WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacterial signal recognition

  1. Predominant membrane localization is an essential feature of the bacterial signal recognition particle receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graumann Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signal recognition particle (SRP receptor plays a vital role in co-translational protein targeting, because it connects the soluble SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complex (SRP-RNCs to the membrane bound Sec translocon. The eukaryotic SRP receptor (SR is a heterodimeric protein complex, consisting of two unrelated GTPases. The SRβ subunit is an integral membrane protein, which tethers the SRP-interacting SRα subunit permanently to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The prokaryotic SR lacks the SRβ subunit and consists of only the SRα homologue FtsY. Strikingly, although FtsY requires membrane contact for functionality, cell fractionation studies have localized FtsY predominantly to the cytosolic fraction of Escherichia coli. So far, the exact function of the soluble SR in E. coli is unknown, but it has been suggested that, in contrast to eukaryotes, the prokaryotic SR might bind SRP-RNCs already in the cytosol and only then initiates membrane targeting. Results In the current study we have determined the contribution of soluble FtsY to co-translational targeting in vitro and have re-analysed the localization of FtsY in vivo by fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that FtsY can bind to SRP-ribosome nascent chains (RNCs in the absence of membranes. However, these soluble FtsY-SRP-RNC complexes are not efficiently targeted to the membrane. In contrast, we observed effective targeting of SRP-RNCs to membrane-bond FtsY. These data show that soluble FtsY does not contribute significantly to cotranslational targeting in E. coli. In agreement with this observation, our in vivo analyses of FtsY localization in bacterial cells by fluorescence microscopy revealed that the vast majority of FtsY was localized to the inner membrane and that soluble FtsY constituted only a negligible species in vivo. Conclusion The exact function of the SRP receptor (SR in bacteria has so far been enigmatic. Our data show that the bacterial SR is

  2. Quantum Pattern Recognition of Classical Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Chao-Yang; Ding, Cong-Bao; Hu, Ben-Qiong

    2007-01-01

    It's the key research topic of signal processing that recognizing genuine targets real time from the disturbed signal which has giant amount of data. A quantum algorithm for pattern recognition of classical signal which has time complexity O(sqrt(N)) is presented in this paper. Key Words: Pattern recognition, Grover's algorithm, Rotation on subspace

  3. Automatic modulation recognition of communication signals

    CERN Document Server

    Azzouz, Elsayed Elsayed

    1996-01-01

    Automatic modulation recognition is a rapidly evolving area of signal analysis. In recent years, interest from the academic and military research institutes has focused around the research and development of modulation recognition algorithms. Any communication intelligence (COMINT) system comprises three main blocks: receiver front-end, modulation recogniser and output stage. Considerable work has been done in the area of receiver front-ends. The work at the output stage is concerned with information extraction, recording and exploitation and begins with signal demodulation, that requires accurate knowledge about the signal modulation type. There are, however, two main reasons for knowing the current modulation type of a signal; to preserve the signal information content and to decide upon the suitable counter action, such as jamming. Automatic Modulation Recognition of Communications Signals describes in depth this modulation recognition process. Drawing on several years of research, the authors provide a cr...

  4. The recognition of extraterrestrial artificial signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerations in the design of receivers for the detection and recognition of artificial microwave signals of extraterrestrial origin are discussed. Following a review of the objectives of SETI and the probable reception and detection characteristics of extraterrestrial signals, means for the improvement of the sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratios and on-line data processing capabilities of SETI receivers are indicated. The characteristics of the signals likely to be present at the output of an ultra-low-noise microwave receiver are then examined, including the system background noise, terrestrial radiations, astrophysical radiations, accidental artificial radiations of terrestrial origin, and intentional radiations produced by humans and by extraterrestrial intelligence. The classes of extraterrestrial signals likely to be detected, beacons and leakage signals, are considered, and options in the specification of gating and thresholding for a high-spectral resolution, high-time-resolution signal discriminator are indicated. Possible tests for the nonhuman origin of a received signal are also pointed out

  5. Gram-Negative Bacterial Sensors for Eukaryotic Signal Molecules

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    Olivier Lesouhaitier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence exists showing that eukaryotic signal molecules synthesized and released by the host can activate the virulence of opportunistic pathogens. The sensitivity of prokaryotes to host signal molecules requires the presence of bacterial sensors. These prokaryotic sensors, or receptors, have a double function: stereospecific recognition in a complex environment and transduction of the message in order to initiate bacterial physiological modifications. As messengers are generally unable to freely cross the bacterial membrane, they require either the presence of sensors anchored in the membrane or transporters allowing direct recognition inside the bacterial cytoplasm. Since the discovery of quorum sensing, it was established that the production of virulence factors by bacteria is tightly growth-phase regulated. It is now obvious that expression of bacterial virulence is also controlled by detection of the eukaryotic messengers released in the micro-environment as endocrine or neuro-endocrine modulators. In the presence of host physiological stress many eukaryotic factors are released and detected by Gram-negative bacteria which in return rapidly adapt their physiology. For instance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can bind elements of the host immune system such as interferon-γ and dynorphin and then through quorum sensing circuitry enhance its virulence. Escherichia coli sensitivity to the neurohormones of the catecholamines family appears relayed by a recently identified bacterial adrenergic receptor. In the present review, we will describe the mechanisms by which various eukaryotic signal molecules produced by host may activate Gram-negative bacteria virulence. Particular attention will be paid to Pseudomonas, a genus whose representative species, P. aeruginosa, is a common opportunistic pathogen. The discussion will be particularly focused on the pivotal role played by these new types of pathogen sensors from the sensing to the transduction

  6. Partially Supervised Approach in Signal Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina COCIANU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the potential of principal directions based approaches in signal classification and recognition. In probabilistic models, the classes are represented in terms of multivariate density functions, and an object coming from a certain class is modeled as a random vector whose repartition has the density function corresponding to this class. In cases when there is no statistical information concerning the set of density functions corresponding to the classes involved in the recognition process, usually estimates based on the information extracted from available data are used instead. In the proposed methodology, the characteristics of a class are given by a set of eigen vectors of the sample covariance matrix. The overall dissimilarity of an object X with a given class C is computed as the disturbance of the structure of C, when X is allotted to C. A series of tests concerning the behavior of the proposed recognition algorithm are reported in the final section of the paper.

  7. ECG Signal Feature Selection for Emotion Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lichen Xun; Gang Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to study the selection of features based on ECG in emotion recognition. In the process of features selection, we start from existing feature selection algorithm, and pay special attention to some of the intuitive value on ECG waveform as well. Through the use of ANOVA and heuristic search, we picked out the different features to distinguish joy and pleasure these two emotions, then we combine this with pathological analysis of ECG signals by the view of the medical experts to ...

  8. ECG Signal Feature Selection for Emotion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichen Xun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the selection of features based on ECG in emotion recognition. In the process of features selection, we start from existing feature selection algorithm, and pay special attention to some of the intuitive value on ECG waveform as well. Through the use of ANOVA and heuristic search, we picked out the different features to distinguish joy and pleasure these two emotions, then we combine this with pathological analysis of ECG signals by the view of the medical experts to discuss the logic corresponding relation between ECG waveform and emotion distinguish. Through experiment, using the method in this paper we only picked out five features and reached 92% of accuracy rate in the recognition of joy and pleasure.

  9. Physical signals for protein-DNA recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zeng, Jia; Yan, Hong

    2009-09-01

    This paper discovers consensus physical signals around eukaryotic splice sites, transcription start sites, and replication origin start and end sites on a genome-wide scale based on their DNA flexibility profiles calculated by three different flexibility models. These salient physical signals are localized highly rigid and flexible DNAs, which may play important roles in protein-DNA recognition by the sliding search mechanism. The found physical signals lead us to a detailed hypothetical view of the search process in which a DNA-binding protein first finds a genomic region close to the target site from an arbitrary starting location by three-dimensional (3D) hopping and intersegment transfer mechanisms for long distances, and subsequently uses the one-dimensional (1D) sliding mechanism facilitated by the localized highly rigid DNAs to accurately locate the target flexible binding site within 30 bp (base pair) short distances. Guided by these physical signals, DNA-binding proteins rapidly search the entire genome to recognize a specific target site from the 3D to 1D pathway. Our findings also show that current promoter prediction programs (PPPs) based on DNA physical properties may suffer from lots of false positives because other functional sites such as splice sites and replication origins have similar physical signals as promoters do.

  10. Physical signals for protein–DNA recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discovers consensus physical signals around eukaryotic splice sites, transcription start sites, and replication origin start and end sites on a genome-wide scale based on their DNA flexibility profiles calculated by three different flexibility models. These salient physical signals are localized highly rigid and flexible DNAs, which may play important roles in protein–DNA recognition by the sliding search mechanism. The found physical signals lead us to a detailed hypothetical view of the search process in which a DNA-binding protein first finds a genomic region close to the target site from an arbitrary starting location by three-dimensional (3D) hopping and intersegment transfer mechanisms for long distances, and subsequently uses the one-dimensional (1D) sliding mechanism facilitated by the localized highly rigid DNAs to accurately locate the target flexible binding site within 30 bp (base pair) short distances. Guided by these physical signals, DNA-binding proteins rapidly search the entire genome to recognize a specific target site from the 3D to 1D pathway. Our findings also show that current promoter prediction programs (PPPs) based on DNA physical properties may suffer from lots of false positives because other functional sites such as splice sites and replication origins have similar physical signals as promoters do

  11. Bacterial recognition pathways that lead to inflammasome activation

    OpenAIRE

    Storek, Kelly M.; Monack, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasomes are multi-protein signaling platforms that upon activation trigger the maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, and cell death. Inflammasome sensors detect microbial and host-derived molecules. Here, we review the mechanisms of inflammasome activation triggered by bacterial infection, primarily focusing on two model intracellular bacterial pathogens, Francisella novicida and Salmonella typhimurium. We discuss the complex relationship betwee...

  12. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  13. Biometric recognition system using low bandwidth ECG signals

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André Ribeiro; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition has recently emerged as part of applications where the privacy of the information is crucial, as in the health care field. This paper presents a biometric recognition system based on the Electrocardiographic signal (ECG). The proposed system is based on a state-of-the-art recognition method which extracts information from the frequency domain. In this paper we propose a new method to increase the spectral resolution of low bandwidth ECG signals due to the limited bandwid...

  14. Emotion Recognition through Physiological Signals for Human-Machine Communication

    OpenAIRE

    MAAOUI, Choubeila; PRUSKI, Alain

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we presented an approach to emotion recognition based on the processing of physiological signals. Physiological data was acquired in six different affective states and two pattern recognition methods have been tested: SVM method and Fisher linear discriminant. Recognition rates of about 90% were achieved for both classifiers. However, SVM classifier gives best results than Fisher discriminant using mixed features signals of different subjects. This study has shown that specific ...

  15. Bacterial signaling and motility: Sure bets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhulin, Igor B [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2008-01-01

    The IX International Conference on Bacterial Locomotion and Signal Transduction (BLAST IX) was held from 14 to 19 January 2007 in Laughlin, NV, a town in the Mojave Desert on the Nevada-Arizona border near old Route 66 and along the banks of the Colorado River. This area is a home to rattlesnakes, sagebrush, abandoned gold mines, and compulsive gamblers. What better venue could scientists possibly dream of for a professional meeting? So there they were, about 190 scientists gathered in the Aquarius Casino Resort, the largest hotel and casino in Laughlin, discussing the latest advances in the field. Aside from a brief excursion to an abandoned gold mine and a dinner cruise on the Colorado River, the scientists focused on nothing but their data and hypotheses, in spirited arguments and rebuttals, and outlined their visions and future plans in a friendly and open environment. The BLAST IX program was dense, with nearly 50 talks and over 90 posters. For that reason, this meeting report will not attempt to be comprehensive; instead it will first provide general background information on the central topics of the meeting and then highlight only a few talks that were of special interest to us and hopefully to the wider scientific community. We will also attempt to articulate some of the future directions or perspectives to the best of our abilities. The best known and understood bacterial motility mechanism is swimming powered by flagella. The rotation of bacterial flagella drives this form of bacterial movement in an aqueous environment. A bacterial flagellum consists of a helical filament attached to the cell body through a complex structure known as the hook-basal body, which drives flagellar rotation. The essential components of the basal body are the MotA-MotB motor-stator proteins bound to the cytoplasmic membrane. These stator proteins interact with proteins that comprise the supramembrane and cytoplasmic rings, which are components of the motor imbedded in the

  16. Phosphoproteins involved in bacterial signal transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells adjust their behavior continuously in response to changing environmental conditions. A number of specific stimulus-response systems have been investigated in bacteria. These include the chemotaxis system (Che), the nitrogen regulatory system (Ntr), the phosphorus system (Pho), the system that controls expression of outer membrane proteins (Omp) in response to changes in osmotic pressure, the sporulation system (SpoO), and the virulence system (Vir) that mediates bacterial infectivity of damaged plant tissues. Surprisingly, all of these systems show a common set of components. In each case, the signal transduction proteins include members of two homologous families, which appear to comprise a cascade: Sensory information feeds into the first component, which activates the second component that, in turn, modulates a target activity within the cell. In this paper, the authors present evidence that the communication between the two components involves a phospho-transfer mechanism that is common to all of these regulatory systems

  17. Discrimination of Acoustic Emission Signals using Pattern Recognition Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acoustic Emission(AE) signals obtained during fracture toughness test and fatigue test for nuclear pressure vessel material(SA 508 cl.3) and artificial AE signals from pencil break and ultrasonic pulser were classified using pattern recognition methods. Three different classifiers ; namely Minimum Distance Classifier, Linear Discriminant Classifier and Maximum Likelihood Classifier were used for pattern recognition. In this study, the performance of each classifier was compared. The discrimination of AE signals from cracking and crack surface rubbing was possible and the analysis for crack propagation was applicable by pattern recognition methods

  18. [Research progress on emotion recognition based on physiological signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2015-02-01

    Emotion recognition will be prosperious in multifarious applications, like distance education, healthcare, and human-computer interactions, etc. Emotions can be recognized from the behavior signals such as speech, facial expressions, gestures or the physiological signals such as electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram. Contrast to other methods, the physiological signals based emotion recognition can achieve more objective and effective results because it is almost impossible to be disguised. This paper introduces recent advancements in emotion research using physiological signals, specified to its emotion model, elicitation stimuli, feature extraction and classification methods. Finally the paper also discusses some research challenges and future developments. PMID:25997298

  19. Stability of multispecies bacterial communities: signaling networks may stabilize microbiomes.

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    Ádám Kerényi

    Full Text Available Multispecies bacterial communities can be remarkably stable and resilient even though they consist of cells and species that compete for environmental resources. In silico models suggest that common signals released into the environment may help selected bacterial species cluster at common locations and that sharing of public goods (i.e. molecules produced and released for mutual benefit can stabilize this coexistence. In contrast, unilateral eavesdropping on signals produced by a potentially invading species may protect a community by keeping invaders away from limited resources. Shared bacterial signals, such as those found in quorum sensing systems, may thus play a key role in fine tuning competition and cooperation within multi-bacterial communities. We suggest that in addition to metabolic complementarity, signaling dynamics may be important in further understanding complex bacterial communities such as the human, animal as well as plant microbiomes.

  20. Emotion Recognition from EEG Signals using Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Moshfeghi, Mohammadshakib; Bartaula, Jyoti Prasad; Bedasso, Aliye Tuke

    2013-01-01

    The beauty of affective computing is to make machine more emphatic to the user. Machines with the capability of emotion recognition can actually look inside the user’s head and act according to observed mental state. In this thesis project, we investigate different features set to build an emotion recognition system from electroencephalographic signals. We used pictures from International Affective Picture System to motivate three emotional states: positive valence (pleasant), neutral, negati...

  1. Collagen-platelet interactions: recognition and signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farndale, Richard W; Siljander, Pia R; Onley, David J; Sundaresan, Pavithra; Knight, C Graham; Barnes, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    The collagen-platelet interaction is central to haemostasis and may be a critical determinant of arterial thrombosis, where subendothelium is exposed after rupture of atherosclerotic plaque. Recent research has capitalized on the cloning of an important signalling receptor for collagen, glycoprotein VI, which is expressed only on platelets, and on the use of collagen-mimetic peptides as specific tools for both glycoprotein VI and integrin alpha 2 beta 1. We have identified sequences, GPO and GFOGER (where O denotes hydroxyproline), within collagen that are recognized by the collagen receptors glycoprotein VI and integrin alpha 2 beta 1 respectively, allowing their signalling properties and specific functional roles to be examined. Triple-helical peptides containing these sequences were used to show the signalling potential of integrin alpha 2 beta 1, and to confirm its important contribution to platelet adhesion. Glycoprotein VI appears to operate functionally on the platelet surface as a dimer, which recognizes GPO motifs that are separated by four triplets of collagen sequence. These advances will allow the relationship between the structure of collagen and its haemostatic activity to be established. PMID:14587284

  2. Pattern Recognition of EEG Signals and Applications in Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-dong; CHENG Zhi-qiang; LI De-jun

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid development of brain computer interface (simply called BCI),electroencephalography (EEG) will be another interesting bio-electrical signal applied in robotics after EMG.In order to realize it finally,the accurate measurement and pattern recognition of EEG signal must be a very important and elementary research objective.Based on our current researches and some reports from the other international colleagues in the field,we deeply discuss the basic characteristics of EEG signal,the development and selection of EEG measurement system,feature extraction and recognition methods of EEG signal,and then review EEG's applications in robotics as well as the future research trends in this paper.

  3. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Sign...

  4. Intercepting Bacterial Indole Signaling with Flustramine Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bunders, Cynthia A.; Minvielle, Marine J.; Worthington, Roberta J.; Ortiz, Minoshka; Cavanagh, John; Melander, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Indole signaling is one of the putative universal signaling networks in bacteria. We have investigated the use of desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) derivatives for the inhibition of biofilm formation through modulation of the indole-signaling network in E. coli and S. aureus. We have found dFBr derivatives that are 10-1000 times more active than indole itself, demonstrating that the flustramine family of indolic natural products represent a privileged scaffold for the design of molecules to cont...

  5. Oyster Electrophysiology: Electrocardiogram Signal Recognition and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico M. Batista

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After 100 years of published recording traces pertaining to the oyster electrocardiogram (ECG, we revisited the original experiments of Eiger (1913, using state-of-the-art electrophysiology recorders. Our aim was to confirm that a recordable ECG, similar to that of higher vertebrates, is present in the oyster heart. Portuguese oysters Crassostrea angulata, collected from the Guadiana estuary, Portugal, were used. The oysters were drilled through the right valve to reveal the pericardium. Gold and silver electrodes were placed through the hole and electrophysiological recordings were obtained. Stimulation of the oyster heart was performed in vivo and in vitro using a constant current power supply. Placement of electrodes around the heart revealed a trace that very closely matched the published ECG of Eiger (1913. However, we were unable to confirm that the recording was an ECG of the oyster heart. Moreover, measurements on isolated oyster hearts revealed a low conductivity (0.10 S m‒1. We did, however, record a depolarization signal from what we believe to be the visceral ganglia, and this preceded contractions of the oyster heart. Our findings indicate that so-called ECGs, previously recorded by [2] in Ostrea edulis, but also the “ECG” recorded by [4] in C. virginica from oyster hearts, are in fact an artifact arising from relative movement of the recording electrodes, giving rise to a baseline shift that mimics in some ways the P and QRS features of a typical ECG. Nevertheless, such recordings provide information pertaining to heart rate and are not without importance.

  6. Advances in signal processing and intelligent recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gelbukh, Alexander; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    This Edited Volume contains a selection of refereed and revised papers originally presented at the International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems (SIRS-2014), March 13-15, 2014, Trivandrum, India. The program committee received 134 submissions from 11 countries. Each paper was peer reviewed by at least three or more independent referees of the program committee and the 52 papers were finally selected. The papers offer stimulating insights into Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and Knowledge-Based Systems; Signal and Speech Processing; Image and Video Processing; Mobile Computing and Applications and Computer Vision. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various field of signal processing and related areas.  

  7. Pattern recognition for electroencephalographic signals based on continuous neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Ponce, M; Argüelles, A; Chairez, I

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the design and implementation of a pattern recognition algorithm to classify electroencephalographic (EEG) signals based on artificial neural networks (NN) described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The training method for this kind of continuous NN (CNN) was developed according to the Lyapunov theory stability analysis. A parallel structure with fixed weights was proposed to perform the classification stage. The pattern recognition efficiency was validated by two methods, a generalization-regularization and a k-fold cross validation (k=5). The classifier was applied on two different databases. The first one was made up by signals collected from patients suffering of epilepsy and it is divided in five different classes. The second database was made up by 90 single EEG trials, divided in three classes. Each class corresponds to a different visual evoked potential. The pattern recognition algorithm achieved a maximum correct classification percentage of 97.2% using the information of the entire database. This value was similar to some results previously reported when this database was used for testing pattern classification. However, these results were obtained when only two classes were considered for the testing. The result reported in this study used the whole set of signals (five different classes). In comparison with similar pattern recognition methods that even considered less number of classes, the proposed CNN proved to achieve the same or even better correct classification results. PMID:27131469

  8. Speech signal recognition with the homotopic representation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F.; Pocci, P.; Prina-Ricotti, L.

    1981-02-01

    Speech recognition by a computer, using homotopic representation, is introduced, including the algorithm and the processing mode for the speech signal, the result of a vowel recognition experiment, and the result of a phonetic transcription experiment with simple words composed of four phonemes. The signal is stored in a delay line of M elements and N = M + 1 outputs. Homotopic defines a pair of outputs symmetrical to the exit located in the central element of the delay line. When the products of sample homotopic outputs of the first sequence of pair sampling are found, they are separately summed to the products of the following processing. This procedure is repeated continuously so that at every instant the transform function is the result of the last processing and the weighted sum of the previous result. In tests a female /o/ is recognized as /a/. Of 320 test phonemes, 15 are mistaken and 7 are dubious.

  9. Emotion Recognition from Speech Signals and Perception of Music

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez Pradier, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with emotion recognition from speech signals. The feature extraction step shall be improved by looking at the perception of music. In music theory, different pitch intervals (consonant, dissonant) and chords are believed to invoke different feelings in listeners. The question is whether there is a similar mechanism between perception of music and perception of emotional speech. Our research will follow three stages. First, the relationship between speech and music at segment...

  10. Structural diversity of signal recognition particle RNAs in plastids

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblad, Magnus Alm; Träger, Chantal; Schünemann, Danja

    2013-01-01

    One of the pathways for protein targeting to the plasma membrane in bacteria utilizes the co-translationally acting signal recognition particle (SRP), a universally conserved ribonucleoprotein complex consisting of a 54 kDa protein and a functional RNA. An interesting exception is the higher plant chloroplast SRP, which lacks the otherwise essential RNA component. Furthermore, green plant chloroplasts have an additional post-translational SRP-dependent transport system in which the chloroplas...

  11. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    , and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video (HSFV) as a new biometric trait for human identity recognition, for the first time to...... the best of our knowledge. Feature extraction from the HSFV is accomplished by employing Radon transform on a waterfall model of the replicated HSFV. The pairwise Minkowski distances are obtained from the Radon image as the features. The authentication is accomplished by a decision tree based...

  12. Clinical detection and movement recognition of neuro signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-wen; YANG Yu-pu; XU Xiao-ming; HU Tian-pei; GAO Zhong-hua; ZHANG Jian; CHEN Tong-yi; CHEN Zhong-wei

    2005-01-01

    Neuro signal has many more advantages than myoelectricity in providing information for prosthesis control, and can be an ideal source for developing new prosthesis. In this work, by implanting intrafascicular electrode clinically in the amputee's upper extremity, collective signals from fascicules of three main nerves (radial nerve, ulnar nerve and medium nerve) were successfully detected with sufficient fidelity and without infection. Initial analysis of features under different actions was performed and movement recognition of detected samples was attempted. Singular value decomposition features (SVD) extracted from wavelet coefficients were used as inputs for neural network classifier to predict amputee's movement intentions. The whole training rate was up to 80.94% and the test rate was 56.87% without over-training. This result gives inspiring prospect that collective signals from fascicules of the three main nerves are feasible sources for controlling prosthesis. Ways for improving accuracy in developing prosthesis controlled by neuro signals are discussed in the end.

  13. Autophagic clearance of bacterial pathogens: molecular recognition of intracellular microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mansilla Pareja, Maria Eugenia; Colombo, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in several physiological and pathological processes. One of the key roles of the autophagic pathway is to participate in the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens, as part of the innate immune response. Targeting of intracellular bacteria by the autophagic machinery, either in the cytoplasm or within vacuolar compartments, helps to control bacterial proliferation in the host cell, controlling also the spreading of the infection. In this review we will d...

  14. Lysozyme as a recognition element for monitoring of bacterial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Laibao; Wan, Yi; Yu, Liangmin; Zhang, Dun

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections remain a significant challenge in biomedicine and environment safety. Increasing worldwide demand for point-of-care techniques and increasing concern on their safe development and use, require a simple and sensitive bioanalysis for pathogen detection. However, this goal is not yet achieved. A design for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lysozyme (FITC-LYZ), which provides quantitative binding information for gram-positive bacteria, Micrococcus luteus, and detects pathogen concentration, is presented. The functional lysozyme is used not only as the pathogenic detection platform, but also as a tracking reagent for microbial population in antibacterial tests. A nonlinear relationship between the system response and the logarithm of the bacterial concentration was observed in the range of 1.2×10(2)-1.2×10(5) cfu mL(-1). The system has a potential for further applications and provides a facile and simple method for detection of pathogenic bacteria. Meanwhile, the fluorescein isothiocyanate -labeled lysozyme is also employed as the tracking agent for antibacterial dynamic assay, which show a similar dynamic curve compared with UV-vis test. PMID:26695267

  15. Emotion recognition method using entropy analysis of EEG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Abed Hosseini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emotion recognition system using EEG signals, therefore a new approach to emotion state analysis by approximate (ApEn and wavelet entropy (WE is described. We have used EEG signals recorded during emotion in five channels (FP1, FP2, T3, T4 and Pz, under pictures induction environment (calm-neutral and negative excited for participants. After a brief introduction to the concept, the ApEn and WE were extracted from two different EEG time series. The result showed that, the classification accuracy in two emotion states was 73.25% using the support vector machine (SVM classifier. The simulations showed that the classification accuracy is good and the proposed methods are effective. During an emotion, the EEG is less complex compared to the normal, indicating reduction in active neuronal process in the brain.

  16. Two Proteins Form a Heteromeric Bacterial Self-Recognition Complex in Which Variable Subdomains Determine Allele-Restricted Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Cardarelli, Lia; Saak, Christina; Gibbs, Karine A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Self- versus nonself-recognition in bacteria has been described recently through genetic analyses in multiple systems; however, understanding of the biochemical properties and mechanisms of recognition-determinant proteins remains limited. Here we extend the molecular and biochemical understanding of two recognition-determinant proteins in bacteria. We have found that a heterotypic complex is formed between two bacterial self-recognition proteins, IdsD and IdsE, the genes of which ha...

  17. RNA gymnastics in mammalian signal recognition particle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    More than one third of the cellular proteome is destined for incorporation into cell membranes or export from the cell. In all domains of life, the signal recognition particle (SRP) delivers these proteins to the membrane and protein traffic falls apart without SRP logistics. With the aid of a topogenic transport signal, SRP retrieves its cargo right at the ribosome, from where they are sorted to the translocation channel. Mammalian SRP is a ribonucleoprotein complex consisting of an SRP RNA of 300 nucleotides and 6 proteins bound to it. Assembly occurs in a hierarchical manner mainly in the nucleolus and only SRP54, which recognizes the signal sequence and regulates the targeting process, is added as the last component in the cytosol. Here we present an update on recent insights in the structure, function and dynamics of SRP RNA in SRP assembly with focus on the S domain, and present SRP as an example for the complex biogenesis of a rather small ribonucleoprotein particle. PMID:25692231

  18. Evolution from the prokaryotic to the higher plant chloroplast signal recognition particle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Träger, Chantal; Rosenblad, Magnus Alm; Ziehe, Dominik;

    2012-01-01

    the conserved SRP54 and the SRP receptor, FtsY, are present in higher plant chloroplasts. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic distribution of SRP components in photosynthetic organisms to elucidate the evolution of the SRP system. We identified conserved plastid SRP RNAs within all...... data lead to the view that the P. patens cpSRP system occupies an intermediate position in the evolution from bacterial-type SRP to higher plant-type cpSRP system.......The protein targeting signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway in chloroplasts of higher plants has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes. It disposed of its RNA, which is an essential SRP component in bacteria, and uses a unique chloroplast-specific protein cpSRP43. Nevertheless, homologs of...

  19. Feature Fusion Algorithm for Multimodal Emotion Recognition from Speech and Facial Expression Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the limitation of single mode emotion recognition. This paper describes a novel multimodal emotion recognition algorithm, and takes speech signal and facial expression signal as the research subjects. First, fuse the speech signal feature and facial expression signal feature, get sample sets by putting back sampling, and then get classifiers by BP neural network (BPNN. Second, measure the difference between two classifiers by double error difference selection strategy. Finally, get the final recognition result by the majority voting rule. Experiments show the method improves the accuracy of emotion recognition by giving full play to the advantages of decision level fusion and feature level fusion, and makes the whole fusion process close to human emotion recognition more, with a recognition rate 90.4%.

  20. A Study of BCI Signal Pattern Recognition by Using Quasi-Newton-SVM Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chang-chun; MA Zheng-hua; SUN Yu-qiang; ZOU Ling

    2006-01-01

    The recognition of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is the key of brain computer interface (BCI).Aimed at the problem that the recognition rate of EEG by using support vector machine (SVM) is low in BCI,based on the assumption that a well-defined physiological signal which also has a smooth form"hides" inside the noisy EEG signal,a Quasi-Newton-SVM recognition method based on Quasi-Newton method and SVM algorithm was presented.Firstly,the EEG signals were preprocessed by Quasi-Newton method and got the signals which were fit for SVM.Secondly,the preprocessed signals were classified by SVM method.The present simulation results indicated the Quasi-Newton-SVM approach improved the recognition rate compared with using SVM method; we also discussed the relationship between the artificial smooth signals and the classification errors.

  1. AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF BOTH INTER AND INTRA CLASSES OF DIGITAL MODULATED SIGNALS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIDE JULIUS POPOOLA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In radio communication systems, signal modulation format recognition is a significant characteristic used in radio signal monitoring and identification. Over the past few decades, modulation formats have become increasingly complex, which has led to the problem of how to accurately and promptly recognize a modulation format. In addressing these challenges, the development of automatic modulation recognition systems that can classify a radio signal’s modulation format has received worldwide attention. Decision-theoretic methods and pattern recognition solutions are the two typical automatic modulation recognition approaches. While decision-theoretic approaches use probabilistic or likelihood functions, pattern recognition uses feature-based methods. This study applies the pattern recognition approach based on statistical parameters, using an artificial neural network to classify five different digital modulation formats. The paper deals with automatic recognition of both inter-and intra-classes of digitally modulated signals in contrast to most of the existing algorithms in literature that deal with either inter-class or intra-class modulation format recognition. The results of this study show that accurate and prompt modulation recognition is possible beyond the lower bound of 5 dB commonly acclaimed in literature. The other significant contribution of this paper is the usage of the Python programming language which reduces computational complexity that characterizes other automatic modulation recognition classifiers developed using the conventional MATLAB neural network toolbox.

  2. 2nd International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Krishnan, Sri; Li, Kuan-Ching; Mosin, Sergey; Ma, Maode

    2016-01-01

    This Edited Volume contains a selection of refereed and revised papers originally presented at the second International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems (SIRS-2015), December 16-19, 2015, Trivandrum, India. The program committee received 175 submissions. Each paper was peer reviewed by at least three or more independent referees of the program committee and the 59 papers were finally selected. The papers offer stimulating insights into biometrics, digital watermarking, recognition systems, image and video processing, signal and speech processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and knowledge-based systems. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various field of signal processing and related areas. .

  3. The Effect of Asymmetrical Signal Degradation on Binaural Speech Recognition in Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothpletz, Ann M.; Tharpe, Anne Marie; Grantham, D. Wesley

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effect of asymmetrical signal degradation on binaural speech recognition, 28 children and 14 adults were administered a sentence recognition task amidst multitalker babble. There were 3 listening conditions: (a) monaural, with mild degradation in 1 ear; (b) binaural, with mild degradation in both ears (symmetric degradation); and…

  4. Multiple neural network integration using a binary decision tree to improve the ECG signal recognition accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Hoai Linh; Pham Van Nam; Vuong Hoang Nam

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a new system for ECG (ElectroCardioGraphy) signal recognition using different neural classifiers and a binary decision tree to provide one more processing stage to give the final recognition result. As the base classifiers, the three classical neural models, i.e., the MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron), modified TSK (Takagi-Sugeno-Kang) and the SVM (Support Vector Machine), will be applied. The coefficients in ECG signal decomposition using Hermite basis functions and the peak-to...

  5. Prompt recognition of brain states by their EEG signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, B.O.; Pfurtscheller, G.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Brain states corresponding to intention of movement of left and right index finger and right foot are classified by a ''committee'' of artificial neural networks processing individual channels of 56-electrode electroencephalograms (EEGs). Correct recognition is achieved in 83% of cases not previo......Brain states corresponding to intention of movement of left and right index finger and right foot are classified by a ''committee'' of artificial neural networks processing individual channels of 56-electrode electroencephalograms (EEGs). Correct recognition is achieved in 83% of cases...... not previously seen by the system on the basis of 1 sec long EEGs....

  6. Prompt recognition of brain states by their EEG signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, B.O.; Pfurtscheller, G.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Brain states corresponding to intention of movement of left and right index finger and right foot are classified by a ''committee'' of artificial neural networks processing individual channels of 56-electrode electroencephalograms (EEGs). Correct recognition is achieved in 83% of cases not previo...

  7. Structural Basis for Conserved Regulation and Adaptation of the Signal Recognition Particle Targeting Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Klemens; Bange, Gert; Motiejunas, Domantas; Kribelbauer, Judith; Hendricks, Astrid; Segnitz, Bernd; Wade, Rebecca C; Sinning, Irmgard

    2016-07-17

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein complex with a key role in targeting and insertion of membrane proteins. The two SRP GTPases, SRP54 (Ffh in bacteria) and FtsY (SRα in eukaryotes), form the core of the targeting complex (TC) regulating the SRP cycle. The architecture of the TC and its stimulation by RNA has been described for the bacterial SRP system while this information is lacking for other domains of life. Here, we present the crystal structures of the GTPase heterodimers of archaeal (Sulfolobus solfataricus), eukaryotic (Homo sapiens), and chloroplast (Arabidopsis thaliana) SRP systems. The comprehensive structural comparison combined with Brownian dynamics simulations of TC formation allows for the description of the general blueprint and of specific adaptations of the quasi-symmetric heterodimer. Our work defines conserved external nucleotide-binding sites for SRP GTPase activation by RNA. Structural analyses of the GDP-bound, post-hydrolysis states reveal a conserved, magnesium-sensitive switch within the I-box. Overall, we provide a general model for SRP cycle regulation by RNA. PMID:27241309

  8. AE SOURCE RECOGNITION BY NEURAL NETWORKS WITH OPTIMIZED SIGNAL PARAMETERS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlada, Milan; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    Krakow: University of Technology Krakov, 2008 - (Kanji, O.), s. 250-255 ISBN 978-83-7242-478-5. [European Conference on Acoustic Emission Testing EWGAE /28./. Krakow (PL), 17.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1518; GA ČR GA106/07/1393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : AE source recognition * artificial neural network Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  9. Multiple neural network integration using a binary decision tree to improve the ECG signal recognition accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoai Linh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new system for ECG (ElectroCardioGraphy signal recognition using different neural classifiers and a binary decision tree to provide one more processing stage to give the final recognition result. As the base classifiers, the three classical neural models, i.e., the MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron, modified TSK (Takagi-Sugeno-Kang and the SVM (Support Vector Machine, will be applied. The coefficients in ECG signal decomposition using Hermite basis functions and the peak-to-peak periods of the ECG signals will be used as features for the classifiers. Numerical experiments will be performed for the recognition of different types of arrhythmia in the ECG signals taken from the MIT-BIH (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston’s Beth Israel Hospital Arrhythmia Database. The results will be compared with individual base classifiers’ performances and with other integration methods to show the high quality of the proposed solution

  10. Signal Detection with Criterion Noise: Applications to Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Wee, Serena

    2009-01-01

    A tacit but fundamental assumption of the theory of signal detection is that criterion placement is a noise-free process. This article challenges that assumption on theoretical and empirical grounds and presents the noisy decision theory of signal detection (ND-TSD). Generalized equations for the isosensitivity function and for measures of…

  11. EMOTION RECOGNITION FROM SPEECH SIGNAL: REALIZATION AND AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NILIM JYOTI GOGOI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to detect human emotion from their speech is going to be a great addition in the field of human-robot interaction. The aim of the work is to build an emotion recognition system using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC and Gaussian mixture model (GMM classifier. Basically the purpose of the work is aimed at describing the best possible and available methods for recognizing emotion from an emotional speech. For that reason already existing techniques and used methods for feature extraction and pattern classification have been reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  12. Spectral Collaborative Representation based Classification for Hand Gestures recognition on Electromyography Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Boyali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we introduce a novel variant and application of the Collaborative Representation based Classification in spectral domain for recognition of the hand gestures using the raw surface Electromyography signals. The intuitive use of spectral features are explained via circulant matrices. The proposed Spectral Collaborative Representation based Classification (SCRC) is able to recognize gestures with higher levels of accuracy for a fairly rich gesture set. The worst recognition result...

  13. Ethanolamine Signaling Promotes Salmonella Niche Recognition and Adaptation during Infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Christopher J.; Clark, David E; Mazhar Adli; Kendall, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical and nutrient signaling are fundamental for all cellular processes, including interactions between the mammalian host and the microbiota, which have a significant impact on health and disease. Ethanolamine is an essential component of cell membranes and has profound signaling activity within mammalian cells by modulating inflammatory responses and intestinal physiology. Here, we describe a virulence-regulating pathway in which the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimu...

  14. Ethanolamine Signaling Promotes Salmonella Niche Recognition and Adaptation during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Christopher J.; Clark, David E; Adli, Mazhar; Kendall, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical and nutrient signaling are fundamental for all cellular processes, including interactions between the mammalian host and the microbiota, which have a significant impact on health and disease. Ethanolamine is an essential component of cell membranes and has profound signaling activity within mammalian cells by modulating inflammatory responses and intestinal physiology. Here, we describe a virulence-regulating pathway in which the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimu...

  15. Pattern recognition and prognostic methods in parametric signal models for early failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For early failure detection in critical devices it is important to use intelligent signal processing methods in learning systems, so that a process evaluation can be optimized already on the signal processing level. On the one hand, pattern recognition methods are useful. On the other hand, about surveillance structures with parametric signal models there are a lot of questions not solved. In this report, a boiling detection system of real acoustic signals is demonstrated, how to survey such a physical process by methods of pattern recognition with enclosed parametric signal models. By introduction of prognostic models, a decision in form of a classification process can be made in advance. A surveillance is performed by the developed methods and the results are presented. (orig.)

  16. Contribution to automatic speech recognition. Analysis of the direct acoustical signal. Recognition of isolated words and phoneme identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the acoustical-phonetic step of the automatic recognition of the speech. The parameters used are the extrema of the acoustical signal (coded in amplitude and duration). This coding method, the properties of which are described, is simple and well adapted to a digital processing. The quality and the intelligibility of the coded signal after reconstruction are particularly satisfactory. An experiment for the automatic recognition of isolated words has been carried using this coding system. We have designed a filtering algorithm operating on the parameters of the coding. Thus the characteristics of the formants can be derived under certain conditions which are discussed. Using these characteristics the identification of a large part of the phonemes for a given speaker was achieved. Carrying on the studies has required the development of a particular methodology of real time processing which allowed immediate evaluation of the improvement of the programs. Such processing on temporal coding of the acoustical signal is extremely powerful and could represent, used in connection with other methods an efficient tool for the automatic processing of the speech.(author)

  17. MyD88-deficient Hydra reveal an ancient function of TLR signaling in sensing bacterial colonizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzenburg, Sören; Fraune, Sebastian; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F.; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Bosch, Thomas C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is one of the most important signaling cascades of the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies in invertebrates have focused on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and there is little information regarding the evolutionary origin and ancestral function of TLR signaling. In Drosophila, members of the Toll-like receptor family are involved in both embryonic development and innate immunity. In C. elegans, a clear immune function of the TLR homolog TOL-1 is controversial and central components of vertebrate TLR signaling including the key adapter protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and the transcription factor NF-κB are not present. In basal metazoans such as the cnidarians Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis, all components of the vertebrate TLR signaling cascade are present, but their role in immunity is unknown. Here, we use a MyD88 loss-of-function approach in Hydra to demonstrate that recognition of bacteria is an ancestral function of TLR signaling and that this process contributes to both host-mediated recolonization by commensal bacteria as well as to defense against bacterial pathogens. PMID:23112184

  18. Signalling components of the house mouse mate recognition system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bímová, Barbora; Albrecht, Tomáš; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 1 (2009), s. 20-27. ISSN 0376-6357 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Faeces * Olfactory communication * Salivary androgen binding protein * Sexual preferences * Urinary signals Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2009

  19. Event recognition using signal spectrograms in long pulse experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J; Ruiz, M; Vega, J; Barrera, E; Arcas, G; López, J M

    2010-10-01

    As discharge duration increases, real-time complex analysis of the signal becomes more important. In this context, data acquisition and processing systems must provide models for designing experiments which use event oriented plasma control. One example of advanced data analysis is signal classification. The off-line statistical analysis of a large number of discharges provides information to develop algorithms for the determination of the plasma parameters from measurements of magnetohydrodinamic waves, for example, to detect density fluctuations induced by the Alfvén cascades using morphological patterns. The need to apply different algorithms to the signals and to address different processing algorithms using the previous results necessitates the use of an event-based experiment. The Intelligent Test and Measurement System platform is an example of architecture designed to implement distributed data acquisition and real-time processing systems. The processing algorithm sequence is modeled using an event-based paradigm. The adaptive capacity of this model is based on the logic defined by the use of state machines in SCXML. The Intelligent Test and Measurement System platform mixes a local multiprocessing model with a distributed deployment of services based on Jini. PMID:21033990

  20. Event recognition using signal spectrograms in long pulse experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; Arcas, G.; Lopez, J. M. [Grupo I2A2, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra Valencia Km. 7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    As discharge duration increases, real-time complex analysis of the signal becomes more important. In this context, data acquisition and processing systems must provide models for designing experiments which use event oriented plasma control. One example of advanced data analysis is signal classification. The off-line statistical analysis of a large number of discharges provides information to develop algorithms for the determination of the plasma parameters from measurements of magnetohydrodinamic waves, for example, to detect density fluctuations induced by the Alfven cascades using morphological patterns. The need to apply different algorithms to the signals and to address different processing algorithms using the previous results necessitates the use of an event-based experiment. The Intelligent Test and Measurement System platform is an example of architecture designed to implement distributed data acquisition and real-time processing systems. The processing algorithm sequence is modeled using an event-based paradigm. The adaptive capacity of this model is based on the logic defined by the use of state machines in SCXML. The Intelligent Test and Measurement System platform mixes a local multiprocessing model with a distributed deployment of services based on Jini.

  1. Event recognition using signal spectrograms in long pulse experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As discharge duration increases, real-time complex analysis of the signal becomes more important. In this context, data acquisition and processing systems must provide models for designing experiments which use event oriented plasma control. One example of advanced data analysis is signal classification. The off-line statistical analysis of a large number of discharges provides information to develop algorithms for the determination of the plasma parameters from measurements of magnetohydrodinamic waves, for example, to detect density fluctuations induced by the Alfven cascades using morphological patterns. The need to apply different algorithms to the signals and to address different processing algorithms using the previous results necessitates the use of an event-based experiment. The Intelligent Test and Measurement System platform is an example of architecture designed to implement distributed data acquisition and real-time processing systems. The processing algorithm sequence is modeled using an event-based paradigm. The adaptive capacity of this model is based on the logic defined by the use of state machines in SCXML. The Intelligent Test and Measurement System platform mixes a local multiprocessing model with a distributed deployment of services based on Jini.

  2. Characterization and expression analysis of a peptidoglycan recognition protein gene, SmPGRP2 in mucosal tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) following bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linan; Gao, Chengbin; Liu, Fengqiao; Song, Lin; Su, Baofeng; Li, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition receptor proteins (PGRPs), a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), can recognize peptidoglycan (PGN) of the bacteria cell wall and play an important role in host immune defense against pathogen infection. They are highly structurally conserved through evolution, but with different function in innate immunity between invertebrates and vertebrates. In teleost fish, several PGRPs have been characterized recently. They have both amidase activity and bactericidal activity and are involved in indirectly killing bacteria and regulating multiple signaling pathways. However, the knowledge of PGRPs in mucosal immunity of teleost fish is still limited. In this study, we identified a PGRPs gene (SmPGRP2) of turbot and investigated its expression patterns in mucosal tissues after challenge with Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae and Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio anguillarum. Phylogenetic analysis showed the strongest relationship of turbot PGRP to halibut, which was consistent with their phylogenetic relationships. In addition, SmPGRP2 was ubiquitously expressed in turbot tissues, and constitutive expression levels were higher in classical immune tissues (including liver, spleen, and head-kidney) than mucosal tissues (intestine, gill and skin). After bacterial challenge, the expression of SmPGRP2 was induced and showed a general trend of up-regulation in mucosal tissues, except in intestine following V. anguillarum infection. These different expression patterns varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting its distinct roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogen. PMID:27461422

  3. An approach to emotion recognition in single-channel EEG signals: a mother child interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A.; Quintero, L.; López, N.; Castro, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we perform a first approach to emotion recognition from EEG single channel signals extracted in four (4) mother-child dyads experiment in developmental psychology. Single channel EEG signals are analyzed and processed using several window sizes by performing a statistical analysis over features in the time and frequency domains. Finally, a neural network obtained an average accuracy rate of 99% of classification in two emotional states such as happiness and sadness.

