron work function (EWF) while displaying an identical chemical composition and equivalent surface adhesive force properties. These surfaces allowed for an assessment of the relative role of surface EWF in initial biofilm formation. We examined the ability of various bacteria (selected strains of Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) to initiate biofilm formation. The D-K1224 generated surface displayed the lowest EWF (classically associated with greater molecular interactions and more extensive biofilm formation) but was observed to be least effectively colonized by bacteria (>50% decrease in bacterial adherence of all strains). The highest surface EWF with the lowest surface free energy (RI-K122-4 generated) was more extensively colonized by bacteria, with the binding of some strains being equivalent to unmodified steel. The D+RI generated surface was least effective in minimizing biofilm formation, where some strains displayed enhanced bacterial colonization. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that the D and RI peptides displayed similar but clearly different binding patterns, suggesting that the peptides recognized different sites on the steel, and that differential binding of the peptides to the steel surfaces influences the binding of different bacterial strains and species. We have demonstrated that stainless steel surfaces can be easily modified by peptides to generate surfaces with

  9. Bacterial Surface-Displayed GII.4 Human Norovirus Capsid Proteins Bound to HBGA-Like Molecules in Romaine Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Rong, Shaofeng; Tian, Peng; Zhou, Yue; Guan, Shimin; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    Human Noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the main cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Contaminated produce is a main vehicle for dissemination of HuNoVs. In this study, we used an ice nucleation protein mediated surface display system to present the protruding domain of GII.4 HuNoV capsid protein on bacterial surface and used it as a new strategy to explore interaction between HuNoV protein and receptor candidates from romaine lettuce. The surface-displayed HuNoV proteins were confirmed on the surface of the transformed bacteria by an immunofluorescence assay. The distribution patterns of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins in romaine lettuce were identified through a confocal immunofluorescence assay. The surface-displayed HuNoV proteins could be found in the stomata, and the surfaces of vein and leaf of romaine lettuce. The surface-displayed HuNoV proteins could be captured by an ELISA assay utilizing extract from leaf (LE) or vein (VE). The binding of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins to LE or VE could be competitively blocked by histo-blood group antigens from human saliva. In addition, the binding of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins to LE or VE could also be attenuated by heat denaturation of lettuce proteins, and abolished by oxidation of lettuce carbohydrates. The results indicated that histo-blood group antigen-like molecules in LE or VE were involved in the binding of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins to romaine lettuce. All data demonstrated that the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins could be utilized in a new and simple system for investigation of the interaction between the HuNoVs and their candidate ligands.

  10. The boundary layer over turbine blade models with realistic rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Hugh M., Jr.

    The impact of turbine blade surface roughness on aerodynamic performance and heat loads is well known. Over time, as the turbine blades are exposed to heat loads, the external surfaces of the blades become rough. Also, for film-cooled blades, surface degradation can have a significant impact on film-cooling effectiveness. Many studies have been conducted on the effects of surface degradation/roughness on engine performance but most investigations have modeled the rough surfaces with uniform or two-dimensional roughness patterns. The objective of the present investigation is to conduct measurements that will reveal the influence of realistic surface roughness on the near-wall behavior of the boundary layer. Measurements have been conducted at the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory with a laser Doppler velocimeter. A flat plate model of a turbine blade has been developed that produces a transitional boundary layer, elevated freestream turbulence and an accelerating freestream in order to simulate conditions on the suction side of a high-pressure turbine blade. Boundary layer measurements have been completed over a smooth plate model and over a model with a strip of realistic rough surface. The realistic rough surface was developed by scaling actual turbine blade surface data that was provided by U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. The results indicate that bypass transition occurred very early in the flow over the model and that the boundary layer remained unstable throughout the entire length of the test plate; the boundary layer thickness and momentum thickness Reynolds numbers increased over the rough patch; and the shape factor increased over the rough patch but then decreased downstream of the patch relative to the smooth plate case; in the rough patch case the flow experienced two transition reversals with laminar-like behavior achieved by the end of the test plate; streamwise turbulence

  11. Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Gorbushina, Anna; Fortune, Irene; Marquardt, Jürgen; Saarela, Maria

