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Sample records for bacterial strain typing

  1. The Mechanism for Type I Interferon Induction by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Bacterial Strain-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Kirsten E.; Ernst, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferons (including IFNαβ) are innate cytokines that may contribute to pathogenesis during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. To induce IFNβ, Mtb must gain access to the host cytosol and trigger stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling. A recently proposed model suggests that Mtb triggers STING signaling through bacterial DNA binding cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in the cytosol. The aim of this study was to test the generalizability of this model using phylogenetically distinct strains of the Mtb complex (MTBC). We infected bone marrow derived macrophages with strains from MTBC Lineages 2, 4 and 6. We found that the Lineage 6 strain induced less IFNβ, and that the Lineage 2 strain induced more IFNβ, than the Lineage 4 strain. The strains did not differ in their access to the host cytosol and IFNβ induction by each strain required both STING and cGAS. We also found that the three strains shed similar amounts of bacterial DNA. Interestingly, we found that the Lineage 6 strain was associated with less mitochondrial stress and less mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytosol compared with the Lineage 4 strain. Treating macrophages with a mitochondria-specific antioxidant reduced cytosolic mtDNA and inhibited IFNβ induction by the Lineage 2 and 4 strains. We also found that the Lineage 2 strain did not induce more mitochondrial stress than the Lineage 4 strain, suggesting that additional pathways contribute to higher IFNβ induction. These results indicate that the mechanism for IFNβ by Mtb is more complex than the established model suggests. We show that mitochondrial dynamics and mtDNA contribute to IFNβ induction by Mtb. Moreover, we show that the contribution of mtDNA to the IFNβ response varies by MTBC strain and that additional mechanisms exist for Mtb to induce IFNβ. PMID:27500737

  2. Use of colony-based bacterial strain typing for tracking the fate of Lactobacillus strains during human consumption

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    Drevinek Pavel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB are important components of the healthy gut flora and have been used extensively as probiotics. Understanding the cultivable diversity of LAB before and after probiotic administration, and being able to track the fate of administered probiotic isolates during feeding are important parameters to consider in the design of clinical trials to assess probiotic efficacy. Several methods may be used to identify bacteria at the strain level, however, PCR-based methods such as Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD are particularly suited to rapid analysis. We examined the cultivable diversity of LAB in the human gut before and after feeding with two Lactobacillus strains, and also tracked the fate of these two administered strains using a RAPD technique. Results A RAPD typing scheme was developed to genetically type LAB isolates from a wide range of species, and optimised for direct application to bacterial colony growth. A high-throughput strategy for fingerprinting the cultivable diversity of human faeces was developed and used to determine: (i the initial cultivable LAB strain diversity in the human gut, and (ii the fate of two Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus salivarius NCIMB 30211 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30156 contained within a capsule that was administered in a small-scale human feeding study. The L. salivarius strain was not cultivated from the faeces of any of the 12 volunteers prior to capsule administration, but appeared post-feeding in four. Strains matching the L. acidophilus NCIMB 30156 feeding strain were found in the faeces of three volunteers prior to consumption; after taking the Lactobacillus capsule, 10 of the 12 volunteers were culture positive for this strain. The appearance of both Lactobacillus strains during capsule consumption was statistically significant (p Conclusion We have shown that genetic strain typing of the cultivable human gut microbiota can be

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Bacterial Strains Isolated from a Polymicrobial Culture of Coccolith-Bearing (C-Type) Emiliania huxleyi M217

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosana, Albert Remus R.; Orata, Fabini D.; Xu, Yue; Simkus, Danielle N.; Bramucci, Anna R.; Boucher, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Strains of Rhodobacteraceae, Sphingomonadales, Alteromonadales, and Bacteroidetes were isolated from a polymicrobial culture of the coccolith-forming (C-type) haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi strain M217. The genomes encode genes for the production of algal growth factors and the consumption of their hosts’ metabolic by-products, suggesting that the polymicrobial culture harbors many symbiotic interactions. PMID:27417845

  4. Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.

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    Brian O'Farrell

    Full Text Available Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of 200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost.

  5. Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.

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    Phillip Trefz

    Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to

  6. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  7. Identification and characterisation of potential biofertilizer bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Kenan; Kotan, Recep; Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Dadaşoǧlu, Esin

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed that isolation, identification and characterizations of PGPR strains from rhizosphere of legume plants. 188 bacterial strains isolated from different legume plants like clover, sainfoin and vetch in Erzurum province of Turkey. These three plants are cultivated commonly in the Erzurum province. It was screen that 50 out of 188 strains can fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphate. These strains were identified via MIS (Microbial identification system). According to MIS identification results, 40 out of 50 strains were identified as Bacillus, 5 as Pseudomonas, 3 as Paenibacillus, 1 as Acinetobacter, 1 as Brevibacterium. According to classical test results, while the catalase test result of all isolates are positive, oxidase, KOH and starch hydrolysis rest results are variable.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

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    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  9. Evaluation of different lactic acid bacterial strains for probiotic characteristics

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    B. Srinu,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to collect different Lactic acid bacterial strains from culture collection centers and screen their functional probiotic characteristics such as acid tolerance, bile tolerance, antibacterial activity and antibiotic sensitivity for their commercial use. Materials and Methods: Acid and bile tolerence of selected LAB(Lactic acid bacteria was determined. The antibiotic resistance of Lactobacillus species was assessed using different antibiotic discs on de Mann Rogosa Sharpe broth (MRS agar plates seeded with the test probiotic organism. The antibacterial activity of LAB was assessed by using well diffusion method.Results: Among the six probiotic strains tested, all showed good survivability at high bile salt concentration (0.3 to 2.0 % oxgall and good growth at a low pH of 1.5 to 3.5. These probiotic species showed good survival abilities in acidic pH of 2.0 to 3.5 except Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspp. bulgaricus 281 which did not grown at pH of 2.0. Lactobacillus fermentum 141 was able to grow even at pH of 1.5 also. Among the six lactic acid species, Lactobacillus fermentum 141 (except Tetracycline, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspp. Bulgaricus 281 except (Cefpodoxime and all other LAB were resistant to all the antibiotics tested (Ampicillin, Nalidixic acid , Ciprofloxacin ,Co-Trimoxazole, Gentamicin and Cefpodoxime. All these probiotic organisms were screened for their in vitro inhibition ability against pathogenic microorganisms namely, E.coli ATCC (American type culture collection centre, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Staphylococcus aureus. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspp. bulgaricus 281, Lactobacillus casei 297 and Lactobacillus fermentum 141 inhibited the growth of all the pathogenic bacteria used in the study. Conclusion: The study indicated Lactobacillus fermentum 141 and Lactobacillus casei 297 as potential functional probiotics for future in vivo studies for

  10. Carbazole degradation in the soil microcosm by tropical bacterial strains

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    Lateef B. Salam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, three bacterial strains isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and phylogenetically identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonassp. strain SL4 and Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6 displayed angular dioxygenation and mineralization of carbazole in batch cultures. In this study, the ability of these isolates to survive and enhance carbazole degradation in soil were tested in field-moist microcosms. Strain SL4 had the highest survival rate (1.8 x 107 cfu/g after 30 days of incubation in sterilized soil, while there was a decrease in population density in native (unsterilized soil when compared with the initial population. Gas chromatographic analysis after 30 days of incubation showed that in sterilized soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg, 66.96, 82.15 and 68.54% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6, respectively, with rates of degradation of 0.093, 0.114 and 0.095 mg kg−1 h−1. The combination of the three isolates as inoculum in sterilized soil degraded 87.13% carbazole at a rate of 0.121 mg kg−1 h−1. In native soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg, 91.64, 87.29 and 89.13% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6 after 30 days of incubation, with rates of degradation of 0.127, 0.121 and 0.124 mg kg−1h−1, respectively. This study successfully established the survivability (> 106 cfu/g detected after 30 days and carbazole-degrading ability of these bacterial strains in soil, and highlights the potential of these isolates as seed for the bioremediation of carbazole-impacted environments.

  11. In silico comparison of bacterial strains using mutual information

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Swati

    2007-09-01

    Fast-sequencing throughput methods have increased the number of completely sequenced bacterial genomes to about 400 by December 2006, with the number increasing rapidly. These include several strains. In silico methods of comparative genomics are of use in categorizing and phylogenetically sorting these bacteria. Various word-based tools have been used for quantifying the similarities and differences between entire genomes. The simple di-nucleotide frequency comparison, codon specificity and k-mer repeat detection are among some of the well-known methods. In this paper, we show that the Mutual Information function, which is a measure of correlations and a concept from Information Theory, is very effective in determining the similarities and differences among genome sequences of various strains of bacteria such as the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, marine Cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus marinus or animal and human pathogens such as species of Ehrlichia and Legionella. The short-range three-base periodicity, small sequence repeats and long-range correlations taken together constitute a genome signature that can be used as a technique for identifying new bacterial strains with the help of strains already catalogued in the database. There have been several applications of using the Mutual Information function as a measure of correlations in genomics but this is the first whole genome analysis done to detect strain similarities and differences.

  12. Isolation and characterization of organic-sulfur degradation bacterial strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu; DIAO Meng-xue; SHI Wu-yang; LI Li; DAI Qin-yun; QIU Guan-zhou

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial strain that was capable of degrading organic sulfur (dibenzothiophene) was isolated by enrichment techniques from the petroleum-contaminated soil collected from Zhongyuan Oil Field. The strain is named ZYX and is gram-positive.This strain undergoes bacilus-coccus morphological change, and forms yellow-pigment glossy circular colonies with 1.5 mm in diameter on average after 2 d incubation on Luria-Bertani(LB) plates. The full-length of 16S rDNA sequence of strain ZYX was determined and analyzed. Strain ZYX is found most relative with the genus of Arthrobacter. The similarity values between ZYX and Arthrobacter sp. P2 is 99.53%. The main morphological, biochemical and physiological features of strain ZYX accord with those of Arthrobacter. It is found that the optimal initial pH for growth is about 7.0, and the optimal concentration of dibenzothiophene(DBT)for growth is 0.10 g/L. Additionally, the results show that the best carbon source and nitrogen source are glycerol and glutamine,respectively.

  13. CAMBer: an approach to support comparative analysis of multiple bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a large amount of inconsistency in gene structure annotations of bacterial strains. This inconsistency is a frustrating impedance to effective comparative genomic analysis of bacterial strains in promising applications such as gaining insights into bacterial drug resistance. Results Here, we propose CAMBer as an approach to support comparative analysis of multiple bacterial strains. CAMBer produces what we called multigene families. Each multigene family reveals genes that...

  14. Biodegradation of Ochratoxin A by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Vineyard Soils

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    Palmira De Bellis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin with a main nephrotoxic activity contaminating several foodstuffs. In the present report, five soil samples collected from OTA-contaminated vineyards were screened to isolate microorganisms able to biodegrade OTA. When cultivated in OTA-supplemented medium, OTA was converted in OTα by 225 bacterial isolates. To reveal clonal relationships between isolates, molecular typing by using an automated rep-PCR system was carried out, thus showing the presence of 27 different strains (rep-PCR profiles. The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of an isolate representative of each rep-PCR profiles indicated that they belonged to five bacterial genera, namely Pseudomonas, Leclercia, Pantoea, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter. However, further evaluation of OTA-degrading activity by the 27 strains revealed that only Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain 396.1 and Acinetobacter sp. strain neg1, consistently conserved the above property; their further characterization showed that they were able to convert 82% and 91% OTA into OTα in six days at 24 °C, respectively. The presence of OTα, as the unique OTA-degradation product was confirmed by LC-HRMS. This is the first report on OTA biodegradation by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soils and carried out under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. These microorganisms might be used to detoxify OTA-contaminated feed and could be a new source of gene(s for the development of a novel enzymatic detoxification system.

  15. Synergistic interactions between Labiatae species and antibiotics on gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Adham, Aveen Nozad

    2015-01-01

    Objective and methods: This study was aimed to evaluate antibacterial activity; type of interaction between chloroform leaves extract of Mentha piperita, Mentha longifolia and Ocimum basilicum together and with antibiotics by agar well diffusion method on isolated bacterial strain and to determine active constituents responsible on antibacterial activity by agar overlay bioautographic method.Results: Mentha piperita exhibited more pronounced inhibition zone (20mm) against Staphylococcus aureu...

  16. Aerobic granulation of pure bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil S ADAV; Duu-Jong LEE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to cultivate aer-obic granules by pure bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringien-sis, in a sequencing batch reactor. Stable granules sized 2.0-2.2 mm were formed in the reactor after a five-week cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent settling attributes, and degraded phenol at rates of 1.49 and concentration, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic test results show that Bacillus thuringiensis was distributed over the initial small aggregates, and the outer edge of the granule was away from the core regime in the following stage.

  17. Type 1 pilus-mediated bacterial invasion of bladder epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Juan J.; Mulvey, Matthew A.; Schilling, Joel D.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2000-01-01

    Most strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) encode filamentous adhesive organelles called type 1 pili. We have determined that the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, mediates not only bacterial adherence, but also invasion of human bladder epithelial cells. In contrast, adherence mediated by another pilus adhesin, PapG, did not initiate bacterial internalization. FimH-mediated invasion required localized host actin reorganization, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activation and host...

  18. Effect of isolate of ruminal fibrolytic bacterial culture supplementation on fibrolytic bacterial population and survivability of inoculated bacterial strain in lactating Murrah buffaloes

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    Brishketu Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bacterial culture supplementation on ruminal fibrolytic bacterial population as well as on survivability of inoculated bacterial strain in lactating Murrah buffaloes kept on high fibre diet. Materials and Methods: Fibrolytic bacterial strains were isolated from rumen liquor of fistulated Murrah buffaloes and live bacterial culture were supplemented orally in treatment group of lactating Murrah buffaloes fed on high fibre diet to see it's effect on ruminal fibrolytic bacterial population as well as to see the effect of survivability of the inoculated bacterial strain at three different time interval in comparison to control group. Results: It has been shown by real time quantification study that supplementation of bacterial culture orally increases the population of major fibre degrading bacteria i.e. Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus as well as Fibrobacter succinogenes whereas there was decrease in secondary fibre degrading bacterial population i.e. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens over the different time periods. However, the inoculated strain of Ruminococcus flavefaciens survived significantly over the period of time, which was shown in stability of increased inoculated bacterial population. Conclusion: The isolates of fibrolytic bacterial strains are found to be useful in increasing the number of major ruminal fibre degrading bacteria in lactating buffaloes and may act as probiotic in large ruminants on fibre-based diets. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 14-17

  19. Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain Sm3, Bacterial Antagonist of Pratylenchus penetrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, C; Muehlkchen, A; Forge, T; Vrain, T

    2000-06-01

    The interaction of Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Sm3 and the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans was investigated in three separate greenhouse experiments with soils from southern British Columbia, Canada. The bacteria were applied to the roots of strawberry plants and planted in unpasteurized field soils, with natural or supplemented infestation of P. penetrans. Nematode suppression in roots was evident after 6 or 10 weeks in all experiments. Root or shoot growth were increased after 10 weeks in two experiments. Population dynamics of P. chlororaphis Sm3 in the rhizosphere was followed using an antibiotic-resistant mutant of P. chlororaphis Sm3. There was no apparent correlation between bacterial density in the rhizosphere and P. penetrans suppression in strawberry roots and rhizosphere soil, although the soil with the highest nematode reduction also had the largest P. chlororaphis Sm3 population in the rhizosphere. PMID:19270964

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Criibacterium bergeronii gen. nov., sp. nov., Strain CCRI-22567T, Isolated from a Vaginal Sample from a Woman with Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Bérubé, Ève; Boudreau, Dominique K; Raymond, Frédéric; Corbeil, Jacques; Roy, Paul H; Boissinot, Maurice; Omar, Rabeea F

    2016-01-01

    Criibacterium bergeronii gen. nov., sp. nov., CCRI-22567 is the type strain of the new genus Criibacterium The strain was isolated from a woman with bacterial vaginosis. The genome assembly comprised 2,384,460 bp, with 34.4% G+C content. This is the first genome announcement of a strain belonging to the genus Criibacterium. PMID:27587833

  1. Anticorrosion/antifouling properties of bacterial spore-loaded sol-gel type coating for mild steel in saline marine condition: a case of thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Eduok, Ubong; Suleiman, Rami; Gittens, Jeanette; Khaled, Mazen; Smith, Thomas J.; Akid, Robert; El Ali, Bassam; Khalil, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the performance of a sol-gel type coating encapsulated with biofilm of inoculums of protective thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis endospores isolated from the Gazan hot springs- Saudi Arabia for the inhibition of marine fouling and corrosion protection of S36-grade mild steel in 3.5 wt% NaCl medium. In order to improve its anticorrosion properties, the hybrid sol-gel coating is further doped with zinc molybdate (MOLY) and zinc aluminum polyphosphate (Z...

  2. Hyper-Recombining Recipient Strains in Bacterial Conjugation

    OpenAIRE

    Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Low, K. Brooks

    1986-01-01

    Using a direct enrichment and screening procedure, mutants of Escherichia coli have been isolated in which recombination frequencies for several intragenic Hfr x F- crosses are significantly higher (twofold to sixfold) than in the parental strains. These hyper-recombination mutations comprised five new mutS- and one new mutL- allele. Together with other known mut - alleles, they were analyzed for effects on intragenic recombination using several types of crosses. Hyper-recombination was fou...

  3. Comparative characterization of three bacterial exo-type alginate lyases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Makoto; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2016-05-01

    Alginate, a major acidic polysaccharide in brown macroalgae, has attracted attention as a carbon source for production of ethanol and other chemical compounds. Alginate is monomerized by exo-type alginate lyase into an unsaturated uronate; thus, this enzyme is critical for the saccharification and utilization of alginate. Although several exo-type alginate lyases have been characterized independently, their activities were not assayed under the same conditions or using the same unit definition, making it difficult to compare enzymatic properties or to select the most suitable enzyme for saccharification of alginate. In this study, we characterized the three bacterial exo-type alginate lyases under the same conditions: A1-IV of Sphingomonas sp. strain A1, Atu3025 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Alg17c of Saccharophagus degradans. A1-IV had the highest specific activity as well as the highest productivity of uronate, whereas Alg17c had the lowest activity and productivity. Only dialyzed Atu3025 and Alg17c were tolerant to freezing. Alg17c exhibited a remarkable halotolerance, which may be advantageous for monomerization of alginate from marine brown algae. Thus, each enzyme exhibited particular desirable and undesirable properties. Our results should facilitate further utilization of the promising polysaccharide alginate. PMID:26827758

  4. Strain ŽP - the first bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starčič Erjavec, Marjanca; Petkovšek, Živa; Kuznetsova, Marina V; Maslennikova, Irina L; Žgur-Bertok, Darja

    2015-11-01

    As multidrug resistant bacteria pose one of the greatest risks to human health new alternative antibacterial agents are urgently needed. One possible mechanism that can be used as an alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy is transfer of killing agents via conjugation. Our work was aimed at providing a proof of principle that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems are possible. We constructed a bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system employing the well known Escherichia coli probiotic strain Nissle 1917 genetically modified to harbor a conjugative plasmid carrying the "kill" gene (colicin ColE7 activity gene) and a chromosomally encoded "anti-kill" gene (ColE7 immunity gene). The constructed strain acts as a donor in conjugal transfer and its efficiency was tested in several types of conjugal assays. Our results clearly demonstrate that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems can be highly efficient. PMID:26436830

  5. BACTERIAL PREFERENCES OF THE BACTERIVOROUS SOIL NEMATODE CEPHALOBUS BREVICAUDA (CEPHALOBIDAE): EFFECT OF BACTERIAL TYPE AND SIZE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell size and type may affect availability of bacteria for consumption by bacterivorous nematodes in the soil and in culture. This study explored the bacterial preferences of the bacterivorous soil nematode Cephalobus brevicauda (Cephalobidae) by comparing bactgeria isolated dir...

  6. Linking bacterial type I toxins with their actions

    OpenAIRE

    Brielle, Régine; Pinel-Marie, Marie-Laure; Felden, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial type I toxin–antitoxin systems consist of stable toxin-encoding mRNAs whose expression is counteracted by unstable RNA antitoxins. Accumulating evidence suggests that these players belong to broad regulatory networks influencing overall bacterial physiology. The majority of known transmembrane type I toxic peptides have conserved structural characteristics. However, recent studies demonstrated that their mechanisms of toxicity are diverse and complex. To better assess the current st...

  7. Modular microfluidic system fabricated in thermoplastics for the strain-specific detection of bacterial pathogens†

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Witek, Makgorzata; Dharmasiri, Udara; Pingle, Maneesh R.; BARANY, FRANCIS; Soper, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    The recent outbreaks of a lethal E. coli strain in Germany have aroused renewed interest in developing rapid, specific and accurate systems for detecting and characterizing bacterial pathogens in suspected contaminated food and/or water supplies. To address this need, we have designed, fabricated and tested an integrated modular-based microfluidic system and the accompanying assay for the strain-specific identification of bacterial pathogens. The system can carry out the entire molecular proc...

  8. Bacterial Cell Wall-Induced Arthritis: Chemical Composition and Tissue Distribution of Four Lactobacillus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Šimelyte, Egle; Rimpiläinen, Marja; Lehtonen, Leena; Zhang, Xiang; Toivanen, Paavo

    2000-01-01

    To study what determines the arthritogenicity of bacterial cell walls, cell wall-induced arthritis in the rat was applied, using four strains of Lactobacillus. Three of the strains used proved to induce chronic arthritis in the rat; all were Lactobacillus casei. The cell wall of Lactobacillus fermentum did not induce chronic arthritis. All arthritogenic bacterial cell walls had the same peptidoglycan structure, whereas that of L. fermentum was different. Likewise, all arthritogenic cell walls...

  9. Biodegradation of crude oil by individual bacterial strains and a mixed bacterial consortium isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Binupriya, Arthur [Research and Development Division, Regent Ecotech Private Limited, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India); Baik, Sang-Ho [Radiation Application Research Division, ARTI, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea); Yun, Sei-Eok [Department of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Research Institute of Bioindustry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea); Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy

    2008-01-15

    A preliminary study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for the biodegradation of a crude oil. Among 57 oil-degrading bacterial cultures isolated from oil-contaminated soil samples, Bacillus sp. IOS1-7, Corynebacterium sp. BPS2-6, Pseudomonas sp. HPS2-5, and Pseudomonas sp. BPS1-8 were selected for the study based on the efficiency of crude oil utilization. Along with the selected individual strains, a mixed bacterial consortium prepared using the above strains was also used for degradation studies. The mixed bacterial consortium showed more growth and degradation than did individual strains. At 1% crude oil concentration, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 77% of the crude oil. This was followed by 69% by Pseudomonas sp. BPS1-8, 64% by Bacillus sp. IOS1-7, 45% by Pseudomonas sp. HPS2-5, and 41% by Corynebacterium sp. BPS2-6. The percentage of degradation by the mixed bacterial consortium decreased from 77 to 45% as the concentration of crude oil was increased from 1 to 12%. Temperature of 35 C and pH 7 were found to be optimum for maximum degradation. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Recurrent Osteomyelitis Caused by Infection with Different Bacterial Strains without Obvious Source of Reinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçkay, Ilker; Assal, Mathieu; Legout, Laurence; Rohner, Peter; Stern, Richard; Lew, Daniel; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Bernard, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Recurrence of osteomyelitis by the same bacterial strain is well known. We report three patients with a second episode of osteomyelitis at the same site caused by different strains of bacteria from the original. Formerly infected and altered bone surface might present a region of diminished resistance for a new infection. PMID:16517930

  11. Recurrent Osteomyelitis Caused by Infection with Different Bacterial Strains without Obvious Source of Reinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Uckay, Ilker; Assal, Mathieu; Legout, Laurence; Rohner, Peter; Stern, Richard; Lew, Daniel Pablo; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Bernard, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Recurrence of osteomyelitis by the same bacterial strain is well known. We report three patients with a second episode of osteomyelitis at the same site caused by different strains of bacteria from the original. Formerly infected and altered bone surface might present a region of diminished resistance for a new infection.

  12. Recurrent osteomyelitis caused by infection with different bacterial strains without obvious source of reinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçkay, Ilker; Assal, Mathieu; Legout, Laurence; Rohner, Peter; Stern, Richard; Lew, Daniel; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Bernard, Louis

    2006-03-01

    Recurrence of osteomyelitis by the same bacterial strain is well known. We report three patients with a second episode of osteomyelitis at the same site caused by different strains of bacteria from the original. Formerly infected and altered bone surface might present a region of diminished resistance for a new infection. PMID:16517930

  13. Lysozyme-coated silver nanoparticles for differentiating bacterial strains on the basis of antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Sumaira; Chatha, Mariyam Asghar; Ejaz, Wardah; Janjua, Hussnain Ahmed; Hussain, Irshad

    2014-10-01

    Lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles adopting various strategies. The synthesized particles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM to observe their morphology and surface chemistry. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial species and various bacterial strains within the same species. The cationic silver nanoparticles were found to be more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 compared to other bacterial species/strains investigated. Some of the bacterial strains of the same species showed variable antibacterial activity. The difference in antimicrobial activity of these particles has led to the conclusion that antimicrobial products formed from silver nanoparticles may not be equally effective against all the bacteria. This difference in the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles for different bacterial strains from the same species may be due to the genome islands that are acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). These genome islands are expected to possess some genes that may encode enzymes to resist the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles may thus also be used to differentiate some bacterial strains within the same species due to variable silver resistance of these variants, which may not possible by simple biochemical tests.

  14. Antibacterial action of doped CoFe2O4 nanocrystals on multidrug resistant bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bactericidal effect of pristine and doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles has been evaluated against multiple drug resistant clinical strains by assessing the number of colony-forming units (CFU). Monophasic polycrystalline ferrites have been prepared by the malate–glycolate sol–gel autocombustion method as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction study. Various changes occurring during the preparative stages have been demonstrated using TG–DTA analysis which is well complemented by the FTIR spectroscopy. The antibacterial studies carried out demonstrate a bactericidal effect of the nanoparticles wherein the number of CFU has been found to decrease with doping. Cellular distortions have been revealed through SEM. Variation in the number of CFU with dopant type has also been reported herein. - Graphical abstract: Antibacterial action of doped cobalt ferrites resulting in the lyses of multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. - Highlights: • The paper reports an antibacterial study of rare earth doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. • Monophasic compounds have been prepared by the sol–gel autocombustion method. • Bactericidal property has been evaluated based on the number of colony forming units. • Variation in bactericidal action with respect to the dopant type has been observed. • Cellular distortions resulting in cell lysis are confirmed from the SEM images

  15. An approach to identifying drug resistance associated mutations in bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing problem, which stimulates research. However, our understanding of drug resistance mechanisms remains incomplete. Fortunately, the fast-growing number of fully sequenced bacterial strains now enables us to develop new methods to identify mutations associated with drug resistance. Results We present a new comparative approach to identify genes and mutations that are likely to be associated with drug resistance mechanisms. In ord...

  16. Conductivity-Dependent Strain Response of Carbon Nanotube Treated Bacterial Nanocellulose

    OpenAIRE

    S. Farjana; F. Toomadj; Lundgren, P.; Sanz-Velasco, A.; Naboka, O.; Enoksson, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the strain sensitivity of flexible, electrically conductive, and nanostructured cellulose which was prepared by modification of bacterial cellulose with double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The electrical conductivity depends on the modifying agent and its dispersion process. The conductivity of the samples obtained from bacterial cellulose (BNC) pellicles modified with DWCNT was in the range from 0.034 S·cm−1 to 0.39 S·cm−1, an...

  17. Degradation of Asphaltenic Fraction by Locally Isolated Halotolerant Bacterial Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hager R.; Nour Sh. El-Gendy; Moustafa, Yasser M.; Roushdy, Mohamed I.; Hashem, Ahmed I.

    2012-01-01

    Three halotolerant bacterial species were isolated from locally oil-polluted water sample for their ability to utilize asphaltene (Asph) fraction as sole carbon and energy source. These bacteria degrade 83–96% of 2500 mg/L asphaltene within 21 d at 30°C and pH7. They were identified as Bacillus sp. Asph1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Asph2, and Micrococcus sp. Asph3. A statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level for cell growth and percentage biodegradation (%BD) was observed in al...

  18. Isolation of Bacterial Strain for Biodegradation of Fats, Oil and Grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposition is one of the major problems that harm the environment and cause dissatisfaction for human. Uncontrolled and un-pre-treated FOG removal from the kitchen could lead to its accumulation in the piping system. Problems include the interference of fat with the aerobic microorganisms that are responsible in treating the wastewater by reducing oxygen transfer rates and for anaerobic microorganisms; their efficiency could also be reduced due to the reduction of the transport of soluble substrates to the bacterial biomass. Biodegradation could be one of the effective means to treat FOG. The main objective of this study is to isolate bacterial strains from the FOG waste and identify the strains that are capable in biodegrading FOG waste. FOG sample was collected from a sewer manhole. Enrichment technique was applied, followed by isolation of bacterial strains to determine which strain is able to degrade the FOG deposition. Some morphology for the bacterial strain was done to determine its characteristics. (author)

  19. Linking bacterial type I toxins with their actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielle, Régine; Pinel-Marie, Marie-Laure; Felden, Brice

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial type I toxin-antitoxin systems consist of stable toxin-encoding mRNAs whose expression is counteracted by unstable RNA antitoxins. Accumulating evidence suggests that these players belong to broad regulatory networks influencing overall bacterial physiology. The majority of known transmembrane type I toxic peptides have conserved structural characteristics. However, recent studies demonstrated that their mechanisms of toxicity are diverse and complex. To better assess the current state of the art, type I toxins can be grouped into two classes according to their location and mechanisms of action: membrane-associated toxins acting by pore formation and/or by nucleoid condensation; and cytosolic toxins inducing nucleic acid cleavage. This classification will evolve as a result of future investigations. PMID:26874964

  20. Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain Sm3, Bacterial Antagonist of Pratylenchus penetrans

    OpenAIRE

    Hackenberg, Clemens; Muehlkchen, Andrea; Forge, Thomas; Vrain, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Sm3 and the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans was investigated in three separate greenhouse experiments with soils from southern British Columbia, Canada. The bacteria were applied to the roots of strawberry plants and planted in unpasteurized field soils, with natural or supplemented infestation of P. penetrans. Nematode suppression in roots was evident after 6 or 10 weeks in all experiments. Root or shoot growth were increased aft...

  1. Emergence of Potential Superbug Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Lessons from New Delhi Mutant-1 Bacterial Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Taha; Abraham, Suraj; Islam, Azharul

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that certain bacterial strains attain the New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme and become resistant to a broad range of antibiotics. Similarly, more dangerous “superbugs” of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are gradually emerging through rapid genetic mutation caused by prescription non-compliance or unsupervised indiscriminate use of anti-tubercular drugs or other antibiotics. Mycobacterium...

  2. Induced drought tolerance through wild and mutant bacterial strain Pseudomonas simiae in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sarita; Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Varma, Ajit; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on the overproducing mutant of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae strain AU (MTCC-12057) for significant drought tolerance in mung bean plants. Five mutants namely AU-M1, AU-M2, AU-M3, AU-M4 and AU-M5 were made after treatment of wild type strain with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutant strain AU-M4 was recorded for enhanced ACC deaminase (ACC-D) activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) production and inorganic phosphate (Pi) solubilization compared to wild strain and other four mutant strains under drought condition. AU-M4 showed higher phosphate solubilization index (8.17) together with higher ACC-D activity (98 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (69.35 µg/ml) compared with the wild type P. simiae strain AU ACC-D activity (79 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (38.98 µg/ml) respectively. In this report, we investigated the effect of both wild and mutant type bacterial strain on mung bean plants under drought stress. Results showed that mutant AU-M4 and wild type strain AU inoculated plants exhibited superior tolerance against drought stress, as shown by their enhanced plant biomass (fresh weight), higher water content, higher proline accumulation and lower osmotic stress injury. Mutant AU-M4 and wild strain AU inoculated plants reduced the ethylene level by 59 and 45% respectively, compared to the control under stress condition. Furthermore, bacterial inoculated plants showed enhanced induced systemic drought tolerance by reducing stomata size and net photosynthesis resulting higher water content in mung bean plants that may help in survival of plants during drought condition. To mitigate the effects of drought stress, use of PGPR will be needed to ensure sufficient production of food from crop plants. Taking current leads available, concerted future research is needed in this area, particularly on field evaluation with application of potential microorganisms. PMID:26712619

  3. Limited diffusive fluxes of substrate facilitate coexistence of two competing bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Or, D.; Smets, Barth F.

    2008-01-01

    dish and a perforated Teflon((R)) membrane to control diffusive fluxes of substrate (benzoate) whilst permitting direct observation of bacterial colonies. The system was inoculated with prescribed strains of Pseudomonas, whose growth was quantified by microscopic monitoring of the fluorescent proteins...

  4. Limited diffusive fluxes of substrate facilitate coexistence of two competing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Or, Dani; Smets, Barth F

    2008-04-01

    Soils are known to support a great bacterial diversity down to the millimeter scale, but the mechanisms by which such a large diversity is sustained are largely unknown. A feature of unsaturated soils is that water usually forms thin, poorly-connected films, which limit solute diffusive fluxes. It has been proposed, but never unambiguously experimentally tested, that a low substrate diffusive flux would impact bacterial diversity, by promoting the coexistence between slow-growing bacteria and their potentially faster-growing competitors. We used a simple experimental system, based on a Petri dish and a perforated Teflon membrane to control diffusive fluxes of substrate (benzoate) whilst permitting direct observation of bacterial colonies. The system was inoculated with prescribed strains of Pseudomonas, whose growth was quantified by microscopic monitoring of the fluorescent proteins they produced. We observed that substrate diffusion limitation reduced the growth rate of the otherwise fast-growing Pseudomonas putida KT2440 strain. This strain out-competed Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 in liquid culture, but its competitive advantage was less marked on solid media, and even disappeared under conditions of low substrate diffusion. Low diffusive fluxes of substrate, characteristic of many unsaturated media (e.g. soils, food products), can thus promote bacterial coexistence in a competitive situation between two strains. This mechanism might therefore contribute to maintaining the noncompetitive diversity pattern observed in unsaturated soils. PMID:18312376

  5. Estimation of the abundance of an uncultured soil bacterial strain by a competitive quantitative PCR method.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S. Y.; Bollinger, J; Bezdicek, D; Ogram, A

    1996-01-01

    Strain EA25 was identified in a clone library of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences that had been amplified from DNA extracted from soil collected in eastern Washington State. EA25 was subsequently shown to be related to members of the genera Planctomyces and Chlamydia and most closely related (93% similarity) to strain MC18, a strain identified in an Australian soil sample (W. Liesack and E. Stackebrandt, J. Bacteriol. 174:5072-5078, 1992). A competitive quantitative PCR method developed by Z...

  6. Radioprotective effect of garlic extract on some bacterial strains with different radiation sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect of garlic on four bacterial strains with different degrees of radiation sensitivities was investigated. The presence of garlic led to an increase in d-10 value of Ps. Aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. typhimurium by 160%, 50%, and 30% respectively. The protective efficiency of garlic against radiation was noticed to be proportional to its concentration in a given inoculum size. Garlic extract up to 180 micro liter per 108 inoculum size of B. cereus showed no protective effect. This fact was attributed to the existence of sulphur compounds in the given strain. Higher garlic concentrations appeared to affect the cloning efficiency of a given strain. 4fig., 2tab

  7. Emergence of potential superbug mycobacterium tuberculosis, lessons from new delhi mutant-1 bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Taha; Abraham, Suraj; Islam, Azharul

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that certain bacterial strains attain the New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme and become resistant to a broad range of antibiotics. Similarly, more dangerous "superbugs" of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are gradually emerging through rapid genetic mutation caused by prescription non-compliance or unsupervised indiscriminate use of anti-tubercular drugs or other antibiotics. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases have been reported in highly susceptible population groups including the aboriginal communities of US and Canada. In Canada alone, the total number of reported tuberculosis cases has decreased over the past decade. However, there is a steady increase in HIV cases in certain communities including the aboriginal communities. Reintroduction of MDR/XDR strains of tuberculosis is possible in these susceptible communities, which in turn may pose serious public health situation. MDR/XDR strains of tuberculosis are virtually untreatable using current anti-tubercular medication protocols. Thus, MDR/XDR tuberculosis presents a grave global public health threat. The unpredictable genetic mechanism involved in generating MDR/XDR resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may pose greater challenges in developing appropriate treatment strategies. In this article, we briefly review potential genetic mechanism of emerging NDM-1 bacterial strains and draw a rationale parallel to the underlying genetic mechanism of MDR/XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain development. PMID:23267308

  8. Detoxification of mercury pollutant leached from spent fluorescent lamps using bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Abuqaoud, Reem H; Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammed H

    2016-03-01

    The spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs) are being classified as a hazardous waste due to having mercury as one of its main components. Mercury is considered the second most toxic heavy metal (arsenic is the first) with harmful effects on animal nervous system as it causes different neurological disorders. In this research, the mercury from phosphor powder was leached, then bioremediated using bacterial strains isolated from Qatari environment. Leaching of mercury was carried out with nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions using two approaches: leaching at ambient conditions and microwave-assisted leaching. The results obtained from this research showed that microwave-assisted leaching method was significantly better in leaching mercury than the acid leaching where the mercury leaching efficiency reached 76.4%. For mercury bio-uptake, twenty bacterial strains (previously isolated and purified from petroleum oil contaminated soils) were sub-cultured on Luria Bertani (LB) plates with mercury chloride to check the bacterial tolerance to mercury. Seven of these twenty strains showed a degree of tolerance to mercury. The bio-uptake capacities of the promising strains were investigated using the mercury leached from the fluorescent lamps. Three of the strains (Enterobacter helveticus, Citrobacter amalonaticus, and Cronobacter muytjensii) showed bio-uptake efficiency ranged from 28.8% to 63.6%. PMID:26725036

  9. Impact on bacterial community in midguts of the Asian corn borer larvae by transgenic Trichoderma strain overexpressing a heterologous chit42 gene with chitin-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Li

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H and the Simpson (1-D indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.

  10. Effect of CuO Nanoparticles over Isolated Bacterial Strains from Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I. Concha-Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of the nanoparticles (NPs on several processes is notorious. In contrast the ecotoxicological effects of NPs have been scarcely studied. The main current researches are related to the oxide metallic NPs. In the present work, fifty-six bacterial strains were isolated from soil, comprising 17 different OTUs distributed into 3 classes: Bacilli (36 strains, Flavobacteria (2 strains, and Gammaproteobacteria (18 strains. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs were synthesized using a process of chemical precipitation. The obtained CuONPs have a spherical shape and primary size less than 17 nm. Twenty-one strains were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CuONPs and 11 of these strains showed high sensibility. Among those 11 strains, 4 (Brevibacillus laterosporus strain CSS8, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum strain CSA28, and Pantoea ananatis strains CSA34 and CSA35 were selected to determine the kind of damage produced. The CuONPs toxic effect was observed at expositions over 25 mg·L−1 and the damage to cell membrane above 160 mg·L−1. The electron microscopy showed the formation of cavities, holes, membrane degradation, blebs, cellular collapse, and lysis. These toxic effects may probably be due to the ions interaction, the oxide-reduction reactions, and the generation of reactive species.

  11. Marmatite bioleaching with moderately thermoacidophilic bacterial strain and mineral analyses of solid residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Sho-yuan; FANG Zho-heng

    2005-01-01

    The bioleaching of a marmatite flotation concentrate with a moderately thermoacidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterial strain (MLY) is influenced significantly by temperature, pH, particle size, pulp density of ores and bacterial strains. Under such leaching conditions as the initial pH value of 1.5, temperature of 50 ℃, pulp density of 5%, particle size less than 35.5 μm (over 90%) and inoculating the adapted strains of MLY, the leached Zn is over 95% after 10 d of bioleaching. SEM observations show the cell attachment and the surface features of solid residues under different leaching conditions. XRD and EDX analyses show that a mass of elemental sulfur form during the bioleaching process. The technological feasibility of a microbiological process using MLY for extracting zinc from the marmatite concentrate is demonstrated.

  12. Whole-Genome Sequence of Chlamydia gallinacea Type Strain 08-1274/3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzer, Martin; Laroucau, Karine; Creasy, Heather Huot; Ott, Sandra; Vorimore, Fabien; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Marz, Manja

    2016-01-01

    The recently introduced bacterial species Chlamydia gallinacea is known to occur in domestic poultry and other birds. Its potential as an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent is under investigation. The whole-genome sequence of its type strain, 08-1274/3, consists of a 1,059,583-bp chromosome with 914 protein-coding sequences (CDSs) and a plasmid (p1274) comprising 7,619 bp with 9 CDSs. PMID:27445388

  13. Prior Inoculation with Type B Strains of Francisella tularensis Provides Partial Protection against Virulent Type A Strains in Cottontail Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R Brown

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent bacterium that is capable of causing severe disease (tularemia in a wide range of species. This organism is characterized into two distinct subspecies: tularensis (type A and holarctica (type B which vary in several crucial ways, with some type A strains having been found to be considerably more virulent in humans and laboratory animals. Cottontail rabbits have been widely implicated as a reservoir species for this subspecies; however, experimental inoculation in our laboratory revealed type A organisms to be highly virulent, resulting in 100% mortality following challenge with 50-100 organisms. Inoculation of cottontail rabbits with the same number of organisms from type B strains of bacteria was found to be rarely lethal and to result in a robust humoral immune response. The objective of this study was to characterize the protection afforded by a prior challenge with type B strains against a later inoculation with a type A strain in North American cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus spp. Previous infection with a type B strain of organism was found to lengthen survival time and in some cases prevent death following inoculation with a type A2 strain of F. tularensis. In contrast, inoculation of a type A1b strain was uniformly lethal in cottontail rabbits irrespective of a prior type B inoculation. These findings provide important insight about the role cottontail rabbits may play in environmental maintenance and transmission of this organism.

  14. The type III secretion system apparatus determines the intracellular niche of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Reeves, Analise Z; Klein, Jessica A; Twedt, Donna J; Knodler, Leigh A; Lesser, Cammie F

    2016-04-26

    Upon entry into host cells, intracellular bacterial pathogens establish a variety of replicative niches. Although some remodel phagosomes, others rapidly escape into the cytosol of infected cells. Little is currently known regarding how professional intracytoplasmic pathogens, including Shigella, mediate phagosomal escape. Shigella, like many other Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, uses a type III secretion system to deliver multiple proteins, referred to as effectors, into host cells. Here, using an innovative reductionist-based approach, we demonstrate that the introduction of a functional Shigella type III secretion system, but none of its effectors, into a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli is sufficient to promote the efficient vacuole lysis and escape of the modified bacteria into the cytosol of epithelial cells. This establishes for the first time, to our knowledge, a direct physiologic role for the Shigella type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) in mediating phagosomal escape. Furthermore, although protein components of the T3SA share a moderate degree of structural and functional conservation across bacterial species, we show that vacuole lysis is not a common feature of T3SA, as an effectorless strain of Yersinia remains confined to phagosomes. Additionally, by exploiting the functional interchangeability of the translocator components of the T3SA of Shigella, Salmonella, and Chromobacterium, we demonstrate that a single protein component of the T3SA translocon-Shigella IpaC, Salmonella SipC, or Chromobacterium CipC-determines the fate of intracellular pathogens within both epithelial cells and macrophages. Thus, these findings have identified a likely paradigm by which the replicative niche of many intracellular bacterial pathogens is established. PMID:27078095

  15. Decolorization of sulfonated azo dye Metanil Yellow by newly isolated bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. strain AK1 and Lysinibacillus sp. strain AK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneya, O; Souche, S Yogesh; Santoshkumar, M; Karegoudar, T B

    2011-06-15

    Two different bacterial strains capable of decolorizing a highly water soluble azo dye Metanil Yellow were isolated from dye contaminated soil sample collected from Atul Dyeing Industry, Bellary, India. The individual bacterial strains Bacillus sp. AK1 and Lysinibacillus sp. AK2 decolorized Metanil Yellow (200 mg L(-1)) completely within 27 and 12h respectively. Various parameters like pH, temperature, NaCl and initial dye concentrations were optimized to develop an economically feasible decolorization process. The maximum concentration of Metanil Yellow (1000 mg L(-1)) was decolorized by strains AK2 and AK1 within 78 and 84 h respectively. These strains could decolorize Metanil Yellow over a broad pH range 5.5-9.0; the optimum pH was 7.2. The decolorization of Metanil Yellow was most efficient at 40°C and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, TLC, HPLC and GC/MS analysis. Further, both the strains showed the involvement of azoreductase in the decolorization process. Phytotoxicity studies of catabolic products of Metanil Yellow on the seeds of chick pea and pigeon pea revealed much reduction in the toxicity of metabolites as compared to the parent dye. These results indicating the effectiveness of strains AK1 and AK2 for the treatment of textile effluents containing azo dyes. PMID:21470774

  16. Agriculture Applications for Some Gamma Irradiated Bacterial Strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAMMA Radiation has many peaceful applications in different fields including agriculture. In this study, gamma radiation is used to enhance the activity of eight microbial strains, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii, Bacillus megaterium ATCC 19213, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051T, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. Cellulosa that are used intensively in agricultural practices in Egypt. Nitrogen fixing activity of A. chroococcum and A. vinelandii was decreased with increasing gamma irradiation doses. Irradiation doses equals 1 and 1.5 kGy enhanced phosphatase activity of B. megaterium ATCC 19213 and B. subtilis ATCC 6633 by nearly three and two folds respectively. HPLC analysis showed qualitative and quantitative changes in organic acid profile of phosphate-solubilising bacteria after irradiation. Gamma radiation has a significant positive effect on cellulolytic activity of Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484, Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. Cellulosa, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051T and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 in bench scale experiment. By applying cellulose decomposer mixture to common compost used in Lower Egypt, there is a slight difference between compost treated with irradiated mixture and un-irradiated one. A field experiment was conducted to estimate the effect of irradiated phosphate-solubilising bacteria on planted maize.

  17. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin. PMID:25186082

  18. Application of capsule type strain gage and fiber optic grating strain sensor for measurement of strain under irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, in-pile strain measurement techniques have been developing by using JMTR. In order to evaluate the performance of capsule type strain gage and fiber optic grating sensor under irradiation environment, the heat-up tests in electric furnace before irradiation and in-pile tests were performed. As for capsule type strain gage, it is found that gage factor almost did not change and both its electric resistance and strain output decreased by irradiation effect. A correlation was found between the change ratio of the electric resistance of the capsule type strain gage and fast neutron fluence. As for fiber optic grating sensor, it is possible to measure strain under irradiation environment below 1x1023 n/m2 (E>1 MeV) by this sensor, because in-pile temperature characteristic was in agreement with out-of-pile test results. (author)

  19. Enzyme-Responsive Polymeric Vesicles for Bacterial-Strain-Selective Delivery of Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yamin; Liu, Guhuan; Wang, Xiaorui; Hu, Jinming; Liu, Shiyong

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses serious public health concerns and antibiotic misuse/abuse further complicates the situation; thus, it remains a considerable challenge to optimize/improve the usage of currently available drugs. We report a general strategy to construct a bacterial strain-selective delivery system for antibiotics based on responsive polymeric vesicles. In response to enzymes including penicillin G amidase (PGA) and β-lactamase (Bla), which are closely associated with drug-resistant bacterial strains, antibiotic-loaded polymeric vesicles undergo self-immolative structural rearrangement and morphological transitions, leading to sustained release of antibiotics. Enhanced stability, reduced side effects, and bacterial strain-selective drug release were achieved. Considering that Bla is the main cause of bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotic drugs, as a further validation, we demonstrate methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)-triggered release of antibiotics from Bla-degradable polymeric vesicles, in vitro inhibition of MRSA growth, and enhanced wound healing in an in vivo murine model. PMID:26694087

  20. Effect of microstructure on anomalous strain-rate-dependent behaviour of bacterial cellulose hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing; Shi, Zhijun; Lau, Andrew; Liu, Changqin; Yang, Guang; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2016-05-01

    This study is focused on anomalous strain-rate-dependent behaviour of bacterial cellulose (BC) hydrogel that can be strain-rate insensitive, hardening, softening, or strain-rate insensitive in various ranges of strain rate. BC hydrogel consists of randomly distributed nanofibres and a large content of free water; thanks to its ideal biocompatibility, it is suitable for biomedical applications. Motivated by its potential applications in complex loading conditions of body environment, its time-dependent behaviour was studied by means of in-aqua uniaxial tension tests at constant temperature of 37 °C at various strain rates ranging from 0.000 1s(-1) to 0.3s(-1). Experimental results reflect anomalous strain-rate-dependent behaviour that was not documented before. Micro-morphological observations allowed identification of deformation mechanisms at low and high strain rates in relation to microstructural changes. Unlike strain-rate softening behaviours in other materials, reorientation of nanofibres and kinematics of free-water flow dominate the softening behaviour of BC hydrogel at high strain rates. PMID:26952406

  1. Antimicrobial sensitivity and frequency of DRUG resistance among bacterial strains isolated from cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood stream infections (bacteremia) is potentially life threatening. Concomitant with a change in the incidence and epidemiology of infecting organisms, there has been an increase in resistance to many antibiotic compounds. The widespread emergence of resistance among bacterial pathogens has an impact on our ability to treat patients effectively. The changing spectrum of microbial pathogens and widespread emergence of microbial resistance to antibiotic drugs has emphasized the need to monitor the prevalence of resistance in these strains. In the present study frequency of isolation of clinically significant bacteria and their susceptibility and resistance pattern against a wide range of antimicrobial drugs from positive blood cultures collected during 2001-2003 was studied. A total of 102 consecutive isolates were found with 63% gram positive and 44% gram negative strains. The dominating pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (51%), Streptococci (31%), Pseudomonas (40%), Proteus (13%), Klebsiella (13%). The isolated strains were tested against a wide range of antibiotics belonging to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and quinolone derivative group by disk diffusion method. It has been observed that isolated strains among gram positive and negative strains showed different level of resistance against aminoglycosides and cephalosporin group of antibiotics with gram positives showing highest number and frequency of resistance against aminoglycosides (40-50%) and cephalosporins.(35-45%) whereas cephalosporins were found to be more effective against gram negatives with low frequency of resistant strains. Cabapenem and quinolone derivative drugs were found to be most effective among other groups in both gram positive and negative strains with 23-41% strains found sensitive to these two drugs. The frequency of sensitive strains against aminoglycoside and cephalosporin in gram negative and gram positive strains were found to be decreasing yearwise with a trend towards an

  2. Lytic Characteristics and Identification of Two Alga-lysing Bacterial Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong

    2006-01-01

    All previously reported bacterial species which are capable of lysing harmful algae have been isolated from coastal environments in which harmful algae blooms have occurred. Due to the low concentration of alga-lysing bacteria in an algal bloom, it is difficult to isolate the alga-lysing bacteria by existing methods. In this paper, two algae-lysing bacterial strains,P01 and P03, have been isolated from a biosystem immobilized on a sponge that was highly effective in removing algae and microcystins. Their lysing modes and effects on Microcystis aeruginosa have been studied. The results show that the degradation processes of these two strains for M. aeruginosa accorded with a first-order reaction model when the chlorophylla concentration was in the range from 0 to 1000 μg L-1. The degradation rate constants were 0.106 7, 0.127 4 and 0.279 2 for P01and0.0683, 0.0744 and 0.02897 for P03, when the bacterial densities were 8.6 × 105, 8.6 × 106 and 8.6 × 107cells mL 1, respectively. Moreover, the two bacterial strains had favourable lytic effects not only on M. aeruginosa, but also on Chlorella and Scene-desmus. Their lytic effect on M. aeruginosa did not require physical cell to cell contact, but proceeded by the production of an extracellular product. The bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus species by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, BLAST analysis, and comparison with sequences in the GenBank nucleotide database.

  3. ANItools web: a web tool for fast genome comparison within multiple bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Qiang, Yujun; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early classification of prokaryotes was based solely on phenotypic similarities, but modern prokaryote characterization has been strongly influenced by advances in genetic methods. With the fast development of the sequencing technology, the ever increasing number of genomic sequences per species offers the possibility for developing distance determinations based on whole-genome information. The average nucleotide identity (ANI), calculated from pair-wise comparisons of all sequences shared between two given strains, has been proposed as the new metrics for bacterial species definition and classification. Results: In this study, we developed the web version of ANItools (http://ani.mypathogen.cn/), which helps users directly get ANI values from online sources. A database covering ANI values of any two strains in a genus was also included (2773 strains, 1487 species and 668 genera). Importantly, ANItools web can automatically run genome comparison between the input genomic sequence and data sequences (Genus and Species levels), and generate a graphical report for ANI calculation results. Conclusion: ANItools web is useful for defining the relationship between bacterial strains, further contributing to the classification and identification of bacterial species using genome data. Database URL: http://ani.mypathogen.cn/ PMID:27270714

  4. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandounas Luaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel enzymes for waste lignin valorization. Results Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization, the organisms were identified as Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001, Pseudomonas sp LD002 and Bacillus sp LD003. The ligninolytic capability of each of these isolates was assessed by growth on high-molecular weight and low-molecular weight lignin fractions, utilization of lignin-associated aromatic monomers and degradation of ligninolytic indicator dyes. Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001 and Pseudomonas sp. LD002 exhibited best growth on lignin fractions, but limited dye-decolourizing capacity. Bacillus sp. LD003, however, showed least efficient growth on lignin fractions but extensive dye-decolourizing capacity, with a particular preference for the recalcitrant phenothiazine dye class (Azure B, Methylene Blue and Toluidene Blue O. Conclusions Bacillus sp. LD003 was selected as a promising source of novel types of ligninolytic enzymes. Our observations suggested that lignin mineralization and depolymerization are separate events which place additional challenges on the screening of ligninolytic microorganisms for specific ligninolytic enzymes.