  4. Dissecting the Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Recognition and Preference of Food Odors

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Gareth; Shen, Yu; Ha, Heonick; Donato, Alessandra; Wallis, Samuel; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Food is critical for survival. Many animals, including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, use sensorimotor systems to detect and locate preferred food sources. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying food-choice behaviors are poorly understood. Here, we characterize the molecular signaling that regulates recognition and preference between different food odors in C. elegans. We show that the major olfactory sensory neurons, AWB and AWC, play essential roles in this behavior. A canonical...

  5. Analysis of physiological signals for recognition of boredom, pain, and surprise emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Eun-Hye; Park, Byoung-Jun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise. In addition to that, it was conducted to propose approaches for emotion recognition based on physiological signals. Methods Three emotions, boredom, pain, and surprise, are induced through the presentation of emotional stimuli and electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (SKT), and photoplethysmography (PPG) as physiological signals are measured to collect a dataset ...

  6. An Online Full-Body Motion Recognition Method Using Sparse and Deficient Signal Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to recognize continuous full-body human motion online by using sparse, low-cost sensors. The only input signals needed are linear accelerations without any rotation information, which are provided by four Wiimote sensors attached to the four human limbs. Based on the fused hidden Markov model (FHMM and autoregressive process, a predictive fusion model (PFM is put forward, which considers the different influences of the upper and lower limbs, establishes HMM for each part, and fuses them using a probabilistic fusion model. Then an autoregressive process is introduced in HMM to predict the gesture, which enables the model to deal with incomplete signal data. In order to reduce the number of alternatives in the online recognition process, a graph model is built that rejects parts of motion types based on the graph structure and previous recognition results. Finally, an online signal segmentation method based on semantics information and PFM is presented to finish the efficient recognition task. The results indicate that the method is robust with a high recognition rate of sparse and deficient signals and can be used in various interactive applications.

  7. Finger curvature movement recognition interface technique using SEMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Itoh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Until recently, keyboard has been used as the primary input method for machinery operation system. But in recent years, numerous methods related to direct input interface have been developed. One of them is to measure the surface electric potential that generates on the skin surface during muscle contraction. Based on this fact, hand finger operation can also be recognized with the help of the surface muscle electric potential. The purpose of this study is to identify the hand finger operation using surface electromyogram (SEMG during crookedness state of the finger.Design/methodology/approach: Two electrodes (Ag-AgCl electrode were sticked randomly on the forearm muscles and the intensity of EMG signals at different muscles were measured for each crooked finger. Then depending on the intensity of the obtained electric potentials, a position was located and considered to have participated most actively during the crookedness state of that finger. Thus five locations on the forearm muscles were identified for five different fingers. Moreover, four different types of crookedness states were considered for each finger.Findings: In this experimental study, the electric current that generates on the skin during muscle activity was measured for different hand finger operations. As a result, it is found that there is a specified position related to the maximum intensity of EMG signals for each finger. Practical implications: This paper cleared that the amount of crookedness of each finger can also be recognized with the help of surface EMG. It could be used as a machine interface technology in the field of welfare equipments, robot hand operation, virtual reality, etc.Originality/value: The objective of this research project was to develop the method of recognizing the hand finger operation and their crookedness states from surface electromyogram (SEMG.

  8. Automatic recognition of radar signals based on time-frequency image shape character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-dong zhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Radar signal recognition is one of the key technologies of modern electronic surveillance systems. Time-frequency image provides a new way for recognizing the radar signal. In this paper, a series of image processing methods containing image enhancement, image threshold binarization and mathematical morphology is utilized to extract the shape character of smoothed pseudo wigner-ville time-frequency distribution of radar signal. And then the identification of radar signal is realized by the character. Simulation results of eight kinds of typical radar signal demonstrate that when signal noise ratio (SNR is greater than -3 dB, the Legendre moments shape character of the time-frequency image is very stable. Moreover, the recognition rate by the character is more than 90 per cent except for the FRANK code signal when SNR > -3 dB. Test also show that the proposed method can effectively recognize radar signal with less character dimension through compared with exitsing algorithms.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.308-314, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2404

  9. Improved Bagging Algorithm for Pattern Recognition in UHF Signals of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixin Sun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Improved Bagging Algorithm (IBA to recognize ultra-high-frequency (UHF signals of partial discharges (PDs. This approach establishes the sample information entropy for each sample and the re-sampling process of the traditional Bagging algorithm is optimized. Four typical discharge models were designed in the laboratory to simulate the internal insulation faults of power transformers. The optimized third order Peano fractal antenna was applied to capture the PD UHF signals. Multi-scale fractal dimensions as well as energy parameters extracted from the decomposed signals by wavelet packet transform were used as the characteristic parameters for pattern recognition. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, the back propagation neural network (BPNN and the support vector machine (SVM based on the IBA were adopted in this paper to carry out the pattern recognition for PD UHF signals. Experimental results show that the proposed approach of IBA can effectively enhance the generalization capability and also improve the accuracy of the recognition for PD UHF signals.

  10. Input–output robustness in simple bacterial signaling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shinar, Guy; Milo, Ron; Martínez, María Rodríguez; Alon, Uri

    2007-01-01

    Biological signaling systems produce an output, such as the level of a phosphorylated protein, in response to defined input signals. The output level as a function of the input level is called the system's input–output relation. One may ask whether this input–output relation is sensitive to changes in the concentrations of the system's components, such as proteins and ATP. Because component concentrations often vary from cell to cell, it might be expected that the input–output relation will l...

  11. Human Walking Pattern Recognition Based on KPCA and SVM with Ground Reflex Pressure Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms based on the ground reflex pressure (GRF signal obtained from a pair of sensing shoes for human walking pattern recognition were investigated. The dimensionality reduction algorithms based on principal component analysis (PCA and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA for walking pattern data compression were studied in order to obtain higher recognition speed. Classifiers based on support vector machine (SVM, SVM-PCA, and SVM-KPCA were designed, and the classification performances of these three kinds of algorithms were compared using data collected from a person who was wearing the sensing shoes. Experimental results showed that the algorithm fusing SVM and KPCA had better recognition performance than the other two methods. Experimental outcomes also confirmed that the sensing shoes developed in this paper can be employed for automatically recognizing human walking pattern in unlimited environments which demonstrated the potential application in the control of exoskeleton robots.

  12. Time-frequency feature analysis and recognition of fission neutrons signal based on support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the interdependent relationship between fission neutrons (252Cf) and fission chain (235U system), the paper presents the time-frequency feature analysis and recognition in fission neutron signal based on support vector machine (SVM) through the analysis on signal characteristics and the measuring principle of the 252Cf fission neutron signal. The time-frequency characteristics and energy features of the fission neutron signal are extracted by using wavelet decomposition and de-noising wavelet packet decomposition, and then applied to training and classification by means of support vector machine based on statistical learning theory. The results show that, it is effective to obtain features of nuclear signal via wavelet decomposition and de-noising wavelet packet decomposition, and the latter can reflect the internal characteristics of the fission neutron system better. With the training accomplished, the SVM classifier achieves an accuracy rate above 70%, overcoming the lack of training samples, and verifying the effectiveness of the algorithm. (authors)

  13. The time course of individual face recognition: A pattern analysis of ERP signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemrodov, Dan; Niemeier, Matthias; Mok, Jenkin Ngo Yin; Nestor, Adrian

    2016-05-15

    An extensive body of work documents the time course of neural face processing in the human visual cortex. However, the majority of this work has focused on specific temporal landmarks, such as N170 and N250 components, derived through univariate analyses of EEG data. Here, we take on a broader evaluation of ERP signals related to individual face recognition as we attempt to move beyond the leading theoretical and methodological framework through the application of pattern analysis to ERP data. Specifically, we investigate the spatiotemporal profile of identity recognition across variation in emotional expression. To this end, we apply pattern classification to ERP signals both in time, for any single electrode, and in space, across multiple electrodes. Our results confirm the significance of traditional ERP components in face processing. At the same time though, they support the idea that the temporal profile of face recognition is incompletely described by such components. First, we show that signals associated with different facial identities can be discriminated from each other outside the scope of these components, as early as 70ms following stimulus presentation. Next, electrodes associated with traditional ERP components as well as, critically, those not associated with such components are shown to contribute information to stimulus discriminability. And last, the levels of ERP-based pattern discrimination are found to correlate with recognition accuracy across subjects confirming the relevance of these methods for bridging brain and behavior data. Altogether, the current results shed new light on the fine-grained time course of neural face processing and showcase the value of novel methods for pattern analysis to investigating fundamental aspects of visual recognition. PMID:26973169

  14. Bacterial Molecular Signals in the Sinorhizobium fredii-Soybean Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. López-Baena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinorhizobium (Ensifer fredii (S. fredii is a rhizobial species exhibiting a remarkably broad nodulation host-range. Thus, S. fredii is able to effectively nodulate dozens of different legumes, including plants forming determinate nodules, such as the important crops soybean and cowpea, and plants forming indeterminate nodules, such as Glycyrrhiza uralensis and pigeon-pea. This capacity of adaptation to different symbioses makes the study of the molecular signals produced by S. fredii strains of increasing interest since it allows the analysis of their symbiotic role in different types of nodule. In this review, we analyze in depth different S. fredii molecules that act as signals in symbiosis, including nodulation factors, different surface polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, cyclic glucans, and K-antigen capsular polysaccharides, and effectors delivered to the interior of the host cells through a symbiotic type 3 secretion system.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of the Efficiency of Physiological Signals in Emotional State Recognition for Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mojarradshafie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available signals. In this study, an experiment is conducted to elicit four emotional states (happiness, anger, sadness and relax in twenty four healthy subjects. The physiological signals such as ECG, SCL (Skin Conductivity Level, EMG and Respiration signal are recorded simultaneously. After necessary preprocessing for primary signals such as segmentation, filtering, smoothing, removing artifacts and removal of baseline drift, various features in time and frequency domain are extracted. Feature selection method is used to find best relevant features. Afterward, different dimension reduction algorithms and classification methods are used to compare the efficiency of different physiological signals in emotion recognition. The precision of classifications with different features is found to be higher than 70%. The results show that the different physiological signals have different ability to classify four given affective states. Our proposed methods can result in developing a robust emotional states recognition system for healthcare applications.

  16. FEM enhanced signal processing approach for pattern recognition in the SQUID based NDE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient Non-Destructive Evaluation algorithm has been developed in order to extract the required information for pattern recognition of defects in the conductive samples. Using high-Tc gradiometer RF-SQUIDs in unshielded environments and incorporating an automated two dimensional non-magnetic scanning robot, samples with different intentional defects have been tested. We have used a developed noise cancellation approach for the improvement of the effectiveness of the used inverse-problem technique. In this approach we have used a well examined Finite Element Method (FEM) to apply a noise reduction filtering on the obtained raw magnetic image data before incorporating the signal processing analysis. By applying this noise cancellation filter and incorporating three different signal processing algorithms and comparing the results of the predicted images by the pattern of the intentionally made defects, we have investigated the ability of these methods for pattern recognition of unknown defects.

  17. FEM enhanced signal processing approach for pattern recognition in the SQUID based NDE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarreshtedari, F; Jahed, N M S; Hosseni, N; Pourhashemi, A; Fardmanesh, M [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Banzet, Marko; Schubert, Juergen, E-mail: fardmanesh@sharif.ed [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Bio and Nanosystems, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    An efficient Non-Destructive Evaluation algorithm has been developed in order to extract the required information for pattern recognition of defects in the conductive samples. Using high-Tc gradiometer RF-SQUIDs in unshielded environments and incorporating an automated two dimensional non-magnetic scanning robot, samples with different intentional defects have been tested. We have used a developed noise cancellation approach for the improvement of the effectiveness of the used inverse-problem technique. In this approach we have used a well examined Finite Element Method (FEM) to apply a noise reduction filtering on the obtained raw magnetic image data before incorporating the signal processing analysis. By applying this noise cancellation filter and incorporating three different signal processing algorithms and comparing the results of the predicted images by the pattern of the intentionally made defects, we have investigated the ability of these methods for pattern recognition of unknown defects.

  18. ECG Signal Recognition based on Wavelet Transform Using Neural and Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Abdul-Ridha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents aneural and fuzzy based ECG signal recognition system based on wavelet transform. The suitable coefficients that can be used as a feature for each fuzzy network or neural network is found using a proposed best basis technique. Using the proposed best bases reduces the dimension of the input vector and hence reduces the complexity of the classifier. The fuzzy network and the neural network parameters are learned using back propagation algorithm.

  19. Two-stage Recognition of Raw Acceleration Signals for 3-D Gesture-Understanding Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung-Jung; Choi, Eunseok; Bang, Won-Chul; YANG Jing; Sohn, Junil; Kim, Dong Yoon; Lee, Young-Bum; Kim, Sangryong

    2006-01-01

    As many functionalities like cameras and MP3 players are converged to cell phones, more intuitive interaction methods are essential beyond tiny keypads. In this paper, we present gesture-based interactions and their two-stage recognition algorithm. Acceleration signals are generated from accelerometer. At the first stage, they are hierarchically modelled and matched as basic component and their relationships by Bayesian networks. At the second stage, they are further classified by SVMs for re...

  20. ECG Signal Recognition based on Wavelet Transform Using Neural and Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    H. M. Abdul-Ridha; Abduladhem Abdulkareem Ali

    2008-01-01

    This work presents aneural and fuzzy based ECG signal recognition system based on wavelet transform. The suitable coefficients that can be used as a feature for each fuzzy network or neural network is found using a proposed best basis technique. Using the proposed best bases reduces the dimension of the input vector and hence reduces the complexity of the classifier. The fuzzy network and the neural network parameters are learned using back propagation algorithm.

  1. Overview and Development of a Virtual Signal and Pattern Recognition Experimentation Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Ulrich Seidel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available As computers come to be used in more and more settings, the importance of digital signal processing increases in parallel. It has become a fundamental necessity to train both undergraduate and postgraduate engineers in this subject. The article which follows gives one approach to this teaching, a series of web-based practical sessions on signal and pattern recognition in a virtual laboratory (vPSM using multimedia learning modules. The technology used is conventional web technology together with professional mathematics software, accessed via a universal XML interface developed for the purpose.

  2. An intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition technique for defect identification using an active sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhongqing; Ye, Lin

    2004-08-01

    The practical utilization of elastic waves, e.g. Rayleigh-Lamb waves, in high-performance structural health monitoring techniques is somewhat impeded due to the complicated wave dispersion phenomena, the existence of multiple wave modes, the high susceptibility to diverse interferences, the bulky sampled data and the difficulty in signal interpretation. An intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition (ISPPR) approach using the wavelet transform and artificial neural network algorithms was developed; this was actualized in a signal processing package (SPP). The ISPPR technique comprehensively functions as signal filtration, data compression, characteristic extraction, information mapping and pattern recognition, capable of extracting essential yet concise features from acquired raw wave signals and further assisting in structural health evaluation. For validation, the SPP was applied to the prediction of crack growth in an alloy structural beam and construction of a damage parameter database for defect identification in CF/EP composite structures. It was clearly apparent that the elastic wave propagation-based damage assessment could be dramatically streamlined by introduction of the ISPPR technique.

  3. Behavioral assessment of acoustic parameters relevant to signal recognition and preference in a vocal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, J R; Bass, A H

    1998-12-01

    Acoustic signal recognition depends on the receiver's processing of the physical attributes of a sound. This study takes advantage of the simple communication sounds produced by plainfin midshipman fish to examine effects of signal variation on call recognition and preference. Nesting male midshipman generate both long duration (> 1 min) sinusoidal-like "hums" and short duration "grunts." The hums of neighboring males often overlap, creating beat waveforms. Presentation of humlike, single tone stimuli, but not grunts or noise, elicited robust attraction (phonotaxis) by gravid females. In two-choice tests, females differentiated and chose between acoustic signals that differed in duration, frequency, amplitude, and fine temporal content. Frequency preferences were temperature dependent, in accord with the known temperature dependence of hum fundamental frequency. Concurrent hums were simulated with two-tone beat stimuli, either presented from a single speaker or produced more naturally by interference between adjacent sources. Whereas certain single-source beats reduced stimulus attractiveness, beats which resolved into unmodulated tones at their sources did not affect preference. These results demonstrate that phonotactic assessment of stimulus relevance can be applied in a teleost fish, and that multiple signal parameters can affect receiver response in a vertebrate with relatively simple communication signals. PMID:9857511

  4. Moment-flux models for bacterial chemotaxis in large signal gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuan; Yang, Xige

    2016-10-01

    Chemotaxis is a fundamental process in the life of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Chemotaxis of bacterial populations has been modeled by both individual-based stochastic models that take into account the biochemistry of intracellular signaling, and continuum PDE models that track the evolution of the cell density in space and time. Continuum models have been derived from individual-based models that describe intracellular signaling by a system of ODEs. The derivations rely on quasi-steady state approximations of the internal ODE system. While this assumption is valid if cell movement is subject to slowly changing signals, it is often violated if cells are exposed to rapidly changing signals. In the latter case current continuum models break down and do not match the underlying individual-based model quantitatively. In this paper, we derive new PDE models for bacterial chemotaxis in large signal gradients that involve not only the cell density and flux, but also moments of the intracellular signals as a measure of the deviation of cell's internal state from its steady state. The derivation is based on a new moment closure method without calling the quasi-steady state assumption of intracellular signaling. Numerical simulations suggest that the resulting model matches the population dynamics quantitatively for a much larger range of signals. PMID:26922437

  5. Critical roles of sea cucumber C-type lectin in non-self recognition and bacterial clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiumei; Liu, Xiangquan; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Sheng; Sun, Guohua; Yang, Jialong

    2015-08-01

    C-type lectin is one important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that plays crucial roles in multiple immune responses. A C-type lectin from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjCTL-1) was characterized in the present study. The amino acid sequence of AjCTL-1 shared high similarities with other C-type lectins from invertebrates and vertebrates. The C-type lectin domain (CTLD) of AjCTL-1 contained a Ca(2+)-binding site 2 and four conserved cysteine residues. AjCTL-1 mRNA expression patterns in tissues and after bacterial challenge were then analysed. Quantitative PCR revealed that AjCTL-1 mRNA was widely expressed in the tested tissues of healthy sea cucumber. The highest expression level occurred in gonad followed by body wall, coelomocytes, tentacle, intestinum and longitudinal muscle, and the lowest expression level was in respiratory tree. AjCTL-1 mRNA expression in coelomocytes was significantly induced by gram-negative Listonella anguillarum and gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, with different up-regulation patterns post-challenge. Recombinant AjCTL-1 exhibited the ability to bind peptidoglycan directly, agglutinate M. luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, in a Ca(2+)-dependant manner, and enhance the phagocytosis of coelomocytes against E. coli in vitro. The results indicated that AjCTL-1 could act as a PRR in Apostichopus japonicus and had critical roles in non-self recognition and bacterial clearance against invading microbes. PMID:26052017

  6. Synthesis of Multifunctional Cellulose Nanocrystals for Lectin Recognition and Bacterial Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Juan; Butchosa, Núria; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.; Park, JaeHyeung; Zhou, Qi; Yan, Mingdi; Ramström, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional cellulose nanocrystals have been synthesized and applied as a new type of glyconanomaterial in lectin binding and bacterial imaging. The cellulose nanocrystals were prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and acidic hydrolysis, followed by functionalization with a quinolone fluorophore and carbohydrate ligands. The cellulose nanocrystals were subsequently applied in interaction studies with carbohydrate-binding proteins and in bacterial imaging. The results show that the function...

  7. Dynamic physiological signal analysis based on Fisher kernels for emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan F; Orozco, Álvaro A; Álvarez, Mauricio A

    2013-01-01

    Emotional behavior is an active area of study in the fields of neuroscience and affective computing. This field has the fundamental role of emotion recognition in the maintenance of physical and mental health. Valence/Arousal levels are two orthogonal, independent dimensions of any emotional stimulus and allows an analysis framework in affective research. In this paper we present our framework for emotional regression based on machine learning techniques. Autoregressive coefficients and hidden markov models on physiological signals, based on Fisher Kernels characterization are presented for mapping variable length sequences to new dimension feature vector space. Then, support vector regression is performed over the Fisher Scores for emotional recognition. Also quantitatively we evaluated the accuracy of the proposed model by acomplishing a hold-out cross validation over the dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively perform the regression in comparison with static characterization methods. PMID:24110689

  8. Application of an automatic pattern recognition for aleatory signals for the surveillance of nuclear reactor and rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic pattern recognition program PSDREC, developed for the surveillance of nuclear reactor and rotating machinery is described and the relevant theory is outlined. Pattern recognition analysis of noise signals is a powerful technique for assessing 'system normality' in dynamic systems. This program, with applies 8 statistical tests to calculated power spectral density (PSD) distribution, was earlier installed in a PDP-11/45 computer at IPEN. To analyse recorded signals from three systems, namely an operational BWR power reactor (neutron signals), a water pump and a diesel engine (vibration signals) this technique was used. Results of the tests are considered satisfactory. (Author)

  9. Evolutionary theory of bacterial quorum sensing: when is a signal not a signal?

    OpenAIRE

    Diggle, Stephen P.; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.; Griffin, Ashleigh S.

    2007-01-01

    The term quorum sensing (QS) is used to describe the communication between bacterial cells, whereby a coordinated population response is controlled by diffusible molecules produced by individuals. QS has not only been described between cells of the same species (intraspecies), but also between species (interspecies) and between bacteria and higher organisms (inter-kingdom). The fact that QS-based communication appears to be widespread among microbes is strange, considering that explaining bot...

  10. Urtica dioica modulates hippocampal insulin signaling and recognition memory deficit in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Gupta, Sahil; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with functional abnormalities in the hippocampus and performance of cognitive function. Urtica dioica (UD) has been used in the treatment of diabetes. In our previous report we observed that UD extract attenuate diabetes mediated associative and spatial memory dysfunction. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of UD extract on mouse model of diabetes-induced recognition memory deficit and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (ROSI) (5 mg/kg, oral) administration for 8 weeks. STZ induced diabetic mice showed significant decrease in hippocampal insulin signaling and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to neuronal membrane resulting in cognitive dysfunction and hypolocomotion. UD treatment effectively improved hippocampal insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and recognition memory performance in diabetic mice, which was comparable to ROSI. Further, diabetes mediated oxidative stress and inflammation was reversed by chronic UD or ROSI administration. UD leaves extract acts via insulin signaling pathway and might prove to be effective for the diabetes mediated central nervous system complications. PMID:26767366

  11. Molecule Recognition Imaging and Highly Ordered Gold Nanoparticle Templating of Functional Bacterial S-Layer Nanoarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jilin TANG; Andreas Ebner; Helga Badelt-Lichtblau; Christian Rankl; Michael Leitner; Hermann J.Gruber; Uwe B.Sleytr; Nicola Ilk; Peter Hinterdorfer

    2009-01-01

    @@ Molecular recognition between receptors and their cognate ligands plays an important role in life sciences.Such specific interactions include those between complementary strands of DNA,enzyme and substrate,antigen and antibody,lectin and carbohydrate,ligands and cell surface receptors as well as between cell adhesion proteins.

  12. Bearing defect detection and diagnosis using a time encoded signal processing and pattern recognition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many new bearing monitoring and diagnosis methods have been explored in the last two decades to provide a technique that is capable of picking up an incipient bearing fault. Vibration analysis is a commonly used condition monitoring technique in world industry and has proved an effective method for rolling bearing monitoring systems. The focus of this paper is to combine two conventional methods: wavelet transform and envelope analysis with the Time Encoded Signal Processing and Recognition (TESPAR) to develop a better technique for detection of small bearing faults. Results show that TESPAR with these two combinations provides good fault discrimination in terms of location and severity for different bearing conditions.

  13. Disassembly and domain structure of the proteins in the signal-recognition particle

    OpenAIRE

    Scoulica, Efstathia; Krause, Elke; Meese, Klaus; Dobberstein, Bernhard

    1987-01-01

    The signal-recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex consisting of six different polypeptide chains and a 7SL RNA. It participates in initiating the translocation of proteins across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, SRP was disassembled in 2 M KCl into three components, one RNP composed of 7SL RNA and the 54-kDa and 19-kDa proteins, and two heterodimers consisting of the 72/68-kDa and the 14/9-kDa proteins respectively. The 54-kDa protein could be released from ...

  14. Sound transmission and the recognition of temporally degraded sexual advertisement signals in Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczynski, Michael C.; Vélez, Alejandro; Schwartz, Joshua J.; Bee, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic communication signals degrade as they propagate between signalers and receivers. While we generally understand the degrading effects of sound propagation on the structure of acoustic signals, we know considerably less about how receivers make behavioral decisions based on the perception of degraded signals in sonically and structurally complex habitats where communication occurs. In this study of acoustic mate recognition in Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis (Cope 1880), we inv...

  15. Cross-talk and information transfer in mammalian and bacterial signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanthe M Lyons

    Full Text Available In mammalian and bacterial cells simple phosphorylation circuits play an important role in signaling. Bacteria have hundreds of two-component signaling systems that involve phosphotransfer between a receptor and a response regulator. In mammalian cells a similar pathway is the TGF-beta pathway, where extracellular TGF-beta ligands activate cell surface receptors that phosphorylate Smad proteins, which in turn activate many genes. In TGF-beta signaling the multiplicity of ligands begs the question as to whether cells can distinguish signals coming from different ligands, but transduced through a small set of Smads. Here we use information theory with stochastic simulations of networks to address this question. We find that when signals are transduced through only one Smad, the cell cannot distinguish between different levels of the external ligands. Increasing the number of Smads from one to two significantly improves information transmission as well as the ability to discriminate between ligands. Surprisingly, both total information transmitted and the capacity to discriminate between ligands are quite insensitive to high levels of cross-talk between the two Smads. Robustness against cross-talk requires that the average amplitude of the signals are large. We find that smaller systems, as exemplified by some two-component systems in bacteria, are significantly much less robust against cross-talk. For such system sizes phosphotransfer is also less robust against cross-talk than phosphorylation. This suggests that mammalian signal transduction can tolerate a high amount of cross-talk without degrading information content. This may have played a role in the evolution of new functionalities from small mutations in signaling pathways, allowed for the development of cross-regulation and led to increased overall robustness due to redundancy in signaling pathways. On the other hand the lack of cross-regulation observed in many bacterial two

  16. Effects of thermal fluctuation and the receptor-receptor interaction in bacterial chemotactic signalling and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis is controlled by the conformational changes of the receptors, in response to the change of the ambient chemical concentration. In a statistical mechanical approach, the signalling due to the conformational changes is a thermodynamic average quantity, dependent on the temperature and the total energy of the system, including both ligand-receptor interaction and receptor-receptor interaction. This physical theory suggests to biology a new understanding of cooperation in lig...

  17. The signal based relationship between the green seaweed Ulva and its indigenous bacterial community

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This project has focused on the relationship between the green seaweed Ulva, commonly found in the intertidal zone of the UK coastline and its cognate bacterial community. It has previously been reported that motile Ulva zoospores are attracted to N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), signalling molecules utilised by Gram-negative bacteria in a density dependent form of cellular communication termed quorum sensing (QS) and produced by several biofilm dwelling species of marine bacteria. The speci...

  18. Sharing of quorum-sensing signals and role of interspecies communities in a bacterial plant disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hosni, Taha; Moretti, Chiaraluce; Devescovi, Giulia; Suarez-Moreno, Zulma Rocio; Fatmi, M' Barek; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Pongor, Sandor; Onofri, Andrea; Buonaurio, Roberto; Venturi, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria interact not only with the host organism but most probably also with the resident microbial flora. In the knot disease of the olive tree (Olea europaea), the causative agent is the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv). Two bacterial species, namely Pantoea agglomerans and Erwinia toletana, which are not pathogenic and are olive plant epiphytes and endophytes, have been found very often to be associated with the olive knot. We identified the chemical signal...

  19. Cutting force signal pattern recognition using hybrid neural network in end milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Tae SEONG; Ko-Tae JO; Young-Moon LEE

    2009-01-01

    Under certain cutting conditions in end milling, the signs of cutting forces change from positive to negative during a revolution of the tool. The change of force direction causes the cutting dynamics to be unstable which results in chatter vibration. Therefore, cutting force signal monitoring and classification are needed to determine the optimal cutting conditions and to improve the efficiency of cut. Artificial neural networks are powerful tools for solving highly complex and nonlinear problems. It can be divided into supervised and unsupervised learning machines based on the availability of a teacher. Hybrid neural network was introduced with both of functions of multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with the back-propagation algorithm for monitoring and detecting abnormal state, and self organizing feature map (SOFM) for treating huge datum such as image processing and pattern recognition, for predicting and classifying cutting force signal patterns simultaneously. The validity of the results is verified with cutting experiments and simulation tests.

  20. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods in ciders profiling based on GCE voltammetric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Sordoń, Wanda; Ciepiela, Filip

    2016-07-15

    This work presents a complete methodology of distinguishing between different brands of cider and ageing degrees, based on voltammetric signals, utilizing dedicated data preprocessing procedures and unsupervised multivariate analysis. It was demonstrated that voltammograms recorded on glassy carbon electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 2 are reproducible for each brand. By application of clustering algorithms and principal component analysis visible homogenous clusters were obtained. Advanced signal processing strategy which included automatic baseline correction, interval scaling and continuous wavelet transform with dedicated mother wavelet, was a key step in the correct recognition of the objects. The results show that voltammetry combined with optimized univariate and multivariate data processing is a sufficient tool to distinguish between ciders from various brands and to evaluate their freshness. PMID:26948640

  1. Entamoeba Clone-Recognition Experiments: Morphometrics, Aggregative Behavior, and Cell-Signaling Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Hackey, Meagan; Rutherford, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Studies on clone- and kin-discrimination in protists have proliferated during the past decade. We report clone-recognition experiments in seven Entamoeba lineages (E. invadens IP-1, E. invadens VK-1:NS, E. terrapinae, E. moshkovskii Laredo, E. moshkovskii Snake, E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and E. dispar). First, we characterized morphometrically each clone (length, width, and cell-surface area) and documented how they differed statistically from one another (as per single-variable or canonical-discriminant analyses). Second, we demonstrated that amebas themselves could discriminate self (clone) from different (themselves vs. other clones). In mix-cell-line cultures between closely-related (E. invadens IP-1 vs. E. invadens VK-1:NS) or distant-phylogenetic clones (E. terrapinae vs. E. moshkovskii Laredo), amebas consistently aggregated with same-clone members. Third, we identified six putative cell-signals secreted by the amebas (RasGap/Ankyrin, coronin-WD40, actin, protein kinases, heat shock 70, and ubiquitin) and which known functions in Entamoeba spp. included: cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cell movement, and stress-induced encystation. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-clone characterization of Entamoeba spp. morphometrics, aggregative behavior, and cell-signaling secretion in the context of clone-recognition. Protists allow us to study cell-cell recognition from ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Modern protistan lineages can be central to studies about the origins and evolution of multicellularity. PMID:26990199

  2. Health monitoring of 90° bolted joints using fuzzy pattern recognition of ultrasonic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolted joints are important parts for aerospace structures. However, there is a significant risk associated with assembling bolted joints due to potential human error during the assembly process. Such errors are expensive to find and correct if exposed during environmental testing, yet checking the integrity of individual fasteners after assembly would be a time consuming task. Recent advances in structural health monitoring (SHM) can provide techniques to not only automate this process but also make it reliable. This integrity monitoring requires damage features to be related to physical conditions representing the structural integrity of bolted joints. In this paper an SHM technique using ultrasonic signals and fuzzy pattern recognition to monitor the integrity of 90° bolted joints in aerospace structures is described. The proposed technique is based on normalized fast Fourier transform (NFFT) of transmitted signals and fuzzy pattern recognition. Moreover, experimental observations of a case study on an aluminum 90° bolted joint are presented. We demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to efficiently monitor and indicate bolted joint integrity. (paper)

  3. Recognition of signal peptide by protein translocation machinery in middle silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyang Guo; Yi Zhang; Xue Zhang; Shengpeng Wang; Changde Lu

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the functions of signal peptide in protein secretion in the middle silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori,a series of recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene,led by sericin-1 promoter and mutated signal peptide coding sequences,were constructed by region-deletions or single amino acid residue deletions.The recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses were injected into the hemocoele of newly ecdysed fifth-instar silkworm larvae.The expression and secretion of EGFP in the middle silk gland were examined by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis.Results showed that even with a large part (up to 14 amino acid residues) of the ser-1 signal peptide deleted,the expressed EGFP could still be secreted into the cavity of the silk gland.Western blot analysis showed that shortening of the signal peptide from the C-terminal suppressed the maturation of pro-EGFP to EGFP.When 8 amino acid residues were deleted from the C-terminal of the signal peptide (mutant 13 aa),the secretion of EGFP was incomplete,implicating the importance of proper coupling of the h-region and c-region.The deletion of amino acid residue(s) in the h-region did not affect the secretion of EGFP,indicating that the recognition of signal peptide by translocation machinery was mainly by a structural domain,but not by special amino acid residue(s).Furthermore,the deletion of Arg2 or replacement with Asp in the n-region of the signal peptide did not influence secretion of EGFP,suggesting that a positive charge is not crucial.

  4. Real-time intelligent pattern recognition algorithm for surface EMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahed Mehran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyography (EMG is the study of muscle function through the inquiry of electrical signals that the muscles emanate. EMG signals collected from the surface of the skin (Surface Electromyogram: sEMG can be used in different applications such as recognizing musculoskeletal neural based patterns intercepted for hand prosthesis movements. Current systems designed for controlling the prosthetic hands either have limited functions or can only be used to perform simple movements or use excessive amount of electrodes in order to achieve acceptable results. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have proposed an intelligent system to recognize hand movements and have provided a user assessment routine to evaluate the correctness of executed movements. Methods We propose to use an intelligent approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS integrated with a real-time learning scheme to identify hand motion commands. For this purpose and to consider the effect of user evaluation on recognizing hand movements, vision feedback is applied to increase the capability of our system. By using this scheme the user may assess the correctness of the performed hand movement. In this work a hybrid method for training fuzzy system, consisting of back-propagation (BP and least mean square (LMS is utilized. Also in order to optimize the number of fuzzy rules, a subtractive clustering algorithm has been developed. To design an effective system, we consider a conventional scheme of EMG pattern recognition system. To design this system we propose to use two different sets of EMG features, namely time domain (TD and time-frequency representation (TFR. Also in order to decrease the undesirable effects of the dimension of these feature sets, principle component analysis (PCA is utilized. Results In this study, the myoelectric signals considered for classification consists of six unique hand movements. Features chosen for EMG signal

  5. Effects of temporal envelope modulation on acoustic signal recognition in a vocal fish, the plainfin midshipman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, J R; Bass, A H

    2001-06-01

    Amplitude modulation is an important parameter defining vertebrate acoustic communication signals. Nesting male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, emit simple, long duration hums in which modulation is strikingly absent. Envelope modulation is, however, introduced when the hums of adjacent males overlap to produce acoustic beats. Hums attract gravid females and can be mimicked with continuous tones at the fundamental frequency. While individual hums have flat envelopes, other midshipman signals are amplitude modulated. This study used one-choice playback tests with gravid females to examine the role of envelope modulation in hum recognition. Various pulse train and two-tone beat stimuli resembling natural communication signals were presented individually, and the responses compared to those for continuous pure tones. The effectiveness of pulse trains was graded and depended upon both pulse duration and the ratio of pulse to gap length. Midshipman were sensitive to beat modulations from 0.5 to 10 Hz, with fewer fish approaching the beat than the pure tone. Reducing the degree of modulation increased the effectiveness of beat stimuli. Hence, the lack of modulation in the midshipman's advertisement call corresponds to the importance of envelope modulation for the categorization of communication signals even in this relatively simple system. PMID:11425135

  6. Recognition of Acoustic Signals of Synchronous Motors with the Use of MoFS and Selected Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glowacz Adam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach based on acoustic signals for detecting faults appearing in synchronous motors. Acoustic signals of a machine were used for fault detection. These faults contained: broken coils and shorted stator coils. Acoustic signals were used to assess the usefulness of early fault diagnostic of synchronous motors. The acoustic signal recognition system was based on methods of data processing: normalization of the amplitude, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, method of frequency selection (MoFS, backpropagation neural network, classifier based on words coding, and Nearest Neighbor classifier. A plan of study of acoustic signals of synchronous motors was proposed. Software of acoustic signal recognition of synchronous motors was implemented. Four states of a synchronous motor were used in analysis. A pattern creation process was carried out for 28 training samples of noise. An identification process was carried out for 60 test samples. This system can be used to diagnose synchronous motors and other electrical machines.

  7. Recognition- and reactivity-based fluorescent probes for studying transition metal signaling in living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Allegra T; Ramos-Torres, Karla M; Cotruvo, Joseph A; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    Metals are essential for life, playing critical roles in all aspects of the central dogma of biology (e.g., the transcription and translation of nucleic acids and synthesis of proteins). Redox-inactive alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and zinc are widely recognized as dynamic signals, whereas redox-active transition metals such as copper and iron are traditionally thought of as sequestered by protein ligands, including as static enzyme cofactors, in part because of their potential to trigger oxidative stress and damage via Fenton chemistry. Metals in biology can be broadly categorized into two pools: static and labile. In the former, proteins and other macromolecules tightly bind metals; in the latter, metals are bound relatively weakly to cellular ligands, including proteins and low molecular weight ligands. Fluorescent probes can be useful tools for studying the roles of transition metals in their labile forms. Probes for imaging transition metal dynamics in living systems must meet several stringent criteria. In addition to exhibiting desirable photophysical properties and biocompatibility, they must be selective and show a fluorescence turn-on response to the metal of interest. To meet this challenge, we have pursued two general strategies for metal detection, termed "recognition" and "reactivity". Our design of transition metal probes makes use of a recognition-based approach for copper and nickel and a reactivity-based approach for cobalt and iron. This Account summarizes progress in our laboratory on both the development and application of fluorescent probes to identify and study the signaling roles of transition metals in biology. In conjunction with complementary methods for direct metal detection and genetic and/or pharmacological manipulations, fluorescent probes for transition metals have helped reveal a number of principles underlying transition metal dynamics. In this Account, we give three recent

  8. Estradiol-induced object recognition memory consolidation is dependent on activation of mTOR signaling in the dorsal hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17β-estradiol (E2) is dependent on mTOR signaling in the dorsal hippocampus, and whether E2-induced mTOR signaling is dependent on dorsal hippocampal phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular sig...

  9. Promoter recognition by bacterial alternative sigma factors: the price of high selectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feklistov, Andrey; Darst, Seth A

    2009-10-15

    A key step in bacterial transcription initiation is melting of the double-stranded promoter DNA by the RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Primary sigma factors mediate the melting of thousands of promoters through a conserved set of aromatic amino acids. Alternative sigmas, which direct transcription of restricted regulons, lack the full set of melting residues. In this issue of Genes & Development, Koo and colleagues (pp. 2426-2436) show that introducing the primary sigma melting residues into alternative sigmas relaxes their promoter specificity, pointing to a trade-off of reduced promoter melting capacity for increased promoter stringency. PMID:19833764

  10. Pattern Recognition of Signals for the Fault-Slip Type of Rock Burst in Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault-slip type of rock burst is a major threat to the safety of coal mining, and effectively recognizing its signals patterns is the foundation for the early warning and prevention. At first, a mechanical model of the fault-slip was established and the mechanism of the rock burst induced by the fault-slip was revealed. Then, the patterns of the electromagnetic radiation, acoustic emission (AE, and microseismic signals in the fault-slip type of rock burst were proposed, in that before the rock burst occurs, the electromagnetic radiation intensity near the sliding surface increases rapidly, the AE energy rises exponentially, and the energy released by microseismic events experiences at least one peak and is close to the next peak. At last, in situ investigations were performed at number 1412 coal face in the Huafeng Mine, China. Results showed that the signals patterns proposed are in good agreement with the process of the fault-slip type of rock burst. The pattern recognition can provide a basis for the early warning and the implementation of relief measures of the fault-slip type of rock burst.

  11. Study of the vocal signal in the amplitude-time representation. Speech segmentation and recognition algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation exposes an acoustical and phonetical study of vocal signal. The complex pattern of the signal is segmented into simple sub-patterns and each one of these sub-patterns may be segmented again into another more simplest patterns with lower level. Application of pattern recognition techniques facilitates on one hand this segmentation and on the other hand the definition of the structural relations between the sub-patterns. Particularly, we have developed syntactic techniques in which the rewriting rules, context-sensitive, are controlled by predicates using parameters evaluated on the sub-patterns themselves. This allow to generalize a pure syntactic analysis by adding a semantic information. The system we expose, realizes pre-classification and a partial identification of the phonemes as also the accurate detection of each pitch period. The voice signal is analysed directly using the amplitude-time representation. This system has been implemented on a mini-computer and it works in the real time. (author)

  12. Blockade of intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus erases recognition memory via impairment of maintained LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Haruna; Minamino, Tatsuya; Fujii, Hiroaki; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ando, Masaki; Takeda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    There is no evidence on the precise role of synaptic Zn2+ signaling on the retention and recall of recognition memory. On the basis of the findings that intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition, short-term memory, the present study deals with the effect of spatiotemporally blocking Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus after LTP induction and learning. Three-day-maintained LTP was impaired 1 day after injection of clioquinol into the dentate gyrus, which transiently reduced intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus. The irreversible impairment was rescued not only by co-injection of ZnCl2 , which ameliorated the loss of Zn2+ signaling, but also by pre-injection of Jasplakinolide, a stabilizer of F-actin, prior to clioquinol injection. Simultaneously, 3-day-old space recognition memory was impaired 1 day after injection of clioquinol into the dentate gyrus, but not by pre-injection of Jasplakinolide. Jasplakinolide also rescued both impairments of 3-day-maintained LTP and 3-day-old memory after injection of ZnAF-2DA into the dentate gyrus, which blocked intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus. The present paper indicates that the blockade and/or loss of intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus coincidently impair maintained LTP and recognition memory. The mechanism maintaining LTP via intracellular Zn2+ signaling in dentate granule cells, which may be involved in the formation of F-actin, may retain space recognition memory. PMID:25603776

  13. A Novel AT-Rich DNA Recognition Mechanism for Bacterial Xenogeneic Silencer MvaT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial xenogeneic silencing proteins selectively bind to and silence expression from many AT rich regions of the chromosome. They serve as master regulators of horizontally acquired DNA, including a large number of virulence genes. To date, three distinct families of xenogeneic silencers have been identified: H-NS of Proteobacteria, Lsr2 of the Actinomycetes, and MvaT of Pseudomonas sp. Although H-NS and Lsr2 family proteins are structurally different, they all recognize the AT-rich DNA minor groove through a common AT-hook-like motif, which is absent in the MvaT family. Thus, the DNA binding mechanism of MvaT has not been determined. Here, we report the characteristics of DNA sequences targeted by MvaT with protein binding microarrays, which indicates that MvaT prefers binding flexible DNA sequences with multiple TpA steps. We demonstrate that there are clear differences in sequence preferences between MvaT and the other two xenogeneic silencer families. We also determined the structure of the DNA-binding domain of MvaT in complex with a high affinity DNA dodecamer using solution NMR. This is the first experimental structure of a xenogeneic silencer in complex with DNA, which reveals that MvaT recognizes the AT-rich DNA both through base readout by an "AT-pincer" motif inserted into the minor groove and through shape readout by multiple lysine side chains interacting with the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. Mutations of key MvaT residues for DNA binding confirm their importance with both in vitro and in vivo assays. This novel DNA binding mode enables MvaT to better tolerate GC-base pair interruptions in the binding site and less prefer A tract DNA when compared to H-NS and Lsr2. Comparison of MvaT with other bacterial xenogeneic silencers provides a clear picture that nature has evolved unique solutions for different bacterial genera to distinguish foreign from self DNA.

  14. Recognition of Acoustic Signals of Induction Motors with the Use of MSAF10 and Bayes Classfier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glowacz A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring of deterioration in the metallurgical equipment is essential for faultless operation of the metallurgical processes. These processes use various metallurgical equipment, such as induction motors or industrial furnaces. These devices operate continuously. Correct diagnosis and early detection of incipient faults allow to avoid accidents and help reducing financial loss. This paper deals with monitoring of rotor electrical faults of induction motor. A technique of recognition of acoustic signals of induction motors is presented. Three states of induction motor were analyzed. Studies were carried out for methods of data processing: Method of Selection of Amplitudes of Frequencies (MSAF10 and Bayes classifier. Condition monitoring is helpful to protect induction motors and metallurgical equipment. Further researches will allow to analyze other metallurgical equipment.