    2007-09-01

    Twenty samples were taken from the inner or outer surfaces of stone monuments of six historic Scottish buildings and ruins. Biofilms developing on mineral substrates were analysed by in situ scanning electron microscopy and cultivation. Various methods were used to characterize the isolates including automated ribotyping, RAPD and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria, and stereomicroscopy and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) for fungi. Most samples contained microbes between 10(5) and 10(7)cfug(-1) substrate. Actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces (17 samples/5 monuments) or Arthrobacter (12/3) and Pseudomonas (9/3) were frequently detected. Most streptomycetes were in terms of their 16S rRNA gene sequence most closely related to S. microflavus (10/3) or to the undescribed species S. "vulgaris" (8/3). Indoor and outdoor biofilms exhibited significant differences in their microbiota, as shown by both microscopy and isolation studies. Pigmented coccoid Arthrobacter species were typical for the outdoor samples, whereas Pseudomonas species were common in the indoor samples. Based on the low phylogenetic relationship to a known species (type strain), potential novel pigmented bacterial species belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Brevundimonas, Cryseobacterium, Deinococcus and Dyadobacter were detected from the outdoor samples and to Pseudomonas from the indoor samples. Hyaline fungal species of Acremonium (10/4) mainly occurred in indoor samples, whereas pigmented species of Cladosporium (8/3), Penicillium (6/3) and Phialophora (6/2) were found outdoors. Using in situ microscopy diatom algae were also detected.

  12. Role of bacterial surface structures on the interaction of Klebsiella pneumoniae with phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina March

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis is a key process of the immune system. The human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well known example of a pathogen highly resistant to phagocytosis. A wealth of evidence demonstrates that the capsule polysaccharide (CPS plays a crucial role in resistance to phagocytosis. The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum shares with mammalian macrophages the ability to phagocytose and kill bacteria. The fact that K. pneumoniae is ubiquitous in nature and, therefore, should avoid predation by amoebae, poses the question whether K. pneumoniae employs similar means to counteract amoebae and mammalian phagocytes. Here we developed an assay to evaluate K. pneumoniae-D. discoideum interaction. The richness of the growth medium affected the threshold at which the cps mutant was permissive for Dictyostelium and only at lower nutrient concentrations the cps mutant was susceptible to predation by amoebae. Given the critical role of bacterial surface elements on host-pathogen interactions, we explored the possible contribution of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS and outer membrane proteins (OMPs to combat phagoyctosis by D. discoideum. We uncover that, in addition to the CPS, the LPS O-polysaccharide and the first core sugar participate in Klebsiella resistance to predation by D. discoideum. K. pneumoniae LPS lipid A decorations are also necessary to avoid predation by amoebae although PagP-dependent palmitoylation plays a more important role than the lipid A modification with aminoarabinose. Mutants lacking OMPs OmpA or OmpK36 were also permissive for D. discoideium growth. Except the LPS O-polysaccharide mutants, all mutants were more susceptible to phagocytosis by mouse alveolar macrophages. Finally, we found a correlation between virulence, using the pneumonia mouse model, and resistance to phagocytosis. Altogether, this work reveals novel K. pneumoniae determinants involved in resistance to phagocytosis and supports the notion that Dictyostelium amoebae

  13. Rapid label-free identification of mixed bacterial infections by surface plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Weiling

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of mixed aerobic-anaerobic infection has been a challenge in clinical practice due to the phenotypic changes in complex environments. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR biosensor is widely used to detect DNA-DNA interaction and offers a sensitive and label-free approach in DNA research. Methods In this study, we developed a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA amplification technique and modified the traditional SPR detection system for rapid and simultaneous detection of mixed infections of four pathogenic microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens. Results We constructed the circulation detection well to increase the sensitivity and the tandem probe arrays to reduce the non-specific hybridization. The use of 16S rDNA universal primers ensured the amplification of four target nucleic acid sequences simultaneously, and further electrophoresis and sequencing confirmed the high efficiency of this amplification method. No significant signals were detected during the single-base mismatch or non-specific probe hybridization (P 2 values of >0.99. The lowest detection limits were 0.03 nM for P. aeruginosa, 0.02 nM for S. aureus, 0.01 nM for C. tetani and 0.02 nM for C. perfringens. The SPR biosensor had the same detection rate as the traditional culture method (P Conclusions Our method can rapidly and accurately identify the mixed aerobic-anaerobic infection, providing a reliable alternative to bacterial culture for rapid bacteria detection.