  5. An objective method to assess bioluminescent properties of selected bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Danyluk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Emission of light as a result of biochemical activities of some living bacteria Vibrio fischeri (in the past known as Photobacterium phosphoreum makes it possible to monitor environmental changes in ecosystems. Toxicity testing as an international standard operating procedure based on the use of this method has already been accepted. The bioluminescent test offers a rapid, simple and sensitive method to test a wide spectrum of chemical substances and environmental samples including water, wastewater, sludge extracts, etc. In this study, aimed at characterising and comparing bioluminescent properties, four different bacterial strains were cultivated in four different liquid mediums and temperature conditions. The bioluminescent intensity of bacterial suspensions was measured using a laboratory BioOrbit 1253 luminometer during bacteria culture. Based on obtained results and mathematical calculations of RLU (relative luminescent units values strain Photobacterium phosphoreum + NCBE medium were indicated as the variant demonstrating proper bioluminescence intensity and characteristics most suitable for further applications.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium phlei Type Strain RIVM601174

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-05-24

    Mycobacterium phlei is a rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is typically nonpathogenic, with few reported cases of human disease. Here we report the whole genome sequence of M. phlei type strain RIVM601174.

  7. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Qasim

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time....

  8. Application of microbial identification system (Sherlock MIS) for identification of forest litter bacterial strains - preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, Jiří; Petrásek, Jiří; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Nováková, Alena; Rusek, Josef

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2004, s. 47-51. ISBN 80-86525-03-1. [Present methods for investigation of microbial community biodiversity in soils and substrates. Methodological workshop /9./. České Budějovice (CZ), 02.03.2004-03.03.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Sherlock MIS * identification * forest litter bacterial strains Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Bacterial Cellulose Production by Acetobacter xylinum Strains from Agricultural Waste Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongruang, Sasithorn

    Bacterial cellulose is a biopolysaccharide produced from the bacteria, Acetobacter xylinum. Static batch fermentations for bacterial cellulose production were studied in coconut and pineapple juices under 30 °C in 5-1 fermenters by using three Acetobacter strains: A. xylinum TISTR 998, A. xylinum TISTR 975, and A. xylinum TISTR 893. Experiments were carried out to compare bacterial cellulose yields along with growth kinetic analysis. Results showed that A. xylinum TISTR 998 produced a bacterial cellulose yield of 553.33 g/l, while A. xylinum TISTR 893 produced 453.33 g/l and A. xylinum TISTR 975 produced 243.33 g/l. In pineapple juice, the yields for A. xylinum TISTR 893, 975, and 998 were 576.66, 546.66, and 520 g/l, respectively. The strain TISTR 998 showed the highest productivity when using coconut juice. Morphological properties of cellulose pellicles, in terms of texture and color, were also measured, and the textures were not significantly different among treatments.

  10. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Jianjun; Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xiong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province), northern (Shanxi Province) and eastern China (Shanghai municipality). From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China. PMID:27140507

  11. Effect of Lactobacillus strains (L. casei and L. Acidophillus Strains cerela) on bacterial overgrowth-related chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaon, David; Garmendia, Carmen; Murrielo, Norberto O; de Cucco Games, Alfredo; Cerchio, Angel; Quintas, Ricardo; González, Silvia N; Oliver, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Small bowel bacterial overgrowth and related diarrhea is a condition that frequently accompanies anatomic disorders, surgically created blind loops or strictures with partial small bowel obstruction and although it is often controlled with antimicrobial therapy, alternative treatment may be needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral probiotic preparation of 2 viable lyophilized strains of lactobacilli (1.5 g each) compared with placebo. Twenty two patients with proven overgrowth and chronic diarrhea are described. In random order and double-blind fashion, 2 groups of patients received identical capsules with both Lactobacillus casei and L. acidophillus strains CERELA (12 patients) (LC) and placebo (10 patients) (P) during three consecutive periods of 7 days each followed by a similar three periods of control after withdrawal. At the end of each period the mean daily number of stools, glucose breath H2 test, and symptoms were considered. Lactobacillus were investigated in feces in both groups at day 0 (baseline), on day 21 of treatment with LC and P and on day 21 after withdrawal. Compared with P a significant reduction in mean daily number of stools was achieved with LC (p Lactobacillus CERELA strains were isolated from the feces in all patients LC (n = 12) on day 21, and by contrast no Lactobacillus were observed except in two patients out of seven patients after withdrawal. In summary, this study provides evidence that LC are effective for treatment of bacterial overgrowth--related chronic diarrhea, and suggest that probiotics must be used with continuity. PMID:12038039

  12. Characterization of IS1245 for Strain Typing of Mycobacterium avium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel-Caron, Martine; Arbeit, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    IS1245 is an insertion element widely prevalent among isolates of Mycobacterium avium. We used PvuII Southern blots to analyze IS1245 polymorphisms among 159 M. avium isolates (141 clinical isolates from 40 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients plus 18 epidemiologically related environmental isolates) that represented 40 distinct M. avium strains, as resolved by previous studies by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All 40 strains carried DNA homologous to IS1245 and thus were typeable. Twenty-five (63%) strains had ≥10 copies of the element, 6 (15%) had 4 to 9 copies, and 9 (23%) had only 1 to 3 copies. Among the last group of nine strains (each of which was distinct by PFGE analysis), IS1245 typing resolved only four patterns and thus provided poor discriminatory power. To evaluate the in vivo stability of IS1245, we analyzed 32 strains for which sets of 2 to 19 epidemiologically related isolates were available. For 19 (59%) of these sets, all isolates representing the same strain had indistinguishable IS1245 patterns. Within eight (25%) sets, one or more isolates had IS1245 patterns that differed by one or two fragments from the modal pattern for the isolates of that strain. Five (16%) sets included isolates whose patterns differed by three or more fragments; on the basis of IS1245 typing those isolates would have been designated distinct strains. IS1245 was stable during in vitro passage, suggesting that the variations observed represented natural translocations of the element. IS1245 provides a useful tool for molecular strain typing of M. avium but may have limitations for analyzing strains with low copy numbers or for resolving extended epidemiologic relationships. PMID:9650925

  13. T346Hunter: a novel web-based tool for the prediction of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems in bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Martínez-García

    Full Text Available T346Hunter (Type Three, Four and Six secretion system Hunter is a web-based tool for the identification and localisation of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively clusters in bacterial genomes. Non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS and T6SS are complex molecular machines that deliver effector proteins from bacterial cells into the environment or into other eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, with significant implications for pathogenesis of the strains encoding them. Meanwhile, T4SS is a more functionally diverse system, which is involved in not only effector translocation but also conjugation and DNA uptake/release. Development of control strategies against bacterial-mediated diseases requires genomic identification of the virulence arsenal of pathogenic bacteria, with T3SS, T4SS and T6SS being major determinants in this regard. Therefore, computational methods for systematic identification of these specialised machines are of particular interest. With the aim of facilitating this task, T346Hunter provides a user-friendly web-based tool for the prediction of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS clusters in newly sequenced bacterial genomes. After inspection of the available scientific literature, we constructed a database of hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles and sequences representing the various components of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS. T346Hunter performs searches of such a database against user-supplied bacterial sequences and localises enriched regions in any of these three types of secretion systems. Moreover, through the T346Hunter server, users can visualise the predicted clusters obtained for approximately 1700 bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. T346Hunter offers great help to researchers in advancing their understanding of the biological mechanisms in which these sophisticated molecular machines are involved. T346Hunter is freely available at http://bacterial-virulence-factors.cbgp.upm.es/T346Hunter.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain that efficiently degrades sex steroid hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shulan; LIU Zhipei; LIU Zhipeng; REN Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial strain,ZY3,growing on sex steroid hormones as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from the sewage treatment plant of a prophylactic steroids factory.ZY3 degrades the 3-methoxy-17β-hyclroxy-1,3,5(10),8(9)-δ-4-estren (MHE).This strain was preliminarily identified as Raoultella sp.ZY3 according to its morphology and its 16S rRNA gene sequence.During the experimental period (72 h),the optimum temperature,pH and 3-MHE concentration for the degradation of hydride by the strain ZY3 were 35℃,10 and 10 mg/L,respectively.The degradation rate of the sex steroid hormones increased to 87% and 85% after the addition of maltose and peptone,respectively.

  15. Isolation and characteristics of a novel biphenyl-degrading bacterial strain, Dyella ginsengisoli LA-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ang; QU Yuanyuan; ZHOU Jiti; GOU Min

    2009-01-01

    A novel biphenyl-degrading bacterial strain LA-4 was isolated from activated sludge. It was identified as Dyella ginsengisoli according to phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence. This isolate could utilize biphenyl as sole source of carbon and energy, which degraded over 95 mg/L biphenyl within 36 h. The major metabolites formed from biphenyl, such as 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) and benzoic acid, were identified by LC-MS. The crude cell extract of strain LA-4 exhibited the activity of 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (2,3-DHBD) and the kinetic parameters were Km= 26.48 μmol/L and Vmax= 8.12 μmol/mg protein. A conserved region of the biphenyl dioxygenase gene bphA1 of strain LA-4 was amplified by PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing.

  16. Antibacterial activity of fumaria indica (hausskn.) pugsley against selected bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts of F. indica prepared in different doses against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains i.e. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), Escherichia coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using agar well diffusion method (inhibition zone measurements) compared to gentamicin as standard antibiotic. Results showed significant activities against the test organisms with overall satisfactory statistics. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus strains as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed more inhibition to methanolic extracts of F. indica. Minimum inhibitory as well as minimum bactericidal concentrations against all strains except Shigella sonnei were also recorded. Studies showed promising horizons for the use of F. indica as an active antibacterial component in modern drug formulations. (author)

  17. Screening of bacterial strains for pectinolytic activity: characterization of the polygalacturonase produced by Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Márcia M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sixty eight bacterial strains, isolated from soil and samples of vegetable in decomposition, were screened for the use of citrus pectin as the sole carbon source. 102 were positive for pectinase depolymerization in assay plates as evidenced by clear hydrolization halos. Among them, 30% presented considerable pectinolytic activity. The cultivation of these strains by submerged and semi-solid fermentation for polygalacturonase production indicated that five strains of Bacillus sp produced high quantities of the enzyme. The physico-chemical characteristics, such as optimum pH of 6.0 - 7.0, optimum temperatures between 45oC and 55oC, stability at temperatures above 40oC and in neutral and alkaline pH, were determined.

  18. ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract

    OpenAIRE

    Diop, K.; Diop, A.; Raoult, D.; P.-E. Fournier; Fenollar, F.

    2016-01-01

    We report the main characteristics of ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7 (= CSUR P2268=DSM 101849), a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae family isolated from the vaginal flora of a patient with bacterial vaginosis.

  19. Molecular Epidemiologic Typing Systems of Bacterial Pathogens: Current Issues and Perpectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Struelens

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiologic typing of bacterial pathogens can be applied to answer a number of different questions: in case of outbreak, what is the extent and mode of transmission of epidemic clone(s ? In case of long-term surveillance, what is the prevalence over time and the geographic spread of epidemic and endemic clones in the population? A number of molecular typing methods can be used to classify bacteria based on genomic diversity into groups of closely-related isolates (presumed to arise from a common ancestor in the same chain of transmission and divergent, epidemiologically-unrelated isolates (arising from independent sources of infection. Ribotyping, IS-RFLP fingerprinting, macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and PCR-fingerprinting using arbitrary sequence or repeat element primers are useful methods for outbreak investigations and regional surveillance. Library typing systems based on multilocus sequence-based analysis and strain-specific probe hybridization schemes are in development for the international surveillance of major pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Accurate epidemiological interpretation of data obtained with molecular typing systems still requires additional research on the evolution rate of polymorphic loci in bacterial pathogens.

  20. A Catalytic DNA Activated by a Specific Strain of Bacterial Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhifa; Wu, Zaisheng; Chang, Dingran; Zhang, Wenqing; Tram, Kha; Lee, Christine; Kim, Peter; Salena, Bruno J; Li, Yingfu

    2016-02-01

    Pathogenic strains of bacteria are known to cause various infectious diseases and there is a growing demand for molecular probes that can selectively recognize them. Here we report a special DNAzyme (catalytic DNA), RFD-CD1, that shows exquisite specificity for a pathogenic strain of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). RFD-CD1 was derived by an in vitro selection approach where a random-sequence DNA library was allowed to react with an unpurified molecular mixture derived from this strain of C. difficle, coupled with a subtractive selection strategy to eliminate cross-reactivities to unintended C. difficile strains and other bacteria species. RFD-CD1 is activated by a truncated version of TcdC, a transcription factor, that is unique to the targeted strain of C. difficle. Our study demonstrates for the first time that in vitro selection offers an effective approach for deriving functional nucleic acid probes that are capable of achieving strain-specific recognition of bacterial pathogens. PMID:26676768

  1. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    OpenAIRE

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Abbott, James; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a remarkable material that is malleable, biocompatible, and over 10-times stronger than plant-based cellulose. It is currently used to create materials for tissue engineering, medicine, defense, electronics, acoustics, and fabrics. We describe here a bacterial strain that is readily amenable to genetic engineering and produces high quantities of bacterial cellulose in low-cost media. To reprogram this organism for biotechnology applications, we created a set of genetic ...

  2. A robust SNP barcode for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Francesc; McNerney, Ruth; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Glynn, Judith R.; Perdigão, João; Viveiros, Miguel; Portugal, Isabel; Pain, Arnab; Martin, Nigel; Clark, Taane G.

    2014-01-01

    Strain-specific genomic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is an important factor in pathogenesis that may affect virulence, transmissibility, host response and emergence of drug resistance. Several systems have been proposed to classify MTBC strains into distinct lineages and families. Here, we investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as robust (stable) markers of genetic variation for phylogenetic analysis. We identify ~92k SNP across a global collection of 1,601 genomes. The SNP-based phylogeny is consistent with the gold-standard regions of difference (RD) classification system. Of the ~7k strain-specific SNPs identified, 62 markers are proposed to discriminate known circulating strains. This SNP-based barcode is the first to cover all main lineages, and classifies a greater number of sublineages than current alternatives. It may be used to classify clinical isolates to evaluate tools to control the disease, including therapeutics and vaccines whose effectiveness may vary by strain type. PMID:25176035

  3. Removal of two waterborne pathogenic bacterial strains by activated carbon particles prior to and after charge modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busscher, Henk J; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Engels, Eefje; Langworthy, Don E; Collias, Dimitris I; Bjorkquist, David W; Mitchell, Michael D; Van der Mei, Henny C

    2006-11-01

    Waterborne diseases constitute a threat to public health despite costly treatment measures aimed at removing pathogenic microorganisms from potable water supplies. This paper compared the removal of Raoultella terrigena ATCC 33257 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by negatively and positively charged types of activated carbon particles. Both strains display bimodal negative zeta-potential distributions in stabilized water. Carbon particles were suspended to an equivalent external geometric surface area of 700 cm2 in 250 mL of a bacterial suspension, with shaking. Samples were taken after different durations for plate counting. Initial removal rates were less elevated for the positively charged carbon particle than expected, yielding the conclusion that bacterial adhesion under shaking is mass-transport limited. After 360 min, however, the log-reduction of the more negatively charged R. terrigena in suspension was largest for the positively charged carbon particles as compared with the negatively charged ones, although conditioning in ultrapure or tap water of positively charged carbon particles for 21 days eliminated the favorable effect of the positive charge due to counterion adsorption from the water. Removal of the less negatively charged E. coli was less affected by aging of the (positively charged) carbon particles, confirming the role of electrostatic interactions in bacterial removal by activated carbon particles. The microporous, negatively charged coconut carbon performed less than the mesoporous, positively charged carbon particle prior to conditioning but did not suffer from loss of effect after conditioning in ultrapure or tap water. PMID:17144313

  4. [Multilocus sequence-typing for characterization of Moscow strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, A E; Mironov, K O; Iatsyshina, S B; Koroleva, I S; Platonova, O V; Gushchin, A E; Shipulin, G A

    2003-01-01

    Haemophilius influenzae, type b (Hib) bacteria, were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using 5 loci (adk, fucK, mdh, pgi, recA). 42 Moscow Hib strains (including 38 isolates form cerebrospinal fluid of children, who had purulent meningitis in 1999-2001, and 4 strains isolated from healthy carriers of Hib), as well as 2 strains from Yekaterinburg were studied. In MLST a strain is characterized, by alleles and their combinations (an allele profile) referred to also as sequence-type (ST). 9 Sts were identified within the Russian Hib bacteria: ST-1 was found in 25 strains (57%), ST-12 was found in 8 strains (18%), ST-11 was found in 4 strains (9%) and ST-15 was found in 2 strains (4.5%); all other STs strains (13, 14, 16, 17, 51) were found in isolated cases (2.3%). A comparison of allelic profiles and of nucleotide sequences showed that 93% of Russian isolates, i.e. strain with ST-1, 11, 12, 13, 15 and 17, belong to one and the same clonal complex. 2 isolates from Norway and Sweden from among 7 foreign Hib strains studied up to now can be described as belonging to the same clonal complex; 5 Hib strains were different from the Russian ones. PMID:12800772

  5. Genetic characterization of type A enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agi Deguchi

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens type A, is both a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and a major cause of human gastrointestinal disease, which usually involves strains producing C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE. The gene (cpe encoding this toxin can be carried on the chromosome or a large plasmid. Interestingly, strains carrying cpe on the chromosome and strains carrying cpe on a plasmid often exhibit different biological characteristics, such as resistance properties against heat. In this study, we investigated the genetic properties of C. perfringens by PCR-surveying 21 housekeeping genes and genes on representative plasmids and then confirmed those results by Southern blot assay (SB of five genes. Furthermore, sequencing analysis of eight housekeeping genes and multilocus sequence typing (MLST analysis were also performed. Fifty-eight C. perfringens strains were examined, including isolates from: food poisoning cases, human gastrointestinal disease cases, foods in Japan or the USA, or feces of healthy humans. In the PCR survey, eight of eleven housekeeping genes amplified positive reactions in all strains tested. However, by PCR survey and SB assay, one representative virulence gene, pfoA, was not detected in any strains carrying cpe on the chromosome. Genes involved in conjugative transfer of the cpe plasmid were also absent from almost all chromosomal cpe strains. MLST showed that, regardless of their geographic origin, date of isolation, or isolation source, chromosomal cpe isolates, i assemble into one definitive cluster ii lack pfoA and iii lack a plasmid related to the cpe plasmid. Similarly, independent of their origin, strains carrying a cpe plasmid also appear to be related, but are more variable than chromosomal cpe strains, possibly because of the instability of cpe-borne plasmid(s and/or the conjugative transfer of cpe-plasmid(s into unrelated C. perfringens strains.

  6. Insights into the emergent bacterial pathogen Cronobacter spp., generated by multilocus sequence typing and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StephenForsythe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii is a bacterial pathogen affecting all age groups, with particularly severe clinical complications in neonates and infants. One recognised route of infection being the consumption of contaminated infant formula. As a recently recognised bacterial pathogen of considerable importance and regulatory control, appropriate detection and identification schemes are required. The application of multilocus sequence typing (MLST and analysis (MLSA of the seven alleles atpD, fusA, glnS, gltB, gyrB, infB and ppsA (concatenated length 3036 base pairs has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the genus. This approach is supported by both the reliability of DNA sequencing over subjective phenotyping and the establishment of a MLST database which has open access and is also curated; http://www.pubMLST.org/cronobacter. MLST has been used to describe the diversity of the newly recognised genus, instrumental in the formal recognition of new Cronobacter species (C. universalis and C. condimenti and revealed the high clonality of strains and the association of clonal complex 4 with neonatal meningitis cases. Clearly the MLST approach has considerable benefits over the use of non-DNA sequence based methods of analysis for newly emergent bacterial pathogens. The application of MLST and MLSA has dramatically enabled us to better understand this opportunistic bacterium which can cause irreparable damage to a newborn baby’s brain, and has contributed to improved control measures to protect neonatal health.

  7. Conductivity-Dependent Strain Response of Carbon Nanotube Treated Bacterial Nanocellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the strain sensitivity of flexible, electrically conductive, and nanostructured cellulose which was prepared by modification of bacterial cellulose with double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The electrical conductivity depends on the modifying agent and its dispersion process. The conductivity of the samples obtained from bacterial cellulose (BNC pellicles modified with DWCNT was in the range from 0.034 S·cm−1 to 0.39 S·cm−1, and for BNC pellicles modified with MWCNTs it was from 0.12 S·cm−1 to 1.6 S·cm−1. The strain-induced electromechanical response, resistance versus strain, was monitored during the application of tensile force in order to study the sensitivity of the modified nanocellulose. A maximum gauge factor of 252 was found from the highest conductive sample treated by MWCNT. It has been observed that the sensitivity of the sample depends on the conductivity of the modified cellulose.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Maida, Isabel; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Tortorella, Emiliana; Subko, Karolina; Ezeofor, Chidinma Christiana; Zhang, Ying; Tabudravu, Jioji; Jaspars, Marcel; Fani, Renato; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-05-01

    Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas) via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL) and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains. PMID:27128927

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica) †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Maida, Isabel; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Tortorella, Emiliana; Subko, Karolina; Ezeofor, Chidinma Christiana; Zhang, Ying; Tabudravu, Jioji; Jaspars, Marcel; Fani, Renato; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas) via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL) and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains. PMID:27128927

  10. Physico-chemical characterization and antibacterial activity of different types of honey tested on strains isolated from hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junie Lia M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of the study was to compare the antibacterial activity of several types of honey of different origins, against some bacterial resistant strains. The strains had been isolated from patients. The second aim was to discover the correlations between the antibacterial character of honey and the physico-chemical properties of the honey. Ten honey samples (polyfloral, linden, acacia, manna, and sunflower from the centre of Romania were tested to determine their antibacterial properties against the following bacterial species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Bacterial cultures in nutrient broth and the culture medium Mueller-Hinton agar were used. The susceptibility to antibiotics was performed using the disk diffusion method. All honey samples showed antibacterial activity on the isolated bacterial strains, in particular polyfloral (inhibition zone 13-21 mm in diameter - because it is the source of several plants, and manna (inhibition zone 13-19.5 mm in diameter, and sunflower (inhibition zone 14-18.5 mm in diameter. Pure honey has a significant antibacterial activity against some bacteria which are resistant to antibiotics. Bacterial strains differed in their sensitivity to honeys. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were the most sensitive. The present study revealed that honey antibacterial activity depends on the origin of the honey. We also found that there was a significant correlation between antibacterial activity of honeys and the colour of the honey but not between acidity and pH. The statistical analysis showed that the honey type influences the antibacterial activity (diameter of the bacterial strains inhibition zones.

  11. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress at......-European dataset suggest that job strain is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in men and women independent of lifestyle factors....... work, defined as "job strain," is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of lifestyle factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We extracted individual-level data for 124,808 diabetes-free adults from 13 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work Consortium. We measured job strain...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Japanese Erwinia Strain Ejp617, a Bacterial Shoot Blight Pathogen of Pear ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Duck Hwan; Thapa, Shree Prasad; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Won-Sik; Hur, Jang Hyun; Cho, Jun Mo; Lim, Jong-Sung; Choi, Ik-Young; Lim, Chun Keun

    2010-01-01

    The Japanese Erwinia strain Ejp617 is a plant pathogen that causes bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Ejp617 isolated from Nashi pears in Japan to provide further valuable insight among related Erwinia species.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582), an Efficient Producer of Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Sarah; Mehta, Kalpa; Brown, R Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the release of the complete nucleotide sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582). This strain was isolated by R. Malcolm Brown, Jr. in a sugar mill in North Queensland, Australia, and is an efficient producer of bacterial cellulose. The elucidation of the genome will contribute to the study of the molecular mechanisms necessary for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:27516505

  14. MLVA typing of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterins and field strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiozzo, P; Zamora, R; Lucchesi, P M A; Estanguet, A; Parada, J; Carranza, A; Camacho, P; Ambrogi, A

    2015-01-01

    Because of the lack of information about both the genetic characteristics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae commercial vaccines and their relationship with field strains, the authors attempted to identify genetic subtypes of some M hyopneumoniae bacterins, and to compare them with M. hyopneumoniae field strains. Six commercial M hyopneumoniae bacterins and 28 bronchoalveolar lavages from pigs at slaughter from three herds were analysed by Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) on p146R1, p146R3, H4, H5 and p95 loci. The results obtained showed the presence of more than one M hyopneumoniae genotype in some pigs and also in one of the bacterins analysed. It is also worth noting that MLVA typing allowed the distinction among circulating field strains and also when comparing them with vaccine strains, which, knowing the relatedness among them, could be useful in the research of the efficacy of the vaccines. PMID:26495127

  15. Identification and analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--biodegrading bacterial strains from refinery soil of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Sahay, Harmesh; Sharma, Richa; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Singh, Shashi Bala; Saxena, A K; Nain, Lata

    2015-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilizing bacteria were isolated from soils of seven sites of Mathura refinery, India. Twenty-six bacterial strains with different morphotypes were isolated. These strains were acclimatized to utilize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e., anthracene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, each at 50 mg/L concentration as sole carbon source. Out of total isolates, 15 potent isolates were subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as a member of diverse genera, i.e., Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes, Lysinibacillus, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces. Consortium of four promising isolates (Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces) were also investigated for bioremediation of PAH mixture. This consortium was proved to be efficient PAH degrader resulting in 40-70 % degradation of PAH within 7 days. Results of this study indicated that these genera may play an active role in bioremediation of PAHs. PMID:26026847

  16. Characterization of certain bacterial strains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo-Mera, A; Caro, I; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Rúa, J; Ferrero, M A; García-Armesto, M R

    2011-08-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to obtain improved potential starter or probiotic cultures that could be used for making dairy products from ewe's milk and cow's milk. Eight strains with antimicrobial properties, isolated from ewe's milk and from cheese made from ewe's and/or cow's milk, were studied. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (five strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (one strain of each species). Additionally, four strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection: Lactobacillus casei 393 (isolated from cheese), L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454 (origin nonspecified and a producer of nisin), and two strains isolated from human feces (L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 27092 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 53103, antibacterial agent producer). All E. faecalis strains showed at least one virulence factor (either hemolysin or gelatinase), which emphasizes the importance of these studies in this species. Both L. lactis strains and most Lactobacillus spp. were good acidifiers in ewe's milk and cow's milk at 30°C. High β-galactosidase activity, as well as aminopeptidase activities that favor the development of desirable flavors in cheese, were detected in all Lactobacillus spp. strains. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 showed α-fucosidase activity (thought to help colonization of the intestine) and lack of α-glucosidase activity (a trait considered positive for diabetic and obese humans). This last enzymatic activity was also lacking in L. lactis ATCC 11454. L. mesenteroides was the only strain D(2)-lactic acid producer. The selection of any particular strain for probiotic or dairy cultures should be performed according to the technological and/or functional abilities needed. PMID:21819671

  17. Modular microfluidic system fabricated in thermoplastics for the strain-specific detection of bacterial pathogens†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Witek, Makgorzata; Dharmasiri, Udara; Pingle, Maneesh R.; Barany, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreaks of a lethal E. coli strain in Germany have aroused renewed interest in developing rapid, specific and accurate systems for detecting and characterizing bacterial pathogens in suspected contaminated food and/or water supplies. To address this need, we have designed, fabricated and tested an integrated modular-based microfluidic system and the accompanying assay for the strain-specific identification of bacterial pathogens. The system can carry out the entire molecular processing pipeline in a single disposable fluidic cartridge and detect single nucleotide variations in selected genes to allow for the identification of the bacterial species, even its strain with high specificity. The unique aspect of this fluidic cartridge is its modular format with task-specific modules interconnected to a fluidic motherboard to permit the selection of the target material. In addition, to minimize the amount of finishing steps for assembling the fluidic cartridge, many of the functional components were produced during the polymer molding step used to create the fluidic network. The operation of the cartridge was provided by electronic, mechanical, optical and hydraulic controls located off-chip and packaged into a small footprint instrument (1 ft3). The fluidic cartridge was capable of performing cell enrichment, cell lysis, solid-phase extraction (SPE) of genomic DNA, continuous flow (CF) PCR, CF ligase detection reaction (LDR) and universal DNA array readout. The cartridge was comprised of modules situated on a fluidic motherboard; the motherboard was made from polycarbonate, PC, and used for cell lysis, SPE, CF PCR and CF LDR. The modules were task-specific units and performed universal zip-code array readout or affinity enrichment of the target cells with both made from poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA. Two genes, uidA and sipB/C, were used to discriminate between E. coli and Salmonella, and evaluated as a model system. Results showed that the fluidic system

  18. Modular microfluidic system fabricated in thermoplastics for the strain-specific detection of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Witek, Makgorzata; Dharmasiri, Udara; Pingle, Maneesh R; Barany, Francis; Soper, Steven A

    2012-09-21

    The recent outbreaks of a lethal E. coli strain in Germany have aroused renewed interest in developing rapid, specific and accurate systems for detecting and characterizing bacterial pathogens in suspected contaminated food and/or water supplies. To address this need, we have designed, fabricated and tested an integrated modular-based microfluidic system and the accompanying assay for the strain-specific identification of bacterial pathogens. The system can carry out the entire molecular processing pipeline in a single disposable fluidic cartridge and detect single nucleotide variations in selected genes to allow for the identification of the bacterial species, even its strain with high specificity. The unique aspect of this fluidic cartridge is its modular format with task-specific modules interconnected to a fluidic motherboard to permit the selection of the target material. In addition, to minimize the amount of finishing steps for assembling the fluidic cartridge, many of the functional components were produced during the polymer molding step used to create the fluidic network. The operation of the cartridge was provided by electronic, mechanical, optical and hydraulic controls located off-chip and packaged into a small footprint instrument (1 ft(3)). The fluidic cartridge was capable of performing cell enrichment, cell lysis, solid-phase extraction (SPE) of genomic DNA, continuous flow (CF) PCR, CF ligase detection reaction (LDR) and universal DNA array readout. The cartridge was comprised of modules situated on a fluidic motherboard; the motherboard was made from polycarbonate, PC, and used for cell lysis, SPE, CF PCR and CF LDR. The modules were task-specific units and performed universal zip-code array readout or affinity enrichment of the target cells with both made from poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA. Two genes, uidA and sipB/C, were used to discriminate between E. coli and Salmonella, and evaluated as a model system. Results showed that the fluidic

  19. Biological evaluation and molecular modelling study of thiosemicarbazide derivatives as bacterial type IIA topoisomerases inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneth, Agata; Stączek, Paweł; Plech, Tomasz; Strzelczyk, Aleksandra; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Wujec, Monika; Kuśmierz, Edyta; Kosikowska, Urszula; Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Paneth, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we describe the inhibitory potency of nine thiosemicarbazide derivatives against bacterial type IIA topoisomerases, their antibacterial profile and molecular modelling evaluation. We found that one of the tested compounds, compound 7, significantly inhibits activity of Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase with an IC(50) below 15 μM. Besides, this compound displays antibacterial activity on reference Staphylococuss spp. and Enterococcus faecalis strains as well as clinical S. aureus isolates at non-cytotoxic concentrations in mammalian cells with MIC values ranging from 16 to 32 μg/mL thereby indicating, in some cases, equipotent or even more effective action than standard drugs such as vancomycin, ampicillin and nitrofurantoin. The computational studies showed that both molecular geometry and the electron density distribution have a great impact on antibacterial activity of thiosemicarbazide derivatives. PMID:25792505

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Type Strain Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Hesselbjerg; Dargis, Rimtas; Christensen, Jens Jørgen Elmer;

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis of...

  2. Biodegradation of the metallic carcinogen hexavalent chromium Cr(VI by an indigenously isolated bacterial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Alok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing. Human exposure to this toxic metal ion not only causes potential human health hazards but also affects other life forms. The World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that Cr(VI compounds are known human carcinogens. The Sukinda valley in Jajpur District, Orissa, is known for its deposit of chromite ore, producing nearly 98% of the chromite ore in India and one of the prime open cast chromite ore mines in the world (CES, Orissa Newsletter. Materials and Methods: Our investigation involved microbial remediation of Cr(VI without producing any byproduct. Bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of Cr were isolated from the soil sample collected from the chromite-contaminated sites of Sukinda, and their bioaccumulation properties were investigated. Strains capable of growing at 250 mg/L Cr(VI were considered as Cr resistant. Results: The experimental investigation showed the maximum specific Cr uptake at pH 7 and temperature 30oC. At about 50 mg/L initial Cr(VI concentrations, uptake of the selected potential strain exceeded 98% within 12 h of incubation. The bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevebacterium casei. Conclusion: Results indicated promising approach for microbial remediation of effluents containing elevated levels of Cr(VI.

  3. Partial Characteristics of Hydrogen Production by Fermentative Hydrogen-producing Bacterial Strain B49

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiangjing(王相晶); Ren Nanqi; Xiang Wensheng; Lin Ming; Guo Wanqian

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of hydrogen production by a novel fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 (AF481148 in EMBL), batch experiments are conducted under different conditions. Hydrogen production has a correlation with cell growth and the consumption of glucose and soluble protein. The optimum pH for cell growth is 4.5±0.15. At acidic pH 4.0±0.15, the bacteria has the maximum accumulated hydrogen volume of 2382 ml/L culture and the maximum hydrogen evolution rate of 339.9 ml/L culture*h with 1% glucose. The optimum temperature for cell growth and hydrogen production is 35℃. In addition, fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 can generate hydrogen from the decomposition of other organic substrates such as wheat, soybean, corn, and potato. Moreover, it can also produce hydrogen from molasses wastewater and brewage wastewater, and hydrogen yields are 137.9 ml H2/g COD and 49.9 ml H2/g COD, respectively.

  4. Cloning of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 and type 5 as infectious bacterial artifical chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann Mathias; Fraefel Cornel; Gabev Evgeni; Tobler Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine herpesviruses type 1 (BoHV1) and type 5 (BoHV5) are two closely related pathogens of cattle. The identity of the two viruses on the amino acid level averages 82%. Despite their high antigenetic similarities the two pathogens induce distinctive clinical signs. BoHV1 causes respiratory and genital tract infections while BoHV5 leads to severe encephalitis in calves. Findings The viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 were cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes...

  5. Antibacterial action of doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals on multidrug resistant bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velho-Pereira, S.; Noronha, A.; Mathias, A.; Zakane, R.; Naik, V.; Naik, P. [Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier' s College, Goa (India); Salker, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa (India); Naik, S.R., E-mail: srnaik19@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, St. Xavier' s College, Goa (India)

    2015-07-01

    The bactericidal effect of pristine and doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles has been evaluated against multiple drug resistant clinical strains by assessing the number of colony-forming units (CFU). Monophasic polycrystalline ferrites have been prepared by the malate–glycolate sol–gel autocombustion method as confirmed by the X-ray diffraction study. Various changes occurring during the preparative stages have been demonstrated using TG–DTA analysis which is well complemented by the FTIR spectroscopy. The antibacterial studies carried out demonstrate a bactericidal effect of the nanoparticles wherein the number of CFU has been found to decrease with doping. Cellular distortions have been revealed through SEM. Variation in the number of CFU with dopant type has also been reported herein. - Graphical abstract: Antibacterial action of doped cobalt ferrites resulting in the lyses of multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. - Highlights: • The paper reports an antibacterial study of rare earth doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. • Monophasic compounds have been prepared by the sol–gel autocombustion method. • Bactericidal property has been evaluated based on the number of colony forming units. • Variation in bactericidal action with respect to the dopant type has been observed. • Cellular distortions resulting in cell lysis are confirmed from the SEM images.

  6. Molecular Typing of Acinetobacter Baumannii Clinical Strains in Tehran by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Farahani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : Currently, Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen insofar as its hospital outbreaks have been described from various geographical areas. Since the discrimination of strains within a species is important for delineating nosocomial outbreaks, this study was conducted with the aim of genotyping the A. baumannii clinical strains in Tehran via the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE method, which is the most accurate method used for the typing of bacterial species.   Materials & methods: This study was performed on 70 isolates of acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients from Baqiyatallah, Rasoole Akram, and Milad hospitals in Tehran. Cultural and biochemical methods were used for the identification of the isolates in species level, and then susceptibility tests were carried out on 50 isolates of A. baumannii using the disk diffusion method. The PFGE method was performed on the isolates by Apa I restriction enzyme. Finally, the results of the PFGE were analyzed. Result: Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from hospitals in Tehran showed seven different genetic patterns, two of which were sporadic . Also, genotypic profiles were different in each hospital, and different patterns of genetic resistance to common antibiotics were observed. Conclusion: A lthough diversity was observed among the strains of A. baumannii by the PFGE method in Tehran, no epidemic strains were found among them.  

  7. Aflatoxin B1 degradation by liquid cultures and lysates of three bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebo, Oluwafemi Ayodeji; Njobeh, Patrick Berka; Sidu, Sibusiso; Tlou, Matsobane Godfrey; Mavumengwana, Vuyo

    2016-09-16

    Aflatoxin contamination remains a daunting issue to address in food safety. In spite of the efforts geared towards prevention and elimination of this toxin, it still persists in agricultural commodities. This has necessitated the search for other measures such as microbial degradation to combat this hazard. In this study, we investigated the biodegradation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), using lysates of three bacterial strains (Pseudomonas anguilliseptica VGF1, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus sp. VGF2) isolated from a gold mine aquifer. The bacterial cells were intermittently lysed in the presence and absence of protease inhibitors to obtain protease free lysates, subsequently incubated with AFB1 for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48h to investigate whether any possible AFB1 degradation occurred using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection. Results obtained revealed that after 6h of incubation, protease inhibited lysates of Staphylococcus sp. VGF2 demonstrated the highest degradation capacity of 100%, whereas P. anguilliseptica VGF1 and P. fluorescens lysates degraded AFB1 by 66.5 and 63%, respectively. After further incubation to 12h, no residual AFB1 was detected for all the lysates. Lower degrading ability was however observed for liquid cultures and uninhibited lysates. Data on cytotoxicity studies against human lymphocytes showed that the degraded products were less toxic than the parent AFB1. From this study, it can thus be deduced that the mechanism of degradation by these bacterial lysates is enzymatic. This study shows the efficacy of crude bacterial lysates for detoxifying AFB1 indicating potential for application in the food and feed industry. PMID:27294556

  8. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIFENTHRIN CATABOLIZING BACTERIAL STRAIN BACILLUS CIBI FROM SOIL FOR PYRETHROIDS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroids are commonly used in most parts of the world and are reported to have potential health risks. Bifenthrin, a third generation pyrethroid used as insecticide has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health. Bioremediation is a practical approach to reduce pesticide in the environment and reports of microbial degradation of bifenthrin are meagre. This study was aimed at isolating and characterizing bacterial isolates for the efficient removal of bifenthrin residues in the environment. A bacterial strain PGS-4 isolated from sewage of pesticide industry was tested for growth at higher concentration of bifenthrin (800 mg L-1 and the optimum pH and temperature were determined. The strain utilized bifenthrin as sole carbon source for growth over a wide range of pH (4.0-9.0 and temperatures (16-37°C. On the basis of growth kinetics studies, the optimal conditions were determined to be pH 7.0-8.0 and 30°C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain PGS-4 forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Bacillus and showed 99% similarity to that of Bacillus cibi. This study depicts the ability of B. cibi to utilize bifenthrin at higher concentration under in vitro thereby can be used in eliminating bifenthrin from contaminated soils as a practical approach to reduce pyrethroid toxicity in the environment.

  9. Structure and genetic content of the megaplasmids of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum type E strains from Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Iacobino

    Full Text Available We determined the genetic maps of the megaplasmids of six neutoroxigenic Clostridium butyricum type E strains from Italy using molecular and bioinformatics techniques. The megaplasmids are circular, not linear as we had previously proposed. The differently-sized megaplasmids share a genetic region that includes structural, metabolic and regulatory genes. In addition, we found that a 168 kb genetic region is present only in the larger megaplasmids of two tested strains, whereas it is absent from the smaller megaplasmids of the four remaining strains. The genetic region unique to the larger megaplasmids contains, among other features, a locus for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR and CRISPR associated (cas genes, i.e. a bacterial adaptive immune system providing sequence-specific protection from invading genetic elements. Some CRISPR spacer sequences of the neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains showed homology to prophage, phage and plasmid sequences from closely related clostridia species or from distant species, all sharing the intestinal habitat, suggesting that the CRISPR locus might be involved in the microorganism adaptation to the human or animal intestinal environment. Besides, we report here that each of four distinct CRISPR spacers partially matched DNA sequences of different prophages and phages, at identical nucleotide locations. This suggests that, at least in neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E, the CRISPR locus is potentially able to recognize the same conserved DNA sequence of different invading genetic elements, besides targeting sequences unique to previously encountered invading DNA, as currently predicted for a CRISPR locus. Thus, the results of this study introduce the possibility that CRISPR loci can provide resistance to a wider range of invading DNA elements than previously appreciated. Whether it is more advantageous for the peculiar neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains to maintain

  10. Genomic survey of pathogenicity determinants and VNTR markers in the cassava bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis strain CIO151.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario L Arrieta-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam is the causal agent of bacterial blight of cassava, which is among the main components of human diet in Africa and South America. Current information about the molecular pathogenicity factors involved in the infection process of this organism is limited. Previous studies in other bacteria in this genus suggest that advanced draft genome sequences are valuable resources for molecular studies on their interaction with plants and could provide valuable tools for diagnostics and detection. Here we have generated the first manually annotated high-quality draft genome sequence of Xam strain CIO151. Its genomic structure is similar to that of other xanthomonads, especially Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas citri pv. citri species. Several putative pathogenicity factors were identified, including type III effectors, cell wall-degrading enzymes and clusters encoding protein secretion systems. Specific characteristics in this genome include changes in the xanthomonadin cluster that could explain the lack of typical yellow color in all strains of this pathovar and the presence of 50 regions in the genome with atypical nucleotide composition. The genome sequence was used to predict and evaluate 22 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR loci that were subsequently demonstrated as polymorphic in representative Xam strains. Our results demonstrate that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis strain CIO151 possesses ten clusters of pathogenicity factors conserved within the genus Xanthomonas. We report 126 genes that are potentially unique to Xam, as well as potential horizontal transfer events in the history of the genome. The relation of these regions with virulence and pathogenicity could explain several aspects of the biology of this pathogen, including its ability to colonize both vascular and non-vascular tissues of cassava plants. A set of 16 robust, polymorphic VNTR loci will be useful to develop a multi

  11. A robust SNP barcode for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2014-09-01

    Strain-specific genomic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is an important factor in pathogenesis that may affect virulence, transmissibility, host response and emergence of drug resistance. Several systems have been proposed to classify MTBC strains into distinct lineages and families. Here, we investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as robust (stable) markers of genetic variation for phylogenetic analysis. We identify ∼92k SNP across a global collection of 1,601 genomes. The SNP-based phylogeny is consistent with the gold-standard regions of difference (RD) classification system. Of the ∼7k strain-specific SNPs identified, 62 markers are proposed to discriminate known circulating strains. This SNP-based barcode is the first to cover all main lineages, and classifies a greater number of sublineages than current alternatives. It may be used to classify clinical isolates to evaluate tools to control the disease, including therapeutics and vaccines whose effectiveness may vary by strain type. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  12. Bacterial Feeders, the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the Flagellate Cercomonas longicauda, have different Effects on Outcome of Competition among the Pseudomonas Biocontrol Strains CHA0 and DSS73

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette; Nybroe, Ole; Winding, Anne; Ekelund, Flemming; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund

    2009-01-01

    How bacterial feeding fauna affects colonization and survival of bacteria in soil is not well understood, which constrains the applicability of bacterial inoculants in agriculture. This study aimed to unravel how food quality of bacteria and bacterial feeders with different feeding habits (the......50090 or one of two biocontrol strains P. fluorescens CHA0 or Pseudomonas sp. DSS73) or combinations of two bacterial strains. DSM50090 is a suitable food bacterium, DSS73 is of intermediate food quality, and CHA0 is inedible to the bacterial feeders. Bacterial and protozoan cell numbers were measured...

  13. Cloning of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 and type 5 as infectious bacterial artifical chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Mathias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesviruses type 1 (BoHV1 and type 5 (BoHV5 are two closely related pathogens of cattle. The identity of the two viruses on the amino acid level averages 82%. Despite their high antigenetic similarities the two pathogens induce distinctive clinical signs. BoHV1 causes respiratory and genital tract infections while BoHV5 leads to severe encephalitis in calves. Findings The viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 were cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs. First, recombinant viruses carrying the genetic elements for propagation in bacteria were generated. Second, DNA from these recombinant viruses were transferred into prokaryotic cells. Third, DNA from these bacteria were transferred into eukaryotic cells. Progeny viruses from BAC transfections showed similar kinetics as their corresponding wild types. Conclusion The two viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 cloned as BACs are accessible to the tools of bacterial genetics. The ability to easily manipulate the viral genomes on a molecular level in future experiments will lead to a better understanding of the difference in pathogenesis induced by these two closely related bovine herpesviruses.

  14. A suite of recombinant luminescent bacterial strains for the quantification of bioavailable heavy metals and toxicity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahru Anne

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant whole-cell sensors have already proven useful in the assessment of the bioavailability of environmental pollutants like heavy metals and organic compounds. In this work 19 recombinant bacterial strains representing various Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria were constructed to express the luminescence encoding genes luxCDABE (from Photorhabdus luminescens as a response to bioavailable heavy metals ("lights-on" metal sensors containing metal-response elements, 13 strains or in a constitutive manner ("lights-off" constructs, 6 strains. Results The bioluminescence of all 13 "lights-on" metal sensor strains was expressed as a function of the sub-toxic metal concentrations enabling the quantitative determination of metals bioavailable for these strains. Five sensor strains, constructed for detecting copper and mercury, proved to be target metal specific, whereas eight other sensor strains were simultaneously induced by Cd2+, Hg2+, Zn2+and Pb2+. The lowest limits of determination of the "lights-on" sensor strains for the metals tested in this study were (μg l-1: 0.002 of CH3HgCl, 0.03 of HgCl2, 1.8 of CdCl2, 33 of Pb(NO32, 1626 of ZnSO4, 24 of CuSO4 and 340 of AgNO3. In general, the sensitivity of the "lights-on" sensor strains was mostly dependent on the metal-response element used while the selection of host bacterium played a relatively minor role. In contrast, toxicity of metals to the "lights-off" strains was only dependent on the bacterial host so that Gram-positive strains were remarkably more sensitive than Gram-negative ones. Conclusion The constructed battery of 19 recombinant luminescent bacterial strains exhibits several novel aspects as it contains i metal sensor strains with similar metal-response elements in different host bacteria; ii metal sensor strains with metal-response elements in different copies and iii

  15. Genome Sequence of Propionibacterium acnes Type II Strain ATCC 11828

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Balázs; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Vörös, Andrea; Fekete, Csaba; Urbán, Edit; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium that forms part of the normal human cutaneous microbiota and is occasionally associated with inflammatory diseases (I. Kurokawa et al., Exp. Dermatol. 18:821–832, 2009). Here we present the complete genome sequence for the commercially available P. acnes type II reference strain ATCC 11828 (I. Nagy et al., Microbes Infect. 8:2195–2205, 2006) recovered from a subcutaneous abscess.

  16. Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum Clinical Strains from Lisbon, Portugal▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, C.; Reigado, V.; Gomes, J. P.; Azevedo, J.; Santo, I.; Borrego, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular system was used to subtype Portuguese Treponema pallidum clinical strains isolated from both skin lesions and blood. The study with this system constitutes the first typing study in a European country. Three T. pallidum subtypes were found: subtypes 14a (50%), 14d (45.2%), and 14f (4.8%). Further studies are needed to better characterize the isolates involved in syphilis outbreaks. PMID:18753355

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium xenopi Type Strain RIVM700367

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-05-24

    Mycobacterium xenopi is a slow-growing, thermophilic, water-related Mycobacterium species. Like other nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. xenopi more commonly infects humans with altered immune function, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. It is considered clinically relevant in a significant proportion of the patients from whom it is isolated. We report here the whole genome sequence of M. xenopi type strain RIVM700367.

  18. Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum Clinical Strains from Lisbon, Portugal▿

    OpenAIRE

    Florindo, C.; Reigado, V.; Gomes, J. P.; Azevedo, J.; Santo, I; Borrego, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular system was used to subtype Portuguese Treponema pallidum clinical strains isolated from both skin lesions and blood. The study with this system constitutes the first typing study in a European country. Three T. pallidum subtypes were found: subtypes 14a (50%), 14d (45.2%), and 14f (4.8%). Further studies are needed to better characterize the isolates involved in syphilis outbreaks.

  19. Production and partial purification of protease by selected bacterial strains using raw milk as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study was investigated to optimize and partially purify the proteases produced by the food borne bacterial strains.Methodology and Results: Four bacterial strains such as Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis and Enterobacter aerogenes were isolated from food wastes. These strains were individually inoculated in to the formulated culture media supplied with three different concentrations (1:1 to 1:3 of raw milk as major substrate. Among the concentrations, 1:2 ratio of substrate supplied medium showed maximum (0.133 to 8.000 IU/mL protease production by all the tested organisms. After optimization, the organisms were tested for protease production at various pH (3 to 9, and temperature (30 to 80 °C. The result showed that all the organisms were capable of producing maximum protease at pH 6 (8.533 to 10.133 IU/mL and at 50 °C (8.666 to 10.666 IU/mL. The crude enzymes produced by the tested organisms were individually purified by two different methods viz sodium alginate and ammonium sulphate-butanol methods. The purity of the protease determined in these two methods was ranged between 3.24 to 5.44 I and 3.13 to 5.55 IU/mL respectively. The partially purified enzymes were further analysed through SDS-PAGE; accordingly the molecular weight of protein produced by the test organisms was determined in between 49.44 and 50.98 kDa.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Among the tested strains P. vulgaris was identified as the major protease producer in optimized culture condition of 50o C and pH6. The molecular mass of the partially purified protease of P. vulgaris was 50.32 KDa. Further research on optimization of other fermentation parameters using statistical tools with P. vulgaris is needed to scale up the process.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Ficus carica L. extract against six bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Hazim Hamid Al-Yousuf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, pathogenic microorganisms have developed resistance in response to the indiscriminate use of commercially available antimicrobial drugs commonly employed in the treatment of infectious diseases. Further, the adverse side effect of certain antibiotics, and the emergence of previously uncommon infections, has forced researchers to explore new antimicrobial agents from various sources such as medicinal plants. In present study In-vitro anti-microbial activity of the methanol extract of Ficus carica L. was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution technique against three gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus megaterium and three gram negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. The methanol extract of Ficus carica L. is a known antioxidant and can be used as an effective herbal protectant against different pathogenic bacteria. The result of the present study suggests that Ficus carica L. can be used in treating diseases caused by tested organisms.

  1. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  2. Brucella 'HOOF-Prints': strain typing by multi-locus analysis of variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs)

    OpenAIRE

    Halling Shirley M; Ewalt Darla R; Bricker Betsy J

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Currently, there are very few tools available for subtyping Brucella isolates for epidemiological trace-back. Subtyping is difficult because of the genetic homogeneity within the genus. Sequencing of the genomes from three Brucella species has facilitated the search for DNA sequence variability. Recently, hypervariability among short tandem repeat sequences has been exploited for strain-typing of several bacterial pathogens. Results An eight-base pair tandem repeat sequenc...

  3. Enhanced Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum: Geographical Distribution of Strain Types and Association with Neurosyphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Christina M.; Sahi, Sharon K.; Tantalo, Lauren C.; Godornes, Charmie; Reid, Tara; Behets, Frieda; Rompalo, Anne; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Yin, Yue-Ping; Mulcahy, Fiona; Golden, Matthew R.; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Strain typing is a tool for determining diversity and epidemiology of infections. Methods T. pallidum DNA was isolated from 158 syphilis patients from the US, China, Ireland, and Madagascar and from 15 T. pallidum isolates. Six typing targets were assessed: 1) number of 60 bp repeats in acidic repeat protein gene; 2) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of T. pallidum repeat (tpr) subfamily II genes; 3) RFLP analysis of tprC gene; 4) determination of tprD allele in tprD gene locus; 5) presence of 51 bp insertion between tp0126/tp0127; 6) sequence analysis of 84 bp region of tp0548. The combination of #1 and #2 comprises the CDC T. pallidum subtyping method. Results Adding sequence analysis of tp0548 to the CDC method yielded the most discriminating typing system. Twenty-four strain types were identified and designated as CDC subtype/tp0548 sequence. Type 14d/f was seen in 5 of 6 locations. In Seattle, strain types changed from 1999– 2008 (p<0.001). Twenty-two (50%) of 44 patients infected with type 14d/f had neurosyphilis compared to 9 (23%) of 39 infected with the other types combined (p=0.01). Conclusion We describe an enhanced T. pallidum strain typing system that shows biological and clinical relevance. PMID:20868271

  4. Bacterial Flora Changes in Conjunctiva of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chao; Fei, Yuda; Qin, Yali; Luo, Dan; Yang, Shufei; Kou, Xinyun; Zi, Yingxin; Deng, Tingting; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background The microbiota of both humans and animals plays an important role in their health and the development of disease. Therefore, the bacterial flora of the conjunctiva may also be associated with some diseases. However, there are no reports on the alteration of bacterial flora in conjunctiva of diabetic rats in the literature. Therefore, we investigated the changes in bacterial flora in bulbar conjunctiva of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes. Methods A high dose of...

  5. Identification of rice blast disease-suppressing bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of rice grown in Pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Naureen, Zakira; Price, Adam H.; Hafeez, Fauzia Y.; Roberts, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen bacterial strains isolated from the roots and rhizosphere of rice plants growing in saline and non-saline soils from the Shorkot area of Pakistan were tested for their ability to promote plant growth and reduce the incidence of rice blast disease. When applied to the soil, many of the isolated rhizobacterial strains increased seedling growth and/or suppressed rice blast disease in greenhouse-grown plants of the cultivars Super Basmati and Azucena, but each cultivar responded to differ...