  15. Sleep apnoea episodes recognition by a committee of ELM classifiers from ECG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Nadi; de Chazal, Philip; van Schaik, Andre; Breen, Paul

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a system for the recognition of sleep apnoea episodes from ECG signals using a committee of extreme learning machine (ELM) classifiers. RR-interval parameters (heart rate variability) have been used as the identifying features as they are directly affected by sleep apnoea. The MIT PhysioNet Apnea-ECG database was used. A committee of five ELM classifiers has been employed to classify one-minute epochs of ECG into normal or apnoeic epochs. Our results show that the classification performance from the committee of networks was superior to the results of a single ELM classifier for fan-outs from 1 to 100. Classification performance reached a plateau at a fan-out of 10. The maximum accuracy was 82.5% with a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 82.8%. The results were comparable to other published research with the same input data. PMID:26738070

  16. Compositional and structural features related to thermal stability in the archaea SRP19 and SRP54 signal recognition particle proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    To survive at high temperature, thermophile organisms must adapt their biomolecules. In both nucleic acids and proteins, this adaptation involves a vast array of compositional and structural modifications. The archaea stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growing at temperatures ranging from 0 to 110°C. In this study, we have used the archaea genome datasets to identify molecular trends related to thermal adaptation in the protein components (SRP19 and SRP54) of the signal recognition particle (SRP). Using comparative genomics and secondary structure homology modeling we have detected significant differences in the amino acids composition and distribution between the SRP proteins of thermophile and mesophile archaea. These include: a significant increase in the thermophile SRP proteins of the frequency of charged amino acids able to participate in electrostatic interactions which contribute to stabilize proteins; decreased content of both thermolabile and small/tiny amino acids which usually contribute to protein flexibility; and a significant increase in aliphatic and aromatic amino acids providing good covering and masking to produce hydrophobic pockets involved in stabilizing protein structure. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the four structural and functional domains of the SRP54 indicates a particularly robust correlation between the compositional properties of the M domain and the optimal growth temperature (OGT) of the archaea. The analysis of the bacterial SRP54(Ffh) shows similar adaptations to the OGT. Thus, natural selection has adapted the SRP proteins to the OGT of the archaea and bacteria species by modifying both, their amino acids composition and distribution. PMID:21505884

  17. T3_MM: A Markov Model Effectively Classifies Bacterial Type III Secretion Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Yejun Wang; Ming'an Sun; Hongxia Bao; Aaron P. White

    2013-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) play important roles in the interaction between gram-negative bacteria and their hosts. T3SSs function by translocating a group of bacterial effector proteins into the host cytoplasm. The details of specific type III secretion process are yet to be clarified. This research focused on comparing the amino acid composition within the N-terminal 100 amino acids from type III secretion (T3S) signal sequences or non-T3S proteins, specifically whether e...

  18. Branched signal wiring of an essential bacterial cell-cycle phosphotransfer protein

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Jimmy A.; Xu, Qingping; Childers, W. Seth; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Kern, Justin W.; Eckart, Michael; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Vital to bacterial survival is the faithful propagation of cellular signals, and in Caulobacter crescentus ChpT is an essential mediator within the cell cycle circuit. ChpT functions as a histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein (HPt) that shuttles a phosphoryl group from the receiver domain of CckA, the upstream hybrid histidine kinase (HK), to one of two downstream response regulators (RRs)—CtrA or CpdR—that controls cell cycle progression. To understand how ChpT interacts with multiple...

  19. Sound transmission and the recognition of temporally degraded sexual advertisement signals in Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynski, Michael C.; Vélez, Alejandro; Schwartz, Joshua J.; Bee, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic communication signals degrade as they propagate between signalers and receivers. While we generally understand the degrading effects of sound propagation on the structure of acoustic signals, we know considerably less about how receivers make behavioral decisions based on the perception of degraded signals in sonically and structurally complex habitats where communication occurs. In this study of acoustic mate recognition in Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis (Cope 1880), we investigated how the temporal structure of male advertisement calls was compromised by propagation in a natural habitat and how females responded to stimuli mimicking various levels of temporal degradation. In a sound transmission experiment, we quantified changes in the pulsed structure of signals by broadcasting synthetic calls during active choruses from positions where we typically encountered signalers, and re-recording the signals from positions where we typically encountered potential receivers. Our main finding was that the silent gaps between pulses become increasingly ‘filled in’ by background noise and reverberations as a function of increasing propagation distance. We also conducted female phonotaxis experiments to determine the threshold modulation depth required to elicit recognition of the pulsatile structure of the call. Females were surprisingly tolerant of degraded temporal structure, and there was a tendency for greater permissiveness at lower playback levels. We discuss these results in terms of presumed mechanisms of call recognition in complex environments and the acoustic adaptation hypothesis. PMID:20675554

  20. Bacterial Signal Transduction by Cyclic Di-GMP and Other Nucleotide Second Messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengge, Regine; Gründling, Angelika; Jenal, Urs; Ryan, Robert; Yildiz, Fitnat

    2016-01-01

    The first International Symposium on c-Di-GMP Signaling in Bacteria (22 to 25 March 2015, Harnack-Haus, Berlin, Germany)brought together 131 molecular microbiologists from 17 countries to discuss recent progress in our knowledge of bacterial nucleotide second messenger signaling. While the focus was on signal input, synthesis, degradation, and the striking diversity of the modes of action of the current second messenger paradigm, i.e., cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), “classics” like cAMP and (p)ppGpp were also presented, in novel facets, and more recent “newcomers,” such as c-di-AMP and c-AMP-GMP, made an impressive appearance. A number of clear trends emerged during the 30 talks, on the 71 posters, and in the lively discussions, including (i)c-di-GMP control of the activities of various ATPases and phosphorylation cascades, (ii) extensive cross talk between c-di-GMP and other nucleotide second messenger signaling pathways, and (iii) a stunning number of novel effectors for nucleotide second messengers that surprisingly include some long-known master regulators of developmental pathways. Overall, the conference made it amply clear that second messenger signaling is currently one of the most dynamic fields within molecular microbiology,with major impacts in research fields ranging from human health to microbial ecology. PMID:26055111

  1. Recognition of the bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanylate by its cognate riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulshina, Nadia; Baird, Nathan J.; Ferré-D' Amaré, Adrian R.; (UWASH); (FHCRC)

    2009-12-03

    The cyclic diguanylate (bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate, c-di-GMP) riboswitch is the first known example of a gene-regulatory RNA that binds a second messenger. c-di-GMP is widely used by bacteria to regulate processes ranging from biofilm formation to the expression of virulence genes. The cocrystal structure of the c-di-GMP responsive GEMM riboswitch upstream of the tfoX gene of Vibrio cholerae reveals the second messenger binding the RNA at a three-helix junction. The two-fold symmetric second messenger is recognized asymmetrically by the monomeric riboswitch using canonical and noncanonical base-pairing as well as intercalation. These interactions explain how the RNA discriminates against cyclic diadenylate (c-di-AMP), a putative bacterial second messenger. Small-angle X-ray scattering and biochemical analyses indicate that the RNA undergoes compaction and large-scale structural rearrangement in response to ligand binding, consistent with organization of the core three-helix junction of the riboswitch concomitant with binding of c-di-GMP.

  2. Chemical Signals of Synthetic Disaccharide Derivatives Dominate Rhamnolipids at Controlling Multiple Bacterial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nischal; Shetye, Gauri S; Zheng, Hewen; Sun, Jiayue; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2016-01-01

    Microbes secrete molecules that modify their environment. Here, we demonstrate a class of synthetic disaccharide derivatives (DSDs) that mimics and dominates the activity of naturally secreted rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The DSDs exhibit the dual function of activating and inhibiting the swarming motility through a concentration-dependent activity reversal that is characteristic of signaling molecules. Whereas DSDs tethered with a saturated farnesyl group exhibit inhibition of both biofilm formation and swarming motility, with higher activities than rhamnolipids, a saturated farnesyl tethered with a sulfonate group only inhibits swarming motility but promote biofilm formation. These results identified important structural elements for controlling swarming motility, biofilm formation, and bacterial adhesion and suggest an effective chemical approach to control intertwined signaling processes that are important for biofilm formation and motilities. PMID:26511780

  3. Identification and synthesis of a recognition signal for the attachment of glycosaminoglycans to proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of the amino acid sequences of three different proteoglycan core proteins reveals a 12-amino acid sequence that is about 50% homologous among these proteoglycans. In each of the proteoglycans, this sequence surrounds the serine-glycine dipeptide in which the serine is known or presumed to be substituted with a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chain. Peptides containing this sequence from two proteoglycans were examined for their ability to serve as acceptors for xylosyltransferase, the enzyme that begins the assembly of glycosaminoglycan chains. Those peptides corresponding to amino acid sequences known to contain glycosaminoglycan-substituted serine residues in the protein were efficient xylosyltransferase acceptors, whereas peptides from sequences with no glycosaminoglycan-substituted serine residues were not. Amino acid substitutions at four critical sites in the acceptor peptides showed that single substitutions could completely abolish acceptor activity or greatly reduce it. The results suggest that the proteoglycan recognition consensus sequence for the attachment of glycosaminoglycans to core proteins consists of acid amino acids closely followed by the tetrapeptide Ser-Gly-Xaa-Gly, where Xaa is any amino acid. The signal appears to be contained in the primary sequence information. In this regard it resembles a number of other signals for protein processing and intracellular routing

  4. Identification and synthesis of a recognition signal for the attachment of glycosaminoglycans to proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, M.A.; Krusius, T.; Campbell, S.; Schwartz, N.B.; Ruoslahti, E.

    1987-05-01

    Comparison of the amino acid sequences of three different proteoglycan core proteins reveals a 12-amino acid sequence that is about 50% homologous among these proteoglycans. In each of the proteoglycans, this sequence surrounds the serine-glycine dipeptide in which the serine is known or presumed to be substituted with a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chain. Peptides containing this sequence from two proteoglycans were examined for their ability to serve as acceptors for xylosyltransferase, the enzyme that begins the assembly of glycosaminoglycan chains. Those peptides corresponding to amino acid sequences known to contain glycosaminoglycan-substituted serine residues in the protein were efficient xylosyltransferase acceptors, whereas peptides from sequences with no glycosaminoglycan-substituted serine residues were not. Amino acid substitutions at four critical sites in the acceptor peptides showed that single substitutions could completely abolish acceptor activity or greatly reduce it. The results suggest that the proteoglycan recognition consensus sequence for the attachment of glycosaminoglycans to core proteins consists of acid amino acids closely followed by the tetrapeptide Ser-Gly-Xaa-Gly, where Xaa is any amino acid. The signal appears to be contained in the primary sequence information. In this regard it resembles a number of other signals for protein processing and intracellular routing.

  5. Translational arrest by a prokaryotic signal recognition particle is mediated by RNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Bertrand; Kedrov, Alexej; Sohmen, Daniel; Kempf, Georg; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard; Stahlberg, Henning; Wilson, Daniel N; Beckmann, Roland

    2015-10-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) recognizes signal sequences of nascent polypeptides and targets ribosome-nascent chain complexes to membrane translocation sites. In eukaryotes, translating ribosomes are slowed down by the Alu domain of SRP to allow efficient targeting. In prokaryotes, however, little is known about the structure and function of Alu domain-containing SRPs. Here, we report a complete molecular model of SRP from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, based on cryo-EM. The SRP comprises two subunits, 6S RNA and SRP54 or Ffh, and it facilitates elongation slowdown similarly to its eukaryotic counterpart. However, protein contacts with the small ribosomal subunit observed for the mammalian Alu domain are substituted in bacteria by RNA-RNA interactions of 6S RNA with the α-sarcin-ricin loop and helices H43 and H44 of 23S rRNA. Our findings provide a structural basis for cotranslational targeting and RNA-driven elongation arrest in prokaryotes. PMID:26344568

  6. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  7. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection. PMID:27096872

  8. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim N. Mak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.

  9. Structural basis of a rationally rewired protein-protein interface critical to bacterial signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornaia, Anna I; Casino, Patricia; Marina, Alberto; Laub, Michael T

    2013-09-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems typically involve a sensor histidine kinase that specifically phosphorylates a single, cognate response regulator. This protein-protein interaction relies on molecular recognition via a small set of residues in each protein. To better understand how these residues determine the specificity of kinase-substrate interactions, we rationally rewired the interaction interface of a Thermotoga maritima two-component system, HK853-RR468, to match that found in a different two-component system, Escherichia coli PhoR-PhoB. The rewired proteins interacted robustly with each other, but no longer interacted with the parent proteins. Analysis of the crystal structures of the wild-type and mutant protein complexes and a systematic mutagenesis study reveal how individual mutations contribute to the rewiring of interaction specificity. Our approach and conclusions have implications for studies of other protein-protein interactions and protein evolution and for the design of novel protein interfaces. PMID:23954504

  10. NOD1 and NOD2 receptors in mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala): Inductive expression and downstream signalling in ligand stimulation and bacterial infections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Banikalyan Swain; Madhubanti Basu; Mrinal Samanta

    2013-09-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)1 and NOD2 are important cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and key members of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family. They sense a wide range of bacteria or their products and play a key role in inducing innate immunity. This report describes the role of NOD1 and NOD2 receptors signalling in innate immunity in the Indian major carp, mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Tissue-specific expression analysis of NOD1 and NOD2 genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed their wide distribution in various organs/tissues. In the untreated fish, the highest expression of NOD1 and NOD2 was detected in liver and blood, respectively. Stimulation with NOD1- and NOD2-specific ligands, i.e. iE-DAP and MDP, activated NOD1 and NOD2 receptor signalling in vivo and in vitro resulting in significant ( < 0.05) induction of downstream signalling molecule RICK, and the effector molecules IL-1, IL-8 and IFN- in the treated group as compared to their controls. In response to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections, NOD1 and NOD2 receptors signalling were activated and IL-1, IL-8 and IFN- were induced. These findings highlight the important role of NOD receptors in eliciting innate immune response during the pathogenic invasion to the fish.

  11. Protein-induced conformational changes of RNA during the assembly of human signal recognition particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichelli, Elena; Isel, Catherine; Oubridge, Chris; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2007-03-16

    The human signal recognition particle (SRP) is a large RNA-protein complex that targets secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The S domain of SRP is composed of roughly half of the 7SL RNA and four proteins (SRP19, SRP54, and the SRP68/72 heterodimer). In order to understand how the binding of proteins induces conformational changes of RNA and affects subsequent binding of other protein subunits, we have performed chemical and enzymatic probing of all S domain assembly intermediates. Ethylation interference experiments show that phosphate groups in helices 5, 6 and 7 that are essential for the binding of SRP68/72 are all on the same face of the RNA. Hydroxyl radical footprinting and dimethylsulphate (DMS) modifications show that SRP68/72 brings the lower part of helices 6 and 8 closer. SRP68/72 binding also protects the SRP54 binding site (helix 8 asymmetric loop) from chemical modification and RNase cleavage, whereas, in the presence of both SRP19 and SRP68/72, the long strand of helix 8 asymmetric loop becomes readily accessible to chemical and enzymatic probes. These results indicate that the RNA platform observed in the crystal structure of the SRP19-SRP54M-RNA complex already exists in the presence of SRP68/72 and SRP19. Therefore, SRP68/72, together with SRP19, rearranges the 7SL RNA in an SRP54 binding competent state. PMID:17254600

  12. The HopQ1 effector's nucleoside hydrolase-like domain is required for bacterial virulence in arabidopsis and tomato, but not host recognition in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens deliver multiple effector proteins into host cells to facilitate bacterial growth. HopQ1 is an effector from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 that is conserved across multiple bacterial pathogens which infect plants. HopQ1's central region possesses some homology to nucleoside hydrolases, but possesses an alternative aspartate motif not found in characterized enzymes. A structural model was generated for HopQ1 based on the E. coli RihB nucleoside hydrolase and the role of HopQ1's potential catalytic residues for promoting bacterial virulence and recognition in Nicotiana tabacum was investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing HopQ1 exhibit enhanced disease susceptibility to DC3000. HopQ1 can also promote bacterial virulence on tomato when naturally delivered from DC3000. HopQ1's nucleoside hydrolase-like domain alone is sufficient to promote bacterial virulence, and putative catalytic residues are required for virulence promotion during bacterial infection of tomato and in transgenic Arabidopsis lines. HopQ1 is recognized and elicits cell death when transiently expressed in N. tabacum. Residues required to promote bacterial virulence were dispensable for HopQ1's cell death promoting activities in N. tabacum. Although HopQ1 has some homology to nucleoside hydrolases, we were unable to detect HopQ1 enzymatic activity or nucleoside binding capability using standard substrates. Thus, it is likely that HopQ1 promotes pathogen virulence by hydrolyzing alternative ribose-containing substrates in planta.

  13. Homeostatic interplay between bacterial cell-cell signaling and iron in virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Hazan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria use interconnected multi-layered regulatory networks, such as quorum sensing (QS networks to sense and respond to environmental cues and external and internal bacterial cell signals, and thereby adapt to and exploit target hosts. Despite the many advances that have been made in understanding QS regulation, little is known regarding how these inputs are integrated and processed in the context of multi-layered QS regulatory networks. Here we report the examination of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs MvfR regulatory network and determination of its interaction with the QS acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHL RhlR network. The aim of this work was to elucidate paradigmatically the complex relationships between multi-layered regulatory QS circuitries, their signaling molecules, and the environmental cues to which they respond. Our findings revealed positive and negative homeostatic regulatory loops that fine-tune the MvfR regulon via a multi-layered dependent homeostatic regulation of the cell-cell signaling molecules PQS and HHQ, and interplay between these molecules and iron. We discovered that the MvfR regulon component PqsE is a key mediator in orchestrating this homeostatic regulation, and in establishing a connection to the QS rhlR system in cooperation with RhlR. Our results show that P. aeruginosa modulates the intensity of its virulence response, at least in part, through this multi-layered interplay. Our findings underscore the importance of the homeostatic interplay that balances competition within and between QS systems via cell-cell signaling molecules and environmental cues in the control of virulence gene expression. Elucidation of the fine-tuning of this complex relationship offers novel insights into the regulation of these systems and may inform strategies designed to limit infections caused by P. aeruginosa and related human pathogens.

  14. Signal recognition particle receptor is a complex that contains two distinct polypeptide chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptor are known to be essential components of the cellular machinery that targets nascent secretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Here the authors report that the SRP receptor contains, in addition to the previously identified and sequenced 69-kD polypeptide (α-subunit, SRα), a 30-kD β-subunit SRβ). When SRP receptor was purified by SRP-Sepharose affinity chromatography, they observed the co-purification of two other ER membrane proteins. Both proteins are ∼30 kD in size and are immunologically distinct from each other, as well as from SRα and SRP proteins. One of the 30-kD proteins (SRβ) forms a tight complex with SRα in detergent solution that is stable to high salt and can be immunoprecipitated with antibodies to either SRα or SRβ. Both subunits are present in the ER membrane in equimolar amounts and co-fractionate in constant stoichiometry when rough and smooth liver microsomes are separated on sucrose gradients. They therefore conclude that SRβ is an integral component of SRP receptor. The presence of SRβ was previously masked by proteolytic breakdown products of SRα observed by others and by the presence of another 30-kD ER membrane protein (mp30) which co-purifies with SRα. Mp30 binds to SRP-Sepharose directly and is present in the ER membrane in several-fold molar excess of SRα and SRβ. The affinity of mp30 for SRP suggests that it may serve a yet unknown function in protein translocation

  15. A Novel Method for Recognition of Bioradiolocation Signal Breathing Patterns for Noncontact Screening of Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Maksim Alekhin; Lesya Anishchenko; Alexander Tataraidze; Sergey Ivashov; Vladimir Parashin; Lyudmila Korostovtseva; Yurii Sviryaev; Alexey Bogomolov

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for recognition of breathing patterns of bioradiolocation signals breathing patterns (BSBP) in the task of noncontact screening of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is proposed and implemented on the base of wavelet transform (WT) and neural network (NNW) applications. Selection of the optimal parameters of WT includes determination of the proper level of wavelet decomposition and the best basis for feature extraction using modified entropy criterion. Selection of the optimal properti...

  16. The influence of parental history of Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E ε4 on the BOLD signal during recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Guofan; McLaren, Donald G.; Ries, Michele L.; Fitzgerald, Michele E.; Barbara B. Bendlin; Howard A. Rowley; Sager, Mark A.; Atwood, Craig; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2008-01-01

    First-degree family history (FH) of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4) are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease that may affect brain function prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In this functional MRI (fMRI) study, we used an episodic recognition task that required discrimination of previously viewed (PV) and novel (NV) faces to examine differences in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal due to risk factors in 74 middle-aged cognitively normal indi...

  17. A NUFFT Based Step-frequency Chirp Signal High Resolution Imaging Algorithm and Target Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR is the key technique to be breaked through in the fuure development of intelligent weapon system. Compared to the 2-D SAR image target recognition, High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP target recognition has the advantage of low data dimension, low requirement of radar system's calculation and storage ability, and the imaging algorithm is also not complicated. HRRP imaging is the first and the key process in target recognition, its speed and imaging quality can directly influence the real-time capability and accuracy of target recognition. In this paper a new HRRP imaging algorithm — NUFFT algorithm is proposed, the derivation of mathematical expression is given, both for the echo simulation process and the imaging process. In the meantime, by analyzing each step's calculation complexity, we compared the calculation complexity of four different imaging algorithms, we also simulate two target's imaging and target recognition processing. Theoretical analysis and simulation both prove that the proposed algorithm's calculation complexity is improved in various degree compared with the others, thus can be effectively used in target recognition.

  18. Diagnostics of separately excited DC motor based on analysis and recognition of signals using FFT and Bayes classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glowacz Witold

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article results of diagnostic investigations of separately excited DC motor were presented. In diagnostics were applied a Fourier analysis method based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT and a recognition method using Bayes classifier. In training process a set of the most important frequencies has been determined for which differences of corresponding signals in two states are the largest. Three categories of signals have been recognized in identification process: faultless state, state of the rotor broken one coil and state of the rotor shorted three coils.

  19. Type I interferon production during herpes simplex virus infection is controlled by cell-type-specific viral recognition through Toll-like receptor 9, the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein pathway, and novel recognition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Brandtoft; Sørensen, Louise Nørgaard; Malmgaard, Lene; Ank, Nina; Baines, JD; Chen, ZJ; Paludan, Søren Riis

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of viruses by germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system is essential for rapid production of type I interferon (IFN) and early antiviral defense. We investigated the mechanisms of viral recognition governing production of type I IFN during herpes...... fibroblasts, where the virus was able to replicate, HSV-induced IFN-alpha/beta production was dependent on both viral entry and replication, and ablated in cells unable to signal through the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein pathway. Thus, during an HSV infection in vivo, multiple mechanisms of...

  20. Application of pattern recognition technique on randon signals for automatic monitoring of dynamic systems with emphasis on nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time varying or noise component of dynamic system parameters contains information on the system state. Pattern recognition analysis of noise signals for such systems is a powerful technique for assessing 'system normality' or 'correct operation'. Data analysis with modern small computers enables the otherwise unmanageable volumes of data to be processed on line and the results presented in a meaningful form. These informations provide necessary data for maintaining the system at optimum operating conditions. An automatic pattern recognition program, PSDREC, developmed for the surveillance of nuclear reactor and rotating machinery is described, and the relevant theory is outlined. This program, which applies 8 statistical tests to calculated power spectral density (PSD) distributions, was earlier installed in a PDP-11/45 computer at IPEN. In this work it has been used to separately analyse recorded signals from three systems, namely an operational BWR power reactor (neutron signals), a water pump and a diesel motor (vibration signals). The latter two were, respectively, operated over a wide-range of flow and load conditions. The statistical tests were applied to frequency bands of (0,1-40) Hz, (0-1000) Hz and (0,20000) Hz. for the BWR, pump and diesel signal data, respectively. Operation and analysis conditions are given together with representative graphs of the analysed PSD distributions. Results of the tests - discussed in some detail - are considered to be satisfactory. (Author)

  1. Analysis of chemical signals in red fire ants by gas chromatography and pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of gas chromatography and pattern recognition (GC/PR) analysis is a powerful tool for investigating complicated biological problems. Clustering, mapping, discriminant development, etc. are necessary to analyze realistically large chromatographic data sets and to seek meaningful relat...

  2. Low-shear modeled microgravity: a global environmental regulatory signal affecting bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; LeBlanc, Carly L.; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Hammond, Timothy; Pierson, Duane L.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria inhabit an impressive variety of ecological niches and must adapt constantly to changing environmental conditions. While numerous environmental signals have been examined for their effect on bacteria, the effects of mechanical forces such as shear stress and gravity have only been investigated to a limited extent. However, several important studies have demonstrated a key role for the environmental signals of low shear and/or microgravity in the regulation of bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis [Chem. Rec. 1 (2001) 333; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54 (2000) 33; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 4090; J. Ind. Microbiol. 18 (1997) 22; Curr. Microbiol. 34(4) (1997) 199; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56(3-4) (2001) 384; Infect Immun. 68(6) (2000) 3147; Cell 109(7) (2002) 913; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(11) (2002) 5408; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99(21) (2002) 13807]. The response of bacteria to these environmental signals, which are similar to those encountered during prokaryotic life cycles, may provide insight into bacterial adaptations to physiologically relevant conditions. This review focuses on the current and potential future research trends aimed at understanding the effect of the mechanical forces of low shear and microgravity analogues on different bacterial parameters. In addition, this review also discusses the use of microgravity technology to generate physiologically relevant human tissue models for research in bacterial pathogenesis.

  3. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  4. Processing of cell-surface signalling anti-sigma factors prior to signal recognition is a conserved autoproteolytic mechanism that produces two functional domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, Karlijn C; Otero-Asman, Joaquín R; Luirink, Joen; Bitter, Wilbert; Llamas, María A

    2015-09-01

    Cell-surface signalling (CSS) enables Gram-negative bacteria to transduce an environmental signal into a cytosolic response. This regulatory cascade involves an outer membrane receptor that transmits the signal to an anti-sigma factor in the cytoplasmic membrane, allowing the activation of an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor. Recent studies have demonstrated that RseP-mediated proteolysis of the anti-sigma factors is key to σ(ECF) activation. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa FoxR anti-sigma factor, we show here that RseP is responsible for the generation of an N-terminal tail that likely contains pro-sigma activity. Furthermore, it has been reported previously that this anti-sigma factor is processed in two separate domains prior to signal recognition. Here, we demonstrate that this process is common in these types of proteins and that the processing event is probably due to autoproteolytic activity. The resulting domains interact and function together to transduce the CSS signal. However, our results also indicate that this processing event is not essential for activity. In fact, we have identified functional CSS anti-sigma factors that are not cleaved prior to signal perception. Together, our results indicate that CSS regulation can occur through both complete and initially processed anti-sigma factors. PMID:25581349

  5. Emotional recognition from the speech signal for a virtual education agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, A.; Raghu, S.; Elshaw, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper explores the extraction of features from the speech wave to perform intelligent emotion recognition. A feature extract tool (openSmile) was used to obtain a baseline set of 998 acoustic features from a set of emotional speech recordings from a microphone. The initial features were reduced to the most important ones so recognition of emotions using a supervised neural network could be performed. Given that the future use of virtual education agents lies with making the agents more interactive, developing agents with the capability to recognise and adapt to the emotional state of humans is an important step.

  6. Using Errors by Guard Honeybees (Apis mellifera) to Gain New Insights into Nestmate Recognition Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, Duccio; Martin, Stephen J; Dani, Francesca R

    2015-11-01

    Although the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is one of the world most studied insects, the chemical compounds used in nestmate recognition, remains an open question. By exploiting the error prone recognition system of the honeybee, coupled with genotyping, we studied the correlation between cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile of returning foragers and acceptance or rejection behavior by guards. We revealed an average recognition error rate of 14% across 3 study colonies, that is, allowing a non-nestmate colony entry, or preventing a nestmate from entry, which is lower than reported in previous studies. By analyzing CHCs, we found that CHC profile of returning foragers correlates with acceptance or rejection by guarding bees. Although several CHC were identified as potential recognition cues, only a subset of 4 differed consistently for their relative amount between accepted and rejected individuals in the 3 studied colonies. These include a unique group of 2 positional alkene isomers (Z-8 and Z-10), which are almost exclusively produced by the bees Bombus and Apis spp, and may be candidate compounds for further study. PMID:26385960

  7. A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: Bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galperin Michael Y

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of complete microbial genomes showed that intracellular parasites and other microorganisms that inhabit stable ecological niches encode relatively primitive signaling systems, whereas environmental microorganisms typically have sophisticated systems of environmental sensing and signal transduction. Results This paper presents results of a comprehensive census of signal transduction proteins – histidine kinases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors, Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases, adenylate and diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases – encoded in 167 bacterial and archaeal genomes, sequenced by the end of 2004. The data have been manually checked to avoid false-negative and false-positive hits that commonly arise during large-scale automated analyses and compared against other available resources. The census data show uneven distribution of most signaling proteins among bacterial and archaeal phyla. The total number of signal transduction proteins grows approximately as a square of genome size. While histidine kinases are found in representatives of all phyla and are distributed according to the power law, other signal transducers are abundant in certain phylogenetic groups but virtually absent in others. Conclusion The complexity of signaling systems differs even among closely related organisms. Still, it usually can be correlated with the phylogenetic position of the organism, its lifestyle, and typical environmental challenges it encounters. The number of encoded signal transducers (or their fraction in the total protein set can be used as a measure of the organism's ability to adapt to diverse conditions, the 'bacterial IQ', while the ratio of transmembrane receptors to intracellular sensors can be used to define whether the organism is an 'extrovert', actively sensing the environmental parameters, or an 'introvert', more concerned about its internal homeostasis. Some of the microorganisms with the

  8. Lipid motif of a bacterial antigen mediates immune responses via TLR2 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit A Lugade

    Full Text Available The cross-talk between the innate and the adaptive immune system is facilitated by the initial interaction of antigen with dendritic cells. As DCs express a large array of TLRs, evidence has accumulated that engagement of these molecules contributes to the activation of adaptive immunity. We have evaluated the immunostimulatory role of the highly-conserved outer membrane lipoprotein P6 from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI to determine whether the presence of the lipid motif plays a critical role on its immunogenicity. We undertook a systematic analysis of the role that the lipid motif plays in the activation of DCs and the subsequent stimulation of antigen-specific T and B cells. To facilitate our studies, recombinant P6 protein that lacked the lipid motif was generated. Mice immunized with non-lipidated rP6 were unable to elicit high titers of anti-P6 Ig. Expression of the lipid motif on P6 was also required for proliferation and cytokine secretion by antigen-specific T cells. Upregulation of T cell costimulatory molecules was abrogated in DCs exposed to non-lipidated rP6 and in TLR2(-/- DCs exposed to native P6, thereby resulting in diminished adaptive immune responses. Absence of either the lipid motif on the antigen or TLR2 expression resulted in diminished cytokine production from stimulated DCs. Collectively, our data suggest that the lipid motif of the lipoprotein antigen is essential for triggering TLR2 signaling and effective stimulation of APCs. Our studies establish the pivotal role of a bacterial lipid motif on activating both innate and adaptive immune responses to an otherwise poorly immunogenic protein antigen.

  9. Mechanisms of phosphatidylserine exposure, a phagocyte recognition signal, on apoptotic T lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface during apoptosis in thymocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocyte cell lines provokes PS-dependent recognition by activated macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis of transbilayer lipid movements in T lymphocytes undergoing apoptosis reveals that downregulation of the adenosine triphosphate- dependent amino-phospholipid translocase and activation of a nonspecific lipid scramblase are responsible for PS reaching the surface from its intracell...

  10. Primary Stability Recognition of the Newly Designed Cementless Femoral Stem Using Digital Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Yusof Baharuddin; Sh-Hussain Salleh; Mahyar Hamedi; Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly; Muhammad Hisyam Lee; Alias Mohd Noor; Harris, Arief Ruhullah A.; Norazman Abdul Majid

    2014-01-01

    Stress shielding and micromotion are two major issues which determine the success of newly designed cementless femoral stems. The correlation of experimental validation with finite element analysis (FEA) is commonly used to evaluate the stress distribution and fixation stability of the stem within the femoral canal. This paper focused on the applications of feature extraction and pattern recognition using support vector machine (SVM) to determine the primary stability of the implant. We measu...

  11. Effects of cue modality and emotional category on recognition of nonverbal emotional signals in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Bastian D.; Brück, Carolin; Jacob, Heike; Eberle, Mark; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired interpretation of nonverbal emotional cues in patients with schizophrenia has been reported in several studies and a clinical relevance of these deficits for social functioning has been assumed. However, it is unclear to what extent the impairments depend on specific emotions or specific channels of nonverbal communication. Methods Here, the effect of cue modality and emotional categories on accuracy of emotion recognition was evaluated in 21 patients with schizophrenia an...

  12. Primary stability recognition of the newly designed cementless femoral stem using digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Mohd Yusof; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Hamedi, Mahyar; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Mohd Noor, Alias; Harris, Arief Ruhullah A; Abdul Majid, Norazman

    2014-01-01

    Stress shielding and micromotion are two major issues which determine the success of newly designed cementless femoral stems. The correlation of experimental validation with finite element analysis (FEA) is commonly used to evaluate the stress distribution and fixation stability of the stem within the femoral canal. This paper focused on the applications of feature extraction and pattern recognition using support vector machine (SVM) to determine the primary stability of the implant. We measured strain with triaxial rosette at the metaphyseal region and micromotion with linear variable direct transducer proximally and distally using composite femora. The root mean squares technique is used to feed the classifier which provides maximum likelihood estimation of amplitude, and radial basis function is used as the kernel parameter which mapped the datasets into separable hyperplanes. The results showed 100% pattern recognition accuracy using SVM for both strain and micromotion. This indicates that DSP could be applied in determining the femoral stem primary stability with high pattern recognition accuracy in biomechanical testing. PMID:24800230

  13. Primary Stability Recognition of the Newly Designed Cementless Femoral Stem Using Digital Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusof Baharuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress shielding and micromotion are two major issues which determine the success of newly designed cementless femoral stems. The correlation of experimental validation with finite element analysis (FEA is commonly used to evaluate the stress distribution and fixation stability of the stem within the femoral canal. This paper focused on the applications of feature extraction and pattern recognition using support vector machine (SVM to determine the primary stability of the implant. We measured strain with triaxial rosette at the metaphyseal region and micromotion with linear variable direct transducer proximally and distally using composite femora. The root mean squares technique is used to feed the classifier which provides maximum likelihood estimation of amplitude, and radial basis function is used as the kernel parameter which mapped the datasets into separable hyperplanes. The results showed 100% pattern recognition accuracy using SVM for both strain and micromotion. This indicates that DSP could be applied in determining the femoral stem primary stability with high pattern recognition accuracy in biomechanical testing.

  14. Primary Stability Recognition of the Newly Designed Cementless Femoral Stem Using Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Hamedi, Mahyar; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Mohd Noor, Alias; Harris, Arief Ruhullah A.; Abdul Majid, Norazman

    2014-01-01

    Stress shielding and micromotion are two major issues which determine the success of newly designed cementless femoral stems. The correlation of experimental validation with finite element analysis (FEA) is commonly used to evaluate the stress distribution and fixation stability of the stem within the femoral canal. This paper focused on the applications of feature extraction and pattern recognition using support vector machine (SVM) to determine the primary stability of the implant. We measured strain with triaxial rosette at the metaphyseal region and micromotion with linear variable direct transducer proximally and distally using composite femora. The root mean squares technique is used to feed the classifier which provides maximum likelihood estimation of amplitude, and radial basis function is used as the kernel parameter which mapped the datasets into separable hyperplanes. The results showed 100% pattern recognition accuracy using SVM for both strain and micromotion. This indicates that DSP could be applied in determining the femoral stem primary stability with high pattern recognition accuracy in biomechanical testing. PMID:24800230

  15. Subject recognition based on ground reaction force measurements of gait signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakidis, Serafeim P; Theocharis, John B; Giakas, Giannis

    2008-12-01

    An effective subject recognition approach is designed in this paper, using ground reaction force (GRF) measurements of human gait. The method is a three-stage procedure: 1) The original GRF data are translated through wavelet packet (WP) transform in the time-frequency domain. Using a fuzzy-set-based criterion, we determine an optimal WP decomposition, involving feature subspaces with distinguishing gait characteristics. 2) A feature extraction scheme is employed next for wavelet feature ranking, according to discrimination power. 3) The classification task is accomplished by means of a kernel-based support vector machine. The design parameters of the classifier are tuned through a genetic algorithm to improve recognition rates. The method is evaluated on a database comprising GRF records obtained from 40 subjects. To account for the natural variability of human gait, the experimental setup is designed, allowing different walking speeds and loading conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that high recognition rates can be achieved with moderate number of features and for different training/testing settings. Finally, the performance of our approach is favorably compared with the one obtained using other traditional classification algorithms. PMID:19022720

  16. Emotional stress recognition using a new fusion link between electroencephalogram and peripheral signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Abed Hosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper proposes a new emotional stress assessment system using multi-modal bio-signals. Electroencephalogram (EEG is the reflection of brain activity and is widely used in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research.Methods: We design an efficient acquisition protocol to acquire the EEG signals in five channels (FP1, FP2, T3, T4 and Pz and peripheral signals such as blood volume pulse, skin conductance (SC and respiration, under images induction (calm-neutral and negatively excited for the participants. The visual stimuli images are selected from the subset International Affective Picture System database. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of peripheral signals are used to select suitable segments of EEG signals for improving the accuracy of signal labeling according to emotional stress states. After pre-processing, wavelet coefficients, fractal dimension, and Lempel-Ziv complexity are used to extract the features of the EEG signals. The vast number of features leads to the problem of dimensionality, which is solved using the genetic algorithm as a feature selection method.Results: The results show that the average classification accuracy is 89.6% for two categories of emotional stress states using the support vector machine (SVM.Conclusion: This is a great improvement in results compared to other similar researches. We achieve a noticeable improvement of 11.3% in accuracy using SVM classifier, in compared to previous studies. Therefore, a new fusion between EEG and peripheral signals are more robust in comparison to the separate signals.

  17. How plants sense wounds: damaged-self recognition is based on plant-derived elicitors and induces octadecanoid signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal-derived elicitors can be used by plants to detect herbivory but they function only in specific insect-plant interactions. How can plants generally perceive damage caused by herbivores? Damaged-self recognition occurs when plants perceive molecular signals of damage: degraded plant molecules or molecules localized outside their original compartment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flame wounding or applying leaf extract or solutions of sucrose or ATP to slightly wounded lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus leaves induced the secretion of extrafloral nectar, an indirect defense mechanism. Chemically related molecules that would not be released in high concentrations from damaged plant cells (glucose, fructose, salt, and sorbitol did not elicit a detectable response, excluding osmotic shock as an alternative explanation. Treatments inducing extrafloral nectar secretion also enhanced endogenous concentrations of the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA. Endogenous JA was also induced by mechanically damaging leaves of lima bean, Arabidopsis, maize, strawberry, sesame and tomato. In lima bean, tomato and sesame, the application of leaf extract further increased endogenous JA content, indicating that damaged-self recognition is taxonomically widely distributed. Transcriptomic patterns obtained with untargeted 454 pyrosequencing of lima bean in response to flame wounding or the application of leaf extract or JA were highly similar to each other, but differed from the response to mere mechanical damage. We conclude that the amount or concentration of damaged-self signals can quantitatively determine the intensity of the wound response and that the full damaged-self response requires the disruption of many cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Numerous compounds function as JA-inducing elicitors in different plant species. Most of them are, contain, or release, plant-derived molecular motifs. Damaged-self recognition represents a taxonomically

  18. Bypassing both surface attachment and surface recognition requirements for appressorium formation by overactive ras signaling in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhao, Xinhua; Xue, Chaoyang; Dai, Yafeng; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2014-09-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae forms a highly specialized infection structure called an appressorium for plant penetration. In M. oryzae and many other plant-pathogenic fungi, surface attachment and surface recognition are two essential requirements for appressorium formation. Development of appressoria in the air has not been reported. In this study, we found that expression of a dominant active MoRAS2(G18V) allele in M. oryzae resulted in the formation of morphologically abnormal appressoria on nonconducive surfaces, in liquid suspensions, and on aerial hyphae without attachment to hard surfaces. Both the Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and cAMP signaling pathways that regulate surface recognition and appressorium morphogenesis in M. oryzae were overactivated in the MoRAS2(G18V) transformant. In mutants deleted of PMK1 or CPKA, expression of MoRAS2(G18V) had no significant effects on appressorium morphogenesis. Furthermore, expression of dominant MoRAS2 in Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides also caused the formation of appressorium-like structures in aerial hyphae. Overall, our data indicate that MoRas2 functions upstream from both the cAMP-PKA and Pmk1 pathways and overactive Ras signaling leads to improper activation of these two pathways and appressorium formation without surface attachment in appressorium-forming pathogens. PMID:24835254

  19. Differential effects of interleukin-17 receptor signaling on innate and adaptive immunity during central nervous system bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidlak Debbie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although IL-17A (commonly referred to as IL-17 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS autoimmune disease, its role during CNS bacterial infections remains unclear. To evaluate the broader impact of IL-17 family members in the context of CNS infection, we utilized IL-17 receptor (IL-17R knockout (KO mice that lack the ability to respond to IL-17, IL-17F and IL-17E (IL-25. In this article, we demonstrate that IL-17R signaling regulates bacterial clearance as well as natural killer T (NKT cell and gamma-delta (γδ T cell infiltrates during Staphylococcus aureus-induced brain abscess formation. Specifically, when compared with wild-type (WT animals, IL-17R KO mice exhibited elevated bacterial burdens at days 7 and 14 following S. aureus infection. Additionally, IL-17R KO animals displayed elevated neutrophil chemokine production, revealing the ability to compensate for the lack of IL-17R activity. Despite these differences, innate immune cell recruitment into brain abscesses was similar in IL-17R KO and WT mice, whereas IL-17R signaling exerted a greater influence on adaptive immune cell recruitment. In particular, γδ T cell influx was increased in IL-17R KO mice at day 7 post-infection. In addition, NK1.1high infiltrates were absent in brain abscesses of IL-17R KO animals and, surprisingly, were rarely detected in the livers of uninfected IL-17R KO mice. Although IL-17 is a key regulator of neutrophils in other infection models, our data implicate an important role for IL-17R signaling in regulating adaptive immunity during CNS bacterial infection.

  20. Structural and functional studies of MinD ATPase: implications for the molecular recognition of the bacterial cell division apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Ikuko; Oyama, Takuji; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2001-01-01

    Proper placement of the bacterial cell division site requires the site-specific inactivation of other potential division sites. In Escherichia coli, selection of the correct mid-cell site is mediated by the MinC, MinD and MinE proteins. To clarify the functional role of the bacterial cell division inhibitor MinD, which is a membrane-associated ATPase that works as an activator of MinC, we determined the crystal structure of a Pyrococcus furiosus MinD homologue complexed with a substrate analo...

  1. Striatal intrinsic reinforcement signals during recognition memory: relationship to response bias and dysregulation in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Wolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ventral striatum (VS is a critical brain region for reinforcement learning and motivation, and VS hypofunction is implicated in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Providing rewards or performance feedback has been shown to activate VS. Intrinisically motivated subjects performing challenging cognitive tasks are likely to engage reinforcement circuitry even in the absence of external feedback or incentives. However, such intrinsic reinforcement responses have received little attention, have not been examined in relation to behavioral performance, and have not been evaluated for impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Here we used fMRI to examine a challenging 'old' vs. 'new' visual recognition task in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Targets were unique fractal stimuli previously presented as salient distractors in a visual oddball task, producing incidental memory encoding. Based on the prediction error theory of reinforcement learning, we hypothesized that correct target recognition would activate VS in controls, and that this activation would be greater in subjects with lower expectation of responding correctly as indexed by a more conservative response bias. We also predicted these effects would be reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Consistent with these predictions, controls activated VS and other reinforcement processing regions during correct recognition, with greater VS activation in those with a more conservative response bias. Patients did not show either effect, with significant group differences suggesting hyporesponsivity in patients to internally-generated feedback. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for intrinsic motivation and reward when studying cognitive tasks, and add to growing evidence of reward circuit dysfunction in schizophrenia that may impact cognition and function.

  2. New method for recognition of sterol signalling molecules: Methinium salts as receptors for sulphated steroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejík, Z.; Bříza, T.; Králová, Jarmila; Mikula, I.; Poučková, P.; Martásek, P.; Král, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 94, February 2015 (2015), s. 15-20. ISSN 1878-5867 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1291; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14008; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.300/30.0060; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Polymethinium salts * Sulphated sterols * Molecular recognition * Synthetic receptors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Subtle differences in molecular recognition between modified glycopeptide antibiotics and bacterial receptor peptides identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Staroske, T; Roepstorff, P; Williams, DH; Heck, AJR

    showing that electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) can be used in the rapid quantitative analysis of mixtures of vancomycin-group antibiotics and their bacterial cell-wall receptors allowing the identification of even subtle differences in binding constants. Differences in affinities are...

  4. Spherical Target Recognition using Time-Domain Multiscale Approximation of Scattered Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification of similar shaped objects from scattered electromagnetic waves is a difficult problem to solve. as it heavily depends on the aspect angle. Eliminating the effects of the aspect angle is possible by extracting distinguishable features from the scattered signals. These features should be robust to noise effects especially at SNR levels. where noise effects become dominant on the scattered signal. In this paper. we propose a target classification method. which uses a structural feature set extracted from scattered signal. Prior to feature extraction. a multi-scale approximation is performed using hierarchical radial basis function network topology to suppress the effects of noise on scattered signal. After principle component analysis. k-fold cross validation based experiments is performed. Results show that spherical targets are recognized successfully up to -10dB SNR

  5. Tracking body and hands for gesture recognition: NATOPS aircraft handling signals database

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yale; Demirdjian, David; Davis, Randall

    2011-01-01

    We present a unified framework for body and hand tracking, the output of which can be used for understanding simultaneously performed body-and-hand gestures. The framework uses a stereo camera to collect 3D images, and tracks body and hand together, combining various existing techniques to make tracking tasks efficient. In addition, we introduce a multi-signal gesture database: the NATOPS aircraft handling signals. Unlike previous gesture databases, this data requires knowledge about both bod...

  6. Differential Modulation of Nods Signaling Pathways by Fatty Acids in Human Colonic Epithelial HCT116 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing proteins (Nods) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizing conserved moieties of bacterial peptidoglycan through their leucine-rich repeats (LRR) domain. The agonists for Nods activate proinflammtory signaling pathways incl...

  7. Signal recognition efficiencies of artificial neural-network pulse-shape discrimination in HPGe 0νββ-decay searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, A.; Cossavella, F.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Volynets, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    A pulse-shape discrimination method based on artificial neural networks was applied to pulses simulated for different background, signal and signal-like interactions inside a germanium detector. The simulated pulses were used to investigate variations of efficiencies as a function of used training set. It is verified that neural networks are well-suited to identify background pulses in true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors. The systematic uncertainty on the signal recognition efficiency derived using signal-like evaluation samples from calibration measurements is estimated to be 5 %. This uncertainty is due to differences between signal and calibration samples. (orig.)