  14. Rapid deposition of transparent super-hydrophobic layers on various surfaces using microwave plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzh, Alexander; Ghindes, Lee; Gedanken, Aharon

    2011-12-01

    We report herein on a very fast and simple process for the fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by using microwave (MW) plasma. It was found that the reaction of various organic liquids in MW argon plasma yields hydrophobic polymeric layers on a large assortment of surfaces, including glass, polymeric surfaces, ceramics, metals, and even paper. In most cases, these polymers are deposited as a rough layer composed of 10-15 nm nanoparticles (NPs). This roughness, together with the chemical hydrophobic nature of the coated materials, is responsible for the superhydrophobic nature of the surface. The typical reaction time of the coating procedure was 1-10 s. The stability of these superhydrophobic surfaces was examined outdoors, and was found to last 2-5 days under direct exposure to the environment and to last 2 months when the sample was protected by a quartz cover. A detailed characterization study of the chemical composition of the layers followed using XPS, solid-state NMR, and IR measurements. Modifications were introduced in the products leading to a substantial improvement in the stability of the products outdoors.

  15. Surface morphology and photoluminescence studies of Sb-doped ZnO layers grown using MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartel, Corinne; Haneche, Nadia; Jomard, Francois; Lusson, Alain; Vilar, Christele; Laroche, Jean-Michel; Galtier, Pierre; Sallet, Vincent [Groupe d' Etude de la Matiere Condensee (GEMaC), CNRS-Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin, Meudon (France)

    2010-07-15

    ZnO and ZnO:Sb films were deposited using low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition on C- and R-oriented sapphire and O-polar ZnO substrates. Surface morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Whereas ZnO films grown on C-sapphire show a rough surface and hexagonal rods, the doped ZnO:Sb layers exhibit a relatively smoother surface, indicating a possible surfactant effect of antimony. The secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements permit to determine the antimony profile in the doped layers. Sb concentrations from 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 20} at/cm{sup 3} were measured, depending on the growth conditions and substrate nature. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit donor-acceptor pair emission at 3.22 eV. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Tile Surface Thermocouple Measurement Challenges from the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Berger, Karen; Anderson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hypersonic entry flight testing motivated by efforts seeking to characterize boundary layer transition on the Space Shuttle Orbiters have identified challenges in our ability to acquire high quality quantitative surface temperature measurements versus time. Five missions near the end of the Space Shuttle Program implemented a tile surface protuberance as a boundary layer trip together with tile surface thermocouples to capture temperature measurements during entry. Similar engineering implementations of these measurements on Discovery and Endeavor demonstrated unexpected measurement voltage response during the high heating portion of the entry trajectory. An assessment has been performed to characterize possible causes of the issues experienced during STS-119, STS-128, STS-131, STS-133 and STS-134 as well as similar issues encountered during other orbiter entries.

  17. Wear Resistance of Deposited Layer Using Nickel-Based Composite Powders by Plasma-Arc Surfacing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li-hong; ZHU Sheng; XU Bin-shi; DU Ze-yu

    2004-01-01

    Nickel-based composite alloy powders were deposited on the surface of Q235 steel by plasma-arc surfacing in this work. Optimal proportions of elements intensifying the composite powders were ascertained by orthogonal design of three factors and three levels and orthogonal polynomial regression analysis , which Cr , Mn , W were 10% ,4% and 7 % respectively.Phase and structure of deposited materials were characterized by optical microscope and X- ray diffraction. Hardness tests and wear resistance tests were carried out to determine the performance of the deposited layers. The results show that the microstructure of deposited layers of composite powders mainly consist of γ-( Ni, Fe ) , γ- Ni, WC, W2 C, Mn31Si12, Cr23 C6,Cr7 C3, Cr, NiB, Ni2B etc. Wear resistance and hardness of the surface increased evidently.