  6. Development and application of monoclonal antibodies for in situ detection of indigenous bacterial strains in aquatic ecosystems.

    OpenAIRE

    Faude, U C; Höfle, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Strain-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed for three different bacterial isolates obtained from a freshwater environment (Lake Plusssee) in the spring of 1990. The three isolates, which were identified by molecular methods, were as follows: Cytophaga johnsonae PX62, Comamonas acidovorans PX54, and Aeromonas hydrophila PU7718. These strains represented three species that were detected in high abundance during a set of mesocosm experiments in Lake Plusssee by the direct analysi...

  7. Occurrence of Antibiotic resistance in some bacterial strains due to gamma radiation, heavy metals or food preservatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The susceptibility of bacterial strains (B. cereus, Staph. aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella) against 10 different antibiotics that are commonly used against food borne pathogens was studied. All the tested strains were observed to tolerate up to 100 mg/l copper sulphate or lead acetate, and there was a positive correlations between the tolerance to high levels of Cu or Pb and multiple antibiotic resistance was investigated. When the food preservatives (potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate) were added to the growth medium at different concentrations, the bacterial strains were able to tolerate up to 1000 ppm potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate (MIC). The antibiotic resistance of these strains was increased when grown on media supplemented with the MIC of sodium sorbate or potassium benzoate. When these bacterial strains were irradiated at dose levels of 1 or 3 or 5 KGy and examined for antibiotic sensitivity, a correlation was observed between the increases of radiation dose up to 5 KGy and the antibiotic resistance in all the studied strains

  8. Assessment of the relevance of the antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine from Pantoea agglomerans biological control strains against bacterial plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammer, Ulrike F; Reiher, Katharina; Spiteller, Dieter; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate

    2012-12-01

    The epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90 (Pa48b) is a promising biocontrol strain against economically important bacterial pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora. Strain Pa48b produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine (APV) in a temperature-dependent manner. An APV-negative mutant still suppressed the E. amylovora population and fire blight disease symptoms in apple blossom experiments under greenhouse conditions, but was inferior to the Pa48b wild-type indicating the influence of APV in the antagonism. In plant experiments with the soybean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea both, Pa48b and the APV-negative mutant, successfully suppressed the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the P. agglomerans strain Pa48b is an efficient biocontrol organism against plant pathogens, and we prove its ability for fast colonization of plant surfaces over a wide temperature range. PMID:23233458

  9. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabia Naz; Asghari Bano

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods:Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results:Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions: The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut. PMID:26394008

  11. ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Diop

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the main characteristics of ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7 (= CSUR P2268=DSM 101849, a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae family isolated from the vaginal flora of a patient with bacterial vaginosis.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium straminisolvens Strain JCM 21531T, Isolated from a Cellulose-Degrading Bacterial Community

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a fibrolytic bacterium, Clostridium straminisolvens JCM 21531T, isolated from a cellulose-degrading bacterial community. The genome information of this strain will be useful for studies on the degradation enzymes and functional interactions with other members in the community.

  13. Synergistic and Additive Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Biological Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Scandorieiro, Sara; de Camargo, Larissa C.; Lancheros, Cesar A. C.; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F.; Celso V Nakamura; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; Andrade, Célia G.T. de J.; Duran, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson; Renata K. T. Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistanc...

  14. Enhanced treatment of tannery wastewater in an integrated multistage bioreactor (IMBR) by the predominant bacterial strains enriched from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangdao; Fan, Guofeng; Liu, Guoguang

    2016-01-01

    An innovative integrated multistage bioreactor (IMBR) system, which was augmented with three predominant bacterial strains (Lactobacillus paracasei CL1107, Pichia jadinii CL1705, and Serratia marcescens CL1502) isolated from marine sediments, was developed to treat real tannery wastewater without performing physicochemical pretreatment, with the potential to reduce the generation of waste sludge and odors. The performance of the IMBR treatment system, with and without the inclusion of the predominant bacterial strains, was compared. The results indicated that the performance of the IMBR system without bioaugmentation by the predominant bacterial strains was poor. However, when in the presence of the predominant bacterial strains, the IMBR system exhibited high removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (97%), NH4(+)-N (97.7%), and total nitrogen (TN) (90%). In addition, the system had the capacity for the simultaneous removal of organics and nitrogen, heterotrophic nitrification and denitrification being carried out concurrently, thereby avoiding the strong inhibition of high concentrations of COD on nitrification. The system possessed excellent adaptability and ability to resist influent loading fluctuations, and had a good alkalinity balance such that it could achieve a high NH4(+)-N, and TN removal efficiency without a supplement of external alkalinity. In addition, an empirical performance modeling of the IMBR system was analyzed. PMID:26901723

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain BPL5 (CECT 8800), a Probiotic for Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoll, Empar; Codoñer, Francisco M; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Menabrito, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Lactobacillus rhamnosusBPL5 (CECT 8800), is a probiotic strain suitable for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we report its complete genome sequence deciphered by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. PMID:27103719

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain BPL5 (CECT 8800), a Probiotic for Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codoñer, Francisco M.; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F.; Ramón, Daniel; Menabrito, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus BPL5 (CECT 8800), is a probiotic strain suitable for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we report its complete genome sequence deciphered by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. PMID:27103719

  17. Isolation and characterization of different bacterial strains for bioremediation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermouche M'rassi, A; Bensalah, F; Gury, J; Duran, R

    2015-10-01

    Crude oil is a common environmental pollutant composed of a large number of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Biodegradation is carried out by microbial communities that are important in determining the fate of pollutants in the environment. The intrinsic biodegradability of the hydrocarbons and the distribution in the environment of competent degrading microorganisms are crucial information for the implementation of bioremediation processes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of various bacteria toward aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from contaminated soil of a refinery in Arzew, Algeria. A collection of 150 bacterial strains was obtained; the bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and their ability to degrade hydrocarbon compounds characterized. The isolated strains were mainly affiliated to the Gamma-Proteobacteria class. Among them, Pseudomonas spp. had the ability to metabolize high molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds such as pristane (C19) at 35.11 % by strain LGM22 and benzo[a] pyrene (C20) at 33.93 % by strain LGM11. Some strains were able to grow on all the hydrocarbons tested including octadecane, squalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Some strains were specialized degrading only few substrates. In contrast, the strain LGM2 designated as Pseudomonas sp. was found able to degrade both linear and branched alkanes as well as low and high poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The alkB gene involved in alkane degradation was detected in LGM2 and other Pseudomonas-related isolates. The capabilities of the isolated bacterial strains to degrade alkanes and PAHs should be of great practical significance in bioremediation of oil-contaminated environments. PMID:25813636

  18. [Multilocus VNTR-typing of Francisella tularensis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodop'ianov, A S; Vodop'ianov, S O; Pavlovich, N V; Mishan'kin, B N

    2004-01-01

    In the analysis of F. tularensis genome with the use of the specially developed program "DNA" a great number of loci containing tandem repeats were found. For analysis, 3 of them were selected and designated as FtA, FtB, FtC. The study of DNA of 40 F. tularensis strains in the polymerase chain reaction with specific primers to these loci a great variability in the number of repeats was established, the presence of 17 alleles being found in locus FtA, 5 alleles in locus FtB and 5 alleles in locus FtC. The strains under study formed 24 variants of genotypes, whose occurrence varied from 0.025 to 0.125. Taking into account the variability of the detected loci and a great number of potential loci VNTR in the genome, further development of this method will facilitate the creation of local and general data bases of the strains, thus ensuring more effective genetic typing of F. tularensis. PMID:15188553

  19. Complete genome sequence of Weeksella virosa type strain (9751T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Elke [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kopitz, marcus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Weeksella virosa Holmes et al. 1987 is the sole member and type species of the genus Weeksella which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Twenty-nine isolates, collected from clinical specimens provided the basis for the taxon description. While the species seems to be a saprophyte of the mucous membranes of healthy man and warm-blooded animals a causal relationship with disease has been reported in a few instances. Except for the ability to produce indole and to hydrolyze Tween and proteins such as casein and gelatin, this aerobic, non-motile, non-pigmented bacterial species is metabolically inert in most traditional biochemical tests. The 2,272,954 bp long genome with its 2,105 protein-coding and 76 RNA genes consists of one circular chromosome and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site. PMID:27138048

  1. Biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial community and bioaugmentation of selected bacterial strains for the depletion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a historically contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGregorio, Simona; Ruffini Castglione, Monica; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic contaminants causing hazards to organisms including humans. The objective of the study was (1) to validate the biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial population by the amendment of lignocellulosic matrices inoculated with white rot fungi, to be exploited for the depletion of PAHs (5687 ppm) in a historical contaminated soil. (2) to validate the isolation of autochthonous bacterial strains capable to use PAHs as sole carbon source and their massive bioaugmentation for PAH depletion in a historical contaminated soil. The validation has been performed at mesocosm and pilot scale (7 tons of soil in a biopile). The two approaches end up with the complete depletion of the PAHs. A genotoxicological assessment of the process and of the soil at the end of the process of decontamination has been performed. The process of soil decontamination showed an increase in the genotoxicity of either the soil and the deriving elutriates. The bioaugmetation of selected bacterial strains determined the complete detoxification of the decontaminated soil after 21 weeks. The microbial ecology of the system during the process of decontamination has been monitored.

  2. Biodegradation potentiality of psychrophilic bacterial strain Oleispira antarctica RB-8(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, G; Bonsignore, M; Santisi, S; Catalfamo, M; Giuliano, L; Genovese, L; Yakimov, M M; Denaro, R; Genovese, M; Cappello, S

    2016-04-15

    The present study is focused on assessing the growth and hydrocarbon-degrading capability of the psychrophilic strain Oleispira antarctica RB-8(T). This study considered six hydrocarbon mixtures that were tested for 22days at two different cultivation temperatures (4 and 15°C). During the incubation period, six sub-aliquots of each culture at different times were processed for total bacterial abundance and GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) hydrocarbon analysis. Results from DNA extraction and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining showed a linear increase during the first 18days of the experiment in almost all the substrates used; both techniques showed a good match, but the difference in values obtained was approximately one order of magnitude. GC-FID results revealed a substantial hydrocarbon degradation rate in almost all hydrocarbon sources and in particular at 15°C rather than 4°C (for commercial oil engine, oily waste, fuel jet, and crude oil). A more efficient degradation was observed in cultures grown with diesel and bilge water at 4°C. PMID:26912198

  3. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  4. Magnesium improves hydrogen production by a novel fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-jing; REN Nan-qi; XIANG Wen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of magnesium on glucose metabolism, including growth and hydrogen-producing capacity of fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49. These abilities were enhanced with an increase in magnesium concentration. At the end of fermentation from 10 g/L ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) was 1.1, and the accumulated hydrogen volume hydrogen volume was increased to 2 360. 5 mL H2/L culture, the ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) was increased to 1.3 and polysaccharide was decreased to 2. 5 mg/L. Moreover, the magnesium solution addition to the medium at different fermentation times affected hydrogen-producing ability. However,the later the addition time was postponed, the less the effect was on hydrogen evolution. Further experiments confirmed the enhancement was dependent on magnesium ions and not on the other inorganic ions such as SO42- or Cl-, which constituted the magnesium salts.

  5. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L; Mackey, David

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  6. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  7. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L.; Mackey, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B’ regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B’ subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B’ subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B’ subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B’ subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR TYPING OF BRUCELLA STRAINS CIRCULATING IN GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidamonidze, K; Ramishvili, M; Kalandadze, I; Tsereteli, D; Nikolich, M P

    2015-10-01

    In 2009-2013, 851 cases of brucellosis were registered in Georgia. Most cases of brucellosis were found in eastern Georgia (91.3% of cases). Mainly men were infected with brucellosis (81.0%).The age group with the most frequent cases of brucellosis is 30-59 years (48.5%). Brucellosis is rarely found among children(0-4 years - 2.0%, 5-14 years - 8.0%). Brucellosis cases were linked to professional activity; mainly by farmers (33.0% of those infected) and shepherds (27.0%). Biotyping Brucella by microbiological methods alone has limitations, so molecular typing was implemented in this study to confirm species. Isolates from human blood and ruminant milk or blood were identified by a bacteriological algorithm and confirmed by real-time PCR (Brucella T1, Idaho Technology). Species identity was confirmed using the AMOS conventional PCR assay, which differentiates four human pathogenic species but cannot recognize certain biovars within them. This gap was addressed by using more universal species-specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) assays. Real-time PCR was used to confirm 86 Brucella strains (48 human, 38 animal isolates) obtained 2009-2011. AMOS PCR supported the biochemical test results for 53 B. melitensis and four B. abortus strains, but not for 29 suspected B. abortus human and animal isolates. SNP typing of all 86 isolates supported the AMOS PCR results but also confirmed the species of the 29 strains not amplified by AMOS PCR. In 2009-2013 years the prevalence of brucellosis was still high. Nowadays cases of brucellosis are higher in the western part of Georgia than in the 1991-2005 period by a factor of 2.62. Brucellosis continues to be mainly an infection in males, because men are mostly engaged in sheep and cattle care. Combined AMOS PCR and SNP typing in this study provided the first genetic confirmation that both B. abortus and B. melitensis are actively circulating in humans and animals in Georgia. PMID:26483376

  9. [Algicidal activity against red-tide algaes by marine bacterial strain N3 isolated from a HABs area, southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-jun; Huang, Hong-hui; Qi, Zhan-hui; Hu, Wei-an; Tian, Zi-yang; Dai, Ming

    2013-05-01

    A marine algicidal bacterium N3 was isolated from a HABs area in Mirs Bay, a subtropical bay, in southern China. Algicidal activity and algicidal mode against Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Prorocentrum micans and Skeletonema costatum were observed by the liquid infection method. The results showed that there were no algicidal activities against P. tricornutum and S. costatum. However, when the bacterial volume fractions were 2% and 10% , S. trochoidea and P. micans could be killed, respectively. S. trochoidea cells which were exposed to strain N3 became irregular in shape and the cellular components lost their integrity and were decomposed. While, the P. micans cells became inflated and the cellular components aggregated, followed by cell lysis. Strain N3 killed S. trochoidea and P. micans directly, and the algicidal activities of the bacterial strain N3 was concentration-dependent. To S. trochoidea, 2% (V/V) of bacteria in algae showed the strongest algicidal activity, all of the S. trochoidea cells were killed within 120 h. But the growth rates of cells, in the 1% and 0. 1% treatment groups, were only slightly lower than that in the control group. In all treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 were in declining trends. While, to P. micans, 10% and 5% of bacteria in algae showed strong algicidal activities, 78% and 70% of the S. trochoidea were killed within 120 h, respectively. However, the number of S. trochoidea after exposure to 1% of bacterial cultures still increased up to 5 incubation days. And in the three treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 experienced a decrease process. The isolated strain N3 was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characterization, and homology comparisons based on 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:23914549

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 Type 1- and Type 2-Specific Sequences within the P1 Cytadhesin Gene of Individual Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. Wendelien; Wilbrink, Berry; Dankert, Jacob; Zaat, Sebastian A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains traditionally are divided into two types, based on sequence variation in the P1 gene. Recently, however, we have identified 8 P1 subtypes by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the present study the P1 gene sequences of three P1 type 1 and two P1 type 2 M. pneumoniae strains were analyzed. A new P1 gene sequence in a type 1 strain with partial similarity to a recently reported variable region in the P1 gene of an M. pneumoniae type 2 strain (T. ...

  11. Enzyme Profile of Lactobacillus Strain GG by a Rapid API ZYM System: A Comparison of Intestinal Bacterial Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, W H; Saxelin, M.; Hanninen, O.; Salminen, S

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus GG and eight strains of lactobacilli (L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, L. bulgaricus and L. helviticus) and other clinical organisms (Escherichia coli, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium difficile) were compared for their enzyme profiles. Specific activities of 19 hydrolytic enzymes for each strain were determined using the microenzyme API ZYM system. Lactobacillus GG enzyme profile showed high peptidase, chymotrypsin and phosphatase activities, and...

  12. Pan-proteomics, a concept for unifying quantitative proteome measurements when comparing closely-related bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, James A; Broszczak, Daniel A; Tennakoon, Imalka U K; Huygens, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    The comparison of proteomes between genetically heterogeneous bacterial strains may offer valuable insights into physiological diversity and function, particularly where such variation aids in the survival and virulence of clinically-relevant strains. However, reports of such comparisons frequently fail to account for underlying genetic variance. As a consequence, the current knowledge regarding bacterial physiological diversity at the protein level may be incomplete or inaccurate. To address this, greater consideration must be given to the impact of genetic heterogeneity on proteome comparisons. This may be possible through the use of pan-proteomics, an analytical concept that permits the ability to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the proteomes of genetically heterogeneous organisms. Limited examples of this emerging technology highlight currently unmet analytical challenges. In this article we define pan-proteomics, where its value lies in microbiology, and discuss the technical considerations critical to its successful execution and potential future application. PMID:26889693

  13. Colour removal from aqueous solutions of metal-complex azo dyes using bacterial cells of Shewanella strain J18 143.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie; Guthrie, James Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The decoloration treatment of textile dye effluents through biodegradation, using bacterial cells, has been studied as a possible means of solving some of the problems that are associated with the pollution of water sources by colorants. In this paper, the use of whole bacterial cells of Shewanella J18 143 for the reduction of aqueous solutions of selected mono-azo, metal-complex dyes, namely Irgalan Grey GLN, Irgalan Black RBLN and Irgalan Blue 3GL, was investigated. The effects of temperature, pH and dye concentration on colour removal were also investigated and shown to be important. The operative conditions for the removal of colour were 30 degrees C, at pH 6.8, with a final dye concentration of 0.12 g/L in the colour reduction system. This study provides an extension to the application of Shewanella strain J18 143 bacterial cells in the decoloration of textile wastewaters. PMID:20167478

  14. Visualizing translocation and localization of bacterial type III effector proteins using a genetically encoded reporter system

    OpenAIRE

    Gawthorne, Jayde A.; Audry, Laurent; McQuitty, Claire; Dean, Paul; Christie, John M.; Enninga, Jost; Andrew J. Roe

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) effector proteins are critical determinants of infection for many animal and plant pathogens. However, monitoring of the translocation and delivery of these important virulence determinants has proved to be technically challenging. Here, we used a genetically engineered LOV (light-oxygen-voltage) sensing domain derivative to monitor the expression, translocation and localization of bacterial T3SS effectors. We found the Escherichia coli O157:H7 bac...

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K.; V C Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffus...

  16. Comparison of Phenotypical and Molecular Methods for the Identification of Bacterial Strains Isolated from a Deep Subsurface Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin-Jahns, V.; Bianchi, A.; Ruimy, R; Garcin, J.; Daumas, S.; Christen, R

    1995-01-01

    Seventy-four bacterial strains were freshly isolated from a mine gallery. Using these bacteria, we have investigated how a molecular identification based on the analysis of small subunit rDNA sequences would compare in terms of precision and reliability to a more classical comparison of phenotypical descriptions (100 morphological and physiological traits). Our data clearly showed that a phylogenetic analysis of small subunit rDNA sequences is more efficient than classical phenotypic methods ...

  17. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Cui; Muyang Yang; Liping Wang; Xian, Cory J.

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated....

  18. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY COMBINED PREPARATIONS FOR CLINICAL STRAINS OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH BACTERIAL VAGINIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslanian M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of bacterial vaginit in some cases the cause of severe infectious diseases genitalia of the fetus and newborn, which can impair the health of future generations. It is noted that the treatment of antibacterial agents observed numerous negative side effects- reducing the biochemical activity of the intestinal microflora, abuse microbiota, leading to the development of dysbiosis, increasing the number of resistant strains of pathogens, the risk of allergic reaction sand immunological disorders. A study was conducted towards finding effective combinations of drugs from different pharmacological groups means to create a combination of drugs. The aim of the study was to develop and explore and Flamini combination of miramistin combined medicines to treat bacterial vaginit. As a result of studies in patients with bacterial vaginit pathological material was isolated and identified 72 strains of microorganisms (Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Enterococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Haemophillu sssp, Candida albican sand various strains of anaerobic microorganisms. For the combined treatment of infectious and in flammatory diseases (mixed infections in humans the combined drugin tablet form. All clinical strains of microorganisms isolated from patients with bacterial vaginit were tested for sensitivity to the combined preparation in tablet form with Flamini and miramistin. The greatest sensitivity to the drugs found clinical strains of microorganisms: Staphylococcu saureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Peptococcus niger (diameter zone growth retardation is 25,5-23,5 mm. composition tablets number 1 (0.05 g Flamini, miramistini 0.02 g, which was selected for further study shows bacteriostatic effect against a wide range of microorganisms and fungi Rod Candida. IPC for Staphylococcus sp was 20-25 pg / mL for Streptococcus sp 35,0-40,0 mg / ml, for intestinal group 35,0-40,0 for fungi 30,0 mg / ml unlike pills number 2 and number 3, where the

  19. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Strains Isolated From Patients with Community Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Mersin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Kandemir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study objected to determination of distribution of bacterial agents, resistance proportions in community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI in center of Mersin province and objected to regional treatment guide towards to our evidence. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In this study, included patients of pre-diagnosed as UTI based on clinical and laboratory in 11 health care centers between 11/01/2008–07/01/2009. Health care centers were checked for as daily and delivered appropriate urine samples for this study which collected sterile urine collection bottles. Urine samples were cultured including ≥leukocyte/mm3 with thoma slides, as a result of culture, samples of being on one type bacterial growth and ≥105 cfu/mL have done statically analysis. RESULTS: Totally 480 samples were collected and 311 (64.8% of them evaluated to as statistic significant. In bacterial culture analysis, E. coli (80.7% was the most commonly identified and as descending order found to Klepsiella spp. (8.7%, CNS (7.8%, Proteus spp. (1.9%, Enterobacter spp. (0.6%, and Pseudomonas spp. (0.3%. ESBL was determined to 10.0% of E. coli isolates, 3.7% of Klepsiella spp. isolates and also IBL was determined in two Enterobacter spp. isolates. Oxacillin resistance in CNS isolates was found as 12.5%. Imipenem resistance in Gram negative uropatogens was not detected and resistant rates were detected; 0.3% in amikacin, 0.7% in cefoperazone/sulbactam, 2.8% in cefoxitin, 6.3% in nitrofurantoin, 10.8% in ceftriaxone, 16.7% in ciprofloxacin, 16.7% in cefuroxime, 42.2% in cotrimoxazole, 97.6 % in amoxicillin clavulanic acid, and 94.4% in ampicillin sulbactam. There were no detected to resistance to glycopeptides and linezolid in gram positive agents. CONCLUSION: Ampicillin, ampicillin sulbactam, amoxicillin clavulanic acid, and cotrimoxazole antibiotics were out of the being preference for reason of resistance rates in UTI empirical treatment in our region. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012

  20. Complete genome sequence of Kytococcus sedentarius type strain (strain 541T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, David; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Chen, Feng; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; D' haeseleer, Patrick; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Schneider, Susanne; Goker, Markus; Pukall, Rudiger; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Kytococcus sedentarius (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Stackebrandt et al. 1995 is the type strain of the species, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its location in the Dermacoccaceae, a poorly studied family within the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. K. sedentarius is known for the production of oligoketide antibiotics as well as for its role as an opportunistic pathogen causing valve endocarditis, hemorrhagic pneumonia, and pitted keratolysis. It is strictly aerobic and can only grow when several amino acids are provided in the medium. The strain described in this report is a free-living, nonmotile, Gram-positive bacterium, originally isolated from a marine environment. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Dermacoccaceae and the 2,785,024 bp long single replicon genome with its 2639 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  1. Discovery and application of new bacterial strains for asymmetric synthesis of L-tert-butyl leucine in high enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Zhong; Chang, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Jie

    2011-06-01

    Discovery of new bacterial strains with fast identification in a miniaturized system was performed for the synthesis of optically active L-tert-butyl leucine. With tert-butyl leucine amide as nitrogen source, one bacterial strain with high conversion and high enantioselectivity was discovered among 120 isolated microorganisms from local soils and identified as Mycobacterium sp. JX009. Glucose and ammonium chloride were examined as the good carbon source and nitrogen source for the cells' growth separately. The cells grew better at 30 °C and at pH 7.5 with higher activity of 2,650 U/l in comparison with other conditions. Cells' stability was improved by immobilization on synthetic resin 0730 without pretreatment. Tert-butyl leucine amide (30 mM) was successfully hydrolyzed by immobilized cells and examined as the highest chemical concentration that cells could endure. After six reaction cycles, the immobilized cells retained 90% activity with production of L-tert-butyl leucine in 98% ee. The results firstly reported the application of new bacterial strain in the hydrolysis of tert-butyl leucine amide to produce optically active L-tert-butyl leucine in an efficient way with investigation in detail. PMID:21153891

  2. Simultaneous transport of two bacterial strains in intact cores from Oyster, Virginia: biological effects and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hailiang; Rothmel, Randi; Onstott, Tullis C; Fuller, Mark E; DeFlaun, Mary F; Streger, Sheryl H; Dunlap, Robb; Fletcher, Madilyn

    2002-05-01

    The transport characteristics of two adhesion-deficient, indigenous groundwater strains, Comamonas sp. strain DA001 and Erwinia herbicola OYS2-A, were studied by using intact sediment cores (7 by 50 cm) from Oyster, Va. Both strains are gram-negative rods (1.10 by 0.56 and 1.56 by 0.46 microm, respectively) with strongly hydrophilic membranes and a slightly negative surface charge. The two strains exhibited markedly different behaviors when they were transported through granular porous sediment. To eliminate any effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on bacterial transport and thus isolate the biological effect, the two strains were simultaneously injected into the same core. DA001 cells were metabolically labeled with (35)S and tagged with a vital fluorescent stain, while OYS2-A cells were metabolically labeled with (14)C. The fast decay of (35)S allowed deconvolution of the two isotopes (and therefore the two strains). Dramatic differences in the transport behaviors were observed. The breakthrough of DA001 and the breakthrough of OYS2-A both occurred before the breakthrough of a conservative tracer (termed differential advection), with effluent recoveries of 55 and 30%, respectively. The retained bacterial concentration of OYS2-A in the sediment was twofold higher than that of DA001. Among the cell properties analyzed, the statistically significant differences between the two strains were cell length and diameter. The shorter, larger-diameter DA001 cells displayed a higher effluent recovery than the longer, smaller-diameter OYS2-A cells. CXTFIT modeling results indicated that compared to the DA001 cells, the OYS2-A cells experienced lower pore velocity, higher porosity, a higher attachment rate, and a lower detachment rate. All these factors may contribute to the observed differences in transport. PMID:11976080

  3. Clay mineral type effect on bacterial enteropathogen survival in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Fiona P; Moynihan, Emma; Griffiths, Bryan S; Hillier, Stephen; Owen, Jason; Pendlowski, Helen; Avery, Lisa M

    2014-01-15

    Enteropathogens released into the environment can represent a serious risk to public health. Soil clay content has long been known to have an important effect on enteropathogen survival in soil, generally enhancing survival. However, clay mineral composition in soils varies, and different clay minerals have specific physiochemical properties that would be expected to impact differentially on survival. This work investigated the effect of clay materials, with a predominance of a particular mineral type (montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite), on the survival in soil microcosms over 96 days of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Dublin, and Escherichia coli O157. Clay mineral addition was found to alter a number of physicochemical parameters in soil, including cation exchange capacity and surface area, and this was specific to the mineral type. Clay mineral addition enhanced enteropathogen survival in soil. The type of clay mineral was found to differentially affect enteropathogen survival and the effect was enteropathogen-specific. PMID:24035982

  4. Complete genome sequence of Desulfomicrobium baculatum type strain (XT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Alex; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Schneider, Susanne; Lapidus, Alla; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C; Meincke, Linda; Sims, David; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Lucas, Susan

    2009-05-20

    Desulfomicrobium baculatum is the type species of the genus Desulfomicrobium, which is the type genus of the family Desulfomicrobiaceae. It is of phylogenetic interest because of the isolated location of the family Desulfomicrobiaceae within the order Desulfovibrionales. D. baculatum strain XT is a Gram-negative, motile, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from water-saturated manganese carbonate ore. It is strictly anaerobic and does not require NaCl for growth, although NaCl concentrations up to 6percent (w/v) are tolerated. The metabolism is respiratory or fermentative. In the presence of sulfate, pyruvate and lactate are incompletely oxidized to acetate and CO2. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfomicrobiaceae, and this 3,942,657 bp long single replicon genome with its 3494 protein-coding and 72 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Isolation and molecular characterisation of malathion-degrading bacterial strains from waste water in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinat K. Mohamed; Mohamed A. Ahmed; Nashwa A. Fetyan; SHERIF M. ELNAGDY

    2010-01-01

    Efficiencies of local bacterial isolates in malathion degradation were investigated. Five bacterial isolates obtained from agricultural waste water were selected due to their ability to grow in minimal salt media, supplied with 250 ppm malathion as sole source of carbon and phosphorus. The purified bacterial isolates (MOS-1, MOS-2, MOS-3, MOS-4 and MOS-5) were characterised and identified using a combination of cellular profile (SDS-PAGE), genetic make up profile (RAPD-PCR), and morphological...

  6. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HALOPHILIC BACTERIAL STRAINS FROM SALINE WATERS OF KHEWRA SALT MINES ON THE BASIS OF 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Halophiles are salt loving microbes optimally growing at high concentrations of salt. Khewra salt mines of Pakistan provide extreme saline conditions where enormous halophilic microbial biota thrives. The present study aimed at isolation and molecular identification of bacterial strains from saline waters of Khewra salt mines. Using halophilic media, nine halophilic bacterial strains from saline water bodies were cultured and studied under optimized growth conditions (NaCl, pH and temperature. Bacterial growth at different NaCl concentrations was measured at 600nm wavelength, showing optimal growth at 1.5M NaCl. 769bp size 16S rRNA gene was amplified for molecular identification of bacterial strains. The amplified genes of the strains FA2.2 and FA3.3 were sequenced and their homology with other bacterial strains was analyzed. The results showed FA2.2 shared maximum homology with Bacillus anthracis strain while FA3.3 showed close resemblance with Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. bovis. Isolated halophilic bacterial strains possess potential for various biotechnological applications. They could be manipulated for synthesizing transgenic crops tolerating high salinity boosting the agricultural yield. Moreover extremozymes of these bacteria holds great industrial importance.

  7. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley C Henderson

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains.

  8. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kelley C.; Benitez, Alvaro J.; Ratliff, Amy E.; Crabb, Donna M.; Sheppard, Edward S.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Dluhy, Richard A.; Waites, Ken B.; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Krause, Duncan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS) biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl) and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA) of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains. PMID:26121242

  9. Effect of PGR producing bacterial strains isolated from vermisources on germination and growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandharaj Marimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from vermisources andscreened for Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA production among themonly nine strains produce IAA and they were identified asStreptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Alcaligenes spp., Erwinia spp., and Pseudomonas spp. Among all other strains Bacillus sp. showed the higher IAA production hence selected for further molecular analysis and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The B. cereus was grown in nutrient broth supplemented with different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5mg/ml of tryptophan for seven days at pH 7 and at 37ºC. Crude IAA was used for in vitro phytostimulatory studies using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The plant growth parameters were analyzed at different day intervals (5, 10 and 15 days. Supplementation of 5 ml crude IAA (2mg/ml of tryptophan dynamically enhances the plant growth parameters after 15 days.

  10. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo F1, Which Causes Citrus Bacterial Spot Disease, and Related Strains Provides Insights into Virulence and Host Specificity ▿ #

    OpenAIRE

    Jalan, Neha; Aritua, Valente; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B; Graham, James H; Setubal, João C; Wang, Nian

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo is a citrus pathogen causing citrus bacterial spot disease that is geographically restricted within the state of Florida. Illumina, 454 sequencing, and optical mapping were used to obtain a complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo strain F1, 4.9 Mb in size. The strain lacks plasmids, in contrast to other citrus Xanthomonas pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the tomato bacterial spot pathogen X. camp...

  11. Regeneration of Phosphorus and Nitrogen by Four Species of Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates Feeding on Three Nutritional States of a Single Bacterial Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Eccleston-Parry, J. D.; Leadbeater, B.

    1995-01-01

    Three physiological states of a single bacterial strain, namely, balanced, phosphorus-rich, and nitrogen-rich bacteria, were obtained by culturing a bacterial strain in chemostats under three different nutrient regimens. Each was shown to be distinctly different in elemental composition with respect to C/N/P ratio. These bacteria were fed to four species of heterotrophic nanoflagellates in batch culture grazing experiments, and the percent regeneration efficiencies of bacterium-bound nitrogen...

  12. Impact on Bacterial Community in Midguts of the Asian Corn Borer Larvae by Transgenic Trichoderma Strain Overexpressing a Heterologous chit42 Gene with Chitin-Binding Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yingying; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; WU Qiong; Fan, Lili; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed spe...

  13. Complete genome sequence of Actinosynnema mirum type strain (101T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Chen, Feng; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Chain, Patrick; Tindall, Brian; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Actinosynnema mirum Hasegawa et al. 1978 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its central phylogenetic location in the Actino-synnemataceae, a rapidly growing family within the actinobacterial suborder Pseudo-nocardineae. A. mirum is characterized by its motile spores borne on synnemata and as a producer of nocardicin antibiotics. It is capable of growing aerobically and under a moderate CO2 atmosphere. The strain is a Gram-positive, aerial and substrate mycelium producing bacterium, originally isolated from a grass blade collected from the Raritan River, New Jersey. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Actinosynnemataceae, and only the second sequence from the actinobacterial suborder Pseudonocardineae. The 8,248,144 bp long single replicon genome with its 7100 protein-coding and 77 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  14. Mechanism of Excretion of a Bacterial Proteinase: Demonstration of Two Proteolytic Enzymes Produced by a Sarcina Strain (Coccus P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SARNER, NITZA Z; BISSELL, MINA J; GIROLAMO, MARIO Di; GORINI, LUIGI

    1970-06-29

    A Sarcina strain (Coccus P) produces two proteolytic enzymes. One is found only extracellularly, is far more prevalent, and is actively excreted during exponential growth. It is the enzyme responsible for the known strong proteolytic activity of the cultures of this strain. A second protease is, however, produced which remains associated with the intact cells but is released by the protoplasts. The two enzymes appear unrelated in their derivation. Calcium ions play an essential role in preventing autodigestion of the excreted enzyme. Bacterial proteins are found outside the cell boundary as a consequence either of passive processes such as leakage or lysis or of active excretion. Under conditions in which leakage and lysis do not occur, as during exponential growth, the cell boundary is a barrier causing a complete separation of the bulk of the intracellular proteins from the one or very few extracellular proteins, with no trace of either type being detectable on the wrong side of the boundary. Since in bacteria there is no evidence of protein being produced other than internally, the separation into intraand extracellular proteins should occur after peptide chain formation. The question arises as to whether the structure of the cell boundary or that of the excreted proteins themselves determines this separation. Coccus P, a Sarcina closely related to Micrococcus lysodeikticus (3), produces an extracellular proteinase during the exponential phase of growth so that the process appears to be active excretion. The organism grows exponentially in a defined synthetic medium (12) to relatively high cell density (10{sup 9} cells/ml); therefore the mechanism of excretion can be studied over an extended period of time without the difficulties of changing growth rates. Coagulation of reconstituted skim milk provides a simple and sensitive assay for enzyme activity (I 1). The extracellular proteinase has also been purified and partially characterized (6-8). It has been shown

  15. Isolation and Purification of Bacterial Strains from Treatment Plants for Effective and Efficient Bioconversion of Domestic Wastewater Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C.A. Jalal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty six bacterial strains were isolated from nine different sources in four treatment plants namely Indah Water Konsortium (IWK sewage treatment plant, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM treatment plant-1,-2 and –3 to evaluate the bioconversion process in terms of efficient biodegradation and bioseparation. The bacterial strains isolated were found to be 52.2% (24 isolates and 47.8% (22 isolates in the IWK and IIUM treatment plants respectively. The results showed that the higher microbial population (9-10x104 cfu mLˉ1 was observed in the secondary clarifier of IWK treatment plant. Only the gram-staining identification was done in the strains isolated from IWK treatment plant not to be determined from IIUM. Among the isolates from IWK, 10 isolates of gram-positive bacillus (GPB and gram-positive cocci (GPC, 10 isolates of gram-negative bacillus (GNB and rest were both or undetermined. Gram-negative cocci (GNC were not found in the isolates from IWK.

  16. The uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+ by bacterial strains isolated from a boreal nutrient-poor bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Lusa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+ by bacterial strains of Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus isolated from an acidic nutrient-poor boreal bog. The tests were run in two different growth media at two temperatures; +4 °C and +20 °C. All bacterial strains removed Ni2+ and Ag+ from the solution with highest efficiencies shown by one of the Pseudomonas sp. and one of the Paenibacillus sp. strains. Highest Ni2+ uptake was found in 1% Tryptone solution, whereas the highest removal of Ag+ was obtained using 1% Yeast extract. Temperature affected the uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+, but statistically significant difference was found only for Ni2+. Based on tests carried out for the bacteria in nutrient broths and for fresh samples taken from varying depth up to seven meters from the ombrotrophic bog, from which the bacteria were isolated, we estimated that in in situ conditions of the bog the uptake of Ni2+ by bacteria accounts for approximately 0.02% of the total sorption in the uppermost moss layer, 0.01% in the peat layer, 0.02% in the gyttja layer and 0.1% in the bottom clay layer of the bog. For Ag+ the corresponding values were 2.3% in the moss layer, 0.04% in the peat layer, 0.2% in the gyttja and 0.03% in the clay layer.

  17. Comparative analysis of bacterial community and antibiotic-resistant strains in different developmental stages of the housefly (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Hu, Jun; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2013-02-01

    The housefly (Musca domestica) is an important host for a variety of bacteria, including some pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant strains. To further investigate the relationship between the housefly and the bacteria it harbors, it is necessary to understand the fate of microorganisms during the larval metamorphosis. The major bacterial communities in three developmental stages of the housefly (maggot, pupa, and adult fly) were investigated by a culture-independent method, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The bacteria that were identified using DGGE analysis spanned phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Changes in the predominant genera were observed during the housefly development. Bacteroides, Koukoulia, and Schineria were detected in maggots, Neisseria in pupae, and Macrococcus, Lactococcus, and Kurthia in adult flies. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were screened using a selective medium and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Most resistant isolates from maggots and pupae were classified as Proteus spp., while those from adult flies were much more diverse and spanned 12 genera. Among 20 tested strains across the three stages, 18 were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Overall, we demonstrated that there are changes in the major bacterial communities and antibiotic-resistant strains as the housefly develops. PMID:22526786

  18. A bacterial pathogen uses distinct type III secretion systems to alternate between host kingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant and animal-pathogenic bacteria utilize phylogenetically distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) that produce needle-like injectisomes or pili for the delivery of effector proteins into host cells. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causative agent of Stewart’s bacterial wilt and...

  19. Hemolysin, Protease, and EPS Producing Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila Strain An4 Shows Antibacterial Activity against Marine Bacterial Fish Pathogens

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    Anju Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 was isolated from marine catfish and characterized with reference to its proteolytic and hemolytic activity along with SDS-PAGE profile (sodium dodecyl sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ECPs (extracellular proteins showing hemolysin (approximately 50 kDa. Agar well diffusion assay using crude cell extract of the bacterial isolate clearly demonstrated antibacterial activity against indicator pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus arlettae strain An1, Acinetobacter sp. strain An2, Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3, and Alteromonas aurentia SE3 showing inhibitory zone >10 mm well comparable to common antibiotics. Further GC-MS analysis of crude cell extract revealed several metabolites, namely, phenolics, pyrrolo-pyrazines, pyrrolo-pyridine, and butylated hydroxytoluene (well-known antimicrobials. Characterization of EPS using FTIR indicated presence of several protein-related amine and amide groups along with peaks corresponding to carboxylic and phenyl rings which may be attributed to its virulent and antibacterial properties, respectively. Besides hemolysin, EPS, and protease, Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 also produced several antibacterial metabolites.

  20. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Cui

    Full Text Available While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production.

  1. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production. PMID:26716833

  2. Vancomycin analogues active against vanA-resistant strains inhibit bacterial transglycosylase without binding substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lan; Walker, Deborah; Sun, Binyuan; Hu, Yanan; Walker, Suzanne; Kahne, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial transglycosylases are enzymes that couple the disaccharide subunits of peptidoglycan to form long carbohydrate chains. These enzymes are the target of the pentasaccharide antibiotic moenomycin as well as the proposed target of certain glycopeptides that overcome vancomycin resistance. Because bacterial transglycosylases are difficult enzymes to study, it has not previously been possible to evaluate how moenomycin inhibits them or to determine whether glycopeptide analogues directly ...

  3. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santal, Anita Rani; Singh, N P; Saharan, Baljeet Singh

    2011-10-15

    Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG(5). PMID:21880418

  4. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  5. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Abbott, James; Micklem, Chris N; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Aurantimicrobium minutum Type Strain KNCT, a Planktonic Ultramicrobacterium Isolated from River Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Takatomo; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Baba, Tomoya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Naganuma, Takeshi; Niki, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Aurantimicrobium minutum type strain KNCT is a planktonic ultramicrobacterium isolated from river water in western Japan. Strain KNCT has an extremely small, streamlined genome of 1,622,386 bp comprising 1,575 protein-coding sequences. The genome annotation suggests that strain KNCT has an actinorhodopsin-based photometabolism. PMID:27365350

  7. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K; Gupta, V C

    2014-04-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16-10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11-12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11-6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

  8. Genetic typing of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains with microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C; Higuchi, K; Shimizu, M; Matsushita, T; Kogishi, K; Wang, J; Chiba, T; Festing, M F; Hosokawa, M

    1999-03-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) strains constitute a murine model of accelerated senescence originating from the ancestral AKR/J strains and consist of nine senescence-prone (SAMP) strains and four senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. The chromosomes (Chrs) of the SAM strains were typed with 581 microsatellite markers amplified by PCR, and the fundamental genetic information of the SAM strains was obtained. One-third of the examined markers displayed polymorphism among the strains, and only two alleles were detected in almost all loci among the SAM and AKR/J strains. However, in 12 loci (5.6% of total 215 polymorphic markers), the third allele was detected among the SAM strains. The genetic typing and developmental history suggested that the SAM strains were related inbred strains developed by the accidental crossing between the AKR/J strain and other unknown strain(s). Comparison of the distribution of the loci in the SAMP and the SAMR series revealed notable differences in the four regions on Chrs 4, 14, 16, and 17. This indicated that some of these chromosomal sites might contain the genes responsible for accelerated senescence in the SAMP series. PMID:10051317

  9. Isolation of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterial strains efficient in hydrogen production at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were isolated from root zone associations of aquatic plants like Azolla, Salvinia and Eichhornia, as well as the deep-water rice. Based on the gross cell morphology and pigmentation, the isolates resembled Rhodopseudomonas sp. and have been designated as BHU strains 1 to 4, respectively. When subjected to elevated temperature (from 33-45{sup o}C), substantial growth/hydrogen production could be observed only in strains 1 and 4. Strains 2 and 3 on the other hand, showed diminished growth and negligible hydrogen photoproduction. The BHU strains 1 and 4 have been selected as the most active (thermostable) hydrogen producing strains of local origin as far as the Indian tropical climate is concerned. (author).

  10. Analysis of Escherichia coli Strains Causing Bacteriuria during Pregnancy: Selection for Strains That Do Not Express Type 1 Fimbriae

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J. C.; Leathart, J. B. S.; Keegan, S. J.; Pearson, J.; Bint, A; Gally, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from patients with bacteriuria of pregnancy were compared by PCR with isolates from patients with community-acquired cystitis for the presence of established virulence determinants. The strains from patients with bacteriuria of pregnancy were less likely to carry genes for P-family, S-family, and F1C adhesins, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, and aerobactin, but virtually all of the strains carried the genes for type 1 fimbriae. Standard mannose-sensitive agglutinatio...

  11. Isolation and characterization of rhamnolipid-producing bacterial strains from a biodiesel facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Price, Neil P J; Ray, Karen J; Kuo, Tsung-Min

    2009-06-01

    Novel strains of rhamnolipid-producing bacteria were isolated from soils at a biodiesel facility on the basis of their ability to grow on glycerol as a sole carbon source. Strains were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Pantoea stewartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strains of the former five species were found to produce rhamnolipids in quantities the same as, or similar to, coisolated strains of P. aeruginosa. Measurements of surface tension revealed that that emulsifying properties of these strains were similar to levels displayed by rhamnolipids produced by P. aeruginosa. Results of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS analyses revealed that the predominant compounds made by all strains were C10-C10 mono- and dirhamnolipids. Notably, E. hormaechei and one strain of A. calcoaceticus produced rhamnolipids in amounts similar to the pseudomonads. As all strains examined were from the same taxonomic class of Proteobacteria, further examination of this group may reveal many additional species not previously known to produce rhamnolipids in addition to novel strains of species currently known to produce rhamnolipids. PMID:19473254

  12. Genome Sequence of the Banana Pathogen Dickeya zeae Strain MS1, Which Causes Bacterial Soft Rot

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing-Xin; Lin, Bi-Run; Shen, Hui-Fang; Pu, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    We report a draft genome sequence of Dickeya zeae strain MS1, which is the causative agent of banana soft rot in China, and we show several of its specific properties compared with those of other D. zeae strains. Genome sequencing provides a tool for understanding the genomic determination of the pathogenicity and phylogeny placement of this pathogen.

  13. Isolation of Bacterial Strains Capable of Sulfamethoxazole Mineralization from an Acclimated Membrane Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Bouju, H.; Ricken, B.; Beffa, T; Corvini, P. F.- X.; Kolvenbach, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we isolated five strains capable of degrading 14C-labeled sulfamethoxazole to 14CO2 from a membrane bioreactor acclimatized to sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and diclofenac. Of these strains, two belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria, while three were members of the Proteobacteria.

  14. Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Culture Conditions for Hydrogen Production by an Anaerobic Bacterial Strain from Soluble Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieu, Hoa Thi Quynh; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Dang, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Binh Thanh

    2016-05-01

    Biohydrogen is a clean source of energy that produces no harmful byproducts during combustion, being a potential sustainable energy carrier for the future. Therefore, biohydrogen produced by anaerobic bacteria via dark fermentation has attracted attention worldwide as a renewable energy source. However, the hydrogen production capability of these bacteria depends on major factors such as substrate, iron-containing hydrogenase, reduction agent, pH, and temperature. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was employed to improve the hydrogen production by an anaerobic bacterial strain isolated from animal waste in Phu Linh, Soc Son, Vietnam (PL strain). The hydrogen production process was investigated as a function of three critical factors: soluble starch concentration (8 g L-1 to 12 g L-1), ferrous iron concentration (100 mg L-1 to 200 mg L-1), and l-cysteine concentration (300 mg L-1 to 500 mg L-1). RSM analysis showed that all three factors significantly influenced hydrogen production. Among them, the ferrous iron concentration presented the greatest influence. The optimum hydrogen concentration of 1030 mL L-1 medium was obtained with 10 g L-1 soluble starch, 150 mg L-1 ferrous iron, and 400 mg L-1 l-cysteine after 48 h of anaerobic fermentation. The hydrogen concentration produced by the PL strain was doubled after using RSM. The obtained results indicate that RSM with CCD can be used as a technique to optimize culture conditions for enhancement of hydrogen production by the selected anaerobic bacterial strain. Hydrogen production from low-cost organic substrates such as soluble starch using anaerobic fermentation methods may be one of the most promising approaches.

  15. A Pseudomonas fluorescens type 6 secretion system is related to mucoidy, motility and bacterial competition

    OpenAIRE

    Decoin, Victorien; Gallique, Mathias; Barbey, Corinne; Le Mauff, Francois; Poc, Cecile Duclairoir; Feuilloley, Marc GJ; Orange, Nicole; Merieau, Annabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MFE01 secretes in abundance two Hcp proteins (haemolysin co-regulated proteins) Hcp1 and Hcp2, characteristic of a functional type 6 secretion system. Phenotypic studies have shown that MFE01 has antibacterial activity against a wide range of competitor bacteria, including rhizobacteria and clinically relevant bacteria. Mutagenesis of the hcp2 gene abolishes or reduces, depending on the target strain, MFE01 antibacterial activity. Hcp1, encoded by hcp...

  16. Association of Ocular Toxoplasmosis with Type I Toxoplasma gondii Strains: Direct Genotyping from Peripheral Blood Samples▿

    OpenAIRE

    Switaj, Karolina; Master, Adam; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Zaborowski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii strains were genotyped directly from blood samples of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Analysis of nontranscribed spacer 2 revealed that all detected strains belonged to type I, suggesting an association of ocular toxoplasmosis with this type. The method shows the usefulness of blood samples for genotyping in ocular toxoplasmosis.

  17. Comparison of the bioluminescence of Photorhabdus species and subspecies type strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyršl, P.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2004), s. 539. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5004009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : bioluminescence * Photorhabdus species type strains * Photorhabdus subspecies type strains Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Mycobacterium immunogenum Type Strain CCUG 47286

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Seguí, Carolina; Aliaga-Lozano, Francisco; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Ramírez, Antonio; Ruiz, Mikel; Lalucat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium immunogenum type strain CCUG 47286, a nontuberculous mycobacterium. The whole genome has 5,573,781 bp and covers as many as 5,484 predicted genes. This genome contributes to the task of closing the still-existing gap of genomes of rapidly growing mycobacterial type strains. PMID:27231356

  19. SNP/RD Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains Reveals Local and Worldwide Disseminated Clonal Complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurch, A.C.; Kremer, K.; Hendriks, A.C.; Freyee, B.; McEvoy, C.R.; Crevel, R. van; Boeree, M.J.; Helden, P. van; Warren, R.M.; Siezen, R.J.; Soolingen, D. van

    2011-01-01

    The Beijing strain is one of the most successful genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis worldwide and appears to be highly homogenous according to existing genotyping methods. To type Beijing strains reliably we developed a robust typing scheme using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and regio

  20. Natural history of the infant gut microbiome and impact of antibiotic treatment on bacterial strain diversity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassour, Moran; Vatanen, Tommi; Siljander, Heli; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Härkönen, Taina; Ryhänen, Samppa J; Franzosa, Eric A; Vlamakis, Hera; Huttenhower, Curtis; Gevers, Dirk; Lander, Eric S; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2016-06-15

    The gut microbial community is dynamic during the first 3 years of life, before stabilizing to an adult-like state. However, little is known about the impact of environmental factors on the developing human gut microbiome. We report a longitudinal study of the gut microbiome based on DNA sequence analysis of monthly stool samples and clinical information from 39 children, about half of whom received multiple courses of antibiotics during the first 3 years of life. Whereas the gut microbiome of most children born by vaginal delivery was dominated by Bacteroides species, the four children born by cesarean section and about 20% of vaginally born children lacked Bacteroides in the first 6 to 18 months of life. Longitudinal sampling, coupled with whole-genome shotgun sequencing, allowed detection of strain-level variation as well as the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. The microbiota of antibiotic-treated children was less diverse in terms of both bacterial species and strains, with some species often dominated by single strains. In addition, we observed short-term composition changes between consecutive samples from children treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes carried on microbial chromosomes showed a peak in abundance after antibiotic treatment followed by a sharp decline, whereas some genes carried on mobile elements persisted longer after antibiotic therapy ended. Our results highlight the value of high-density longitudinal sampling studies with high-resolution strain profiling for studying the establishment and response to perturbation of the infant gut microbiome. PMID:27306663

  1. The screening of xanthomonas lactose – positive strains among bacterial populations of citrus canker disease isolated from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyat Jafari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Xanthan is a heteropolysaccharide that is produced by the group of plant pathogen bacteria from Xanthomonas genus. Usually, the media containing glucose, sucrose and starch is used for xanthan production. Because their preparation and transferring is expensive, the final cost of xanthan production by these carbon sources is high. On the other hand, many Xanthomonas species such as X.campestris are not able to use cheap media rich of lactose such as whey to produce xanthan due to the low expression and sometimes the defect of their β-galactosidase enzyme. The access to bacterial strains capable of decomposing lactose will provide a possibility for producing a valuable commercial product (xanthan from an inexpensive carbon source (whey.Materials and methods: In the present study, a collection containing 210 isolated Xanthomonas citrisubsp.citri Iranian strains from citrus orchards in south Iran was studied. Then, the genus of these bacteria was determined by using molecular techniques and sequencing of 16S-rDNA gene. Also, their growth in lactose – based medium was investigated.Results: Among 210 strains, 27 strains were able to grow on lactose rich medium. Then, the genus of these bacteria was proved by sequencing of 16S-rDNA gene and comparison with another 16S-rDNA gene sequences existing in NCBI. Also, these bacteria had considerable growth in lactose-based medium. Discussion and conclusion: At last, we can say that separated lactose-positive Xanthomonas strains from southern citrus orchards have good ability to utilize lactose and in the near future, it would be possible to apply these native strains for xanthan production in cheaper lactose media such as whey.

  2. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The Alcaligenes faecalis strain SAG5 decolorizes 72.6 ± 0.56% of melanoidins. → The decolorization was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 oC on 5th day. → The distillery effluent after biological treatment is environmentally safe. - Abstract: Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 oC on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG5.

  3. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG{sub 5} of Alcaligenes faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santal, Anita Rani, E-mail: anita.gangotra@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Singh, N.P. [Centre for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Saharan, Baljeet Singh [Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The Alcaligenes faecalis strain SAG{sub 5} decolorizes 72.6 {+-} 0.56% of melanoidins. {yields} The decolorization was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day. {yields} The distillery effluent after biological treatment is environmentally safe. - Abstract: Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 {+-} 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG{sub 5}.