  8. Signal recognition efficiencies of artificial neural-network pulse-shape discrimination in HPGe 0νββ-decay searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulse-shape discrimination method based on artificial neural networks was applied to pulses simulated for different background, signal and signal-like interactions inside a germanium detector. The simulated pulses were used to investigate variations of efficiencies as a function of used training set. It is verified that neural networks are well-suited to identify background pulses in true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors. The systematic uncertainty on the signal recognition efficiency derived using signal-like evaluation samples from calibration measurements is estimated to be 5 %. This uncertainty is due to differences between signal and calibration samples. (orig.)

  9. Not sensitive, yet less biased: A signal detection theory perspective on mindfulness, attention, and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstreich, Eyal; Ruderman, Lital

    2016-07-01

    The practice of mindfulness has been argued to increase attention control and improve memory performance. However, it was recently suggested that the effect of mindfulness on memory may be due to a shift in response-bias, rather than to an increase in memory-sensitivity. The present study examined the mindfulness-attention-memory triad. Participants filled in the five-facets of mindfulness questionnaire, and completed two recognition blocks; in the first attention was full, whereas in the second attention was divided during the encoding of information. It was found that the facet of non-judging (NJ) moderated the impact of attention on memory, such that responses of high NJ participants were less biased and remained constant even when attention was divided. Facets of mindfulness were not associated with memory sensitivity. These findings suggest that mindfulness may affect memory through decision making processes, rather than through directing attentional resources to the encoding of information. PMID:27236356

  10. Chaos Synchronization Error Technique-Based Defect Pattern Recognition for GIS through Partial Discharge Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed at using the chaos synchronization error dynamics (CSED technique for defect pattern recognition in gas insulated switchgear (GIS. The radiated electromagnetic waves generated due to internal defects were measured by the self-made ultrahigh frequency (UHF micro-strip antenna, so as to determine whether partial discharge will occur. Firstly, a data pretreatment is performed on the measured raw data for the purpose of computational burden reduction. A characteristic matrix is then constructed according to dynamic error trajectories in a chaos synchronization system, subsequent to which characteristics are extracted. A comparison with the existing Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT method reveals that the two characteristics extracted from the CSED results presented herein using the fractal theory were recognized at a higher rate pattern.

  11. Conformational Diversity of Single-Stranded DNA from Bacterial Repetitive Extragenic Palindromes: Implications for the DNA Recognition Elements of Transposases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charnavets, Tatsiana; Nunvář, Jaroslav; Nečasová, Iva; Voelker, J.; Breslauer, K.J.; Schneider, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2015), s. 585-596. ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GAP305/12/1801; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0020 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : bacterial repetitive extragenic palindromes (REP) * circular dichroism spectroscopy * REP associated tyrosine transposases (RAYTs) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.385, year: 2014

  12. Signal Inhibitory Receptor on Leukocytes-1 Limits the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps, but Preserves Intracellular Bacterial Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Avondt, Kristof; van der Linden, Maarten; Naccache, Paul H; Egan, David A; Meyaard, Linde

    2016-05-01

    In response to microbial invasion, neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to trap and kill extracellular microbes. Alternatively, NET formation can result in tissue damage in inflammatory conditions and may perpetuate autoimmune disease. Intervention strategies that are aimed at modifying pathogenic NET formation should ideally preserve other neutrophil antimicrobial functions. We now show that signal inhibitory receptor on leukocytes-1 (SIRL-1) attenuates NET release by human neutrophils in response to distinct triggers, including opsonized Staphylococcus aureus and inflammatory danger signals. NET release has different kinetics depending on the stimulus, and rapid NET formation is independent of NADPH oxidase activity. In line with this, we show that NET release and reactive oxygen species production upon challenge with opsonized S. aureus require different signaling events. Importantly, engagement of SIRL-1 does not affect bacterially induced production of reactive oxygen species, and intracellular bacterial killing by neutrophils remains intact. Thus, our studies define SIRL-1 as an intervention point of benefit to suppress NET formation in disease while preserving intracellular antimicrobial defense. PMID:27016607

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis: Signaling pathway and involvement in bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Peng; Sun, Li

    2016-04-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is a member of the TLR family that plays a pivotal role in innate immunity. In mammals, TLR2 is known to recognize specific microbial structures and trigger MyD88-dependent signaling to induce various cytokine responses. In this study, we examined the expression and function of the tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis TLR2, CsTLR2. CsTLR2 is composed of 898 amino acid residues and shares 25.6%-27.3% overall sequence identities with known teleost TLR2. CsTLR2 is a transmembrane protein with a toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain and eight leucine-rich repeats. Expression of CsTLR2 occurred in multiple tissues and was upregulated during bacterial infection. Stimulation of the CsTLR2 pathway led to enhanced expression of MyD88-dependent signaling molecules. Recombinant CsTLR2 (rCsTLR2) corresponding to the extracellular region was able to bind to a wide range of bacteria. Under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, rCsTLR2 significantly reduced bacterial infection. These observations add new insights into the signaling and function of teleost TLR2. PMID:26947353

  14. Particle swarm optimization based feature enhancement and feature selection for improved emotion recognition in speech and glottal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Hariharan; Polat, Kemal; Yaacob, Sazali

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, many research works have been published using speech related features for speech emotion recognition, however, recent studies show that there is a strong correlation between emotional states and glottal features. In this work, Mel-frequency cepstralcoefficients (MFCCs), linear predictive cepstral coefficients (LPCCs), perceptual linear predictive (PLP) features, gammatone filter outputs, timbral texture features, stationary wavelet transform based timbral texture features and relative wavelet packet energy and entropy features were extracted from the emotional speech (ES) signals and its glottal waveforms(GW). Particle swarm optimization based clustering (PSOC) and wrapper based particle swarm optimization (WPSO) were proposed to enhance the discerning ability of the features and to select the discriminating features respectively. Three different emotional speech databases were utilized to gauge the proposed method. Extreme learning machine (ELM) was employed to classify the different types of emotions. Different experiments were conducted and the results show that the proposed method significantly improves the speech emotion recognition performance compared to previous works published in the literature. PMID:25799141

  15. Particle swarm optimization based feature enhancement and feature selection for improved emotion recognition in speech and glottal signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan Muthusamy

    Full Text Available In the recent years, many research works have been published using speech related features for speech emotion recognition, however, recent studies show that there is a strong correlation between emotional states and glottal features. In this work, Mel-frequency cepstralcoefficients (MFCCs, linear predictive cepstral coefficients (LPCCs, perceptual linear predictive (PLP features, gammatone filter outputs, timbral texture features, stationary wavelet transform based timbral texture features and relative wavelet packet energy and entropy features were extracted from the emotional speech (ES signals and its glottal waveforms(GW. Particle swarm optimization based clustering (PSOC and wrapper based particle swarm optimization (WPSO were proposed to enhance the discerning ability of the features and to select the discriminating features respectively. Three different emotional speech databases were utilized to gauge the proposed method. Extreme learning machine (ELM was employed to classify the different types of emotions. Different experiments were conducted and the results show that the proposed method significantly improves the speech emotion recognition performance compared to previous works published in the literature.

  16. The Adaptor Protein-1 μ1B Subunit Expands the Repertoire of Basolateral Sorting Signal Recognition in Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoli; Mattera, Rafael; Ren, Xuefeng; Chen, Yu; Retamal, Claudio; González, Alfonso; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An outstanding question in protein sorting is why polarized epithelial cells express two isoforms of the μ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex: the ubiquitous μ1A and the epithelial-specific μ1B. Previous studies led to the notion that μ1A and μ1B mediate basolateral sorting predominantly from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling endosomes, respectively. Using improved analytical tools, however, we find that μ1A and μ1B largely colocalize with each other. They also colocalize to similar extents with TGN and recycling endosome markers, as well as with basolateral cargoes transiting biosynthetic and endocytic-recycling routes. Instead, the two isoforms differ in their signal-recognition specificity. In particular, μ1B preferentially binds a subset of signals from cargoes that are sorted basolaterally in a μ1B-dependent manner. We conclude that expression of distinct μ1 isoforms in epithelial cells expands the repertoire of signals recognized by AP-1 for sorting of a broader range of cargoes to the basolateral surface. PMID:24229647

  17. Hepatitis B virus polymerase blocks pattern recognition receptor signaling via interaction with DDX3: implications for immune evasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Wang

    Full Text Available Viral infection leads to induction of pattern-recognition receptor signaling, which leads to interferon regulatory factor (IRF activation and ultimately interferon (IFN production. To establish infection, many viruses have strategies to evade the innate immunity. For the hepatitis B virus (HBV, which causes chronic infection in the liver, the evasion strategy remains uncertain. We now show that HBV polymerase (Pol blocks IRF signaling, indicating that HBV Pol is the viral molecule that effectively counteracts host innate immune response. In particular, HBV Pol inhibits TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1/IkappaB kinase-epsilon (IKKepsilon, the effector kinases of IRF signaling. Intriguingly, HBV Pol inhibits TBK1/IKKepsilon activity by disrupting the interaction between IKKepsilon and DDX3 DEAD box RNA helicase, which was recently shown to augment TBK1/IKKepsilon activity. This unexpected role of HBV Pol may explain how HBV evades innate immune response in the early phase of the infection. A therapeutic implication of this work is that a strategy to interfere with the HBV Pol-DDX3 interaction might lead to the resolution of life-long persistent infection.

  18. The phylogenetically-related pattern recognition receptors EFR and XA21 recruit similar immune signaling components in monocots and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Holton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During plant immunity, surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The transfer of PRRs between plant species is a promising strategy for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance. Thus, there is a great interest in understanding the mechanisms of PRR-mediated resistance across different plant species. Two well-characterized plant PRRs are the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs EFR and XA21 from Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. Interestingly, despite being evolutionary distant, EFR and XA21 are phylogenetically closely related and are both members of the sub-family XII of LRR-RKs that contains numerous potential PRRs. Here, we compared the ability of these related PRRs to engage immune signaling across the monocots-dicots taxonomic divide. Using chimera between Arabidopsis EFR and rice XA21, we show that the kinase domain of the rice XA21 is functional in triggering elf18-induced signaling and quantitative immunity to the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto DC3000 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the EFR:XA21 chimera associates dynamically in a ligand-dependent manner with known components of the EFR complex. Conversely, EFR associates with Arabidopsis orthologues of rice XA21-interacting proteins, which appear to be involved in EFR-mediated signaling and immunity in Arabidopsis. Our work indicates the overall functional conservation of immune components acting downstream of distinct LRR-RK-type PRRs between monocots and dicots.

  19. Pattern recognition applied to seismic signals of Llaima volcano (Chile): An evaluation of station-dependent classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curilem, Millaray; Huenupan, Fernando; Beltrán, Daniel; San Martin, Cesar; Fuentealba, Gustavo; Franco, Luis; Cardona, Carlos; Acuña, Gonzalo; Chacón, Max; Khan, M. Salman; Becerra Yoma, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    Automatic pattern recognition applied to seismic signals from volcanoes may assist seismic monitoring by reducing the workload of analysts, allowing them to focus on more challenging activities, such as producing reports, implementing models, and understanding volcanic behaviour. In a previous work, we proposed a structure for automatic classification of seismic events in Llaima volcano, one of the most active volcanoes in the Southern Andes, located in the Araucanía Region of Chile. A database of events taken from three monitoring stations on the volcano was used to create a classification structure, independent of which station provided the signal. The database included three types of volcanic events: tremor, long period, and volcano-tectonic and a contrast group which contains other types of seismic signals. In the present work, we maintain the same classification scheme, but we consider separately the stations information in order to assess whether the complementary information provided by different stations improves the performance of the classifier in recognising seismic patterns. This paper proposes two strategies for combining the information from the stations: i) combining the features extracted from the signals from each station and ii) combining the classifiers of each station. In the first case, the features extracted from the signals from each station are combined forming the input for a single classification structure. In the second, a decision stage combines the results of the classifiers for each station to give a unique output. The results confirm that the station-dependent strategies that combine the features and the classifiers from several stations improves the classification performance, and that the combination of the features provides the best performance. The results show an average improvement of 9% in the classification accuracy when compared with the station-independent method.

  20. Pattern Recognition of Signals for the Fault-Slip Type of Rock Burst in Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, X.S.; Tan, J; Y. L. Tan; Hu, S C

    2015-01-01

    The fault-slip type of rock burst is a major threat to the safety of coal mining, and effectively recognizing its signals patterns is the foundation for the early warning and prevention. At first, a mechanical model of the fault-slip was established and the mechanism of the rock burst induced by the fault-slip was revealed. Then, the patterns of the electromagnetic radiation, acoustic emission (AE), and microseismic signals in the fault-slip type of rock burst were proposed, in that before th...

  1. Visual detection and microplate assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on aptamer recognition coupled to tyramine signal amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a specific method for the visual detection of Staphylococcus aureus based on aptamer recognition coupled to tyramine signal amplification technology. A biotinylated aptamer specific for S. aureus was immobilized on the surface of the wells of a microplate via biotin-avidin binding. Then, the target bacteria (S. aureus), the biotinylated-aptamer-streptavidin-HRP conjugates, biotinylated tyramine, hydrogen peroxide and streptavidin-HRP were successively placed in the wells of the microplate. After adding TMB reagent and stop solution, the intensity of the yellow reaction product can be visually inspected or measured with a plate reader. Under optimized conditions, there is a linear relationship between absorbance at 450 nm and the concentration of S. aureus in the 10 to 107 cfu mL−1 concentration range (with an R2 of 0.9976). The limit of detection is 8 cfu mL−1. (author)

  2. ST2 negatively regulates TLR2 signaling, but is not required for bacterial lipoprotein-induced tolerance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Liu, Jinghua

    2010-05-15

    Activation of TLR signaling is critical for host innate immunity against bacterial infection. Previous studies reported that the ST2 receptor, a member of the Toll\\/IL-1 receptor superfamily, functions as a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling and maintains LPS tolerance. However, it is undetermined whether ST2 negatively regulates TLR2 signaling and furthermore, whether a TLR2 agonist, bacterial lipoprotein (BLP)-induced tolerance is dependent on ST2. In this study, we show that BLP stimulation-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines and immunocomplex formation of TLR2-MyD88 and MyD88-IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) were significantly enhanced in ST2-deficient macrophages compared with those in wild-type controls. Furthermore, overexpression of ST2 dose-dependently attenuated BLP-induced NF-kappaB activation, suggesting a negative regulatory role of ST2 in TLR2 signaling. A moderate but significantly attenuated production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 on a second BLP stimulation was observed in BLP-pretreated, ST2-deficient macrophages, which is associated with substantially reduced IRAK-1 protein expression and downregulated TLR2-MyD88 and MyD88-IRAK immunocomplex formation. ST2-deficient mice, when pretreated with a nonlethal dose of BLP, benefitted from an improved survival against a subsequent lethal BLP challenge, indicating BLP tolerance develops in the absence of the ST2 receptor. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ST2 acts as a negative regulator of TLR2 signaling, but is not required for BLP-induced tolerance.

  3. Pattern Recognition With Adaptive-Thresholds For Sleep Spindle In High Density EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani, Jessica; Agrimi, Jacopo; Cheli, Enrico; Gemignani, Angelo; Laurino, Marco; Allegrini, Paolo; Landi, Alberto; Menicucci, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep spindles are electroencephalographic oscillations peculiar of non-REM sleep, related to neuronal mechanisms underlying sleep restoration and learning consolidation. Based on their very singular morphology, sleep spindles can be visually recognized and detected, even though this approach can lead to significant mis-detections. For this reason, many efforts have been put in developing a reliable algorithm for spindle automatic detection, and a number of methods, based on different techniques, have been tested via visual validation. This work aims at improving current pattern recognition procedures for sleep spindles detection by taking into account their physiological sources of variability. We provide a method as a synthesis of the current state of art that, improving dynamic threshold adaptation, is able to follow modification of spindle characteristics as a function of sleep depth and inter-subjects variability. The algorithm has been applied to physiological data recorded by a high density EEG in order to perform a validation based on visual inspection and on evaluation of expected results from normal night sleep in healthy subjects. PMID:26736332

  4. Arrhythmia recognition and classification using combined linear and nonlinear features of ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaj, Fatin A; Salim, Naomie; Harris, Arief R; Swee, Tan Tian; Ahmed, Taqwa

    2016-04-01

    Arrhythmia is a cardiac condition caused by abnormal electrical activity of the heart, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) is the non-invasive method used to detect arrhythmias or heart abnormalities. Due to the presence of noise, the non-stationary nature of the ECG signal (i.e. the changing morphology of the ECG signal with respect to time) and the irregularity of the heartbeat, physicians face difficulties in the diagnosis of arrhythmias. The computer-aided analysis of ECG results assists physicians to detect cardiovascular diseases. The development of many existing arrhythmia systems has depended on the findings from linear experiments on ECG data which achieve high performance on noise-free data. However, nonlinear experiments characterize the ECG signal more effectively sense, extract hidden information in the ECG signal, and achieve good performance under noisy conditions. This paper investigates the representation ability of linear and nonlinear features and proposes a combination of such features in order to improve the classification of ECG data. In this study, five types of beat classes of arrhythmia as recommended by the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation are analyzed: non-ectopic beats (N), supra-ventricular ectopic beats (S), ventricular ectopic beats (V), fusion beats (F) and unclassifiable and paced beats (U). The characterization ability of nonlinear features such as high order statistics and cumulants and nonlinear feature reduction methods such as independent component analysis are combined with linear features, namely, the principal component analysis of discrete wavelet transform coefficients. The features are tested for their ability to differentiate different classes of data using different classifiers, namely, the support vector machine and neural network methods with tenfold cross-validation. Our proposed method is able to classify the N, S, V, F and U arrhythmia classes with high accuracy (98.91%) using a combined support

  5. Recognition- and Reactivity-Based Fluorescent Probes for Studying Transition Metal Signaling in Living Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Allegra T.; Ramos-Torres, Karla M.; Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Chang, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Metals are essential for life, playing critical roles in all aspects of the central dogma of biology (e.g., the transcription and translation of nucleic acids and synthesis of proteins). Redox-inactive alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and zinc are widely recognized as dynamic signals, whereas redox-active transition metals such as copper and iron are traditionally thought of as sequestered by protein ligands, including as static enzy...

  6. Metallurgical flow recognition by random signal analysis of stress wave emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study involves detailed random signal analysis of individual 'bursts' of emission with objective of 'reading' their frequency spectra to identify specific metallurgical mechanisms. Mild steel unnotched testpieces were used in the early stages of development of this research. From a fracture mechanics point of view this research could lead to a powerful nondestructive testing device allowing identification of interior, instead of only surface, deformation mechanisms. (author)

  7. Structural Basis for Phosphotyrosine Recognition by Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamin,E.; Wu, J.; Hubbard, S.

    2006-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are indispensable negative regulators of cytokine-stimulated Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways. SOCS proteins (SOCS1-7 and CIS) consist of a variable N-terminal region, a central Src homology-2 (SH2) domain, and a C-terminal SOCS box. The N-terminal region in SOCS1 and SOCS3 includes the so-called kinase inhibitory region that has been shown to inhibit the catalytic activity of JAK2. Here, we present a crystal structure at 2.0 Angstroms resolution of the N-terminally extended SH2 domain of SOCS3 in complex with its phosphopeptide target on the cytokine receptor gp130. The structure reveals that major insertions in the EF and BG loops of the SOCS3 SH2 domain are responsible for binding to gp130 with high affinity and specificity. In addition, the structure provides insights into the possible mechanisms by which SOCS3 and SOCS1 inhibit JAK2 kinase activity.

  8. Physical activities recognition from ambulatory ECG signals using neuro-fuzzy classifiers and support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kher, Rahul; Pawar, Tanmay; Thakar, Vishvjit; Shah, Hitesh

    2015-02-01

    The use of wearable recorders for long-term monitoring of physiological parameters has increased in the last few years. The ambulatory electrocardiogram (A-ECG) signals of five healthy subjects with four body movements or physical activities (PA)-left arm up down, right arm up down, waist twisting and walking-have been recorded using a wearable ECG recorder. The classification of these four PAs has been performed using neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) and support vector machines (SVM). The PA classification is based on the distinct, time-frequency features of the extracted motion artifacts contained in recorded A-ECG signals. The motion artifacts in A-ECG signals have been separated first by the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the time-frequency features of these motion artifacts have then been extracted using the Gabor transform. The Gabor energy feature vectors have been fed to the NFC and SVM classifiers. Both the classifiers have achieved a PA classification accuracy of over 95% for all subjects. PMID:25641014

  9. A Simple Decision Rule for Recognition of Poly(A) Tail Signal Motifs in Human Genome

    KAUST Repository

    Eisha, Hassan Abou

    2015-05-12

    Background is the numerous attempts were made to predict motifs in genomic sequences that correspond to poly (A) tail signals. Vast portion of this effort has been directed to a plethora of nonlinear classification methods. Even when such approaches yield good discriminant results, identifying dominant features of regulatory mechanisms nevertheless remains a challenge. In this work, we look at decision rules that may help identifying such features. Findings are we present a simple decision rule for classification of candidate poly (A) tail signal motifs in human genomic sequence obtained by evaluating features during the construction of gradient boosted trees. We found that values of a single feature based on the frequency of adenine in the genomic sequence surrounding candidate signal and the number of consecutive adenine molecules in a well-defined region immediately following the motif displays good discriminative potential in classification of poly (A) tail motifs for samples covered by the rule. Conclusions is the resulting simple rule can be used as an efficient filter in construction of more complex poly(A) tail motifs classification algorithms.

  10. A novel human-machine interface based on recognition of multi-channel facial bioelectric signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper presents a novel human-machine interface for disabled people to interact with assistive systems for a better quality of life. It is based on multichannel forehead bioelectric signals acquired by placing three pairs of electrodes (physical channels) on the Fron-tails and Temporalis facial muscles. The acquired signals are passes through a parallel filter bank to explore three different sub-bands related to facial electromyogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram. The root mean features of the bioelectric signals analyzed within non-overlapping 256 ms windows were extracted. The subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering method (SFCM) was applied to segment the feature space and generate initial fuzzy based Takagi-Sugeno rules. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is exploited to tune up the premises and consequence parameters of the extracted SFCMs. rules. The average classifier discriminating ratio for eight different facial gestures (smiling, frowning, pulling up left/right lips corner, eye movement to left/right/up/down is between 93.04% and 96.99% according to different combinations and fusions of logical features. Experimental results show that the proposed interface has a high degree of accuracy and robustness for discrimination of 8 fundamental facial gestures. Some potential and further capabilities of our approach in human-machine interfaces are also discussed. (author)

  11. Bacterial intoxication evokes cellular senescence with persistent DNA damage and cytokine signalling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažková, Hana; Krejčíková, Kateřina; Moudrý, Pavel; Frisan, T.; Hodný, Zdeněk; Bartek, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, 1-2 (2009), s. 357-367. ISSN 1582-1838 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390501; GA ČR GA204/08/1418; GA ČR GA301/08/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cellular senescence * DNA damage response * bacterial toxins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2009

  12. Speech recognition and understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vintsyuk, T.K.

    1983-05-01

    This article discusses the automatic processing of speech signals with the aim of finding a sequence of works (speech recognition) or a concept (speech understanding) being transmitted by the speech signal. The goal of the research is to develop an automatic typewriter that will automatically edit and type text under voice control. A dynamic programming method is proposed in which all possible class signals are stored, after which the presented signal is compared to all the stored signals during the recognition phase. Topics considered include element-by-element recognition of words of speech, learning speech recognition, phoneme-by-phoneme speech recognition, the recognition of connected speech, understanding connected speech, and prospects for designing speech recognition and understanding systems. An application of the composition dynamic programming method for the solution of basic problems in the recognition and understanding of speech is presented.

  13. SigmoID: a user-friendly tool for improving bacterial genome annotation through analysis of transcription control signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaichik, Yevgeny; Damienikan, Aliaksandr U

    2016-01-01

    The majority of bacterial genome annotations are currently automated and based on a 'gene by gene' approach. Regulatory signals and operon structures are rarely taken into account which often results in incomplete and even incorrect gene function assignments. Here we present SigmoID, a cross-platform (OS X, Linux and Windows) open-source application aiming at simplifying the identification of transcription regulatory sites (promoters, transcription factor binding sites and terminators) in bacterial genomes and providing assistance in correcting annotations in accordance with regulatory information. SigmoID combines a user-friendly graphical interface to well known command line tools with a genome browser for visualising regulatory elements in genomic context. Integrated access to online databases with regulatory information (RegPrecise and RegulonDB) and web-based search engines speeds up genome analysis and simplifies correction of genome annotation. We demonstrate some features of SigmoID by constructing a series of regulatory protein binding site profiles for two groups of bacteria: Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae (Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp.) and Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, we inferred over 900 transcription factor binding sites and alternative sigma factor promoters in the annotated genome of Pectobacterium atrosepticum. These regulatory signals control putative transcription units covering about 40% of the P. atrosepticum chromosome. Reviewing the annotation in cases where it didn't fit with regulatory information allowed us to correct product and gene names for over 300 loci. PMID:27257541

  14. SigmoID: a user-friendly tool for improving bacterial genome annotation through analysis of transcription control signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damienikan, Aliaksandr U.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of bacterial genome annotations are currently automated and based on a ‘gene by gene’ approach. Regulatory signals and operon structures are rarely taken into account which often results in incomplete and even incorrect gene function assignments. Here we present SigmoID, a cross-platform (OS X, Linux and Windows) open-source application aiming at simplifying the identification of transcription regulatory sites (promoters, transcription factor binding sites and terminators) in bacterial genomes and providing assistance in correcting annotations in accordance with regulatory information. SigmoID combines a user-friendly graphical interface to well known command line tools with a genome browser for visualising regulatory elements in genomic context. Integrated access to online databases with regulatory information (RegPrecise and RegulonDB) and web-based search engines speeds up genome analysis and simplifies correction of genome annotation. We demonstrate some features of SigmoID by constructing a series of regulatory protein binding site profiles for two groups of bacteria: Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae (Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp.) and Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, we inferred over 900 transcription factor binding sites and alternative sigma factor promoters in the annotated genome of Pectobacterium atrosepticum. These regulatory signals control putative transcription units covering about 40% of the P. atrosepticum chromosome. Reviewing the annotation in cases where it didn’t fit with regulatory information allowed us to correct product and gene names for over 300 loci. PMID:27257541

  15. Fatigue crack growth behavior and AE signal recognition from a composite patch repaired Ai thein plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of a fatigue-cracked and patch-repaired AA2024-T3 plate has been monitored. It was found that the overall crack growth rate was reduced and the crack propagation into the adjacent hole was also retarded. Signals due to crack growth after patch-repair and those due to debonding of the plate-patch interface were discriminated each other by using principal component analysis. The former showed higher center frequency and lower amplitude, whereas the latter showed longer rise time, lower frequency and higher amplitude.

  16. Regulation of DMBT1 via NOD2 and TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells modulates bacterial recognition and invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstiel, Philip; Sina, Christian; End, Caroline;

    2007-01-01

    -kappaB activation and cytokine secretion in vitro. Thus, DMBT1 may play an important role in the first line of mucosal defense conferring immune exclusion of bacterial cell wall components. Dysregulated intestinal DMBT1 expression due to mutations in the NOD2/CARD15 gene may be part of the complex pathophysiology......Mucosal epithelial cell layers are constantly exposed to a complex resident microflora. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the group of secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins and is considered to be involved in host defense by pathogen binding. This report describes...... intracellular pathogen receptor NOD2 via NF-kappaB activation. DMBT1 is strongly up-regulated in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of Crohn's disease patients with wild-type, but not with mutant NOD2. We show that DMBT1 inhibits cytoinvasion of Salmonella enterica and LPS- and muramyl dipeptide-induced NF...

  17. [An Extraction and Recognition Method of the Distributed Optical Fiber Vibration Signal Based on EMD-AWPP and HOSA-SVM Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Wen-zhe; Fu, Xing-hu; Bi, Wei-hong

    2016-02-01

    Given that the traditional signal processing methods can not effectively distinguish the different vibration intrusion signal, a feature extraction and recognition method of the vibration information is proposed based on EMD-AWPP and HOSA-SVM, using for high precision signal recognition of distributed fiber optic intrusion detection system. When dealing with different types of vibration, the method firstly utilizes the adaptive wavelet processing algorithm based on empirical mode decomposition effect to reduce the abnormal value influence of sensing signal and improve the accuracy of signal feature extraction. Not only the low frequency part of the signal is decomposed, but also the high frequency part the details of the signal disposed better by time-frequency localization process. Secondly, it uses the bispectrum and bicoherence spectrum to accurately extract the feature vector which contains different types of intrusion vibration. Finally, based on the BPNN reference model, the recognition parameters of SVM after the implementation of the particle swarm optimization can distinguish signals of different intrusion vibration, which endows the identification model stronger adaptive and self-learning ability. It overcomes the shortcomings, such as easy to fall into local optimum. The simulation experiment results showed that this new method can effectively extract the feature vector of sensing information, eliminate the influence of random noise and reduce the effects of outliers for different types of invasion source. The predicted category identifies with the output category and the accurate rate of vibration identification can reach above 95%. So it is better than BPNN recognition algorithm and improves the accuracy of the information analysis effectively. PMID:27209772

  18. Longitudinal analysis of vaginal microbiome dynamics in women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis: recognition of the conversion process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet A Lambert

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV affects ∼ 30% of women of reproductive age, has a high rate of recurrence, and is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV-1. Little is known of the daily changes in the vaginal bacterial composition as it progresses from treatment to recurrence, or whether any of these might be useful in its prediction or an understanding of its causes. We used phylogenetic branch-inclusive quantitative PCR (PB-qPCR and Lactobacillus blocked/unblocked qPCR (Lb-qPCR to characterize longitudinal changes in the vaginal microbiota in sequential vaginal self-swabs from five women with recurrent BV, from diagnosis through remission to recurrence. Both patients with acute BV samples dominated by G. vaginalis recurred during the study with similar profiles, whereas the three patients with acute BV samples dominated by other anaerobes did not recur or recurred to an intermediate Nugent score. L. iners dominated remission phases, with intermittent days of abnormal microbial profiles typically associated with menses. The exception was a newly discovered phenomenon, a sustained period of abnormal profiles, termed conversion, which preceded symptomatic acute BV. Species known to have antagonistic activity towards Lactobacillus were detected in pre-conversion samples, possibly contributing to the decline in Lactobacillus. Lb-qPCR scores define two categories of response in the initial post-treatment visit samples; scores 8 may predict delayed or no recurrence. Amsel criteria or Nugent scores did not have this potential predictive capability. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate the prognostic potential of detecting conversion and poor Lb-qPCR scores at the post-treatment visit of recurrent BV patients.

  19. A bacterial signal peptidase enhances processing of a recombinant single chain antibody fragment in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ailor, E; Pathmanathan, J; Jongbloed, JDH; Betenbaugh, MJ

    1999-01-01

    The production of an antibody single chain fragment (scFv) in insect cells was accompanied by the formation of an insoluble intracellular precursor even with the inclusion of the bee melittin signal peptide. The presence of the precursor polypeptide suggests a limitation in the processing of the sig

  20. Impedimetric biosensor based on self-assembled hybrid cystein-gold nanoparticles and CramoLL lectin for bacterial lipopolysaccharide recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria D L; Andrade, Cesar A S; Correia, Maria T S; Coelho, Luana C B B; Singh, Pankaj R; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a new selective and specific electrochemical biosensor for bacterial lipolysaccharide (LPS). An electrode interface was constructed using a l-cysteine-gold nanoparticle (AuNpCys) composite to be immobilized by electrostatic interaction in the network of a poly(vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate maleic acid) (PVM) layer on a gold bare electrode. The impedimetric biosensor is fabricated by self-assembled CramoLL lectin on the PVM-AuNpCys-modified gold electrode through electrostatic interaction. CramoLL is used as the recognition interface. AFM images showed that LPS was specifically recognized on the PVM-AuNpCys-CramoLL system surface. The measurements of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the electrochemical response of a redox probe system (K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)](4-)/K(3)[Fe(CN)(6)](3-)) were blocked, due to the procedures of modified electrode with PVM-AuNpCys-CramoLL. In the majority of the experiments the lectin retained its activity as observed through its interaction with LPS from Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results are expressed in terms of the charge transfer resistance and current peak anodic using the EIS and CV techniques for the development of a biosensor for contamination by endotoxins. A new type of sensor for selective discrimination of LPS types with a high sensitivity has been obtained. PMID:21752390

  1. Normal-hearing English-as-a-second-language listeners' recognition of English words in competing signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2009-05-01

    English-as-a-second-language (ESL) listeners have difficulty perceiving English speech presented in background noise. The current study furthered this line of investigations by including participants who varied widely in their age of English acquisition and length of English learning: 24 native English monolingual (EML), 12 simultaneous bilingual (SBL), 10 early ESL (E-ESL), and 14 late ESL (L-ESL) listeners. Word recognition scores were obtained in quiet and in the presence of speech-weighted noise, multi-talker babble, forward-playing music, and time-reversed music. All words and competing signals were presented at 45 dB HL. EML and SBL listeners' performances were found to be similar across test conditions. ESL, especially L-ESL listeners, performed significantly more poorly in all conditions than EML and SBL listeners. Overall, speech-weighted noise and multi-talker babble showed greater masking effect than music; however, the difference in performance between L-ESL and EML listeners was the largest for the music maskers, indicating that L-ESL listeners are susceptible to weaker maskers. Age of acquisition and length of learning were both shown to be good indicators of SBL and ESL listeners' performance. PMID:19842801

  2. A sophisticated network of signaling pathways regulates stomatal defenses to bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Dominique; Hwang, Ildoo

    2015-04-01

    Guard cells are specialized cells forming stomatal pores at the leaf surface for gas exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. Stomata have been shown to play an important role in plant defense as a part of the innate immune response. Plants actively close their stomata upon contact with microbes, thereby preventing pathogen entry into the leaves and the subsequent colonization of host tissues. In this review, we present current knowledge of molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways implicated in stomatal defenses, with particular emphasis on plant-bacteria interactions. Stomatal defense responses begin from the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate a signaling cascade involving the production of secondary messengers such as reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and calcium for the regulation of plasma membrane ion channels. The analyses on downstream molecular mechanisms implicated in PAMP-triggered stomatal closure have revealed extensive interplays among the components regulating hormonal signaling pathways. We also discuss the strategies deployed by pathogenic bacteria to counteract stomatal immunity through the example of the phytotoxin coronatine. PMID:25661059

  3. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eAziz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant’s growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03 transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm. In contrast, a previously-characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against beet armyworm feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense.

  4. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Mina; Nadipalli, Ranjith K.; Xie, Xitao; Sun, Yan; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Paré, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant’s growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03) transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW). In contrast, a previously characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against BAW feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense. PMID:27092166

  5. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Mina; Nadipalli, Ranjith K; Xie, Xitao; Sun, Yan; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Paré, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant's growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03) transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW). In contrast, a previously characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against BAW feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense. PMID:27092166

  6. Solid-State NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool. (authors)

  7. Systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease: a link to bacterial colonization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andelid K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Andelid,1 Sara Tengvall,1 Anders Andersson,1 Bettina Levänen,2 Karin Christenson,3 Pernilla Jirholt,3 Christina Åhrén,4 Ingemar Qvarfordt,1 Ann Ekberg-Jansson,1 Anders Lindén2 1Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Unit of Lung and Airway Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control Unit, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: We examined whether systemic cytokine signaling via interleukin (IL-17 and growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α is impaired in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis (OPD-CB. We also examined how this systemic cytokine signaling relates to bacterial colonization in the airways of the smokers with OPD-CB. Currently smoking OPD-CB patients (n=60, corresponding to Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage I–IV underwent recurrent blood and sputum sampling over 60 weeks, during stable conditions and at exacerbations. We characterized cytokine protein concentrations in blood and bacterial growth in sputum. Asymptomatic smokers (n=10 and never-smokers (n=10 were included as control groups. During stable clinical conditions, the protein concentrations of IL-17 and GRO-α were markedly lower among OPD-CB patients compared with never-smoker controls, whereas the asymptomatic smoker controls displayed intermediate concentrations. Notably, among OPD-CB patients, colonization by opportunistic pathogens was associated with markedly lower IL-17 and GRO-α, compared with colonization by common respiratory pathogens or oropharyngeal flora. During exacerbations in the OPD-CB patients, GRO-α and neutrophil

  8. Gut commensal microvesicles reproduce parent bacterial signals to host immune and enteric nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nedawi, Khalid; Mian, M Firoz; Hossain, Nazia; Karimi, Khalil; Mao, Yu-Kang; Forsythe, Paul; Min, Kevin K; Stanisz, Andrew M; Kunze, Wolfgang A; Bienenstock, John

    2015-02-01

    Ingestion of a commensal bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1, has potent immunoregulatory effects, and changes nerve-dependent colon migrating motor complexes (MMCs), enteric nerve function, and behavior. How these alterations occur is unknown. JB-1 microvesicles (MVs) are enriched for heat shock protein components such as chaperonin 60 heat-shock protein isolated from Escherichia coli (GroEL) and reproduce regulatory and neuronal effects in vitro and in vivo. Ingested labeled MVs were detected in murine Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cells (DCs) within 18 h. After 3 d, PP and mesenteric lymph node DCs assumed a regulatory phenotype and increased functional regulatory CD4(+)25(+)Foxp3+ T cells. JB-1, MVs, and GroEL similarly induced phenotypic change in cocultured DCs via multiple pathways including C-type lectin receptors specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin-related 1 and Dectin-1, as well as TLR-2 and -9. JB-1 and MVs also decreased the amplitude of neuronally dependent MMCs in an ex vivo model of peristalsis. Gut epithelial, but not direct neuronal application of, MVs, replicated functional effects of JB-1 on in situ patch-clamped enteric neurons. GroEL and anti-TLR-2 were without effect in this system, suggesting the importance of epithelium neuron signaling and discrimination between pathways for bacteria-neuron and -immune communication. Together these results offer a mechanistic explanation of how Gram-positive commensals and probiotics may influence the host's immune and nervous systems. PMID:25392266

  9. Study of signal recognition of radar emitter based on QPSO%基于QPSO的雷达辐射源信号识别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭戈; 徐佳婧; 徐璟; 魏洁

    2014-01-01

    鉴于支持向量机(SVM)方法对雷达辐射源信号具有较理想的识别结果,但对模型参数没有具体选择方法的问题,设计了一种以具有量子行为的粒子群优化(QPSO)算法为参数优化方法的SVM分类器,并提出了基于QPSO-SVM的雷达辐射源信号识别方法.QPSO-SVM分类器在采用QPSO算法对SVM进行优化改进的同时,继承了SVM分类器泛化能力强的特点,对雷达辐射源信号识别问题具有良好的适应性.实验结果表明,与其他方法相比,本文方法在保证识别准确率的同时,降低了参数选择时间.%Considering that the SVM algorithm has an ideal recognition result for radar emitter signals, but no specific selection method for the model parameters, this paper designs an SVM classifier that uses QPSO algorithm as the optimization algorithm of parameters, and proposes a scheme of signal recognition of radar emitter based on QPSO-SVM. While the QPSO-SVM classifier optimizes and improves SVM using the QPSO algorithm, the proposed classifier keeps the strong generalization capability of SVM classifier, thus having the better adaptability for the signal recognition of radar emitter. Experimental results show that this proposed method can shorten the time for parameter selection while guaranteeing the accuracy rate of recognition, compared with other algorithms.

  10. Redefining the functional roles of the gastrointestinal migrating motor complex and motilin in small bacterial overgrowth and hunger signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Tack, Jan

    2016-02-15

    During the fasting state the upper gastrointestinal tract exhibits a specific periodic migrating contraction pattern that is known as the migrating motor complex (MMC). Three different phases can be distinguished during the MMC. Phase III of the MMC is the most active of the three and can start either in the stomach or small intestine. Historically this pattern was designated to be the housekeeper of the gut since disturbances in the pattern were associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, its role in the involvement of hunger sensations was already hinted in the beginning of the 20th century by both Cannon (Cannon W, Washburn A. Am J Physiol 29: 441-454, 1912) and Carlson (Carlson A. The Control of Hunger in Health and Disease. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1916). The discovery of motilin in 1973 shed more light on the control mechanisms of the MMC. Motilin plasma levels fluctuate together with the phases of the MMC and induce phase III contractions with a gastric onset. Recent research suggests that these motilin-induced phase III contractions signal hunger in healthy subjects and that this system is disturbed in morbidly obese patients. This minireview describes the functions of the MMC in the gut and its regulatory role in controlling hunger sensations. PMID:26660537

  11. Selective Protection of an ARF1-GTP Signaling Axis by a Bacterial Scaffold Induces Bidirectional Trafficking Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey S. Selyunin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional vesicular transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi is mediated largely by ARF and Rab GTPases, which orchestrate vesicle fission and fusion, respectively. How their activities are coordinated in order to define the successive steps of the secretory pathway and preserve traffic directionality is not well understood in part due to the scarcity of molecular tools that simultaneously target ARF and Rab signaling. Here, we take advantage of the unique scaffolding properties of E. coli secreted protein G (EspG to describe the critical role of ARF1/Rab1 spatiotemporal coordination in vesicular transport at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. Structural modeling and cellular studies show that EspG induces bidirectional traffic arrest by tethering vesicles through select ARF1-GTP/effector complexes and local inactivation of Rab1. The mechanistic insights presented here establish the effectiveness of a small bacterial catalytic scaffold for studying complex processes and reveal an alternative mechanism of immune regulation by an important human pathogen.

  12. A proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling responses to 3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone, a bacterial quorum-sensing signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► 3OC8-HSL can change the expression of diverse proteins in Arabidopsis. ► 3OC8-HSL responsive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. ► Plant could have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHL. -- Abstract: N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are a class of bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) signals that are commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria for cell-to-cell communication. Recently, it has become evident that AHLs can regulate plant root growth and trigger plant defense responses; however, little is known about the plant response mechanisms to bacterial QS signals. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to N-3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC8-HSL), a bacterial QS signal. The results revealed that the abundance of 53 protein spots was significantly altered; two thirds of these proteins were found to be up-regulated after 3OC8-HSL treatment. Thirty-four proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. These 3OC8-HSL-responsive proteins, in addition to one protein of unknown function, are implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including metabolism of carbohydrate and energy, protein biosynthesis and quality control systems, defense response and signal transduction and cytoskeleton remodeling. Our bioinformatic analysis indicated that the chloroplasts are the intracellular organelles most influenced by the exposure to 3OC8-HSL. Our data indicate that plants have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHLs that may play important roles in the interaction between plants and bacteria.

  13. A proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling responses to 3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone, a bacterial quorum-sensing signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chunjuan, E-mail: chunjuanjay@163.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Liu, Fang, E-mail: liufang830818@126.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Zhao, Qian, E-mail: zhqbluesea@163.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Jia, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhenhuaj@hotmail.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Song, Shuishan, E-mail: shuishans@hotmail.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3OC8-HSL can change the expression of diverse proteins in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3OC8-HSL responsive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plant could have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHL. -- Abstract: N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are a class of bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) signals that are commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria for cell-to-cell communication. Recently, it has become evident that AHLs can regulate plant root growth and trigger plant defense responses; however, little is known about the plant response mechanisms to bacterial QS signals. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to N-3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC8-HSL), a bacterial QS signal. The results revealed that the abundance of 53 protein spots was significantly altered; two thirds of these proteins were found to be up-regulated after 3OC8-HSL treatment. Thirty-four proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. These 3OC8-HSL-responsive proteins, in addition to one protein of unknown function, are implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including metabolism of carbohydrate and energy, protein biosynthesis and quality control systems, defense response and signal transduction and cytoskeleton remodeling. Our bioinformatic analysis indicated that the chloroplasts are the intracellular organelles most influenced by the exposure to 3OC8-HSL. Our data indicate that plants have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHLs that may play important roles in the interaction between plants and bacteria.

  14. Exposure to bacterial signals does not alter pea aphids' survival upon a second challenge or investment in production of winged offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ter Braak

    Full Text Available Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections.

  15. 基于生理信号的观众情感状态识别模型%Physiological signals based emotional state recognition model of audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓菡; 陈岭; 姜贤塔; 陈根才

    2012-01-01

    To study the relationship between movie plot and the physiological signals of audience, a physiological signals based emotional state recognition model of movie audience was proposed. Features were extracted from physiological signals, and sequential forward selection (SFS) method was used for feature selection purpose. The emotional state recognition model was built based on support vector machine (SVM). Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the model. In the experiments, three movies with different types were employed. During watching these movies, the facial expressions and physiological signals of 11 participants were recorded, and the human judgment of the emotional states of the participants was obtained based on their facial expressions. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model can distinguish among various emotional states, and the average recognition rate is higher than 90%.%为研究电影情节与观众生理信号变化的关系,提出基于生理信号的观众情感状态识别模型,从观众生理信号中提取特征,采用顺序前进法(SFS)进行特征选择,并基于支持向量机(SVM)建立观众情感状态识别模型.实验选择了不同类型的3部影片,共11名人员参加,在电影播放时拍摄观众表情并记录其生理信号,基于表情人工标注其情感状态.实验结果表明:该模型对各情感状态的区分较理想,平均识别率在90%以上.

