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Sample records for bacterial recovery viability

  1. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy: Study of Bacterial Recovery Viability and Potential Development of Resistance after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Anabela; Carvalho, Carla M. B.; Faustino, Maria A.; Neves, Maria G. P. M. S.; Tomé, João P. C.; Tomé, Augusto C.; Cavaleiro, José A. S.; Cunha, Ângela; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Alves, Eliana; Almeida, Adelaide

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has emerged in the clinical field as a potential alternative to antibiotics to treat microbial infections. No cases of microbial viability recovery or any resistance mechanisms against it are yet known. 5,10,15-tris(1-Methylpyridinium-4-yl)-20-(pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin triiodide (Tri-Py+-Me-PF) was used as photosensitizer. Vibrio fischeri and recombinant Escherichia coli were the studied bacteria. To determine the bacterial recovery after treatment, Tri-Py+-Me-PF (5.0 μM) was added to bacterial suspensions and the samples were irradiated with white light (40 W m−2) for 270 minutes. Then, the samples were protected from light, aliquots collected at different intervals and the bioluminescence measured. To assess the development of resistance after treatment, bacterial suspensions were exposed to white light (25 minutes), in presence of 5.0 μM of Tri-Py+-Me-PF (99.99% of inactivation) and plated. After the first irradiation period, surviving colonies were collected from the plate and resuspended in PBS. Then, an identical protocol was used and repeated ten times for each bacterium. The results suggest that aPDT using Tri-Py+-Me-PF represents a promising approach to efficiently destroy bacteria since after a single treatment these microorganisms do not recover their viability and after ten generations of partially photosensitized cells neither of the bacteria develop resistance to the photodynamic process. PMID:20161973

  2. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy: Study of Bacterial Recovery Viability and Potential Development of Resistance after Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has emerged in the clinical field as a potential alternative to antibiotics to treat microbial infections. No cases of microbial viability recovery or any resistance mechanisms against it are yet known. 5,10,15-tris(1-Methylpyridinium-4-yl-20-(pentafluorophenyl-porphyrin triiodide (Tri-Py+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer. Vibrio fischeri and recombinant Escherichia coli were the studied bacteria. To determine the bacterial recovery after treatment, Tri-Py+-Me-PF (5.0 µM was added to bacterial suspensions and the samples were irradiated with white light (40 W m-2 for 270 minutes. Then, the samples were protected from light, aliquots collected at different intervals and the bioluminescence measured. To assess the development of resistance after treatment, bacterial suspensions were exposed to white light (25 minutes, in presence of 5.0 μM of Tri-Py+-Me-PF (99.99% of inactivation and plated. After the first irradiation period, surviving colonies were collected from the plate and resuspended in PBS. Then, an identical protocol was used and repeated ten times for each bacterium. The results suggest that aPDT using Tri-Py+-Me-PF represents a promising approach to efficiently destroy bacteria since after a single treatment these microorganisms do not recover their viability and after ten generations of partially photosensitized cells neither of the bacteria develop resistance to the photodynamic process.

  3. Effect of plastic catheter material on bacterial adherence and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, G; Pascual, A; Perea, E J

    1991-06-01

    The kinetics of adherence of single isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli to catheters made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Teflon, siliconised latex, polyurethane and Vialon was evaluated by a radiometric assay. Radiolabelled bacteria (10(8) cfu/ml) were incubated in vials containing 1-cm lengths of catheter for up to 3 days. The peak of maximal adherence to each biomaterial was reached after 24 h for P. aeruginosa and after 72 h for the other strains. Bacterial adherence to PVC and siliconised latex was significantly higher (2-6 times; p less than 0.05) than to the other biomaterials for all the strains. The lowest values of adherence were observed with polyurethane and Vialon for the staphylococci but with Teflon for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Bacterial viability and growth was evaluated in eluates obtained from incubation of segments of each catheter in buffer for 24 h. None of the eluates affected the viability of the staphylococci. However, all of them, significantly increased the growth of E. coli and P. aeruginosa with the exception of the eluate from siliconised latex, in which the inoculum count was reduced to an undetectable level for E. coli. We conclude that bacterial adherence to catheters may depend in part on the nature of the biomaterial and that certain substances eluted from the catheters may affect the viability and growth of different micro-organisms. PMID:1905357