  4. Production of putrescine-capped stable silver nanoparticle: its characterization and antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saswati; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gupta, Kamala; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    Integration of biology with nanotechnology is now becoming attention-grabbing area of research. The antimicrobial potency of silver has been eminent from antiquity. Due to the recent desire for the enhancement of antibacterial efficacy of silver, various synthesis methods of silver in their nano dimensions are being practiced using a range of capping material. The present work highlights a facile biomimetic approach for production of silver nanoparticle being capped and stabilized by putrescine, possessing a diameter of 10-25 ± 1.5 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles have been analyzed spectrally and analytically. Morphological studies are carried out by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and crystallinity by selected area electron diffraction patterns. Moreover, the elemental composition of the capped nanoparticles was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. A comparative study (zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration) regarding the interactions and antibacterial potentiality of the capped silver nanoparticles with respect to the bare ones reveal the efficiency of the capped one over the bare one. The bacterial kinetic study was executed to monitor the interference of nanoparticles with bacterial growth rate. The results also highlight the efficacy of putrescine-capped silver nanoparticles as effective growth inhibitors against multi-drug resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains, which may, thus, potentially be applicable as an effective antibacterial control system to fight diseases.

  5. EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL LIGNIN PEROXIDASE ON ORGANIC CARBON MINERALIZATION IN SOIL, USING RECOMBINANT STREPTOMYCES STRAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purified lignin peroxidase was added to sterile and nonsterile silt loam soil to study the effects of bacterial lignin peroxidase ALip-P3 of Streptomyces viridosporus T7A on the rate of organic carbon turnover in soil. ignin peroxidase ALip-P3 appears to affect the short-term tur...

  6. Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea: Sequencing a Myriad of Type Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2014-08-05

    Microbes hold the key to life. They hold the secrets to our past (as the descendants of the earliest forms of life) and the prospects for our future (as we mine their genes for solutions to some of the planet\\'s most pressing problems, from global warming to antibiotic resistance). However, the piecemeal approach that has defined efforts to study microbial genetic diversity for over 20 years and in over 30,000 genome projects risks squandering that promise. These efforts have covered less than 20% of the diversity of the cultured archaeal and bacterial species, which represent just 15% of the overall known prokaryotic diversity. Here we call for the funding of a systematic effort to produce a comprehensive genomic catalog of all cultured Bacteria and Archaea by sequencing, where available, the type strain of each species with a validly published name (currently∼11,000). This effort will provide an unprecedented level of coverage of our planet\\'s genetic diversity, allow for the large-scale discovery of novel genes and functions, and lead to an improved understanding of microbial evolution and function in the environment.

  7. T3_MM: A Markov Model Effectively Classifies Bacterial Type III Secretion Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Yejun Wang; Ming'an Sun; Hongxia Bao; Aaron P. White

    2013-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) play important roles in the interaction between gram-negative bacteria and their hosts. T3SSs function by translocating a group of bacterial effector proteins into the host cytoplasm. The details of specific type III secretion process are yet to be clarified. This research focused on comparing the amino acid composition within the N-terminal 100 amino acids from type III secretion (T3S) signal sequences or non-T3S proteins, specifically whether e...

  8. Comparison of some indigenous bacterial strains of pseudomonas ssp. for production of biosurfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some indigenous pseudomonas spp. were found to have the ability of emulsification, lowering the surface and interfacial tensions, and formation of high reciprocal CMCs. Six strains of Pseudomonas spp were compared for biosurfactant production grown on hexadecane. Supernatant from whole culture broth of these strains could lower surface tension from 65 mN/m to 28-32 nM/m, interfacial tension from 40 nM/m to 1-3 mN/m and had high reciprocal CMCs. When compared for emulsification ability by the culture broth of these strains, the emulsification index (E24) was found to range between 60-65. Biosurfactant containing culture broth of some strains could retain the property up to 80 C, pH of 13 and sodium chloride concentration for 17% which indicates their possible role in some depleted oil well. (author)

  9. In Vivo Selection To Identify Bacterial Strains with Enhanced Ecological Performance in Synbiotic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Krumbeck, Janina A; Maldonado-Gomez, María X.; Martínez, Inés; Frese, Steven A.; Burkey, Thomas E.; Rasineni, Karuna; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Harris, Edward N.; Hutkins, Robert W.; Walter, Jens

    2015-01-01

    One strategy for enhancing the establishment of probiotic bacteria in the human intestinal tract is via the parallel administration of a prebiotic, which is referred to as a synbiotic. Here we present a novel method that allows a rational selection of putative probiotic strains to be used in synbiotic applications: in vivo selection (IVS). This method consists of isolating candidate probiotic strains from fecal samples following enrichment with the respective prebiotic. To test the potential ...

  10. DEGRADATION OF ASPHALTENES BY INDIVIDUAL OIL-UTILIZING AEROBIC BACTERIAL STRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Shkidchenko, Alexander; Akhmetov, Lenar; Gafarov, Arslan

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of biodegradation of asphaltenes at a room temperature by single aerobic strains Microbacterium liquefaciens Ash-10, Pseudomonas putida Ash-4, Rhodococcus erythropolis Sh-3 and Bacillus sp. 2, isolated from soil with chronic petroleum pollution has been shown. All strains possess high oil-utilizing activity and the ability to grow on agar media containing polycondensed hydrocarbons, black oil, alcohol-benzene resins, benzene resins as sole sources of carbon and energy. The str...

  11. Comparative Genomics between Two Xenorhabdus bovienii Strains Highlights Differential Evolutionary Scenarios within an Entomopathogenic Bacterial Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisch, Gaëlle; Ogier, Jean-Claude; Médigue, Claudine; Rouy, Zoé; Vincent, Stéphanie; Tailliez, Patrick; Givaudan, Alain; Gaudriault, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdus are symbionts of soil entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema. This symbiotic association constitutes an insecticidal complex active against a wide range of insect pests. Within Xenorhabdus bovienii species, the X. bovienii CS03 strain (Xb CS03) is nonvirulent when directly injected into lepidopteran insects, and displays a low virulence when associated with its Steinernema symbiont. The genome of Xb CS03 was sequenced and compared with the genome of a virulent strain, X. bovienii SS-2004 (Xb SS-2004). The genome size and content widely differed between the two strains. Indeed, Xb CS03 had a large genome containing several specific loci involved in the inhibition of competitors, including a few NRPS-PKS loci (nonribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases) producing antimicrobial molecules. Consistently, Xb CS03 had a greater antimicrobial activity than Xb SS-2004. The Xb CS03 strain contained more pseudogenes than Xb SS-2004. Decay of genes involved in the host invasion and exploitation (toxins, invasins, or extracellular enzymes) was particularly important in Xb CS03. This may provide an explanation for the nonvirulence of the strain when injected into an insect host. We suggest that Xb CS03 and Xb SS-2004 followed divergent evolutionary scenarios to cope with their peculiar life cycle. The fitness strategy of Xb CS03 would involve competitor inhibition, whereas Xb SS-2004 would quickly and efficiently kill the insect host. Hence, Xenorhabdus strains would have widely divergent host exploitation strategies, which impact their genome structure. PMID:26769959

  12. BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI) FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT BY WILD ANDMUTANT TYPE STRAIN OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ITS IMMOBILIZED FORM

    OpenAIRE

    K Selvam, K Arungandhi, B Vishnupriya, T Shanmuga priya and M Yamuna

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption of chromium was studied by wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, mutant strain, immobilized-wild type and mutant strain. Chromium absorption pattern was observed in all experimental conditions. Hexavalent chromium (VI) was analyzed by diphenyl carbazide method, by oxidizing the trivalent chromium (III). The percentage efficiency of wild type S. cerevisiae and its mutant strain, immobilized-wild type and mutant strain were 94.8%, 98.7%, 97.4% and 100% respectively. S. cerevisi...

  13. Bioremediation of Cd and carbendazim co-contaminated soil by Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii associated with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wendan; Wang, Huan; Li, Tingqiang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jie; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for cadmium (Cd) and carbendazim co-contaminated soil using a hyperaccumulator plant (Sedum alfredii) combined with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Paracoccus sp., Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas sp.). A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions for 180 days with S. alfredii and/or carbendazim-degrading strains grown in soil artificially polluted with two levels of contaminants (low level, 1 mg kg(-1) Cd and 21 mg kg(-1) carbendazim; high level, 6 mg kg(-1) Cd and 117 mg kg(-1) carbendazim). Cd removal efficiencies were 32.3-35.1 % and 7.8-8.2 % for the low and high contaminant level, respectively. Inoculation with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains significantly (P < 0.05) increased Cd removal efficiencies at the low level. The carbendazim removal efficiencies increased by 32.1-42.5 % by the association of S. alfredii with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains, as compared to control, regardless of contaminant level. Cultivation with S. alfredii and inoculation of carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains increased soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activities and microbial diversities by 46.2-121.3 %, 64.2-143.4 %, and 2.4-24.7 %, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis revealed that S. alfredii stimulated the activities of Flavobacteria and Bradyrhizobiaceae. The association of S. alfredii with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains enhanced the degradation of carbendazim by changing microbial activity and community structure in the soil. The results demonstrated that association of S. alfredii with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains is promising for remediation of Cd and carbendazim co-contaminated soil. PMID:22529002

  14. A type VI secretion system is involved in Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoin, Victorien; Barbey, Corinne; Bergeau, Dorian; Latour, Xavier; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Orange, Nicole; Merieau, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are crucial mediators of bacterial interactions with other organisms. Among them, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and appears to inject toxins into competitor bacteria and/or eukaryotic cells. Major human pathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express T6SSs. Bacteria prevent self-intoxication by their own T6SS toxins by producing immunity proteins, which interact with the cognate toxins. We describe here an environmental P. fluorescens strain, MFE01, displaying an uncommon oversecretion of Hcp (hemolysin-coregulated protein) and VgrG (valine-glycine repeat protein G) into the culture medium. These proteins are characteristic components of a functional T6SS. The aim of this study was to attribute a role to this energy-consuming overexpression of the T6SS. The genome of MFE01 contains at least two hcp genes (hcp1 and hcp2), suggesting that there may be two putative T6SS clusters. Phenotypic studies have shown that MFE01 is avirulent against various eukaryotic cell models (amebas, plant or animal cell models), but has antibacterial activity against a wide range of competitor bacteria, including rhizobacteria and clinical bacteria. Depending on the prey cell, mutagenesis of the hcp2 gene in MFE01 abolishes or reduces this antibacterial killing activity. Moreover, the introduction of T6SS immunity proteins from S. marcescens, which is not killed by MFE01, protects E. coli against MFE01 killing. These findings suggest that the protein encoded by hcp2 is involved in the killing activity of MFE01 mediated by effectors of the T6SS targeting the peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate that MFE01 can protect potato tubers against Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which causes tuber soft rot. Pseudomonas fluorescens is often described as a major PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium), and our results suggest that there may be a connection between

  15. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Carriage and Novel Bacterial Population Structure among Children in Urban Kathmandu, Nepal▿

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, E. J.; Lewis, J.; John, T.; Hoe, J. C.; Yu, L.; Dongol, S.; Kelly, D. F.; Griffiths, D. T.; Shah, A; Limbu, B.; Pradhan, R.; Mawas, F.; Shrestha, S.; Thorson, S.; Werno, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a major cause of invasive bacterial infection in children that can be prevented by a vaccine, but there is still uncertainty about its relative importance in Asia. This study investigated the age-specific prevalence of Hib carriage and its molecular epidemiology in carriage and disease in Nepal. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from children in Kathmandu, Nepal, from 3 different settings: a hospital outpatient department (OPD), schools, and children's ...

  16. Structural insight into negative DNA supercoiling by DNA gyrase, a bacterial type 2A DNA topoisomerase

    OpenAIRE

    Papillon, Julie; Ménétret, Jean-François; Batisse, Claire; Hélye, Reynald; Schultz, Patrick; Potier, Noëlle; Lamour, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Type 2A DNA topoisomerases (Topo2A) remodel DNA topology during replication, transcription and chromosome segregation. These multisubunit enzymes catalyze the transport of a double-stranded DNA through a transient break formed in another duplex. The bacterial DNA gyrase, a target for broad-spectrum antibiotics, is the sole Topo2A enzyme able to introduce negative supercoils. We reveal here for the first time the architecture of the full-length Thermus thermophilus DNA gyrase alone and in a cl...

  17. A Type VI Secretion System Is Involved in Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacterial Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Victorien Decoin; Corinne Barbey; Dorian Bergeau; Xavier Latour; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.; Nicole Orange; Annabelle Merieau

    2014-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are crucial mediators of bacterial interactions with other organisms. Among them, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and appears to inject toxins into competitor bacteria and/or eukaryotic cells. Major human pathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express T6SSs. Bacteria prevent self-intoxication by their own T6SS toxins by producing immunity proteins, which interact with the cognate toxins...

  18. Definition of a Bacterial Type IV Secretion Pathway for a DNA Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Cascales, Eric; Christie, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria use conjugation systems, a subfamily of the type IV secretion systems, to transfer DNA to recipient cells. Despite 50 years of research, the architecture and mechanism of action of the channel mediating DNA transfer across the bacterial cell envelope remains obscure. By use of a sensitive, quantifiable assay termed transfer DNA immunoprecipitation (TrIP), we identify contacts between a DNA substrate (T-DNA) and 6 of 12 components of the VirB/D4 conjugation system of the phytopathogen...

  19. Molecular Methods for Assessement the Bacterial Communities from Different Type of Soils in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călina Petruţa CORNEA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are soil bacteria that are capable to form nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. This ability, as well as the diversity of microbial populations in the soil, and in the rhizosphere of host plants and non-host plants is influenced by several factors, including crop management. The aim of this work was the examination of the influence of some factors on indigenous populations of rhizobia in soils under different crop managements. The genetic diversity of rhizobial strains isolated directly from soil (free-living state or from root nodules of three herbaceous perennial legumes was examined. The study was conducted in the experimental fields located in Moara Domnească area (South of Romania and in the Braşov County. The characteristics of brown reddish soil were determined (nitrogen content, organic carbon content and pH. Counting of the rhizobia populations was done by most probable number estimation and by viable plate counts. Bacterial strains were isolated directly from soil samples or from root nodules of different plant species (Trifolium repens, T. pratense and Lotus corniculatus. The characterization of rhizobia was performed by DNA fingerprinting (ERIC PCR and BOX PCR and the bacterial diversity of soils was examined by DGGE technique. The results revealed that the rhizobial diversity was significantly lower in soils under increased fertilization with N. A reduced intraspecific polymorphism was observed in the strains recovered from the same plant species (Trifolium spp., whatever the origin of the plant (Moara Domnească or Braşov but clear differences appeared to be related to the origin of nodules (red or white clover as revealed by DNA fingerprints. However, various amplicon profiles were observed by DGGE when total DNA isolated from soils was examined, the differences being associated with the fertilization level.

  20. Rice bacterial endophytes: isolation of a collection, identification of beneficial strains and microbiome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Iris; Abbruscato, Pamela; Piffanelli, Pietro; Subramoni, Sujatha; Venturi, Vittorio

    2016-06-01

    Endophytes are harmless or beneficial microorganisms that live inside plants between cells. The relationship they develop with the plant as well as their potential role in plant health is at large unexplored and it is believed that the opportunity to find new and interesting endophytes among the large variety of plants is great. Here, we present the isolation and analysis of a large collection of endophytes from one cultivar of rice grown in Italy. A total 1318 putative endophytes were isolated from roots, leaves and stems from rice grown in submerged and dry conditions and a working collection of 229 isolates was created. Among these, several isolates were confirmed to be endophytes and a few displayed the trait of plant growth promotion. A cultivation independent analysis via 16S rDNA amplicons of the bacterial community of the endosphere was also performed providing information on bacterial diversity in the rice endopshere. PMID:27038229

  1. Complete genome sequence of Mesorhizobium opportunistum type strain WSM2075

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Nandesena, Kemanthi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; YatesIII, John R. [Scripps Research Institute, The, La Jolla, CA; Tiwari, Ravi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; O' Hara, Graham [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Ninawi, Mohamed [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Meenakshi, Uma [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Howieson, John [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia

    2013-01-01

    Mesorhizobium opportunistum strain WSM2075T was isolated inWestern Australia in 2000 from root nodules of the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus that had beeninoculated with M. ciceri bv. biserrulae WSM1271. WSM2075T is an aerobic, motile, Gram negative, non-spore-forming rod that has gained the ability to nodulate B. pelecinus but is completely ineffective in N2 fixation with this host. This report reveals thegenome of M. opportunistum strain WSM2075T contains a chromosome ofsize 6,884,444 bp which encodes 6,685 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA-onlyencoding genes. This genome does not contain any plasmids but has a 455.7 kbgenomic island from Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae WSM1271 that has been integrated into a phenylalanine-tRNA gene.

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Strains Isolated From Patients with Community Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Mersin

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Kandemir; Alper Akdag; Ahmet Oner Kurt

    2012-01-01

    AIM: This study objected to determination of distribution of bacterial agents, resistance proportions in community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) in center of Mersin province and objected to regional treatment guide towards to our evidence. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In this study, included patients of pre-diagnosed as UTI based on clinical and laboratory in 11 health care centers between 11/01/2008–07/01/2009. Health care centers were checked for as daily and delivered appropriate ur...

  3. Characterization of bacterial strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae isolated from pepper leaf spot in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa; Gardan, Louis; Samson, Regine

    2000-01-01

    A new bacterial leaf spot disease on pepper seedlings (Capsicum annuum cv. ‘Kurtovska kapija’) was observed in 1995 in Macedonia. Pseudomonas bacteria were isolated, belonging to LOPAT group Ia. Symptoms similar to natural symptoms were reproduced following inoculation on pepper seedlings. Some isolates produced syringomycin and none of them were pathogenic to lilac. In a numerical taxonomic study of five pepper isolates in comparison with 58 pathovars of P. syringa...

  4. Draft Genome Sequences for Two Metal-Reducing Pelosinus fermentans Strains Isolated from a Cr(VI) Contaminated Site and for Type Strain R7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry C [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Pelosinus fermentans 16S rRNA gene sequences have been reported from diverse geographical sites since the recent isolation of the type strain. We present the genome sequence of the P. fermentans type strain R7 (DSM 17108) and genome sequences for two new strains with different abilities to reduce iron, chromate, and uranium.

  5. Culturable bacterial microbiota of Plagiodera versicolora (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and virulence of the isolated strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Meryem; Sevim, Elif; Demir, İsmail; Sevim, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting, 1781) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an important forest pest which damages many trees such as willow, poplar, and hazelnut. In order to find new microbes that can be utilized as a possible microbial control agent against this pest, we investigated the culturable bacterial flora of it and tested the isolated bacteria against P. versicolora larvae and adults. We were able to isolate nine bacteria from larvae and adults. The isolates were characterized using a combination of morphological, biochemical, and physiological methods. Additionally, we sequenced the partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene to verify conventional identification results. Based on characterization studies, the isolates were identified as Staphylococcus sp. Pv1, Rahnella sp. Pv2, Rahnella sp. Pv3, Rahnella sp. Pv4, Rahnella sp. Pv5, Pantoea agglomerans Pv6, Staphylococcus sp. Pv7, Micrococcus luteus Pv8, and Rahnella sp. Pv9. The highest insecticidal activity against larvae and adults was obtained from M. luteus Pv8 with 50 and 40 % mortalities within 10 days after treatment, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activity of the bacterial isolates such as amylase, proteinase, lipase, cellulose, and chitinase was also determined. Consequently, our results show that M. luteus Pv8 might be a good candidate as a possible microbial control agent against P. versicolora and were discussed with respect to biocontrol potential of the bacterial isolates. PMID:23054688

  6. Biodegradation of semiconductor volatile organic compounds by four novel bacterial strains: a kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tien-Tsai; Lin, Chi-Wen; I, Yet-Po; Wu, Chih-Hung

    2012-09-01

    This study isolated pure microorganisms for further bioreactor applications. Four novel strains of Pseudomonas citronellolis YAIP521, Paracoccus versutus HSAC51, Burkholderia sp. HUEL671, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JUPG561 were isolated and tested for biodegradation of isopropyl alcohol (IPA), acetone, ethyl lactate (EL), and propylene glycol mono methyl ether acetate (PGMEA), respectively. The maximum biodegradation rates for IPA, acetone, EL, and PGMEA were 5.27, 3.87, 26.86, and 48.93 mg L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The Haldane kinetic parameters determined for these strains when degrading targeted volatile organic compounds were maximum specific growth rate, half-saturation constant, and inhibition constant. The isolated strains have potential application in various bioreactors. The kinetic parameters obtained in this study provide a basis for further bioreactor experiments. PMID:22322527

  7. The Genomic Sequence of the Oral Pathobiont Strain NI1060 Reveals Unique Strategies for Bacterial Competition and Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Darzi

    Full Text Available Strain NI1060 is an oral bacterium responsible for periodontitis in a murine ligature-induced disease model. To better understand its pathogenicity, we have determined the complete sequence of its 2,553,982 bp genome. Although closely related to Pasteurella pneumotropica, a pneumonia-associated rodent commensal based on its 16S rRNA, the NI1060 genomic content suggests that they are different species thriving on different energy sources via alternative metabolic pathways. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that strain NI1060 is distinct from the genera currently described in the family Pasteurellaceae, and is likely to represent a novel species. In addition, we found putative virulence genes involved in lipooligosaccharide synthesis, adhesins and bacteriotoxic proteins. These genes are potentially important for host adaption and for the induction of dysbiosis through bacterial competition and pathogenicity. Importantly, strain NI1060 strongly stimulates Nod1, an innate immune receptor, but is defective in two peptidoglycan recycling genes due to a frameshift mutation. The in-depth analysis of its genome thus provides critical insights for the development of NI1060 as a prime model system for infectious disease.

  8. [Construction and evaluation of an engineered bacterial strain for producing lipopeptide under anoxic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-long; Zhao, Feng; Shi, Rong-jiu; Ban, Yun-he; Zhou, Ji-dong; Han, Si-qin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Biosurfactant-facilitated oil recovery is one of the most important aspects of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, the biosurfactant production by biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, most of which are aerobes, is severely suppressed due to the in-situ anoxic conditions within oil reservoirs. In this research, we successfully engineered a strain JD-3, which could grow rapidly and produce lipopeptide under anoxic conditions, by protoplast confusion using a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BQ-2 which produces biosurfactant aerobically, and a facultative anaerobic Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DQ-1 as parent strains. The alignment of 16S rDNA sequence (99% similarity) and comparisons of cell colony morphology showed that fusant JD-3 was closer to the parental strain B. amyloliquefaciens BQ-2. The surface tension of culture broth of fusant JD-3, after 36-hour cultivation under anaerobic conditions, decreased from initially 63.0 to 32.5 mN · m(-1). The results of thin layer chromatography and infrared spectrum analysis demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by JD-3 was lipopeptide. The surface-active lipopeptide had a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 90 mg · L(-1) and presented a good ability to emulsify various hydrocarbons such as crude oil, liquid paraffin, and kerosene. Strain JD-3 could utilize peptone as nitrogen source and sucrose, glucose, glycerin or other common organics as carbon sources for anaerobic lipopeptide synthesis. The subculture of fusant JD-3 showed a stable lipopeptide-producing ability even after ten serial passages. All these results indicated that fusant JD-3 holds a great potential to microbially enhance oil recovery under anoxic conditions. PMID:26685621

  9. The strains recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471) can be certified as non-genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Yamada, Masami; Awogi, Takumi; Hakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity. The present article explains the reasons why these tester strains should be classified as non-GMOs. PMID:27350822

  10. Increased hydrogen production by Escherichia coli strain HD701 in comparison with the wild-type parent strain MC4100

    OpenAIRE

    Penfold, DW; Forster, CF; Macaskie, LE

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen production by Escherichia coli is mediated by the formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex. E. coli strain HD701 cannot synthesize the FHL complex repressor, Hyc A. Consequently, it has an up-regulated FHL system and can, therefore, evolve hydrogen at a greater rate than its parental wild type, E. coli MC4100. Resting cells of E. coli strain HD701 and MC4100 were set up in batch mode in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to decouple growth from hydrogen production at the expense of sugar ...

  11. Characterization of bacterial pectinolytic strains involved in the water retting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; León, Alicia Gordillo; Perito, Brunella; Mastromei, Giorgio

    2003-09-01

    Pectinolytic microorganisms involved in the water retting process were characterized. Cultivable mesophilic anaerobic and aerobic bacteria were isolated from unretted and water-retted material. A total of 104 anaerobic and 23 aerobic pectinolytic strains were identified. Polygalacturonase activity was measured in the supernatant of cell cultures; 24 anaerobic and nine aerobic isolates showed an enzymatic activity higher than the reference strains Clostridium felsineum and Bacillus subtilis respectively. We performed the first genotypic characterization of the retting microflora by a 16S amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Anaerobic isolates were divided into five different groups, and the aerobic isolates were clustered into three groups. 84.6% of the anaerobic and 82.6% of the aerobic isolates consisted of two main haplotypes. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined for 12 strains, representative of each haplotype. All anaerobic strains were assigned to the Clostridium genus, whereas the aerobic isolates were assigned to either the Bacillus or the Paenibacillus genus. Anaerobic isolates with high polygalacturonase (PG) activity belong to two clearly distinct phylogenetic clusters related to C. acetobutylicum-C. felsineum and C. saccharobutylicum species. Aerobic isolates with high PG activity belong to two clearly distinct phylogenetic clusters related to B. subtilisT and B. pumilusT. PMID:12919408

  12. Complete genome sequence of Methanospirillum hungatei type strain JF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsalus, Robert; Cook, Lauren E.; Crable, Bryan R.; Rohlin, Lars; McDonald, Erin; Mouttaki, Housna; Sieber, Jessica R.; Poweleit, Nicole; Zhou, Hong; Lapidus, Alla; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Land, Miriam L.; Gilna, Paul; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyripides, Nikos; Culley, David E.; McInerney, Michael J.

    2016-02-11

    Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1 is a hydrogenotrophic methanogen that belongs to the order Methanomicrobiales. Members of the genus Methanospirillum are commonly encountered in syntrophic association with fermenting microorganisms. M. hungatei serves as the model partner organism in laboratory cocultures that syntrophically oxidize fatty and aromatic acids. When grown syntrophically, M. hungatei rapidly uses the hydrogen or formate produced by its syntrophic partner and maintains the concentration of these metabolites at very low levels so that the degradation of the syntrophic substrate is thermodynamically favorable.

  13. Effects of bacterial cells and two types of extracellular polymers on bioclogging of sand columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Xin, Jia; Sun, Zhaoyue; Wang, Leyun

    2016-04-01

    Microbially induced reductions in the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, of natural porous media, conventionally called bioclogging, occurs frequently in natural and engineered subsurface systems. Bioclogging can affect artificial groundwater recharge, in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers, or permeable reactive barriers. In this study, we designed a series of percolation experiments to simulate the growth and metabolism of bacteria in sand columns. The experimental results showed that the bacterial cell amount gradually increased to a maximum of 8.91 log10 CFU/g sand at 144 h during the bioclogging process, followed by a decrease to 7.89 log10 CFU/g sand until 336 h. The same variation pattern was found for the concentration of tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS), which had a peak value of 220.76 μg/g sand at 144 h. In the same experiments, the concentration of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) increased sharply from 54.45 to 575.57 μg/g sand in 192 h, followed by a slight decline to 505.04 μg/g sand. The increase of the bacterial cell amount along with the other two concentrations could reduce the Ks of porous media, but their relative contributions varied to a large degree during different percolation stages. At the beginning of the tests (e.g., 48 h before), bacterial cells were likely responsible for the Ks reduction of porous media because no increase was found for the other two concentrations. With the accumulation of cells and EPS production from 48 to 144 h, both were important for the reduction of Ks. However, in the late period of percolation tests from 144 to 192 h, LB-EPS was probably responsible for the further reduction of Ks, as the bacterial cell amount and TB-EPS concentration decreased. Quantitative contributions of bacterial cell amount and the two types of extracellular polymers to Ks reductions were also evaluated.

  14. The mucosal expression signatures of g-type lysozyme in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) following bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengbin; Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Shun; Song, Lin; Ren, Yichao; Dong, Xiaoyu; Su, Baofeng; Li, Chao

    2016-07-01

    The mucosal surfaces constitute the first line of host defense against infection, and also serve as the dynamic interfaces that simultaneously mediate a diverse array of critical physiological processes, while in constantly contact with a wide range of pathogens. The lysozymes are considered as key components for innate immune response to pathogen infection with their strong antibacterial activities. But their activities in mucosal immune responses were always overlooked, especially for g-type lysozymes, whose expression patterns in mucosal tissues following bacterial challenge are still limited. Towards to this end, here, we characterized the g-type lysozymes, Lyg1 and Lyg2 in turbot, and determined their expression patterns in mucosal barriers following different bacterial infection. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the turbot g-type lysozyme genes showed the closest relationship to Cynoglossus semilaevis. The two lysozyme genes showed different expression patterns following challenge. Lyg2 was significantly up-regulated in mucosal tissues following Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae challenge, while Lyg1 showed a general trend of down-regulation. The significant mucosal expression signatures of g-type lysozyme genes indicated their key roles to prevent pathogen attachment and entry in the first line of host defense system. Further functional studies should be carried out to better characterize the availability of utilization of g-type lysozyme to increase the disease resistance in the mucosal surfaces and facilitate the disease resistant breeding selection. PMID:27189917

  15. Influence of silver additions to type 316 stainless steels on bacterial inhibition, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tseng, I-Sheng; Møller, Per;

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is a major concern in many areas. In this study, silver was added to type 316 stainless steels in order to obtain an expected bacteria inhibiting property to reduce the occurrence of bacterial contamination. Silver-bearing 316 stainless steels were prepared by vacuum melti...

  16. In Vitro Antibacterial Spectrum of Sodium Selenite against Selected Human Pathogenic Bacterial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Firoz Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to predict the antibacterial properties of sodium selenite against selected human pathogens. A group of six human bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella planticola were utilized for screening. The spectrum of activity was qualified based on zone of inhibition. Our study demonstrated that sodium selenite exhibits a strong spectrum of activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella planticola. The spectrum of activity was compared with standard ciprofloxacin disc (5 μg/disc and observed to have satisfactory effect.

  17. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Norwegian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Ojeniyi, B; Høiby, N;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Norwegian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in order to see whether cross-infection might have occurred. METHODS: Isolates from 60 patients were collected during the years 1994-98, and typed by pulsed...... between cystic fibrosis patients has occurred....

  18. Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Scheuner, Carmen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacte- rium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was iso- lated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be pub- lished. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  19. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of the Type Strain Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Ismael L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus genus have been extensively studied because of their ability to produce enzymes with high biotechnological value. Here, we report the draft of the whole-genome sequence of the type strain Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719, an alkali-tolerant strain. PMID:27417833

  20. Rep-PCR typing of Staphylococcus spp. strains in meat paste production line and identification of their origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manga

    2015-05-01

    .3%. As shown by our experimental results, rep-PCR with the (GTG5 primer is an applicable tool for typing of bacterial strains and may be used for identifying the source of contamination. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Synergistic and Additive Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Biological Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandorieiro, Sara; de Camargo, Larissa C.; Lancheros, Cesar A. C.; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F.; Nakamura, Celso V.; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; Andrade, Célia G. T. J.; Duran, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP), produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all 17 strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 μM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min), while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA) cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two), which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds showed very low

  2. Synergistic and Additive Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Biological Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandorieiro, Sara; de Camargo, Larissa C; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F; Nakamura, Celso V; de Oliveira, Admilton G; Andrade, Célia G T J; Duran, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K T

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP), produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all 17 strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 μM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min), while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA) cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two), which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds showed very low

  3. Synergistic and additive effect of oregano essential oil and biological silver nanoparticles against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eScandorieiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare essential oil (OEO and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP, produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all seventeen strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 µM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min, while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two, which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds

  4. COLONIZATION OF VIGNA RADIATA ROOTS BY CHROMIUM RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS OF OCHROBACTRUM INTERMEDIUM, BACILLUS CEREUS AND BREVIBA CTERIUM SP.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Faisal; SHAHIDA Hasnain

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with colonization potential of plant growth promoting bacterial strains ( Ochrobactrum intermedium, Bacillus cereus and Brevibacterium sp. ) on Vigna radiata roots. The roots were heavily colonized with O. intermedium and B. cereus as compared to Brevibacterium sp. O. intermedium mainly colonized rhizoplane while B. cereus occurred both on the rhizoplane and near root zone. O. intermedium and B. cereus were found to be present both on the rhizoplane and near root zone, while Brevibacterium only in the rhizosphere in the form of groups. The cells of B. cereus were found more in the sites where root exudates were existed. From the above results it was observed that the number of O. intermedium cells were large at root exudate site. Fig 2, Tab 1, Ref 15

  5. BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT BY WILD ANDMUTANT TYPE STRAIN OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ITS IMMOBILIZED FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Selvam, K Arungandhi, B Vishnupriya, T Shanmuga priya and M Yamuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of chromium was studied by wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, mutant strain, immobilized-wild type and mutant strain. Chromium absorption pattern was observed in all experimental conditions. Hexavalent chromium (VI was analyzed by diphenyl carbazide method, by oxidizing the trivalent chromium (III. The percentage efficiency of wild type S. cerevisiae and its mutant strain, immobilized-wild type and mutant strain were 94.8%, 98.7%, 97.4% and 100% respectively. S. cerevisiae mutant strain and their immobilized form was found to be effective in biosorption of chromium (VI than the wild type forms.

  6. Isolation and Screening of Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacterial Strains for Bioremediation of Petroleum Pollution in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Al Disi, Zulfa Ali

    2013-01-01

    Pollution, due to activities related to the oil industry, represents a serious threat to the natural environment. The application of biotechnological methods provides much safer and sustainable alternatives for bioremediation of polluted areas, using microorganisms. Several techniques for the isolation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria have been investigated and published worldwide. A wide range of bilogical activities was shown. However, local hydrocarbon degrading strains and the factors af...

  7. Gauge factors of fibre Bragg grating strain sensors in different types of optical fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauge factors of fibre Bragg grating (FBG)-based strain sensors that had been inscribed into three different types of optical fibres, which differ in core diameters and doping concentrations, were determined at room temperature with high accuracy. Repeated measurements were carried out with several samples of each type of fibre to allow statistical evaluations. For each type, the gauge factors were measured in two configurations: when the bare fibres were glued on a specimen at the location of the FBG and when they were vertically suspended and not bonded to any structure at the location of the FBG. By combining the results of both configurations, the strain transfer ratio of the gluing process and the strain-optic coefficient, peff, of the different types of fibres were determined. The strain-optic coefficient was found to vary up to 1.5% for the different types of optical fibres. The strain transfer ratio was obtained to be close to unity (>99%), showing the high quality of the gluing technique employed. The investigations demonstrate that highly accurate strain sensing is possible with fibre-optic strain sensors. The results are important for the development of accurate and reliable attaching techniques for coated sensor fibres and fibre-optic sensor patches. (paper)

  8. Towards a tolerance toolkit: Gene expression signatures enabling the emergence of resistant bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Keesha; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    Microbial pathogens are able to rapidly acquire tolerance to chemical toxins. Developing next-generation antibiotics that impede the emergence of resistance will help avoid a world-wide health crisis. Conversely, the ability to induce rapid tolerance gains could lead to high-yielding strains for sustainable production of biofuels and commodity chemicals. Achieving these goals requires an understanding of the general mechanisms allowing microbes to become resistant to diverse toxins. We apply top-down and bottom-up methodologies to identify biological network changes leading to adaptation and tolerance. Using a top-down approach, we perform evolution experiments to isolate resistant strains, collect samples for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis, and use the omics data to inform mathematical gene regulatory models. Using a bottom-up approach, we build and test synthetic genetic devices that enable increased or decreased expression of selected genes. Unique patterns in gene expression are identified in cultures actively gaining resistance, especially in pathways known to be involved with stress response, efflux, and mutagenesis. Genes correlated with tolerance could potentially allow the design of resistance-free antibiotics or robust chemical production strains.

  9. Job strain as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis of 124,808 men and women. : Job Strain and Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Solja ,; Fransson, Eleonor ,; Heikkilä, Katriina; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress at work, defined as "job strain," is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of lifestyle factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We extracted individual-level data for 124,808 diabetes-free ...

  10. Comparison of Biostimulation versus Bioaugmentation with Bacterial Strain PM1 for Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated with Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Amanda E.; Hristova, Krassimira; Wood, Isaac; Mackay, Doug M.; Lory, Ernie; Lorenzana, Dale; Scow, Kate M.

    2004-01-01

    Widespread contamination of groundwater by methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has triggered the exploration of different technologies for in situ removal of the pollutant, including biostimulation of naturally occurring microbial communities or bioaugmentation with specific microbial strains known to biodegrade the oxygenate. After laboratory studies revealed that bacterial strain PM1 rapidly and completely biodegraded MTBE in groundwater sediments, the organism was tested in an in situ field...

  11. Identification of an Endophytic Antifungal Bacterial Strain Isolated from the Rubber Tree and Its Application in the Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Deguan Tan; Lili Fu; Bingyin Han; Xuepiao Sun; Peng Zheng; Jiaming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. Effective control methods are still under exploring. The endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as Serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. This strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana Fusarium disease. Visual agar plate assay showed that ITBB B5-1 restricted the mycelial grow...

  12. Galleria mellonella model identifies highly virulent strains among all major molecular types of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the number of cases due to C. gattii is increasing, affecting mainly immunocompetent hosts. C. gattii is divided into four major molecular types, VGI to VGIV, which differ in their host range, epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. Besides studies on the Vancouver Island outbreak strains, which showed that the subtype VGIIa is highly virulent compared to the subtype VGIIb, little is known about the virulence of the other major molecular types. To elucidate the virulence potential of the major molecular types of C. gattii, Galleria mellonella larvae were inoculated with ten globally selected strains per molecular type. Survival rates were recorded and known virulence factors were studied. One VGII, one VGIII and one VGIV strain were more virulent (p 0.05, 21 (five VGI, five VGII, four VGIII and seven VGIV were less virulent (p <0.05 while one strain of each molecular type were avirulent. Cell and capsule size of all strains increased markedly during larvae infection (p <0.001. No differences in growth rate at 37°C were observed. Melanin synthesis was directly related with the level of virulence: more virulent strains produced more melanin than less virulent strains (p <0.05. The results indicate that all C. gattii major molecular types exhibit a range of virulence, with some strains having the potential to be more virulent. The study highlights the necessity to further investigate the genetic background of more and less virulent strains in order to recognize critical features, other than the known virulence factors (capsule, melanin and growth at mammalian body temperature, that maybe crucial for the development and progression of cryptococcosis.

  13. Genome sequence of SG33 strain and recombination between wild-type and vaccine myxoma viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus-Bouclainville, Christelle; Gretillat, Magalie; Py, Robert; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Guérin, Jean Luc; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2011-04-01

    Myxomatosis in Europe is the result of the release of a South America strain of myxoma virus in 1952. Several attenuated strains with origins in South America or California have since been used as vaccines in the rabbit industry. We sequenced the genome of the SG33 myxoma virus vaccine strain and compared it with those of other myxoma virus strains. We show that SG33 genome carries a large deletion in its right end. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that the virus isolate from which SG33 is derived results from an in vivo recombination between a wild-type South America (Lausanne) strain and a California MSD-derived strain. These findings raise questions about the use of insufficiently attenuated virus in vaccination. PMID:21470452

  14. Regulation of oxygen vacancy types on SnO2 (110) surface by external strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. H.; Min, Y. M.; Liu, X. X.; Ding, J. Q.; Guo, J. H.; Hu, F. R.; Liu, L. Z.

    2016-05-01

    In tin dioxide nanostructures, oxygen vacancies (OVs) play an important role in their optical properties and thus regulation of both OV concentration and type via external strain is crucial to exploration of more applications. First-principle calculations of SnO2 (110) surface disclose that asymmetric deformations induced by external strain not only lead to its intrinsic surface elastic changes, but also result in different OV formation energy. In the absence of external strain, the energetically favorable oxygen vacancies(EFOV) appear in the bridging site of second layer. When -3.5% external strain is applied along y direction, the EFOV moves into plane site. This can be ascribed that the compressed deformation gives rise to redistribution of electronic wave function near OVs, therefore, formation of newly bond structures. Our results suggest that different type OVs in SnO2 surface can be controlled by strain engineering.

  15. Detection of traces of tetracyclines from fish with a bioluminescent sensor strain incorporating bacterial luciferase reporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellinen, Teijo; Bylund, Göran; Virta, Marko; Niemi, Anneli; Karp, Matti

    2002-08-14

    Bioluminescent Escherichia coli K-12 strain for the specific detection of the tetracycline family of antimicrobial agents was optimized to work with fish samples. The biosensing strain contains a plasmid incorporating the bacterial luciferase operon of Photorhabdus luminescens under the control of the tetracycline responsive element from transposon Tn10 (Korpela et al. Anal. Chem. 1998, 70, 4457-4462). The extraction procedure of oxytetracycline from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tissue was optimized. There was neither need for centrifugation of homogenized tissue nor use of organic solvents. The lowest levels of detection of tetracycline and oxytetracycline from spiked fish tissue were 20 and 50 microg/kg, respectively, in a 2-h assay. The optimized assay protocol was tested with fish that were given a single oral dose of high and low concentrations of oxytetracycline. The assay was able to detect oxytetracycline residues below the European Union maximum residue limits, and the results correlated well with those obtained by conventional HPLC (R = 0.81). PMID:12166964

  16. Bioconversion of styrene to poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) by the new bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida NBUS12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Chen, Chia-Lung; Ge, Liya; Li, Ling; Tan, Swee Ngin; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Styrene is a toxic pollutant commonly found in waste effluents from plastic processing industries. We herein identified and characterized microorganisms for bioconversion of the organic eco-pollutant styrene into a valuable biopolymer medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (mcl-PHA). Twelve newly-isolated styrene-degrading Pseudomonads were obtained and partial phaC genes were detected by PCR in these isolates. These isolates assimilated styrene to produce mcl-PHA, forming PHA contents between 0.05±0.00 and 23.10±3.25% cell dry mass (% CDM). The best-performing isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida NBUS12. A genetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phaZ genes revealed P. putida NBUS12 as a genetically-distinct strain from existing phenotypically-similar bacterial strains. This bacterium achieved a final biomass of 1.28±0.10 g L(-1) and PHA content of 32.49±2.40% CDM. The extracted polymer was mainly comprised of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (C6 ), 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C8 ), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10 ), 3-hydroxydodecanoate (C12 ), and 3-hydroxytetradecanoate (C14 ) monomers at a ratio of 2:42:1257:17:1. These results collectively suggested that P. putida NBUS12 is a promising candidate for the biotechnological conversion of styrene into mcl-PHA. PMID:25740622

  17. Genome sequencing and systems biology analysis of a lipase-producing bacterial strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Li, D D; Zhang, Y Z; Yuan, Y Z; Geng, H; Xiong, L; Liu, D L

    2016-01-01

    Lipase-producing bacteria are naturally-occurring, industrially-relevant microorganisms that produce lipases, which can be used to synthesize biodiesel from waste oils. The efficiency of lipase expression varies between various microbial strains. Therefore, strains that can produce lipases with high efficiency must be screened, and the conditions of lipase metabolism and optimization of the production process in a given environment must be thoroughly studied. A high efficiency lipase-producing strain was isolated from the sediments of Jinsha River, identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Serratia marcescens, and designated as HS-L5. A schematic diagram of the genome sequence was constructed by high-throughput genome sequencing. A series of genes related to lipid degradation were identified by functional gene annotation through sequence homology analysis. A genome-scale metabolic model of HS-ML5 was constructed using systems biology techniques. The model consisted of 1722 genes and 1567 metabolic reactions. The topological graph of the genome-scale metabolic model was compared to that of conventional metabolic pathways using a visualization software and KEGG database. The basic components and boundaries of the tributyrin degradation subnetwork were determined, and its flux balance analyzed using Matlab and COBRA Toolbox to simulate the effects of different conditions on the catalytic efficiency of lipases produced by HS-ML5. We proved that the catalytic activity of microbial lipases was closely related to the carbon metabolic pathway. As production and catalytic efficiency of lipases varied greatly with the environment, the catalytic efficiency and environmental adaptability of microbial lipases can be improved by proper control of the production conditions. PMID:27050954

  18. Isolation and identification of a type strain bacteria with the highest ability to produce organophosphorus acid anhidrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Latifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 5 Oct, 2008; Accepted 14 Feb, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: In Iran, Organ phosphorus pesticides such as chloropyrifos and diazinon are widely used in agriculture. These compounds inhibit activity of cholinesterase in nearly irreversible manner resulting in malfunction of nerve impulse transmission. This result in humans can produce illness or even death.Therefore, the present study aims to isolate various bacterial strains in specified contaminated regions. We selected one of the isolates that contain the highest OP-hydrolyzing capability for using such strain, in decontaminating environmentally harmful OP residues.Materials and methods: In this study, vast waters from chemical factories and contaminated agricultural soil samples were used for isolation of several bacterial strains that contain OPAA enzyme are capable of utilizing chloropyrifos and diazinon as a source of carbon and phosphorus by selective enrichment on mineral salt medium (MSM, which contains chloropyrifos or diazinon. One strain was selected for analysis of degradation ability with growth studies and HPLC technique and characterization by Bergey, s manual.Results: From vast water and soil, ten bacterial strains were isolated using chloropyrifos and diazinon as source of carbon and phosphorus. One of them named IHU strain4; grows most rapidly and luxuriously and displays the highest organophosphate-hydrolyzing capability. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterial isolate was identified as a member of the genus pseudomonas.Conclusion: From these findings, it can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain is able to utilize Organ phosphorus pesticides as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Utilization of these compounds by soil microorganisms is a crucial phenomenon by which these compounds are removed from the environment, thus, preventing environmental pollution.Results from the present study suggest that the isolated

  19. The host type Ⅰ interferon response to viral and bacterial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea K. PERRY; Gang CHEN; Dahai ZHENG; Hong TANG; Genhong CHENG

    2005-01-01

    Type Ⅰ interferons (IFN) are well studied cytokines with anti-viral and immune-modulating functions. Type Ⅰ IFNs are produced following viral infections, but until recently, the mechanisms of viral recognition leading to IFN production were largely unknown. Toll like receptors (TLRs) have emerged as key transducers of type Ⅰ IFN during viral infections by recognizing various viral components. Furthermore, much progress has been made in defining the signaling pathways downstream of TLRs for type Ⅰ IFN production. TLR7 and TLR9 have become apparent as universally important in inducing type Ⅰ IFN during infection with most viruses, particularly by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. New intracellular viral pattern recognition receptors leading to type Ⅰ IFN production have been identified. Many bacteria can also induce the up-regulation of these cytokines. Interestingly, recent studies have found a detrimental effect on host cells if type Ⅰ IFN is produced during infection with the intracellular gram-positive bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. This review will discuss the recent advances made in defining the signaling pathways leading to type Ⅰ IFN production.

  20. Type I interferon protects against pneumococcal invasive disease by inhibiting bacterial transmigration across the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S LeMessurier

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Type I interferon (IFN-I, whose contribution to antiviral and intracellular bacterial immunity is well established, is also elicited during pneumococcal infection, yet its functional significance is not well defined. Here, we show that IFN-I plays an important role in the host defense against pneumococci by counteracting the transmigration of bacteria from the lung to the blood. Mice that lack the type I interferon receptor (Ifnar1 (-/- or mice that were treated with a neutralizing antibody against the type I interferon receptor, exhibited enhanced development of bacteremia following intranasal pneumococcal infection, while maintaining comparable bacterial numbers in the lung. In turn, treatment of mice with IFNβ or IFN-I-inducing synthetic double stranded RNA (poly(I:C, dramatically reduced the development of bacteremia following intranasal infection with S. pneumoniae. IFNβ treatment led to upregulation of tight junction proteins and downregulation of the pneumococcal uptake receptor, platelet activating factor receptor (PAF receptor. In accordance with these findings, IFN-I reduced pneumococcal cell invasion and transmigration across epithelial and endothelial layers, and Ifnar1 (-/- mice showed overall enhanced lung permeability. As such, our data identify IFN-I as an important component of the host immune defense that regulates two possible mechanisms involved in pneumococcal invasion, i.e. PAF receptor-mediated transcytosis and tight junction-dependent pericellular migration, ultimately limiting progression from a site-restricted lung infection to invasive, lethal disease.

  1. Application of Routine Diagnostic Procedure, VITEK 2 Compact, MALDI-TOF MS, and PCR Assays in Identification Procedure of Bacterial Strain with Ambiguous Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książczyk, Marta; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Dudek, Bartłomiej; Korzekwa, Kamila; Tobiasz, Anna; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Paluch, Emil; Wieliczko, Alina; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2016-05-01

    In diagnostic microbiology as well as in microbiological research, the identification of a microorganism is a crucial and decisive stage. A broad choice of methods is available, based on both phenotypic and molecular properties of microbes. The aim of this study was to compare the application of phenotypic and molecular tools in bacterial identification on the example of Gram-negative intestine rod with an ambiguous phenotype. Different methods of identification procedure, which based on various properties of bacteria, were applied, e.g., microscopic observation of single-bacterial cells, macroscopic observation of bacterial colonies morphology, the automated system of microorganism identification (biochemical tests), the mass spectrometry method (analysis of bacterial proteome), and genetic analysis with PCR reactions. The obtained results revealed discrepancies in the identification of the tested bacterial strain with an atypical phenotype: mucous morphology of colonies, not characteristic for either E. coli and Citrobacter spp., mass spectrometry analysis of proteome initially assigned the tested strain to Citrobacter genus (C. freundii) and biochemical profiles pointed to Escherichia coli. A decisive method in the current study was genetic analysis with PCR reactions which identified conserved genetic sequences highly specific to E. coli species in the genome of the tested strain. PMID:26804795

  2. Structure of the Type IVa Major Pilin from the Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Patrick N.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2013-10-11

    Several species of bacteria are capable of reducing insoluble metal oxides as well as other extracellular electron acceptors. These bacteria play a critical role in the cycling of minerals in subsurface environments, sediments, and groundwater. In some species of bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, the transport of electrons is facilitated by filamentous fibers that are referred to as bacterial nanowires. These nanowires belong to the type IVa family of pilin proteins and are mainly comprised of one subunit protein, PilA. Here, we report the high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the PilA protein from G. sulfurreducens determined in detergent micelles. The protein is over 85% α-helical and exhibits similar architecture to the N-terminal regions of other non-conductive type IVa pilins. The detergent micelle interacts with the first 21 amino acids of the protein, indicating that this region likely associates with the bacterial inner membrane prior to fiber formation. A model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus fiber is proposed based on docking of this structure into the fiber model of the type IVa pilin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This model provides insight into the organization of aromatic amino acids that are important for electrical conduction.

  3. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as "stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis" were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to "xenobiotics biodegradation" and "various types of N-glycan biosynthesis" were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  4. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Jin; Jong Hyun Ham; Rosemary Hage; Wanying Zhao; Jaricelis Soto-Hernández; Sang Yeol Lee; Seung-Mann Paek; Min Gab Kim; Charles Boone; Coplin, David L.; David Mackey

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, w...

  5. Human tandem-repeat-type galectins bind bacterial non-βGal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knirel, Yu A.; Gabius, H.-J.; Blixt, Klas Ola;

    2014-01-01

    ), prompted us to establish an array with bacterial polysaccharides. We addressed the question whether sugar determinants other than β-galactosides may be docking sites, using human galectins-4, -8, and -9. Positive controls with histo-blood group ABH-epitopes and the E. coli 086 polysaccharide ascertained......Galectins are multifunctional effectors, for example acting as regulators of cell growth via protein-glycan interactions. The observation of capacity to kill bacteria for two tandem-repeat-type galectins, which target histo-blood epitopes toward this end (Stowell et al. Nat. Med. 16:295-301, 2010...

  6. Induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity by the T cell line specific to bacterial peptidoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A T cell line specific for the chemically well-defined peptidoglycan of bacterial cell wall, disaccharide tetrapeptide, was established from Lewis rats immunized with the antigen covalently linked to the autologous rat serum albumin. The antigen specificity was examined with various analogues or derivatives of the peptidoglycan. The cell line was reactive to analogues with the COOH-terminal D-amino acid, but least reactive to those with L-amino acid as COOH terminus. Transferring of the T cell line into X-irradiated normal Lewis rats induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in an antigen specific manner

  7. Growth kinetics of a diesel-degrading bacterial strain from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahalan, S F A; Yunus, I; Johari, W L W; Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2014-03-01

    A diesel-degrading bacterium was isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Selangor, Malaysia. The isolate was tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain DRY12 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Optimum growth occurred from 3 to 5% diesel and the strain was able to tolerate as high as 8% diesel. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between pH 7.5 to 8.0. The isolate exhibited optimal growth in between 30 and 35 degrees C. The best nitrogen source was potassium nitrate (between 0.6 and 0.9% (w/v)) followed by ammonium chloride, sodium nitrite and ammonium sulphate in descending order. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 10 days of incubation. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibiting growth with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate- micromax was 0.039 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant Ks and inhibition constant Ki, were 0.387% and 4.46%, respectively. MATH assays showed that 75% of the bacterium was found in the hexadecane phase indicating that the bacterium was hydrophobic. The characteristics of this bacterium make it useful for bioremediation works in the Tropics. PMID:24665769

  8. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26909087

  9. Rhizospheric bacterial strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a colonizes plant tissues and enhances Cd, Zn, Cu phytoextraction by white mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ePłociniczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants.The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%, Zn (86% and Cu (39% in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Paracoccus sp. MKU1, a New Bacterial Strain Isolated from an Industrial Effluent with Potential for Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Kamaldeen Nasrin; Sridhar, Jayavel; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccus sp. MKU1, a novel dimethylformamide degrading bacterial strain was originally isolated from an industrial effluent, Tirupur region, Tamil Nadu, India. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Paracoccus sp. MKU1, which could provide the genetic insights on its evolution and application of this versatile bacterium for effective degradation of xenobiotics and thus in bioremediation.