  16. Are bacterial volatile compounds poisonous odors to a fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, alarm signals to Arabidopsis seedlings for eliciting induced resistance, or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Min eRyu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological control (biocontrol agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR. Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Emerging data suggest that bacterial VOCs also can directly inhibit fungal and plant growth. The aim of the current study was to differentiate direct and indirect mechanisms of bacterial VOC effects against Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis. Volatile emissions from Bacillus subtilis GB03 successfully protected Arabidopsis seedlings against B. cinerea. First, we investigated the direct effects of bacterial VOCs on symptom development and different phenological stages of B. cinerea including spore germination, mycelial attachment to the leaf surface, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro and in planta. Volatile emissions inhibited hyphal growth in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and interfered with fungal attachment on the hydrophobic leaf surface. Second, the optimized bacterial concentration that did not directly inhibit fungal growth successfully protected Arabidopsis from fungal infection, which indicates that bacterial VOC-elicited plant ISR has a more important role in biocontrol than direct inhibition of fungal growth on Arabidopsis. We performed qRT-PCR to investigate the priming of the defense-related genes PR1, PDF1.2, and ChiB at 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours post-infection and 14 days after the start of plant exposure to bacterial VOCs. The results indicate that bacterial VOCs potentiate expression of PR1 and PDF1.2 but not ChiB, which stimulates SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways in plant ISR and protects plants against pathogen

  17. Are Bacterial Volatile Compounds Poisonous Odors to a Fungal Pathogen Botrytis cinerea, Alarm Signals to Arabidopsis Seedlings for Eliciting Induced Resistance, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Rouhallah; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Biological control (biocontrol) agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR). Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Emerging data suggest that bacterial VOCs also can directly inhibit fungal and plant growth. The aim of the current study was to differentiate direct and indirect mechanisms of bacterial VOC effects against Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis. Volatile emissions from Bacillus subtilis GB03 successfully protected Arabidopsis seedlings against B. cinerea. First, we investigated the direct effects of bacterial VOCs on symptom development and different phenological stages of B. cinerea including spore germination, mycelial attachment to the leaf surface, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro and in planta. Volatile emissions inhibited hyphal growth in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and interfered with fungal attachment on the hydrophobic leaf surface. Second, the optimized bacterial concentration that did not directly inhibit fungal growth successfully protected Arabidopsis from fungal infection, which indicates that bacterial VOC-elicited plant ISR has a more important role in biocontrol than direct inhibition of fungal growth on Arabidopsis. We performed qRT-PCR to investigate the priming of the defense-related genes PR1, PDF1.2, and ChiB at 0, 12, 24, and 36 h post-infection and 14 days after the start of plant exposure to bacterial VOCs. The results indicate that bacterial VOCs potentiate expression of PR1 and PDF1.2 but not ChiB, which stimulates SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways in plant ISR and protects plants against pathogen colonization. This study

  18. The immunosuppressive drug azathioprine inhibits biosynthesis of the bacterial signal molecule cyclic-di-GMP by interfering with intracellular nucleotide pool availability.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniani, Davide; Rossi, Elio; Rinaldo, Serena; BOCCI, PAOLA; Lolicato, Marco; Paiardini, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Nadia; Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Landini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, production of the signal molecule c-di-GMP by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) is a key trigger for biofilm formation, which, in turn, is often required for the development of chronic bacterial infections. Thus, DGCs represent interesting targets for new chemotherapeutic drugs with anti-biofilm activity. We searched for inhibitors of the WspR protein, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa DGC involved in biofilm formation and production of virulence factors, using a set of microbiolo...

  19. 磁探搜潜系统的目标信号识别%Magnetec Probe Anti-submarine System Target Signal Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹景涯

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the system structure and working principle of magnetic anomaly detector.Focus on the magnetic detector of magnetic target signal recognition fuction,and the prospect of future development of magnetic anomaly detector.%文章主要介绍了磁探仪的系统结构和工作原理,重点介绍了磁探仪对磁目标信号的识别功能,以及对磁探仪未来发展的展望。

  20. Building the bacterial orisome: high affinity DnaA recognition plays a role in setting the conformation of oriC DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Gulpreet; Vora, Mansi P.; Czerwonka, Christopher A.; Rozgaja, Tania A.; Grimwade, Julia E.; Leonard, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    During assembly of the E. coli pre-replicative complex (pre-RC), initiator DnaA oligomers are nucleated from three widely separated high affinity DnaA recognition sites in oriC. Oligomer assembly is then guided by low affinity DnaA recognition sites, but is also regulated by a switch-like conformational change in oriC mediated by sequential binding of two DNA bending proteins, Fis and IHF, serving as inhibitor and activator, respectively. Although their recognition sites are separated by up t...

  1. Genetic evidence for a tight cooperation of TatB and TatC during productive recognition of twin-arginine (Tat signal peptides in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Lausberg

    Full Text Available The twin arginine translocation (Tat pathway transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Tat signal peptides contain a consensus motif (S/T-R-R-X-F-L-K that is thought to play a crucial role in substrate recognition by the Tat translocase. Replacement of the phenylalanine at the +2 consensus position in the signal peptide of a Tat-specific reporter protein (TorA-MalE by aspartate blocked export of the corresponding TorA(D(+2-MalE precursor, indicating that this mutation prevents a productive binding of the TorA(D(+2 signal peptide to the Tat translocase. Mutations were identified in the extreme amino-terminal regions of TatB and TatC that synergistically suppressed the export defect of TorA(D(+2-MalE when present in pairwise or triple combinations. The observed synergistic suppression activities were even more pronounced in the restoration of membrane translocation of another export-defective precursor, TorA(KQ-MalE, in which the conserved twin arginine residues had been replaced by lysine-glutamine. Collectively, these findings indicate that the extreme amino-terminal regions of TatB and TatC cooperate tightly during recognition and productive binding of Tat-dependent precursor proteins and, furthermore, that TatB and TatC are both involved in the formation of a specific signal peptide binding site that reaches out as far as the end of the TatB transmembrane segment.

  2. Species-specific engagement of human nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD)2 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling upon intracellular bacterial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, M; Seidelin, J B; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen Robert;

    2015-01-01

    of MDP and further to determine the role of NOD2 gene variants for the bacterial recognition in CD. The response pattern to A-MDP, G-MDP, Mycobacterium segmatis (expressing mainly G-MDP) and M. segmatisΔnamH (expressing A-MDP), Listeria monocytogenes (LM) (an A-MDP-containing bacteria) and M. avium....... NOD2 mutations resulted in a low tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein secretion following stimulation with LM. Contrary to this, TNF-α levels were unchanged upon MAP stimulation regardless of NOD2 genotype and MAP solely activated NOD2- and Toll-like receptor (TLRs)-pathway with an enhanced...... production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10. In conclusion, the results indicate that CD-associated NOD2 deficiencies might affect the response towards a broader array of commensal and pathogenic bacteria expressing A-MDP, whereas they attenuate the role of mycobacteria in the pathogenesis of CD....

  3. A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: Bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin Michael Y

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Analysis of complete microbial genomes showed that intracellular parasites and other microorganisms that inhabit stable ecological niches encode relatively primitive signaling systems, whereas environmental microorganisms typically have sophisticated systems of environmental sensing and signal transduction. Results This paper presents results of a comprehensive census of signal transduction proteins – histidine kinases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors, Ser/Thr/Tyr pr...

  4. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2009-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  5. Calix[8]arene functionalized single-walled carbon nanohorns for dual-signalling electrochemical sensing of aconitine based on competitive host-guest recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Ran, Xin; Cai, Le; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Hui; Li, Can-Peng

    2016-09-15

    A dual-signalling electrochemical approach has been developed towards aconitine based on competitive host-guest interaction by selecting methylene blue (MB) and p-sulfonated calix[8]arene functionalized single-walled carbon nanohorns (SCX8-SWCNHs) as the "reporter pair". Upon the presence of aconitine to the performed SCX8-SWCNHs·MB complex, the MB molecules are displaced by aconitine. This results in a decreased oxidation peak current of MB and the appearance of an oxidation peak of aconitine, and the changes of these signals correlate linearly with the concentration of aconitine. A linear response range of 1.00-10.00μM for aconitine with a low detection limit of 0.18μM (S/N=3) was obtained by using the proposed method. This method could be successfully utilized to detect aconitine in serum samples. This dual-signalling sensor can provide more sensitive target recognition and will have important applications in the sensitive and selective electrochemical detection of aconitine. PMID:27135940

  6. A functional glycoprotein competitive recognition and signal amplification strategy for carbohydrate-protein interaction profiling and cell surface carbohydrate expression evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangzhong; Chen, Zhuhai; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2013-07-01

    A simple and sensitive carbohydrate biosensor has been suggested as a potential tool for accurate analysis of cell surface carbohydrate expression as well as carbohydrate-based therapeutics for a variety of diseases and infections. In this work, a sensitive biosensor for carbohydrate-lectin profiling and in situ cell surface carbohydrate expression was designed by taking advantage of a functional glycoprotein of glucose oxidase acting as both a multivalent recognition unit and a signal amplification probe. Combining the gold nanoparticle catalyzed luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence and nanocarrier for active biomolecules, the number of cell surface carbohydrate groups could be conveniently read out. The apparent dissociation constant between GOx@Au probes and Con A was detected to be 1.64 nM and was approximately 5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of mannose and Con A, which would arise from the multivalent effect between the probe and Con A. Both glycoproteins and gold nanoparticles contribute to the high affinity between carbohydrates and lectin. The as-proposed biosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance towards the cytosensing of K562 cells with a detection limit of 18 cells, and the mannose moieties on a single K562 cell were determined to be 1.8 × 1010. The biosensor can also act as a useful tool for antibacterial drug screening and mechanism investigation. This strategy integrates the excellent biocompatibility and multivalent recognition of glycoproteins as well as the significant enzymatic catalysis and gold nanoparticle signal amplification, and avoids the cell pretreatment and labelling process. This would contribute to the glycomic analysis and the understanding of complex native glycan-related biological processes.A simple and sensitive carbohydrate biosensor has been suggested as a potential tool for accurate analysis of cell surface carbohydrate expression as well as carbohydrate-based therapeutics for a variety of diseases and

  7. MyD88-deficient Hydra reveal an ancient function of TLR signaling in sensing bacterial colonizers

    OpenAIRE

    Franzenburg, Sören; Fraune, Sebastian; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Bosch, Thomas C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is one of the most important signaling cascades of the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies in invertebrates have focused on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and there is little information regarding the evolutionary origin and ancestral function of TLR signaling. In Drosophila, members of the Toll-like receptor family are involved in both embryonic development and innate immunity. In C. elegans, a clear ...

  8. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Cheol eSong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 M and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through SA, JA, and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  9. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a pattern recognition receptor that mediates macrophage binding and engulfment of Gram-negative bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Soumita; Owen, Katherine A.; Ly, Kim T.; Park, Daeho; Black, Steven G.; Wilson, Jeffrey M.; Sifri, Costi D.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Ernst, Peter B.; Casanova, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial recognition by host cells is essential for initiation of infection and the host response. Bacteria interact with host cells via multiple pattern recognition receptors that recognize microbial products or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In response to this interaction, host cell signaling cascades are activated that lead to inflammatory responses and/or phagocytic clearance of attached bacteria. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a receptor that recognizes apoptotic cel...

  10. The bacterial effector HopX1 targets JAZ transcriptional repressors to activate jasmonate signaling and promote infection in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Gimenez-Ibanez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae is dependent on a type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of virulence effector proteins into the host cytoplasm, and the production of a number of toxins such as coronatine (COR, which is a mimic of the plant hormone jasmonate-isoleuce (JA-Ile. Inside the plant cell, effectors target host molecules to subvert the host cell physiology and disrupt defenses. However, despite the fact that elucidating effector action is essential to understanding bacterial pathogenesis, the molecular function and host targets of the vast majority of effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we found that effector HopX1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta 11528, a strain that does not produce COR, interacts with and promotes the degradation of JAZ proteins, a key family of JA-repressors. We show that hopX1 encodes a cysteine protease, activity that is required for degradation of JAZs by HopX1. HopX1 associates with JAZ proteins through its central ZIM domain and degradation occurs in a COI1-independent manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of HopX1 in Arabidopsis induces the expression of JA-dependent genes, represses salicylic acid (SA-induced markers, and complements the growth of a COR-deficient P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto DC3000 strain during natural bacterial infections. Furthermore, HopX1 promoted susceptibility when delivered by the natural type III secretion system, to a similar extent as the addition of COR, and this effect was dependent on its catalytic activity. Altogether, our results indicate that JAZ proteins are direct targets of bacterial effectors to promote activation of JA-induced defenses and susceptibility in Arabidopsis. HopX1 illustrates a paradigm of an alternative evolutionary solution to COR with similar physiological outcome.

  11. Galectin-9 Signaling through TIM-3 Is Involved in Neutrophil-Mediated Gram-Negative Bacterial Killing: An Effect Abrogated within the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Carrascal, Isabel; Bergin, David A.; McElvaney, Oliver J.; McCarthy, Cormac; Banville, Nessa; Pohl, Kerstin; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Reeves, Emer P.; McElvaney, Noel G.

    2016-01-01

    The T cell Ig and mucin domain–containing molecule (TIM) family of receptors have emerged as potential therapeutic targets to correct abnormal immune function in chronic inflammatory conditions. TIM-3 serves as a functional receptor in structural cells of the airways and via the ligand galectin-9 (Gal-9) can modulate the inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate TIM-3 expression and function in neutrophils, focusing on its potential role in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Results revealed that TIM-3 mRNA and protein expression values of circulating neutrophils were equal between healthy controls (n = 20) and people with CF (n = 26). TIM-3 was detected on resting neutrophil membranes by FACS analysis, and expression levels significantly increased post IL-8 or TNF-α exposure (p < 0.05). Our data suggest a novel role for TIM-3/Gal-9 signaling involving modulation of cytosolic calcium levels. Via TIM-3 interaction, Gal-9 induced neutrophil degranulation and primed the cell for enhanced NADPH oxidase activity. Killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was significantly increased upon bacterial opsonization with Gal-9 (p < 0.05), an effect abrogated by blockade of TIM-3 receptors. This mechanism appeared to be Gram-negative bacteria specific and mediated via Gal-9/ LPS binding. Additionally, we have demonstrated that neutrophil TIM-3/Gal-9 signaling is perturbed in the CF airways due to proteolytic degradation of the receptor. In conclusion, results suggest a novel neutrophil defect potentially contributing to the defective bacterial clearance observed in the CF airways and suggest that manipulation of the TIM-3 signaling pathway may be of therapeutic value in CF, preferably in conjunction with antiprotease treatment. PMID:24477913

  12. IL-1RI (interleukin-1 receptor type I signalling is essential for host defence and hemichannel activity during acute central nervous system bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Kielian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a common aetiological agent of bacterial brain abscesses. We have previously established that a considerable IL-1 (interleukin-1 response is elicited immediately following S. aureus infection, where the cytokine can exert pleiotropic effects on glial activation and blood–brain barrier permeability. To assess the combined actions of IL-1α and IL-1β during CNS (central nervous system infection, host defence responses were evaluated in IL-1RI (IL-1 receptor type I KO (knockout animals. IL-1RI KO mice were exquisitely sensitive to intracerebral S. aureus infection, as demonstrated by enhanced mortality rates and bacterial burdens within the first 24 h following pathogen exposure compared with WT (wild-type animals. Loss of IL-1RI signalling also dampened the expression of select cytokines and chemokines, concomitant with significant reductions in neutrophil and macrophage infiltrates into the brain. In addition, the opening of astrocyte hemichannels during acute infection was shown to be dependent on IL-1RI activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that IL-1RI signalling plays a pivotal role in the genesis of immune responses during the acute stage of brain abscess development through S. aureus containment, inflammatory mediator production, peripheral immune cell recruitment, and regulation of astrocyte hemichannel activity. Taken in the context of previous studies with MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2 KO animals, the current report advances our understanding of MyD88-dependent cascades and implicates IL-1RI signalling as a major antimicrobial effector pathway during acute brain-abscess formation.

  13. Studying the Mechanism of Phototransformation of Light Signal by Various Mammal and Bacterial Photoreceptor Pigments  Rhodopsin, Iodopsin and Bacteriorhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines the structure and function of mammal and bacterial photoreceptor pigments (rhodopsin, iodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin and their aspects of bio-nanotechnological usage. On an example of bacteriorhodopsin is described the method of its isolation from purple membranes of photo-organotrophic halobacterium Halobacterium halobium ET 1001 by cellular autolysis by distilled water, processing of bacterial biomass by ultrasound at 22 KHz, alcohol extraction of low and high-weight molecular impurities, cellular RNA, carotenoids and lipids, the solubilization with 0,5 % (w/v SDS-Na and subsequent fractionation by methanol and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200 Column balanced with 0,09 M Tris-buffer (pH = 8,35 with 0,1 % (w/v SDS-Na and 2,5 mM EDTA. Within the framework of the research the mechanism of color perception by the visual retina analyzer having the ability to analyze certain ranges of the optical spectrum as colors, was studied along with an analysis of the additive mixing of two or more colors. It was shown that at the mixing of electromagnetic waves with different wavelengths, the visual analyzer perceives them as the separate or average wave length corresponding to the mixing color.

  14. Pattern-Recognition Receptor Signaling Regulator mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice, and in Transient Inflammation or Progressive Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Lech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The cell type-, organ-, and species-specific expression of the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs are well described but little is known about the respective expression profiles of their negative regulators. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of A20, CYLD, DUBA, ST2, CD180, SIGIRR, TANK, SOCS1, SOCS3, SHIP, IRAK-M, DOK1, DOK2, SHP1, SHP2, TOLLIP, IRF4, SIKE, NLRX1, ERBIN, CENTB1, and Clec4a2 in human and mouse solid organs. Humans and mice displayed significant differences between their respective mRNA expression patterns of these factors. Additionally, we characterized their expression profiles in mononuclear blood cells upon bacterial endotoxin, which showed a consistent induction of A20, SOCS3, IRAK-M, and Clec4a2 in human and murine cells. Furthermore, we studied the expression pattern in transient kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury versus post-ischemic atrophy and fibrosis in mice. A20, CD180, ST2, SOCS1, SOCS3, SHIP, IRAK-M, DOK1, DOK2, IRF4, CENTB1, and Clec4a2 were all induced, albeit at different times of injury and repair. Progressive fibrosis was associated with a persistent induction of these factors. Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression patterns need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies related to PRR-mediated innate immunity, which seems to be involved in tissue injury, tissue regeneration and in progressive tissue scarring.

  15. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...

  16. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  17. Structural Basis for Fc[gamma]RIIa Recognition of Human IgG and Formation of Inflammatory Signaling Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsland, Paul A.; Farrugia, William; Bradford, Tessa M.; Sardjono, Caroline Tan; Esparon, Sandra; Trist, Halina M.; Powell, Maree S.; Tan, Peck Szee; Cendron, Angela C.; Wines, Bruce D.; Scott, Andrew M.; Hogarth, P. Mark (Burnet); (Monash); (LICR); (Melbourne)

    2011-09-20

    The interaction of Abs with their specific FcRs is of primary importance in host immune effector systems involved in infection and inflammation, and are the target for immune evasion by pathogens. Fc{gamma}RIIa is a unique and the most widespread activating FcR in humans that through avid binding of immune complexes potently triggers inflammation. Polymorphisms of Fc{gamma}RIIa (high responder/low responder [HR/LR]) are linked to susceptibility to infections, autoimmune diseases, and the efficacy of therapeutic Abs. In this article, we define the three-dimensional structure of the complex between the HR (arginine, R134) allele of Fc{gamma}RIIa (Fc{gamma}RIIa-HR) and the Fc region of a humanized IgG1 Ab, hu3S193. The structure suggests how the HR/LR polymorphism may influence Fc{gamma}RIIa interactions with different IgG subclasses and glycoforms. In addition, mutagenesis defined the basis of the epitopes detected by FcR blocking mAbs specific for Fc{gamma}RIIa (IV.3), Fc{gamma}RIIb (X63-21), and a pan Fc{gamma}RII Ab (8.7). The epitopes detected by these Abs are distinct, but all overlap with residues defined by crystallography to contact IgG. Finally, crystal structures of LR (histidine, H134) allele of Fc{gamma}RIIa and Fc{gamma}RIIa-HR reveal two distinct receptor dimers that may represent quaternary states on the cell surface. A model is presented whereby a dimer of Fc{gamma}RIIa-HR binds Ag-Ab complexes in an arrangement that possibly occurs on the cell membrane as part of a larger signaling assembly.

  18. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    -vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial......Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...

  19. Burkholderia pseudomallei Capsule Exacerbates Respiratory Melioidosis but Does Not Afford Protection against Antimicrobial Signaling or Bacterial Killing in Human Olfactory Ensheathing Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Ipe, Deepak S; Batzloff, Michael; Sullivan, Matthew J; Crossman, David K; Crowley, Michael; Strong, Emily; Kyan, Stephanie; Leclercq, Sophie Y; Ekberg, Jenny A K; St John, James; Beacham, Ifor R; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-07-01

    Melioidosis, caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an often severe infection that regularly involves respiratory disease following inhalation exposure. Intranasal (i.n.) inoculation of mice represents an experimental approach used to study the contributions of bacterial capsular polysaccharide I (CPS I) to virulence during acute disease. We used aerosol delivery of B. pseudomallei to establish respiratory infection in mice and studied CPS I in the context of innate immune responses. CPS I improved B. pseudomallei survival in vivo and triggered multiple cytokine responses, neutrophil infiltration, and acute inflammatory histopathology in the spleen, liver, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, and olfactory mucosa (OM). To further explore the role of the OM response to B. pseudomallei infection, we infected human olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) in vitro and measured bacterial invasion and the cytokine responses induced following infection. Human OECs killed >90% of the B. pseudomallei in a CPS I-independent manner and exhibited an antibacterial cytokine response comprising granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and several regulatory cytokines. In-depth genome-wide transcriptomic profiling of the OEC response by RNA-Seq revealed a network of signaling pathways activated in OECs following infection involving a novel group of 378 genes that encode biological pathways controlling cellular movement, inflammation, immunological disease, and molecular transport. This represents the first antimicrobial program to be described in human OECs and establishes the extensive transcriptional defense network accessible in these cells. Collectively, these findings show a role for CPS I in B. pseudomallei survival in vivo following inhalation infection and the antibacterial signaling network that exists in human OM and OECs. PMID:27091931

  20. Identification of amino acid residues in protein SRP72 required for binding to a kinked 5e motif of the human signal recognition particle RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwieb Christian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cells depend critically on the signal recognition particle (SRP for the sorting and delivery of their proteins. The SRP is a ribonucleoprotein complex which binds to signal sequences of secretory polypeptides as they emerge from the ribosome. Among the six proteins of the eukaryotic SRP, the largest protein, SRP72, is essential for protein targeting and possesses a poorly characterized RNA binding domain. Results We delineated the minimal region of SRP72 capable of forming a stable complex with an SRP RNA fragment. The region encompassed residues 545 to 585 of the full-length human SRP72 and contained a lysine-rich cluster (KKKKKKKKGK at postions 552 to 561 as well as a conserved Pfam motif with the sequence PDPXRWLPXXER at positions 572 to 583. We demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis that both regions participated in the formation of a complex with the RNA. In agreement with biochemical data and results from chymotryptic digestion experiments, molecular modeling of SRP72 implied that the invariant W577 was located inside the predicted structure of an RNA binding domain. The 11-nucleotide 5e motif contained within the SRP RNA fragment was shown by comparative electrophoresis on native polyacrylamide gels to conform to an RNA kink-turn. The model of the complex suggested that the conserved A240 of the K-turn, previously identified as being essential for the binding to SRP72, could protrude into a groove of the SRP72 RNA binding domain, similar but not identical to how other K-turn recognizing proteins interact with RNA. Conclusions The results from the presented experiments provided insights into the molecular details of a functionally important and structurally interesting RNA-protein interaction. A model for how a ligand binding pocket of SRP72 can accommodate a new RNA K-turn in the 5e region of the eukaryotic SRP RNA is proposed.

  1. Inhibition of Nod2 signaling and target gene expression by curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nod2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that detects a conserved moiety of bacterial peptidoglycan and subsequently activates proinflammatory signaling pathways. Mutations in Nod2 have been implicated to be linked to inflammatory granulomatous disorders, such as Crohn’s disease and Bla...

  2. Novel Protein-Protein Contacts Facilitate mRNA 3'-Processing Signal Recognition by Rna15 and Hrp1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeper, Thomas C; Qu, Xiangping; Lu, Connie; Moore, Claire; Varani, Gabriele

    2010-06-19

    Precise 3'-end processing of mRNA is essential for correct gene expression, yet in yeast, 3'-processing signals consist of multiple ambiguous sequence elements. Two neighboring elements upstream of the cleavage site are particularly important for the accuracy (positioning element) and efficiency (efficiency element) of 3'-processing and are recognized by the RNAbinding proteins Rna15 and Hrp1, respectively. In vivo, these interactions are strengthened by the scaffolding protein Rna14 that stabilizes their association. The NMR structure of the 34 -kDa ternary complex of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of Hrp1 and Rna15 bound to this pair of RNA elements was determined by residual dipolar coupling and paramagnetic relaxation experiments. It reveals how each of the proteins binds to RNA and introduces a novel class of protein–protein contact in regions of previously unknown function. These interdomain contacts had previously been overlooked in other multi-RRM structures, although a careful analysis suggests that they may be frequently present. Mutations in the regions of these contacts disrupt 3'-end processing, suggesting that they may structurally organize the ribonucleoprotein complexes responsible for RNA processing.

  3. A Cell Phone Positioning Method Based on the Intelligent Received Signal Strength Pattern Recognition in GSM Network for Implementing Mobile Advertisement Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F Sabahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular positioning methods in urban environments suffer from a significant error due to multipath and fading phenomena. In this paper, regarding the implementation location-based services, one pattern recognition positioning method based on the signal strength is presented, which provides proper results in urban areas. Although many works have been done in this field, the main challenge is to create and to update the database and heavy calculation to estimate the position .In this paper, some practical and intelligent solutions for overcoming the mentioned problems, enhancing the accuracy and reducing the computational load of this positioning method are presented. Specially, some intelligent filtering methods are presented for reducing the search region in the database and also increasing the accuracy of position estimation. Real measurements obtained in Isfahan, illustrate the high accuracy of the proposed techniques. In addition, an advertising service based on the proposed method is presented. User’s interest and local time is considered as well as him/her position for enhancing the efficiency of the mentioned service.

  4. YGL9, encoding the putative chloroplast signal recognition particle 43 kDa protein in rice, is involved in chloroplast development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-wei; LI Yun-feng; LING Ying-hua; SANG Xian-chun; HE Guang-hua; ZHANG Tian-quan; XING Ya-di; ZENG Xiao-qin; WANG Ling; LIU Zhong-xian; SHI Jun-qiong; ZHU Xiao-yan; MA Ling

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear-encoded light-harvesting chlorophyla/b-binding proteins (LHCPs) are speciifcaly translocated from the stroma into the thylakoid membrane through the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) pathway. The cpSRP is composed of a cpSRP43 protein and a cpSRP54 protein, and it forms a soluble transit complex with LHCP in the chloroplast stroma. Here, we identiifed theYGL9gene that is predicted to encode the probable rice cpSRP43 protein from a rice yelow-green leaf mutant. A phylogenetic tree showed that an important conserved protein family, cpSRP43, is present in almost al green photosynthetic organisms such as higher plants and green algae. Sequence analysis showed that YGL9 comprises a chloroplast transit peptide, three chromodomains and four ankyrin repeats, and the chromodomains and ankyrin repeats are probably involved in protein-protein interactions. Subcelular localization showed that YGL9 is localized in the chloroplast. Expression pattern analysis indicated thatYGL9is mainly expressed in green leaf sheaths and leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of genes associated with pigment metabolism, chloroplast development and photosynthesis were distinctly affected in theygl9mutant. These results indicated thatYGL9 is possibly involved in pigment metabolism, chloroplast development and photosynthesis in rice.

  5. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  6. A Bacterial Homolog of a Eukaryotic Inositol Phosphate Signaling Enzyme Mediates Cross-kingdom Dialog in the Mammalian Gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Stentz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary InsP6 can modulate eukaryotic cell proliferation and has complex nutritive consequences, but its metabolism in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract is poorly understood. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of the gastrointestinal microbiome in order to search for candidate InsP6 phosphatases. We determined that prominent gut bacteria express homologs of the mammalian InsP6 phosphatase (MINPP and characterized the enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (BtMinpp. We show that BtMinpp has exceptionally high catalytic activity, which we rationalize on the basis of mutagenesis studies and by determining its crystal structure at 1.9 Å resolution. We demonstrate that BtMinpp is packaged inside outer membrane vesicles (OMVs protecting the enzyme from degradation by gastrointestinal proteases. Moreover, we uncover an example of cross-kingdom cell-to-cell signaling, showing that the BtMinpp-OMVs interact with intestinal epithelial cells to promote intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Our characterization of BtMinpp offers several directions for understanding how the microbiome serves human gastrointestinal physiology.

  7. Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 μg/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 μg/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 μg/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin

  8. Detection of boiling by Piety's on-line PSD-pattern recognition algorithm applied to neutron noise signals in the SAPHIR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial blockage of the cooling channels of a fuel element in a swimming pool reactor could lead to vapour generation and to burn-out. To detect such anomalies, a pattern recognition algorithm based on power spectra density (PSD) proposed by Piety was further developed and implemented on a PDP 11/23 for on-line applications. This algorithm identifies anomalies by measuring the PSD on the process signal and comparing them with a standard baseline previously formed. Up to 8 decision discriminants help to recognize spectral changes due to anomalies. In our application, to detect boiling as quickly as possible with sufficient sensitivity, Piety's algorithm was modified using overlapped Fast-Fourier-Transform-Processing and the averaging of the PSDs over a large sample of preceding instantaneous PSDs. This processing allows high sensitivity in detecting weak disturbances without reducing response time. The algorithm was tested with simulation-of-boiling experiments where nitrogen in a cooling channel of a mock-up of a fuel element was injected. Void fractions higher than 30 % in the channel can be detected. In the case of boiling, it is believed that this limit is lower because collapsing bubbles could give rise to stronger fluctuations. The algorithm was also tested with a boiling experiment where the reactor coolant flow was actually reduced. The results showed that the discriminant D5 of Piety's algorithm based on neutron noise obtained from the existing neutron chambers of the reactor control system could sensitively recognize boiling. The detection time amounts to 7-30 s depending on the strength of the disturbances. Other events, which arise during a normal reactor run like scrams, removal of isotope elements without scramming or control rod movements and which could lead to false alarms, can be distinguished from boiling. 49 refs., 104 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to...

  10. The progesterone-induced enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation involves activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the dorsal hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, Patrick T.; Rubin, Amanda J.; Fan, Lu; Kent, Brianne A.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Although much recent work has elucidated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the modulation of memory by 17β-estradiol, little is known about the signaling events through which progesterone (P) regulates memory. We recently demonstrated that immediate post-training infusion of P into the dorsal hippocampus enhances object recognition memory consolidation in young ovariectomized female mice (Orr et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to identify the biochemical alterations that mig...

  11. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1. PMID:26751786

  12. The Casuarina NIN gene is transcriptionally activated throughout Frankia root infection as well as in response to bacterial diffusible signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Fernando; Diedhiou, Issa; Vaissayre, Virginie; Brottier, Laurent; Acolatse, Jennifer; Moukouanga, Daniel; Crabos, Amandine; Auguy, Florence; Franche, Claudine; Gherbi, Hassen; Champion, Antony; Hocher, Valerie; Barker, David; Bogusz, Didier; Tisa, Louis S; Svistoonoff, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Root nodule symbioses (RNS) allow plants to acquire atmospheric nitrogen by establishing an intimate relationship with either rhizobia, the symbionts of legumes or Frankia in the case of actinorhizal plants. In legumes, NIN (Nodule INception) genes encode key transcription factors involved in nodulation. Here we report the characterization of CgNIN, a NIN gene from the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca using both phylogenetic analysis and transgenic plants expressing either ProCgNIN::reporter gene fusions or CgNIN RNAi constructs. We have found that CgNIN belongs to the same phylogenetic group as other symbiotic NIN genes and CgNIN is able to complement a legume nin mutant for the early steps of nodule development. CgNIN expression is correlated with infection by Frankia, including preinfection stages in developing root hairs, and is induced by culture supernatants. Knockdown mutants were impaired for nodulation and early root hair deformation responses were severely affected. However, no mycorrhizal phenotype was observed and no induction of CgNIN expression was detected in mycorrhizas. Our results indicate that elements specifically required for nodulation include NIN and possibly related gene networks derived from the nitrate signalling pathways. PMID:26096779

  13. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1.

  14. Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Hajishengallis, George; Martin, Michael; Sojar, Hakimuddin T.; Sharma, Ashu; Schifferle, Robert E.; DeNardin, Ernesto; Russell, Michael W.; Genco, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important signal transducers that mediate inflammatory reactions induced by microbes through pattern recognition of virulence molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoproteins. We investigated whether proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by certain bacterial protein adhesins may also depend on TLRs. In differentiated THP-1 mononuclear cells stimulated by LPS-free recombinant fimbrillin (rFimA) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, cytokine release was a...

  15. Evidence for a bacterial mechanism for group-specific social odors among hyenas

    OpenAIRE

    Theis, Kevin R.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic microbes can benefit their animal hosts by enhancing the diversity of communication signals available to them. The fermentation hypothesis for chemical recognition posits that 1) fermentative bacteria in specialized mammalian scent glands generate odorants that mammals co-opt to communicate with one another, and 2) that variation in scent gland odors is due to underlying variation in the structure of bacterial communities within scent glands. For example, group-specific social odors...

  16. Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Liv Merete; Olavsbråten, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Machine based face recognition has been a popular research area for several years, and has numerous applications. This technology has now reached a point where there already exists good algorithms for recognition for standardized still images - which have little variation in e.g. lighting, facial expression and pose. We are however in lack of good algorithms that are able to do recognition from live video. The low quality of most surveillance cameras, together with non-standardized imaging c...

  17. Speech Recognition Technology: Applications & Future

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Pathak

    2010-01-01

    Voice or speech recognition is "the technology by which sounds, words or phrases spoken by humans are converted into electrical signals, and these signals are transformed into coding patterns to which meaning has been assigned", .It is the technology needs a combination of improved artificial intelligence technology and a more sophisticated speech-recognition engine . Initially a primitive device is developed which could recognize speech, by AT & T Bell Laboratories in the 1940s. According to...

  18. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis Shows That SAV-3 Infection Upregulates Pattern Recognition Receptors of the Endosomal Toll-Like and RIG-I-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways in Macrophage/Dendritic Like TO-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Evensen, Øystein; Mweemba Munang'andu, Hetron

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental step in cellular defense mechanisms is the recognition of "danger signals" made of conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by invading pathogens, by host cell germ line coded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we used RNA-seq and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) to identify PRRs together with the network pathway of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that recognize salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3) infection in macrophage/dendritic like TO-cells derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) headkidney leukocytes. Our findings show that recognition of SAV-3 in TO-cells was restricted to endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 8 together with RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and not the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors NOD-like receptor (NLRs) genes. Among the RLRs, upregulated genes included the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation association 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2). The study points to possible involvement of the tripartite motif containing 25 (TRIM25) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) in modulating RIG-I signaling being the first report that links these genes to the RLR pathway in SAV-3 infection in TO-cells. Downstream signaling suggests that both the TLR and RLR pathways use interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) 3 and 7 to produce IFN-a2. The validity of RNA-seq data generated in this study was confirmed by quantitative real time qRT-PCR showing that genes up- or downregulated by RNA-seq were also up- or downregulated by RT-PCR. Overall, this study shows that de novo transcriptome assembly identify key receptors of the TLR and RLR sensors engaged in host pathogen interaction at cellular level. We envisage that data presented here can open a road map for future intervention strategies in SAV infection of salmon. PMID:27110808

  19. Fingerprint recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Diefenderfer, Graig T.

    2006-01-01

    The use of biometrics is an evolving component in today's society. Fingerprint recognition continues to be one of the most widely used biometric systems. This thesis explores the various steps present in a fingerprint recognition system. The study develops a working algorithm to extract fingerprint minutiae from an input fingerprint image. This stage incorporates a variety of image pre-processing steps necessary for accurate minutiae extraction and includes two different methods of ridge thin...

  20. Research on passive human activity recognition using WiFi ambient signals%基于 WiFi 背景噪音的被动式人体行为识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷雨; 权良虎; 陈孟妮; 任福继

    2015-01-01

    Although traditional k‐nearest neighbor (K‐NN ) and Bagging can recognize effectively less human activities using WiFi ambient signal , recognition by either alone of the seven states , namely , empty ,walking ,sitting ,standing ,sleeping ,falling and running ,is not ideal . To improve recognition rates ,a new algorithm ,fusion algorithm ,was designed .It significantly outperforms K‐NN and Bagging in terms of recognition ratios in both single‐subject and multi‐subject experiments .%利用 WiFi 背景噪音,传统 K‐NN 和 Bagging 算法可有效识别较少人体行为,但对较多状态:无人、走、坐、站、睡、跌倒、跑,实验发现,单纯使用 K‐NN 和 Bagging 算法分类效果并不理想,故设计了一种新的融合算法。实验结果证实,融合算法相较于 K‐NN 和 Bagging 算法可以大幅提高识别准确率,将新算法应用于多人混合状态识别也取得较好的识别准确率。

  1. Scaling of immune responses against intracellular bacterial infection

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Knolle, Percy A.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages detect bacterial infection through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) localized at the cell surface, in intracellular vesicles or in the cytosol. Discrimination of viable and virulent bacteria from non-virulent bacteria (dead or viable) is necessary to appropriately scale the anti-bacterial immune response. Such scaling of anti-bacterial immunity is necessary to control the infection, but also to avoid immunopathology or bacterial persistence. PRR-mediated detection of bacterial...

  2. The final LDRD report for the project entitled: {open_quotes}Enhanced analysis of complex gas mixtures by pattern recognition of microsensor array signals{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.C.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1996-09-01

    Microsensors do not have the selectivity to chemical species available in large laboratory instruments. This project employed arrays of catalytically gated silicon microsensors with different catalysts to create data streams which can be analyzed by pattern recognition programs. One of the most significant accomplishments of the program was the demonstration of that mixtures of H{sub 2} with the oxidants NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} could distinguished from one another by the use of different catalytic metals on the Sandia Robust Hydrogen (SRH) sensors and the newly developed pattern recognition algorithm. This sensor system could be used to identify explosive gas mixtures and analyze exhaust streams for pollution control.

  3. 基于智能算法的生理信号情感识别%Emotion Recognition of Physiological Signals Based on Intelligent Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊勰; 刘光远; 温万惠

    2011-01-01

    针对基于生理信号的情感识别问题,采用具有模拟退火机制的遗传算法、最大最小蚁群算法和粒子群算法来进行特征选择,用Fisher分类器对高兴、惊奇、厌恶、悲伤、愤怒和恐惧6种情感进行分类,获得了较高的识别率,并找出了对情感识别系统模型的构建具有较好性能的特征组合,建立了对6类情感具有预测能力的识别系统.%For the problem of emotion recognition,genetic algorithm based on simulated-annealing method,max-min ant colony algorithm and particle swarm algorithm were used for feature selection, and combined with Fisher linear classifier to recognize six emotions:joy, surprise, disgust, grief, anger and fear, it has obtained higher recognition rate. Effective feature subset which can identify the emotion recognition system model with better performance was found,and the reco gnition system was established with forecasting ability of six emotions.

  4. Speech recognition based on pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiner, Lawrence R.

    1990-05-01

    Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. The use of pattern recognition techniques were applied to the problems of isolated word (or discrete utterance) recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. It is shown that understanding (and consequently the resulting recognizer performance) is best to the simplest recognition tasks and is considerably less well developed for large scale recognition systems.

  5. Induction and Function of IFNβ During Viral and Bacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Uma M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of the protein “interferon” over 50 years ago, IFNβ, an antiviral cytokine has been well studied. In particular the pathways inducing this cytokine during viral infection have been characterized, leading to the discovery of multitude of pattern recognition receptors. IFNβ is also induced during bacterial infection, following recognition of bacterial ligands by the host viral and DNA sensors. However, the function of IFNβ during bacterial infection is variable and -sometime...

  6. Species-specific engagement of human nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD)2 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling upon intracellular bacterial infection: role of Crohn's associated NOD2 gene variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, M; Seidelin, J B; Eickhardt, S; Alhede, M; Rogler, G; Nielsen, O H

    2015-03-01

    Recognition of bacterial peptidoglycan-derived muramyl-dipeptide (MDP) by nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) induces crucial innate immune responses. Most bacteria carry the N-acetylated form of MDP (A-MDP) in their cell membranes, whereas N-glycolyl MDP (G-MDP) is typical for mycobacteria. Experimental murine studies have reported G-MDP to have a greater NOD2-stimulating capacity than A-MDP. As NOD2 polymorphisms are associated with Crohn's disease (CD), a link has been suggested between mycobacterial infections and CD. Thus, the aim was to investigate if NOD2 responses are dependent upon type of MDP and further to determine the role of NOD2 gene variants for the bacterial recognition in CD. The response pattern to A-MDP, G-MDP, Mycobacterium segmatis (expressing mainly G-MDP) and M. segmatisΔnamH (expressing A-MDP), Listeria monocytogenes (LM) (an A-MDP-containing bacteria) and M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP) (a G-MDP-containing bacteria associated with CD) was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). A-MDP and M. segmatisΔnamH induced significantly higher tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein levels in healthy wild-type NOD2 PBMCs compared with G-MDP and M. segmatis. NOD2 mutations resulted in a low tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein secretion following stimulation with LM. Contrary to this, TNF-α levels were unchanged upon MAP stimulation regardless of NOD2 genotype and MAP solely activated NOD2- and Toll-like receptor (TLRs)-pathway with an enhanced production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10. In conclusion, the results indicate that CD-associated NOD2 deficiencies might affect the response towards a broader array of commensal and pathogenic bacteria expressing A-MDP, whereas they attenuate the role of mycobacteria in the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:25335775

  7. Leaky gut and the liver: A role for bacterial translocation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Gut flora and bacterial translocation (BT) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease,including cirrhosis and its complications.Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen predispose patients to bacterial infections,major complications and also play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disorders.Levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide,a component of gram-negative bacteria,are increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver disease.Impaired gut epithelial integrity due to alterations in tight junction proteins may be the pathological mechanism underlying bacterial translocation.Preclinical and clinical studies over the last decade have suggested a role for BT in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).Bacterial overgrowth,immune dysfunction,alteration of the luminal factors,and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of NASH and its complications.A better understanding of the cell-specific recognition and intracellular signaling events involved in sensing gut-derived microbes will help in the development of means to achieve an optimal balance in the gut-liver axis and ameliorate liver diseases.These may suggest new targets for potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment of NASH.Here,we review some of the mechanisms connecting BT and NASH and potential therapeutic developments.

  8. Customer recognition and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Stenbacka , Rune

    2011-01-01

    We introduce three types of consumer recognition: identity recognition, asymmetric preference recognition, and symmetric preference recognition. We characterize price equilibria and compare profits, consumer surplus, and total welfare. Asymmetric preference recognition enhances profits compared with identity recognition, but firms have no incentive to exchange information regarding customer-specific preferences (symmetric preference recognition). Consumers would benefit from a policy panning ...

  9. Predicting the effect of spectral subtraction on the speech recognition threshold based on the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    rarely been evaluated perceptually in terms of speech intelligibility. This study analyzed the effects of the spectral subtraction strategy proposed by Berouti at al. [ICASSP 4 (1979), 208-211] on the speech recognition threshold (SRT) obtained with sentences presented in stationary speech-shaped noise......Digital noise reduction strategies are important in technical devices such as hearing aids and mobile phones. One well-described noise reduction scheme is the spectral subtraction algorithm. Many versions of the spectral subtraction scheme have been presented in the literature, but the methods have...

  10. Pseudomonas evades immune recognition of flagellin in both mammals and plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W Bardoel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The building blocks of bacterial flagella, flagellin monomers, are potent stimulators of host innate immune systems. Recognition of flagellin monomers occurs by flagellin-specific pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5 in mammals and flagellin-sensitive 2 (FLS2 in plants. Activation of these immune systems via flagellin leads eventually to elimination of the bacterium from the host. In order to prevent immune activation and thus favor survival in the host, bacteria secrete many proteins that hamper such recognition. In our search for Toll like receptor (TLR antagonists, we screened bacterial supernatants and identified alkaline protease (AprA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a TLR5 signaling inhibitor as evidenced by a marked reduction in IL-8 production and NF-κB activation. AprA effectively degrades the TLR5 ligand monomeric flagellin, while polymeric flagellin (involved in bacterial motility and TLR5 itself resist degradation. The natural occurring alkaline protease inhibitor AprI of P. aeruginosa blocked flagellin degradation by AprA. P. aeruginosa aprA mutants induced an over 100-fold enhanced activation of TLR5 signaling, because they fail to degrade excess monomeric flagellin in their environment. Interestingly, AprA also prevents flagellin-mediated immune responses (such as growth inhibition and callose deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. This was due to decreased activation of the receptor FLS2 and clearly demonstrated by delayed stomatal closure with live bacteria in plants. Thus, by degrading the ligand for TLR5 and FLS2, P. aeruginosa escapes recognition by the innate immune systems of both mammals and plants.

  11. Recognition of Frequency Modulation Signal Using Parameter Invariant Filter%频率调制信号的恒参滤波识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚亚峰; 陈建文; 黄载禄

    2005-01-01

    To classify the frequency modulation signal, this paper employs a parameter invariant filter, which can transfer the frequency modulated information to variety of its envelope, and then extracts the histogram feature to classify the modulation type. This method can efficiently classify the type of a signal such as frequency modulation (FM), binary frequency shift keyiing (BFSK), quadrature frequency shift keying (QFSK), 8-ary frequency shift keying (8FSK), etc. It can easily be realized and is especially suitable to applications in software radio.