  18. Surface heterogeneity impacts on boundary layer dynamics via energy balance partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Brunsell

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of land-atmosphere interactions under heterogeneous surface conditions is investigated in order to identify mechanisms responsible for altering surface heat and moisture fluxes. Twelve coupled land surface – large eddy simulation scenarios with four different length scales of surface variability under three different horizontal wind speeds are used in the analysis. The base case uses Landsat ETM imagery over the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC field site for 3 June 2007. Using wavelets, the surface fields are band-pass filtered in order to maintain the spatial mean and variances to length scales of 200 m, 1600 m, and 12.8 km as lower boundary conditions to the model. The simulations exhibit little variation in net radiation. Rather, a change in the partitioning of the surface energy between sensible and latent heat flux is responsible for differences in boundary layer dynamics. The sensible heat flux is dominant for intermediate surface length scales. For smaller and larger scales of surface heterogeneity, which can be viewed as being more homogeneous, the latent heat flux becomes increasingly important. The results reflect a general decrease of the Bowen ratio as the surface conditions transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous. Air temperature is less sensitive to surface heterogeneity than water vapor, which implies that the role of surface heterogeneity in modifying the local temperature gradients in order to maximize convective heat fluxes. More homogeneous surface conditions, on the other hand, tend to maximize latent heat flux. Scalar vertical profiles respond predictably to the partitioning of surface energy. Fourier spectra of the vertical wind speed, air temperature and specific humidity (w, T and q and associated cospectra (w'T', w'q' and T'q', however, are insensitive to the length scale of surface heterogeneity, but the near surface spectra are sensitive to the

  19. Bacterial adhesion to orthopaedic implant materials and a novel oxygen plasma modified PEEK surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochford, E. T. J.; Poulsson, A. H. C.; Salavarrieta Varela, J.; Lezuo, P.; Richards, R. G.; Moriarty, T. F.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) in biomedical applications, information about bacterial adhesion to this biomaterial is limited. This study investigated Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to injection moulded and machined PEEK OPTIMA (R) using a custom

  20. Surface passivation of efficient nanotextured black silicon solar cells using thermal atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Che-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Jui; Chang, Che-Wei; Huang, Jhih-Jie; Yang, Ming-Jui; Tjahjono, Budi; Huang, Jian-Jia; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2013-10-09

    Efficient nanotextured black silicon solar cells passivated by an Al2O3 layer are demonstrated. The broadband antireflection of the nanotextured black silicon solar cells was provided by fabricating vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays on the n(+) emitter. A highly conformal Al2O3 layer was deposited upon the SiNW arrays by the thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) based on the multiple pulses scheme. The nanotextured black silicon wafer covered with the Al2O3 layer exhibited a low total reflectance of ∼1.5% in a broad spectrum from 400 to 800 nm. The Al2O3 passivation layer also contributes to the suppressed surface recombination, which was explored in terms of the chemical and field-effect passivation effects. An 8% increment of short-circuit current density and 10.3% enhancement of efficiency were achieved due to the ALD Al2O3 surface passivation and forming gas annealing. A high efficiency up to 18.2% was realized in the ALD Al2O3-passivated nanotextured black silicon solar cells.

  1. Layer uniformity in glucose oxidase immobilization on SiO{sub 2} surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libertino, Sebania [CNR - IMM unita Catania, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: sebania.libertino@imm.cnr.it; Scandurra, Antonino [Laboratorio Superfici e Interfasi (SUPERLAB), Consorzio Catania Ricerche, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); Aiello, Venera [CNR - IMM unita Catania, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Chimica Medica e Biologia Molecolare, Viale A.Doria, 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Giannazzo, Filippo [CNR - IMM unita Catania, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); Sinatra, Fulvia [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Via S. Sofia, 87, 95100 Catania (Italy); Renis, Marcella [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Chimica Medica e Biologia Molecolare, Viale A.Doria, 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Fichera, Manuela [CNR - IMM unita Catania, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy)

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this work was the characterization, step by step, of the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization on silicon oxide surfaces, mainly by means of X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The immobilization protocol consists of four steps: oxide activation, silanization, linker molecule deposition and GOx immobilization. The linker molecule, glutaraldehyde (GA) in this study, must be able to form a uniform layer on the sample surface in order to maximize the sites available for enzyme bonding and achieve the best enzyme deposition. Using a thin SiO{sub 2} layer grown on Si wafers and following the XPS Si2p signal of the Si substrate during the immobilization steps, we demonstrated both the glutaraldehyde layer uniformity and the possibility to use XPS to monitor thin layer uniformity. In fact, the XPS substrate signal, not shielded by the oxide, is suppressed only when a uniform layer is deposited. The enzyme correct immobilization was monitored using the XPS C1s and N1s signals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements carried out on the same samples confirmed the results.