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol and water extracts of adiantum capillus veneris and tagetes patula against multidrug resistant bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study was to screen the antimicrobial activities of extracts of leaves and stems of Adiantum capillus veneris and Tagetes patula against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Extracts from the leaves and stems of these plants were extracted with methanol and water and tested for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method against ten MDR bacterial strains i.e., Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Providencia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae. Leaves methanol extract (LME) of Adiantum showed maximum Zone of Inhibition (ZI) against Providencia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhi, whereas its stem methanol extract (SME) was very active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. Similarly LME of Tagetes showed highest ZI against Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae while SME showed highest ZI to Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Providencia, Shigella and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Leaves water extract (LWE) of Adiantum was very active against all ten bacterial strains while its stem water extract (SWE) showed maximum ZI against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, Shigella, Proteus vulgaris and Providencia. LWE of Tagetes was only active against Vibrio cholerae whereas SWE was very active against Salmonella typhi and active against P. vulgaris, Citrobacter freundii and Vibrio cholerae. It was concluded from this study that extracts of both Adiantum and Tagetes have prominent activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and needs further studies for utmost benefits. (author)

  12. Complete genome sequence of Arcobacter nitrofigilis type strain (CIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2010-01-01

    Arcobacter nitrofigilis (McClung et al. 1983) Vandamme et al. 1991 is the type species of the genus Arcobacter in the epsilonproteobacterial family Campylobacteraceae. The species was first described in 1983 as Campylobacter nitrofigilis [1] after its detection as a free-living, nitrogen-fixing Campylobacter species associated with Spartina alterniflora Loisel. roots [2]. It is of phylogenetic interest because of its lifestyle as a symbiotic organism in a marine environment in contrast to many other Arcobacter species which are associated with warm-blooded animals and tend to be pathogenic. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a type stain of the genus Arcobacter. The 3,192,235 bp genome with its 3,154 protein-coding and 70 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius type strain (104-IAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Sikorski, Johannes; Lapidus, Alla; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, Alex; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina

    2010-01-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (Darland and Brock 1971) is the type species of the larger of the two genera in the bacillal family ‘Alicyclobacillaceae’. A. acidocaldarius is a free-living and non-pathogenic organism, but may also be associated with food and fruit spoilage. Due to its acidophilic nature, several enzymes from this species have since long been subjected to detailed molecular and biochemical studies. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete gen...

  14. Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N- in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study bacterial azoreductases. The construction of the recombinant protein by cloning and the overexpression of azoreductase is described. The mechanisms and function of bacterial azoreductases can be studied by other molecular techniques discussed in this review, such as RT-PCR, southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, zymography, and muta-genesis in order to understand bacterial azoreductase properties, function and application. In addition, understanding the regulation of azoreductase gene expression will lead to the systematic use of gene manipulation in bacterial strains for new strategies in future waste remediation technologies.

  15. Biofilm formation as a function of adhesin, growth medium, substratum and strain type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Witsø, Ingun Lund; Klemm, Per

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm formation is involved in the majority of bacterial infections. Comparing six Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates revealed significant differences in biofilm formation depending on the growth medium. Fimbriae are known to be involved in biofilm formation, and type 1, F1C and...

  16. Complete genome sequence of Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans type strain (ICPT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clum, Alicia; Nolan, Matt; Lang, Elke; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Goker, Markus; Spring, Stefan; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lapidus, Alla

    2009-05-20

    Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans (Clark and Norris 1996) is the sole and type species of the genus, which until recently was the only genus within the actinobacterial family Acidimicrobiaceae and in the order Acidomicrobiales. Rapid oxidation of iron pyrite during autotrophic growth in the absence of an enhanced CO2 concentration is characteristic for A. ferrooxidans. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the order Acidomicrobiales, and the 2,158,157 bp long single replicon genome with its 2038 protein coding and 54 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. Strain typing methods and molecular epidemiology of Pneumocystis pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beard, Charles Ben; Roux, Patricia; Nevez, Gilles;

    2004-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) caused by the opportunistic fungal agent Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly P. carinii) continues to cause illness and death in HIV-infected patients. In the absence of a culture system to isolate and maintain live organisms, efforts to type and characterize the organism...... have relied on polymerase chain reaction-based approaches. Studies using these methods have improved understanding of PCP epidemiology, shedding light on sources of infection, transmission patterns, and potential emergence of antimicrobial resistance. One concern, however, is the lack of guidance...

  18. Thermal Output of WK-Type Strain Gauges on Various Materials at Cryogenic and Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowski, Matthew K.; Rivers, H. Kevin; Smith, Russell W.

    1998-01-01

    Strain gage apparent strain (thermal output) is one of the largest sources of error associated with the measurement of strain when temperatures and mechanical loads are varied. In this paper, experimentally determined apparent strains of WK-type strain gages, installed on both metallic and composite-laminate materials of various lay-ups and resin systems for temperatures ranging from -450 F to 230 F are presented. For the composite materials apparent strain in both the 0 ply orientation angle and the 90 ply orientation angle were measured. Metal specimens tested included: aluminum-lithium alloy (Al-LI 2195-T87), aluminum alloy (Al 2219-T87), and titanium alloy. Composite materials tested include: graphite-toughened-epoxy (IM7/997- 2), graphite-bismaleimide (IM7/5260), and graphite-K3 (IM7/K3B). The experimentally determined apparent strain data are curve fit with a fourth-order polynomial for each of the materials studied. The apparent strain data and the polynomials that are fit to the data are compared with those produced by the strain gage manufacturer, and the results and comparisons are presented. Unacceptably high errors between the manufacture's data and the experimentally determined data were observed (especially at temperatures below - 270-F).

  19. Pyrosequencing-Based Assessment of Bacterial Community Structure Along Different Management Types in German Forest and Grassland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Heiko; Thürmer, Andrea; Wollherr, Antje; Will, Christiane; Hodac, Ladislav; Herold, Nadine; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Daniel, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Background Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure in nine forest and nine grassland soils from the Schwäbische Alb that covered six different management types. The dataset comprised 598,962 sequences that were affiliated to the domain Bacteria. The number of classified sequences per sample ranged from 23,515 to 39,259. Bacterial diversity was more phylum rich in grassland soils than in forest soils. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences) were Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Significant variations in relative abundances of bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Alphaproteobacteria, between the land use types forest and grassland were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Phenylobacter, Bacillus, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Agromyces, and Defluviicoccus. In addition, soil bacterial community structure showed significant differences between beech and spruce forest soils. The relative abundances of bacterial groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with soil pH, but little or no relationships to management type and other soil properties were found. Conclusions/Significance Soil bacterial community composition and diversity of the six analyzed management types showed significant differences between the land use types grassland

  20. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial community structure along different management types in German forest and grassland soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Nacke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure in nine forest and nine grassland soils from the Schwäbische Alb that covered six different management types. The dataset comprised 598,962 sequences that were affiliated to the domain Bacteria. The number of classified sequences per sample ranged from 23,515 to 39,259. Bacterial diversity was more phylum rich in grassland soils than in forest soils. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences were Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Significant variations in relative abundances of bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Alphaproteobacteria, between the land use types forest and grassland were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Phenylobacter, Bacillus, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Agromyces, and Defluviicoccus. In addition, soil bacterial community structure showed significant differences between beech and spruce forest soils. The relative abundances of bacterial groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with soil pH, but little or no relationships to management type and other soil properties were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Soil bacterial community composition and diversity of the six analyzed management types showed significant differences between the land

  1. Strain Gage Test Results of Band-Type Locking Rings for a Typical Drum Type Radioactive Material Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band type closure rings are commonly used for securing the drum lid on radioactive material packages of lower weight classifications. Lid installation is achieved by placing the band around the perimeter of the lidded drum and tightening the single bolt in stages until a designated torque value is obtained. The band is subjected to heavy rapping with a soft hammer during installation to equilibrate the band strains around the drum perimeter. The study described here investigated the strain distributions in the band throughout the installation process. The results show that a uniform strain distribution is achieved during installation and that the hammering of the band aids in achieving the uniform distribution. The results of the strain levels after the drop test indicate that the locking rings maintain some pre-tension, even after severe targeted drops that crush a portion of the drum top

  2. Development of variable number of tandem repeats typing schemes for Ralstonia solanacearum, the agent of bacterial wilt, banana Moko disease and potato brown rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'guessan, Carine Aya; Brisse, Sylvain; Le Roux-Nio, Anne-Claire; Poussier, Stéphane; Koné, Daouda; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil borne bacterial plant pathogen causing bacterial wilt on many important crops. To better monitor epidemics, efficient tools that can identify and discriminate populations are needed. In this study, we assessed variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping as a new tool for epidemiological surveillance of R. solanacearum phylotypes, and more specifically for the monitoring of the monomorphic ecotypes "Moko" (banana-pathogenic) and "brown rot" (potato-pathogenic under cool conditions). Screening of six R. solanacearum genome sequences lead to select 36 VNTR loci that were preliminarily amplified on 24 strains. From this step, 26 single-locus primer pairs were multiplexed, and applied to a worldwide collection of 337 strains encompassing the whole phylogenetic diversity, with revelation on a capillary-electrophoresis genotype. Four loci were monomorphic within all phylotypes and were not retained; the other loci were highly polymorphic but displayed a clear phylotype-specificity. Phylotype-specific MLVA schemes were thus defined, based on 13 loci for phylotype I, 12 loci for phylotype II, 11 loci for phylotype III and 6 for phylotype IV. MLVA typing was significantly more discriminative than egl-based sequevar typing, particularly on monomorphic "brown rot" ecotype (phylotype IIB/sequevar 1) and "Moko disease" clade 4 (Phylotype IIB/sequevar 4). Our results raise promising prospects for studies of population genetic structures and epidemiological monitoring. PMID:23376194

  3. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated in 11 Asian Countries: a Proposal for a New Nomenclature for SCCmec Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn; Ito, Teruyo; Ma, Xiao Xue; Kondo, Yoko; Trakulsomboon, Suwanna; Tiensasitorn, Chuntima; Jamklang, Mantana; Chavalit, Tavinun; Song, Jae-Hoon; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    A description of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements carried by 615 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated in 11 Asian countries is reported, and a novel nomenclatural system based on their structures is proposed. The 615 strains were classified as type 3A (370 strains), type 2A (207 strains), type 2B (32 strains), type 1B (1 strain), and nontypeable (5 strains). The previously reported type III SCCmec (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession no. AB037671...

  4. Optimization of Culture Parameters for Maximum Polyhydroxybutyrate Production by Selected Bacterial Strains Isolated from Rhizospheric Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathwal, Priyanka; Nehra, Kiran; Singh, Manpreet; Jamdagni, Pragati; Rana, Jogender S

    2015-01-01

    The enormous applications of conventional non-biodegradable plastics have led towards their increased usage and accumulation in the environment. This has become one of the major causes of global environmental concern in the present century. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable plastic is known to have properties similar to conventional plastics, thus exhibiting a potential for replacing conventional non-degradable plastics. In the present study, a total of 303 different bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples collected from the rhizospheric area of three crops, viz., wheat, mustard and sugarcane. All the isolates were screened for PHB (Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid) production using Sudan Black staining method, and 194 isolates were found to be PHB positive. Based upon the amount of PHB produced, the isolates were divided into three categories: high, medium and low producers. Representative isolates from each category were selected for biochemical characterization; and for optimization of various culture parameters (carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, different pH, temperature and incubation time periods) for maximizing PHB accumulation. The highest PHB yield was obtained when the culture medium was supplemented with glucose as the carbon source, ammonium sulphate at a concentration of 1.0 g/l as the nitrogen source, and by maintaining the C/N ratio of the medium as 20:1. The physical growth parameters which supported maximum PHB accumulation included a pH of 7.0, and an incubation temperature of 30 degrees C for a period of 48 h. A few isolates exhibited high PHB accumulation under optimized conditions, thus showing a potential for their industrial exploitation. PMID:26638531

  5. [Growth and polysaccharide formation in Sinorhizobium meliloti strains in an air-lift-type fermentor. Effect on nodulation velocity in alfalfa plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorda, G S; Castaño, R C; Pordomingo, A B; Pastor, M D; Balatti, A P

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of the exopolysaccharides produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti strains on the nodulation rates in alfalfa plants has been considered. The experiments were performed in a rotary shaker and in an air-lift type fermentor. Different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains were used. Bacterial growth rates were determined by viable cell counts. Exopolysaccharide concentration was determined by precipitation with ethanol. It was observed that maximum cell concentration was in the order of 1 x 10(10) cell/ml and exopolysaccharide content was approximately 11 g/l. The experiments performed with alfalfa plants in a controlled environment chamber showed that, when inoculation was carried out with diluted suspensions (1/10), nodulation time was reduced from 10 to 4 days, while the strains retained their symbiotic properties. PMID:12920984

  6. The ability of Fla-typing schemes to discriminate between strains of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Hedegård; Newell, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this investigation was to compare the usefulness of two previously published flagellin PCR-RFLP typing (Fla-typing) techniques for the subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni strains, in terms of ease of use and discriminatory power. Methods and Results: Six groups of isolates, which w...

  7. Brucella 'HOOF-Prints': strain typing by multi-locus analysis of variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halling Shirley M

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are very few tools available for subtyping Brucella isolates for epidemiological trace-back. Subtyping is difficult because of the genetic homogeneity within the genus. Sequencing of the genomes from three Brucella species has facilitated the search for DNA sequence variability. Recently, hypervariability among short tandem repeat sequences has been exploited for strain-typing of several bacterial pathogens. Results An eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence was discovered in nine genomic loci of the B. abortus genome. Eight loci were hypervariable among the three Brucella species. A PCR-based method was developed to identify the number of repeat units (alleles at each locus, generating strain-specific fingerprints. None of the loci exhibited species- or biovar-specific alleles. Sometimes, a species or biovar contained a specific allele at one or more loci, but the allele also occurred in other species or biovars. The technique successfully differentiated the type strains for all Brucella species and biovars, among unrelated B. abortus biovar 1 field isolates in cattle, and among B. abortus strains isolated from bison and elk. Isolates from the same herd or from short-term in vitro passage exhibited little or no variability in fingerprint pattern. Sometimes, isolates from an animal would have multiple alleles at a locus, possibly from mixed infections in enzootic areas, residual disease from incomplete depopulation of an infected herd or molecular evolution within the strain. Therefore, a mixed population or a pool of colonies from each animal and/or tissue was tested. Conclusion This paper describes a new method for fingerprinting Brucella isolates based on multi-locus characterization of a variable number, eight-base pair, tandem repeat. We have named this technique "HOOF-Prints" for Hypervariable Octameric Oligonucleotide Finger-Prints. The technique is highly discriminatory among Brucella species, among

  8. Enzymatic Screening and Molecular Characterization of Thermophilic Bacterial Strains Isolated from Hotspring of Tatopani, Bhurung, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hriush Adhikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In Nepal not much of study of Thermophilic area and Thermophiles have been done. Thermophilic bacteria are less studied but are important group of microorganisms due to their ability to produce industrially important enzymes. Methods: In this study, thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot spring of Bhurung, Nepal. Wide range of bacteria that could grow at high temperatures and tolerate extreme temperature were characterized by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolates were screened for production of extracellular enzymes like protease, amylase, lipase, cellulase, caseinase, pectinase and xylanase activity. Phylogenetic tree construction and G+C content evaluation of the isolate was also studied. Results: 15 isolates with ability to tolerate high temperatures were identified as Bacillus sp. by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. BLAST search analysis of the sequence was performed and result showed maximum identity (99% similarity with Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. Isolated strains exhibited considerable amount of extracellular exozymes activity. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates revealed the relatedness among the species. The G+C content of each species was also evaluated and was found to be in range of 54.87 to 55.54%. Conclusion: The study of isolates confirmed that the isolated Bacillus sp. to be a true thermophile and could be a source of various thermostable exozymes which can be exploited for pharmaceutical and industrials applications. Much detailed study of the isolates can

  9. Characterization of a novel oxyfluorfen-degrading bacterial strain Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense and its biochemical degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Yanbing; Wu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-08-01

    Persistent use of the diphenyl ether herbicides oxyfluorfen may seriously increase the health risks and ecological safety problems. A newly bacterium R-21 isolated from active soil was able to degrade and utilize oxyfluorfen as the sole carbon source. R-21 was identified as Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense by morphology, physiobiochemical characteristics, and genetic analysis. Under the optimum cultural conditions (pH 6.9, temperature 33.4 °C, and inoculum size 0.2 g L(-1)), R-21 could degrade 92.1 % of oxyfluorfen at 50 mg L(-1) within 5 days. During oxyfluorfen degradation, six metabolites were detected and identified by atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry, and a plausible degradation pathway was deduced. Strain R-21 is a promising potential in bioremediation of oxyfluorfen-contaminated environments. PMID:27079576

  10. Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum cv. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seonhwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Switchgrass is one of the most promising bioenergy crop candidates for the US. It gives relatively high biomass yield and can grow on marginal lands. However, its yields vary from year to year and from location to location. Thus it is imperative to develop a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system. One of the most feasible ways to increase biomass yields is to harness benefits of microbial endophytes. Results We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific. Conclusions Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub

  11. Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agent that is toxic to microbes and other aquatic organisms. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are now popular in TCS removal. However, knowledge on the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs is lacking. The effects of TCS (60 μg L(-1)) on bacterial communities in batch-loaded CWs with emergent (Typha angustifolia), submerged (Hydrilla verticillata), and floating plant (Salvinia natans) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing technology. After six periods of experiment, the TCS removal efficiencies were over 90% in CWs, and negative effects of TCS on bacterial community richness and diversity were observed. Moreover, plant species effect existed. Bacterial strains that contributed to TCS biodegradation in CWs were successfully identified. In TCS-treated T. angustifolia and H. verticillata CWs, beta-Proteobacteria increased by 16.63% and 18.20%, respectively. In TCS-treated S. natans CWs, delta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria increased by 9.36%, 19.49%, and 31.37%, respectively, and could relate to TCS biodegradation. TCS affected the development of certain bacteria, and eventually, the bacterial community structures in CWs. This research provided ecologically relevant information on bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs under TCS treatment. PMID:25461066

  12. AgdbNet – antigen sequence database software for bacterial typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiden Martin CJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial typing schemes based on the sequences of genes encoding surface antigens require databases that provide a uniform, curated, and widely accepted nomenclature of the variants identified. Due to the differences in typing schemes, imposed by the diversity of genes targeted, creating these databases has typically required the writing of one-off code to link the database to a web interface. Here we describe agdbNet, widely applicable web database software that facilitates simultaneous BLAST querying of multiple loci using either nucleotide or peptide sequences. Results Databases are described by XML files that are parsed by a Perl CGI script. Each database can have any number of loci, which may be defined by nucleotide and/or peptide sequences. The software is currently in use on at least five public databases for the typing of Neisseria meningitidis, Campylobacter jejuni and Streptococcus equi and can be set up to query internal isolate tables or suitably-configured external isolate databases, such as those used for multilocus sequence typing. The style of the resulting website can be fully configured by modifying stylesheets and through the use of customised header and footer files that surround the output of the script. Conclusion The software provides a rapid means of setting up customised Internet antigen sequence databases. The flexible configuration options enable typing schemes with differing requirements to be accommodated.

  13. Evaluation of the HOOF-Print assay for typing Brucella abortus strains isolated from cattle in the United States: results with four performance criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewalt Darla R

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental question that arises during epidemiological investigations of bacterial disease outbreaks is whether the outbreak strain is genetically related to a proposed index strain. Highly discriminating genetic markers for characterizing bacterial strains can help in clarifying the genetic relationships among strains. Under the auspices of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Study Group for Epidemiological Markers (ESGEM established guidelines for evaluating the performance of typing systems based of a number of criteria. Recently, HOOF-Print genotype analysis, a new method for typing Brucella abortus strains based on hypervariability at eight tandem repeat loci, was described. This paper evaluates the HOOF-Print assay by four of the criteria set out by the ESGEM: typeability, reproducibility, power of discrimination, and concordance with other typing methods. Results The HOOF-Print Assay was evaluated with a test population composed of 97 unrelated field isolates and 6 common laboratory strains of B. abortus. Both typeability and reproducibility of the assay were excellent. Allele diversity and frequency varied widely among the eight loci, ranging from 1 to 13 alleles. The power of discrimination, measured by the Hunter-Gaston discrimination index (HGDI, varied by locus ranging from 0 to 0.89, where a maximal value of 1.0 indicates discrimination of all strains. The HGDI values calculated for subgroups sorted by biovar were similar to the values determined for the whole population. None of the individual loci achieved the recommended HGDI threshold of 0.95, but the HGDI of the composite profiles was 0.99 (93 unique genotypes from 97 field strains evaluated, well above the recommended threshold. By comparison, the HGDI value for biovar typing was 0.61 in a test population biased with disproportionate numbers of the less common biovars. Cluster analysis based on HOOF

  14. Pyrosequencing-Based Assessment of Bacterial Community Structure Along Different Management Types in German Forest and Grassland Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Nacke, Heiko; Thürmer, Andrea; Wollherr, Antje; Will, Christiane; Hodac, Ladislav; Herold, Nadine; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Daniel, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Background: Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial dive...

  15. Structure of a bacterial type III secretion system in contact with a host membrane in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nans, Andrea; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Saibil, Helen R.; Hayward, Richard D.

    2015-12-01

    Many bacterial pathogens of animals and plants use a conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells to subvert host functions. Contact with host membranes is critical for T3SS activation, yet little is known about T3SS architecture in this state or the conformational changes that drive effector translocation. Here we use cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging to derive the intact structure of the primordial Chlamydia trachomatis T3SS in the presence and absence of host membrane contact. Comparison of the averaged structures demonstrates a marked compaction of the basal body (4 nm) occurs when the needle tip contacts the host cell membrane. This compaction is coupled to a stabilization of the cytosolic sorting platform-ATPase. Our findings reveal the first structure of a bacterial T3SS from a major human pathogen engaged with a eukaryotic host, and reveal striking `pump-action' conformational changes that underpin effector injection.

  16. Durability improvement assessment in different high strength bacterial structural concrete grades against different types of acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramin Andalib; M Zaimi Abd Majid; A Keyvanfar; Amirreza Talaiekhozan; Mohd Warid Hussin; A Shafaghat; Rosli Mohd Zin; Chew Tin Lee; Mohammad Ali Fulazzaky; Hasrul Haidar Ismail

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides an insight into a new biotechnological method based on calcite precipitation for achieving high strength bio-concrete durability. It is very clear that mineral precipitation has the potential to enhance construction material resistance towards degradation procedures. The appropriate microbial cell concentration (30 * 105 cells/ml) was introduced onto different structural concrete grades (40, 45 and 50 MPa) by mixing water. In order to study the durability of structural concrete against aggressive agents, specimens were immersed in different types of acids solution (5% H2SO4 and HCl) to compare their effects on 60th, 90th and 120th day. In general, sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid are known to be the most aggressive natural threats from industrial waters which can penetrate concrete to transfer the soluble calcium salts away from the cement matrix. The experimental results demonstrated that bio-concrete has less weight and strength losses when compared to the ordinary Portland cement concrete without microorganism. It was also found that maximum compressive strength and weight loss occurred during H2SO4 acid immersion as compared to HCl immersion. The density and uniformity of bio-concrete were examined using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test. Microstructure chemical analysis was also quantified by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to justify the durability improvement in bacterial concrete. It was observed that less sulphur and chloride were noticed in bacterial concrete against H2SO4 and HCl, respectively in comparison to the ordinary Portland cement concrete due to calcite deposition.

  17. A novel type bacterial flagellar motor that can use divalent cations as a coupling ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazawa, Riku; Takahashi, Yuka; Aoki, Wataru; Sano, Motohiko; Ito, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a sophisticated nanomachine embedded in the cell envelope and powered by an electrochemical gradient of H(+), Na(+), or K(+)across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we describe a new member of the bacterial flagellar stator channel family (MotAB1 of Paenibacillus sp. TCA20 (TCA-MotAB1)) that is coupled to divalent cations (Ca(2+)and Mg(2+)). In the absence of divalent cations of alkaline earth metals, no swimming was observed in Paenibacillus sp. TCA20, which grows optimally in Ca(2+)-rich environments. This pattern was confirmed by swimming assays of a stator-free Bacillus subtilis mutant expressing TCA-MotAB1. Both a stator-free and major Mg(2+)uptake system-deleted B. subtilis mutant expressing TCA-MotAB1 complemented both growth and motility deficiency under low Mg(2+)conditions and exhibited [Mg(2+)]in identical to that of the wild-type. This is the first report of a flagellar motor that can use Ca(2+)and Mg(2+)as coupling ions. These findings will promote the understanding of the operating principles of flagellar motors and molecular mechanisms of ion selectivity. PMID:26794857

  18. In vitro interaction of certain antimicrobial agents in combination with plant extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpna Rakholiya; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro interaction between methanolic extracts of Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae) (T. catappa) and Carica papaya (caricaceae) (C. papaya) leaves and certain known antimicrobial drugs like penicillin G (P), ampicillin (AMP), amoxyclav (AMC), cephalothin (CEP), polymyxin B (PB), rifampicin (RIF), amikacin (AK), nilidixic acid (NA), gentamicin (GEN), chloramphenicol (C), ofloxacin (OF) against five Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria.Methods:Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using disc diffusion method. Results: The results of this study showed that there is an increased activity in case of combination of methanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents. The more potent result was that the synergism between methanolic extract of C. papaya and antibiotics showed highest and strong synergistic effect against tested bacterial strains;though methanolic extract of C. papaya alone was not showing any antibacterial activity.Conclusions:These results indicate that combination between plant extract and the antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistance microorganisms.

  19. In vitro interaction of certain antimicrobial agents in combination with plant extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpna Rakholiya; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro interaction between methanolic extracts of Terminalia catappa (T. catappa) (Combretaceae) and Carica papaya (C. papaya) (caricaceae) leaves and certain known antimicrobial drugs like penicillin G (P), ampicillin (AMP), amoxyclav (AMC), cephalothin (CEP), polymyxin B (PB), rifampicin (RIF), amikacin (AK), nilidixic acid (NA), gentamicin (GEN), chloramphenicol (C), ofloxacin (OF) against five Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria. Methods: Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using disc diffusion method. Results: The results of this study showed that there is an increased activity in case of combination of methanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents. The more potent result was that the synergism between methanolic extract of C. papaya and antibiotics showed highest and strong synergistic effect against tested bacterial strains;though methanolic extract of C. papaya alone was not showing any antibacterial activity. Conclusions: These results indicate that combination between plant extract and the antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistance microorganisms.

  20. Characterization of a Novel Mesophilic Bacterial Amylase Secreted by ZW2531-1,a Strain Newly Isolated from Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; LI Fan; GAO Chao-hui; ZHANG Ying-Jiu

    2009-01-01

    A novel mesophilic bacterial amylase,named oligosaccharide-producing multifunctional amylase(OPMA),was discovered and characterized.OPMA is an extracellular enzyme secreted by ZW2531-1,a strain newly isolated from Chinese soil.It could be purified to homogeneity from the culture supematant of ZW2531-1 by 30%-60% saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation,followed by twice Sephadex gel filtration chromatography.OPMA is a 66 kDa protein based on SDS-PAGE and has an isoelectric point(p/) at pH=5.3 by Isoelectric focusing electrophoresis(IFE),it only catalyzes the degradation of starch,rather than other alpha-1,4-and/or 1,6-glucan polysaccharides such as β-cyclomaltodextrin and pullulan.OPMA degraded starch to produce several oligosccharides including maltose,maltotriose,and isomaltotriose as the major end-products,and perhaps other oligosaccharides such as isomaltotetraose,rather than glucose.OPMA exhibited optimal catalytic activity at a reaction temperature of 50 ℃ and pH=6.0,as determined by orthogonal test.Under the optimal reaction conditions,purified OPMA had a specific activity of 13.75 U/mg.These findings suggest that OPMA could be used for the production of some oligosaccharides beneficial to the food industry and medicine.

  1. A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

  2. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the Antarctic Halorubrum lacusprofundi type strain ACAM 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain J; DasSarma, Priya; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Tice, Hope; Dalin, Eileen; Bruce, David C; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Sims, David; Brettin, Thomas S; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Larimer, Frank; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Ivanova, Natalia; Richardson, Paul; Cavicchioli, Ricardo; DasSarma, Shiladitya; Woese, Carl R; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2016-01-01

    Halorubrum lacusprofundi is an extreme halophile within the archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota. The type strain ACAM 34 was isolated from Deep Lake, Antarctica. H. lacusprofundi is of phylogenetic interest because it is distantly related to the haloarchaea that have previously been sequenced. It is also of interest because of its psychrotolerance. We report here the complete genome sequence of H. lacusprofundi type strain ACAM 34 and its annotation. This genome is part of a 2006 Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program project to sequence genomes of diverse Archaea. PMID:27617060

  4. Sfp-type PPTase inactivation promotes bacterial biofilm formation and ability to enhance wheat drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmusk, Salme; Kim, Seong-Bin; Nevo, Eviatar; Abd El Daim, Islam; Ek, Bo; Bergquist, Jonas; Behers, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa is a common soil bacterium with broad range of practical applications. An important group of secondary metabolites in P. polymyxa are non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide derived metabolites (NRPs/PKs). Modular non-ribosomal peptide synthetases catalyze main steps in the biosynthesis of the complex secondary metabolites. Here we report on the inactivation of an A26 Sfp-type 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sfp-type PPTase). The inactivation of the gene resulted in loss of NRPs/PKs production. In contrast to the former Bacillus spp. model the mutant strain compared to wild type showed greatly enhanced biofilm formation ability. A26Δsfp biofilm promotion is directly mediated by NRPs/PKs, as exogenous addition of the wild type metabolite extracts restores its biofilm formation level. Wheat inoculation with bacteria that had lost their Sfp-type PPTase gene resulted in two times higher plant survival and about three times increased biomass under severe drought stress compared to wild type. Challenges with P. polymyxa genetic manipulation are discussed. PMID:26052312

  5. Vaccination for the control of childhood bacterial pneumonia - Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Otczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia in childhood is endemic in large parts of the world and in particular, in developing countries, as well as in many indigenous communities within developed nations. Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugate vaccines are currently available against the leading bacterial causes of pneumonia.  The use of the vaccines in both industrialised and developing countries have shown a dramatic reduction in the burden of pneumonia and invasive disease in children.  However, the greatest threat facing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness is serotype replacement.  The current vaccines provide serotype-specific, antibody–mediated protection against only a few of the 90+ capsule serotypes.  Therefore, there has been a focus in recent years to rapidly advance technologies that will result in broader disease coverage and more affordable vaccines that can be used in developing countries.  The next generation of pneumococcal vaccines have advanced to clinical trials.

  6. Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae in Natural Transformation and Contact-Dependent Bacterial Killing Indicative of Type VI Secretion System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardy, Eryn E; Turnsek, Maryann A; Wilson, Sarah K; Tarr, Cheryl L; Hammer, Brian K

    2016-05-01

    The bacterial pathogenVibrio choleraecan occupy both the human gut and aquatic reservoirs, where it may colonize chitinous surfaces that induce the expression of factors for three phenotypes: chitin utilization, DNA uptake by natural transformation, and contact-dependent bacterial killing via a type VI secretion system (T6SS). In this study, we surveyed a diverse set of 53 isolates from different geographic locales collected over the past century from human clinical and environmental specimens for each phenotype outlined above. The set included pandemic isolates of serogroup O1, as well as several serogroup O139 and non-O1/non-O139 strains. We found that while chitin utilization was common, only 22.6% of the isolates tested were proficient at chitin-induced natural transformation, suggesting that transformation is expendable. Constitutive contact-dependent killing ofEscherichia coliprey, which is indicative of a functional T6SS, was rare among clinical isolates (only 4 of 29) but common among environmental isolates (22 of 24). These results bolster the pathoadaptive model in which tight regulation of T6SS-mediated bacterial killing is beneficial in a human host, whereas constitutive killing by environmental isolates may give a competitive advantage in natural settings. Future sequence analysis of this set of diverse isolates may identify previously unknown regulators and structural components for both natural transformation and T6SS. PMID:26944842

  7. Strain components of nuclear-reactor-type concretes during first heat cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of three advanced-gas-cooled-reactor-type nuclear reactor concretes were measured during the first heat cycle and their relative thermal stability determined. It was possible to isolate for the first time the shrinkage component for the period during heating. Predictions of the residual strains for the loaded specimens can be made by simple superposition of creep and shrinkage components up to a certain critical temperature, which for basalt concrete is about 500 C and for limestone concrete is about 200-300 C. Above the critical temperature, an expansive ''cracking'' strain component is present. It is shown that the strain behaviour of concrete provides a sensitive indication of its thermal stability during heating and subsequent cooling. (orig.)

  8. The influence of surface soil physicochemistry on the edaphic bacterial communities in contrasting terrain types of the Central Namib Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeer, S; Ramond, J-B; Eckardt, F D; Seely, M; Cowan, D A

    2015-09-01

    Notwithstanding, the severe environmental conditions, deserts harbour a high diversity of adapted micro-organisms. In such oligotrophic environments, soil physicochemical characteristics play an important role in shaping indigenous microbial communities. This study investigates the edaphic bacterial communities of three contrasting desert terrain types (gravel plains, sand dunes and ephemeral rivers) with different surface geologies in the Central Namib Desert. For each site, we evaluated surface soil physicochemistries and used explorative T-RFLP methodology to get an indication of bacterial community diversities. While grain size was an important parameter in separating the three terrain types physicochemically and specific surface soil types could be distinguished, the desert edaphic bacterial communities displayed a high level of local spatial heterogeneity. Ten variables contributed significantly (P Namib Desert and stress the importance of recording a wide variety of environmental descriptors to comprehensively assess the role of edaphic parameters in shaping microbial communities. PMID:25939371

  9. Relationships between host phylogeny, host type and bacterial community diversity in cold-water coral reef sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schöttner

    Full Text Available Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges are among the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in their tissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for the relationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level, as well as sponge type (high versus low microbial abundance, and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location and water depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA showed that as many as 345 (79% of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs detected in the dataset were shared between sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16% appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes in bacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge species (63% of explained community variation, sponge family (52% or sponge type (30%, whereas mesoscale geographic distances and water depth showed comparatively small effects (<5% each. In addition, a highly significant, positive relationship between bacterial community dissimilarity and sponge phylogenetic distance was observed within the ancient family of the Geodiidae. Overall, the high diversity of sponges in cold-water coral reefs, combined with the observed sponge-related variation in bacterial community structure, support the idea that sponges represent heterogeneous, yet structured microbial habitats that contribute significantly to enhancing bacterial diversity in deep-sea ecosystems.

  10. Assessment of the relevance of the antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine from Pantoea agglomerans biological control strains against bacterial plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Sammer, Ulrike F.; Reiher, Katharina; Spiteller, Dieter; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate

    2012-01-01

    The epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90 (Pa48b) is a promising biocontrol strain against economically important bacterial pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora. Strain Pa48b produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine (APV) in a temperature-dependent manner. An APV-negative mutant still suppressed the E. amylovora population and fire blight disease symptoms in apple blossom experiments under greenhouse conditions, but was inferior to the Pa48b w...

  11. Screening and Preliminary Identification of High-Yield Strains of Bacterial Cellulose%细菌纤维素高产菌株的筛选和初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周胜虎; 薛齐佳; 刘传凤; 黄颖; 李丽芬; 黎欣; 赵静

    2013-01-01

    通过静置富集和分离纯化等步骤从自然腐烂的水果中分离得到6株产细菌纤维素的菌株.从腐烂的芒果中筛选得到1株可产细菌纤维素的混合菌,混合菌产量为湿重617.3 g/L、干重23.9 g/L.经过分离纯化确定该混合菌中只有1株产细菌纤维素菌株M7,在传代培养过程中M7菌株细菌纤维素产量最高且稳定.对M7菌株进行形态特征、生理生化特征和16S rRNA分子序列分析,初步确定M7菌株为葡糖醋杆菌,16S rDNA分子序列已提交至GenBank,序列号为JX303335.%6 bacterial cellulose-production strains were isolated from a variety of different types of the natural decay fruits with the step of static enrichment culture,isolation and purification.From mango,one strain of mixed bacteria which can produce the bacterial cellulose was isolated,the yield of mixed bacteria was wet weight 617.3 g/L and dry weight 23.9 g/L,and only M7 strain can produce bacterial cellulose in this mixed bacteria.M7 strain had the highest and stable yield of bacterial cellulose in the course of subculturing.M7 strain was initially identified as the gluconacetobacter by analyzing the morphological characteristics,physiological and biochemical characteristics of M7 and determining its 16 S rRNA molecular sequence.The 16 S rRNA molecular sequence was already submitted to the GenBank,and the number of sequence is JX303335.

  12. Genetic and Antigenic Analysis of Adenovirus Type 3 Strains Showing Intermediate Behavior in Standard Seroneutralization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia TB Moraes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available During an epidemiological survey of acute respiratory infection in Rio de Janeiro, among 208 adenovirus isolates, we found two strains that we were not able, by a standard neutralization procedure, to distinguish between type 3 or 7. However, DNA restriction pattern for the two strains with different enzymes were analyzed and showed a typical Ad3h profile. Using a cross-neutralization test in which both Ad3p and Ad7p antisera were used in different concentration against 100 TCID50 of each adenovirus standard and both isolates, we were able to confirm that the two isolates belong to serotype 3. An hemagglutination inhibition test also corroborated the identification of both strains as adenovirus type 3. Comparing Ad3h and Ad3p genome, we observed 16 different restriction enzyme sites, three of which were located in genomic regions encoding polypeptides involved in neutralization sites

  13. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial strains isolated from newborn infants Sensibilidad a los antibióticos de bacterias aisladas de neonatos hospitalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Uribe; Rafael J. Manotas Cabarcas

    1990-01-01

    Eighty nine bacterial strains isolated from newborn infants hospitalized at a Special Care Unit in Medellin, Colombia, were studied. The sensitivity of each one was determined by the Minimallnhibitory Concentration method against 21 antibiotics; a high frequency of resistance was found toward gentamycin, netilmycin, oxacillin, penicillin G and ampicillin, that are often employed as initial therapy in newborn inf...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Type Strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Fu, Xiaozhe; Shi, Cunbin; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the type strain of Aeromonas schubertii, ATCC 43700. The full genome sequence of A. schubertii ATCC 43700 is 4,356,858 bp, which encodes 3,842 proteins and contains 110 predicted RNA genes. PMID:26893413

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium fortuitum subsp. fortuitum Type Strain DSM46621

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a member of the rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is ubiquitous in water and soil habitats, including hospital environments. M. fortuitum is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing disseminated infection. Here we report the genome sequence of M. fortuitum subsp. fortuitum type strain DSM46621.

  16. Creep fatigue behavior of heat resistant steels under service-type strain cycling at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On three typical heat resistant steels the creep fatigue behaviour is investigated up to about 10000 h test duration using a service-type strain cycle. In a creep fatigue life analysis the cyclic deformation behaviour and the applicability of the generalized damage accumulation rule are investigated and possibilities of long-term creep fatigue prediction are studied. (orig.)

  17. Organophosphonate utilization by the wild-type strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Zboińska, E; Lejczak, B; Kafarski, P

    1992-01-01

    The wild-type strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens was found to utilize a range of structurally diverse organophosphonates as its sole carbon or nitrogen sources. Representative compounds included aminoalkylphosphonates, hydroxyalkylphosphonates, oxoalkylphosphonates, and phosphono dipeptides. Among them, amino(phenyl)methylphosphonate,2-aminoethylphosphonate, aminomethylphosphonate, diisopropyl 9-aminofluoren-9-ylphosphonate, and 2-oxoalkylphosphonates were used by P. fluorescens as its sole so...

  18. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of a Colonizing Multilocus Sequence Type 17 Streptococcus agalactiae Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pallavi; Springman, A. Cody; Davies, H. Dele

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights the whole-genome shotgun draft sequence for a Streptococcus agalactiae strain representing multilocus sequence type (ST) 17, isolated from a colonized woman at 8 weeks postpartum. This sequence represents an important addition to the published genomes and will promote comparative genomic studies of S. agalactiae recovered from diverse sources. PMID:23045509

  19. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of a Colonizing Multilocus Sequence Type 17 Streptococcus agalactiae Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pallavi; Springman, A. Cody; Davies, H Dele; Manning, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights the whole-genome shotgun draft sequence for a Streptococcus agalactiae strain representing multilocus sequence type (ST) 17, isolated from a colonized woman at 8 weeks postpartum. This sequence represents an important addition to the published genomes and will promote comparative genomic studies of S. agalactiae recovered from diverse sources.

  20. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum Type E Strains Isolated from Fish and Fishery Products

    OpenAIRE

    HyytiÀ, E.; Hielm, S.; Björkroth, J.; Korkeala, H.

    1999-01-01

    The genetic biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with two macrorestriction enzymes (SmaI-XmaI and XhoI) and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with two primers (OPJ 6 and OPJ 13) to characterize 67 Finnish isolates from fresh fish and fishery products, 15 German isolates from farmed fish, and 10 isolates of North American or North Atlantic origin derived mainly from different types of seafood. The effect...

  1. Decreased C3 Activation by the devR Gene-Disrupted Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain in Comparison to the Wild-Type Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Narayan Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the complement component C3 is an important step in the complement cascade, contributing to inflammatory mechanisms. Considerable research on gene-disrupted mycobacterial strains using animal models of tuberculosis infection has reported the roles of some of the mycobacterial genes during tuberculosis infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the pattern of complement activation by the devR gene-disrupted Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain and compare with that by its wild-type strain. In vitro complement activation at the level of C3 by the gene-disrupted strain, its complemented strain, and wild-type strain was performed using solid-phase ELISA. It was observed that the ability of devR gene-disrupted M. tuberculosis H37Rv to activate C3 was significantly reduced in comparison to its wild-type strain (P<0.05. In addition, C3 activation by the complemented devR mutant strain was almost similar to that of the wild strain, which indicated that the reduced ability to activate C3 could potentially be due to the deletion of devR gene. These findings indicate that the gene devR probably aids in complement activation and contributes to the inflammatory processes during tuberculosis infection.

  2. Modifying effects of boswellia carteri on clarithromycine action: In vitro antibacterial study against common sensitive bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder M. Al-kuraishy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Plant-derived compounds have action alongside Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and numerous compounds, inhibit efflux pumps and hence have become known as efflux pump inhibitors. Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis and acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis the antibacterial range is the similar as erythromycin but it is active against Mycobacterium avium complex, M.leprae and atypical mycobacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activity results of different boswellic acid compounds discovered alpha keto-boswellic acid (AKBA to be the preponderance potent antibacterial compound alongside Grampositive pathogens, but it showed no significant antibacterial activity (MIC >128 μg/ml against the Gram negative bacteria . Aim: The aim of present study, is to illustrate the effectiveness of Boswellia carteri against Gram positive and negative bacteria alone and in combination with clarithromycine to elucidate the synergestic antibacterial effects and how Boswellia carteri modifying the antibacterial activity of clarithromycine. Material and methods: The bacteria strains used in this study included five Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and three Gramnegative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa five for each strains. Antibacterial activities were evaluated by measuring inhibition zone diameters by Agar-well diffusion ,while Broth dilution method determine MIC .Then fractional inhibitory concentration determine the in vitro interaction of clarithromycine and boswellia carteri combination. Results :The result of present study showed that zone of inhibition of clarithromycine ranged from 4mg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 19mm toward Klebsiella pneumonia while zone of inhibition of Boswellia carteri

  3. [Typing of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Salmonella typhimurium strains isolated in a pediatric unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhand, R A; Soukri, A; Amarouch, H; Mdaghri, N E; Benbachir, M

    1999-01-01

    two methods have the advantages of speed and simplicity. All isolates presented the same plasmid pattern characterised by three plasmids and the same pattern of proteins composed of 36 bands. We concluded by combining results that this outbreak involved the spread of the same strain of Salmonella typhimurium between the ten children. As this type of resistance is easily transferred by these isolates to other bacterial species, the major risk would be its transfer to Salmonella typhi. PMID:10705312

  4. The bacterial cytoskeleton modulates motility, type 3 secretion, and colonization in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bulmer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been great advances in our understanding of the bacterial cytoskeleton, major gaps remain in our knowledge of its importance to virulence. In this study we have explored the contribution of the bacterial cytoskeleton to the ability of Salmonella to express and assemble virulence factors and cause disease. The bacterial actin-like protein MreB polymerises into helical filaments and interacts with other cytoskeletal elements including MreC to control cell-shape. As mreB appears to be an essential gene, we have constructed a viable ΔmreC depletion mutant in Salmonella. Using a broad range of independent biochemical, fluorescence and phenotypic screens we provide evidence that the Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 type three secretion system (SPI1-T3SS and flagella systems are down-regulated in the absence of MreC. In contrast the SPI-2 T3SS appears to remain functional. The phenotypes have been further validated using a chemical genetic approach to disrupt the functionality of MreB. Although the fitness of ΔmreC is reduced in vivo, we observed that this defect does not completely abrogate the ability of Salmonella to cause disease systemically. By forcing on expression of flagella and SPI-1 T3SS in trans with the master regulators FlhDC and HilA, it is clear that the cytoskeleton is dispensable for the assembly of these structures but essential for their expression. As two-component systems are involved in sensing and adapting to environmental and cell surface signals, we have constructed and screened a panel of such mutants and identified the sensor kinase RcsC as a key phenotypic regulator in ΔmreC. Further genetic analysis revealed the importance of the Rcs two-component system in modulating the expression of these virulence factors. Collectively, these results suggest that expression of virulence genes might be directly coordinated with cytoskeletal integrity, and this regulation is mediated by the two-component system

  5. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  6. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picking Wendy L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. Results In this study, we present the 3.3 Å crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155 of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC1-151. Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric "head-to- head" dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC1-151. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II

  7. Bacterial membrane activity of a-peptide/b-peptoid chimeras: Influence of amino acid composition and chain length on the activity against different bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M; Franzyk, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Characterization and use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) requires that their mode of action is determined. The interaction of membrane-active peptides with their target is often established using model membranes, however, the actual permeabilization of live bacterial cells and...... permeabilization of the bacterial cell envelope, and the outer membrane may act as a barrier in Gram-negative bacteria. The tolerance of S. marcescens to chimeras may be due to differences in the composition of the lipopolysaccharide layer also responsible for its resistance to polymyxin B....... subsequent killing is usually not tested. In this report, six α-peptide/β-peptoid chimeras were examined for the effect of amino acid/peptoid substitutions and chain length on the membrane perturbation and subsequent killing of food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. RESULTS: All six AMP analogues...

  8. Aminomethylenediphosphonate: A Potent Type-Specific Inhibitor of Both Plant and Phototrophic Bacterial H+-Pyrophosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, R. G.; Baykov, A. A.; Bakuleva, N. P.; Rea, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The suitability of different pyrophosphate (PPi) analogs as inhibitors of the vacuolar H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-PPase; EC 3.6.1.1) of tonoplast vesicles isolated from etiolated hypocotyls of Vigna radiata was investigated. Five 1,1-diphosphonates and imidodiphosphate were tested for their effects on substrate hydrolysis by the V-PPase at a substrate concentration corresponding to the Km of the enzyme. The order of inhibitory potency (apparent inhibition constants, Kiapp values, [mu]M, in parentheses) of the compounds examined was aminomethylenediphosphonate (1.8) > hydroxymethylenediphosphonate (5.7) [almost equal to] ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (6.5) > imidodiphosphate (12) > methylenediphosphonate (68) > dichloromethylenediphosphonate (>500). The specificity of three of these compounds, aminomethylenediphosphonate, imidodiphosphate, and methylenediphosphonate, was determined by comparing their effects on the V-PPase and vacuolar H+-ATPase from Vigna, plasma membrane H+-ATPase from Beta vulgaris, H+-PPi synthase of chromatophores prepared from Rhodospirillum rubrum, soluble PPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa, and nonspecific monophosphoesterase from Vigna at a PPi concentration equivalent to 10 times the Km of the V-PPase. Although all three PPi analogs inhibited the plant V-PPase and bacterial H+-PPi synthase with qualitatively similar kinetics, whether substrate hydrolysis or PPi-dependent H+-translocation was measured, neither the vacuolar H+-ATPase nor plasma membrane H+-ATPase nor any of the non-V-PPase-related PPi hydrolases were markedly inhibited under these conditions. It is concluded that 1, 1-diphosphonates, in general, and aminomethylenediphosphonate, in particular, are potent type-specific inhibitors of the V-PPase and its putative bacterial homolog, the H+-PPi synthase of Rhodospirillum. PMID:12232069

  9. Two different bacterial community types are linked with the low-methane emission trait in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kittelmann

    Full Text Available The potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4 is produced in the rumens of ruminant animals from hydrogen produced during microbial degradation of ingested feed. The natural animal-to-animal variation in the amount of CH4 emitted and the heritability of this trait offer a means for reducing CH4 emissions by selecting low-CH4 emitting animals for breeding. We demonstrate that differences in rumen microbial community structure are linked to high and low CH4 emissions in sheep. Bacterial community structures in 236 rumen samples from 118 high- and low-CH4 emitting sheep formed gradual transitions between three ruminotypes. Two of these (Q and S were linked to significantly lower CH4 yields (14.4 and 13.6 g CH4/kg dry matter intake [DMI], respectively than the third type (H; 15.9 g CH4/kg DMI; p<0.001. Low-CH4 ruminotype Q was associated with a significantly lower ruminal acetate to propionate ratio (3.7±0.4 than S (4.4±0.7; p<0.001 and H (4.3±0.5; p<0.001, and harbored high relative abundances of the propionate-producing Quinella ovalis. Low-CH4 ruminotype S was characterized by lactate- and succinate-producing Fibrobacter spp., Kandleria vitulina, Olsenella spp., Prevotella bryantii, and Sharpea azabuensis. High-CH4 ruminotype H had higher relative abundances of species belonging to Ruminococcus, other Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Catabacteriaceae, Coprococcus, other Clostridiales, Prevotella, other Bacteroidales, and Alphaproteobacteria, many of which are known to form significant amounts of hydrogen. We hypothesize that lower CH4 yields are the result of bacterial communities that ferment ingested feed to relatively less hydrogen, which results in less CH4 being formed.

  10. Spatial encoding in spinal sensorimotor circuits differs in different wild type mice strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouenborg Jens

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in the rat have shown that the spatial organisation of the receptive fields of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR system are functionally adapted through experience dependent mechanisms, termed somatosensory imprinting, during postnatal development. Here we wanted to clarify 1 if mice exhibit a similar spatial encoding of sensory input to NWR as previously found in the rat and 2 if mice strains with a poor learning capacity in various behavioural tests, associated with deficient long term potention, also exhibit poor adaptation of NWR. The organisation of the NWR system in two adult wild type mouse strains with normal long term potentiation (LTP in hippocampus and two adult wild type mouse strains exhibiting deficiencies in corresponding LTP were used and compared to previous results in the rat. Receptive fields of reflexes in single hindlimb muscles were mapped with CO2 laser heat pulses. Results While the spatial organisation of the nociceptive receptive fields in mice with normal LTP were very similar to those in rats, the LTP impaired strains exhibited receptive fields of NWRs with aberrant sensitivity distributions. However, no difference was found in NWR thresholds or onset C-fibre latencies suggesting that the mechanisms determining general reflex sensitivity and somatosensory imprinting are different. Conclusion Our results thus confirm that sensory encoding in mice and rat NWR is similar, provided that mice strains with a good learning capability are studied and raise the possibility that LTP like mechanisms are involved in somatosensory imprinting.

  11. An Ultra-Violet Tolerant Wild-Type Strain of Melanin-Producing Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansinenea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus thuringiensis is the most successful biological control agent used in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control. However, the insecticidal activity of the B. thuringiensis formulation is not very stable and rapidly loses its biological activity under field conditions, due to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Melanin is known to absorb radiation therefore photo protection of B. thuringiensis based on melanin has been extensively studied. Objectives The aim of this study was to find a wild type strain of naturally melanin-producing B. thuringiensis to avoid any mutation or manipulation that can affect the Cry protein content. Materials and Methods Bacillus thuringiensis strains were isolated from soils of different States of Mexico and pigment extraction was followed by lowering the pH to 2 using 1N HCl. Pigment was characterized by some chemical tests based on its solubility, bleaching by H2O2 and flocculation with FeCl3, and using an Infrared (IR spectrum. Ultraviolet (UV irradiation experiment was performed to probe the melanin efficacy. Results ELI52 strain of B. thuringiensis was confirmed to naturally produce melanin. The Cry protein analysis suggested that ELI52 is probably a B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain with toxic activity against the Diptera order of insects. Ultra Violet protection efficacy of melanin was probed counting total viable colonies after UV radiation and comparing the results with the non-producing melanin strain L-DOPA (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine was also detected in the culture. ELI52 strain showed an antagonistic effect over some common bacteria from the environment. Conclusions ELI52 wild-type strain of B. thuringiensis is a good bio-insecticide that produces melanin with UV-resistance that is probably toxic against the Diptera order of insects and can inhibit the growth of other environmental bacteria.