  12. Do calcium-mediated cellular signalling pathways, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), estrogen or progesterone receptor antagonists, or bacterial endotoxins affect bovine placental function in vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Y S; Randel, R D; Carstens, G E; Welsh, T H; Weems, C W

    2004-04-01

    .05). Concentrations of PGE2 in media at 4 and 8 h were lower (P or = 0.05). PGF2alpha was increased (P < or = 0.05) by RU-486 at 8h and no other treatment affected PGF2alpha at 4 or 8 h (P < or = 0.05). In conclusion, modulators of cellular calcium signalling pathways given alone do not affect bovine placental progesterone secretion at the days studied and progesterone receptor-mediated events appear to suppress placental progesterone, PGF2alpha, and PGE2 secretion in cattle. In addition, PGE2 does not appear to regulate bovine placental progesterone secretion when the corpus luteum is functional and bacterial endotoxin does not appear to affect bovine placental secretion of PGF2alpha or PGE2. PMID:15287156

  13. The effect of using integrated signal processing hearing aids on the speech recognition abilities of hearing impaired Arabic-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaia Tawfik

    2014-11-01

    Results and conclusions: Significant improvement in aided sound field threshold levels and speech recognition in noise tests was recorded using ISP HAs over time. As regards consonant manner, glides and stop consonants showed the highest improvement. Though voiced and voiceless consonants were equally transmitted through digital HAs, voiced consonants were easier to perceive using ISP HAs. Middle and back consonants were easier to perceive compared to front consonants using both HAs. Application of WILSI self assessment questionnaire revealed that parents reported better performance in different listening situations. In conclusion, results of the present study support the use of ISP HAs in children with moderate to severe hearing loss due to the significant improvement recorded in both subjective and objective measures.

  14. The glove-like structure of the conserved membrane protein TatC provides insight into signal sequence recognition in twin-arginine translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Abrol, Ravinder; Suloway, Christian J M; Clemons, William M

    2013-05-01

    In bacteria, two signal-sequence-dependent secretion pathways translocate proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Although the mechanism of the ubiquitous general secretory pathway is becoming well understood, that of the twin-arginine translocation pathway, responsible for translocation of folded proteins across the bilayer, is more mysterious. TatC, the largest and most conserved of three integral membrane components, provides the initial binding site of the signal sequence prior to pore assembly. Here, we present two crystal structures of TatC from the thermophilic bacteria Aquifex aeolicus at 4.0 Å and 6.8 Å resolution. The membrane architecture of TatC includes a glove-shaped structure with a lipid-exposed pocket predicted by molecular dynamics to distort the membrane. Correlating the biochemical literature to these results suggests that the signal sequence binds in this pocket, leading to structural changes that facilitate higher order assemblies. PMID:23583035

  15. Pattern recognition of structural boundaries from aeromagnetic data using the 2-D continuous wavelet transform and the 3-D analytic signal

    OpenAIRE

    Ouadfeul, S.-A.; Aliouane, L.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to use the 2-D continuous wavelet transform (CWT) combined with the 3-D analytic signal (AS) for structural boundaries delimitation from aeromagnetic data. The basic idea is based on the mapping of the maxima of the modulus of the 2-D CWT of the amplitude of the 3-D analytic signal (AS) for the full range of scales used to calculate the 2-D CWT. The proposed idea is applied to the synthetic data of a prism and a cylinder; obtained results show ...

  16. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  17. Engineered fluorescent proteins illuminate the bacterial periplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben Dammeyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial periplasm is of special interest whenever cell factories are designed and engineered. Recombinantely produced proteins are targeted to the periplasmic space of Gram negative bacteria to take advantage of the authentic N-termini, disulfide bridge formation and easy accessibility for purification with less contaminating cellular proteins. The oxidizing environment of the periplasm promotes disulfide bridge formation - a prerequisite for proper folding of many proteins into their active conformation. In contrast, the most popular reporter protein in all of cell biology, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP, remains inactive if translocated to the periplasmic space prior to folding. Here, the self-catalyzed chromophore maturation is blocked by formation of covalent oligomers via interchain disulfide bonds in the oxidizing environment. However, different protein engineering approaches addressing folding and stability of GFP resulted in improved proteins with enhanced folding properties. Recent studies describe GFP variants that are not only active if translocated in their folded form via the twin-arginine translocation (Tat pathway, but actively fold in the periplasm following general secretory pathway (Sec and signal recognition particle (SRP mediated secretion. This mini-review highlights the progress that enables new insights into bacterial export and periplasmic protein organization, as well as new biotechnological applications combining the advantages of the periplasmic production and the Aequorea-based fluorescent reporter proteins.

  18. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a pattern recognition receptor that mediates macrophage binding and engulfment of Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumita; Owen, Katherine A; Ly, Kim T; Park, Daeho; Black, Steven G; Wilson, Jeffrey M; Sifri, Costi D; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Ernst, Peter B; Casanova, James E

    2011-02-01

    Bacterial recognition by host cells is essential for initiation of infection and the host response. Bacteria interact with host cells via multiple pattern recognition receptors that recognize microbial products or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In response to this interaction, host cell signaling cascades are activated that lead to inflammatory responses and/or phagocytic clearance of attached bacteria. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a receptor that recognizes apoptotic cells through its conserved type I thrombospondin repeats and triggers their engulfment through an ELMO1/Dock/Rac1 signaling module. Because thrombospondin repeats in other proteins have been shown to bind bacterial surface components, we hypothesized that BAI1 may also mediate the recognition and clearance of pathogenic bacteria. We found that preincubation of bacteria with recombinant soluble BAI1 ectodomain or knockdown of endogenous BAI1 in primary macrophages significantly reduced binding and internalization of the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Conversely, overexpression of BAI1 enhanced attachment and engulfment of Salmonella in macrophages and in heterologous nonphagocytic cells. Bacterial uptake is triggered by the BAI1-mediated activation of Rac through an ELMO/Dock-dependent mechanism, and inhibition of the BAI1/ELMO1 interaction prevents both Rac activation and bacterial uptake. Moreover, inhibition of ELMO1 or Rac function significantly impairs the proinflammatory response to infection. Finally, we show that BAI1 interacts with a variety of Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria through recognition of their surface lipopolysaccharide. Together these findings identify BAI1 as a pattern recognition receptor that mediates nonopsonic phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages and directly affects the host response to infection. PMID:21245295

  19. Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulate Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Recognition Memory via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taku; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukio; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ibi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yutaka; Murai, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and dopaminergic system is involved in learning and memory. However, it remains to be determined if the dopaminergic system and ERK1/2 pathway contribute to cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was increased in…

  20. Are Bacterial Volatile Compounds Poisonous Odors to a Fungal Pathogen Botrytis cinerea, Alarm Signals to Arabidopsis Seedlings for Eliciting Induced Resistance, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Rouhallah; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Biological control (biocontrol) agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR). Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Eme...

  1. Messenger Functions of the Bacterial Cell Wall-derived Muropeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Marc A.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial muropeptides are soluble peptidoglycan structures central to recycling of the bacterial cell wall, and messengers in diverse cell-signaling events. Bacteria sense muropeptides as signals that antibiotics targeting cell-wall biosynthesis are present, and eukaryotes detect muropeptides during the innate immune response to bacterial infection. This review summarizes the roles of bacterial muropeptides as messengers, with a special emphasis on bacterial muropeptide structures and the re...

  2. Dynamic Programming Algorithms in Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Felix FURTUNA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a system of speech recognition containing words, the recognition requires the comparison between the entry signal of the word and the various words of the dictionary. The problem can be solved efficiently by a dynamic comparison algorithm whose goal is to put in optimal correspondence the temporal scales of the two words. An algorithm of this type is Dynamic Time Warping. This paper presents two alternatives for implementation of the algorithm designed for recognition of the isolated words.

  3. Bacterial contamination of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, J

    2001-10-01

    Despite considerable advances in the safety of blood components, transfusion associated bacterial infection (TABI) remains an unresolved problem. As yet there are no perfect preventative, screening and/or detection methodologies for eliminating contaminated units. Until a practical, rapid, cost-effective and logistically acceptable test becomes available, we should be satisfied with the choice of various limited solutions that at least partially improve the bacterial safety of blood components. It is also necessary to establish standardised guidelines and agreed upon systematic procedures for the recognition and reporting of the laboratory and clinical evaluation of adverse reactions in recipients of contaminated blood components. PMID:11761277

  4. Biomimetic/Optical Sensors for Detecting Bacterial Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Margie; Ksendzov, Alexander; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Ryan, Margaret; Lazazzera, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Biomimetic/optical sensors have been proposed as means of real-time detection of bacteria in liquid samples through real-time detection of compounds secreted by the bacteria. Bacterial species of interest would be identified through detection of signaling compounds unique to those species. The best-characterized examples of quorum-signaling compounds are acyl-homoserine lactones and peptides. Each compound, secreted by each bacterium of an affected species, serves as a signal to other bacteria of the same species to engage in a collective behavior when the population density of that species reaches a threshold level analogous to a quorum. A sensor according to the proposal would include a specially formulated biomimetic film, made of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), that would respond optically to the signaling compound of interest. The MIP film would be integrated directly onto an opticalwaveguide- based ring resonator for optical readout. Optically, the sensor would resemble the one described in Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators (NPO-40601), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 10 (October 2005), page 32. MIPs have been used before as molecular- recognition compounds, though not in the manner of the present proposal. Molecular imprinting is an approach to making molecularly selective cavities in a polymer matrix. These cavities function much as enzyme receptor sites: the chemical functionality and shape of a cavity in the polymer matrix cause the cavity to bind to specific molecules. An MIP matrix is made by polymerizing monomers in the presence of the compound of interest (template molecule). The polymer forms around the template. After the polymer solidifies, the template molecules are removed from the polymer matrix by decomplexing them from their binding sites and then dissolving them, leaving cavities that are matched to the template molecules in size, shape, and chemical functionality. The cavities thus become molecular-recognition sites

  5. Optical Pattern Recognition With Self-Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1994-01-01

    In optical pattern recognition system with self-amplification, no reference beam used in addressing mode. Polarization of laser beam and orientation of photorefractive crystal chosen to maximize photorefractive effect. Intensity of recognition signal is orders of magnitude greater than other optical correlators. Apparatus regarded as real-time or quasi-real-time optical pattern recognizer with memory and reprogrammability.

  6. Stable and Critical Gesture Recognition in Children and Pregnant Women by SVM Classification with FFT Features of Signals from Wearable Attires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sheryl Oliver

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to identify stable and critical recognition in children and pregnant women by wearable interface based monitoring system. The objective of this research proposal is to identify safe and danger zone prediction in toddler and normal and contra pain in pregnant women. The technology supporting this analysis of gesture has advanced dramatically. Past decades of remote health care monitoring have provided us with significant knowledge about the accuracy of tests performed. Mainly motivated by increasing healthcare costs and propelled by recent technological advances in miniature bio sensing devices, smart textiles, microelectronics and wireless communications, the continuous advance of wearable sensor-based systems will potentially transform the future of healthcare by enabling proactive personal health management and ubiquitous monitoring of a toddler and pregnant women health condition.The remote healthcare monitoring on a care taking base involves many implicit observations between the subjects and the care takers. Any ignorance and negligence leads to unpleasant situations thereafter. A simple wearable attire system can precisely interpret the implicit communication of the state of the subject and pass it to the care takers or to an automated aid device. Casual and conventional movements of subjects during play and living condition can be used for the above purpose. The methodology suggests a novel way of identifying safe and unsafe conditions of playing for the children as well as normal and critical situations of pregnant women where a medical assistance is desperately required. The experimental results show a well-distinguished realization of different body movement activities using a wearable attire array medium and the interpretation results always show significant and identifiable thresholds.

  7. Low SNR Speech Recognition using SMKL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While traditional speech recognition methods have achieved great success in a number of real word applications, their further applications to some difficult situations, such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR signal and local languages, are still limited by their shortcomings in adaption ability. In particular, their robustness to pronunciation level noise is not satisfied enough. To overcome these limitations, in this paper, we propose a novel speech recognition approach for low signal-to-noise ratio signal. The general steps for our speech recognition approach are composed of signal preprocessing, feature extraction and recognition with simple multiple kernel learning (SMKL method. Then the application of SMKL in speech recognition with low SNR is presented. We evaluate the proposed approach over a standard data set. The experimental results show that the performance of SMKL method for low SNR speech recognition is significantly higher than that of the method based on other popular approaches. Further, SMKL based method can be straightforwardly applied to recognition problem of large scale dataset, high dimension data, and a large amount of isomerism information.

  8. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  9. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...

  10. Prostatitis - bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Infections spread through sexual contact can cause prostatitis. These include chlamydia and gonorrhea . Sexually transmitted ...

  11. Bacterial Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Köhle, Ülkü; Kükner, Şahap

    2003-01-01

    Conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva, generally characterized by irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing and discharge. Bacterial conjunctivitis may be distinguished from other types of conjunctivitis by the presence of yellow–white mucopurulent discharge. It is the most common form of ocular infection all around the world. Staphylococcus species are the most common bacterial pathogenes, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus i...

  12. Feature Analysis and Recognition of Induced Uranium Components Fission Signal Based on BP Neural Network%基于BP神经网络的诱发铀部件裂变信号特征分析及识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢军华; 刘知贵; 任立学; 张活力

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents feature parameter analysis and processing in fission time-dependent signal of induced uranium components based on BP-Neural Networks through the analysis of the measuring princi- ple and signal characteristics of induced uranium components fission signal. The auto correlation functions and cross correlation functions are calculated by using unbiased estimate, and then the feature parameters of fission signal in different status are extracted by using feature abstraction method, comparative method and derivative method, and then applied to training and prediction by means of BP-neural networks based on pattern recognition. Theoretical analysis and the results show that, it is effective to obtain feature pa- rameters of induced uranium component fission signal via comparative method and derivative method. Using BP neural network to tiveness and reasonability of recognize patter of fission signal, we got good results that verified the effec the method.%在对诱发铀部件裂变信号的测量原理及特点分析的基础上,开展了基于BP神经网络的诱发铀部件裂变时间关联信号特征参量分析处理的研究工作。采用无偏估计方法,计算信号的自相关函数和互相关函数,再利用比较法和导数法两种特征量提取方法,提取出不同状态下裂变信号的特征参量,借助于BP神经网络模式识别应用原理进行训练和预测。理论分析和研究结果表明:基于比较法和导数法获得的特征参量能较好地反映诱发铀部件裂变信号的特征;用BP神经网络对裂变信号进行模式识别,取得了较高的正确率,验证了此方法的有效性和合理性。

  13. HUMAN SPEECH EMOTION RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Selvaraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play an extremely important role in human mental life. It is a medium of expression of one’s perspective or one’s mental state to others. Speech Emotion Recognition (SER can be defined as extraction of the emotional state of the speaker from his or her speech signal. There are few universal emotions- including Neutral, Anger, Happiness, Sadness in which any intelligent system with finite computational resources can be trained to identify or synthesize as required. In this work spectral and prosodic features are used for speech emotion recognition because both of these features contain the emotional information. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC is one of the spectral features. Fundamental frequency, loudness, pitch and speech intensity and glottal parameters are the prosodic features which are used to model different emotions. The potential features are extracted from each utterance for the computational mapping between emotions and speech patterns. Pitch can be detected from the selected features, using which gender can be classified. Support Vector Machine (SVM, is used to classify the gender in this work. Radial Basis Function and Back Propagation Network is used to recognize the emotions based on the selected features, and proved that radial basis function produce more accurate results for emotion recognition than the back propagation network.

  14. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed. PMID:19036609

  15. Man machine interface based on speech recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the development of a Man Machine Interface based on speech recognition. The system must recognize spoken commands, and execute the desired tasks, without manual interventions of operators. The range of applications goes from the execution of commands in an industrial plant's control room, to navigation and interaction in virtual environments. Results are reported for isolated word recognition, the isolated words corresponding to the spoken commands. For the pre-processing stage, relevant parameters are extracted from the speech signals, using the cepstral analysis technique, that are used for isolated word recognition, and corresponds to the inputs of an artificial neural network, that performs recognition tasks. (author)

  16. Recognition of Distracted Driving Based on Driver Operation Signals and Vehicle Trajectory%基于驾驶员操纵及车辆运动轨迹信息的驾驶分心辨识方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王加; 陈慧

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种驾驶分心辨识方法,该方法采用的信号可从配备了车道偏离报警系统的车辆上获得。在驾驶模拟器上,驾驶员通过在驾驶过程中执行第二任务模拟分心驾驶,从而获得专注与分心两种驾驶状态下的数据。采用车辆偏航角以及转向盘转速的标准差作为辨识特征量,基于高斯混合隐马尔可夫模型,建立了专注与分心的驾驶员状态模型。对模型的离线验证表明,该方法对驾驶分心辨识具有较高的准确率。%The paper presents a driving distraction recognition method, which uses readily-available signals from a vehicle equipped with lane departure warning system. By performing the secondary task to simulate distracted driving, data of concentrated driving and distracted driving is obtained on the driving simulator. The standard deviation of vehicle yaw angle and steering wheel velocity are used as recognition characteristic value. Concentrated driving state model and distracted driving state model are established based on Gaussian Mixture-Hidden Markov Model (GM-HMM). The model offline proves that this method can accurately recognize distracted driving.

  17. Bipartite recognition of DNA by TCF/Pangolin is remarkably flexible and contributes to transcriptional responsiveness and tissue specificity of wingless signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary C Archbold

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The T-cell factor (TCF family of transcription factors are major mediators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in metazoans. All TCFs contain a High Mobility Group (HMG domain that possesses specific DNA binding activity. In addition, many TCFs contain a second DNA binding domain, the C-clamp, which binds to DNA motifs referred to as Helper sites. While HMG and Helper sites are both important for the activation of several Wnt dependent cis-regulatory modules (W-CRMs, the rules of what constitutes a functional HMG-Helper site pair are unknown. In this report, we employed a combination of in vitro binding, reporter gene analysis and bioinformatics to address this question, using the Drosophila family member TCF/Pangolin (TCF/Pan as a model. We found that while there were constraints for the orientation and spacing of HMG-Helper pairs, the presence of a Helper site near a HMG site in any orientation increased binding and transcriptional response, with some orientations displaying tissue-specific patterns. We found that altering an HMG-Helper site pair from a sub-optimal to optimal orientation/spacing dramatically increased the responsiveness of a W-CRM in several fly tissues. In addition, we used the knowledge gained to bioinformatically identify two novel W-CRMs, one that was activated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the prothoracic gland, a tissue not previously connected to this pathway. In sum, this work extends the importance of Helper sites in fly W-CRMs and suggests that the type of HMG-Helper pair is a major factor in setting the threshold for Wnt activation and tissue-responsiveness.

  18. Automatic Speaker Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is used by human to convey many types of information. Primarily, speech convey message via words. Owing to advanced speech technologies, people's interactions with remote machines, such as phone banking, internet browsing, and secured information retrieval by voice, is becoming popular today. Speaker verification and speaker identification are important for authentication and verification in security purpose. Speaker identification methods can be divided into text independent and text-dependent. Speaker recognition is the process of automatically recognizing speaker voice on the basis of individual information included in the input speech waves. It consists of comparing a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a set of stored data of known speakers. This process recognizes who has spoken by matching input signal with pre- stored samples. The work is focussed to improve the performance of the speaker verification under noisy conditions.

  19. DETECCIÓN Y RECONOCIMIENTO DE SEÑALES DE TRÁNSITO UTILIZANDO MATCHING DE CHAMFER DETECTION AND RECOGNITION OF TRAFFIC SIGNALS USING MATCHING OF CHAMFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Arriagada García

    2007-08-01

    available details at first sight etc, in our case a prototype is presented which allows the opportunity to help a car driver to pay attention to the traffic signs on the road, attempting to assist the driver, and at the same time to avoid traffic infractions and accidents. The prototype developed with computer vision techniques, allows the detection and recognition of signposts that are on the road and to inform its nature to the driver through an audible sign or a visual projection. The research was mainly centered on the phases of initial detection; with the objective of taking into account a quick heuristic, taking advantage of the segmentation by color, with their characteristics of invariability of system HSV (Brightness, Saturation, Value [10], and/or initial detection by borders, making use of the improved algorithm of Chamfer [1], finally to detect and recognize the symbols of the sign, using transformation of distance techniques and hierarchical matching of Chamfer[1], conditioned to this kind of application. The prototype in the phase of proof was implemented in Matlab, with the initial purpose of proving the effectiveness of the methods that were used. Once they are proved an OpenCV was used to verify its functioning in real time.

  20. Bacterial carbonatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

  1. Electrical spiking in bacterial biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Elisa; Ciszak, Marzena; Santopolo, Luisa; Frascella, Arcangela; Giovannetti, Luciana; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In nature, biofilms are the most common form of bacterial growth. In biofilms, bacteria display coordinated behaviour to perform specific functions. Here, we investigated electrical signalling as a possible driver in biofilm sociobiology. Using a multi-electrode array system that enables high spatio-temporal resolution, we studied the electrical activity in two biofilm-forming strains and one non-biofilm-forming strain. The action potential rates monitored during biofilm-forming bacterial gro...

  2. Online recognition of the multiphase flow regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The key reasons that the present method cannot be used to solve the industrial multi- phase flow pattern recognition are clarified firstly. The prerequisite to realize the online recognition is proposed and recognition rules for partial flow pattern are obtained based on the massive experimental data. The standard templates for every flow regime feature are calculated with self-organization cluster algorithm. The multi-sensor data fusion method is proposed to realize the online recognition of multiphase flow regime with the pressure and differential pressure signals, which overcomes the severe influence of fluid flow velocity and the oil fraction on the recognition. The online recognition method is tested in the practice, which has less than 10 percent measurement error. The method takes advantages of high confidence, good fault tolerance and less requirement of single sensor performance.

  3. Online recognition of the multiphase flow regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI BoFeng; ZHANG ShaoJun; ZHAO Liang; ZHANG XiMin; GUO LieJin

    2008-01-01

    The key reasons that the present method cannot be used to solve the industrial multi-phase flow pattern recognition are clarified firstly. The prerequisite to realize the online recognition is proposed and recognition rules for partial flow pattern are obtained based on the massive experimental data. The standard templates for every flow regime feature are calculated with self-organization cluster algorithm. The multi-sensor data fusion method is proposed to realize the online recognition of multiphase flow regime with the pressure and differential pressure signals, which overcomes the severe influence of fluid flow velocity and the oil fraction on the recognition. The online recognition method is tested in the practice, which has less than 10 percent measurement error. The method takes advantages of high confidence, good fault tolerance and less requirement of single sensor performance.

  4. Bacterial fucose-rich polysaccharide stabilizes MAPK-mediated Nrf2/Keap1 signaling by directly scavenging reactive oxygen species during hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of human lung fibroblast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougata Roy Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Continuous free radical assault upsets cellular homeostasis and dysregulates associated signaling pathways to promote stress-induced cell death. In spite of the continuous development and implementation of effective therapeutic strategies, limitations in treatments for stress-induced toxicities remain. The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential therapeutic efficacy of bacterial fucose polysaccharides against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stress in human lung fibroblast (WI38 cells and to understand the associated molecular mechanisms. In two different fermentation processes, Bacillus megaterium RB-05 biosynthesized two non-identical fucose polysaccharides; of these, the polysaccharide having a high-fucose content (∼ 42% conferred the maximum free radical scavenging efficiency in vitro. Structural characterizations of the purified polysaccharides were performed using HPLC, GC-MS, and (1H/(13C/2D-COSY NMR. H2O2 (300 µM insult to WI38 cells showed anti-proliferative effects by inducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and by disrupting mitochondrial membrane permeability, followed by apoptosis. The polysaccharide (250 µg/mL attenuated the cell death process by directly scavenging intracellular ROS rather than activating endogenous antioxidant enzymes. This process encompasses inhibition of caspase-9/3/7, a decrease in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2, relocalization of translocated Bax and cytochrome c, upregulation of anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl2 family and a decrease in the phosphorylation of MAPKs (mitogen activated protein kinases. Furthermore, cellular homeostasis was re-established via stabilization of MAPK-mediated Nrf2/Keap1 signaling and transcription of downstream cytoprotective genes. This molecular study uniquely introduces a fucose-rich bacterial polysaccharide as a potential inhibitor of H2O2-induced stress and toxicities.

  5. History of Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism for signaling pregnancy recognition is highly variable among species, and the signaling molecule itself varies between estrogens in pigs to chorionic gonadotrophin in primates. This chapter provides insight into the menstrual cycle of women and estrous cycles of rodents, dog, cat, pigs, sheep, rabbits, and marsupials, as well as the hormones required for pregnancy recognition. Pregnancy recognition involves specific hormones such as prolactin in rodents or interferons in ruminants and estrogens in pigs that in their own way ensure the maintenance of the corpus luteum and its secretion of progesterone which is the hormone of pregnancy. However, these pregnancy recognition signals may also modify gene expression in a cell-specific and temporal manner to ensure the growth and development of the conceptus. This chapter provides some historical aspects of the development of understanding of mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in several species of mammals. PMID:26450492

  6. Haemodynamic effects of the bacterial quorum sensing signal molecule, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, in conscious, normal and endotoxaemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, S. M.; Chhabra, S.R.; Harty, C; Williams, P; Pritchard, D I; Bycroft, B W; Bennett, T.

    2001-01-01

    N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are small, diffusible signalling molecules, employed by Gram-negative bacteria to coordinate gene expression with cell population density. Recent in vitro findings indicate that AHLs may function as virulence determinants per se, through modification of cytokine production by eukaryotic cells, and by stimulating the relaxation of blood vessels.In the present study, we assessed the influence of AHLs on cardiovascular function in conscious rats, and draw attenti...

  7. Corrosion Acoustic Emission Signal Recognition Based on Relevance Vector Machine Model%基于相关向量机模型的腐蚀声发射信号识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马佳良; 于洋

    2014-01-01

    The classification performance of the RVM model and its associated kernel function parameter are closely related. This paper applies artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal parameter of the RVM model, and the performance of these methods was compared. Based on the binary tree structure and one-against-all method, the binary-classification RVM model is extended to establish a four-classification model. The tank bottom corrosion acoustic emission signals were recognized using the established model. The characteristics parameters of the acoustic emission signal and the frequency-domain parameters were selected as the input parameters of the model, and a good recognition was obtained.%相关向量机(RVM)模型的分类性能与其核函数参数的选择有密切关系。本文分别利用人工蜂群算法(ABC)、粒子群算法(PSO)和遗传算法(GA)寻找相关向量机模型的最优参数,对几种方法的寻优性能进行了对比。采用基于二叉树结构的一对多扩展方法,对二分类相关向量机模型进行了扩展,建立了四分类模型。基于该分类模型对罐底腐蚀声发射信号进行识别,将声发射特征参数和频域参数作为模型的输入参数,获得了较好的识别结果。

  8. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental...

  9. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  10. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  11. Autophagy and bacterial clearance: a not so clear picture

    OpenAIRE

    Mostowy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy, an intracellular degradation process highly conserved from yeast to humans, is viewed as an important defence mechanism to clear intracellular bacteria. However, recent work has shown that autophagy may have different roles during different bacterial infections that restrict bacterial replication (antibacterial autophagy), act in cell autonomous signalling (non-bacterial autophagy) or support bacterial replication (pro-bacterial autophagy). This review will focus on newfound intera...

  12. Interspecific aggression and character displacement of competitor recognition in Hetaerina damselflies

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, C. N; Grether, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    In zones of sympatry between closely related species, species recognition errors in a competitive context can cause character displacement in agonistic signals and competitor recognition functions, just as species recognition errors in a mating context can cause character displacement in mating signals and mate recognition. These two processes are difficult to distinguish because the same traits can serve as both agonistic and mating signals. One solution is to test for sympatric shifts in re...

  13. Immunity to bacterial infection in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial infections remain important to the poultry industry both in terms of animal and public health, the latter due to the importance of poultry as a source of foodborne bacterial zoonoses such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. As such, much focus of research to the immune response to bacterial infection has been to Salmonella. In this review we will focus on how research on avian salmonellosis has developed our understanding of immunity to bacteria in the chicken from understanding the role of TLRs in recognition of bacterial pathogens, through the role of heterophils, macrophages and γδ lymphocytes in innate immunity and activation of adaptive responses to the role of cellular and humoral immunity in immune clearance and protection. What is known of the immune response to other bacterial infections and in particular infections that have emerged recently as major problems in poultry production including Campylobacter jejuni, Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Clostridium perfringens are discussed. PMID:23648643

  14. Recognition of Fruit Maturity—Based on Near Infrared Signal Processing%果实成熟度识别机器人设计—基于近红外线信号处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婕; 罗妤

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the picking robot automatic identification of fruit maturity level of intelligence , improve fruit recognition accuracy , robot self localization and automatic planning path capacity design a new automatic picking ro-bot , the robot using image segmentation technique and near infrared signal processing technology , to realize the automatic positioning of fruit maturity and discriminant .The performance of the picking robot was tested , including the segmenta-tion and extraction of the apple image , the judgment of the fruit maturity and the path planning of the robot .Through the test found that the robot can be in complex picking background accurate recognition of apple fruit , and can be in infrared light to achieve the identification of fruit maturity .Finally , plan out the reasonable picking path , to obtain the fruit of ac-curate picking , for the fruit picking robot research provides a valuable reference .%为了提高采摘机器人自动识别果实成熟度的智能化水平,提高果实识别的准确性,实现机器人自主定位和自动规划路径能力,设计了一种新的自动化采摘机器人. 该机器人利用图像分割技术和近红外信号处理技术,实现了果实成熟度的自动定位和判别. 对采摘机器人的性能进行了测试,包括苹果图像的分割和提取、果实成熟度的判断和机器人路径规划. 通过测试发现:机器人可以在复杂采摘背景下准确地识别苹果果实,并可以通过红外线探测实现果实成熟度的判别,最终规划出来合理的采摘路径,实现果实的精准采摘,为果蔬采摘机器人的研究提供了较有价值的参考.

  15. fundTPL-2 – ERK1/2 Signaling Promotes Host Resistance against Intracellular Bacterial Infection by Negative Regulation of Type I Interferon Production3

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Finlay W.; Ewbank, John; Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Stavropoulos, Evangelos; Martirosyan, Anna; Redford, Paul S.; Wu, Xuemei; Graham, Christine M.; Saraiva, Margarida; Tsichlis, Philip; Chaussabel, Damien; Ley, Steven C.; O’Garra, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, causing approximately 1.4 million deaths per year. Key immune components for host protection during tuberculosis include the cytokines IL-12, IL-1 and TNF-α, as well as IFN-γ and CD4+ Th1 cells. However, immune factors determining whether individuals control infection or progress to active tuberculosis are incompletely understood. Excess amounts of type I interferon have been linked to exacerbated disease during tuberculosis in mouse models and to active disease in patients, suggesting tight regulation of this family of cytokines is critical to host resistance. In addition, the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 is known to inhibit the immune response to Mtb in murine models through the negative regulation of key pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent Th1 response. We show here, using a combination of transcriptomic analysis, genetics and pharmacological inhibitors that the TPL-2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway is important in mediating host resistance to tuberculosis through negative regulation of type I interferon production. The TPL-2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway regulated production by macrophages of several cytokines important in the immune response to Mtb as well as regulating induction of a large number of additional genes, many in a type I IFN dependent manner. In the absence of TPL-2 in vivo, excess type I interferon promoted IL-10 production and exacerbated disease. These findings describe an important regulatory mechanism for controlling tuberculosis and reveal mechanisms by which type I interferon may promote susceptibility to this important disease. PMID:23842752

  16. TPL-2-ERK1/2 signaling promotes host resistance against intracellular bacterial infection by negative regulation of type I IFN production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Finlay W; Ewbank, John; Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Stavropoulos, Evangelos; Martirosyan, Anna; Redford, Paul S; Wu, Xuemei; Graham, Christine M; Saraiva, Margarida; Tsichlis, Philip; Chaussabel, Damien; Ley, Steven C; O'Garra, Anne

    2013-08-15

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, causing ≈ 1.4 million deaths per year. Key immune components for host protection during tuberculosis include the cytokines IL-12, IL-1, and TNF-α, as well as IFN-γ and CD4(+) Th1 cells. However, immune factors determining whether individuals control infection or progress to active tuberculosis are incompletely understood. Excess amounts of type I IFN have been linked to exacerbated disease during tuberculosis in mouse models and to active disease in patients, suggesting tight regulation of this family of cytokines is critical to host resistance. In addition, the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 is known to inhibit the immune response to M. tuberculosis in murine models through the negative regulation of key proinflammatory cytokines and the subsequent Th1 response. We show in this study, using a combination of transcriptomic analysis, genetics, and pharmacological inhibitors, that the TPL-2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway is important in mediating host resistance to tuberculosis through negative regulation of type I IFN production. The TPL-2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway regulated production by macrophages of several cytokines important in the immune response to M. tuberculosis as well as regulating induction of a large number of additional genes, many in a type I IFN-dependent manner. In the absence of TPL-2 in vivo, excess type I IFN promoted IL-10 production and exacerbated disease. These findings describe an important regulatory mechanism for controlling tuberculosis and reveal mechanisms by which type I IFN may promote susceptibility to this important disease. PMID:23842752

  17. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  18. Phoneme Recognition Using Acoustic Events

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, K; Huebener, Kai; Carson-Berndsen, Julie

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to phoneme recognition using nonsequential sub--phoneme units. These units are called acoustic events and are phonologically meaningful as well as recognizable from speech signals. Acoustic events form a phonologically incomplete representation as compared to distinctive features. This problem may partly be overcome by incorporating phonological constraints. Currently, 24 binary events describing manner and place of articulation, vowel quality and voicing are used to recognize all German phonemes. Phoneme recognition in this paradigm consists of two steps: After the acoustic events have been determined from the speech signal, a phonological parser is used to generate syllable and phoneme hypotheses from the event lattice. Results obtained on a speaker--dependent corpus are presented.

  19. Speaker recognition by voice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarauskas, Juozas

    2009-01-01

    Questions of speaker’s recognition by voice are investigated in this dissertation. Speaker recognition systems, their evolution, problems of recognition, systems of features, questions of speaker modeling and matching used in text-independent and text-dependent speaker recognition are considered too. The text-independent speaker recognition system has been developed during this work. The Gaussian mixture model approach was used for speaker modeling and pattern matching. The automatic m...

  20. Iris Recognition Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Mei

    2006-01-01

    The demand on security is increasing greatly in these years and biometric recognition gradually becomes a hot field of research. Iris recognition is a new branch of biometric recognition, which is regarded as the most stable, safe and accurate biometric recognition method. In these years, much progress in this field has been made by scholars and experts of different countries. In this paper, some successful iris recognition methods are listed and their performance are compared. Furthermore, the existing problems and challenges are discussed.

  1. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. PMID:27474242

  2. Pattern Recognition via PCNN and Tsallis Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    YuDong Zhang; LeNan Wu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel feature extraction method for image processing via PCNN and Tsallis entropy is presented. We describe the mathematical model of the PCNN and the basic concept of Tsallis entropy in order to find a recognition method for isolated objects. Experiments show that the novel feature is translation and scale independent, while rotation independence is a bit weak at diagonal angles of 45° and 135°. Parameters of the application on face recognition are acquired by bacterial...

  3. Pattern recognition for earthquake detection

    OpenAIRE

    Joswig, Manfred

    1990-01-01

    The detector algorithms in use at date rely on negative decision logic: based on a model of the ambient noise process they detect all deviations, but many of them are false alarms. The principal alternative to this approach is pattern recognition, which tests on positive correlation with some known signal patterns. The Sonogram-detector realizes this scheme for single seismogram traces. Sonograms display spectral energy versus time. Suitably scaled, these images display only information wh...

  4. Direct ubiquitination of pattern recognition receptor FLS2 attenuates plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongping; Lin, Wenwei; Gao, Xiquan; Wu, Shujing; Cheng, Cheng; Avila, Julian; Heese, Antje; Devarenne, Timothy P.; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immune responses are triggered by the activation of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The Arabidopsis PRR FLS2 senses bacterial flagellin and initiates immune signaling by association with BAK1. The molecular mechanisms underlying the attenuation of FLS2 activation are largely unknown. We report that flagellin induces recruitment of two closely related U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases PUB12 and PUB13 to FLS2 receptor complex in Arabidopsis. BAK1 phosphorylates PUB12/13 and is required for FLS2-PUB12/13 association. PUB12/13 polyubiquitinate FLS2 and promote flagellin-induced FLS2 degradation, and the pub12 and pub13 mutants displayed elevated immune responses to flagellin treatment. Our study has revealed a unique regulatory circuit of direct ubiquitination and turnover of FLS2 by BAK1-mediated phosphorylation and recruitment of specific E3 ligases for attenuation of immune signaling. PMID:21680842

  5. Prevention of bacterial foodborne disease using nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billington C

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Craig Billington, J Andrew Hudson, Elaine D'SaFood Safety Programme, ESR, Ilam, Christchurch, New Zealand Abstract: Foodborne disease is an important source of expense, morbidity, and mortality for society. Detection and control constitute significant components of the overall management of foodborne bacterial pathogens, and this review focuses on the use of nanosized biological entities and molecules to achieve these goals. There is an emphasis on the use of organisms called bacteriophages (phages: viruses that infect bacteria, which are increasingly being used in pathogen detection and biocontrol applications. Detection of pathogens in foods by conventional techniques is time-consuming and expensive, although it can also be sensitive and accurate. Nanobiotechnology is being used to decrease detection times and cost through the development of biosensors, exploiting specific cell-recognition properties of antibodies and phage proteins. Although sensitivity per test can be excellent (eg, the detection of one cell, the very small volumes tested mean that sensitivity per sample is less compelling. An ideal detection method needs to be inexpensive, sensitive, and accurate, but no approach yet achieves all three. For nanobiotechnology to displace existing methods (culture-based, antibody-based rapid methods, or those that detect amplified nucleic acid it will need to focus on improving sensitivity. Although manufactured nonbiological nanoparticles have been used to kill bacterial cells, nanosized organisms called phages are increasingly finding favor in food safety applications. Phages are amenable to protein and nucleic acid labeling, and can be very specific, and the typical large "burst size" resulting from phage amplification can be harnessed to produce a rapid increase in signal to facilitate detection. There are now several commercially available phages for pathogen control, and many reports in the literature demonstrate efficacy against a

  6. A MyD88-dependent IFNγR-CCR2 signaling circuit is required for mobilization of monocytes and host defense against systemic bacterial challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Pietras; Lloyd S Miller; Carl T Johnson; Ryan M O'Connell; Paul W Dempsey; Genhong Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Monocytes are mobilized to sites of infection via interaction between the chemokine MCP-1 and its receptor, CCR2, at which point they differentiate into macrophages that mediate potent antimicrobial effects. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which monocytes are mobilized in response to systemic challenge with the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. We found that mice deficient in MyD88, interferon-γ (IFNγ)R or CCR2 all had defects in the expansion of splenic monocyte populations upon F. tularensis challenge, and in control of F. tularensis infection. Interestingly, MyD88-deficient mice were defective in production of IFNγ, and IFNγR deficient mice exhibited defective production of MCP-1, the ligand for CCR2. Transplantation of IFNγR-deficient bone marrow (BM) into wild-type mice further suggested that mobilization of monocytes in response to F. tularensis challenge required IFNγR expression on BM-derived cells. These studies define a critical host defense circuit wherein MyD88-dependent IFNγ production signals via IFNγR expressed on BM-derived cells, resulting in MCP-1 production and activation of CCR2-dependent mobilization of monocytes in the innate immune response to systemic F. tularensis challenge.

  7. Novel anti-bacterial activities of β-defensin 1 in human platelets: suppression of pathogen growth and signaling of neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern F Kraemer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human β-defensins (hBD are antimicrobial peptides that curb microbial activity. Although hBD's are primarily expressed by epithelial cells, we show that human platelets express hBD-1 that has both predicted and novel antibacterial activities. We observed that activated platelets surround Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, forcing the pathogens into clusters that have a reduced growth rate compared to S. aureus alone. Given the microbicidal activity of β-defensins, we determined whether hBD family members were present in platelets and found mRNA and protein for hBD-1. We also established that hBD-1 protein resided in extragranular cytoplasmic compartments of platelets. Consistent with this localization pattern, agonists that elicit granular secretion by platelets did not readily induce hBD-1 release. Nevertheless, platelets released hBD-1 when they were stimulated by α-toxin, a S. aureus product that permeabilizes target cells. Platelet-derived hBD-1 significantly impaired the growth of clinical strains of S. aureus. hBD-1 also induced robust neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation by target polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, which is a novel antimicrobial function of β-defensins that was not previously identified. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hBD-1 is a previously-unrecognized component of platelets that displays classic antimicrobial activity and, in addition, signals PMNs to extrude DNA lattices that capture and kill bacteria.

  8. Modulation of pathogen recognition by autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun eOh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an ancient biological process for maintaining cellular homeostasis by degradation of long-lived cytosolic proteins and organelles. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy is availed by immune cells to regulate innate immunity. On the one hand, cells exert direct effector function by degrading intracellular pathogens; on the other hand, autophagy modulates pathogen recognition and downstream signaling for innate immune responses. Pathogen recognition via pattern recognition receptors induces autophagy. The function of phagocytic cells is enhanced by recruitment of autophagy-related proteins. Moreover, autophagy acts as a delivery system for viral replication complexes to migrate to the endosomal compartments where virus sensing occurs. In another case, key molecules of the autophagic pathway have been found to negatively regulate immune signaling, thus preventing aberrant activation of cytokine production and consequent immune responses. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the role of autophagy in pathogen recognition and modulation of innate immune responses.

  9. sigmaS, a major player in the response to environmental stresses in Escherichia coli: role, regulation and mechanisms of promoter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Paolo; Egli, Thomas; Wolf, Johannes; Lacour, Stephan

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial cells often face hostile environmental conditions, to which they adapt by activation of stress responses. In Escherichia coli, environmental stresses resulting in significant reduction in growth rate stimulate the expression of the rpoS gene, encoding the alternative σ factor σ(S). The σ(S) protein associates with RNA polymerase, and through transcription of genes belonging to the rpoS regulon allows the activation of a 'general stress response', which protects the bacterial cell from harmful environmental conditions. Each step of this process is finely tuned in order to cater to the needs of the bacterial cell: in particular, selective promoter recognition by σ(S) is achieved through small deviations from a common consensus DNA sequence for both σ(S) and the housekeeping σ(70). Recognition of specific DNA elements by σ(S) is integrated with the effects of environmental signals and the interaction with regulatory proteins, in what represents a fascinating example of multifactorial regulation of gene expression. In this report, we discuss the function of the rpoS gene in the general stress response, and review the current knowledge on regulation of rpoS expression and on promoter recognition by σ(S). PMID:24596257

  10. Oyster Electrophysiology: Electrocardiogram Signal Recognition and Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico M Batista; Deborah M Power; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2015-01-01

    After 100 years of published recording traces pertaining to the oyster electrocardiogram (ECG), we revisited the original experiments of Eiger (1913), using state-of-the-art electrophysiology recorders. Our aim was to confirm that a recordable ECG, similar to that of higher vertebrates, is present in the oyster heart. Portuguese oysters Crassostrea angulata, collected from the Guadiana estuary, Portugal, were used. The oysters were drilled through the right valve to reveal the pericardium. Go...

  11. Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqing Zhang; Xiaoming Zhao; Bicheng Lei

    2012-01-01

    Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, ...

  12. Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.

  13. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis; Dimitrios Hatzinakos; Foteini Agrafioti; Yongjin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact loca...

  14. Recognition and social behaviour in Formica ants

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenko, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Communication is probably one of the major means of life maintenance. Communication involves the use of signals, which can be visual, audial, olfactory etc. Organisms communicate in many different contexts, ranging from establishing own identity, foraging for food, finding a mate, protecting their territory, to more sophisticated ones such as engaging in social behaviour. Recognition is the action or process of recognizing or being recognized. Recognition based on olfactory cues is perhaps be...

  15. Pattern recognition and classification an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition and classification is fundamental to many of the automated electronic systems in use today. However, despite the existence of a number of notable books in the field, the subject remains very challenging, especially for the beginner. Pattern Recognition and Classification presents a comprehensive introduction to the core concepts involved in automated pattern recognition. It is designed to be accessible to newcomers from varied backgrounds, but it will also be useful to researchers and professionals in image and signal processing and analysis, and in computer visi

  16. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  17. The bacterial signal transduction protein GlnB regulates the committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis by acting as a dissociable regulatory subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Edileusa C M; Rodrigues, Thiago E; Müller-Santos, Marcelo; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Forchhammer, Karl; Huergo, Luciano F

    2015-03-01

    Biosynthesis of fatty acids is one of the most fundamental biochemical pathways in nature. In bacteria and plant chloroplasts, the committed and rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by a multi-subunit form of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme (ACC). This enzyme carboxylates acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which in turn acts as the building block for fatty acid elongation. In Escherichia coli, ACC is comprised of three functional modules: the biotin carboxylase (BC), the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) and the carboxyl transferase (CT). Previous data showed that both bacterial and plant BCCP interact with signal transduction proteins belonging to the PII family. Here we show that the GlnB paralogues of the PII proteins from E. coli and Azospirillum brasiliense, but not the GlnK paralogues, can specifically form a ternary complex with the BC-BCCP components of ACC. This interaction results in ACC inhibition by decreasing the enzyme turnover number. Both the BC-BCCP-GlnB interaction and ACC inhibition were relieved by 2-oxoglutarate and by GlnB uridylylation. We propose that the GlnB protein acts as a 2-oxoglutarate-sensitive dissociable regulatory subunit of ACC in Bacteria. PMID:25557370

  18. Recognition of Problem Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel, Michiel; van Zutphen, Wim M.

    1989-01-01

    General practitioners often see patients with problems related to drinking behaviour, but recognize only a small proportion of these problem drinkers. The authors discuss some mechanisms of this non-recognition phenomenon and suggest ways to enhance early recognition.