  2. Heat-resistant organic molecular layer as a joint interface for metal reduction on plastics surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jing; Aisawa, Sumio; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Kudo, Takahiro; Mori, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    Heat-resistant organic molecular layers have been fabricated by triazine-based silane coupling agent for metal reduction on plastic surfaces using adsorption method. These molecular layers were used as an interfacial layer between polyamide (PA6) and metal solution to reduce Ag+ ion to Ag0. The interfacial behaviors of triazine molecular layer at the interfaces between PA6 and Ag solution were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The kinetics of molecular adsorption on PA6 was investigated by using triazine-based silane coupling agent solutions at different pH and concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and local nano thermal analysis were employed to characterize the surfaces and interfaces. The nano thermal analysis results show that molecular layers of triazine-based silane coupling agent greatly improved heat resistance of PA6 resin from 170 °C up to 230 °C. This research developed an in-depth insight for molecular behaviors of triazine-based silane coupling agent at the PA6 and Ag solution interfaces and should be of significant value for interfacial research between plastics and metal solution in plating industry.

  3. Atomic-layer electroless deposition: a scalable approach to surface-modified metal powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappillino, Patrick J; Sugar, Joshua D; El Gabaly, Farid; Cai, Trevor Y; Liu, Zhi; Stickney, John L; Robinson, David B

    2014-04-29

    Palladium has a number of important applications in energy and catalysis in which there is evidence that surface modification leads to enhanced properties. A strategy for preparing such materials is needed that combines the properties of (i) scalability (especially on high-surface-area substrates, e.g. powders); (ii) uniform deposition, even on substrates with complex, three-dimensional features; and (iii) low-temperature processing conditions that preserve nanopores and other nanostructures. Presented herein is a method that exhibits these properties and makes use of benign reagents without the use of specialized equipment. By exposing Pd powder to dilute hydrogen in nitrogen gas, sacrificial surface PdH is formed along with a controlled amount of dilute interstitial hydride. The lattice expansion that occurs in Pd under higher H2 partial pressures is avoided. Once the flow of reagent gas is terminated, addition of metal salts facilitates controlled, electroless deposition of an overlayer of subnanometer thickness. This process can be cycled to create thicker layers. The approach is carried out under ambient processing conditions, which is an advantage over some forms of atomic layer deposition. The hydride-mediated reaction is electroless in that it has no need for connection to an external source of electrical current and is thus amenable to deposition on high-surface-area substrates having rich, nanoscale topography as well as on insulator-supported catalyst particles. STEM-EDS measurements show that conformal Rh and Pt surface layers can be formed on Pd powder with this method. A growth model based on energy-resolved XPS depth profiling of Rh-modified Pd powder is in general agreement. After two cycles, deposits are consistent with 70-80% coverage and a surface layer with a thickness from 4 to 8 Å.

  4. Surface mixed layer deepening through wind shear alignment in a seasonally stratified shallow sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, B. J.; Rippeth, T. P.; Simpson, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    Inertial oscillations are a ubiquitous feature of the surface ocean. Here we combine new observations with a numerical model to investigate the role of inertial oscillations in driving deepening of the surface mixed layer in a seasonally stratified sea. Observations of temperature and current structure, from a mooring in the Western Irish Sea, reveal episodes of strong currents (>0.3 m s-1) lasting several days, resulting in enhanced shear across the thermocline. While the episodes of strong currents are coincident with windy periods, the variance in the shear is not directly related to the wind stress. The shear varies on a subinertial time scale with the formation of shear maxima lasting several hours occurring at the local inertial period of 14.85 h. These shear maxima coincide with the orientation of the surface current being at an angle of approximately 90° to the right of the wind direction. Observations of the water column structure during windy periods reveal deepening of the surface mixed layer in a series of steps which coincide with a period of enhanced shear. During the periods of enhanced shear gradient, Richardson number estimates indicate Ri-1 ≥ 4 at the base of the surface mixed layer, implying the deepening as a result of shear instability. A one-dimensional vertical exchange model successfully reproduces the magnitude and phase of the shear spikes as well as the step-like deepening. The observations and model results therefore identify the role of wind shear alignment as a key entrainment mechanism driving surface mixed layer deepening in a shallow, seasonally stratified sea.