  12. Screening of bacterial strains capable of converting biodiesel-derived raw glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metsoviti, Maria; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Galiotou-Panayotou, Maria; Nychas, George-John E.; Papanikolaou, Seraphim [Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zeng, An-Ping [Institute of Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The ability of bacterial strains to assimilate glycerol derived from biodiesel facilities to produce metabolic compounds of importance for the food, textile and chemical industry, such as 1,3-propanediol (PD), 2,3-butanediol (BD) and ethanol (EtOH), was assessed. The screening of 84 bacterial strains was performed using glycerol as carbon source. After initial trials, 12 strains were identified capable of consuming raw glycerol under anaerobic conditions, whereas 5 strains consumed glycerol under aerobiosis. A plethora of metabolic compounds was synthesized; in anaerobic batch-bioreactor cultures PD in quantities up to 11.3 g/L was produced by Clostridium butyricum NRRL B-23495, while the respective value was 10.1 g/L for a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii. Adaptation of Cl. butyricum at higher initial glycerol concentration resulted in a PD{sub max} concentration of {proportional_to}32 g/L. BD was produced by a new Enterobacter aerogenes isolate in shake-flask experiments, under fully aerobic conditions, with a maximum concentration of {proportional_to}22 g/L which was achieved at an initial glycerol quantity of 55 g/L. A new Klebsiella oxytoca isolate converted waste glycerol into mixtures of PD, BD and EtOH at various ratios. Finally, another new C. freundii isolate converted waste glycerol into EtOH in anaerobic batch-bioreactor cultures with constant pH, achieving a final EtOH concentration of 14.5 g/L, a conversion yield of 0.45 g/g and a volumetric productivity of {proportional_to}0.7 g/L/h. As a conclusion, the current study confirmed the utilization of biodiesel-derived raw glycerol as an appropriate substrate for the production of PD, BD and EtOH by several newly isolated bacterial strains under different experimental conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. The efficacy of immediate versus delayed antibiotic administration on bacterial growth and biofilm production of selected strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Gandee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI with antibiotics is commonly used, but recurrence and antibiotic resistance have been growing and concerning clinicians. We studied whether the rapid onset of a protective biofilm may be responsible for the lack of effectiveness of antibiotics against selected bacteria. Materials and Methods Two established uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, UTI89 and CFT073, and two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, PA01 and Boston-41501, were studied to establish a reliable biofilm formation process. Bacterial growth (BG was determined by optical density at 600 nm (OD 600 using a spectrophotometer, while biofilm formation (BF using crystal violet staining was measured at OD 550. Next, these bacterial strains were treated with clinically relevant antibiotics, ciprofloxacin HCl (200 ng/mL and 2 μg/mL, nitrofurantoin (20 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL and ampicillin (50 μg/mL at time points of 0 (T0 or after 6 hours of culture (T6. All measurements, including controls (bacteria -1% DMSO, were done in triplicates and repeated three times for consistency. Results The tested antibiotics effectively inhibited both BG and BF when administered at T0 for UPEC strains, but not when the antibiotic administration started 6 hours later. For Pseudomonas strains, only Ciprofloxacin was able to significantly inhibit bacterial growth at T0 but only at the higher concentration of 2 μg/mL for T6. Conclusion When established UPEC and Pseudomonas bacteria were allowed to culture for 6 hours before initialization of treatment, the therapeutic effect of selected antibiotics was greatly suppressed when compared to immediate treatment, probably as a result of the protective nature of the biofilm.

  14. Terminal reassortment drives the quantum evolution of type III effectors in bacterial pathogens.

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    John Stavrinides

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens employ a type III secretion system to deliver type III secreted effectors (T3SEs into host cells, where they interact directly with host substrates to modulate defense pathways and promote disease. This interaction creates intense selective pressures on these secreted effectors, necessitating rapid evolution to overcome host surveillance systems and defenses. Using computational and evolutionary approaches, we have identified numerous mosaic and truncated T3SEs among animal and plant pathogens. We propose that these secreted virulence genes have evolved through a shuffling process we have called "terminal reassortment." In terminal reassortment, existing T3SE termini are mobilized within the genome, creating random genetic fusions that result in chimeric genes. Up to 32% of T3SE families in species with relatively large and well-characterized T3SE repertoires show evidence of terminal reassortment, as compared to only 7% of non-T3SE families. Terminal reassortment may permit the near instantaneous evolution of new T3SEs and appears responsible for major modifications to effector activity and function. Because this process plays a more significant role in the evolution of T3SEs than non-effectors, it provides insight into the evolutionary origins of T3SEs and may also help explain the rapid emergence of new infectious agents.

  15. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are “green” amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS – lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  16. Genefish: an alternate metagenomic approach for capturing targeted bacterial diversity in an engineered recipient E. coli strain

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, Nathalie; Faugier, Aurélie; Lavire, Céline; Jacquiod, Samuel; Philippot, Laurent; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lazzaroni, Jean-Claude; Simonet, Pascal; Franqueville, Laure

    2009-01-01

    The metagenomic approach, defined as the direct recovery and cloning of bacterial DNA from the environment in domesticated bacterial hosts has been widely used to study bacterial populations and their functional genes in numerous environments. The advantage of this approach over conventional culture based techniques is that it encompasses a wider range of bacteria by bypassing the bias of uncultivability of more than 99% of the bacteria in soil. However, in complex and rich environments such ...

  17. Occurrence of Haemophilus influenzae strains in three Brazilian states since the introduction of a conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida A.E.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Few vaccines in history have induced such a dramatic decline in incidence over such a short period of time as the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib conjugate. This vaccine was introduced in 1988 in the United States, but only in 1999 was Hib immunization introduced by the Brazilian Ministry of Health as part of the routine infant National Immunization Program. The authors analyzed 229 H. influenzae (Hi isolates from Public Health Laboratories in three Brazilian states: Pernambuco (Northeast, N = 54, Santa Catarina (South, N = 19, and Rio de Janeiro (Southeast, N = 156. The isolates were collected from Brazilian children 0-10 years of age with meningitis and other infections from 1990 to 2003 and were part of the research collection of the National Institute of Quality Control in Health, FIOCRUZ. Bacterial strains were characterized by serotyping and biotyping. During the pre-vaccination period the prevalence infection due to Hib was of 165 isolates and only 2 non-b Hi among all the notified meningitis infections caused by Hi. Our results showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of Hib meningitis from 165 to 33 isolates after 1999. However, during the post-vaccination period of 2001-2003 we observed an increase in the number of non-b Hi isolates: only 2 non-b strains isolated from 1990 to 1999 and 29 from 1999 to 2003. Based on the present data, the authors emphasize the need for more sensitive epidemiological and bacteriological studies aiming the improvement of the available Hib vaccine, in order to protect the susceptible population to infections due to other serological types of Hi and the reevaluation of immunization schedules used by the National Immunization Program.

  18. The plant pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici improves bacterial growth and triggers early gene regulations in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, M; Frey-Klett, P; Boutin, M; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, A-Y; Martin, F; Guillot, L; Sarniguet, A

    2009-01-01

    In soil, some antagonistic rhizobacteria contribute to reduce root diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Direct modes of action of these bacteria have been largely explored; however, commensal interaction also takes place between these microorganisms and little is known about the influence of filamentous fungi on bacteria. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) and the biocontrol bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp was set up to analyse bacterial transcriptional changes induced by the fungal mycelium at three time-points of the interaction before cell contact and up until contact. For this, a Pf29Arp shotgun DNA microarray was constructed. Specifity of Ggt effect was assessed in comparison with one of two other filamentous fungi, Laccaria bicolor and Magnaporthe grisea. During a commensal interaction, Ggt increased the growth rate of Pf29Arp. Before contact, Ggt induced bacterial genes involved in mycelium colonization. At contact, genes encoding protein of stress response and a patatin-like protein were up-regulated. Among all the bacterial genes identified, xseB was specifically up-regulated at contact by Ggt but down-regulated by the other fungi. Data showed that the bacterium sensed the presence of the fungus early, but the main gene alteration occurred during bacterial-fungal cell contact. PMID:19121038

  19. Complete genome sequence of Haliangium ochraceum type strain (SMP-2T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Daum, Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lang, Elke [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kopitz, marcus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2010-01-01

    Haliangium ochraceum Fudou et al. 2002 is the type species of the genus Haliangium in the myxococcal family Haliangiaceae . Members of the genus Haliangium are the first halophilic myxobacterial taxa described. The cells of the species follow a multicellular lifestyle in highly organized biofilms, called swarms, they decompose bacterial and yeast cells as most myxobacteria do. The fruiting bodies contain particularly small coccoid myxospores. H. ochraceum encodes the first actin homologue identified in a bacterial genome. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the myxococcal suborder Nannocystineae, and the 9,446,314 bp long single replicon genome with its 6,898 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. Epidemiology of Candida infection. II. Application of biochemical methods for typing of Candida albicans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, A

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical profiles of 350 C. albicans isolates from five towns in Poland and from Freiburg in Germany were determined on the basis of nine biochemical tests of Odds and Abbott method. API 20 C AUX system and additionally a resistogram. The analysis of the strains according to Odds' and Abbotts's system showed that investigated strains can be typed into 9 profile codes of common biochemical patterns. There were some differences among the profiles according to their geographical origin and anatomical sources of the isolation. On the basis of the ability C. albicans strains to assimilate of carbon sources, 350 isolates were categorised into 13 separate auxotrophic profiles with the major one: 2,576,174 accounting for 81% of the total. The majority of the investigated isolates were susceptible to antifungal agents (83%). A disproportionate distribution of auxotrophic profiles limited the use of resistogram method and API 20 C AUX as systems for typing C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the method of Odds and Abbott provides valuable criteria for typing of C. albicans. PMID:2130802

  1. A qPCR method to characterize the sex type of the cell strains from rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Junbei; Li, Zhilin; Wan, Qian; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Mianxue; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xie, Linfeng

    2016-10-01

    A simple and fast method was established to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains. The single copy X-chromosome-linked gene AR and the single copy Y-chromosome-linked gene Sry were both detected with qPCR for the rat genomic DNA sample and the AR/Sry ratio was calculated. According to the law of the AR/Sry ratio, a new method to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains was developed. The new assay was proved effective. The new assay showed advantages over the traditional sex type identification PCR methods, which detected only the Sry gene. Moreover, the new method was used to identify the sex types of two rat-derived cell strains unknown for the sex types and the results were confirmed with the in situ hybridization. Finally, the problem of the cross contamination between the female and the male samples was addressed and discussed extensively. PMID:27316703

  2. Identification of host cytosolic sensors and bacterial factors regulating the type I interferon response to Legionella pneumophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Monroe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that replicates in host macrophages and causes a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' Disease. The innate immune response to L. pneumophila remains poorly understood. Here we focused on identifying host and bacterial factors involved in the production of type I interferons (IFN in response to L. pneumophila. It was previously suggested that the delivery of L. pneumophila DNA to the host cell cytosol is the primary signal that induces the type I IFN response. However, our data are not easily reconciled with this model. We provide genetic evidence that two RNA-sensing proteins, RIG-I and MDA5, participate in the IFN response to L. pneumophila. Importantly, these sensors do not seem to be required for the IFN response to L. pneumophila DNA, whereas we found that RIG-I was required for the response to L. pneumophila RNA. Thus, we hypothesize that bacterial RNA, or perhaps an induced host RNA, is the primary stimulus inducing the IFN response to L. pneumophila. Our study also identified a secreted effector protein, SdhA, as a key suppressor of the IFN response to L. pneumophila. Although viral suppressors of cytosolic RNA-sensing pathways have been previously identified, analogous bacterial factors have not been described. Thus, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which an intracellular bacterial pathogen activates and also represses innate immune responses.

  3. Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gorski

    Full Text Available For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella.

  4. Insights from the Genome Sequence of Acidovorax citrulli M6, a Group I Strain of the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Shkedy, Dafna; Gershovits, Michael; Da Silva, Gustavo M.; Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Walcott, Ron; Pupko, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is a seedborne bacterium that causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbit plants including watermelon and melon. A. citrulli strains can be divided into two major groups based on DNA fingerprint analyses and biochemical properties. Group I strains have been generally isolated from non-watermelon cucurbits, while group II strains are closely associated with watermelon. In the present study, we report the genome sequence of M6, a group I model A. citrulli strain, isolated from melon. We used comparative genome analysis to investigate differences between the genome of strain M6 and the genome of the group II model strain AAC00-1. The draft genome sequence of A. citrulli M6 harbors 139 contigs, with an overall approximate size of 4.85 Mb. The genome of M6 is ∼500 Kb shorter than that of strain AAC00-1. Comparative analysis revealed that this size difference is mainly explained by eight fragments, ranging from ∼35–120 Kb and distributed throughout the AAC00-1 genome, which are absent in the M6 genome. In agreement with this finding, while AAC00-1 was found to possess 532 open reading frames (ORFs) that are absent in strain M6, only 123 ORFs in M6 were absent in AAC00-1. Most of these M6 ORFs are hypothetical proteins and most of them were also detected in two group I strains that were recently sequenced, tw6 and pslb65. Further analyses by PCR assays and coverage analyses with other A. citrulli strains support the notion that some of these fragments or significant portions of them are discriminative between groups I and II strains of A. citrulli. Moreover, GC content, effective number of codon values and cluster of orthologs’ analyses indicate that these fragments were introduced into group II strains by horizontal gene transfer events. Our study reports the genome sequence of a model group I strain of A. citrulli, one of the most important pathogens of cucurbits. It also provides the first comprehensive comparison at the genomic level between

  5. Insights from the Genome Sequence of Acidovorax citrulli M6, a Group I Strain of the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Shkedy, Dafna; Gershovits, Michael; Da Silva, Gustavo M; Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Walcott, Ron; Pupko, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is a seedborne bacterium that causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbit plants including watermelon and melon. A. citrulli strains can be divided into two major groups based on DNA fingerprint analyses and biochemical properties. Group I strains have been generally isolated from non-watermelon cucurbits, while group II strains are closely associated with watermelon. In the present study, we report the genome sequence of M6, a group I model A. citrulli strain, isolated from melon. We used comparative genome analysis to investigate differences between the genome of strain M6 and the genome of the group II model strain AAC00-1. The draft genome sequence of A. citrulli M6 harbors 139 contigs, with an overall approximate size of 4.85 Mb. The genome of M6 is ∼500 Kb shorter than that of strain AAC00-1. Comparative analysis revealed that this size difference is mainly explained by eight fragments, ranging from ∼35-120 Kb and distributed throughout the AAC00-1 genome, which are absent in the M6 genome. In agreement with this finding, while AAC00-1 was found to possess 532 open reading frames (ORFs) that are absent in strain M6, only 123 ORFs in M6 were absent in AAC00-1. Most of these M6 ORFs are hypothetical proteins and most of them were also detected in two group I strains that were recently sequenced, tw6 and pslb65. Further analyses by PCR assays and coverage analyses with other A. citrulli strains support the notion that some of these fragments or significant portions of them are discriminative between groups I and II strains of A. citrulli. Moreover, GC content, effective number of codon values and cluster of orthologs' analyses indicate that these fragments were introduced into group II strains by horizontal gene transfer events. Our study reports the genome sequence of a model group I strain of A. citrulli, one of the most important pathogens of cucurbits. It also provides the first comprehensive comparison at the genomic level between the

  6. Bacterial bile metabolising gene abundance in Crohn's, ulcerative colitis and type 2 diabetes metagenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Labbé

    Full Text Available We performed an analysis to determine the importance of bile acid modification genes in the gut microbiome of inflammatory bowel disease and type 2 diabetic patients. We used publicly available metagenomic datasets from the Human Microbiome Project and the MetaHIT consortium, and determined the abundance of bile salt hydrolase gene (bsh, 7 alpha-dehydroxylase gene (adh and 7-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene (hsdh in fecal bacteria in diseased populations of Crohn's disease (CD, Ulcerative Colitis (UC and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Phylum level abundance analysis showed a significant reduction in Firmicute-derived bsh in UC and T2DM patients but not in CD patients, relative to healthy controls. Reduction of adh and hsdh genes was also seen in UC and T2DM patients, while an increase was observed in the CD population as compared to healthy controls. A further analysis of the bsh genes showed significant differences in the correlations of certain Firmicutes families with disease or healthy populations. From this observation we proceeded to analyse BSH protein sequences and identified BSH proteins clusters representing the most abundant strains in our analysis of Firmicute bsh genes. The abundance of the bsh genes corresponding to one of these protein clusters was significantly reduced in all disease states relative to healthy controls. This cluster includes bsh genes derived from Lachospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae and Ruminococcaceae families. This metagenomic analysis provides evidence of the importance of bile acid modifying enzymes in health and disease. It further highlights the importance of identifying gene and protein clusters, as the same gene may be associated with health or disease, depending on the strains expressing the enzyme, and differences in the enzymes themselves.

  7. Proteomic characterization of a wild-type wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabalzini, Lorenza; Paffetti, Alessandro; Ferro, Elisa; Scaloni, Andrea; Talamo, Fabio; Millucci, Lia; Martelli, Paola; Santucci, Annalisa

    2003-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the optimal eukaryotic model system to study mammalian biological responses. At the same time Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also widely utilized as a biotechnological tool in the food industry. Enological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been so far routinely analyzed for their microbiological aspects. Nevertheless, wine yeasts are gaining an increasing interest in the last years since they strongly affect both the vinification process and the organoleptic properties of the final product wine. The protein repertoire is responsible of such features and, consequently, 2D-PAGE can be an useful tool to evaluate and select optimal wine yeast strains. We present here the first proteomic map of a wild-type wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain selected for the guided fermentation of very high quality wines. PMID:15141481

  8. Translation efficiency determines differences in cellular infection among dengue virus type 2 strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the molecular basis for differences in the ability of natural variants of dengue virus type 2 (DEN2) to replicate in primary human cells. The rates of virus binding, virus entry, input strand translation, and RNA stability of low-passage Thai and Nicaraguan and prototype DEN2 strains were compared. All strains exhibited equivalent binding, entry, and uncoating, and displayed comparable stability of positive strand viral RNA over time in primary cells. However, the low-passage Nicaraguan isolates were much less efficient in their ability to translate viral proteins. Sequence analysis of the full-length low-passage Nicaraguan and Thai viral genomes identified specific differences in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Substitution of the different sequences into chimeric RNA reporter constructs demonstrated that the changes in the 3'UTR directly affected the efficiency of viral translation. Thus, differences in infectivity among closely related DEN2 strains correlate with efficiency of translation of input viral RNA

  9. Complete genome sequence of Tolumonas auensis type strain (TA 4T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, Alex; Lucas1, Susa; Lapidus, Alla; Berry, KerrieW.; Detter, JohnC.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Hammon, Nancy; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Richardson, Paul; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Saunders, Elizabeth; Schmutz, Jeremy; Brettin, Thomas; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Spring, Stefan; Rohde, Manfred; Kyrpides, NikosC.; Ivanova, Natalia; G& #246; ker, Markus; Beller, HarryR.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-10-04

    Tolumonas auensis (Fischer-Romero et al. 1996) is currently the only validly named species of the genus Tolumonas in the family Aeromonadaceae. The strain is of interest because of its ability to produce toluene from phenylalanine and other phenyl precursors, as well as phenol from tyrosine. This is of interest because toluene is normally considered to be a tracer of anthropogenic pollution in lakes, but T. auensis represents a biogenic source of toluene. Other than Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, T. auensis strain TA 4T is the only other member in the family Aeromonadaceae with a completely sequenced type-strain genome. The 3,471,292-bp chromosome with a total of 3,288 protein-coding and 116 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program JBEI 2008.

  10. Permissive growth of human adenovirus type 4 vaccine strain-based vector in porcine cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Jing; Wan, Wen-Yan; Li, Hong-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Xue; Yang, Xia; Li, Yong-Tao; Chang, Hong-Tao; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chuan-Qing; Zhao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using adenoviruses as live vectors to develop recombinant vaccines. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of HIV/SIV and influenza vaccine candidates based on human adenovirus type 4 (Ad4) replication-competent vectors in rhesus macaque and human model. To explore the possibility of human Ad4 vaccine strain used as a vector in developing porcine vaccines, the growth properties of replication-competent human Ad4 vaccine strain recombinant encoding EGFP in different porcine cell lines were investigated. All tested cell lines are permissive for Ad4 vaccine strain vector with varied replication efficiency. Thus, human Ad4 based vectors would be promising supplement to adenovirus vectors as a delivery vehicle for recombinant vaccines in swine industry. PMID:26850542

  11. Complete genome sequence of Tolumonas auensis type strain (TA 4T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Berry, Alison M [California Institute of Technology, University of California, Davis; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Tolumonas auensis Fischer-Romero et al. 1996 is currently the only validly named species of the genus Tolumonas in the family Aeromonadaceae. The strain is of interest because of its ability to produce toluene from phenylalanine and other phenyl precursors, as well as phenol from tyrosine. This is of interest because toluene is normally considered to be a tracer of anthropogenic pollution in lakes, but T. auensis represents a biogenic source of toluene. Oth- er than Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, T. auensis strain TA 4T is the only other member in the family Aeromonadaceae with a completely sequenced type-strain genome. The 3,471,292 bp chromosome with a total of 3,288 protein-coding and 116 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program JBEI 2008.

  12. Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with a hydrolytic profile with potential use in bioconversion of agroindustial by-products and waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Anabela Mazzucotelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a trend towards the use of novel technologies nowadays, mainly focused on biological processes, for recycling and the efficient utilization of organic residues that can be metabolized by different microorganisms as a source of energy. In the present study the isolation of bacterial strains from six different agro-industrial by-products and waste was performed with the objective of evaluating their hydrolytic capacities and suitability for use in bioconversion of specific substrates. The 34 isolated strains were screened in specific culture media for the production of various hydrolytic enzymes (lipase, protease, cellulase, and amylase. It was found that 28 strains exhibited proteolytic activity, 18 had lipolytic activity, 13 had caseinolytic activity, 15 had amylolytic activity, and 11 strains exhibited cellulolytic activity. The strains that showed the highest hydrolytic capacities with biotechnological potential were selected, characterized genotipically, and identified as Bacillus, Serratia, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Lactococcus, and Escherichia genera. It was concluded that the strain isolates have a high potential for use in the bioconversion of agro-industrial waste, both as a pure culture and as a microbial consortium.

  13. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, TK; Page, NA; Griffin, DD;

    2003-01-01

    Among 167 rotavirus specimens collected from young children in a suburban area of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, from 1996 to 1998, most identifiable strains belonged to the uncommon P[6], G2 type and approximately 50% remained incompletely typed. In the present study, 76 such strains were further charac...

  14. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, T.K.; Page, N.A.; Griffin, D.D.;

    2003-01-01

    Among 167 rotaviruis specimens collected from young children in a suburban area of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, from 1996 to 1998, most identifiable strains belonged to the uncommon P[6], G2 type and approximately 50% remained incompletely typed. In the present study, 76 such strains were further chara...

  15. Molecular methods for bacterial genotyping and analyzed gene regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Yıldırım1, Seval Cing Yıldırım2, Nadir Koçak3

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial strain typing is an important process for diagnosis, treatment and epidemiological investigations. Current bacterial strain typing methods may be classified into two main categories: phenotyping and genotyping. Phenotypic characters are the reflection of genetic contents. Genotyping, which refers discrimination of bacterial strains based on their genetic content, has recently become widely used for bacterial strain typing. The methods already used in genotypingof bacteria are quite different from each other. In this review we tried to summarize the basic principles of DNA-based methods used in genotyping of bacteria and describe some important DNA regions that are used in genotyping of bacteria. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(1:42-46.

  16. Bacillus 'next generation' diagnostics: Moving from detection towards sub-typing and risk related strain profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MonikaEhling-Schulz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The highly heterogeneous genus Bacillus comprises the largest species group of endospore forming bacteria. Because of their ubiquitous nature, Bacillus spores can enter food production at several stages resulting in significant economic losses and posing a potential risk to consumers due the capacity of certain Bacillus strains for toxin production. In the past, food microbiological diagnostics was focused on the determination of species using conventional culture based methods, which are still widely used. However, due to the extreme intraspecies diversity found in the genus Bacillus, DNA based identification and typing methods are gaining increasing importance in routine diagnostics. Several studies showed that certain characteristics are rather strain dependent than species specific. Therefore, the challenge for current and future Bacillus diagnostics is not only the efficient and accurate identification on species level but also the development of rapid methods to identify strains with specific characteristics (such as stress resistance or spoilage potential, trace contamination sources, and last but not least discriminate potential hazardous strains from non-toxic strains.

  17. Strain-controlled fatigue tests on welded joints with super position of different types of vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to be able to study the effect of a harmonic on the service life, a low frequency fundamental of high strain amplitude had a high frequency harmonic of small strain amplitude, which acted during the whole of the fundamental cycles of vibration, superimposed on it. Such stresses can occur, for example on starting or stopping electrical machines in various dynamiclly stressed components. As many welded structures are manufactured from unalloyed ferritic/perlitic carbon steels, structural steel of type St 360 C according to the OeNORM M 3116 for investigations in the short term fatigue range was selected. Strain-controlled experiments were carried out between 0.25% and 3% total strain. There were cases where there was a considerable drop in the service life for stressing with fundamental and harmonics in comparison with a stress without harmonics in the total strain-controlled fatigue tests. A prediction of the service life is only possible with a considerably greater number of samples than previously used, because of the many parameters affecting welded joints. As the scatter of probability of fracture in the area of short term fatigue is relatively narrow compared to experiments in the fatigue area, one can at least recognize clear trends. (orig.)

  18. Engineering de novo disulfide bond in bacterial α-type carbonic anhydrase for thermostable carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Park, Tae Yoon; Park, Hyun June; Yeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Young Je; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that rapidly catalyzes carbon dioxide hydration, is an attractive biomimetic route for carbon sequestration due to its environmental compatibility and potential economic viability. However, the industrial applications of CA are strongly hampered by the unstable nature of enzymes. In this work, we introduced in silico designed, de novo disulfide bond in a bacterial α-type CA to enhance thermostability. Three variants were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli with an additional disulfide bridge. One of the variants showed great enhancement in terms of both kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities. This improvement could be attributed to the loss of conformational entropy of the unfolded state, showing increased rigidity. The variant showed an upward-shifted optimal temperature and appeared to be thermoactivated, which compensated for the lowered activity at 25 °C. Collectively, the variant constructed by the rapid and effective de novo disulfide engineering can be used as an efficient biocatalyst for carbon sequestration under high temperature conditions. PMID:27385052

  19. Filamentous sulfur bacteria of activated sludge: characterization of Thiothrix, Beggiatoa, and Eikelboom type 021N strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T M; Unz, R F

    1985-04-01

    Seventeen strains of filamentous sulfur bacteria were isolated in axenic culture from activated sludge mixed liquor samples and sulfide-gradient enrichment cultures. Isolation procedures involved plating a concentrated inoculum of washed filaments onto media containing sulfide or thiosulfate. The isolates were identified as Thiothrix spp., Beggiatoa spp., and an organism of uncertain taxonomic status, designated type 021N. All bacteria were gram negative, reduced nitrate, and formed long, multicellular trichomes with internal reserves of sulfur, volutin, and sudanophilic material. Thiothrix spp. formed rosettes and gonidia, and four of six strains were ensheathed. Type 021N organisms utilized glucose, lacked a sheath, and differed from Thiothrix spp. in several aspects of cellular and cultural morphology. Beggiatoa spp. lacked catalase and oxidase, and filaments were motile. Biochemical and physiological characterization of the isolates revealed important distinguishing features between the three groups of bacteria. Strain differences were most evident among the Thiothrix cultures. A comparison of the filamentous sulfur bacteria with freshwater strains of Leucothrix was made also. PMID:4004221

  20. Analysis of a unique Clostridium botulinum strain from the Southern hemisphere producing a novel type E botulinum neurotoxin subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Brian H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium botulinum strains that produce botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E are most commonly isolated from botulism cases, marine environments, and animals in regions of high latitude in the Northern hemisphere. A strain of C. botulinum type E (CDC66177 was isolated from soil in Chubut, Argentina. Previous studies showed that the amino acid sequences of BoNT/E produced by various strains differ by rarA operon. Results Genetic and mass spectral analysis demonstrated that the BoNT/E produced by CDC66177 is a novel toxin subtype (E9. Toxin gene sequencing indicated that BoNT/E9 differed by nearly 11% at the amino acid level compared to BoNT/E1. Mass spectrometric analysis of BoNT/E9 revealed that its endopeptidase substrate cleavage site was identical to other BoNT/E subtypes. Further analysis of this strain demonstrated that its 16S rRNA sequence clustered with other Group II C. botulinum (producing BoNT types B, E, and F strains. Genomic DNA isolated from strain CDC66177 hybridized with fewer probes using a Group II C. botulinum subtyping microarray compared to other type E strains examined. Whole genome shotgun sequencing of strain CDC66177 revealed that while the toxin gene cluster inserted into the rarA operon similar to other type E strains, its overall genome content shared greater similarity with a Group II C. botulinum type B strain (17B. Conclusions These results expand our understanding of the global distribution of C. botulinum type E strains and suggest that the type E toxin gene cluster may be able to insert into C. botulinum strains with a more diverse genetic background than previously recognized.

  1. Biodegradation efficiency and optimum growth conditions of bacterial strains isolated from a petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil: Evaluation of the selected strain efficiency for contaminated soil bioremediation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotas, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory scale batch studies were performed in order to determine the optimum growth conditions and diesel oil biodegradation ability of the selected strain isolated from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil. These results were used to evaluate the potential of the selected strain for in situ application in PRB remediation technology.

  2. Machined and plastic copings in three-element prostheses with different types of implantabutment joints: a strain gauge comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Sussumu Nishioka; Lea Nogueira Braulino de Melo Nishioka; Celina Wanderley Abreu; Luis Gustavo Oliveira Vasconcellos; Ivan Balducci

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Using strain gauge (SG) analysis, the aim of this in vitro study was quantify the strain development during the fixation of three-unit screw implant-supported fixed partial dentures, varying the types of implant-abutment joints and the type of prosthetic coping. The hypotheses were that the type of hexagonal connection would generate different microstrains and the type of copings would produce similar microstrains after prosthetic screws had been tightened onto microunit abutments....

  3. Correlation between clinico-pathological outcome and typing of Haemophilus parasuis field strains

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Virginia; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Fraile, Lorenzo; Mombarg, Mark; Nofrarías, Miquel; Olvera, Alexandre; Sibila, Marina; Solanes, David; Segalés, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Haemophilus parasuis is the etiologic agent of Glasser's disease in pigs, which is pathologically characterized by serofibrinous polyserositis and arthritis. H. parasuis include virulent and non-virulent strains and confirmation of virulence in H. parasuis is still dependent on experimental reproduction of the disease. Since the variability in virulence is supported by serotyping and genotyping (particularly, multilocus sequence typing [MLST]), we examined the relationship...

  4. Nonarchetypal Type II-like and atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii infecting marsupials of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Parameswaran, N.; Thompson, R.C.A.; Sundar, N; Pan, S; Johnson, M.; Smith, N. C.; Grigg, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Australia is geographically isolated and possesses a remarkable diversity of wildlife species. Marsupials are highly susceptible to infection with the cosmopolitan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Of 46 marsupials screened for T. gondii by multilocus PCR-DNA sequencing at polymorphic genes (B1, SAG3, GRA6, GRA7), 12 were PCR-positive; the majority (67%; 9/12) were infected by nonarchetypal Type II-like or atypical strains. Six novel alleles were detected at B1, indicating greater diversity of geno...

  5. Dynamic Strain Aging Effects on Inelastic Behaviors of Type 316H at Elevated Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji-Hyun; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Choon [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The structural components in sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) will be subjected to a harsh operating conditions such as much higher temperature and neutron dose comparing to that of conventional reactors. It is desirable to have a constitutive model which accurately describes the history dependence of long-term mechanical response, e.g. cyclic deformation response in order to improve the reliability of lifetime assessment procedures. Therefore, it is needed to evaluate the inelastic characteristics of RPV materials such as ratcheting that can be induced by cyclic thermal stress resulted from fluctuation of coolant level. The high amount of strain accumulation due to ratcheting in service of SFR can thin down the structural components in the primary sodium circuit subsequently leading to buckling. However, the experimental data which are needed to provide material parameters of inelastic constitutive equation for Type 316H stainless steel which is the prime candidate material for RPV of Korean SFR are very rare. It is reported that the inelastic behaviors of certain materials could be affected by dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objectives of this study are to obtain the fully reversed cyclic data and ratcheting data for Type 316H stainless steel and to investigate the effects of DSA on the inelastic behaviors of Type 316H stainless steel. The cyclic hardening behavior and ratcheting deformation of Type 316H stainless steel at elevated temperature were investigated in this study. The strongly pronounced strain hardening behaviors were observed at a temperature range 500-575 .deg. C as the results of fully reversed cyclic testing and ratcheting testing. It was concluded that the sharp increase in hardening ratio and the retardation of ratcheting strain accumulation in the temperature range was attributed to the DSA manifested by serrated flow observed in tension testing conducted in same temperature range.

  6. Filamentous sulfur bacteria of activated sludge: characterization of Thiothrix, Beggiatoa, and Eikelboom type 021N strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, T. M.; Unz, R F

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen strains of filamentous sulfur bacteria were isolated in axenic culture from activated sludge mixed liquor samples and sulfide-gradient enrichment cultures. Isolation procedures involved plating a concentrated inoculum of washed filaments onto media containing sulfide or thiosulfate. The isolates were identified as Thiothrix spp., Beggiatoa spp., and an organism of uncertain taxonomic status, designated type 021N. All bacteria were gram negative, reduced nitrate, and formed long, mul...

  7. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging is not a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Haemophilus influenzae type b strain Eagan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Beeumen Jozef J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potentially lethal flux of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is continuously generated during aerobic metabolism. It follows that aerobic organisms have equipped themselves with specific H2O2 dismutases and H2O2 reductases, of which catalase and the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpR are the best-studied prokaryotic members. The sequenced Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome reveals one catalase, designated HktE, and no AhpR. However, Haemophilus influenzae type b strain Eagan (Hib, a causative agent of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in young children, disrupted in its hktE gene is not attenuated in virulence, and retains the ability to rapidly scavenge H2O2. This redundancy in H2O2-scavenging is accounted for by peroxidatic activity which specifically uses glutathione as the reducing substrate. Results We show here that inside acatalasaemic H. influenzae all of the residual peroxidatic activity is catalyzed by PGdx, a hybrid peroxiredoxin-glutaredoxin glutathione-dependent peroxidase. In vitro kinetic assays on crude hktE- pgdx- H. influenzae Rd extracts revealed the presence of NAD(PH:peroxide oxidoreductase activity, which, however, appears to be physiologically insignificant because of its low affinity for H2O2 (Km = 1.1 mM. Hydroperoxidase-deficient hktE- pgdx- H. influenzae Rd showed a slightly affected aerobic growth phenotype in rich broth, while, in chemically defined medium, growth was completely inhibited by aerobic conditions, unless the medium contained an amino acid/vitamin supplement. To study the role of PGdx in virulence and to assess the requirement of H2O2-scavenging during the course of infection, both a pgdx single mutant and a pgdx/hktE double mutant of Hib were assayed for virulence in an infant rat model. The ability of both mutant strains to cause bacteremia was unaffected. Conclusion Catalase (HktE and a sole peroxidase (PGdx account for the majority of scavenging of metabolically generated H2O2 in the H

  8. Differential induction of type I interferons in macaques by wild-type measles virus alone or with the hemagglutinin protein of the Edmonston vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nguyen, Nguyen; Kato, Sei-Ich; Nagata, Kyosuke; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Measles vaccines are highly effective and safe; however, the mechanism(s) underlying their attenuation has not been well understood. In this study, type I IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) induction in macaques infected with measles virus (MV) strains was examined. Type I IFNs were not induced in macaques infected with wild-type MV. However, IFN-α was sharply induced in most macaques infected with recombinant wild-type MV bearing the hemagglutinin (H) protein of the Edmonston vaccine strain. These results indicate that the H protein of MV vaccine strains may have a role in MV attenuation. PMID:27278100

  9. Visualizing the Translocation and Localization of Bacterial Type III Effector Proteins by Using a Genetically Encoded Reporter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Audry, Laurent; McQuitty, Claire; Dean, Paul; Christie, John M; Enninga, Jost; Roe, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins are critical determinants of infection for many animal and plant pathogens. However, monitoring of the translocation and delivery of these important virulence determinants has proved to be technically challenging. Here, we used a genetically engineered LOV (light-oxygen-voltage) sensing domain derivative to monitor the expression, translocation, and localization of bacterial T3SS effectors. We found theEscherichia coliO157:H7 bacterial effector fusion Tir-LOV was functional following its translocation and localized to the host cell membrane in discrete foci, demonstrating that LOV-based reporters can be used to visualize the effector translocation with minimal manipulation and interference. Further evidence for the versatility of the reporter was demonstrated by fusing LOV to the C terminus of theShigella flexnerieffector IpaB. IpaB-LOV localized preferentially at bacterial poles before translocation. We observed the rapid translocation of IpaB-LOV in a T3SS-dependent manner into host cells, where it localized at the bacterial entry site within membrane ruffles. PMID:26921426

  10. A Snapshot of Histone Modifications within Transposable Elements in Drosophila Wild Type Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Rita; Horard, Béatrice; Begeot, Flora; Delattre, Marion; Gilson, Eric; Vieira, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are a major source of genetic variability in genomes, creating genetic novelty and driving genome evolution. Analysis of sequenced genomes has revealed considerable diversity in TE families, copy number, and localization between different, closely related species. For instance, although the twin species Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans share the same TE families, they display different amounts of TEs. Furthermore, previous analyses of wild type derived strains of D. simulans have revealed high polymorphism regarding TE copy number within this species. Several factors may influence the diversity and abundance of TEs in a genome, including molecular mechanisms such as epigenetic factors, which could be a source of variation in TE success. In this paper, we present the first analysis of the epigenetic status of four TE families (roo, tirant, 412 and F) in seven wild type strains of D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Our data shows intra- and inter-specific variations in the histone marks that adorn TE copies. Our results demonstrate that the chromatin state of common TEs varies among TE families, between closely related species and also between wild type strains. PMID:22962605

  11. Initial Assemblage of Bacterial Saccharic Fibrils and Element Deposition to Form an Immature Sheath in Cultured Leptothrix sp. Strain OUMS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuaki Furutani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In an aquatic environment, the genus Leptothrix produces an extracellular Fe- or Mn-encrusted tubular sheath composed of a complex hybrid of bacterial exopolymers and aqueous-phase inorganic elements. This ultrastructural study investigated initial assemblage of bacterial saccharic fibrils and subsequent deposition of aqueous-phase inorganic elements to form the immature sheath skeleton of cultured Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1. After one day of culture, a globular and/or thread-like secretion was observed on the surface of the bacterial cell envelope, and secreted bodies were transported across the intervening space away from the cell to form an immature sheath skeleton comprising assembled and intermingled fibrils. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and specific Bi-staining detected a distinguishable level of P, trace Si, and a notable amount of carbohydrates in the skeleton, but not Fe. By the second day, the skeleton was prominently thickened with an inner layer of almost parallel aligned fibrils, along with low level of Fe deposition, whereas an outer intermingled fibrous layer exhibited heavy deposition of Fe along with significant deposition of P and Si. These results indicate that basic sheath-construction proceeds in two steps under culture conditions: an initial assemblage of bacterial saccharic fibrils originated from the cell envelope and the subsequent deposition of aqueous-phase Fe, P, and Si.

  12. Clostridium difficile infection: Early history, diagnosis and molecular strain typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Van Broeck, J; Taminiau, B; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2016-08-01

    Recognised as the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains high despite efforts to improve prevention and reduce the spread of the bacterium in healthcare settings. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the epidemiology and rapid diagnosis of CDI. In addition, different typing methods have been developed for epidemiological studies. This review explores the history of C. difficile and the current scope of the infection. The variety of available laboratory tests for CDI diagnosis and strain typing methods are also examined. PMID:27238460

  13. Resistance Induction and Enhanced Tuber Production by Pre-inoculation with Bacterial Strains in Potato Plants against Phytophthora infestans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2006-01-01

    Efficacy of resistance induction by the bacterial isolates Pseudomonas putida (TRL2-3), Micrococcus luteus (TRK2-2) and Flexibacteraceae bacterium (MRL412), which were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in Jeju Mountain, were tested in a greenhouse. The disease severity caused by Phytophthora infestans was effectively reduced in the potato plants pre-inoculated with bacterial isolates compared with those of the untreated control plants growing in a greenhouse. In order to estimat...

  14. A peptide identification-free, genome sequence-independent shotgun proteomics workflow for strain-level bacterial differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wenguang Shao; Min Zhang; Henry Lam; Lau, Stanley C K

    2015-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is an emerging tool for bacterial identification and differentiation. However, the identification of the mass spectra of peptides to genome-derived peptide sequences remains a key issue that limits the use of shotgun proteomics to bacteria with genome sequences available. In this proof-of-concept study, we report a novel bacterial fingerprinting method that enjoys the resolving power and accuracy of mass spectrometry without the burden of peptide identification (i.e. genome...

  15. Heterotrophic activity, bacterial types and abundance in different ecosystems of the Queen Maud Land

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kodagali, J.; Nair, S.; Sheelu, G.; Chandramohan, D.

    of sup(14)C glucose and glutamic acid by these heterotrophs. Bacterial communities in different habitats appeared to be having distinct ecosystem specialisation both in terms of number and activity. In the maritime Antarctic, their biomass was found...

  16. Evaluation of polysaccharides content in fruit bodies and their antimicrobial activity of four Ganoderma lucidum (W Curt.: Fr. P. Karst. strains cultivated on different wood type substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies from different sawdust cultivation substrates and their antibacterial activity was done. Thirty six samples were analyzed. Four strains of Ganoderma lucidum (GL01, GL02, GL03 and GL04 were cultivated on the growth substrates of three different sawdust types: birch (Bo, maple (Kl or alder (Ol amended with wheat bran in three different concentrations: 10, 20 and 30% (w/w. Even though the richest in polysaccharides was GL01 strain, the highest yields of the polysaccharides were determined in GL04Kl3 sample and was 112.82 mg/g of dry weight. The antibacterial activity of polysaccharides was determined in vitro using micro-dilution broth method. The panel of eight reference bacterial strains was used. All the polysaccharide samples tested showed the broad spectrum and the moderate antibacterial activity. Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 strain was the most sensitive with MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration = 0.63 − 1.25 mg/mL.

  17. Enzymes produced by halotolerant spore-forming gram-positive bacterial strains isolated from a resting habitat (Restinga de Jurubatiba) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: focus on proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Santos, Anderson Fragoso; Pacheco, Clarissa Almeida; Valle, Roberta D Santos; Seldin, Lucy; D Santos, André Luis Souza

    2014-12-01

    The screening for hydrolases-producing, halotolerant, and spore-forming gram-positive bacteria from the root, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soil of Blutaparon portulacoides, a plant found in the Restinga de Jurubatiba located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, resulted in the isolation of 22 strains. These strains were identified as Halobacillus blutaparonensis (n = 2), Oceanobacillus picturae (n = 5), and Oceanobacillus iheyensis (n = 15), and all showed the ability to produce different extracellular enzymes. A total of 20 isolates (90.9 %) showed activity for protease, 5 (22.7 %) for phytase, 3 (13.6 %) for cellulase, and 2 (9.1 %) for amylase. Some bacterial strains were capable of producing three (13.6 %) or two (9.1 %) distinct hydrolytic enzymes. However, no bacterial strain with ability to produce esterase and DNase was observed. The isolate designated M9, belonging to the species H. blutaparonensis, was the best producer of protease and also yielded amylase and phytase. This strain was chosen for further studies regarding its protease activity. The M9 strain produced similar amounts of protease when grown either without or with different NaCl concentrations (from 0.5 to 10 %). A simple inspection of the cell-free culture supernatant by gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed the presence of three major alkaline proteases of 40, 50, and 70 kDa, which were fully inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (two classical serine protease inhibitors). The secreted proteases were detected in a wide range of temperature (from 4 to 45 °C) and their hydrolytic activities were stimulated by NaCl (up to 10 %). The serine proteases produced by the M9 strain cleaved gelatin, casein, albumin, and hemoglobin, however, in different extensions. Collectively, these results suggest the potential use of the M9 strain in biotechnological

  18. Microbiological diagnosis and molecular typing of Legionella strains during an outbreak of legionellosis in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Andreas; von Baum, Heike; Gonser, Theodor; Haerter, Georg; Lück, Christian

    2016-02-01

    An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires' disease with 64 reported cases occurred in Ulm/Neu-Ulm in the South of Germany in December 2009/January 2010 caused by Legionella (L.) pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal (mAb) subtype Knoxville, sequence type (ST) 62. Here we present the clinical microbiological results from 51 patients who were diagnosed at the University hospital of Ulm, the results of the environmental investigations and of molecular typing of patients and environmental strains. All 50 patients from whom urine specimens were available were positive for L. pneumophila antigen when an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) was used following concentration of those urine samples that tested initially negative. The sensitivity of the BinaxNow rapid immunographic assay (ICA), after 15 min reading and after 60 min reading were 70% and 84%, respectively. Direct typing confirmed the monoclonal subtype Knoxville in 5 out of 8 concentrated urine samples. Real time PCR testing of respiratory tract specimens for L. pneumophila was positive in 15 out of 25 (60%) patients. Direct nested sequence based typing (nSBT) in some of these samples allowed partial confirmation of ST62. L. pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal subtype Knoxville ST62, defined as the epidemic strain was isolated from 8 out of 31 outbreak patients (26%) and from one cooling tower confirming it as the most likely source of the outbreak. While rapid detection of Legionella antigenuria was crucial for the recognition and management of the outbreak, culture and molecular typing of the strains from patients and environmental specimens was the clue for the rapid identification of the source of infection. PMID:26868659

  19. Simultaneous Transport of Two Bacterial Strains in Intact Cores from Oyster, Virginia: Biological Effects and Numerical Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hailiang; Rothmel, Randi; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fuller, Mark E.; DeFlaun, Mary F.; Streger, Sheryl H.; Dunlap, Robb; Fletcher, Madilyn

    2002-01-01

    The transport characteristics of two adhesion-deficient, indigenous groundwater strains, Comamonas sp. strain DA001 and Erwinia herbicola OYS2-A, were studied by using intact sediment cores (7 by 50 cm) from Oyster, Va. Both strains are gram-negative rods (1.10 by 0.56 and 1.56 by 0.46 μm, respectively) with strongly hydrophilic membranes and a slightly negative surface charge. The two strains exhibited markedly different behaviors when they were transported through granular porous sediment. ...

  20. A multi-channel bioluminescent bacterial biosensor for the on-line detection of metals and toxicity. Part I: design and optimization of bioluminescent bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrier, Thomas; Durand, Marie-Jose; Jouanneau, Sulivan; Thouand, Gerald [UMR CNRS 6144 GEPEA, CBAC, Nantes University, PRES UNAM, Campus de la Courtaisiere-IUT, La Roche-sur-Yon cedex (France); Dion, Michel [UMR CNRS 6204, Nantes University, PRES UNAM, Biotechnologie, Biocatalyse, Bioregulation, 2, Rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes cedex 3 (France); Pernetti, Mimma; Poncelet, Denis [ONIRIS-ENITIAA, UMR CNRS GEPEA, Rue de la Geraudiere, BP 82225, Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2011-05-15

    This study describes the construction of inducible bioluminescent strains via genetic engineering along with their characterization and optimization in the detection of heavy metals. Firstly, a preliminary comparative study enabled us to select a suitable carbon substrate from pyruvate, glucose, citrate, diluted Luria-Bertani, and acetate. The latter carbon source provided the best induction ratios for comparison. Results showed that the three constructed inducible strains, Escherichia coli DH1 pBzntlux, pBarslux, and pBcoplux, were usable when conducting a bioassay after a 14-h overnight culture at 30 C. Utilizing these sensors gave a range of 12 detected heavy metals including several cross-detections. Detection limits for each metal were often close to and sometimes lower than the European standards for water pollution. Finally, in order to maintain sensitive bacteria within the future biosensor-measuring cell, the agarose immobilization matrix was compared to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Agarose was selected because the detection limits of the bioluminescent strains were not affected, in contrast to PVA. Specific detection and cross-detection ranges determined in this study will form the basis of a multiple metals detection system by the new multi-channel Lumisens3 biosensor. (orig.)

  1. Effects of Megaplasmid Loss on Growth of Neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum Strains and Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfaro, Concetta; Iacobino, Angelo; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano; Franciosa, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium butyricum strains that atypically produce the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) possess a megaplasmid of unknown functions in their genome. In this study, we cured two botulinum neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains of their megaplasmids, and compared the obtained megaplasmid-cured strains to their respective wild-type parental strains. Our results showed that the megaplasmids do not confer beta-lactam resistance on the neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains, although they carry several putative beta-lactamase genes. Instead, we found that the megaplasmids are essential for growth of the neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains at the relatively low temperature of 15°C, and are also relevant for growth of strains under limiting pH and salinity conditions, as well as under favorable environmental conditions. Moreover, the presence of the megaplasmids was associated with increased transcript levels of the gene encoding BoNT/E in the C. butyricum type E strains, indicating that the megaplasmids likely contain transcriptional regulators. However, the levels of BoNT/E in the supernatants of the cured and uncured strains were similar after 24 and 48 h culture, suggesting that expression of BoNT/E in the C. butyricum type E strains is not ultimately controlled by the megaplasmids. Together, our results reveal that the C. butyricum type E megaplasmids exert pleiotropic effects on the growth of their microbial hosts under optimal and limiting environmental conditions, and also highlight the possibility of original regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression of BoNT/E. PMID:26941734

  2. Excitonic Aharonov-Bohm effect: Unstrained versus strained type-I semiconductor nanorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, M.; Čukarić, N.; Arsoski, V.; Peeters, F. M.

    2011-09-01

    We study how mechanical strain affects the magnetic field dependence of the exciton states in type-I semiconductor nanorings. Strain spatially separates the electron and hole in (In,Ga)As/GaAs nanorings which is beneficial for the occurrence of the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect. In narrow strained (In,Ga)As/GaAs nanorings the AB oscillations in the exciton ground-state energy are due to anticrossings with the first excited state. No such AB oscillations are found in unstrained GaAs/(Al,Ga)As nanorings irrespective of the ring width. Our results are obtained within an exact numerical diagonalization scheme and are shown to be accurately described by a two-level model with off-diagonal coupling t. The later transfer integral expresses the Coulomb coupling between states of electron-hole pairs. We also found that the oscillator strength for exciton recombination in (In,Ga)As/GaAs nanorings exhibits AB oscillations, which are superimposed on a linear increase with magnetic field. Our results agree qualitatively with recent experiments on the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in type-I (In,Ga)As/GaAs nanorings.

  3. Molecular composition of the 16S toxin produced by a Clostridium botulinum type D strain, 1873.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, H; Inoue, K; Ikeda, T; Fujinaga, Y; Sunagawa, H; Takeshi, K; Ohyama, T; Watanabe, T; Inoue, K; Oguma, K

    1998-01-01

    The 16S toxin was purified from a Clostridium botulinum type D strain 1873 (D-1873). Furthermore, the entire nucleotide sequences of the genes coding for the 16S toxin were determined. It became clear that the purified D-1873 16S toxin consists of neurotoxin, nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNH), and hemagglutinin (HA), and that HA consists of four subcomponents, HA1, HA2, HA3a, and HA3b, the same as type D strain CB16 (D-CB16) 16S toxin. The nucleotide sequences of the nontoxic components of these two strains were also found to be identical except for several bases. However, the culture supernatant and the purified 16S toxin of D-1873 showed little HA activity, unlike D-CB16, though the fractions successively eluted after the D-1873 16S toxin peak from an SP-Toyopearl 650S column showed a low level of HA activity. The main difference between D-1873 and D-CB16 HA molecules was the mobility of the HA1 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Therefore it was presumed that the loss of HA activity of D-1873 16S toxin might be caused by the differences of processing HA after the translation. PMID:9802560

  4. Are Isotopologue Signatures of N2O from Bacterial Denitrifiers Indicative of NOR Type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, R.; Braker, G.; Giesemann, A.; Flessa, H.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils result from its production by nitrification and denitrification and reduction during denitrification. The structure of the denitrifying microbial community contributes to the control of net N2O fluxes. Although molecular techniques are promising for identifying the active community of N2O producers, there are few data until now because methods to explore gene expression of N2O production are laborious and disregard regulation of activity at the enzyme level. The isotopologue signatures of N2O including δ18O, average δ15N (δ15Nbulk) and 15N site preference (SP = difference in δ15N between the central and peripheral N positions of the asymmetric N2O molecule) have been used to estimate the contribution of partial processes to net N2O fluxes to the atmosphere. However, the use of this approach to study N2O dynamics in soils requires knowledge of isotopic signatures of N2O precursors and isotopologue fractionation factors (ɛ) of all processes of N2O production and consumption. In contrast to δ18O and δ15Nbulk, SP is independent of precursor signatures and hence is a promising parameter here. It is assumed that SP of produced N2O is almost exclusively controlled by the enzymatic isotope effects of NO reductases (NOR). These enzymes are known to be structurally different between certain classes of N2O producers with each class causing different isotope effects (Schmidt et al., 2004). The NH2OH-to-N2O step of nitrifiers and the NO3-to-N2O step of fungal denitrifiers are associated with large site-specific 15N effects with SP of 33 to 37 ‰ (Sutka et al., 2006, 2008) while the few tested species of gram-negative bacterial denitrifiers (cNOR group) exhibited low SP of -5 to 0‰ (Sutka et al., 2006; Toyoda et al., 2005). The aim of our study was to determine site-specific fractionation factors of the NO3-to-N2O step (ɛSP) for several species of denitrifiers representing each of the known NOR-types of bacteria, i.e. cNOR, q

  5. Complete genome sequence of Granulicella tundricola type strain MP5ACTX9T, an Acidobacteria from tundra soil

    OpenAIRE

    Rawat, Suman R.; Männistö, Minna K.; Starovoytov, Valentin; Goodwin, Lynne; Nolan, Matt; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Davenport, Karen Walston; Woyke, Tanja; Häggblom, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    Granulicella tundricola strain MP5ACTX9T is a novel species of the genus Granulicella in subdivision 1 Acidobacteria . G. tundricola is a predominant member of soil bacterial communities, active at low temperatures and nutrient limiting conditions in Arctic alpine tundra. The organism is a cold-adapted acidophile and a versatile heterotroph that hydrolyzes a suite of sugars and complex polysaccharides. Genome analysis revealed metabolic versatility with genes involved in metabolism and transp...