  19. Internalization-dependent recognition of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Johanna; Basler, Tina; Duerr, Claudia U; Rohde, Manfred; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a highly prevalent chronic intestinal infection in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The microbial pathogenesis of MAP infection has attracted additional attention due to an association with the human enteric inflammatory Crohn's disease. MAP is acquired by the faecal-oral route prompting us to study the interaction with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. MAP was rapidly internalized and accumulated in a late endosomal compartment. In contrast to other opportunistic mycobacteria or M. bovis, MAP induced significant epithelial activation as indicated by a NF-kappaB-independent but Erk-dependent chemokine secretion. Surprisingly, MAP-induced chemokine production was completely internalization-dependent as inhibition of Rac-dependent bacterial uptake abolished epithelial activation. In accordance, innate immune recognition of MAP by differentiated intestinal epithelial cells occurred through the intracellularly localized pattern recognition receptors toll-like receptor 9 and NOD1 with signal transduction via the adaptor molecules MyD88 and RIP2. The internalization-dependent innate immune activation of intestinal epithelial cells is in contrast to the stimulation of professional phagocytes by extracellular bacterial constituents and might significantly contribute to the histopathological changes observed during enteric MAP infection. PMID:19681906

  20. Cyclic enterobacterial common antigen: Potential contaminant of bacterially expressed protein preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously reported the identification of the cyclic enterobacterial common antigen (ECACYC) polysaccharide in E. coli strains commonly used for heterologous protein expression (PJA Erbel et al., J. Bacteriol.185 (2003): 1995). Following this initial report, interactions among several NMR groups established that characteristic N-acetyl signals of ECACYC have been observed in 15N-1H HSQC spectra of samples of various bacterially-expressed proteins suggesting that this water-soluble carbohydrate is a common contaminant. We provide NMR spectroscopic tools to recognize ECACYC in protein samples, as well as several methods to remove this contaminant. Early recognition of ECA-based NMR signals will prevent time-consuming analyses of this copurifying carbohydrate

  1. Toll-like receptors; their physiological role and signal transduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, O; Akira, S

    2001-04-01

    Drosophila Toll protein is a transmembrane receptor whose function is to recognize the invasion of microorganisms as well as to establish dorso-ventral polarity. Recently, mammalian homologues of Toll, designated as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been discovered. So far, six members (TLR1-6) have been reported and two of these, TLR2 and TLR4, have been shown to be essential for the recognition of distinct bacterial cell wall components. TLR2 discriminates peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoprotein, lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and zymosan, whereas TLR4 recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and Taxol. Bacterial components elicit the activation of an intracellular signaling cascade via TLR in a similar way to that occurs upon ligand binding to IL-1 receptor (IL-1R). This signaling pathway leads to the activation of a transcription factor NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which initiate the transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes. Particularly, analysis of knockout mice revealed a pivotal role for MyD88 in the signaling of the TLR/IL-1R family. Taken together, TLRs and the downstream signaling pathway play a key role in innate immune recognition and in subsequent activation of adaptive immunity. PMID:11357875

  2. RECOGNITION OF CONTESTED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nanna; Ben-Ahmed, Michele; Bom, Thomas Falk; Ching, Rune Kieran; Steffensen, Lars Schmidt; Funningsstovu, Janus Hanusarson í

    2012-01-01

    Contested states have existed in many decades and been on the political agenda worldwide. A small group of entities in the world are aspiring for recognition and independence, while some entities gained recognition relatively smoothly. This project accounts for UN’s recognition process and investigates entities prospects of influencing the process for obtaining recognition. Based on theories of liberalism and constructivism as well as the opposing theories of international relations, re...

  3. Recognition and Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Fichtner, K. -H.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study a possible function of brain, in particular, we try to describe several aspects of the process of recognition. In order to understand the fundamental parts of the recognition process, the quantum teleportation scheme seems to be useful. We consider a channel expression of the teleportation process that serves for a simplified description of the recognition process in brain.

  4. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  5. Automatic speech recognition (zero crossing method). Automatic recognition of isolated vowels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note describes a recognition method of isolated vowels, using a preprocessing of the vocal signal. The processing extracts the extrema of the vocal signal and the interval time separating them (Zero crossing distances of the first derivative of the signal). The recognition of vowels uses normalized histograms of the values of these intervals. The program determines a distance between the histogram of the sound to be recognized and histograms models built during a learning phase. The results processed on real time by a minicomputer, are relatively independent of the speaker, the fundamental frequency being not allowed to vary too much (i.e. speakers of the same sex). (author)

  6. Development of a System for Automatic Recognition of Speech Development of a System for Automatic Recognition of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kuba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a review of a research on processing and automatic recognition of speech signals (ARR at the Department of Telecommunications of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of iilina. On-going research is oriented to speech parametrization using 2-dimensional cepstral analysis, and to an application of HMMs and neural networks for speech recognition in Slovak language. The article summarizes achieved results and outlines future orientation of our research in automatic speech recognition.The article gives a review of a research on processing and automatic recognition of speech signals (ARR at the Department of Telecommunications of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina. On-going research is oriented to speech parametrization using 2-dimensional cepstral analysis, and to an application of HMMs and neural networks for speech recognition in Slovak language. The article summarizes achieved results and outlines future orientation of our research in automatic speech recognition.

  7. Embedded system for individual recognition based on ECG biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André Ribeiro; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Biometric recognition is emerging has an alternative solution for applications where the privacy of the information is crucial. This paper presents an embedded biometric recognition system based on the Electrocardiographic signals (ECG) for individual identification and authentication. The proposed system implements a real-time state-of-the-art recognition algorithm, which extracts information from the frequency domain. The system is based on a ARM Cortex 4. Preliminary results show ...

  8. Pattern Recognition and Event Reconstruction in Particle Physics Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Mankel, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    This report reviews methods of pattern recognition and event reconstruction used in modern high energy physics experiments. After a brief introduction into general concepts of particle detectors and statistical evaluation, different approaches in global and local methods of track pattern recognition are reviewed with their typical strengths and shortcomings. The emphasis is then moved to methods which estimate the particle properties from the signals which pattern recognition has associated. ...

  9. Disgust and fear recognition in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sprengelmeyer, R.; A. P. Atkinson; Sprengelmeyer, A; Mair-Walther, J.; Jacobi, C.; Wildemann, B.; Dittrich, W.H.; Hacke, W

    2010-01-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PNLE) affects limbic portions of the brain associated with recognition of social signals of emotions. Yet it is not known whether this perceptual ability is impaired in individuals with PNLE. We therefore conducted a single case study to explore possible impairments in recognising facially, vocally, and bodily expressed emotions, using standardised emotion recognition tests. Facial expression recognition was tested with two forced-choice emotion-labelling t...

  10. A Framework for On-Line Devanagari Handwritten Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar; L, Lajish V.

    2014-01-01

    The main challenge in on-line handwritten character recognition in Indian lan- guage is the large size of the character set, larger similarity between different characters in the script and the huge variation in writing style. In this paper we propose a framework for on-line handwitten script recognition taking cues from speech signal processing literature. The framework is based on identify- ing strokes, which in turn lead to recognition of handwritten on-line characters rather that the conv...

  11. Facial Expression Recognition based on Independent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    XiaoHui Guo; Xiao Zhang; Chao Deng; Jianyu Wei

    2013-01-01

    As an important part of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition, facial expression recognition has drawn much attention recently and numerous methods have been proposed. Feature extraction is the most important part which directly affects the final recognition results. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a subspace analysis method, which is also a novel statistical technique in signal processing and machine learning that aims at finding linear projections of the data that maximize...

  12. Radar target recognition based on micro-Doppler effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Wei-guang; LI Yan-jun

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical vibration of target structures will modulate the phase function of radar backscattering, and will induce thefrequency modulation of returned signals from the target. It generates a side bands of the target body Doppler frequencyshift, which is helpful for target recognition. Based on this.a micro-Doppler atomic storehouse is built for the targetrecognition, and four kinds of common classifiers are used separately to perform the classified recognition. The simulationexperimental results show that this method has high recognition rate above 90%.

  13. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  14. Pseudomonas evades immune recognition of flagellin in both mammals and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bart W Bardoel; Sjoerd van der Ent; Pel, Michiel J. C.; Jan Tommassen; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The building blocks of bacterial flagella, flagellin monomers, are potent stimulators of host innate immune systems. Recognition of flagellin monomers occurs by flagellin-specific pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in mammals and flagellin-sensitive 2 (FLS2) in plants. Activation of these immune systems via flagellin leads eventually to elimination of the bacterium from the host. In order to prevent immune activation and thus favor survival in the host, bacteri...

  15. Fuzzy Neural Model for Flatness Pattern Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-yu; SHAN Xiu-ying; LIU Hong-min; NIU Zhao-ping

    2008-01-01

    For the problems occurring in a least square method model,a fuzzy model,and a neural network model for flatness pattern recognition,a fuzzy neural network model for flatness pattern recognition with only three-input and three-output signals was proposed with Legendre orthodoxy polynomial as basic pattern,based on fuzzy logic expert experiential knowledge and genetic-BP hybrid optimization algorithm.The model not only had definite physical meanings in its inner nodes,but also had strong self-adaptability,anti-interference ability,high recognition precision,and high velocity,thereby meeting the demand of high-precision flatness control for cold strip mill and providing a convenient,practical,and novel method for flatness pattern recognition.

  16. Biologically-Inspired Strategies for Combating Bacterial Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Blackledge, Meghan S.; Worthington, Roberta J.; Melander, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by bacterial biofilms are a significant global health problem, causing considerable patient morbidity and mortality and contributing to the economic burden of infectious disease. This review describes diverse strategies to combat bacterial biofilms, focusing firstly on small molecule interference with bacterial communication and signaling pathways, including quorum sensing and two-component signal transduction systems. Secondly we discuss enzymatic approaches to the degradat...

  17. Homoserine lactones: Do plants really listen to bacterial talk?

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Ilona; von Rad, Uta; Durner, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial quorum sensing signals N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHL) enable bacterial cells to regulate gene expression depending on population density, which eventually leads to invasion of hosts. Only little is known about the molecular ways of plants reacting to these bacterial signals. Recently, we showed that the contact of Arabidopsis thaliana roots with N-hexanoyl-DL-homoserine-lactone (HHL) resulted in distinct transcriptional changes in roots and shoots, respectively. In addition,...

  18. Normal ECG Recognition for Express-Diagnostics Based on Scale-Space Representation and Dynamic Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Bilous, Nataliya; Bondarenko, Michael; Kobzar, Gleb; Krasov, Alexey; Rogozyanov, Artyom

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach of normal ECG recognition based on scale-space signal representation is proposed. The approach utilizes curvature scale-space signal representation used to match visual objects shapes previously and dynamic programming algorithm for matching CSS representations of ECG signals. Extraction and matching processes are fast and experimental results show that the approach is quite robust for preliminary normal ECG recognition.

  19. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  20. Robust speech recognition using articulatory information

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchhoff, Katrin

    1999-01-01

    Current automatic speech recognition systems make use of a single source of information about their input, viz. a preprocessed form of the acoustic speech signal, which encodes the time-frequency distribution of signal energy. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the benefits of integrating articulatory information into state-of-the art speech recognizers, either as a genuine alternative to standard acoustic representations, or as an additional source of information. Articulatory informa...

  1. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Using Multimodal Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Wei-Long; Lu, Bao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the performance of affective models and reduce the cost of acquiring physiological signals for real-world applications, we adopt multimodal deep learning approach to construct affective models from multiple physiological signals. For unimodal enhancement task, we indicate that the best recognition accuracy of 82.11% on SEED dataset is achieved with shared representations generated by Deep AutoEncoder (DAE) model. For multimodal facilitation tasks, we demonstrate that the Bimodal De...

  2. An ICA based method for texture recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Fournel, Thierry; Becker, Jean-Marie; Daniela COLTUC; Yann BOUTANT

    2006-01-01

    The method proposed in this paper uses the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for an application of unsupervised recognition of textures. The analysed texture is modelled by a weighted sum of almost statistically independent random signals that are extracted with FastICA algorithm. Each resulting signal is described by its negentropy, more precisely, by one of the approximations used by FastICA algorithm. The approximated negentropies are sorted into descending order and represented by a cu...

  3. Pattern recognition: recent insights from Dectin-1

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Delyth M.; Gow, Neil AR; Brown, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    The β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 is an archetypical non-toll-like pattern recognition receptor expressed predominantly by myeloid cells, which can induce its own intracellular signalling and can mediate a variety of cellular responses, such as cytokine production. Recent identification of the components of these signalling pathways, such as Syk kinase, CARD9 and Raf-1, has provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying Dectin-1 function. Furthermore, a broader appreciation of ...

  4. Structural Mechanisms of Peptide Recognition and Allosteric Modulation of Gene Regulation by the RRNPP Family of Quorum-Sensing Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hackwon; Kumaraswami, Muthiah

    2016-07-17

    The members of RRNPP family of bacterial regulators sense population density-specific secreted oligopeptides and modulate the expression of genes involved in cellular processes, such as sporulation, competence, virulence, biofilm formation, conjugative plasmid transfer and antibiotic resistance. Signaling by RRNPP regulators include several steps: generation and secretion of the signaling oligopeptides, re-internalization of the signaling molecules into the cytoplasm, signal sensing by the cytosolic RRNPP regulators, signal-specific allosteric structural changes in the regulators, and interaction of the regulators with their respective regulatory target and gene regulation. The recently determined structures of the RRNPP regulators provide insight into the mechanistic aspects for several steps in this signaling circuit. In this review, we discuss the structural principles underlying peptide specificity, regulatory target recognition, and ligand-induced allostery in RRNPP regulators and its impact on gene regulation. Despite the conserved tertiary structure of these regulators, structural analyses revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanism of activation and molecular strategies that couple the peptide-induced allostery to gene regulation. Although these structural studies provide a sophisticated understanding of gene regulation by RRNPP regulators, much needs to be learned regarding the target DNA binding by yet-to-be characterized RNPP regulators and the several aspects of signaling by Rgg regulators. PMID:27283781

  5. Interfering with Bacterial Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kerstin; Steinbach, Anke; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) describes the exchange of chemical signals in bacterial populations to adjust the bacterial phenotypes according to the density of bacterial cells. This serves to express phenotypes that are advantageous for the group and ensure bacterial survival. To do so, bacterial cells synthesize autoinducer (AI) molecules, release them to the environment, and take them up. Thereby, the AI concentration reflects the cell density. When the AI concentration exceeds a critical threshold in the cells, the AI may activate the expression of virulence-associated genes or of luminescent proteins. It has been argued that targeting the QS system puts less selective pressure on these pathogens and should avoid the development of resistant bacteria. Therefore, the molecular components of QS systems have been suggested as promising targets for developing new anti-infective compounds. Here, we review the QS systems of selected gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, namely, Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and discuss various antivirulence strategies based on blocking different components of the QS machinery. PMID:26819549

  6. Pseudomonas evades immune recognition of flagellin in both mammals and plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardoel, B.W.; Ent, S. van der; Pel, M.J.C.; Tommassen, J.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Kessel, K.P.M. van; Strijp, J.A.G. van

    2011-01-01

    The building blocks of bacterial flagella, flagellin monomers, are potent stimulators of host innate immune systems. Recognition of flagellin monomers occurs by flagellin-specific pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in mammals and flagellin-sensitive 2 (FLS2) in plants

  7. Composite Taste Recognition Method Based on Fuzzy Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to make recognition for the composite taste, the paper puts forward the research on the composite taste recognition method based on fuzzy neural network based on the wavelet transform. According to the wavelet transformation and the compression and extraction of the data of the taste signals that are collected by the sensor, we use the fuzzy neutral network as the recognition tool of the taste signal. Besides, we add genetic algorithm to make the function optimization for the network weights and the data processing and fuzzy recognition of the composite taste signal are presented. Finally, we make the test for the network performance. The results show that it has feasibility and effectiveness that the fuzzy neural network is introduced into the fuzzy identification of the taste signals.

  8. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  9. ANATOMY ON PATTERN RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    MAYANK PARASHER; SHRUTI SHARMA; A .K. SHARMA,; J.P.Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Pattern Recognition is the science of recognizing patterns by machines. This is very wide research area as of today, because every newresearch tries to make machine as intelligent as human for recognizing patterns. Pattern recognition is an active research and an importanttrait of ‘artificial intelligence’. This review paper introduces pattern recognition, its fundamental definitions, and provides understanding of related research work. This paper presents different types of algorithms, their...

  10. Context dependent speech recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Poor speech recognition is a problem when developing spoken dialogue systems, but several studies has showed that speech recognition can be improved by post-processing of recognition output that use the dialogue context, acoustic properties of a user utterance and other available resources to train a statistical model to use as a filter between the speech recogniser and dialogue manager. In this thesis a corpus of logged interactions between users and a dialogue system was used...

  11. Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge Ultrasonic Signal for Dry-type Transformer Based on Wavelet Packet Transform%基于小波包变换的干式变压器局部放电超声信号的模式识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永强; 杨东星; 何杰; 马伦; 王自强

    2015-01-01

    为研究干式变压器局部放电超声信号的模式识别,设计制作了针-板、沿面和气隙3种局部放电模型,用超声检测系统得到3种局部放电的超声信号波形数据。运用小波包理论对采集到的局部放电超声信号进行分解,用Shannon熵代价函数来确定最优小波包基,得到最优小波树,提取在最优基下包含绝大部分信息能量的小波包分解系数的统计量作为模式识别的输入特征量,并应用CPN网络分类器进行放电类型的识别,取得了很好的效果。%To study the pattern recognition of partial discharge ultrasonic signal for dry-type transformer, we designed three kinds of partial discharge models, which are needle-plate, surface, and air gap, and we obtained three kinds of partial discharge ultrasonic signal waveforms by ultrasonic test system. The par-tial discharge ultrasonic signal was decomposed by wavelet packet theory, and the optimal wavelet packet basis and the optimal wavelet tree were determined by Shannon entropy cost function. The statistics of wavelet packet decomposition coefficients, which contains majority of information energy under the opti-mal wavelet packet basis, was extracted as an input characteristic parameter for pattern recognition, and the discharge type was identified by CPN network classifier. The recognition effect is excellent.

  12. Bacterial communication and group behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, E. Peter

    2003-01-01

    The existence of species-specific and interspecies bacterial cell-cell communication and group organization was only recently accepted. Researchers are now realizing that the ability of these microbial teams to communicate and form structures, known as biofilms, at key times during the establishment of infection significantly increases their ability to evade both host defenses and antibiotics. This Perspective series discusses the known signaling mechanisms, the roles they play in both chroni...

  13. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  14. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  15. Spatial organization shapes the turnover of a bacterial transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Pandey, Shristi; Boettiger, Alistair N; Wang, Siyuan; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Spatial organization of the transcriptome has emerged as a powerful means for regulating the post-transcriptional fate of RNA in eukaryotes; however, whether prokaryotes use RNA spatial organization as a mechanism for post-transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here we used super-resolution microscopy to image the E. coli transcriptome and observed a genome-wide spatial organization of RNA: mRNAs encoding inner-membrane proteins are enriched at the membrane, whereas mRNAs encoding outer-membrane, cytoplasmic and periplasmic proteins are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Membrane enrichment is caused by co-translational insertion of signal peptides recognized by the signal-recognition particle. Time-resolved RNA-sequencing revealed that degradation rates of inner-membrane-protein mRNAs are on average greater that those of the other mRNAs and that this selective destabilization of inner-membrane-protein mRNAs is abolished by dissociating the RNA degradosome from the membrane. Together, these results demonstrate that the bacterial transcriptome is spatially organized and suggest that this organization shapes the post-transcriptional dynamics of mRNAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13065.001 PMID:27198188

  16. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on‐site and on‐time. At this point, the use of smart cameras ‐ of which the popularity has been increasing ‐ is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image‐processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high‐ bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general‐purpose processors. In smart cameras ‐ which are real‐life applications of such methods ‐ the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola‐Jones face detection method ‐ which was reported to run faster on PCs ‐ was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub‐region and mask‐based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed‐point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub‐ regions and from each sub‐region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements ‐ like face expression, illumination, etc. ‐ were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for

  17. Host Defence against Bacterial Biofilms: “Mission Impossible”?

    OpenAIRE

    Gertrud Maria Hänsch

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria living as biofilms have been recognised as the ultimate cause of persistent and destructive inflammatory processes. Biofilm formation is a well-organised, genetically-driven process, which is well characterised for numerous bacteria species. In contrast, the host response to bacterial biofilms is less well analysed, and there is the general believe that bacteria in biofilms escape recognition or eradication by the immune defence. In this review the host response to bacterial biofilms...

  18. Toll-like receptors: cellular signal transducers for exogenous molecular patterns causing immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschning, C J; Bauer, S

    2001-09-01

    Innate immunity initiates protection of the host organism against invasion and subsequent multiplication of microbes by specific recognition. Germ line-encoded receptors have been identified for microbial products such as mannan, lipopeptide, peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG-DNA. The Drosophila Toll protein has been shown to be involved in innate immune response of the adult fruitfly. Members of the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in vertebrates have been implicated as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Ten TLRs are known and six of these have been demonstrated to mediate cellular activation by distinct microbial products. TLR4 has been implicated as activator of adaptive immunity, and analysis of systemic LPS responses in mice led to the identification of LPS-resistant strains instrumental in its identification as a transmembrane LPS signal transducer. Structural similarities between TLRs and receptor molecules involved in immune responses such as CD14 and the IL-1 receptors (IL-1Rs), as well as functional analysis qualified TLR2 as candidate receptor for LPS and other microbial products. Targeted disruption of the TLR9 gene in mice led to identification of TLR9 as CpG-DNA signal transducer. Involvement of TLR5 in cell activation by bacterial flagellin has been demonstrated. Further understanding of recognition and cellular signaling activated through the ancient host defense system represented by Toll will eventually lead to means for its therapeutic modulation. PMID:11680785

  19. Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 signaling in innate immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Susanne; Ruland, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein (Card)9 is a nonredundant adapter protein that functions in the innate immune system in the assembly of multifunctional signaling complexes. Together with B cell lymphoma (Bcl)10 and the paracaspase, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein (Malt)1, Card9 links spleen-tyrosine kinase (Syk)-coupled C-type lectin receptors to inflammatory responses. Card9 signaling also responds to intracellular danger sensors, such as retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and nucleotide-oligomerization domain (Nod)2. Card9 complexes are engaged upon fungal, bacterial, or viral recognition, and they are essential for host protection. Moreover, Card9 polymorphisms are commonly associated with human inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss the molecular regulation and the physiological functions of Card9 in host defense and immune homeostasis, and provide a framework for the therapeutic targeting of Card9 signaling in immune-mediated diseases. PMID:23523010

  20. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  1. Recognition as care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Harting, Janneke;

    2014-01-01

    -based and solidarity-based recognition to analyse what was at stake in these experiences, and we engage Annemarie Mol’s concept of a logic of care to show how recognition unfolded practically during the training. We propose that participants’ wider social context and experiences of misrecognition situated the training...

  2. Quantitative analysis of CagA type IV secretion by Helicobacter pylori reveals substrate recognition and translocation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindele, Franziska; Weiss, Evelyn; Haas, Rainer; Fischer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial type IV secretion systems are protein transporters with a remarkable diversity of substrates and substrate recognition mechanisms. Type IV-secreted proteins often contain C-terminal secretion signals, but may also require other regions for recognition as secretory substrates, or for full secretion efficiency. For example, type IV secretion of CagA, a major pathogenicity factor of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, depends on a C-terminal signal and on N-terminal protein regions. To examine the involvement of individual CagA regions for type IV secretion efficiency, we have established and evaluated a β-lactamase-dependent reporter system which allows quantitative determination of translocation into host cells. For validation, we used this reporter system to obtain quantitative data for type IV secretion of CagA variants with sequential C-terminal truncations. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the CagA C-terminus revealed that none of the characteristic charged residues in this region is necessary for type IV secretion. Translocation rates measured for CagA variants with N-terminal deletions show that CagA does not have an N-terminal signal sequence, but requires its N-terminal domain for efficient secretion. Finally, we provide evidence that only newly synthesized CagA protein is translocated, supporting a model in which type IV secretion is coupled to protein biosynthesis. PMID:26713727

  3. The host type Ⅰ interferon response to viral and bacterial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea K. PERRY; Gang CHEN; Dahai ZHENG; Hong TANG; Genhong CHENG

    2005-01-01

    Type Ⅰ interferons (IFN) are well studied cytokines with anti-viral and immune-modulating functions. Type Ⅰ IFNs are produced following viral infections, but until recently, the mechanisms of viral recognition leading to IFN production were largely unknown. Toll like receptors (TLRs) have emerged as key transducers of type Ⅰ IFN during viral infections by recognizing various viral components. Furthermore, much progress has been made in defining the signaling pathways downstream of TLRs for type Ⅰ IFN production. TLR7 and TLR9 have become apparent as universally important in inducing type Ⅰ IFN during infection with most viruses, particularly by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. New intracellular viral pattern recognition receptors leading to type Ⅰ IFN production have been identified. Many bacteria can also induce the up-regulation of these cytokines. Interestingly, recent studies have found a detrimental effect on host cells if type Ⅰ IFN is produced during infection with the intracellular gram-positive bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. This review will discuss the recent advances made in defining the signaling pathways leading to type Ⅰ IFN production.

  4. What Makes a Bacterial Species Pathogenic?:Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Genus Leptospira.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick E Fouts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, is a globally widespread, neglected and emerging zoonotic disease. While whole genome analysis of individual pathogenic, intermediately pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species has been reported, comprehensive cross-species genomic comparison of all known species of infectious and non-infectious Leptospira, with the goal of identifying genes related to pathogenesis and mammalian host adaptation, remains a key gap in the field. Infectious Leptospira, comprised of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira, evolutionarily diverged from non-infectious, saprophytic Leptospira, as demonstrated by the following computational biology analyses: 1 the definitive taxonomy and evolutionary relatedness among all known Leptospira species; 2 genomically-predicted metabolic reconstructions that indicate novel adaptation of infectious Leptospira to mammals, including sialic acid biosynthesis, pathogen-specific porphyrin metabolism and the first-time demonstration of cobalamin (B12 autotrophy as a bacterial virulence factor; 3 CRISPR/Cas systems demonstrated only to be present in pathogenic Leptospira, suggesting a potential mechanism for this clade's refractoriness to gene targeting; 4 finding Leptospira pathogen-specific specialized protein secretion systems; 5 novel virulence-related genes/gene families such as the Virulence Modifying (VM (PF07598 paralogs proteins and pathogen-specific adhesins; 6 discovery of novel, pathogen-specific protein modification and secretion mechanisms including unique lipoprotein signal peptide motifs, Sec-independent twin arginine protein secretion motifs, and the absence of certain canonical signal recognition particle proteins from all Leptospira; and 7 and demonstration of infectious Leptospira-specific signal-responsive gene expression, motility and chemotaxis systems. By identifying large scale changes in infectious (pathogenic and intermediately

  5. What Makes a Bacterial Species Pathogenic?:Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Genus Leptospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Derrick E; Matthias, Michael A; Adhikarla, Haritha; Adler, Ben; Amorim-Santos, Luciane; Berg, Douglas E; Bulach, Dieter; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Chang, Yung-Fu; Galloway, Renee L; Haake, David A; Haft, Daniel H; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Ko, Albert I; Levett, Paul N; Matsunaga, James; Mechaly, Ariel E; Monk, Jonathan M; Nascimento, Ana L T; Nelson, Karen E; Palsson, Bernhard; Peacock, Sharon J; Picardeau, Mathieu; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Thaipandungpanit, Janjira; Wunder, Elsio A; Yang, X Frank; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, is a globally widespread, neglected and emerging zoonotic disease. While whole genome analysis of individual pathogenic, intermediately pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species has been reported, comprehensive cross-species genomic comparison of all known species of infectious and non-infectious Leptospira, with the goal of identifying genes related to pathogenesis and mammalian host adaptation, remains a key gap in the field. Infectious Leptospira, comprised of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira, evolutionarily diverged from non-infectious, saprophytic Leptospira, as demonstrated by the following computational biology analyses: 1) the definitive taxonomy and evolutionary relatedness among all known Leptospira species; 2) genomically-predicted metabolic reconstructions that indicate novel adaptation of infectious Leptospira to mammals, including sialic acid biosynthesis, pathogen-specific porphyrin metabolism and the first-time demonstration of cobalamin (B12) autotrophy as a bacterial virulence factor; 3) CRISPR/Cas systems demonstrated only to be present in pathogenic Leptospira, suggesting a potential mechanism for this clade's refractoriness to gene targeting; 4) finding Leptospira pathogen-specific specialized protein secretion systems; 5) novel virulence-related genes/gene families such as the Virulence Modifying (VM) (PF07598 paralogs) proteins and pathogen-specific adhesins; 6) discovery of novel, pathogen-specific protein modification and secretion mechanisms including unique lipoprotein signal peptide motifs, Sec-independent twin arginine protein secretion motifs, and the absence of certain canonical signal recognition particle proteins from all Leptospira; and 7) and demonstration of infectious Leptospira-specific signal-responsive gene expression, motility and chemotaxis systems. By identifying large scale changes in infectious (pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic

  6. Automatic Modulation Recognition by Support Vector Machines Using Wavelet Kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic modulation identification plays a significant role in electronic warfare, electronic surveillance systems and electronic counter measure. The task of modulation recognition of communication signals is to determine the modulation type and signal parameters. In fact, automatic modulation identification can be range to an application of pattern recognition in communication field. The support vector machines (SVM) is a new universal learning machine which is widely used in the fields of pattern recognition, regression estimation and probability density. In this paper, a new method using wavelet kernel function was proposed, which maps the input vector xi into a high dimensional feature space F. In this feature space F, we can construct the optimal hyperplane that realizes the maximal margin in this space. That is to say, we can use SVM to classify the communication signals into two groups, namely analogue modulated signals and digitally modulated signals. In addition, computer simulation results are given at last, which show good performance of the method

  7. Multimodal emotion recognition using EEG and eye tracking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Long; Dong, Bo-Nan; Lu, Bao-Liang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new emotion recognition method which combines electroencephalograph (EEG) signals and pupillary response collected from eye tracker. We select 15 emotional film clips of 3 categories (positive, neutral and negative). The EEG signals and eye tracking data of five participants are recorded, simultaneously, while watching these videos. We extract emotion-relevant features from EEG signals and eye tracing data of 12 experiments and build a fusion model to improve the performance of emotion recognition. The best average accuracies based on EEG signals and eye tracking data are 71.77% and 58.90%, respectively. We also achieve average accuracies of 73.59% and 72.98% for feature level fusion strategy and decision level fusion strategy, respectively. These results show that both feature level fusion and decision level fusion combining EEG signals and eye tracking data can improve the performance of emotion recognition model. PMID:25571125

  8. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  9. Mobile intention recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  10. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of nail infection is often caused by a bacterial infection but may also be caused by herpes, a ... to a type of yeast called Candida , or bacterial infection, and this may lead to abnormal nail growth. ...

  11. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact localization of wave boundaries. This paper presents a systematic analysis for human identification from ECG data. A fiducial-detection-based framework that incorporates analytic and appearance attributes is first introduced. The appearance-based approach needs detection of one fiducial point only. Further, to completely relax the detection of fiducial points, a new approach based on autocorrelation (AC in conjunction with discrete cosine transform (DCT is proposed. Experimentation demonstrates that the AC/DCT method produces comparable recognition accuracy with the fiducial-detection-based approach.

  12. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjin; Agrafioti, Foteini; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    2007-12-01

    Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact localization of wave boundaries. This paper presents a systematic analysis for human identification from ECG data. A fiducial-detection-based framework that incorporates analytic and appearance attributes is first introduced. The appearance-based approach needs detection of one fiducial point only. Further, to completely relax the detection of fiducial points, a new approach based on autocorrelation (AC) in conjunction with discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed. Experimentation demonstrates that the AC/DCT method produces comparable recognition accuracy with the fiducial-detection-based approach.

  13. Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqing Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, compressive sensing (CS has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC. The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP, are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN, linear support vector machines (SVM and the nearest subspace (NS, experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

  14. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will...

  15. Human Emotion Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbag Singh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of feature extraction of facial expressions with combination of neural network for the recognition of different facial emotions (happy, sad, angry, fear, surprised, neutral etc... Humans are capable of producing thousands of facial actions during communication that vary in complexity, intensity, and meaning. This paper analyses the limitations with existing system Emotion recognition using brain activity. In this paper by using an existing simulator I have achieved 97 percent accurate results and it is easy and simplest way than Emotion recognition using brain activity system. Purposed system depends upon human face as we know face also reflects the human brain activities or emotions. In this paper neural network has been used for better results. In the end of paper comparisons of existing Human Emotion Recognition System has been made with new one.

  16. Work and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    -Pierre Le Goff, Christophe Dejours and Emmanuel Renault. In spite of many differences, their work is united by a critical description of the logic of work and its consequences for individual individuation. These theorists agree that the growth of autonomy, flexibility and mobility has destabilised......The article deals with the relationship between work and recognition, taking Axel Honneth’s social-philosophical theory of the struggle for recognition as its point of departure. In order to give sociological substance to Honneth’s theory, we turn to three contemporary social theorists - Jean...... individual and collective identity formation and has led to an increase in social pathological illnesses such as stress and depression. By juxtaposing these analyses with Honneth’s theory on recognition, we conclude that the contemporary logic of work is unable to provide adequate forms of recognition...

  17. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  18. Towards Open World Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bendale, Abhijit; Boult, Terrance

    2014-01-01

    With the of advent rich classification models and high computational power visual recognition systems have found many operational applications. Recognition in the real world poses multiple challenges that are not apparent in controlled lab environments. The datasets are dynamic and novel categories must be continuously detected and then added. At prediction time, a trained system has to deal with myriad unseen categories. Operational systems require minimum down time, even to learn. To handle...

  19. Automatic Licenses Plate Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ronak P Patel; Narendra M Patel; Keyur Brahmbhatt

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollboothfor automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automatedsystem could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges ortunnels, etc. This paper contains new algorithm for recognition number plate using Morphological operation,Thresholding operation, Edge detection, Bounding box analysis for number plate extract...

  20. Human Emotion Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Dilbag Singh

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of feature extraction of facial expressions with combination of neural network for the recognition of different facial emotions (happy, sad, angry, fear, surprised, neutral etc..). Humans are capable of producing thousands of facial actions during communication that vary in complexity, intensity, and meaning. This paper analyses the limitations with existing system Emotion recognition using brain activity. In this paper by using an existing simulator I hav...

  1. Fingerprint Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawna Negi; Varun Sharma

    2012-01-01

    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae ...

  2. Android object recognition framework

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Mats-Gøran

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the author’s specialization project where the ultimate goal is to build an object recognition framework suitable for mobile devices in real world environments, where control over parameters such as illumination, distance, noise and availability of consistent network architectures are limited. Based on shortcomings related to object recognition performance and architectural issues the author’s goal was to increase the flexibility, usability and perfor...

  3. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke;

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  4. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  5. Protein hydrogels with engineered biomolecular recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Lixin

    Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are the hydrated macromolecular gels in which cells migrate and proliferate and organize into tissues in vivo . The development of artificial ECM with the required mechanical, physico-chemical, and biological properties has long been a challenge in the biomaterial research field. In this dissertation, a novel set of bioactive protein hydrogels has been synthesized and characterized at both molecular and materials levels. The self-recognized and self-assembled protein copolymers have the ability to provide engineered biofunctionality through the controlled arrangement of bioactive domains on the nanoscale. Genetic engineering methods have been employed to synthesize these protein copolymers. Plasmid DNA carrying genes to express both di- and tri-block proteins have been constructed using molecular cloning techniques. These genes were expressed in bacterial E. coli to ensure homogeneous protein length and anticipated structure. Three diblock protein sequences having a leucine zipper construct on one end and polyelectrolyte (AGAGAGPEG)10 on the other, have been studied by circular dichroism, size-exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, and static light scattering to characterize their secondary structure, structural stability, and oligomeric state. The results show that ABC diblock mixtures form very stable heterotrimer aggregates via self-recognition and self-assembly of the coiled coil end domains. Tri-block proteins with two leucine zipper motif ends flanking the polyelectrolyte random coil in the middle have been investigated by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the hydrogels formed by self-assembly of these tri-blocks have been studied using transmission electronic microscopy and diffusing wave spectroscopy. The reversible gelation behavior is the result of heterotrimeric aggregation of helices to form the physical crosslinks in the gel, with the polyelectrolyte region center block retaining

  6. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures. PMID:25523628

  7. Timecourse of neural signatures of object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S; Olshausen, Bruno A

    2003-01-01

    How long does it take for the human visual system to recognize objects? This issue is important for understanding visual cortical function as it places constraints on models of the information processing underlying recognition. We designed a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments to measure the timecourse of electrophysiological correlates of object recognition. We find two distinct types of components in the ERP recorded during categorization of natural images. One is an early presentation-locked signal arising around 135 ms that is present when there are low-level feature differences between images. The other is a later, recognition-related component arising between 150-300 ms. Unlike the early component, the latency of the later component covaries with the subsequent reaction time. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that the early, presentation-locked component of neural activity is correlated to recognition, these results imply that the neural signatures of recognition have a substantially later and variable time of onset. PMID:14507255

  8. Bacterial computing: a form of natural computing and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoz-Beltra, Rafael; Navarro, Jorge; Marijuán, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    The capability to establish adaptive relationships with the environment is an essential characteristic of living cells. Both bacterial computing and bacterial intelligence are two general traits manifested along adaptive behaviors that respond to surrounding environmental conditions. These two traits have generated a variety of theoretical and applied approaches. Since the different systems of bacterial signaling and the different ways of genetic change are better known and more carefully exp...

  9. Broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition by a secreted bacterial polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Jaione; Da Re, Sandra; Henry, Nelly; Fontaine, Thierry; Balestrino, Damien; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    The development of surface-attached biofilm bacterial communities is considered an important source of nosocomial infections. Recently, bacterial interference via signaling molecules and surface active compounds was shown to antagonize biofilm formation, suggesting that nonantibiotic molecules produced during competitive interactions between bacteria could be used for biofilm reduction. Hence, a better understanding of commensal/pathogen interactions within bacterial community could lead to a...

  10. Xanthomonas campestris cell-cell signalling molecule DSF (diffusible signal factor) elicits innate immunity in plants and is suppressed by the exopolysaccharide xanthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Akanksha; Nizampatnam, Narasimha Rao; Kondreddy, Anil; Pradhan, Binod Bihari; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2015-11-01

    Several secreted and surface-associated conserved microbial molecules are recognized by the host to mount the defence response. One such evolutionarily well-conserved bacterial process is the production of cell-cell signalling molecules which regulate production of multiple virulence functions by a process known as quorum sensing. Here it is shown that a bacterial fatty acid cell-cell signalling molecule, DSF (diffusible signal factor), elicits innate immunity in plants. The DSF family of signalling molecules are highly conserved among many phytopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Xanthomonas as well as in opportunistic animal pathogens. Using Arabidopsis, Nicotiana benthamiana, and rice as model systems, it is shown that DSF induces a hypersensitivity reaction (HR)-like response, programmed cell death, the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds, hydrogen peroxide production, and the expression of the PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (PR-1) gene. Furthermore, production of the DSF signalling molecule in Pseudomonas syringae, a non-DSF-producing plant pathogen, induces the innate immune response in the N. benthamiana host plant and also affects pathogen growth. By pre- and co-inoculation of DSF, it was demonstrated that the DSF-induced plant defence reduces disease severity and pathogen growth in the host plant. In this study, it was further demonstrated that wild-type Xanthomonas campestris suppresses the DSF-induced innate immunity by secreting xanthan, the main component of extracellular polysaccharide. The results indicate that plants have evolved to recognize a widely conserved bacterial communication system and may have played a role in the co-evolution of host recognition of the pathogen and the communication machinery. PMID:26248667

  11. An analytical approach to photonic reservoir computing - a network of SOA's - for noisy speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Abiri, Ebrahim; Dehyadegari, Louiza

    2013-10-01

    This paper seeks to investigate an approach of photonic reservoir computing for optical speech recognition on an examination isolated digit recognition task. An analytical approach in photonic reservoir computing is further drawn on to decrease time consumption, compared to numerical methods; which is very important in processing large signals such as speech recognition. It is also observed that adjusting reservoir parameters along with a good nonlinear mapping of the input signal into the reservoir, analytical approach, would boost recognition accuracy performance. Perfect recognition accuracy (i.e. 100%) can be achieved for noiseless speech signals. For noisy signals with 0-10 db of signal to noise ratios, however, the accuracy ranges observed varied between 92% and 98%. In fact, photonic reservoir application demonstrated 9-18% improvement compared to classical reservoir networks with hyperbolic tangent nodes.

  12. Self Organizing Markov Map for Speech and Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Nutan D. Sonwane, Prof. S.A. Chhabria, Dr. R.V. Dharaskar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Gesture and Speech based human Computer interaction is attractive attention across various areas such as pattern recognition, computer vision. Thus kind of research areas find many kind of application in Multimodal HCI, Robotics control, Sign language recognition. This paper presents head and hand Gesture as well as Speech recognition system for human computer interaction (HCI.This kind of vision based system can show the capability of computer, which understand and responding to the hand and head gesture also for Speech in form of sentence. This recognition system consists of two main modules namely 1.Gesture recognition 2.Speech recognition, Gesture recognition consists of various phases.i. image capturing, ii. Feature extraction of gesture iii.Gesture modeling (Direction, Position, generalized, 2.Speech recognition consists of various phases i. taking voice signals ii. Spectral coding iii. Unit matching (BMU iv. Lexical decoding v.syntactic, semantic analysis. Compared with many existing algorithms for gesture and speech recognition, SOM provides flexibility, robustness against noisy environment. The detection of gestures is based on discrete predestinated symbol sets, which are manually labeled during the training phase. The gesture-speech correlation is modelled by examining the co-occurring speech and gesture patterns. This correlation can be used to fuse gesture and speech modalities for edutainment applications (i.e. video games, 3-D animations where natural gestures of talking avatars are animated from speech. A speech driven gesture animation example has been implemented for demonstration.

  13. Bioinformatic Comparison of Bacterial Secretomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catharine Song; Aseem Kumar; Mazen Saleh

    2009-01-01

    The rapid increasing number of completed bacterial genomes provides a good op-portunity to compare their proteomes. This study was undertaken to specifically compare and contrast their secretomes-the fraction of the proteome with pre-dicted N-terminal signal sequences, both type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ. A total of 176 theoreti-cal bacterial proteomes were examined using the ExProt program. Compared with the Gram-positives, the Gram-negative bacteria were found, on average, to con-tain a larger number of potential Sec-dependent sequences. In the Gram-negative bacteria but not in the others, there was a positive correlation between proteome size and secretome size, while there was no correlation between secretome size and pathogenicity. Within the Gram-negative bacteria, intracellular pathogens were found to have the smallest secretomes. However, the secretomes of certain bacte-ria did not fit into the observed pattern. Specifically, the secretome of Borrelia burgdoferi has an unusually large number of putative lipoproteins, and the signal peptides of mycoplasmas show closer sequence similarity to those of the Gram-negative bacteria. Our analysis also suggests that even for a theoretical minimal genome of 300 open reading frames, a fraction of this gene pool (up to a maximum of 20%) may code for proteins with Sec-dependent signal sequences.

  14. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hynek Hermansky

    2011-10-01

    Information is carried in changes of a signal. The paper starts with revisiting Dudley’s concept of the carrier nature of speech. It points to its close connection to modulation spectra of speech and argues against short-term spectral envelopes as dominant carriers of the linguistic information in speech. The history of spectral representations of speech is briefly discussed. Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency domain perceptual linear prediction technique for deriving autoregressive models of temporal trajectories of spectral power in individual frequency bands is reviewed. Finally, posterior-based features, which allow for straightforward application of modulation frequency domain information, are described. The paper is tutorial in nature, aims at a historical global overview of attempts for using spectral dynamics in machine recognition of speech, and does not always provide enough detail of the described techniques. However, extensive references to earlier work are provided to compensate for the lack of detail in the paper.

  15. Bimodal Emotion Recognition from Speech and Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to emotion recognition from speech signals and textual content. In the analysis of speech signals, thirty-seven acoustic features are extracted from the speech input. Two different classifiers Support Vector Machines (SVMs and BP neural network are adopted to classify the emotional states. In text analysis, we use the two-step classification method to recognize the emotional states. The final emotional state is determined based on the emotion outputs from the acoustic and textual analyses. In this paper we have two parallel classifiers for acoustic information and two serial classifiers for textual information, and a final decision is made by combing these classifiers in decision level fusion. Experimental results show that the emotion recognition accuracy of the integrated system is better than that of either of the two individual approaches.

  16. The lipopolysaccharide core of Brucella abortus acts as a shield against innate immunity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Iriarte, Maite; Manček-Keber, Mateja; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Palacios-Chaves, Leyre; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Martirosyan, Anna; von Bargen, Kristine; Grilló, María-Jesús; Jerala, Roman; Brandenburg, Klaus; Llobet, Enrique; Bengoechea, José A; Moreno, Edgardo; Moriyón, Ignacio; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Innate immunity recognizes bacterial molecules bearing pathogen-associated molecular patterns to launch inflammatory responses leading to the activation of adaptive immunity. However, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the gram-negative bacterium Brucella lacks a marked pathogen-associated molecular pattern, and it has been postulated that this delays the development of immunity, creating a gap that is critical for the bacterium to reach the intracellular replicative niche. We found that a B. abortus mutant in the wadC gene displayed a disrupted LPS core while keeping both the LPS O-polysaccharide and lipid A. In mice, the wadC mutant induced proinflammatory responses and was attenuated. In addition, it was sensitive to killing by non-immune serum and bactericidal peptides and did not multiply in dendritic cells being targeted to lysosomal compartments. In contrast to wild type B. abortus, the wadC mutant induced dendritic cell maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. All these properties were reproduced by the wadC mutant purified LPS in a TLR4-dependent manner. Moreover, the core-mutated LPS displayed an increased binding to MD-2, the TLR4 co-receptor leading to subsequent increase in intracellular signaling. Here we show that Brucella escapes recognition in early stages of infection by expressing a shield against recognition by innate immunity in its LPS core and identify a novel virulence mechanism in intracellular pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. These results also encourage for an improvement in the generation of novel bacterial vaccines. PMID:22589715

  17. Bacterial Riboswitches and Ribozymes Potently Activate the Human Innate Immune Sensor PKR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Chelsea M; Anmangandla, Ananya; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2016-04-15

    The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against pathogens through the recognition of nonspecific patterns in RNA to protect the cell in a generalized way. The human RNA-activated protein kinase, PKR, is a dsRNA binding protein and an essential sensor in the innate immune response, which recognizes viral and bacterial pathogens through their RNAs. Upon activation via RNA-dependent autophosphorylation, PKR phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2α, leading to termination of translation. PKR has a well-characterized role in recognizing viral RNA, where it binds long stretches of double-stranded RNA nonsequence specifically to promote activation; however, the mechanism by which bacterial RNA activates PKR and the mode by which self RNA avoids activating PKR are unknown. We characterized activation of PKR by three functional bacterial RNAs with pseudoknots and extensive tertiary structure: the cyclic di-GMP riboswitch, the glmS riboswitch-ribozyme, and the twister ribozyme, two of which are ligand-activated. These RNAs were found to activate PKR with comparable potency to long dsRNA. Enzymatic structure mapping in the absence and presence of PKR reveals a clear PKR footprint and provides a structural basis for how these bacterial RNAs activate PKR. In the case of the cyclic di-GMP riboswitch and the glmS riboswitch-ribozyme, PKR appears to dimerize on the peripheral double-stranded regions of the native RNA tertiary structure. Overall, these results provide new insights into how PKR acts as an innate immune signaling protein for the presence of bacteria and suggest a reason for the apparent absence of protein-free riboswitches and ribozymes in the human genome. PMID:27011290

  18. Segmentation-level fusion for iris recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Peter; Hofbauer, Heinz; Ferryman, James; Uhl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of fusion at normalisation/segmentation level prior to feature extraction. While there are several biometric fusion methods at data/feature level, score level and rank/decision level combining raw biometric signals, scores, or ranks/decisions, this type of fusion is still in its infancy. However, the increasing demand to allow for more relaxed and less invasive recording conditions, especially for on-the-move iris recognition, suggests to further investi...