  5. Surface Recombination Investigation in Thin 4H-SiC Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis GULBINAS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available n- and p-type 4H-SiC epilayers were grown on heavily doped SiC substrates. The thickness of the p-type layer was 7 µm and the doping level around 1017 cm 3, while the n-type epilayers were 15 µm thick and had a doping concentration of 3 - 5*1015 cm 3. Several different surface treatments were then applied on the epilayers for surface passivation: SiO2 growth, Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition, and Ar-ion implantation. Using collinear pump - probe technique the effective carrier lifetimes were measured from various places and statistical lifetime distributions were obtained. For surface recombination evaluation, two models are presented. One states that surface recombination velocity (SRV is equal on both the passivation/epi layer interface (S2 and the deeper interface between the epilayer and the SiC substrate i. e. (S1 = S2. The other model is simulated assuming that SRV in the epilayer/substrate (S1 interface is constant while in the passivation layer/epilayer (S2 interface SRV can be varied S2 < S1. Empirical nomograms are presented with various parameters sets to evaluate S2 values. We found that on the investigated 4H-SiC surfaces S2 ranges from 3x104 to 5x104 assuming that the bulk lifetime is 4 (µs. In Ar+ implanted surfaces S2 is between (105 - 106 cm/s.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.479

  6. Surface Plasmon Polariton Excitation in Metallic Layer Via Surface Relief Gratings in Photoactive Polymer Studied by the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Pawel; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    We performed numerical investigations of surface plasmon excitation and propagation in structures made of a photochromic polymer layer deposited over a metal surface using the finite-difference time-domain method. We investigated the process of light coupling into surface plasmon polariton excitation using surface relief gratings formed on the top of a polymer layer and compared it with the coupling via rectangular ridges grating made directly in the metal layer. We also performed preliminary studies on the influence of refractive index change of photochromic polymer on surface plasmon polariton propagation conditions.

  7. Helioseismic Imaging of Supergranulation throughout the Sun's Near-Surface Shear Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Bradley; Greer, Benjamin; Toomre, Juri

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of the Sun's sub-surface convective flows and provide evidence that the pattern of supergranulation is driven at the surface. The pattern subsequently descends slowly throughout the near-surface shear layer in a manner that is inconsistent with a 3-D cellular structure. The flow measurements are obtained through the application of a new helioseismic technique based on traditional ring analysis. We measure the flow field over the course of eleven days and perform a correlation analysis between all possible pairs of depths and temporal separations. In congruence with previous studies, we find that the supergranulation pattern remains coherent at the surface for slightly less than two days and the instantaneous surface pattern is imprinted to a depth of 7 Mm. However, these correlation times and depths are deceptive. When we admit a potential time lag in the correlation, we find that peak correlation in the convective flows descends at a rate of 10 - 30 m s-1 (or equivalently 1 - 3 Mm per day). Furthermore, the correlation extends throughout all depths of the near-surface shear layer. This pattern-propagation rate is well matched by estimates of the speed of down flows obtained through the anelastic approximation. Direct integration of the measured speed indicates that the supergranulation pattern that first appears at the surface eventually reaches the bottom of the near-surface shear layer a month later. Thus, the transit time is roughly equal to a solar rotation period and we suggest this equality may not be coincidental.

  8. On inferring isoprene emission surface flux from atmospheric boundary layer concentration measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the dependence of the inferred isoprene surface emission flux from atmospheric concentration on the diurnal variability of the convective boundary layer (CBL. A series of systematic numerical experiments carried out using the mixed-layer technique enabled us to study the sensitivity of isoprene fluxes to the entrainment process, the partition of surface fluxes, the horizontal advection of warm/cold air masses and subsidence. Our findings demonstrate the key role played by the evolution of boundary layer height in modulating the retrieved isoprene flux. More specifically, inaccurate values of the potential temperature lapse rate lead to changes in the dilution capacity of the CBL and as a result the isoprene flux may be overestimated or underestimated by as much as 20%. The inferred emission flux estimated in the early morning hours is highly dependent on the accurate estimation of the discontinuity of the thermodynamic values between the residual layer and the rapidly forming CBL. Uncertainties associated with the partition of the sensible and latent heat flux also yield large deviations in the calculation of the isoprene surface flux. Similar results are obtained if we neglect the influence of warm or cold advection in the development of the CBL. We show that all the above-mentioned processes are non-linear, for which reason the dynamic and chemical evolutions of the CBL must be solved simultaneously. Based on the discussion of our results, we suggest the measurements needed to correctly apply the mixed-layer technique in order to minimize the uncertainties associated with the diurnal variability of the convective boundary layer.