  6. Two Mutations associated with Macrolide Resistance in Treponema pallidum: Increasing Prevalence and Correlation with Molecular Strain Type in Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew; Sahi, Sharon K.; Godornes, B. Charmie; Tantalo, Lauren C.; Roberts, Neal; Bostick, David; Marra, Christina M.; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although azithromycin promised to be a safe and effective single dose oral treatment for early syphilis, azithromycin treatment failure has been documented and is associated with mutations in the 23S rDNA of corresponding Treponema pallidum strains. The prevalence of strains harboring these mutations varies throughout the US and the world. We examined T. pallidum strains circulating in Seattle, Washington, from 2001–2010 to determine the prevalence of two mutations associated with macrolide resistance, and to determine whether these mutations were associated with certain T. pallidum strain types. Methods Subjects were enrolled in a separate ongoing study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities in patients with syphilis. T. pallidum DNA purified from blood and T. pallidum strains isolated from blood or CSF were analyzed for two 23S rDNA mutations and for the molecular targets used in an enhanced molecular stain typing system. Results Nine molecular strain types of T. pallidum were identified in Seattle from 2001–2010. Both macrolide resistance mutations were identified in Seattle strains, and the prevalence of resistant T. pallidum exceeded 80% in 2005 and increased through 2010. Resistance mutations were associated with discrete molecular strain types of T. pallidum. Conclusions Macrolide resistant T. pallidum strains are highly prevalent in Seattle, and each mutation is associated with discrete strain types. Macrolides should not be considered for treatment of syphilis in regions where prevalence of the mutations is high. Combining the resistance mutations with molecular strain typing permits a finer analysis of the epidemiology of syphilis in a community. PMID:23191949

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Two Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswaranjan; Guha, Dipanjan; Ray, Pratikshya; Das, Debashmita; Aich, Palok

    2016-06-01

    Probiotic and potential probiotic bacterial strains are routinely prescribed and used as supplementary therapy for a variety infectious diseases, including enteric disorders among a wide range of individuals. While there are an increasing number of studies defining the possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, a great deal remains unknown regarding the diverse modes of action attributed to these therapeutic agents. More precise information is required to support the appropriate application of probiotics. To address this objective, we selected two probiotics strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC-10307 (LA) and Bacillus clausii MTCC-8326 (BC) that are frequently prescribed for the treatment of intestinal disorders and investigated their effects on the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our results reveal that LA and BC are potent activators of both metabolic activity and innate immune responses in these cells. We also observed that LA and BC possessed similar activity in preventing infection simulated in vitro in murine macrophages by Salmonella typhimurium serovar enterica. PMID:27038159

  8. Direct conversion of xylan to butanol by a wild-type Clostridium species strain G117.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Basu, Anindya; Li, Tinggang; He, Jianzhong

    2016-08-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has great potential for use as a carbon source for the production of second-generation biofuels by solventogenic bacteria. Here we describe the production of butanol by a newly discovered wild-type Clostridium species strain G117 with xylan as the sole carbon source for fermentation. Strain G117 produced 0.86 ± 0.07 g/L butanol and 53.4 ± 0.05 mL hydrogen directly from 60 g/L xylan provided that had undergone no prior enzymatic hydrolysis. After process optimization, the amount of butanol produced from xylan was increased to 1.24 ± 0.37 g/L. In contrast to traditional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solventogenic fermentation, xylan supported fermentation in strain G117 and negligible amount of acetone was produced. The expression of genes normally associated with acetone production (adc and ctfB2) were down-regulated compared to xylose fed cultures. This lack of acetone production may greatly simplify downstream separation process. Moreover, higher amount of butanol (2.94 g/L) was produced from 16.99 g/L xylo-oligosaccharides, suggesting a major role for strain G117 in butanol production from xylan and its oligosaccharides. The unique ability of strain G117 to produce a considerable amount of butanol directly from xylan without producing undesirable fermentation byproducts opens the door to the possibility of cost-effective biofuels production in a single step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1702-1710. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26803924

  9. Complete genome sequence of Pedobacter heparinus type strain (HIM 762-3T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff; Spring, Stefan; Lapidus, Alla; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Goker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Detter, John C.

    2009-05-20

    Pedobacter heparinus (Payza and Korn 1956) Steyn et al. 1998 comb. nov. is the type species of the rapidly growing genus Pedobacter within the family Sphingobacteriaceae of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes'. P. heparinus is of interest, because it was the first isolated strain shown to grow with heparin as sole carbon and nitrogen source and because it produces several enzymes involved in the degradation of mucopolysaccharides. All available data about this species are based on a sole strain that was isolated from dry soil. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first report on a complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Pedobacter, and the 5,167,383 bp long single replicon genome with its 4287 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Saccharomonospora viridis type strain (P101T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Kuske, Cheryl; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides1, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Saccharomonospora viridis (Schuurmans et al. 1956) Nonomurea and Ohara 1971 is the type species of the genus Saccharomonospora which belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae. S. viridis is of interest because it is a Gram-negative organism classified amongst the usually Gram-positive actinomycetes. Members of the species are frequently found in hot compost and hay, and its spores can cause farmer?s lung disease, bagassosis, and humidifier fever. Strains of the species S. viridis have been found to metabolize the xenobiotic pentachlorophenol (PCP). The strain described in this study has been isolated from peat-bog in Ireland. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, and the 4,308,349 bp long single replicon genome with its 3906 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. A Hairpin Ribozyme Inhibits Expression of Diverse Strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mang; Ojwang, Joshua; Yamada, Osamu; Hampel, Arnold; Rapapport, Jay; Looney, David; Wong-Staal, Flossie

    1993-07-01

    Ribozymes have enormous potential as antiviral agents. We have previously reported that a hairpin ribozyme expressed under the control of the β-actin promoter that cleaves human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the leader sequence can inhibit HIV-1 (pHXB2gpt) expression. For such a ribozyme in a retroviral vector delivery system to be useful in gene therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, it must be able to inhibit the expression of multiple HIV-1 strains. We have now cloned this ribozyme into various regular expression vectors (including retroviral vectors) by using various gene expression control strategies. Here we show by transient transfection that inhibition of expression of diverse strains of HIV-1 can be achieved by this ribozyme expressed in the proper vectors. These data further support the potential of this hairpin ribozyme as a therapeutic agent for HIV-1.

  12. Complete genome sequence of the gliding, heparinolytic Pedobacter saltans type strain (113T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kotsyurbenko, Oleg [Technical University of Braunschweig; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Pedobacter saltans Steyn et al. 1998 is one of currently 32 species in the genus Pedobacter within the family Sphingobacteriaceae. The species is of interest for its isolated location in the tree of life. Like other members of the genus P. saltans is heparinolytic. Cells of P. saltans show a peculiar gliding, dancing motility and can be distinguished from other Pedobacter strains by their ability to utilize glycerol and the inability to assimilate D-cellobiose. The ge- nome presented here is only the second completed genome sequence of a type strain from a member of the family Sphingobacteriaceae to be published. The 4,635,236 bp long genome with its 3,854 protein-coding and 67 RNA genes consists of one chromosome, and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  13. 2- and 3-substituted imidazo [1,2-a] pyrazines as inhibitors of bacterial type IV secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Sayer, J. R.; Walldén, K.; Pesnot, T.; Campbell, F.; Gane, P.J.; de Simone, M.; Koss, H; Buelens, F.; Boyle, T.P.; Selwood, D. L.; Waksman, G; Tabor, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    A novel series of 8-amino imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives has been developed as inhibitors of the VirB11 ATPase HP0525, a key component of the bacterial type IV secretion system. A flexible synthetic route to both 2- and 3-aryl substituted regioisomers has been developed. The resulting series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines has been used to probe the structure-activity relationships of these inhibitors, which show potential as antibacterial agents.

  14. Full Genome Sequence-Based Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Piccirillo, Alessandra; Lavezzo, Enrico; Niero, Giulia; Moreno, Ana; Massi, Paola; Franchin, Elisa; Toppo, Stefano; Salata, Cristiano; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate...

  15. Group B streptococcal Ibc protein antigen: distribution of two determinants in wild-type strains of common serotypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D R; Ferrieri, P

    1984-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the distribution of the Ibc protein antigenic marker in wild-type strains of group B streptococci of diverse serotypes isolated from epidemiological studies. Rabbits were immunized with group B streptococcal strain H36B, a prototype Ib strain, to produce antibody to the Ibc protein antigens. One antiserum (no. 970) contained antibody only against the trypsin-sensitive (TS) portion of the Ibc antigen. A second antiserum (no. 973), however, contained antibody to both...

  16. Plasmids spread very fast in heterogeneous bacterial communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisio, Francisco; Matic, Ivan; Radman, Miroslav; Rodrigues, Olivia R; Taddei, François

    2002-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids can mediate gene transfer between bacterial taxa in diverse environments. The ability to donate the F-type conjugative plasmid R1 greatly varies among enteric bacteria due to the interaction of the system that represses sex-pili formations (products of finOP) of plasmids already harbored by a bacterial strain with those of the R1 plasmid. The presence of efficient donors in heterogeneous bacterial populations can accelerate plasmid transfer and can spread by several order...

  17. Dynamics of bacterial communities in two unpolluted soils after spiking with phenanthrene: soil type specific and common responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chun eDing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering their key role for ecosystem processes, it is important to understand the response of microbial communities in unpolluted soils to pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Phenanthrene, a model compound for PAH, was spiked to a Cambisol and a Luvisol soil. Total community DNA from phenanthrene-spiked and control soils collected on days 0, 21 and 63 were analyzed based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genefragments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprints of bacterial communities increasingly deviated with time between spiked and control soils. In taxon specific DGGE, significant responses of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria became only detectable after 63 days, while significant effects on Betaproteobacteria were detectable in both soils after 21 days. Comparison of the taxonomic distribution of bacteria in spiked and control soils on day 63 as revealed by pyrosequencing indicated soil type specific negative effects of phenanthrene on several taxa, many of them belonging to the Gamma-, Beta- or Deltaproteobacteria. Bacterial richness and evenness decreased in spiked soils. Despite the significant differences in the bacterial community structure between both soils on day 0, similar genera increased in relative abundance after PAH spiking, especially Sphingomonas and Polaromonas. However, this did not result in an increased overall similarity of the bacterial communities in both soils.

  18. Evolution of the Sabin type 1 poliovirus in humans: characterization of strains isolated from patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu, M M; Balanant, J.; MacAdam, A.; Otelea, D.; Combiescu, M; Combiescu, A. A.; Crainic, R.; Delpeyroux, F

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated strains of the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine replicate in the human gut and in rare cases cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Reversion of vaccine strains toward a pathogenic phenotype is probably one of the main causes of VAPP, a disease most frequently associated with type 3 and type 2 strains and more rarely with the type 1 (Sabin 1) strain. To identify the determinants and mechanisms of safety versus pathogenicity of the Sabin 1 strain, we characterized the...

  19. Identification of novel linear megaplasmids carrying a ß-lactamase gene in neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum type E strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Franciosa

    Full Text Available Since the first isolation of type E botulinum toxin-producing Clostridium butyricum from two infant botulism cases in Italy in 1984, this peculiar microorganism has been implicated in different forms of botulism worldwide. By applying particular pulsed-field gel electrophoresis run conditions, we were able to show for the first time that ten neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains originated from Italy and China have linear megaplasmids in their genomes. At least four different megaplasmid sizes were identified among the ten neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains. Each isolate displayed a single sized megaplasmid that was shown to possess a linear structure by ATP-dependent exonuclease digestion. Some of the neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains possessed additional smaller circular plasmids. In order to investigate the genetic content of the newly identified megaplasmids, selected gene probes were designed and used in Southern hybridization experiments. Our results revealed that the type E botulinum neurotoxin gene was chromosome-located in all neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains. Similar results were obtained with the 16S rRNA, the tetracycline tet(P and the lincomycin resistance protein lmrB gene probes. A specific mobA gene probe only hybridized to the smaller plasmids of the Italian C. butyricum type E strains. Of note, a ß-lactamase gene probe hybridized to the megaplasmids of eight neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains, of which seven from clinical sources and the remaining one from a food implicated in foodborne botulism, whereas this ß-lactam antibiotic resistance gene was absent form the megaplasmids of the two soil strains examined. The widespread occurrence among C. butyricum type E strains associated to human disease of linear megaplasmids harboring an antibiotic resistance gene strongly suggests that the megaplasmids could have played an important role in the emergence of C. butyricum type E as a human

  20. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater. PMID:25693403

  1. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for strain typing of Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawires, Youhanna S; Songer, J Glenn

    2005-10-01

    Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in the environment and causes diseases in man and animals, with syndromes ranging from enteritis, enterotoxemia, and sudden death to food poisoning and gas gangrene. Understanding the epidemiology of these infections and of the evolution of virulence in C. perfringens necessitate an efficient, time and cost effective strain typing method. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) has been applied to typing of other pathogens and we describe here the development of a MLVA scheme for C. perfringens. We characterized five variable tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, four of which are contained within protein encoding genes and screened 112 C. perfringens isolates to evaluate typability, reproducibility, and discriminatory power of the scheme. All the isolates were assigned a MLVA genotype and the technique has excellent reproducibility, with a numerical index of discrimination for the five VNTR loci of 0.995. Thus MLVA is an efficient tool for C. perfringens strain typing, and being PCR based makes it rapid, easy, and cost effective. In addition, it can be employed in epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary investigations of the organism. PMID:16701582

  2. A piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under certain application conditions like nanoindentation technology and the mechanical property measurement of soft materials, the elastic deformation of strain-type load sensors affects their displacement measurement accuracy. In this work, a piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors that compensates for this elastic deformation is presented. The piezoelectric material-based deformation compensation method is proposed. An Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH (HBM) Z30A/50N load sensor acts as the foundation of the method presented in this work. The piezoelectric stack is selected based on its size, maximum deformation value, blocking force and stiffness. Then, a clamping and fixing structure is designed to integrate the HBM sensor with the piezoelectric stack. The clamping and fixing structure, piezoelectric stack and HBM load sensor comprise the sensing part of the enhanced load sensor. The load-deformation curve and the voltage-deformation curve of the enhanced load sensor are then investigated experimentally. Because a hysteresis effect exists in the piezoelectric structure, the relationship between the control signal and the deformation value of the piezoelectric material is nonlinear. The hysteresis characteristic in a quasi-static condition is studied and fitted using a quadratic polynomial, and its coefficients are analyzed to enable control signal prediction. Applied arithmetic based on current theory and the fitted data is developed to predict the control signal. Finally, the experimental effects of the proposed method are presented. It is shown that when a quasi-static load is exerted on this enhanced strain-type load sensor, the deformation is reduced and the equivalent stiffness appears to be almost infinite. (paper)

  3. A piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Shao, Shubao; Chen, Jie; Xu, Minglong

    2015-11-01

    Under certain application conditions like nanoindentation technology and the mechanical property measurement of soft materials, the elastic deformation of strain-type load sensors affects their displacement measurement accuracy. In this work, a piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors that compensates for this elastic deformation is presented. The piezoelectric material-based deformation compensation method is proposed. An Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH (HBM) Z30A/50N load sensor acts as the foundation of the method presented in this work. The piezoelectric stack is selected based on its size, maximum deformation value, blocking force and stiffness. Then, a clamping and fixing structure is designed to integrate the HBM sensor with the piezoelectric stack. The clamping and fixing structure, piezoelectric stack and HBM load sensor comprise the sensing part of the enhanced load sensor. The load-deformation curve and the voltage-deformation curve of the enhanced load sensor are then investigated experimentally. Because a hysteresis effect exists in the piezoelectric structure, the relationship between the control signal and the deformation value of the piezoelectric material is nonlinear. The hysteresis characteristic in a quasi-static condition is studied and fitted using a quadratic polynomial, and its coefficients are analyzed to enable control signal prediction. Applied arithmetic based on current theory and the fitted data is developed to predict the control signal. Finally, the experimental effects of the proposed method are presented. It is shown that when a quasi-static load is exerted on this enhanced strain-type load sensor, the deformation is reduced and the equivalent stiffness appears to be almost infinite.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III, Multilocus Sequence Type 283 Strain SG-M1

    OpenAIRE

    Kurosh S. Mehershahi; Hsu, Li Yang; Koh, Tse Hsien; Chen, Swaine L.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a common commensal strain in the human gastrointestinal tract that can also cause invasive disease in humans and other animals. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SG-M1, a serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283 strain, isolated from a Singaporean patient suffering from meningitis.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III, Multilocus Sequence Type 283 Strain SG-M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehershahi, Kurosh S; Hsu, Li Yang; Koh, Tse Hsien; Chen, Swaine L

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a common commensal strain in the human gastrointestinal tract that can also cause invasive disease in humans and other animals. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SG-M1, a serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283 strain, isolated from a Singaporean patient suffering from meningitis. PMID:26494662

  6. Colistin Resistance in a Clinical Acinetobacter baumannii Strain Appearing after Colistin Treatment: Effect on Virulence and Bacterial Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    López-Rojas, Rafael; McConnell, Michael J.; Jiménez-Mejías, Manuel Enrique; Domínguez-Herrera, Juan; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    The fitness and virulence costs associated with the clinical acquisition of colistin resistance by Acinetobacter baumannii were evaluated. The growth of strain CR17 (colistin resistant) was less than that of strain CS01 (colistin susceptible) when the strains were grown in competition (72-h competition index, 0.008). In a murine sepsis model, CS01 and CR17 reached spleen concentrations when coinfecting of 9.31 and 6.97 log10 CFU/g, respectively, with an in vivo competition index of 0.016. Mor...

  7. Importance of cough and M. tuberculosis strain type as risks for increased transmission within households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Jones-López

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The degree to which tuberculosis (TB is transmitted between persons is variable. Identifying the factors that contribute to transmission could provide new opportunities for TB control. Transmission is influenced by host, bacterial and environmental factors. However, distinguishing their individual effects is problematic because measures of disease severity are tightly correlated, and assessing the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is complicated by epidemiological and clinical confounders. OBJECTIVES: To overcome these problems, we investigated factors potentially associated with TB transmission within households. METHODS: We evaluated patients with smear-positive (≥2+, pulmonary TB and classified M. tuberculosis strains into single nucleotide polymorphism genetic cluster groups (SCG. We recorded index case, household contact, and environmental characteristics and tested contacts with tuberculin skin test (TST and interferon-gamma release assay. Households were classified as high (≥70% of contacts with TST≥10 mm and low (≤40% transmission. We used logistic regression to determine independent predictors. RESULT: From March 2008 to June 2012, we screened 293 TB patients to enroll 124 index cases and their 731 contacts. There were 23 low and 73 high transmission households. Index case factors associated with high transmission were severity of cough as measured by a visual analog cough scale (VACS and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ, and cavitation on chest radiograph. SCG 3b strains tended to be more prevalent in low (27.3% than in high (12.5% transmission households (p = 0.11. In adjusted models, only VACS (p<0.001 remained significant. SCG was associated with bilateral disease on chest radiograph (p = 0.002 and marginally associated with LCQ sores (p = 0.058, with group 3b patients having weaker cough. CONCLUSIONS: We found differential transmission among otherwise clinically similar patients

  8. Evaluation of Anti-adherent Activity of Excretions of Irradiated Lucilia sericata Maggot and Certain Essential Oils against Some Pathogenic Bacterial Strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential Oils are widely used for their medicinal properties. They block adhesion and colonization of pathogenic microbes to epithelial cells which associated with bacterial resistance to antibiotics. So, this study investigates the effect of Lu cilia sacarato (flesh fly-an ectoparasitic) excretions of non-irradiated and irradiated maggot and some essential oils on biofilm formation by tube method, antimicrobial susceptibility by agar disc diffusion method as well as on their anti-adherent activity by spectrophotometric method. The results showed that excretions and secretions (E/S) of non-irradiated and irradiated maggots (at 20 Gy), as well as (clove and cinnamon oils) did not have antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Staphylococcus aureus (St. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (St. epidermidis) except marjoram oil which has low antimicrobial activity against all the tested strains. The results also showed that the most potent oil was clove which decrease biofilm of P. aeruginosa by 83%, followed by marjoram (69%), then E/S of non-irradiated maggots (66%). Whiles, biofilm was less affected by cinnamon oil and E/S of irradiated maggots by 50 % and 36%, respectively. In addition, clove oil and E/S of non-irradiated maggots affect the pre-adhered biofilm of P. aeruginosa by 57 and 45 %, respectively. Conclusion: Clove oil flowed by marjoram had anti-adherent effect on P. aeruginosa. Greater inhibition of adhesion was observed by excretions of non-irradiated lucilia sericata.

  9. Effects of Iron on Hydrogen-producing Capacity,Hydrogenase and NADH-fd Reductase Activities of a Fermentative Hydrogen-producing Bacterial Strain B49

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiangjing(王相晶); Ren Nanqi; Xiang Wensheng

    2004-01-01

    Iron plays an important role in hydrogen production, cell growth, hydrogenase and NADH-fd reductase activities of hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 (AF481148 in EMBL). At the end of fermentation from 10 g/L glucose, for the culture containing 10 mg/L FeSO4*7H2O the cell growth in terms of optical density (OD) at 600nm was 1.13, the ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) was 1.55, and the accumulated hydrogen volume was 1816.3 ml H2/L culture; whereas for the culture of 80 mg/L FeSO4*7H2O OD600nm was increased to 1.34, the accumulated hydrogen volume was increased to 2360.5 ml H2/L culture, and the ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) decreased to 1.31. Moreover, the iron addition to the medium at different fermentation time could affect hydrogen-producing ability. However, the later the addition time of FeSO4*7H2O was postponed, the less the effect on hydrogen evolution was. In the course of fermentation, the specific activities of hydrogenase and NADH-fd reductase of hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 decreased with the consumption of iron.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Sanguibacter keddieii type strain (ST-74T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Sikorski, Johannes; Sims, David; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Chen, Feng; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Goker, Markus; Pukall, Rudiger; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-20

    Sanguibacter keddieii is the type species of the genus Sanguibacter, the only described genus within the family of Sanguibacteraceae. Phylogenetically, this family is located in the neighbourhood of the genus Oerskovia and the family Cellulomonadaceae within the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. The strain described in this report was isolated from blood of apparently healthy cows. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Sanguibacteraceae, and the 4,253,413 bp long single replicon genome with its 3735 protein-coding and 70 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. Genome sequence of the marine bacterium Corynebacterium maris type strain Coryn-1T (= DSM 45190T)

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffert, Lena; Albersmeier, Andreas; Bednarz, Hanna; Niehaus, Karsten; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium maris Coryn-1T Ben-Dov et al. 2009 is a member of the genus Corynebacterium which contains Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria with a high G+C content. C. maris was isolated from the mucus of the Scleractinian coral Fungia granulosa and belongs to the aerobic and non-haemolytic corynebacteria. It displays tolerance to salts (up to 10%) and is related to the soil bacterium Corynebacterium halotolerans . As this is a type strain in a subgroup of Corynebacterium without com...

  12. Complete genetic characterization of a Brazilian dengue virus type 3 strain isolated from a fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Pereira Miagostovich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the complete nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of Brazilian dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 from a dengue case with fatal outcome, which occurred during an epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002. This constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of a Brazilian DENV-3 strain since its introduction into the country in 2001. DENV-3 was responsible for the most severe dengue epidemic in the state, based on the highest number of reported cases and on the severity of clinical manifestations and deaths reported.

  13. Cloning of a very virulent plus, 686 strain of Marek’s disease virus as a bacterial artificial chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors were first developed to facilitate propagation and manipulation of large DNA fragments. This technology was later used to clone full-length genomes of large DNA viruses to study viral gene function. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic herpe...

  14. Complete genome sequence of the orange-red pigmented, radioresistant Deinococcus proteolyticus type strain (MRPT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Zeytun, Ahmet [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Yasawong, Montri [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Pukall, Rudiger [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Deinococcus proteolyticus (ex Kobatake et al. 1973) Brook and Murray 1981 is one of currently 47 species in the genus Deinococcus within the family Deinococcaceae. Strain MRPTT was isolated from faeces of Lama glama; it shares with various other species of the genus the extreme radiation resistance, with D. proteolyticus being resistant up to 1.5 Mrad of gamma radiation. Strain MRPT{sup T} is of further interest for its carotenoid pigment. The genome presented here is only the fifth completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Deinococcus (and the forth type strain) to be published, and will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of how members of this genus adapted to high gamma- or UV ionizing-radiation. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,886,836 bp long genome with its four large plasmids of 97 kbp, 132 kbp, 196 kbp and 315 kbp harbours 2,741 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  15. Characterization of the stress-strain behaviour in type 316 stainless steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monotonic and cyclic stress-strain behaviours of type 316 stainless steel weld metal and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), obtained by the automatic tungsten inert gas process, were investigated at 550 and 650 deg C and compared with base material data. Uniform gage specimens were machined from longitudinal welds executed on a 4-mm. thick, 2 inch tube and tested in the as welded condition. Owing to the small extension of the HAZ in these joints, an artificial HAZ was obtained in base material specimens by a simulation technique based on micro-hardness and grain size values. Cyclic tests were conducted under diametral control at constant strain rate of 10-3 s-1, according to the incremental-step method. Test data from several specimens were correlated with the Ramberg-Osgood analytic relationship by the root-mean-square technique. Results indicate that the cyclic stress response of the HAZ and especially of the weld material are significantly lower than that of the base metal so that plastic strain accumulation is very likely to occur at the highest service loads. The related work is part of a research program aimed at checking the reliability of the analysis techniques employed for design of LMFBR welded components. (author)

  16. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains isolated from fish and fishery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyytiä, E; Hielm, S; Björkroth, J; Korkeala, H

    1999-05-01

    The genetic biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with two macrorestriction enzymes (SmaI-XmaI and XhoI) and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with two primers (OPJ 6 and OPJ 13) to characterize 67 Finnish isolates from fresh fish and fishery products, 15 German isolates from farmed fish, and 10 isolates of North American or North Atlantic origin derived mainly from different types of seafood. The effects of fish species, processing, and geographical origin on the epidemiology of the isolates were evaluated. Cluster analysis based on macrorestriction profiles was performed to study the genetic relationships of the isolates. PFGE and RAPD analyses were combined and resulted in the identification of 62 different subtypes among the 92 type E isolates analyzed. High genetic biodiversity among the isolates was observed regardless of their source. Finnish and North American or North Atlantic isolates did not form distinctly discernible clusters, in contrast with the genetically homogeneous group of German isolates. On the other hand, indistinguishable or closely related genetic profiles among epidemiologically unrelated samples were detected. It was concluded that the high genetic variation was probably a result of a lack of strong selection factors that would influence the evolution of type E. The wide genetic biodiversity observed among type E isolates indicates the value of DNA-based typing methods as a tool in contamination studies in the food industry and in investigations of botulism outbreaks. PMID:10224001

  17. Complete genome sequence of Coraliomargarita akajimensis type strain (04OKA010-24T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Brambilla, Evelyne; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Desphande, Shweta; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Held, Brittany; Brettin, Thomas; Tapia, Roxanne; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Liolios, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Rohde, Manfred; G& #246; ker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2010-06-25

    Coraliomargarita akajimensis Yoon et al. 2007 the type species of the genus Coraliomargarita. C. akajimensis is an obligately aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, spherical bacterium which was isolated from seawater surrounding the hard coral Galaxea fascicularis. C. akajimensis organism is of special interest because of its phylogenetic position in a genomically purely studied area in the bacterial diversity. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Puniceicoccaceae. The 3,750,771 bp long genome with its 3,137 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes of two strains of human adenovirus type 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG ZHOU; XIAO Bo SU; QI WEI ZIIANG; QI YI ZENG; BING ZHU; CHU Yu ZHANG; Hou Bo WU; ZAO HE WU; SI TANG GONG

    2007-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) is widely prevalent all over the world, especially in Asia. The objective of this study is to carry out complete genomic DNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis for two strains (Guangzhou01 and Guangzhou02) of HAdV-3 wild virus isolated from South China. Nasopharyngeal secretion aspirate specimens of sick children were inoculated into HEp-2 and HeLa culture tubes, and the cultures were identified by neutralization assay with type-specific reference rabbit antisermn. Type-specific primers were also utilized to confirm the serotype. The restriction fragments of HAdV genome DNA were cloned into pBlueScript SK ( + ) vectors and sequenced, and the 5' and 3'ends of the linear HAdV-3 genome were directly sequenced with double purified genomic DNA as templates. General features of the HAdV-3 genome sequences were explored by using several bio-software.Phylogenetic analysis was done with MEGA 3.0 software. The genomic sequences of Guangzhou01 and Guangzhou02 possess the same 4 early regions and 5 late regions and have 39 ceding sequences and two RNA coding sequences. Other non-ceding regions are conservative. Inverted repeats and palindromes were identified in the genome sequences. The genomes of group B human adenovirus as well as HAdV-3have close phylogenetic relationship with that of chimpanzee adenovirus type 21. The genomie lengths of these two isolated strains are 35 273 bp and 35 269 bp, respectively. The phylogenetie analysis showed that HAdV-B species has some relationship with eertain types of chimpanzee adenovirus.

  19. Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanshan; Luo, Yijing; Cao, Siyuan; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Jiang, Lingxi; Dong, Hanping; Yu, Li; Wu, Wei-Min

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests. PMID:23856587

  20. A MAT1–2 wild-type strain from Penicillium chrysogenum: functional mating-type locus characterization, genome sequencing and mating with an industrial penicillin-producing strain

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, Julia; Dahlmann, Tim A; Gümüşer, Hendrik; Kück, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In heterothallic ascomycetes, mating is controlled by two nonallelic idiomorphs that determine the ‘sex’ of the corresponding strains. We recently discovered mating-type loci and a sexual life cycle in the penicillin-producing fungus, P enicillium chrysogenum. All industrial penicillin production strains worldwide are derived from a MAT1-1 isolate. No MAT1-2 strain has been investigated in detail until now. Here, we provide the first functional analysis of a MAT1-2 locus from a wild-type stra...

  1. Bacterial Degradation of Cyanide and Its Metal Complexes under Alkaline Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M.; Huertas, María-J.; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, M. Dolores; García-Gil, L. Jesús; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) ...

  2. Nonreplicating, Cyst-Defective Type II Toxoplasma gondii Vaccine Strains Stimulate Protective Immunity against Acute and Chronic Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccine strains, such as type I nonreplicating uracil auxotroph mutants, are highly effective in eliciting lifelong immunity to virulent acute infection by Toxoplasma gondii. However, it is currently unknown whether vaccine-elicited immunity can provide protection against acute infection and also prevent chronic infection. To address this problem, we developed nonreverting, nonreplicating, live attenuated uracil auxotroph vaccine strains in the type II Δku80 genetic background...

  3. Complete genome sequence of Tsukamurella paurometabola type strain (no. 33T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Christine [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Yasawong, Montri [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2011-01-01

    Tsukamurella paurometabola corrig. (Steinhaus 1941) Collins et al. 1988 is the type species of the genus Tsukamurella, which is the type genus to the family Tsukamurellaceae. The spe- cies is not only of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location, but also because it is a human opportunistic pathogen with some strains of the species reported to cause lung in- fection, lethal meningitis, and necrotizing tenosynovitis. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Tsukamurella and the first genome sequence of a member of the family Tsukamurellaceae. The 4,479,724 bp long genome contains a 99,806 bp long plasmid and a total of 4,335 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes, and is a part of the Ge- nomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance, genotypic characterization and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of extended spectrum β-lactamases-producing clinical Escherichia coli strains in Macao, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qian-hong; LAU Ying; LIANG Bin; TIAN Su-fei

    2011-01-01

    Background The rise of the production of CTX-M class extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has been well documented in traveling countries but no data are found for Macao,an international travel city.The objectives of this study were to identify the antimicrobial resistance pattern,and determine the prevalence,genotype and clonal relationship of ESBLs in 209 clinical Escherichia coli strains from Macao,China.Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed to determine the resistance patterns of the isolates using the disk diffusion method with 17 antimicrobial agents.Phenotypic detection was screened and confirmed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Genotypic characterization was detected by isoelectric focusing analysis,polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.The clonal relationship between the different ESBL isolates was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).Results Imipenem and meropenem exhibited 100% susceptible among 209 strains.Overall,82.3%,67.3%,52.9%,51.2% and 51.0% of the isolates displayed resistance to ampicillin,tetracylcline,ciprofloxacin,sulfamethoxazole trimethoprin and gentamycin.The prevalence rate of ESBLs was 30.1%.Antibiotic resistances were found to be significantly higher among the ESBL producing group compared to non-ESBL producing group.We detected CTX-M-14 to be the major genotypic characterization of ESBLs (76.2%).Two strains showed indistinguishable patterns by PFGE.Conclusions The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is alarming high in Macao.Antimicrobial resistance is significantly higher among the ESBL producing group.This study documented CTX-M-14 as the predominant ESBL type.Although indistinguishable pattern was found between two strains,it was too small to decide whether any of the investigated strains was epidemic.Our findings may be also pertinent for other geographic areas undergoing similar travel characteristics to understand the corresponding effects on bacterial

  5. Selection of potent bacterial strain for over-production of PHB by using low cost carbon source for eco-friendly bioplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Abdul Rehman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microbial PHB production is a promising tool for the plastic industry for the synthesis of environmental friendly, biodegradable plastic in contrast to the conventional petro-chemical based non-degradable plastics. The selection of potent bacterial strains, inexpensive carbon source, efficient fermentation and recovery processes are important aspects that were taken into account during this study. Methods: Different bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus Spp, P. putida and P. fluorescens were screened for maximum PHB production. Under media optimization, various carbon and nitrogen sources (alone or in combination were used to achieve the maximum PHB production. Finally the degradation tests of the PHB sheet were also performed to test its biodegradability potential. Results: Shake flask studies have shown the PHB concentrations upto 7.02, 4.50 and 34.4 mg/g of dry cell mass of P. putida, P. fluorescens and Bacillus Spp. respectively. Almost same results were observed at laboratory scale production of PHB in 10 L fermenter i.e. 6.28, 6.23 and 39.5 mg/g of dry cell mass by P. putida, P. fluorescens and Bacillus Spp. respectively. On the basis of these observations, Bacillus Spp. was chosen for laboratory scale PHB production. Corn steep liquor (4% was chosen as the best medium to achieve the highest PHB contents. Isolated PHB has shown biodegradation in soil up to 86.7% at 37oC. Conclusion: The Bacillus Spp. Proved to be the best strain for PHB production on only 4% CSL which is cheapest and easily available.

  6. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Nicolosi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75% on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75% compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health.

  7. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component) on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Daria; Tempera, Gianna; Genovese, Carlo; Furneri, Pio M

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75%) on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75%) compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health. PMID:27025740

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of 102 Burkholderia pseudomallei strains isolated from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y; Zhu, P; Li, Q; Chen, H; Li, Y; Ren, C; Hu, Y; Tan, Z; Gu, J; Mao, X

    2016-07-01

    The phylogenetic and epidemiological relationships of 102 Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates from different geographical and population sources in China were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The MLST data were analysed using the e-BURST algorithm, and an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram was constructed based on the pair-wise differences in the allelic profiles of the strains. Forty-one sequence types (STs) were identified, of which eight were novel (ST1341, ST1345, ST1346, ST1347, ST1348, ST1349, ST1350, ST1351). No geographical-specific or host population-specific phylogenetic lineages were identified. ST46, ST50, ST55, ST58, ST70 and ST1095 predominated, but ~44% of isolates were assigned to 45 STs illustrating high genetic diversity in the strain collection. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationships of the dominant STs in China showed significant linkeage with B. pseudomallei isolates from Thailand. Analysis of the gmhD allele suggests high genetic variation in B. pseudomallei in China. PMID:26744829

  9. Complete genome sequence of Capnocytophaga ochracea type strain (VPI 2845T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Gronow, Sabine; Saunders, Elizabeth; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice1, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chain, Patrick; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Bristow, James; Goker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2009-05-20

    Capnocytophaga ochracea (Prevot et al. 1956) Leadbetter et al. 1982 is the type species of the genus Capnocytophaga. It is of interest because of its location in the Flavobacteriaceae, a genomically yet uncharted family within the order Flavobacteriales. The species grows as fusiform to rod shaped cells which tend to form clumps and are able to move by gliding. C. ochracea is known as a capnophilic organism with the ability to grow under anaerobic as well as under aerobic conditions (oxygen concentration larger than 15percent), here only in the presence of 5percent CO2. Strain VPI 2845T, the type strain of the species, is portrayed in this report as a gliding, Gram-negative bacterium, originally isolated from a human oral cavity. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the flavobacterial genus Capnocytophaga, and the 2,612,925 bp long single replicon genome with its 2193 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Capnocytophaga ochracea type strain (VPI 2845T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2009-01-01

    Capnocytophaga ochracea (Pr vot et al. 1956) Leadbetter et al. 1982 is the type species of the genus Capnocytophaga. It is of interest because of its location in the Flavobacteriaceae, a genomically not yet charted family within the order Flavobacteriales. The species grows as fusiform to rod shaped cells which tend to form clumps and are able to move by gliding. C. ochracea is known as a capnophilic (CO2-requiring) organism with the ability to grow under anaerobic as well as aerobic conditions (oxygen concentration larger than 15%), here only in the presence of 5% CO2. Strain VPI 2845T, the type strain of the species, is portrayed in this report as a gliding, Gram-negative bacterium, originally isolated from a human oral cavity. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome se-quence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the flavobacterial genus Capnocytophaga, and the 2,612,925 bp long single replicon genome with its 2193 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Veillonella parvula type strain (Te3T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Welnitz, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2010-01-01

    Veillonella parvula (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Pr vot 1933 is the type species of the genus Veillonella in the family Veillonellaceae within the order Clostridiales. The species V. parvula is of interest because it is frequently isolated from dental plaque in the human oral cavity and can cause opportunistic infections. The species is strictly anaerobic and grows as small cocci which usually occur in pairs. Veillonellae are characterized by their unusual metabolism which is centered on the activity of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Strain Te3T, the type strain of the species, was isolated from the human intestinal tract. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the large clostridial family Veillonellaceae, and the 2,132,142 bp long single replicon genome with its 1859 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  12. Promising Biological Indicator of Heavy Metal Pollution: Bioluminescent Bacterial Strains Isolated and Characterized from Marine Niches of Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Neha A; Shanware, Arti S

    2015-09-01

    In present study, several marine water samples collected from the North Goa Beaches, India for isolation of luminescent bacterial species. Isolates obtained labelled as DP1-5 and AB1-6. Molecular characterization including identification of a microbial culture using 16S rRNA gene based molecular technique and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that DP3 & AB1 isolates were Vibrio harveyi. All of the isolates demonstrated multiple metal resistances in terms of growth, with altered luminescence with variable metal concentration. Present investigations were an attempt towards exploring and reporting an updated diversity of bioluminescent bacterial species from various sites around the Goa, India which would be explored in future for constructing luminescence based biosensor for efficiently monitoring the level of hazardous metals in the environment. PMID:26063943

  13. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Bacillus and Sporosarcina Strains Isolated from Concrete and Analysis of the Bacterial Community of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Eom, Hyo Jung; Park, Chulwoo; Jung, Jaejoon; Shin, Bora; Kim, Wook; Chung, Namhyun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Woojun

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (CCP) is a long-standing but re-emerging environmental engineering process for production of self-healing concrete, bioremediation, and long-term storage of CO2. CCP-capable bacteria, two Bacillus strains (JH3 and JH7) and one Sporosarcina strain (HYO08), were isolated from two samples of concrete and characterized phylogenetically. Calcium carbonate crystals precipitated by the three strains were morphologically distinct according to field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping confirmed biomineralization via extracellular calcium carbonate production. The three strains differed in their physiological characteristics: growth at alkali pH and high NaCl concentrations, and urease activity. Sporosarcina sp. HYO08 and Bacillus sp. JH7 were more alkali- and halotolerant, respectively. Analysis of the community from the same concrete samples using barcoded pyrosequencing revealed that the relative abundance of Bacillus and Sporosarcina species was low, which indicated low culturability of other dominant bacteria. This study suggests that calcium carbonate crystals with different properties can be produced by various CCP-capable strains, and other novel isolates await discovery. PMID:26699752

  14. Can a specific sub-group of biofilm- forming Gardnerella vaginalis strains be the real causative agent of bacterial vaginosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Joana; Machado, António; Alves, P.; Sousa, Cármen; Cereija, T. B.; França, Ângela; Jefferson, K. K.; Cerca, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    In the past half century, bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been a controversial topic in medical microbiology, and despite the wealth of information on this topic, the etiological agent has not yet been definitively identified [1]. The first advances on BV pointed Gardnerella vaginalis as the infectious causative agent of BV [2] but soon after it was found that G. vaginalis was also present in healthy women [3]. Additionally, G. vaginalis was not able to cause BV consistently. Furthermore, other ...

  15. Differential activation of inflammatory pathways in A549 type II pneumocytes by Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with different adherence properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Rebecca T

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria to lung cells is a first step in the progression from asymptomatic carriage to pneumonia. Adherence abilities vary widely among S. pneumoniae patient isolates. In this study, the binding properties of S. pneumoniae isolates and the effects of binding on activation of the Nuclear Factor-Kappa-B (NFκB pathway and cytokine secretion by type II pneumocytes were measured. Methods Mechanisms of high- and low-binding S. pneumoniae adherence to A549 cells were investigated by blocking putative receptors on bacteria and host cells with antibody and by eluting choline-binding proteins off of bacterial surfaces. NFκB activation was measured by western blot and immunocytochemistry and cytokine secretion was detected by a protein array. Results This study shows that S. pneumoniae isolates from pneumonia patients (n = 298 can vary by as much as 1000-fold in their ability to bind to human lung epithelial cells. This difference resulted in differential activation of the NFκB pathway. High-, but not low-binding S. pneumoniae used Choline-binding protein A (CbpA to bind to complement component C3 on epithelial cell surfaces. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 was the only cytokine secreted by cells treated with either low- or high-binding S. pneumoniae. Conclusion These results indicate that S. pneumoniae clinical isolates are not homogeneous in their interaction with host epithelial cells. The differential activation of host cells by high- and low-binding S. pneumoniae strains could have implications for the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia and for vaccine development.

  16. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    Full Text Available Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all

  17. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  18. Critical roles of sea cucumber C-type lectin in non-self recognition and bacterial clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiumei; Liu, Xiangquan; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Sheng; Sun, Guohua; Yang, Jialong

    2015-08-01

    C-type lectin is one important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that plays crucial roles in multiple immune responses. A C-type lectin from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjCTL-1) was characterized in the present study. The amino acid sequence of AjCTL-1 shared high similarities with other C-type lectins from invertebrates and vertebrates. The C-type lectin domain (CTLD) of AjCTL-1 contained a Ca(2+)-binding site 2 and four conserved cysteine residues. AjCTL-1 mRNA expression patterns in tissues and after bacterial challenge were then analysed. Quantitative PCR revealed that AjCTL-1 mRNA was widely expressed in the tested tissues of healthy sea cucumber. The highest expression level occurred in gonad followed by body wall, coelomocytes, tentacle, intestinum and longitudinal muscle, and the lowest expression level was in respiratory tree. AjCTL-1 mRNA expression in coelomocytes was significantly induced by gram-negative Listonella anguillarum and gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, with different up-regulation patterns post-challenge. Recombinant AjCTL-1 exhibited the ability to bind peptidoglycan directly, agglutinate M. luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, in a Ca(2+)-dependant manner, and enhance the phagocytosis of coelomocytes against E. coli in vitro. The results indicated that AjCTL-1 could act as a PRR in Apostichopus japonicus and had critical roles in non-self recognition and bacterial clearance against invading microbes. PMID:26052017

  19. Extracellular secretion of Carocin S1 in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum occurs via the type III secretion system integral to the bacterial flagellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Duen-yau

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is a phytopathogenic enterobacterium responsible for soft rot, a disease characterized by extensive maceration of the affected plant tissue. This species also produces two or more antibacterial substances called bacteriocins, which enhance its competitiveness against related rival species. However, the secretion mechanism for low-molecular-weight bacteriocin is still unknown. Results A mutant (flhC::Tn5 that did not secrete the low-molecular-weight bacteriocin (LMWB, Carocin S1, was generated by Tn5 insertional mutagenesis. Sequence analysis indicated that this insertion disrupted open reading frame 2 (ORF2 and ORF3 of this strain. Deletion and rescue experiments indicated that ORF2 and ORF3 were both required for extracellular LMWB secretion. The ORF2 and ORF3 sequences showed high homology with the flhD and flhC gene sequences of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atroseptica, Serratia marcescens, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Escherichia coli, indicating that they likely encoded key regulatory components of the type III flagella secretion system. Conclusion Thus, the extracellular export of Carocin S1 by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum appears to utilize the type III secretion system integral to bacterial flagella.

  20. Enhanced Degradation of Diesel in the Rhizosphere of after Inoculation with Diesel-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterial Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Kidd, Petra S; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Monterroso, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The association of plants and rhizospheric bacteria provides a successful strategy to clean up contaminated soils. The purpose of this work was to enhance diesel degradation in rhizosphere by inoculation with selected bacterial strains: a diesel degrader (D), plant growth-promoting (PGP) strains, or a combination (D+PGP). Plants were set up in pots with the A or B horizon of an umbric Cambisol (A and B) spiked with diesel (1.25%, w/w). After 1 mo, the dissipation of diesel range organics (DRO) with respect to = 0 (i.e., 1 wk after preparing the pots with the seedlings) concentration was significantly higher in inoculated than in noninoculated (NI) pots: The highest DRO losses were found in A D+PGP pots (close to 15-20% higher than NI) and in B D pots (close to 10% higher). The water-extractable DRO fraction was significantly higher at = 30 d (15-25%) compared with = 0 (PGP strains resulted in a promising combination for application in the rhizoremediation of soils with moderate diesel contamination. PMID:27136159

  1. Genome Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Type 8 Strains Persisting in Salmon and Poultry Processing Environments and Comparison with Related Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Schirmer, Bjørn C T; Møretrø, Trond; Heir, Even

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis, and can be found throughout the environment, in many foods and in food processing facilities. The main cause of listeriosis is consumption of food contaminated from sources in food processing environments. Persistence in food processing facilities has previously been shown for the L. monocytogenes sequence type (ST) 8 subtype. In the current study, five ST8 strains were subjected to whole-genome sequencing and compared with five additionally available ST8 genomes, allowing comparison of strains from salmon, poultry and cheese industry, in addition to a human clinical isolate. Genome-wide analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) confirmed that almost identical strains were detected in a Danish salmon processing plant in 1996 and in a Norwegian salmon processing plant in 2001 and 2011. Furthermore, we show that L. monocytogenes ST8 was likely to have been transferred between two poultry processing plants as a result of relocation of processing equipment. The SNP data were used to infer the phylogeny of the ST8 strains, separating them into two main genetic groups. Within each group, the plasmid and prophage content was almost entirely conserved, but between groups, these sequences showed strong divergence. The accessory genome of the ST8 strains harbored genetic elements which could be involved in rendering the ST8 strains resilient to incoming mobile genetic elements. These included two restriction-modification loci, one of which was predicted to show phase variable recognition sequence specificity through site-specific domain shuffling. Analysis indicated that the ST8 strains harbor all important known L. monocytogenes virulence factors, and ST8 strains are commonly identified as the causative agents of invasive listeriosis. Therefore, the persistence of this L. monocytogenes subtype in food processing facilities poses a significant concern for food safety

  2. Comparative study of wild and transformed salt tolerant bacterial strains on Triticum aestivum growth under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia Afrasayab; Muhammad Faisal; Shahida Hasnain

    2010-01-01

    Eleven salt tolerant bacteria isolated from different sources (soil, plants) and their transformed strains were used to study their influence on Triticum aestivum var. Inqlab-91 growth under salt (100 mM NaCl) stress. Salt stress caused reduction in germination (19.4%), seedling growth (46%) and fresh weight (39%) in non-inoculated plants. In general, both wild and transformed strains stimulated germination, seedling growth and fresh weight in salt free and salt stressed conditions. At 100 mM...

  3. Functional replacement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase with a bacterial type II system allows flexible product profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moya, Ruben; Leber, Christopher; Cardenas, Javier; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    The native yeast type I fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a complex, rigid enzyme, and challenging to engineer for the production of medium- or short-chain fatty acids. Introduction of a type II FAS is a promising alternative as it allows expression control for each discrete enzyme and the addition of heterologous thioesterases. In this study, the native Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAS was functionally replaced by the Escherichia coli type II FAS (eFAS) system. The E. coli acpS + acpP (together), fabB, fabD, fabG, fabH, fabI, fabZ, and tesA were expressed in individual S. cerevisiae strains, and enzyme activity was confirmed by in vitro activity assays. Eight genes were then integrated into the yeast genome, while tesA or an alternate thioesterase gene, fatB from Ricinus communis or TEII from Rattus novergicus, was expressed from a multi-copy plasmid. Native FAS activity was eliminated by knocking out the yeast FAS2 gene. The strains expressing only the eFAS as de novo fatty acid source grew without fatty acid supplementation demonstrating that this type II FAS is able to functionally replace the native yeast FAS. The engineered strain expressing the R. communis fatB thioesterase increased total fatty acid titer 1.7-fold and shifted the fatty acid profile towards C14 production, increasing it from fatty acids, and reducing C18 production from 39% to 8%. PMID:26084339

  4. Genomic Insights into Aquimarina sp. Strain EL33, a Bacterial Symbiont of the Gorgonian Coral Eunicella labiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Costa, Tina; Silva, Rúben; Lago-Lestón, Asunción

    2016-01-01

    To address the metabolic potential of symbiotic Aquimarina spp., we report here the genome sequence of Aquimarina sp. strain EL33, a bacterium isolated from the gorgonian coral Eunicella labiata. This first-described (to our knowledge) animal-associated Aquimarina genome possesses a sophisticated repertoire of genes involved in drug/antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis. PMID:27540075

  5. Control of foodborne pathogens and soft-rot bacteria on bell pepper by three strains of bacterial antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-two representative strains of native bacteria associated with fresh peeled baby carrots were isolated and characterized. Two of them identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens AG3A (Pf AG3A) and Bacillus YD1 were evaluated in conjunction with another known antagonist, P. fluorescens 2-79 (Pf 2-79)...

  6. Phenotypic resistance of resistant strains of HIV type-1 subtype B in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jue; WANG Zhe; WU Hao; LI Jing-yun; LU Jun-feng; DONG Hua-huang; BAO Zuo-yi; LIU Si-yang; LI Han-ping; ZHUANG Dao-min; LIU Yong-jian; LI Hong

    2006-01-01

    Background This study was aim to explore the characteristics of phenotypic resistance of resistant strains of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) subtype B and to compare the concordance between the phenotypic resistance and genotypic resistance. Methods The genotypic resistance assay for the HIV-1 clinical isolates was performed. One isolate without resistance mutation was chosen as a drug-sensitive reference strain and seven subtype B isolates with resistance mutations were phenotypically tested. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) between resistant and sensitive viruses were compared. The resistance extent was determined by the folds of the increased IC50. The concordance between the phenotypic resistance and genotypic resistance was also analyzed.Results IC50 of resistant isolates were 0.0006-0.1300 μmol/L for zidovudine (AZT), 0.0016-0.0390 μmol/L for lamivudine (3TC), 0.0104-0.4234 μmol/L for nevirapine (NVP), and 0.0163-0.1142 μmol/L for indinavir (IDV), respectively. Genotypic and phenotypic resistance assays indicated that the resistant strains were intermediately and highly resistant to nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors and non-nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The phenotypic assay was consistent with the genotypic assay. For measuring the potential resistance, the genotypic assay was more sensitive than the phenotypic. In evaluating the resistance to protease inhibitors, these two assays were discrepant.Conclusions Both the phenotypic and genotypic assays indicate that the resistant viruses exist in HIV-infected patients in China who have received treatment. Phenotypic and genotypic assays have high concordance, and the genotypic assay could replace the phenotypic assay to predict the HIV-1 resistance.

  7. Full Genome Sequence-Based Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piccirillo

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV. Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains. Genomes of three ILTV field isolates from outbreaks occurred in Italy in 1980, 2007 and 2011, and two commercial chicken embryo origin (CEO vaccines were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences technology. The comparison with the Serva genome showed that 35 open reading frames (ORFs differed across the five genomes. Overall, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 27 amino acid differences in 19 ORFs and two insertions in the UL52 and ORFC genes were identified. Similarity among the field strains and between the field and the vaccine strains ranged from 99.96% to 99.99%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship among them, as well. This study generated data on genomic variation among Italian ILTV strains revealing that, even though the genetic variability of the genome is well conserved across time and between wild-type and vaccine strains, some mutations may help in differentiating among them and may be involved in ILTV virulence/attenuation. The results of this study can contribute to the understanding of the molecular bases of ILTV pathogenicity and provide genetic markers to differentiate between wild-type and vaccine strains.