  19. Phonetic Alphabet for Speech Recognition of Czech

    OpenAIRE

    J. Uhlir; Psutka, J.; J. Nouza

    1997-01-01

    In the paper we introduce and discuss an alphabet that has been proposed for phonemicly oriented automatic speech recognition. The alphabet, denoted as a PAC (Phonetic Alphabet for Czech) consists of 48 basic symbols that allow for distinguishing all major events occurring in spoken Czech language. The symbols can be used both for phonetic transcription of Czech texts as well as for labeling recorded speech signals. From practical reasons, the alphabet occurs in two versions; one utilizes Cze...

  20. Speech Recognition in Natural Background Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Meyer; Laure Dentel; Fanny Meunier

    2013-01-01

    In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listene...

  1. Toll-like Receptors and Renal Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Vandewalle

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis are mainly dueto uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, and are commoninfectious diseases that constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. They are also the most frequent infectious complications in renal transplant patients, andcan impair long-term renal graft function and outcome. UPECmay invade the kidneys via the systemic circulation or by localretrograde infection. They induce the proinflammatory mediators, which are intended to defend the host and clear bacteriafrom the kidneys. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs play a keyrole in the recognition of bacterial components and in inducingthe inflammatory response that is mediated by various intracellular signaling pathways. To date, 13 TLRs have been identified in mammals. Recent studies have provided evidence suggesting that renal tubule epithelial cells express most of theTLRs initially identified in bone marrow-derived cells. Murine renal tubule cells expressTLR1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 11. TLR4, which recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a key role in inducing the inflammatory responseselicited by UPEC. This review will consider some aspects of TLR function in the kidney,particularly in the renal tubule epithelial cells, and the role of these receptors in enabling thebody to cope with urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis caused by UPECs.

  2. Automatic Emotion Recognition in Speech: Possibilities and Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Bojanić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic speech recognition and spoken language understanding are crucial steps towards a natural humanmachine interaction. The main task of the speech communication process is the recognition of the word sequence, but the recognition of prosody, emotion and stress tags may be of particular importance as well. This paper discusses thepossibilities of recognition emotion from speech signal in order to improve ASR, and also provides the analysis of acoustic features that can be used for the detection of speaker’s emotion and stress. The paper also provides a short overview of emotion and stress classification techniques. The importance and place of emotional speech recognition is shown in the domain of human-computer interactive systems and transaction communication model. The directions for future work are given at the end of this work.

  3. Human motion recognition based on features and models selected HMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haixiang; Zhou, Hongjun

    2015-03-01

    This paper research on the motion recognition based on HMM with Kinect. Kinect provides skeletal data consist of 3D body joints with its lower price and convenience. In this work, several methods are used to determine the optimal subset of features among Cartesian coordinates, distance to hip center, velocity, angle and angular velocity, in order to improve the recognition rate. K-means is used for vector quantization and HMM is used as recognition method. HMM is an effective signal processing method which contains time calibration, provides a learning mechanism and recognition ability. Cluster numbers of K-means, structure and state numbers of HMM are optimized as well. The proposed methods are applied to the MSR Action3D dataset. Results show that the proposed methods obtain better recognition accuracy than the state of the art methods.

  4. Phylogeny of Toll-like receptor signaling: adapting the innate response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Roach

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptors represent a largely evolutionarily conserved pathogen recognition machinery responsible for recognition of bacterial, fungal, protozoan, and viral pathogen associated microbial patterns and initiation of inflammatory response. Structurally the Toll-like receptors are comprised of an extracellular leucine rich repeat domain and a cytoplasmic Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor domain. Recognition takes place in the extracellular domain where as the cytoplasmic domain triggers a complex signal network required to sustain appropriate immune response. Signal transduction is regulated by the recruitment of different intracellular adaptors. The Toll-like receptors can be grouped depending on the usage of the adaptor, MyD88, into MyD88-dependent and MyD88 independent subsets. Herein, we present a unique phylogenetic analysis of domain regions of these receptors and their cognate signaling adaptor molecules. Although previously unclear from the phylogeny of full length receptors, these analyses indicate a separate evolutionary origin for the MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signaling pathway and provide evidence of a common ancestor for the vertebrate and invertebrate orthologs of the adaptor molecule MyD88. Together these observations suggest a very ancient origin of the MyD88-dependent pathway Additionally we show that early duplications gave rise to several adaptor molecule families. In some cases there is also strong pattern of parallel duplication between adaptor molecules and their corresponding TLR. Our results further support the hypothesis that phylogeny of specific domains involved in signaling pathway can shed light on key processes that link innate to adaptive immune response.

  5. Time-expanded speech and speech recognition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Nancy E; Furukawa, Izumi; Balasingam, Nirmala; Mortz, Margaret; Fausti, Stephen A

    2002-01-01

    Speech understanding deficits are common in older adults. In addition to hearing sensitivity, changes in certain cognitive functions may affect speech recognition. One such change that may impact the ability to follow a rapidly changing speech signal is processing speed. When speakers slow the rate of their speech naturally in order to speak clearly, speech recognition is improved. The acoustic characteristics of naturally slowed speech are of interest in developing time-expansion algorithms to improve speech recognition for older listeners. In this study, we tested younger normally hearing, older normally hearing, and older hearing-impaired listeners on time-expanded speech using increased duration and increased intensity of unvoiced consonants. Although all groups performed best on unprocessed speech, performance with processed speech was better with the consonant gain feature without time expansion in the noise condition and better at the slowest time-expanded rate in the quiet condition. The effects of signal processing on speech recognition are discussed. PMID:17642020

  6. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  7. Are Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition Reducible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition is still a very difficult task in real-world scenarios wherein unforeseen changes in degradations factors like noise, occlusion, blurriness and illumination can drastically affect the extracted features from the biometric signals. Very recently Haar-like rectangular features...... which have usually been used for object detection were introduced for biometric recognition resulting in systems that are robust against most of the mentioned degradations [9]. The problem with these features is that one can define many different such features for a given biometric signal...... and it is not clear whether all of these features are required for the actual recognition or not. This is exactly what we are dealing with in this paper: How can an initial set of Haar-like rectangular features, that have been used for biometric recognition, be reduced to a set of most influential features...

  8. Finding Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types. It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box. The other type may be called TATA-less signal, and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition. While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot, their TATA-less signals are significantly different. A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming. By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature, an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  9. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  10. Iris Recognition using Mel-Fequency Cepstral Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Shibli Nisar; Mushtaq Ali Khan; Muhammad Usman

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes Iris feature extraction using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC). MFCC is originally used for speech and speaker recognition. The MFCC is applied in Iris recognition and the results obtained are very accurate and satisfactory. The system first takes the eye pattern of a person and after converting to 1D signal the MFCC is applied which extracts Iris features. The features are then compared with the features obtained in Enrollment phas...

  11. Objects Control through Speech Recognition Using LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ankush Sharma; Srinivas Perala; Priya Darshni

    2013-01-01

    Speech is the natural form of human communication and the speech processing is the one of the most stimulating area of the signal processing. Speech recognition technology has made it possible for computer to follow the human voice command and understand the human languages. The objects (LED, Toggle switch etc.) control through human speech is designed in this paper. By combine the virtual instrumentation technology and speech recognition techniques. And also provided password authentication....

  12. An Intersecting Cortical Model Based Framework for Human Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. Mahgoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method for human face recognition based on a simplified approach for the Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN Algorithm. The face image is introduced to the Intersecting Cortical Model (ICM to be iterated 200 times, and then the time signals for the faces are compared to make a decision. Experimental results for human face recognition confirm that the proposed method lends itself to higher classification accuracy relative to existing techniques.

  13. An Intersecting Cortical Model Based Framework for Human Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed G. Mahgoub; Amira A. Ebeid; Hossam-El-Deen M. Abdel-Baky; El-Sayed A. El-Badawy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for human face recognition based on a simplified approach for the Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) Algorithm. The face image is introduced to the Intersecting Cortical Model (ICM) to be iterated 200 times, and then the time signals for the faces are compared to make a decision. Experimental results for human face recognition confirm that the proposed method lends itself to higher classification accuracy relative to existing techniques.

  14. An integrated approach to emotion recognition for advanced emotional intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis D Bamidis; Frantzidis, Christos A.; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I.; Luneski, Andrej; Lithari, Chrysa; Klados, Manousos A.; Bratsas, Charalambos; Papadelis, Christos; Pappas, Costas

    2009-01-01

    Emotion identification is beginning to be considered as an essential feature in human-computer interaction. However, most of the studies are mainly focused on facial expression classifications and speech recognition and not much attention has been paid until recently to physiological pattern recognition. In this paper, an integrative approach is proposed to emotional interaction by fusing multi-modal signals. Subjects are exposed to pictures selected from the International Affective Pic...

  15. Wi-Fi Gesture Recognition on Existing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, Rajalakshmi; Kellogg, Bryce; Gollakota, Shyamnath

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the first wireless gesture recognition system that operates using existingWi-Fi signals and devices. To achieve this, we first identify limitations of existing wireless gesture recognition approaches that limit their applicability to Wi-Fi. We then introduce algorithms that can classify gestures using information that is readily available on Wi-Fi devices. We demonstrate the feasibility of our design using a prototype implementation on off-the-shelf Wi-Fi devices. Our re...

  16. FACIAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING GABOR (HAPPY, SAD, ANGER, NEUTRAL MOOD)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Shamsh Alam

    2015-01-01

    The best way to communicate the emotions and intentions is facial expressions. This is powerful because as per the psychological research 55% of the total communicated message is the human facial expression. Therefore deriving an effective facial representation from the original face image is a vital step and very tough task in the field of computer science for successful facial expression recognition. Human facial recognition usually uses image processing, gesture signal ...

  17. Impaired recognition of social emotions following amygdala damage

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphs, Ralph; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Tranel, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Lesion, functional imaging, and single-unit studies in human and nonhuman animals have demonstrated a role for the amygdala in processing stimuli with emotional and social significance. We investigated the recognition of a wide variety of facial expressions, including basic emotions (e.g., happiness, anger) and social emotions (e.g., guilt, admiration, flirtatiousness). Prior findings with a standardized set of stimuli indicated that recognition of social emotions can be signaled by the eye r...

  18. Driver Recognition Using Gaussian Mixture Models and Decision Fusion Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Benli, Kristin Surpuhi; Düzağaç, Remzi; Eskil, Mustafa Taner

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present our research in driver recognition. The goal of this study is to investigate the performance of different classifier fusion techniques in a driver recognition scenario. We are using solely driving behavior signals such as break and accelerator pedal pressure, engine RPM, vehicle speed; steering wheel angle for identifying the driver identities. We modeled each driver using Gaussian Mixture Models, obtained posterior probabilities of identities and combined these score...

  19. Joint speech and spearker recognition using neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Xiaoguo

    2013-01-01

    Speech is the main communication method between human beings. Since the time of the invention of the computer people have been trying to let the computer understand natural speech. Speech recognition is a technology which has close connections with computer science, signal processing, voice linguistics and intelligent systems. It has been a ”hot” subject not only in the field of research but also as a practical application. Especially in real life, speaker and speech recognition have been use...

  20. Learning driving behavior by timed syntactic pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Verwer, S.E.; Weerdt, M.M.; C. Witteveen

    2011-01-01

    We advocate the use of an explicit time representation in syntactic pattern recognition because it can result in more succinct models and easier learning problems. We apply this approach to the real-world problem of learning models for the driving behavior of truck drivers. We discretize the values of onboard sensors into simple events. Instead of the common syntactic pattern recognition approach of sampling the signal values at a fixed rate, we model the time constraints using timed models. ...

  1. Comparative wavelet, PLP, and LPC speech recognition techniques on the Hindi speech digits database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. N.; Shrotriya, M. C.; Sharan, S. N.

    2010-02-01

    In view of the growing use of automatic speech recognition in the modern society, we study various alternative representations of the speech signal that have the potential to contribute to the improvement of the recognition performance. In this paper wavelet based features using different wavelets are used for Hindi digits recognition. The recognition performance of these features has been compared with Linear Prediction Coefficients (LPC) and Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP) features. All features have been tested using Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based classifier for speaker independent Hindi digits recognition. The recognition performance of PLP features is11.3% better than LPC features. The recognition performance with db10 features has shown a further improvement of 12.55% over PLP features. The recognition performance with db10 is best among all wavelet based features.

  2. Chemical basis of prey recognition in thamnophiine snakes: the unexpected new roles of parvalbumins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Smargiassi

    Full Text Available Detecting and locating prey are key to predatory success within trophic chains. Predators use various signals through specialized visual, olfactory, auditory or tactile sensory systems to pinpoint their prey. Snakes chemically sense their prey through a highly developed auxiliary olfactory sense organ, the vomeronasal organ (VNO. In natricine snakes that are able to feed on land and water, the VNO plays a critical role in predatory behavior by detecting cues, known as vomodors, which are produced by their potential prey. However, the chemical nature of these cues remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that specific proteins-parvalbumins-present in the cutaneous mucus of the common frog (Rana temporaria may be natural chemoattractive proteins for these snakes. Here, we show that parvalbumins and parvalbumin-like proteins, which are mainly intracellular, are physiologically present in the epidermal mucous cells and mucus of several frog and fish genera from both fresh and salt water. These proteins are located in many tissues and function as Ca(2+ buffers. In addition, we clarified the intrinsic role of parvalbumins present in the cutaneous mucus of amphibians and fishes. We demonstrate that these Ca(2+-binding proteins participate in innate bacterial defense mechanisms by means of calcium chelation. We show that these parvalbumins are chemoattractive for three different thamnophiine snakes, suggesting that these chemicals play a key role in their prey-recognition mechanism. Therefore, we suggest that recognition of parvalbumin-like proteins or other calcium-binding proteins by the VNO could be a generalized prey-recognition process in snakes. Detecting innate prey defense mechanism compounds may have driven the evolution of this predator-prey interaction.

  3. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  4. EMG Pattern Recognition based on Evidence Accumulation for Prosthesis Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.P. [Daewoo Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    We present a method of electromyography(EMG) pattern recognition to identify motion commands for the control of a prosthetic arm by evidence accumulation with multiple parameters. Integral absolute value, variance, autoregressive(AR) model coefficients, linear cepstrum coefficients, and adaptive cepstrum vector are extracted as feature parameters from several time segments of the EMG signals. Pattern recognition is carried out through the evidence accumulation procedure using the distances measured with reference parameters. A fuzzy mapping function is designed to transform the distances for the application of the evidence accumulation method. Results are presented to support the feasibility of the suggested approach for EMG pattern recognition. (author). 29 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Emotion Recognition from Persian Speech with Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Hamidi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report an effort towards automatic recognition of emotional states from continuous Persian speech. Due to the unavailability of appropriate database in the Persian language for emotion recognition, at first, we built a database of emotional speech in Persian. This database consists of 2400 wave clips modulated with anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness and normal emotions. Then we extract prosodic features, including features related to the pitch, intensity and global characteristics of the speech signal. Finally, we applied neural networks for automatic recognition of emotion. The resulting average accuracy was about 78%.

  6. The Bacterial Microflora of Fish, Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Austin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate about whether or not muscle is actually sterile. Using traditional culture-dependent techniques, the numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations generally reflect those of the surrounding water. More modern culture-independent approaches have permitted the recognition of previously uncultured bacteria. The role of the organisms includes the ability to degrade complex molecules (therefore exercising a potential benefit in nutrition, to produce vitamins and polymers, and to be responsible for the emission of light by the light-emitting organs of deep-sea fish. Taxa, including Pseudomonas, may contribute to spoilage by the production of histamines in fish tissue.

  7. Inter-kingdom signaling: chemical language between bacteria and host

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Alline R.; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Chemical communication between cells ensures coordination of behavior. In prokaryotes, this chemical communication is usually referred to as quorum sensing, while eukaryotic cells signal through hormones. In the past years, a growing number of reports have shown that bacterial quorum sensing signals, called autoinducers, signal to eukaryotic cells, mimicking hormones. Conversely, host hormones can signal to bacterial cells through converging pathways to autoinducer signaling. This inter-kingd...

  8. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  9. Intercellular and intracellular signalling systems that globally control the expression of virulence genes in plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria utilize complex signalling systems to control the expression of virulence genes at the cellular level and within populations. Quorum sensing (QS), an important intercellular communication mechanism, is mediated by different types of small molecules, including N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), fatty acids and small proteins. AHL-mediated signalling systems dependent on the LuxI and LuxR family proteins play critical roles in the virulence of a wide range of Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Xanthomonas spp. and Xylella fastidiosa, members of the Gammaproteobacteria, however, possess QS systems that are mediated by fatty acid-type diffusible signal factors (DSFs). Recent studies have demonstrated that Ax21, a 194-amino-acid protein in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, plays dual functions in activating a rice innate immune pathway through binding to the rice XA21 pattern recognition receptor and in regulating bacterial virulence and biofilm formation as a QS signal molecule. In xanthomonads, DSF-mediated QS systems are connected with the signalling pathways mediated by cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), which functions as a second messenger for the control of virulence gene expression in these bacterial pathogens. PMID:23186372

  10. Mechanisms of integration of de novo-synthesized polypeptides into membranes: Signal-recognition particle is required for integration into microsomal membranes of calcium ATPase and of lens MP26 but not of cytochrome b_5

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D J; Mostov, K E; Blobel, G

    1983-01-01

    We have investigated the in vitro integration into dog pancreas microsomal membranes of three integral membrane proteins that were synthesized de novo in a wheat germ cell-free translation system: calcium ATPase of rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum, MP26 of bovine lens fiber plasma membrane, and rat liver cytochrome b_5. Biosynthetically these proteins show a common feature in that they are synthesized without a transient NH_2-terminal signal sequence. Two of these proteins, ATPase and MP26, were...

  11. Bacterial tactic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, J P

    1999-01-01

    Many, if not most, bacterial species swim. The synthesis and operation of the flagellum, the most complex organelle of a bacterium, takes a significant percentage of cellular energy, particularly in the nutrient limited environments in which many motile species are found. It is obvious that motility accords cells a survival advantage over non-motile mutants under normal, poorly mixed conditions and is an important determinant in the development of many associations between bacteria and other organisms, whether as pathogens or symbionts and in colonization of niches and the development of biofilms. This survival advantage is the result of sensory control of swimming behaviour. Although too small to sense a gradient along the length of the cell, and unable to swim great distances because of buffetting by Brownian motion and the curvature resulting from a rotating flagellum, bacteria can bias their random swimming direction towards a more favourable environment. The favourable environment will vary from species to species and there is now evidence that in many species this can change depending on the current physiological growth state of the cell. In general, bacteria sense changes in a range of nutrients and toxins, compounds altering electron transport, acceptors or donors into the electron transport chain, pH, temperature and even the magnetic field of the Earth. The sensory signals are balanced, and may be balanced with other sensory pathways such as quorum sensing, to identify the optimum current environment. The central sensory pathway in this process is common to most bacteria and most effectors. The environmental change is sensed by a sensory protein. In most species examined this is a transmembrane protein, sensing the external environment, but there is increasing evidence for additional cytoplasmic receptors in many species. All receptors, whether sensing sugars, amino acids or oxygen, share a cytoplasmic signalling domain that controls the activity of a

  12. Wavelets and Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Dao-Qing; Yan, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Wavelets have been successfully used in image processing. Their ability to capture localized spatial-frequency information of image motivates their use for feature extraction. We give an overview of using wavelets in the face recognition technology. Due to limit of space the use of Gabor wavelets is not covered in this survey. Interested readers are referred to section 8.3 for references.

  13. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems i

  14. FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    SONMEZ, Öznur Sinem; OZTAS, Oguzhan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a minutiae-based fingerprint recognition system is implemented which includes normalization, enhancement, thinning, extraction of minutiae, elimination of false minutiae, orientation estimation, core point detection, finding reference points and matching processes. Accordingly, the effects of enhancement and elimination of false minutiae processes, methods of reference point determination and low quality fingerprint images on system performance are analyzed using two different ...

  15. Visually mediated species and neighbour recognition in fiddler crabs (Uca mjoebergi and Uca capricornis)

    OpenAIRE

    Detto, Tanya; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.; Jan M Hemmi; Zeil, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Mating signals are often directed at numerous senses and provide information about species identity, gender, receptiveness, individual identity and mate quality. Given the diversity of colourful body patterns in invertebrates, surprisingly few studies have examined the role of these visual signals in mate recognition. Here, we demonstrate the use of claw coloration as a species recognition signal in a fiddler crab (Uca mjoebergi). Furthermore, we show that distinct carapace colour patterns in...

  16. A neuro-fuzzy approach to the reliable recognition of electric earthquake precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantaras, A.; Varley, M. R.; F. Vallianatos; Collins, G.; Holifield, P.

    2004-01-01

    Electric Earthquake Precursor (EEP) recognition is essentially a problem of weak signal detection. An EEP signal, according to the theory of propagating cracks, is usually a very weak electric potential anomaly appearing on the Earth's electric field prior to an earthquake, often unobservable within the electric background, which is significantly stronger and embedded in noise. Furthermore, EEP signals vary in terms of duration and size making reliable recognition even more difficult. An aver...

  17. The enzymes of bacterial census and censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Walter; Tipton, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are a major class of quorum-sensing signals used by Gram-negative bacteria to regulate gene expression in a population-dependent manner, thereby enabling group behavior. Enzymes capable of generating and catabolizing AHL signals are of significant interest for the study of microbial ecology and quorum-sensing pathways, for understanding the systems that bacteria have evolved to interact with small-molecule signals, and for their possible use in therapeutic and industrial applications. The recent structural and functional studies reviewed here provide a detailed insight into the chemistry and enzymology of bacterial communication. PMID:22099187

  18. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: A critical review andpractical guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection is common and accounts for majormorbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Patients withcirrhosis are immunocompromised and increased susceptibilityto develop spontaneous bacterial infections,hospital-acquired infections, and a variety of infectionsfrom uncommon pathogens. Once infection develops,the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokineson a pre-existing hemodynamic dysfunction in cirrhosisfurther predispose the development of serious complicationssuch as shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure, renalfailure, and death. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitisand bacteremia are common in patients with advancedcirrhosis, and are important prognostic landmarks inthe natural history of cirrhosis. Notably, the incidenceof infections from resistant bacteria has increasedsignificantly in healthcare-associated settings. Serumbiomarkers such as procalcitonin may help to improvethe diagnosis of bacterial infection. Preventive measures(e.g. , avoidance, antibiotic prophylaxis, and vaccination),early recognition, and proper management are requiredin order to minimize morbidity and mortality of infectionsin cirrhosis.

  19. Autonomy and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Giusti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo contiene dos partes. En la primera se hace una breve descripción de las carencias de la reflexión moral a las que parece venir al encuentro el concepto de reconocimiento. Charles Taylor y Axel Honneth, protagonistas en estos debates, dan buenas razones para dirigir la discusión hacia el tema del reconocimiento, pero no coinciden ni en su definición, ni en el modo de recuperar la tesis de Hegel, ni tampoco en la forma de tratar la relación entre autonomía y reconocimiento. En la segunda parte se analiza la concepción propiamente hegeliana, con la intención de destacar el nexo esencial, no la ruptura, que existe entre la noción de reconocimiento y el modelo conceptual de la voluntad libre o del espíritu. Abstract:This essay is divided into two parts. The first one is a short description of the deficiencies of moral reflection, which seem to lead the discussion towards the concept of recognition. Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, two of the protagonists of these debates, give very good reasons for turning the argument towards the issue of recognition, but they do not agree on its definition, on the way to recover the Hegelian thesis, or on how to approach the relationship between autonomy and recognition. The second part constitutes an analysis of the Hegelian conception of recognition, in order to highlight the essential link –rather than the rupture– between the notion of recognition and the conceptual model of free will or spirit.

  20. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells...

  1. Neural Mechanisms and Information Processing in Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Ozaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nestmate recognition is a hallmark of social insects. It is based on the match/mismatch of an identity signal carried by members of the society with that of the perceiving individual. While the behavioral response, amicable or aggressive, is very clear, the neural systems underlying recognition are not fully understood. Here we contrast two alternative hypotheses for the neural mechanisms that are responsible for the perception and information processing in recognition. We focus on recognition via chemical signals, as the common modality in social insects. The first, classical, hypothesis states that upon perception of recognition cues by the sensory system the information is passed as is to the antennal lobes and to higher brain centers where the information is deciphered and compared to a neural template. Match or mismatch information is then transferred to some behavior-generating centers where the appropriate response is elicited. An alternative hypothesis, that of “pre-filter mechanism”, posits that the decision as to whether to pass on the information to the central nervous system takes place in the peripheral sensory system. We suggest that, through sensory adaptation, only alien signals are passed on to the brain, specifically to an “aggressive-behavior-switching center”, where the response is generated if the signal is above a certain threshold.

  2. Speech recognition: Acoustic, phonetic and lexical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zue, V. W.

    1985-08-01

    During this reporting period we continued to make progress on the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge. We completed development of a continuous digit recognition system. The system was constructed to investigate the use of acoustic-phonetic knowledge in a speech recognition system. The significant achievements of this study include the development of a soft-failure procedure for lexical access and the discovery of a set of acoustic-phonetic features for verification. We completed a study of the constraints that lexical stress imposes on word recognition. We found that lexical stress information alone can, on the average, reduce the number of word candidates from a large dictionary by more than 80 percent. In conjunction with this study, we successfully developed a system that automatically determines the stress pattern of a word from the acoustic signal. We performed an acoustic study on the characteristics of nasal consonants and nasalized vowels. We have also developed recognition algorithms for nasal murmurs and nasalized vowels in continuous speech. We finished the preliminary development of a system that aligns a speech waveform with the corresponding phonetic transcription.

  3. Shuffling bacterial metabolomes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomason, Brendan; Read, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has a far more significant role than gene duplication in bacterial evolution. This has recently been illustrated by work demonstrating the importance of HGT in the emergence of bacterial metabolic networks, with horizontally acquired genes being placed in peripheral pathways at the outer branches of the networks.

  4. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...... become valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future....

  5. Conflict of interest and signal interference lead to the breakdown of honest signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Popat, Roman; Pollitt, Eric J. G.; Harrison, Freya; Naghra, Hardeep; Hong, Kar Wei; Chan, Kok Gan; Griffin, Ashleigh; Williams, Paul; Brown, Sam; West, Stuart A.; Diggle, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Animals use signals to coordinate a wide range of behaviours, from feeding offspring to predator avoidance. This poses an evolutionary problem, because individuals could potentially signal dishonestly to coerce others into behaving in ways that benefit the signaller. Theory suggests that honest signalling is favoured when individuals share a common interest and signals carry reliable information. Here, we exploit the opportunities offered by bacterial signalling, to test these predictions wit...

  6. RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT IN ACCOUNTANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMA FLORIN CONSTANTIN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition and assessment of the component elements of the annual financial statements’ structures is crucial in order that the information released by them fulfils the qualitative characteristics and the reflected image is a “true and fair view”. Therefore, our approach takes into consideration the recognition and assessment methods for the component elements of the financial statements’ structures, as well as certain possible risks arising from the erroneous recognition or non-recognition of some of these elements.

  7. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  8. 3D modelling and recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan; Alboul, Lyuba; Brink, Willie

    2006-01-01

    3D face recognition is an open field. In this paper we present a method for 3D facial recognition based on Principal Components Analysis. The method uses a relatively large number of facial measurements and ratios and yields reliable recognition. We also highlight our approach to sensor development for fast 3D model acquisition and automatic facial feature extraction.

  9. Projective Methods of Image Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Putyatin, Yevgeniy; Gorohovatsky, Vladimir; Gorohovatsky, Alexey; Peredriy, Elena

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method for image recognition on the base of projections. Radon transform gives an opportunity to map image into space of its projections. Projection properties allow constructing informative features on the base of moments that can be successfully used for invariant recognition. Offered approach gives about 91-97% of correct recognition.

  10. IRIS Based Human Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Jhamb, Vinod Kumar Khera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores iris recognition for personal identification and verification. In this paper a newiris recognition technique is proposed using (Scale Invariant Feature Transform SIFT. Imageprocessingalgorithms have been validated on noised real iris image database. The proposedinnovative technique is computationally effective as well as reliable in terms of recognition rates.

  11. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been demonstrated empirically as part of this work. We propose a new approach for recovering the time order of the off-line handwriting signal. Starting from an over-segmentation of the off-line handwr...

  12. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-04-01

    Gesturing is a natural way of communication between people and is used in our everyday conversations. Hand gesture recognition systems are used in many applications in a wide variety of fields, such as mobile phone applications, smart TVs, video gaming, etc. With the advances in human-computer interaction technology, gesture recognition is becoming an active research area. There are two types of devices to detect gestures; contact based devices and contactless devices. Using ultrasonic waves for determining gestures is one of the ways that is employed in contactless devices. Hand gesture recognition utilizing ultrasonic waves will be the focus of this thesis work. This thesis presents a new method for detecting and classifying a predefined set of hand gestures using a single ultrasonic transmitter and a single ultrasonic receiver. This method uses a linear frequency modulated ultrasonic signal. The ultrasonic signal is designed to meet the project requirements such as the update rate, the range of detection, etc. Also, it needs to overcome hardware limitations such as the limited output power, transmitter, and receiver bandwidth, etc. The method can be adapted to other hardware setups. Gestures are identified based on two main features; range estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized simple hardware setup was used to classify a set of hand gestures with high accuracy. The detection and classification were done using methods of low computational cost. This makes the proposed method to have a great potential for the implementation in many devices including laptops and mobile phones. The predefined set of gestures can be used for many control applications.

  13. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  14. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  15. Vehicle License Plate Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  16. DWT BASED IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYURI MEMANE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The iris recognition is an emerging technology widely used due to various characteristics such as uniqueness,universal, stable, independent of genetics, acceptable etc. The recognition is carried out using discrete wavelet transform (DWT. It includes collection of iris database, carrying out preprocessing (includes separation ofpupil, normalization and feature extraction. Normalization includes polar to rectangular conversion. After this area of interest is selected from which features are extracted using DWT. It generates approximate, horizontal, vertical and diagonal coefficients. These are compared with the stored templates using hamming distance. If thetemplate is match with the stored one than the match ID is displayed. The unauthorized person is indicated by displaying ID equal to ‘00’

  17. Human Recognition System using Cepstral Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna RABHI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for human recognition using the cepstral information. The proposed method consists in extracting the Linear Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (LFCC from each heartbeat in the homomorphic domain. Thus, the Hidden Markov Model (HMM under Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK is used for electrocardiogram (ECG classification. To evaluate the performance of the classifier, the number of coefficients and the number of frequency bands are varied. Concerning the HMM topology, the number of Gaussians and states are also varied. The best rate is obtained with 32 coefficients, 24 frequency bands, 1 Gaussian and 5 states. Further, the method is improved by adding dynamic features: the first order delta (? and energy (E to the coefficients. The approach is evaluated on 18 healthy signals of the MIT_BIH database. The obtained results reveal which LFCC with energy that make a 33 dimensional feature vector leads to the best human recognition rate which is 99.33%.

  18. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    OpenAIRE

    Khaliq Masood; Muhammad Younus Javed; Abdul Basit

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational t...

  19. Automatic pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Petheram, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents a new method for the location, extraction and normalisation of discrete objects found in digital images. The extraction is by means of sub-pixcel contour following around the object. The normalisation obtains and removes the information concerning size, orientation and location of the object within an image. Analyses of the results are carried out to determine the confidence in recognition of patterns, and methods of cross correlation of object descriptions ...

  20. Infrared face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Colin K.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This study continues a previous face recognition investigation using uncooled infrared technology. The database developed in an earlier study is further expanded to include 50 volunteers with 30 facial images from each subject. The automatic image reduction method reduces the pixel size of each image from 160 120 to 60 45 . The study reexamines two linear classification methods: the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher ...

  1. Facial Expression Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Sarode; Prof. Shalini Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for fe...

  2. Recognition of Teaching Excellence*

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Dana; Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, a...

  3. 相关性分析和最大最小蚁群算法用于脉搏信号的情感识别%Affective Recognition from Pulse Signal Using Correlation Analysis and Max-Min Ant Colony Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 刘光远; 赖祥伟

    2012-01-01

    For the affective recognition from pulse signal,a new approach was presented, which combined correlation a-nalysis and max-min ant colony algorithm. The effective feature subset which can identify the affective recognition model with better performance was found. Firstly, sequential backward selection(SBS) was used for sorting the original features. Secondly, the linear correlation coefficient was presented for calculating the correlation between features, and some features were removed which had greater correlation according to the result of sorting. Finally,max-min ant colony algorithm realized feature selection which searched for an optimal subset based on the compact feature subset,and combined with Fisher classifier to finish classification of six emotions which include happiness,surprise,disgust,grief,anger and fear. The experiments show that the proposed approach can find the more stable and effective feature subset from the original feature set, and establish effective affective recognition model.%针对脉搏信号的情感识别问题,提出了一种相关性分析和最大最小蚁群算法相结合的方法,找出了对情感识别模型构建具有较好性能的稳定特征子集.首先将原始特征用序列后向选择(SBS)方法排序,然后利用线性相关系数分析法计算特征间的相关度,并根据排序结果去除部分相关度较大的特征,最后针对筛选后的特征子集用最大最小蚁群算法进行特征选择,并结合Fisher分类器对高兴、惊奇、厌恶、悲伤、愤怒和恐惧6种情感进行分类.实验结果表明,该方法能在原始特征集合中找出更稳定有效的特征子集,从而建立起有效的情感识别模型.

  4. Pharmacological inhibition of quorum sensing for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentzer, Morten; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2003-01-01

    -sensing systems), which orchestrate important temporal events during the infection process, has afforded a novel opportunity to ameliorate bacterial infection by means other than growth inhibition. Compounds able to override bacterial signaling are present in nature. Herein we discuss the known signaling...

  5. A Feature Extraction Toolbox for Pattern Recognition Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, C.W.; Linder, K.E.; Nelson, L.K.

    1998-11-23

    Feature extraction and evaluation are procedures common to the development of all pattern recognition application. These features are the primary pieces of information used to train the pattern recognition engine, whether that engine is a neural network, a fuzzy logic rulebase, or a genetic algorithm. Careful selection of the features to be used by the pattern recognition engine can significantly streamline the overall development and training of the solution for the pattern recognition application. Presently, AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) is developing an integrated, computer-based software package, called the Feature Extraction Toolbox. This package will be used for developing and deploying solutions to generic pattern recognition problems. The toolbox integrates a variety of software techniques for signal processing, feature extraction and evaluation, and pattern recognition, under a single, user-friendly developmental environment. While a feature extraction toolbox can help in the selection process, it is the user that ultimately must make all decisions. A prototype version of this toolbox has been developed and currently is being used for applications development on several projects in support of the Department of Energy. The toolbox has been developed to run on a laptop computer so that it can be taken to a site and used in the field.

  6. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  7. Perfect and near perfect adaptation in a model of bacterial chemotaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Bernardo A.; Tu, Yuhai

    2002-01-01

    The signaling apparatus mediating bacterial chemotaxis can adapt to a wide range of persistent external stimuli. In many cases, the bacterial activity returns to its pre-stimulus level exactly and this "perfect adaptability" is robust against variations in various chemotaxis protein concentrations. We model the bacterial chemotaxis signaling pathway, from ligand binding to CheY phosphorylation. By solving the steady-state equations of the model analytically, we derive a full set of conditions...

  8. Gene network homology in prokaryotes using a similarity search approach: queries of quorum sensing signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Quan

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell-cell communication is mediated by small signaling molecules known as autoinducers. Importantly, autoinducer-2 (AI-2 is synthesized via the enzyme LuxS in over 80 species, some of which mediate their pathogenicity by recognizing and transducing this signal in a cell density dependent manner. AI-2 mediated phenotypes are not well understood however, as the means for signal transduction appears varied among species, while AI-2 synthesis processes appear conserved. Approaches to reveal the recognition pathways of AI-2 will shed light on pathogenicity as we believe recognition of the signal is likely as important, if not more, than the signal synthesis. LMNAST (Local Modular Network Alignment Similarity Tool uses a local similarity search heuristic to study gene order, generating homology hits for the genomic arrangement of a query gene sequence. We develop and apply this tool for the E. coli lac and LuxS regulated (Lsr systems. Lsr is of great interest as it mediates AI-2 uptake and processing. Both test searches generated results that were subsequently analyzed through a number of different lenses, each with its own level of granularity, from a binary phylogenetic representation down to trackback plots that preserve genomic organizational information. Through a survey of these results, we demonstrate the identification of orthologs, paralogs, hitchhiking genes, gene loss, gene rearrangement within an operon context, and also horizontal gene transfer (HGT. We found a variety of operon structures that are consistent with our hypothesis that the signal can be perceived and transduced by homologous protein complexes, while their regulation may be key to defining subsequent phenotypic behavior.

  9. Prerequisites for Affective Signal Processing (ASP)

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, van den, Pim; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Healey, Jennifer A.; Encarnacao, P.; Veloso, A.

    2009-01-01

    Although emotions are embraced by science, their recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of affect, its signals, features, and classification methods, we provide understanding for the problems encountered. Next, we identify the prerequisites for successful Affective Signal Processing: validation (e.g., mapping of constructs on signals), triangulation, a physiology-driven approach, and contributions of the signal processing community. Using these directives, ...

  10. Molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial speck disease resistance of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Y.-Q.

    1998-01-01

    An important recent advance in the field of plant-microbe interactions has been the cloning of genes that confer resistance to specific viruses, bacteria, fungi or nematodes. Disease resistance (R) genes encode proteins with predicted structural motifs consistent with them having roles in signal recognition and transduction. The future challenge is to understand how R gene products specifically perceive defence-eliciting signals from the pathogen and transduce those signals to pathways that l...

  11. Deducing receptor signaling parameters from in vivo analysis: LuxN/AI-1 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swem, Lee R.; Swem, Danielle L.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Quorum sensing, a process of bacterial cell-cell communication, relies on production, detection, and response to autoinducer signaling molecules. Here we focus on LuxN, a nine transmembrane domain protein from Vibrio harveyi, and the founding example of membrane-bound receptors for acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducers. Previously, nothing was known about signal recognition by membrane-bound AHL receptors. We used mutagenesis and suppressor analyses to identify the AHL-binding domain of LuxN, and discovered LuxN mutants that confer decreased and increased AHL sensitivity. Our analysis of dose-response curves of multiple LuxN mutants pins these inverse phenotypes on quantifiable opposing shifts in the free-energy bias of LuxN for its kinase and phosphatase states. To extract signaling parameters, we exploited a strong LuxN antagonist, one of fifteen small-molecule antagonists we identified. We find that quorum-sensing-mediated communication can be manipulated positively and negatively to control bacterial behavior, and that signaling parameters can be deduced from in vivo data. PMID:18692469

  12. Facial Expression Recognition via Non-Negative Least-Squares Sparse Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Chen; Shiqing Zhang; Xiaoming Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Sparse coding is an active research subject in signal processing, computer vision, and pattern recognition. A novel method of facial expression recognition via non-negative least squares (NNLS) sparse coding is presented in this paper. The NNLS sparse coding is used to form a facial expression classifier. To testify the performance of the presented method, local binary patterns (LBP) and the raw pixels are extracted for facial feature representation. Facial expression recognition experiments ...

  13. A Classifier Fusion System with Verification Module for Improving Recognition Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a novel classifier fusion system to congregate the recognition results of an ANN classifier and a modified KNN classifier. The recognition results are verified by the recognition results of SVM. As two entirely different classification techniques (image-based OCR and 1-D digital signal SVM classification) are applied to the system, experiments have demonstrated that the proposed classifier fusion system with SVM verification module can significantly increase the sys...

  14. Vowel recognition of patients after total laryngectomy using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and mouth contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietruch Rafal W.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a problem of isolated vowels recognition in patients following total laryngectomy. The visual and acoustic speech modalities were separately incorporated in the machine learning algorithms. The authors used the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients as acoustic descriptors of a speech signal. A lip contour was extracted from a video signal of the speaking faces using OpenCV software library. In a vowels recognition procedure the three types of classifiers were used for comparison purposes: Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines and Naive Bayes. The highest recognition rate was evaluated using Support Vector Machines. For a group of the laryngectomees having a different quality of speech the authors achieved 75% for acoustic and 40% for visual recognition performances. The authors obtained higher recognition rate than in a previous research where 10 cross-sectional areas of a vocal tract were estimated. Using presented image processing algorithm the visual features can be extracted automatically from a video signal.

  15. Source Separation via Spectral Masking for Speech Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandes Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an insight into the use of spectral masking techniques in time-frequency domain, as a preprocessing step for the speech signal recognition. Speech recognition systems have their performance negatively affected in noisy environments or in the presence of other speech signals. The limits of these masking techniques for different levels of the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. We show the robustness of the spectral masking techniques against four types of noise: white, pink, brown and human speech noise (bubble noise. The main contribution of this work is to analyze the performance limits of recognition systems  using spectral masking. We obtain an increase of 18% on the speech hit rate, when the speech signals were corrupted by other speech signals or bubble noise, with different signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 1, 10 and 20 dB. On the other hand, applying the ideal binary masks to mixtures corrupted by white, pink and brown noise, results an average growth of 9% on the speech hit rate, with the same different signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results suggest that the masking spectral techniques are more suitable for the case when it is applied a bubble noise, which is produced by human speech, than for the case of applying white, pink and brown noise.

  16. Electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern modeling and recognition via deterministic learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xunde DONG; Cong WANG; Junmin HU; Shanxing OU

    2014-01-01

    A method for electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern modeling and recognition via deterministic learning theory is presented in this paper. Instead of recognizing ECG signals beat-to-beat, each ECG signal which contains a number of heartbeats is recognized. The method is based entirely on the temporal features (i.e., the dynamics) of ECG patterns, which contains complete information of ECG patterns. A dynamical model is employed to demonstrate the method, which is capable of generating synthetic ECG signals. Based on the dynamical model, the method is shown in the following two phases:the identification (training) phase and the recognition (test) phase. In the identification phase, the dynamics of ECG patterns is accurately modeled and expressed as constant RBF neural weights through the deterministic learning. In the recognition phase, the modeling results are used for ECG pattern recognition. The main feature of the proposed method is that the dynamics of ECG patterns is accurately modeled and is used for ECG pattern recognition. Experimental studies using the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) database are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. Facial Emotion Recognition Using Context Based Multimodal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Metri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play a crucial role in person to person interaction. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in improving all aspects of interaction between humans and computers. The ability to understand human emotions is desirable for the computer in several applications especially by observing facial expressions. This paper explores a ways of human-computer interaction that enable the computer to be more aware of the user’s emotional expressions we present a approach for the emotion recognition from a facial expression, hand and body posture. Our model uses multimodal emotion recognition system in which we use two different models for facial expression recognition and for hand and body posture recognition and then combining the result of both classifiers using a third classifier which give the resulting emotion . Multimodal system gives more accurate result than a signal or bimodal system

  18. 3D Face Recognition with Sparse Spherical Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Llonch, R Sala; Tosic, I; Frossard, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of 3D face recognition using simultaneous sparse approximations on the sphere. The 3D face point clouds are first aligned with a novel and fully automated registration process. They are then represented as signals on the 2D sphere in order to preserve depth and geometry information. Next, we implement a dimensionality reduction process with simultaneous sparse approximations and subspace projection. It permits to represent each 3D face by only a few spherical functions that are able to capture the salient facial characteristics, and hence to preserve the discriminant facial information. We eventually perform recognition by effective matching in the reduced space, where Linear Discriminant Analysis can be further activated for improved recognition performance. The 3D face recognition algorithm is evaluated on the FRGC v.1.0 data set, where it is shown to outperform classical state-of-the-art solutions that work with depth images.

  19. Optical Correlator for Face Recognition Using Collinear Holographic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2006-08-01

    We have constructed an optical correlator for fast face recognition. Recognition rate can be markedly improved, if reference images are optically recorded and can be accessed directly without converting them to digital signals. In addition, a large capacity of optical storage allows us to increase the size of the reference database. We propose a new optical correlator that integrates the optical correlation technology used in our face recognition system and collinear holography. From preliminary correlation experiments using the collinear optical set-up, we achieved excellent performance of high correlation peaks and low error rates. We expect an optical correlation of 10 μs/frame, i.e., 100,000 face/s when applied to face recognition. This system can also be applied to various image searches.

  20. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...