  9. On inferring isoprene emission surface flux from atmospheric boundary layer concentration measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We examine the dependence of the inferred isoprene surface emission flux from atmospheric concentration on the diurnal variability of the convective boundary layer (CBL. A series of systematic numerical experiments carried out using the mixed-layer technique enabled us to study the sensitivity of isoprene fluxes to the entrainment process, the partition of surface fluxes, the horizontal advection of warm/cold air masses and subsidence. Our findings demonstrate the key role played by the evolution of boundary layer height in modulating the retrieved isoprene flux. More specifically, inaccurate values of the potential temperature lapse rate lead to changes in the dilution capacity of the CBL and as a result the isoprene flux may be overestimated or underestimated by as much as 20%. The inferred emission flux estimated in the early morning hours is highly dependent on the accurate estimation of the discontinuity of the thermodynamic values between the residual layer and the rapidly forming CBL. Uncertainties associated with the partition of the sensible and latent heat flux also yield large deviations in the calculation of the isoprene surface flux. Similar results are obtained if we neglect the influence of warm or cold advection in the development of the CBL. We show that all the above-mentioned processes are non-linear, for which reason the dynamic and chemical evolutions of the CBL must be solved simultaneously. Based on the discussion of our results, we suggest the measurements needed to correctly apply the mixed-layer technique in order to minimize the uncertainties associated with the diurnal variability of the convective boundary layer.

  10. High Reynolds number rough wall turbulent boundary layer experiments using Braille surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Monty, Jason; Nova, Todd; Allen, James; Chong, Min

    2007-11-01

    This paper details smooth, transitional and fully rough turbulent boundary layer experiments in the New Mexico State high Reynolds number rough wall wind tunnel. The initial surface tested was generated with a Braille printer and consisted of an uniform array of Braille points. The average point height being 0.5mm, the spacing between the points in the span was 0.5mm and the surface consisted of span wise rows separated by 4mm. The wavelength to peak ratio was 8:1. The boundary layer thickness at the measurement location was 190mm giving a large separation of roughness height to layer thickness. The maximum friction velocity was uτ=1.5m/s at Rex=3.8 x10^7. Results for the skin friction co-efficient show that this surface follows a Nikuradse type inflectional curve and that Townsends outer layer similarity hypothesis is valid for rough wall flows with a large separation of scales. Mean flow and turbulence statistics will be presented.

  11. Growing season boundary layer climate and surface exchanges in a subarctic lichen woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.

    1994-01-01

    Between June and August 1990, observations were made at two surface micrometeorological towers near Schefferville Quebec (54 deg 52 min N, 66 deg 40.5 min W), one in a fen and one in the subarctic lichen woodland, and at four surface climatological stations. Data from these surface stations were supplemented by regular radiosonde launches. Supporting measurements of radiative components and soil temperatures allowed heat and moisture balances to be obtained at two sites. The overall surface meteorological experiment design and results of micrometeorological observations made on a 30-m tower in the lichen woodland are presented here. Seasonal variation in the heat and water vapor transport characteristics illustrate the marked effect of the late summer climatological shift in air mass type. During the first half of the summer, average valley sidewalls only 100 m high are sufficient to channel winds along the valley in the entire convective boundary layer. Channeling effects at the surface, known for some time at the long-term climate station in Schefferville, are observed both at ridge top and in the valley, possibly the response of the flow to the NW-SE orientation of valleys in the region. Diurnal surface temperature amplitude at ridge top (approximately equal to 10 C) was found to be half that observed in the valley. Relatively large differences in precipitation among these stations and the climatological station at Schefferville airport were observed and attributed to the local topography. Eddy correlation observations of the heat, moisture and momentum transports were obtained from a 30-m tower above a sparse (approximately equal to 616 stems/ha) black spruce lichen woodland. Properties of the turbulent surface boundary layer agree well with previous wind tunnel studies over idealized rough surfaces. Daytime Bowen ratios of 2.5-3 are larger than those reported in previous studies. Surface layer flux data quality was assessed by looking at the surface layer heat

  12. Identification of Dimeric Methylalumina Surface Species during Atomic Layer Deposition Using Operando Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, Ryan A; McAnally, Michael O; Schatz, George C; Stair, Peter C; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2017-02-15