  8. Full Genome Sequence-Based Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Alessandra; Lavezzo, Enrico; Niero, Giulia; Moreno, Ana; Massi, Paola; Franchin, Elisa; Toppo, Stefano; Salata, Cristiano; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains. Genomes of three ILTV field isolates from outbreaks occurred in Italy in 1980, 2007 and 2011, and two commercial chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences technology. The comparison with the Serva genome showed that 35 open reading frames (ORFs) differed across the five genomes. Overall, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 27 amino acid differences in 19 ORFs and two insertions in the UL52 and ORFC genes were identified. Similarity among the field strains and between the field and the vaccine strains ranged from 99.96% to 99.99%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship among them, as well. This study generated data on genomic variation among Italian ILTV strains revealing that, even though the genetic variability of the genome is well conserved across time and between wild-type and vaccine strains, some mutations may help in differentiating among them and may be involved in ILTV virulence/attenuation. The results of this study can contribute to the understanding of the molecular bases of ILTV pathogenicity and provide genetic markers to differentiate between wild-type and vaccine strains. PMID:26890525

  9. Feline coronavirus type II strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 originate from a double recombination between feline coronavirus type I and canine coronavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Herrewegh, A.A.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Groot, R.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the type II feline coronavirus (FCoV) strains 79-1146 and 79-1683 have arisen from a homologous RNA recombination event between FCoV type I and canine coronavirus (CCV). In both cases, the template switch apparently took place between the S and M genes, giving rise to r

  10. A survey of biofilms on wastewater aeration diffusers suggests bacterial community composition and function vary by substrate type and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Peter A; Park, Hee-Deung; Olson, Betty H; Asvapathanagul, Pitiporn; Hunter, M Colby; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Rosso, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Aeration diffusers in wastewater treatment plants generate air bubbles that promote mixing, distribution of dissolved oxygen, and microbial processing of dissolved and suspended matter in bulk solution. Biofouling of diffusers represents a significant problem to wastewater treatment plants because biofilms decrease oxygen transfer efficiency and increase backpressure on the blower. To better understand biofouling, we conducted a pilot study to survey the bacterial community composition and function of biofilms on different diffuser substrates and compare them to those in the bulk solution. DNA was extracted from the surface of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), polyurethane, and silicone diffusers operated for 15 months in a municipal treatment plant and sampled at 3 and 9 months. The bacterial community composition and function of the biofilms and bulk solution were determined by amplifying the 16S rRNA genes and pyrosequencing the amplicons and raw metagenomic DNA. The ordination plots and dendrograms of the 16S rRNA and functional genes showed that while the bacterial community composition and function of the bulk solution was independent of sampling time, the composition and function of the biofilms differed by diffuser type and testing time. For the EPDM and silicone diffusers, the biofilm communities were more similar in composition to the bulk solution at 3 months than 9 months. In contrast, the bacteria on the polyurethane diffusers were more dissimilar to the bulk solution at 3 months than 9 months. Taken together, the survey showed that the community composition and function of bacterial biofilms depend on the diffuser substrate and testing time, which warrants further elucidation. PMID:27294381

  11. Bacterial biodiversity analysis of a contaminated soil from the Chernobyl exclusion zone and characterization of the committed interaction of a Microbacterium strain with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plants accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima demonstrate the importance of the understanding of the transfer of the radioactive contamination in the environment and its ecological consequences. Although certain studies have been realized on superior organisms of the food chain, studies on telluric bacterial communities are scarce. The latter play nevertheless an essential role in the mobility of contaminants in soils by decreasing or improving their transfer towards other compartments (water, vegetables and animals). Moreover radionuclides (RNs) can have toxic effects on bacteria, leading to an inhibition of their participation in such transfer. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the impact of the radioactive contamination on bacterial communities belonging to a soil of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (trench T22) and (2) to study the uranium-bacteria interactions of a resistant strain, isolated from this soil. The various techniques used to characterize the bacterial diversity (culture of bacteria, DGGE, 454 pyro-sequencing) all testified of the multiplicity and the abundance of the bacterial communities in spite of the contamination. An impact on the community structure was difficult to assess by DGGE or cultural approach, but was nevertheless highlighted by the use of pyro-sequencing, suggesting the presence of species more adapted to the contaminated soil conditions. A specific molecular tool dedicated to the search of bacteria affiliated to the known radiation resistant Deinococcus-Thermus phylum (for example the Deinococcus radiodurans specie survives after an irradiation of several kGy) was developed. However it did not reveal the presence of bacteria affiliated to such a phylum in the studied soil. In parallel to the study of the bacterial biodiversity, about fifty culturable bacteria were isolated from this site and were used as a support to select a species (Microbacterium) capable to survive strong U(VI) concentrations. The

  12. Effect of catchment land use and soil type on the concentration, quality, and bacterial degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autio, Iida; Soinne, Helena; Helin, Janne;

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of catchment characteristics (soil type and land use) on the concentration and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in river water and on the bacterial degradation of terrestrial DOM. The share of organic soil was the strongest predictor of high concentrations of...... communities within 2–3 months. Simultaneously, the proportion of humic-like compounds in the DOM pool increased. Bioavailable DON accounted for approximately one-third of the total bioavailable dissolved nitrogen, and thus, terrestrial DON can markedly contribute to the coastal plankton dynamics and support...

  13. Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases

    OpenAIRE

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N-) in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study...

  14. Profile of Cytokines and Chemokines Triggered by Wild-Type Strains of Rabies Virus in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appolinário, Camila Michele; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Peres, Marina Gea; Ribeiro, Bruna Devidé; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Vicente, Acácia Ferreira; Antunes, João Marcelo A de Paula; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Rabies is a lethal infectious disease that causes 55,000 human deaths per year and is transmitted by various mammalian species, such as dogs and bats. The host immune response is essential for avoiding viral progression and promoting viral clearance. Cytokines and chemokines are crucial in the development of an immediate antiviral response; the rabies virus (RABV) attempts to evade this immune response. The virus's capacity for evasion is correlated with its pathogenicity and the host's inflammatory response, with highly pathogenic strains being the most efficient at hijacking the host's defense mechanisms and thereby decreasing inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of a set of cytokine and chemokine genes that are related to the immune response in the brains of mice inoculated intramuscularly or intracerebrally with two wild-type strains of RABV, one from dog and the other from vampire bat. The results demonstrated that the gene expression profile is intrinsic to the specific rabies variant. The prompt production of cytokines and chemokines seems to be more important than their levels of expression for surviving a rabies infection. PMID:26711511

  15. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F.; Velvis, H.; Zachow, C.; Berg, G.; Elsas, van J.D.; Sessitsch, A.

    2006-01-01

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4 lysozyme

  16. Phototrophic oxidation of ferrous iron by a Rhodomicrobium vannielii strain

    OpenAIRE

    Heising, Silke; Schink, Bernhard

    1998-01-01

    Oxidation of ferrous iron was studied with the anaerobic phototrophic bacterial strain BS-1. Based on morphology, substrate utilization patterns, arrangement of intracytoplasmic membranes and the in vivo absorption spectrum, this strain was assigned to the known species Rhodomicrobium vannielii. Also, the type strain of this species oxidized ferrous iron in the light. Phototrophic growth of strain BS-1 with ferrous iron as electron donor was stimulated by the presence of acetate or succinate ...

  17. Two Different Bacterial Community Types Are Linked with the Low-Methane Emission Trait in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Cesar S Pinares-Patiño; Seedorf, Henning; Kirk, Michelle R.; Ganesh, Siva; McEwan, John C; Janssen, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is produced in the rumens of ruminant animals from hydrogen produced during microbial degradation of ingested feed. The natural animal-to-animal variation in the amount of CH4 emitted and the heritability of this trait offer a means for reducing CH4 emissions by selecting low-CH4 emitting animals for breeding. We demonstrate that differences in rumen microbial community structure are linked to high and low CH4 emissions in sheep. Bacterial community str...

  18. Ring strain and total syntheses of modified macrocycles of the isoplagiochin type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Speicher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocycles of the bisbibenzyl-type are natural products that are found exclusively in bryophytes (liverworts. The molecular framework of the subtype “isoplagiochin” is of substantial structural interest because of the chirality of the entire molecule, which arises from two biaryl axes in combination with two helical two-carbon units in a cyclic arrangement. From a structural as well as a synthetic point of view we report on the total synthesis of compounds which possess more rigid two-carbon biaryl bridges like stilbene (E or Z or even tolane moieties which were introduced starting with a Sonogashira protocol. The McMurry method proved to be a powerful tool for the cyclization to these considerably ring-strained macrocycles.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Brachybacterium faecium type strain (Schefferle 6-10T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla; Pukall, Rudiger; LaButti, Kurt; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Chen, Feng; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Johnathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Brachybacterium faecium Collins et al. 1988 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its location in the Dermabacteraceae, a rather isolated family within the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. B. faecium is known for its rod-coccus growth cycle and the ability to degrade uric acid. It grows aerobically or weakly anaerobically. The strain described in this report is a free-living, nonmotile, Gram-positive bacterium, originally isolated from poultry deep litter. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the actinobacterial family Dermabacteraceae, and the 3,614,992 bp long single replicon genome with its 3129 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Olsenella uli type strain (VPI D76D-27CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yasawong, Montri [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Pukall, Rudiger [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2010-01-01

    Olsenella uli (Olsen et al. 1991) Dewhirst et al. 2001 is the type species of the genus Olsenella, which belongs to the actinobacterial family Coriobacteriaceae. The species is of interest because it is frequently isolated from dental plaque in periodontitis patients and can cause primary endodontic infection. The species is a Gram-positive, non-motile and non-sporulating bacterium. The strain described in this study has been isolated from human gingival crevices in 1982. This is the first completed sequence of the genus Olsenella and the fifth sequence from the family Coriobacteriaceae. The 2,051,896 bp long genome with its 1,795 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  1. Genome sequence of the marine bacterium Corynebacterium maris type strain Coryn-1(T) (= DSM 45190(T)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffert, Lena; Albersmeier, Andreas; Bednarz, Hanna; Niehaus, Karsten; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian

    2013-07-30

    Corynebacterium maris Coryn-1(T) Ben-Dov et al. 2009 is a member of the genus Corynebacterium which contains Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria with a high G+C content. C. maris was isolated from the mucus of the Scleractinian coral Fungia granulosa and belongs to the aerobic and non-haemolytic corynebacteria. It displays tolerance to salts (up to 10%) and is related to the soil bacterium Corynebacterium halotolerans. As this is a type strain in a subgroup of Corynebacterium without complete genome sequences, this project, describing the 2.78 Mbp long chromosome and the 45.97 kbp plasmid pCmaris1, with their 2,584 protein-coding and 67 RNA genes, will aid the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:24501635

  2. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a new porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; He, Kongwang; Wen, Libin; Fan, Hongjie

    2015-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiological agent associated with several pig diseases that are collectively referred to as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Unfortunately, PCV2 has had a serious economic impact on the swine industry. In this study, we report the genome sequence of a novel PCV2 isolate (JS2015) identified in pigs in Jiang Su, China. The complete DNA sequence was 1766 nucleotides long with an A+T content of 52.7%. It lacked a guanine (G) at nucleotide position 1045 compared to other reference PCV2 strains with a sequence length of 1766 nucleotides. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate JS2015 was most closely related to members of the PCV2d (AY181946) lineage. Our data provide insight into the epidemiology of porcine circovirus and may facilitate further study of the origin and evolution of PCV2. PMID:26395090

  3. Direct linkage of mitochondrial genome variation to risk factors for type 2 diabetes in conplastic strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Hyakukoku, M.; Houštěk, Josef; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Mikšík, Ivan; Mothejzíková-Dudová, Kristýna; Pecina, Petr; Vrbacký, Marek; Drahota, Zdeněk; Vojtíšková, Alena; Mráček, Tomáš; Kazdová, L.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Wang, Ji.; Ho, Ch.; Qi, N.; Sugimoto, K.; Kurtz, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2007), s. 1319-1326. ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0028; GA ČR GA303/07/0781 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 24/2005; GA UK(CZ) 26/2005; National Institutes of Health(US) HL35018; National Institutes of Health(US) HL56028; National Institutes of Health(US) HL63709; EURATOOLS(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : mitochondrial genome * conplastic strains * risk factors for type 2 diabetes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.224, year: 2007

  4. Characterization of melanin produced by a wild-type strain of Bacillus cereus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianping; CAI Jun; DENG Yinyue; CHEN Yuehua; REN Gaixin

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus 58 (Bc58)is a UV-resistant wild type strain that has an ability to produce a sorrel pigment induced by L-tyrosine.The Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR)spectra and chemical tests of its pigment are similar to that of the standard melanin (Sigma).A bioassay shows that the LC50 of a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)formulation added with the melanin of Bc58 and exposed to UV for 5 h is 16.1 μg/ml,which is similar to that of the Bt formulation without UV treatment,however,it is almost double that of the Bt formulation exposed to UV without the melanin of Bc58.The result of SDS-PAGE indicates that the melanin of Bc58 can protect the insecticidal crystal proteins from degradation.This suggests that it is an excellent UV protective agent for the insecticidal crystal proteins of the Bt formulation.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and AP-PCR Typing of Acine¬tobac-ter Spp. Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ranjbar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acinetobacter spp., as important opportunistic pathogens, have been found to be responsible for an increas­ing number of nosocomial infections. This study was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of Iranian isolates of A. baumannii. Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 19 months in three hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from different clinical specimens using standard bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to the standard CLSI guideline using 17 antibiotic disks. The AP-PCR fingerprinting was car­ried out using ARB11 primer. The PCR product was run and visualized in 2% agarose gels and stained with ethidium bro­mide. The AP-PCR profiles were grouped depending on the patterns of the amplified bands.Results: Sixty seven strains of Acinetobacter spp. (including 21 A. baumannii and 46 non- A. baumannii were isolated. The sources of these isolates were blood, urine, wound, and respiratory tract.  A. baumannii isolates were further studied. Re­sults showed that all A. baumannii isolates were resistant to at least 11 antibiotics tested. AP-PCR analysis of A. bauman­nii strains resulted in 7 different patterns. The dominant AP-PCR pattern was E (57.1%. Conclusion: Acinetobacter spp. are still important nosocomial pathogens in the region studied and most of isolates were multi-drug resistant. Our results also indicate that the AP-PCR technique represents a rapid and simple means for typing of A. baumannii.

  6. Change in hydrophilicity of penicillins during advanced oxidation by radiolytically generated OH compromises the elimination of selective pressure on bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Engelhardt, Tekla; Rácz, Gergely; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-05-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are promising technologies for removal of antibiotic residues from wastewater in terms of their high efficacy. However, recent studies have reported the remaining antibacterial activity of the products at early-stages of treatment. The present study investigates the effect of such products of model β-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin) on bacteria introducing structure-based, and biological approaches involving Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Chemical analysis revealed the destruction of the β-lactam pharmacophore in competition with the reaction at the aromatic ring. Multisite attack occurs on the penicillin skeleton producing OH-substituted products. The enhanced hydrophilicity confers higher diffusion rate through the porin channels of Gram-negative bacteria and through the hydrophilic cell wall of Gram-positive species. Accordingly, an increase in acute toxicity of treated samples was observed at the beginning of the treatment. The same tendency was observed for target-specific antimicrobial activity investigated with antibiotic susceptibility testing (agar-diffusion, bacterial growth). Prolonged treatments yielded products, e.g. polyhydroxylated phenolic compounds, being also deleterious for bacteria. Therefore, the advanced oxidation process should be judiciously optimized. PMID:26881730

  7. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus urinary tract infection depends on bacterial strain and β-hemolysin/cytolysin that mediates cytotoxicity, cytokine synthesis, inflammation and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sophie Y; Sullivan, Matthew J; Ipe, Deepak S; Smith, Joshua P; Cripps, Allan W; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause urinary tract infection (UTI) including cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). The early host-pathogen interactions that occur during S. agalactiae UTI and subsequent mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, we define the early interactions between human bladder urothelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and mouse bladder using uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) 807 and ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) 834 strains. UPSA 807 adhered, invaded and killed bladder urothelial cells more efficiently compared to ABSA 834 via mechanisms including low-level caspase-3 activation, and cytolysis, according to lactate dehydrogenase release measures and cell viability. Severe UPSA 807-induced cytotoxicity was mediated entirely by the bacterial β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-H/C) because an β-H/C-deficient UPSA 807 isogenic mutant, UPSA 807ΔcylE, was not cytotoxic in vitro; the mutant was also significantly attenuated for colonization in the bladder in vivo. Analysis of infection-induced cytokines, including IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo revealed that cytokine and chemokine responses were dependent on expression of β-H/C that also elicited severe bladder neutrophilia. Thus, virulence of UPSA 807 encompasses adhesion to, invasion of and killing of bladder cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses that elicit neutrophil infiltration, and β-H/C-mediated subversion of innate immune-mediated bacterial clearance from the bladder. PMID:27383371

  8. Comparative study of wild and transformed salt tolerant bacterial strains on Triticum aestivum growth under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Afrasayab

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven salt tolerant bacteria isolated from different sources (soil, plants and their transformed strains were used to study their influence on Triticum aestivum var. Inqlab-91 growth under salt (100 mM NaCl stress. Salt stress caused reduction in germination (19.4%, seedling growth (46% and fresh weight (39% in non-inoculated plants. In general, both wild and transformed strains stimulated germination, seedling growth and fresh weight in salt free and salt stressed conditions. At 100 mM NaCl, Staphylococcus xylosus ST-1 caused 25% increments in seedling length over respective control. Soluble protein content significantly enhanced (49% under salt stress as compared to salt free control. At 100 mM NaCl parental strain PT-5 resulted about 32% enhancement in protein content over respective control treatment. Salt stress induced the promotion of auxin content in seedlings. Overall, Bacillus subtilis HAa2 and transformed E. coli-SP-7-T, caused 33% and 30% increases in auxin content, respectively, were recorded under salt stress in comparison to control.

  9. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 4-Chloro-3-Nitrophenylthiourea Derivatives Targeting Bacterial Type II Topoisomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielenica, Anna; Stępień, Karolina; Napiórkowska, Agnieszka; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Krukowski, Sylwester; Włodarczyk, Marta; Struga, Marta

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel 4-chloro-3-nitrophenylthiourea derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial, antibiofilm and tuberculostatic activities. Most of compounds exhibited high antibacterial activity against both standard and hospital strains (MIC values 0.5-2 μg/mL), as compared to Ciprofloxacin. Derivatives with 3,4-dichlorophenyl (11) and 3-chloro-4-methylphenyl (13) substituents were the most promising towards Gram-positive pathogens. Both of them exhibited antibiofilm potency and effectively inhibited the formation of biofilms of methicillin-resistant and standard strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Two N-alkylthioureas (20, 21) showed twofold to fourfold increase in in vitro potency against isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as compared to Isoniazid. An action of 7, 10, 11, 13, 20 and 21 against activity of topoisomerases isolated from Staphylococcus aureus was studied. Synthesized compounds were found as non-genotoxic. PMID:26804238

  10. Biological Control Activities of Rice-Associated Bacillus sp. Strains against Sheath Blight and Bacterial Panicle Blight of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishnu K; Karki, Hari Sharan; Groth, Donald E; Jungkhun, Nootjarin; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Potential biological control agents for two major rice diseases, sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, were isolated from rice plants in this study. Rice-associated bacteria (RABs) isolated from rice plants grown in the field were tested for their antagonistic activities against the rice pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Burkholderia glumae, which cause sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, respectively. Twenty-nine RABs were initially screened based on their antagonistic activities against both R. solani and B. glumae. In follow-up retests, 26 RABs of the 29 RABs were confirmed to have antimicrobial activities, but the rest three RABs did not reproduce any observable antagonistic activity against R. solani or B. glumae. According to16S rDNA sequence identity, 12 of the 26 antagonistic RABs were closest to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while seven RABs were to B. methylotrophicus and B, subtilis, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequences of the three non-antagonistic RABs were closest to Lysinibacillus sphaericus (RAB1 and RAB12) and Lysinibacillus macroides (RAB5). The five selected RABs showing highest antimicrobial activities (RAB6, RAB9, RAB16, RAB17S, and RAB18) were closest to B. amyloliquefaciens in DNA sequence of 16S rDNA and gyrB, but to B. subtilis in that of recA. These RABs were observed to inhibit the sclerotial germination of R. solani on potato dextrose agar and the lesion development on detached rice leaves by artificial inoculation of R. solani. These antagonistic RABs also significantly suppressed the disease development of sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight in a field condition, suggesting that they can be potential biological control agents for these rice diseases. However, these antagonistic RABs showed diminished disease suppression activities in the repeated field trial conducted in the following year probably due to their reduced antagonistic activities to the pathogens during the long-term storage in -70C, suggesting that

  11. Phase variation of a Type IIG restriction-modification enzyme alters site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Awais; Brathwaite, Kelly J; Aidley, Jack; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Parkhill, Julian; Connerton, Ian; Bayliss, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    Phase-variable restriction-modification systems are a feature of a diverse range of bacterial species. Stochastic, reversible switches in expression of the methyltransferase produces variation in methylation of specific sequences. Phase-variable methylation by both Type I and Type III methyltransferases is associated with altered gene expression and phenotypic variation. One phase-variable gene of Campylobacter jejuni encodes a homologue of an unusual Type IIG restriction-modification system in which the endonuclease and methyltransferase are encoded by a single gene. Using both inhibition of restriction and PacBio-derived methylome analyses of mutants and phase-variants, the cj0031c allele in C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 was demonstrated to specifically methylate adenine in 5'CCCGA and 5'CCTGA sequences. Alterations in the levels of specific transcripts were detected using RNA-Seq in phase-variants and mutants of cj0031c but these changes did not correlate with observed differences in phenotypic behaviour. Alterations in restriction of phage growth were also associated with phase variation (PV) of cj0031c and correlated with presence of sites in the genomes of these phages. We conclude that PV of a Type IIG restriction-modification system causes changes in site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression patterns that may indirectly change adaptive traits. PMID:26786317

  12. Typing of cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus reference and Canadian field strains using a neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Magar, R; Minocha, H C; Montpetit, C; Carman, P S; Lecomte, J.

    1988-01-01

    Cytopathic and noncytopathic reference strains as well as Canadian field isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus were analyzed by neutralization and immunofluorescence tests using a bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Results on reference strains indicated three major antigenic groups: I) NADL-like, II) New York 1-like and III) Oregon C24V-like. Field isolates could be segregated into groups I and II and none could be typed into the group III. It appears tha...

  13. Characterization of Bacteriophages Cp1 and Cp2, the Strain-Typing Agents for Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Ogawa, Megumi; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker, are historically classified based on bacteriophage (phage) sensitivity. Nearly all X. axonopodis pv. citri strains isolated from different regions in Japan are lysed by either phage Cp1 or Cp2; Cp1-sensitive (Cp1s) strains have been observed to be resistant to Cp2 (Cp2r) and vice versa. In this study, genomic and molecular characterization was performed for the typing agents Cp1 and Cp2. Morphologically, Cp...

  14. Complete genome sequence of Denitrovibrio acetiphilus type strain (N2460T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Hajnalka; Lang, Elke; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Nolan, Matt; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Chen, Feng; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Detter, John C.; Brettin, Thomas; Spring, Stefan; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2010-06-25

    Denitrovibrio acetiphilus Myhr and Torsvik 2000 is the type species of the genus Denitrovibrio in the bacterial family Deferribacteraceae. It is of phylogenetic interest because there are only six genera described in the family Deferribacteraceae. D. acetiphilus was isolated as a representative of a population reducing nitrate to ammonia in a laboratory column simulating the conditions in off-shore oil recovery fields. When nitrate was added to this column undesirable hydrogen sulfide production was stopped because the sulfate reducing populations were superseded by these nitrate reducing bacteria. Here we describe the features of this marine, mesophilic, obligately anaerobic organism respiring by nitrate reduction, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the second complete genome sequence of the order Deferribacterales and the class Deferribacteres, which is the sole class in the phylum Deferribacteres. The 3,222,077 bp genome with its 3,034 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  15. The Effect of Specific Conditions on Cu, Ni, Zn and Al Recovery from PCBS Waste Using Acidophilic Bacterial Strains

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    Mrážiková A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of static, stirring and shaking conditions on copper, zinc, nickel and aluminium dissolution from printed circuit boards (PCBs using the mixed acidophilic bacterial culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The results revealed that static conditions were the most effective in zinc and aluminium dissolution. Zinc was removed almost completely under static conditions, whereas maximum of nickel dissolution was reached under the stirring conditions. The highest copper recovery (36% was reached under stirring conditions. The shaking conditions appeared to be the least suitable. The relative importance of these systems for the bioleaching of copper and nickel decreased in the order: stirring, static conditions, shaking.

  16. Bacterial Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Köhle, Ülkü; Kükner, Şahap

    2003-01-01

    Conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva, generally characterized by irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing and discharge. Bacterial conjunctivitis may be distinguished from other types of conjunctivitis by the presence of yellow–white mucopurulent discharge. It is the most common form of ocular infection all around the world. Staphylococcus species are the most common bacterial pathogenes, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus i...

  17. A novel type of VP4 carried by a porcine rotavirus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gene encoding the VP8* trypsin-cleavage product of the VP4 protein of porcine rotavirus strain A34 was sequenced, and the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence was compared to the homologous region of all known P genotypes. The aa sequence of the VP8* of strain A34 shared low identity, ranging from 39% (bovine strain B223, P8[11]) to 76% (human strain 69M, P4[10]), with the homologous sequences of representative strains of the remaining 21 P genotypes. Phylogenetic relationships showed that the VP8* of strain A34 shares a common evolutionary lineage with those of human 69M (P4[10]) and equine H-2 (P4[12]) strains. Hyperimmune sera raised to strain A34 and to a genetic reassortant strain containing the VP4 gene from strain A34, both with high homologous neutralization titer via VP4, failed to neutralize strains representative of 15 different P genotypes. These results indicate that strain A34 should be considered as prototype of a new P genotype and serotype (P14[23]) and provide further evidence for the vast genetic and antigenic diversity of group A rotaviruses

  18. Penetration barrier contributes to bacterial biofilm-associated resistance against only select antibiotics, and exhibits genus-, strain- and antibiotic-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rachna; Sahore, Simmi; Kaur, Preetinder; Rani, Alka; Ray, Pallab

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial biofilms are implicated in a wide range of implant-based and chronic infections. These infections are often associated with adverse therapeutic outcomes, owing to the decreased antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms compared with their planktonic counterparts. This altered biofilm susceptibility has been attributed to multiple factors, including a reduced antibiotic penetration. Although several studies have addressed the role of penetration barrier in biofilm-associated drug resistance, it remains inconclusive. This study was done to elucidate antibiotic penetration through biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using an agar disk diffusion assay. Penetration capacity of six antimicrobial drugs from different classes (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, fluoroquinolones and glycopeptides) through biofilms formed by standard strains and clinical isolates from catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) was elucidated by measuring their growth-inhibition zones in lawn cultures on Mueller-Hinton agar, following diffusion of an antibiotic from an overlying disk through their biofilm to the agar medium. Penetration of only select antimicrobials (vancomycin and chloramphenicol) was hindered through biofilms. There was considerable variation in biofilm-permeating capacity depending upon the genus, strain/CRBSI isolate and antibiotic tested. Furthermore, antibiotics failed to kill the biofilm cells independent of penetration, indicating that other factors contributed substantially to biofilm resistance. PMID:27402781

  19. Contributions of NanI sialidase to Caco-2 cell adherence by Clostridium perfringens type A and C strains causing human intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies showed that Clostridium perfringens type D animal disease strain CN3718 uses NanI sialidase for adhering to enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. The current study analyzed whether NanI is similarly important when type A and C human intestinal disease strains attach to Caco-2 cells. A PCR survey determined that the nanI gene was absent from typical type A food poisoning (FP) strains carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin (CPE) gene or the genetically related type C Darmbrand (Db) strains. However, the nanI gene was present in type A strains from healthy humans, type A strains causing CPE-associated antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) or sporadic diarrhea (SD), and type C Pig-Bel strains. Consistent with NanI sialidase being the major C. perfringens sialidase when produced, FP and Db strains had little supernatant sialidase activity compared to other type A or C human intestinal strains. All type A and C human intestinal strains bound to Caco-2 cells, but NanI-producing strains had higher attachment levels. When produced, NanI can contribute to host cell attachment of human intestinal disease strains, since a nanI null mutant constructed in type A SD strain F4969 had lower Caco-2 cell adhesion than wild-type F4969 or a complemented strain. Further supporting a role for NanI in host cell attachment, sialidase inhibitors reduced F4969 adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that NanI may contribute to the intestinal attachment and colonization needed for the chronic diarrhea of CPE-associated AAD and SD, but this sialidase appears to be dispensable for the acute pathogenesis of type A FP or type C enteritis necroticans. PMID:25135687

  20. Characterization of Clostridium difficile Strains in British Columbia, Canada: A Shift from NAP1 Majority (2008) to Novel Strain Types (2013) in One Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassem, Agatha N.; Prystajecky, Natalie; Marra, Fawziah; Kibsey, Pamela; Tan, Kennard; Umlandt, Patricia; Janz, Loretta; Champagne, Sylvie; Gamage, Bruce; Golding, George R.; Mulvey, Michael R.; Henry, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Clostridium difficile is a major cause of gastrointestinal illness. Epidemic NAP1 strains contain toxins A and B, a deletion in repressor tcdC, and a binary toxin. Objectives. To determine the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in British Columbia and compare between two time points in one region. Methods. C. difficile isolates from hospital and community laboratories (2008) and one Island Health hospital laboratory (2013) were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, toxin possession, tcdC genotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results. In 2008, 42.7% of isolates had NAP1 designation. Hospital-collected isolates were associated with older patients and more NAP1 types. Unlike other isolates, most NAP1 isolates possessed binary toxin and a 19 bp loss in tcdC. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. A 2013 follow-up revealed a 28.9% decrease in NAP1 isolates and 20.0% increase in isolates without NAP designation in one region. Then, community-associated cases were seen in younger patients, while NAP types were evenly distributed. Isolates without NAP designation did not cluster with a PFGE pattern or ribotype. Conclusions. Evaluation of C. difficile infections within British Columbia revealed demographic associations, epidemiological shifts, and characteristics of strain types. Continuous surveillance of C. difficile will enable detection of emerging strains. PMID:27366181

  1. Expression of the bacterial recA gene impairs genetic recombination and sporulation in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio de Morais Junior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli RecA protein (RecAp has been demonstrated to induce mutagenesis in yeast cells, although there is still little information on the role of the RecAp in yeast recombination events. We evaluated spontaneous and induced general recombination in vegetative and meiotic cells of the XS2316 strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae bearing the recA gene. We found that RecAp decreased reciprocal recombination, gene conversion and intrachromosomal recombination and promoted an increase in error-prone processes in both vegetative and meiotic cells, while its negative effect on meiotic recombination blocked ascospore formation.

  2. Hydrogen production by hup(-) mutant and wild-type strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus from dark fermentation effluent of sugar beet thick juice in batch and continuous photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Basar; Gürgan, Muazzez; Özgür, Ebru; Gündüz, Ufuk; Yücel, Meral; Eroglu, Inci

    2015-10-01

    Photofermentative production of hydrogen is a promising and sustainable process; however, it should be coupled to dark fermentation to become cost effective. In order to integrate dark fermentation and photofermentation, the suitability of dark fermenter effluents for the photofermentative hydrogen production must be demonstrated. In this study, thermophilic dark fermenter effluent (DFE) of sugar beet thick juice was used as a substrate in photofermentation process to compare wild-type and uptake hydrogenase-deficient (hup (-)) mutant strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus by means of hydrogen production and biomass growth. The tests were conducted in small-scale (50 mL) batch and large-scale (4 L) continuous photobioreactors in indoor conditions under continuous illumination. In small scale batch conditions, maximum cell concentrations were 0.92 gdcw/L c and 1.50 gdcw/L c, hydrogen yields were 34 % and 31 %, hydrogen productivities were 0.49 mmol/(L c·h) and 0.26 mmol/(Lc·h), for hup (-) and wild-type cells, respectively. In large-scale continuous conditions, maximum cell concentrations were 1.44 gdcw/L c and 1.87 gdcw/L c, hydrogen yields were 48 and 46 %, and hydrogen productivities were 1.01 mmol/(L c·h) and 1.05 mmol/(L c·h), for hup (-) and wild-type cells, respectively. Our results showed that Rhodobacter capsulatus hup (-) cells reached to a lower maximum cell concentration but their hydrogen yield and productivity were in the same range or superior compared to the wild-type cells in both batch and continuous operating modes. The maximum biomass concentration, yield and productivity of hydrogen were higher in continuous mode compared to the batch mode with both bacterial strains. PMID:26164274

  3. Determination of the Stoichiometry of the Complete Bacterial Type III Secretion Needle Complex Using a Combined Quantitative Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkenat, Susann; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Galán, Jorge E; Macek, Boris; Wagner, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Precisely knowing the stoichiometry of their components is critical for investigating structure, assembly, and function of macromolecular machines. This has remained a technical challenge in particular for large, hydrophobic membrane-spanning protein complexes. Here, we determined the stoichiometry of a type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using two complementary protocols of gentle complex purification combined with peptide concatenated standard and synthetic stable isotope-labeled peptide-based mass spectrometry. Bacterial type III secretion systems are cell envelope-spanning effector protein-delivery machines essential for colonization and survival of many Gram-negative pathogens and symbionts. The membrane-embedded core unit of these secretion systems, termed the needle complex, is composed of a base that anchors the machinery to the inner and outer membranes, a hollow filament formed by inner rod and needle subunits that serves as conduit for substrate proteins, and a membrane-embedded export apparatus facilitating substrate translocation. Structural analyses have revealed the stoichiometry of the components of the base, but the stoichiometry of the essential hydrophobic export apparatus components and of the inner rod protein remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the export apparatus of type III secretion systems contains five SpaP, one SpaQ, one SpaR, and one SpaS. We confirmed that the previously suggested stoichiometry of nine InvA is valid for assembled needle complexes and describe a loose association of InvA with other needle complex components that may reflect its function. Furthermore, we present evidence that not more than six PrgJ form the inner rod of the needle complex. Providing this structural information will facilitate efforts to obtain an atomic view of type III secretion systems and foster our understanding of the function of these and related flagellar machines. Given that other virulence

  4. Type 3 fimbriae of Klebsiella sp.: molecular characterization and role in bacterial adhesion to plant roots.

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, T K; Tarkka, E; Ranta, H; Haahtela, K

    1983-01-01

    Type 3 fimbriae of Klebsiella were purified and characterized. The fimbriae were 4 to 5 nm in diameter and 0.5 to 2 microns long. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the fimbrillin had an apparent molecular weight of 23,500, and it differed from enterobacterial type 1 fimbrillins in its amino acid composition. Hydrophobic amino acids comprised 33.6% of all amino acids in the fimbrillin, which lacked cystine, phenylalanine, and arginine. Serologically, the type 3 fimb...

  5. Detection and differentiation of wild-type and a vaccine strain of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, Julia L; Lanka, Saraswathi; Maddox, Carol; Tewari, Deepanker

    2016-07-25

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi), the causative agent of strangles, is an important equine pathogen. Strangles is a highly contagious disease and a commercial modified live vaccine (MLV) is used for protection, which although effective, may also result in clinical signs of the disease. A rapid means to differentiate between the MLV and wild-type infection is crucial for quarantine release and limiting the disease spread. This study describes the use of a pyrosequencing assay targeting a single nucleotide deletion upstream of the SzPSe gene to distinguish between the wild-type and vaccine strains. A set of 96 characterized clinical specimens and isolates were tested using the assay. The assay was successful in differentiating between wild-type S. equi and the vaccine strains and in discriminating S. equi from other Streptococci. The vaccine strain was identified in 61.7% (29/47) of the strangles cases in horses with a history of MLV vaccination. PMID:27317457

  6. Multilocus Sequence Typing Reveals Relevant Genetic Variation and Different Evolutionary Dynamics among Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Scortichini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj strains originating from Juglans regia cultivation in different countries were molecularly typed by means of MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST, using acnB, gapA, gyrB and rpoD gene fragments. A total of 2.5 kilobases was used to infer the phylogenetic relationship among the strains and possible recombination events. Haplotype diversity, linkage disequilibrium analysis, selection tests, gene flow estimates and codon adaptation index were also assessed. The dendrograms built by maximum likelihood with concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed two major and two minor phylotypes. The same haplotype was found in strains originating from different continents, and different haplotypes were found in strains isolated in the same year from the same location. A recombination breakpoint was detected within the rpoD gene fragment. At the pathovar level, the Xaj populations studied here are clonal and under neutral selection. However, four Xaj strains isolated from walnut fruits with apical necrosis are under diversifying selection, suggesting a possible new adaptation. Gene flow estimates do not support the hypothesis of geographic isolation of the strains, even though the genetic diversity between the strains increases as the geographic distance between them increases. A triplet deletion, causing the absence of valine, was found in the rpoD fragment of all 45 Xaj strains when compared with X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306. The codon adaptation index was high in all four genes studied, indicating a relevant metabolic activity.

  7. Application and evaluation of the MLVA typing assay for the Brucella abortus strains isolated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Suk-Chan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Brucella eradication program has been executed in Korea. To effectively prevent and control brucellosis, a molecular method for genetic identification and epidemiological trace-back must be established. As part of that, the MLVA typing assay was evaluated and applied to B. abortus isolates for analyzing the characteristics of the regional distribution and relationships of foreign isolates. Results A total of 177 isolates originating from 105 cattle farms for the period 1996 to 2008 were selected as representatives for the nine provinces of South Korea. A dendrogram of strain relatedness was constructed in accordance with the number of tandem repeat units for 17 loci so that it was possible to trace back in the restricted areas. Even in a farm contaminated by one source, however, the Brucella isolates showed an increase or decrease in one TRs copy number at some loci with high DI values. Moreover, those 17 loci was confirmed in stability via in-vitro and in-vivo passage, and found to be sufficiently stable markers that can readily identify the inoculated strain even if minor changes were detected. In the parsimony analysis with foreign Brucella isolates, domestic isolates were clustered distinctively, and located near the Central and Southern American isolates. Conclusion The MLVA assay has enough discrimination power in the Brucella species level and can be utilized as a tool for the epidemiological trace-back of the B. abortus isolates. But it is important to consider that Brucella isolates may be capable of undergoing minor changes at some loci in the course of infection or in accordance with the changes of the host.

  8. Genetic analysis of the porcine group B rotavirus NSP2 gene from wild-type Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Médici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Group B rotaviruses (RV-B were first identified in piglet feces, being later associated with diarrhea in humans, cattle, lambs, and rats. In human beings, the virus was only described in China, India, and Bangladesh, especially infecting adults. Only a few studies concerning molecular analysis of the RV-B NSP2 gene have been conducted, and porcine RV-B has not been characterized. In the present study, three porcine wild-type RV-B strains from piglet stool samples collected from Brazilian pig herds were used for analysis. PAGE results were inconclusive for those samples, but specific amplicons of the RV-B NSP2 gene (segment 8 were obtained in a semi-nested PCR assay. The three porcine RV-B strains showed the highest nucleotide identity with the human WH1 strain and the alignments with other published sequences resulted in three groups of strains divided according to host species. The group of human strains showed 92.4 to 99.7% nucleotide identity while the porcine strains of the Brazilian RV-B group showed 90.4 to 91.8% identity to each other. The identity of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains with outer sequences consisting of group A and C rotaviruses was only 35.3 to 38.8%. A dendrogram was also constructed to group the strains into clusters according to host species: human, rat, and a distinct third cluster consisting exclusively of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains. This is the first study of the porcine RV-B NSP2 gene that contributes to the partial characterization of this virus and demonstrates the relationship among RV-B strains from different host species.

  9. Grazing incidence diffraction studies of the interactions between ursane-type antimicrobial triterpenes and bacterial anionic phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Flasiński, Michał; Wydro, Paweł; Fontaine, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    α-Amyrin (AMalf) and ursolic acid (Urs) are ursane-type pentacyclic triterpenes which exhibit wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. These surface active compounds can be incorporated into bacterial membranes and alter their structure and function; however, the exact mechanism of their action still needs to be elucidated. Thus, we decided to study the interactions of these terpenes with specific anionic phospholipids:cardiolipins and phosphatidylglycerols extracted from Escherichia coli in the model environment of Langmuir monolayers. To characterize the ordering of the terpene molecules in one-component films as well as to study their interactions with the bacterial phospholipids in binary monolayers we applied grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). It turned out that amyrins and ursolic acid molecules form crystalline hexagonal phases in Langmuir monolayers, in which the molecules are oriented uprightly. Regarding the mixtures, it was found that in the monolayers with Urs crystalline domains are present till moderate or even low Urs proportion. In contrast, in the mixtures with AMalf crystalline domains were observed only at the highest terpene concentration. In the interpretation of our results we underlined the significance of the interactions between the cyclopropane ring present in the hydrophobic part of the bacterial phospholipids and the terminal ring of the terpene structure. We proposed that the significant differences between the systems with AMalf and Urs are connected with the formation of hydrogen bonds between the Urs hydrophobic moieties. It can be inferred from the results that Urs is a more membrane-active agent than AMalf. PMID:25805152

  10. Optical investigation of a strain-induced mixed type-I-type-II superlattice system: CdTe/Cd1-xZnxTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffigo, H.; Magnea, N.; Mariette, H.; Wasiela, A.; Merle D'aubigné, Y.

    1991-06-01

    We present a systematic optical study of strained, CdTe/Cd1-xZnxTe (x~=0.1) superlattices grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. We have observed the intrinsic heavy- and light-hole exciton transitions of these superlattices, as well as the excited states (2s) of the heavy-hole exciton. By studying the energy variation of these transitions as a function of the period, we point out the mixed nature of the superlattice band structure (type I or II for heavy- or light-hole exciton transitions, respectively) due to the opposite strain experienced by the two kinds of layer (CdTe and Cd1-xZnxTe); this is revealed by the relative variation of the light-hole exciton binding energy as a function of the superlattice period compared with that of the heavy hole. All these data provide a determination of the partition of the band-gap discontinuities between the valence and the conduction bands, found to lie between 1/9 and -1/11. Because the valence-band configuration is essentially influenced by the strain, we change the respective energy positions of the direct and indirect exciton transitions just by changing the average strain in the superlattice (namely, by growing the structures on buffer layers of different zinc concentrations); therefore we observe a strain-mediated type-I-type-II transition.

  11. Use of Promising Bacterial Strains for Controlling Anthracnose on Leaf and Fruit of Mango Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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    Prakong YENJIT

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A total 146 isolates of bacteria were taken from leaf surface, fruit skin, and blossom of mango (var. Nam Dorkmai. They were tested for the inhibition of mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose, on potato dextrose agar (PDA. Seventy-four bacterial isolates inhibited the growth of fungal mycelia by 24.51-49.10%. The 40 highly effective isolates out of 74 isolates were further tested for the potential to reduce the development of anthracnose lesion on detached leaves of mango marcotages at 24 h after inoculation of pathogen. Results indicated that 12 isolates provided high efficacy for inhibiting disease by 51.39-86.11%. Application of these bacteria on mango fruits at 24 h prior to the inoculation of the pathogen revealed that isolates B46 and B12 suppressed disease by 50.36 and 44.13% respectively while Trichoderma harzianum CB-Pin-01 provided 37.30% of the inhibition. For controlling post-harvest disease, an isolate B12 or B12 integrated with hot water treatment (55 oC provided 91.33 and 88.00% of disease severity reduction respectively when applied at 24 h before inoculation of pathogen. Isolates B12 and B44 were identified as Bacillus subtilis while B46 and K112 were B. licheniformis and B. cereus respectively. The mechanism of these isolates for controlling C. gloeosporioides was the reduction of spore germination and the inhibition of germ-tube elongation.

  12. [Changes of bacterial flora from hindguts of piglets after oral administration of lactobacillus amylovorus S1 as a probiotic strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yong; Yao, Wen; Zhu, Wei-yun

    2006-12-01

    Changes of bacterial flora from hindguts of piglets from 7 to 35 days of age (two weeks after weaning) were studied after oral administration of L. amylovorus S1, using molecular techniques based on 16S rDNA gene. Six litters of neonatal piglets were divided randomly into control group and treatment group. At 7, 9, 11 days of age, piglets in treatment group received 1, 2 and 3mL preparation of S1 (5 x 10(9) CFU/mL) through oral administration, respectively. On D 7, 14, 21, 24 and 35, one piglet from each litter was slaughtered and samples of hindguts were collected for analysis. The results showed that high G + C mol% bacteria in hindguts of piglets disappeared after weaning and restored gradually two weeks later. Sequencing analysis indicated that most of these high G + C mol% bacteria blonged to Lactobacillus spp. . Statistical analysis showed that treatment with S1 had no marked effect on diversity index of predominant bacteria from hindguts in piglets. By comparing the bands in DGGE profiles between two groups, a specific band in treatment group was found in profiles from piglets at 14 days of age, sequence matched with that showed 95 % similarity to Clostridium disporicum. At 35 days of age, another specific band appeared in control group, which was identified to be Streptococcus suis (99% ). PMID:17302162

  13. Fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity in wild-type strains of Lactobacillus, isolated from the intestinal tract of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolado-Martínez, E; Acedo-Félix, E; Peregrino-Uriarte, A B; Yepiz-Plascencia, G

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoketolases are key enzymes of the phosphoketolase pathway of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, which include lactobacilli. In heterofermentative lactobacilli xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase (X5PPK) is the main enzyme of the phosphoketolase pathway. However, activity of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) has always been considered absent in lactic acid bacteria. In this study, the F6PPK activity was detected in 24 porcine wild-type strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus mucosae, but not in the Lactobacillus salivarius or in L. reuteri ATCC strains. The activity of F6PPK increased after treatment of the culture at low-pH and diminished after porcine bile-salts stress conditions in wild-type strains of L. reuteri. Colorimetric quantification at 505 nm allowed to differentiate between microbial strains with low activity and without the activity of F6PPK. Additionally, activity of F6PPK and the X5PPK gene expression levels were evaluated by real time PCR, under stress and nonstress conditions, in 3 L. reuteri strains. Although an exact correlation, between enzyme activity and gene expression was not obtained, it remains possible that the xpk gene codes for a phosphoketolase with dual substrate, at least in the analyzed strains of L. reuteri. PMID:23101386

  14. Bacterial strains isolated from eggs and their resistance to currently used antibiotics: is there a health hazard for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, C; Dimitriou, D; Levidiotou, S; Gessouli, H; Panagiou, A; Golegou, S; Antoniades, G

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the putative transfer of antibiotic resistance from poultry to humans, hens' eggs were examined for the presence of various pathogens. Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Proteus and Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated genera. Sensitivity tests, performed with the Kirby-Bauer technique, showed the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (to penicillin-G, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, cefalosporins, oxacillin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin), Enterococcus faecalis (to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamycin and tetracyclin), Escherichia coli (to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and cefalosporins), Enterobacter cloacae (to ampicillin, amoxycillin plus clavunalic acid, erythromycin and tetracycline), Pseudomonas stutzeri (to erythromycin and chlorampenicol) and Citrobacter freundii (to ampicillin, amoxycillin plus clavunalic acid, cefalosporins and co-trimoxazole). PMID:9023039

  15. The effect of Clostridium perfringens type C strain CN3685 and its isogenic beta toxin null mutant in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J P; Beingesser, J; Fisher, D J; Sayeed, S; McClane, B A; Posthaus, H; Uzal, F A

    2012-06-15

    Clostridium perfringens type C is an important cause of enteritis and/or enterocolitis in several animal species, including pigs, sheep, goats, horses and humans. The disease is a classic enterotoxemia and the enteric lesions and associated systemic effects are thought to be caused primarily by beta toxin (CPB), one of two typing toxins produced by C. perfringens type C. This has been demonstrated recently by fulfilling molecular Koch's postulates in rabbits and mice. We present here an experimental study to fulfill these postulates in goats, a natural host of C. perfringens type C disease. Nine healthy male or female Anglo Nubian goat kids were inoculated with the virulent C. perfringens type C wild-type strain CN3685, an isogenic CPB null mutant or a strain where the cpb null mutation had been reversed. Three goats inoculated with the wild-type strain presented abdominal pain, hemorrhagic diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary edema, hydropericardium and death within 24h of inoculation. Two goats inoculated with the CPB null mutant and two goats inoculated with sterile culture media (negative controls) remained clinically healthy during 24h after inoculation and no gross or histological abnormalities were observed in the tissues of any of them. Reversal of the null mutation to partially restore CPB production also increased virulence; 2 goats inoculated with this reversed mutant presented clinical and pathological changes similar to those observed in goats inoculated with the wild-type strain, except that spontaneous death was not observed. These results indicate that CPB is required for C. perfringens type C to induce disease in goats, supporting a key role for this toxin in natural C. perfringens type C disease pathogenesis. PMID:22296994

  16. Uniaxial strain-induced magnetic order transition from E-type to A-type in orthorhombic YMnO3 from first-principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spin ordering magnetic structures of orthorhombic YMnO3 subjected to uniaxial strain have been investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. On applying compressive uniaxial strain of −0.8% along the b orientation, the spin ordering magnetic structure is predicted to change from E-type to A-type antiferromagnetic orderings. The structure analysis also reveals that the uniaxial strain has a dramatic influence on the Mn-O bond lengths and Mn-O-Mn bond angles, allowing the gradual suppression of the alternation of the long and short Mn-O-Mn bonds in the ab plane. These changes present very interesting possibilities for engineering the spin ordering along with ferroelectric property in orthorhombic YMnO3.

  17. Effects of inoculation sources on the enrichment and performance of anode bacterial consortia in sensor typed microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells are a recently emerging technology that promises a number of applications in energy recovery, environmental treatment and monitoring. In this study, we investigated the effect of inoculating sources on the enrichment of electrochemically active bacterial consortia in sensor-typed microbial fuel cells (MFCs. Several MFCs were constructed, operated with modified artificial wastewater and inoculated with different microbial sources from natural soil, natural mud, activated sludge, wastewater and a mixture of those sources. After enrichment, the MFCs inoculated with the natural soil source generated higher and more stable currents (0.53±0.03 mA, in comparisons with the MFCs inoculated with the other sources. The results from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE showed that there were significant changes in bacterial composition from the original inocula to the enriched consortia. Even more interestingly, Pseudomonas sp. was found dominant in the natural soil source and also in the corresponding enriched consortium. The interactions between Pseudomonas sp. and other species in such a community are probably the key for the effective and stable performance of the MFCs.

  18. The Type IV Secretion System of Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain 1021 Is Required for Conjugation but Not for Intracellular Symbiosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kathryn M.; Lloret, Javier; Daniele, Joseph R.; Walker, Graham C.

    2006-01-01

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) of the plant intracellular symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 is required for conjugal transfer of DNA. However, it is not required for host invasion and persistence, unlike the T4SSs of closely related mammalian intracellular pathogens. A comparison of the requirement for a bacterial T4SS in plant versus animal host invasion suggests an important difference in the intracellular niches occupied by these bacteria.

  19. Practical Approach for Typing Strains of Leishmania infantum by Microsatellite Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulle, Béatrice; Millon, Laurence; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Gállego, Montserrat; Gambarelli, Françoise; Portús, Montserrat; Schnur, Lee; Jaffe, Charles L.; Fernandez-Barredo, Salceda; Alunda, José María; Piarroux, Renaud

    2002-01-01

    Currently the universally accepted standard procedure for characterizing and identifying strains of Leishmania is isoenzyme analysis. However, in the Mediterranean area, despite their very wide geographical distribution, most Leishmania infantum strains belong to zymodeme MON-1. In order to increase our understanding of polymorphism in strains of L. infantum, we developed PCR assays amplifying 10 microsatellites and sequenced PCR products. The discriminative power of microsatellite analysis was tested by using a panel of 50 L. infantum strains collected from patients and dogs from Spain, France, and Israel, including 32 strains belonging to zymodeme MON-1, 8 strains belonging to zymodemes MON-24, MON-29, MON-33, MON-34, or MON-80, and 10 untyped strains. Five of the microsatellites were polymorphic, revealing 22 genotypes, whereas the five remaining microsatellites were not variable. In particular, MON-1 strains could be separated into 13 different closely related genotypes. MON-33 and MON-34 strains also gave two additional genotypes closely related to MON-1, while MON-29, MON-24, and MON 80 strains exhibited more divergent genotypes. Among the foci examined, the Catalonian focus displayed a high polymorphism, probably reflecting isoenzyme polymorphism, while the Israeli focus exhibited a low polymorphism that could be consistent with the recent reemergence and rapid spread of canine leishmaniasis in northern and central Israel. The strains originating from the south of France and the Madrid, Spain, area displayed significant microsatellite polymorphism even though they were monomorphic by isoenzyme analysis. In conclusion, microsatellite polymorphism exhibits a high discriminative power and appears to be suitable for characterization of closely related strains of L. infantum in epidemiological studies. PMID:12202583

  20. Practical Approach for Typing Strains of Leishmania infantum by Microsatellite Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bulle, Béatrice; Millon, Laurence; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Gállego, Montserrat; Gambarelli, Françoise; Portús, Montserrat; Schnur, Lee; Jaffe, Charles L.; Fernandez-Barredo, Salceda; Alunda, José María; Piarroux, Renaud

    2002-01-01

    Currently the universally accepted standard procedure for characterizing and identifying strains of Leishmania is isoenzyme analysis. However, in the Mediterranean area, despite their very wide geographical distribution, most Leishmania infantum strains belong to zymodeme MON-1. In order to increase our understanding of polymorphism in strains of L. infantum, we developed PCR assays amplifying 10 microsatellites and sequenced PCR products. The discriminative power of microsatellite analysis w...