    Operando surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to successfully identify hitherto unknown dimeric methylalumina surface species during atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a silver surface. Vibrational modes associated with the bridging moieties of both trimethylaluminum (TMA) and dimethylaluminum chloride (DMACl) surface species were found during ALD. The appropriate monomer vibrational modes were found to be absent as a result of the selective nature of SERS. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also performed to locate and identify the expected vibrational modes. An operando localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrometer was utilized to account for changes in SER signal as a function of the number of ALD cycles. DMACl surface species were unable to be measured after multiple ALD cycles as a result of a loss in SERS enhancement and shift in LSPR. This work highlights how operando optical spectroscopy by SERS and LSPR scattering are useful for probing the identity and structure of the surface species involved in ALD and, ultimately, catalytic reactions on these support materials.

  13. Experimental evidence of total absorption by a thin absorbing layer deposited on a patterned metallic surface

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the experimental demonstration of total absorption by a metal-dielectric metasurface. Following the theoretical proposal [A. D\\'iaz-Rubio et al. Phys. Rev. B 89, 245123 (2014)], we fabricated a metasurface consisting of a low absorbing dielectric layer (made of FR4) deposited on top of a metallic surface patterned with a square distribution of coaxial cavities. For P-polarized waves, it is observed a low frequency peak with perfect absorption. The behavior of this peak has been experimentally characterized for different dielectric layer thicknesses, coaxial cavity lengths and incidence angles. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulation and support the previous theoretical findings.

  14. Friedel oscillations at the surfaces of rhombohedral $N$-layer graphene

    OpenAIRE

    C. Dutreix; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2015-01-01

    The low-energy physics of rhombohedral $N$-layer graphene mainly arises on the external layers, where most of the {\\pi} electrons are located. Their Bloch band structure defines a two-band semimetal; the dispersion relation scales as $\\pm q^{N}$ with the momentum norm $q$ in the vicinity of two nonequivalent valleys. In this paper, we address the problem of elastic scattering through a localized impurity located either on the surface of the material or within the bulk, and focus on the quantu...

  15. Dual-layered-coated mechanically-durable superomniphobic surfaces with anti-smudge properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Palanikkumaran; Bhushan, Bharat; Yun, Kyungsung; Kondo, Hirofumi

    2013-11-01

    Bio-inspired surfaces that exhibit high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis for various liquids and demonstrate mechanical durability and anti-smudge properties are of interest for various applications. The fabrication of such surfaces has often involved complex or expensive processes, required techniques that may not be suitable for various substrates and particles, may require surface post-treatment, or may lack durability. Dual layered coatings of roughness-induced superomniphobic surfaces that demonstrate good mechanical durability were fabricated on glass substrates using hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles and low surface energy fluorobinders using dip coating and spray coating techniques. The particle-to-binder ratio was optimized for contact angles of interest. The mechanical durability of these coatings was examined under mechanical rubbing action. The anti-smudge properties were examined by wiping an artificially contaminated coating using oil-impregnated microfiber cloth.

  16. Formation of VC- composites surface layers on spheroidized graphite cast iron by laser surface cladding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam R.I. Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spheroidal graphite cast iron was laser cladded with VC powder of 44-53 μm particle size using YAG Fiber laser at 500, 1000, and 1500 W processing power and fixed travelling speed of 4 mm/s. The powder was preplaced on the surface of the specimens with 0.5 mm thickness. To prevent the oxidation, argon gas was used as a shielding gas. After the treatment, three zones were resulted: build-up (cladding, fusion, and heat affected zones. The build-up zone was a composite structure consisted of VC particles/dendrites dispersed in a matrix of martensite, carbides and ledeburite structure. At 500 W, most of the VC particles were appeared as their original large size. When the laser power was increased to 1000 W or more, the VC particles were melted and then re-solidified in the form of fine dendrites. The surface hardness of the cladded area was remarkably improved. As the distance from the free surface increases, the hardness decreases. The average hardness value at the surface treated by 500 W was about 710 HV (3 times of the hardness of substrate, while it reached to about 1340 HV and 1520 HV at powers of 1000 W and 1500 W, respectively. The wear resistance of the laser treated samples was improved at all investigated laser processing powers, especially at 1000W and 1500 W.

  17. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Y