  4. Bacterial plasmolysis as a physical indicator of viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, D.R.; Choi, A.; Wolfaardt, G.M.; Caldwell, D.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    Bacterial plasmolytic response to osmotic stress was evaluated as a physical indicator of membrane integrity and hence cellular viability. Digital image analysis and either low-magnification dark-field, high-magnification phase-contrast, or confocal laser microscopy, in conjunction with pulse application of a 1.5 NaCl solution, were used as a rapid, growth-independent method for quantifying the viability of attached biofilm bacteria. Bacteria were considered viable if they were capable of plasmolysis, as quantified by changes in cell area or light scattering. When viable Salmonella enteritidis biofilm cells were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, and {approximately}50% reduction in cell protoplast area (as determined by high-magnification phase-contrast microscopy) was observed. In contrast, heat- and formalin-killed S. enteritidis cells were unresponsive to NaCl treatment. Furthermore, the mean dark-field cell area of a viable, sessile population of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells ({approximately}1,100 cells) increased by 50% as a result of salt stress, from 1,035 {+-} 162 to 1,588 {+-} 284 {mu}m{sup 2}, because of increased light scattering of the condensed, plasmolyzed cell protoplast. Light scattering of ethanol-killed control biofilm cells underwent little change following salt stress. When the results obtained with scanning confocal laser microscopy and a fluorescent viability probe were compared with the accuracy of plasmolysis as a viability indicator, it was found that the two methods were in close agreement. Used alone or in conjunction with fluorochemical probes, physical indicators of membrane integrity provided a rapid, direct, growth-independent method for determining the viability of biofilm bacteria known to undergo plasmolysis, and this method may have value during efficacy testing of biocides and other antimicrobial agents when nondestructive time course analyses and required. 42 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Bacterial melanin promotes recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gevorkyan, Olga. V.; Meliksetyan, Irina B.; Petrosyan, Tigran R.; Hovsepyan, Anichka S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial melanin, obtained from the mutant strain of Bacillus Thuringiensis, has been shown to promote recovery after central nervous system injury. It is hypothesized, in this study, that bacterial melanin can promote structural and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve transection were intramuscularly administered bacterial melanin. The sciatic nerve transected rats that did not receive intramuscular administration of bacterial melanin served as...

  6. Bacterial melanin promotes recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga V Gevorkyan; Irina B Meliksetyan; Tigran R Petrosyan; Anichka S Hovsepyan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial melanin, obtained from the mutant strain ofBacillus Thuringiensis, has been shown to promote recovery after central nervous system injury. It is hypothesized, in this study, that bacterial melanin can promote structural and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve transection were intramuscularly administered bacterial melanin. The sciatic nerve transected rats that did not receive intramuscular administration of bacterial melanin served as controls. Behavior tests showed that compared to control rats, the time taken for instrumental conditioned relfex recovery was signiifcantly shorter and the ability to keep the balance on the rotating bar was signiifcantly better in bacterial melanin-treated rats. Histomor-phological tests showed that bacterial melanin promoted axon regeneration after sciatic nerve injury. These ifndings suggest that bacterial melanin exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve, contributes to limb motor function recovery, and therefore can be used for rehabil-itation treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  7. Impact of ZnO and Ag Nanoparticles on Bacterial Growth and Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M. S.; Digiovanni, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    Hundreds of consumer products containing nanomaterials are currently available in the U.S., including computers, clothing, cosmetics, sports equipment, medical devices and product packaging. Metallic nanoparticles can be embedded in or coated on product surfaces to provide antimicrobial, deodorizing, and stain- resistant properties. Although these products have the potential to provide significant benefit to the user, the impact of these products on the environment remains largely unknown. The purpose of this project is to study the effect of metallic nanoparticles released to the environment on bacterial growth and viability. Inhibition of bacterial growth was tested by adding doses of suspended ZnO and Ag nanoparticles into luria broth prior to inoculation of Escherichia coli cells. ZnO particles (approximately 40 nm) were obtained commercially and Ag particles (12-14 nm) were fabricated by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride. Toxicity assays were performed to test the viability of E. coli cells exposed to both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit (Invitrogen). Live cells stain green whereas cells with compromised membranes that are considered dead or dying stain red. Cells were first grown, stained, and exposed to varying doses of metallic nanoparticles, and then bacterial viability was measured hourly using fluorescence microscopy. Results indicate that both ZnO and Ag nanoparticles inhibit the growth of E. coli in liquid media. Preliminary results from toxicity assays confirm the toxic effect of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles on active cell cultures. Calculated death rates resulting from analyses of toxicity studies will be presented.

  8. Transcriptional activity around bacterial cell death reveals molecular biomarkers for cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuren Frank H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteriology, the ability to grow in selective media and to form colonies on nutrient agar plates is routinely used as a retrospective criterion for the detection of living bacteria. However, the utilization of indicators for bacterial viability-such as the presence of specific transcripts or membrane integrity-would overcome bias introduced by cultivation and reduces the time span of analysis from initiation to read out. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between transcriptional activity, membrane integrity and cultivation-based viability in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Results We present microbiological, cytological and molecular analyses of the physiological response to lethal heat stress under accurately defined conditions through systematic sampling of bacteria from a single culture exposed to gradually increasing temperatures. We identified a coherent transcriptional program including known heat shock responses as well as the rapid expression of a small number of sporulation and competence genes, the latter only known to be active in the stationary growth phase. Conclusion The observed coordinated gene expression continued even after cell death, in other words after all bacteria permanently lost their ability to reproduce. Transcription of a very limited number of genes correlated with cell viability under the applied killing regime. The transcripts of the expressed genes in living bacteria – but silent in dead bacteria-include those of essential genes encoding chaperones of the protein folding machinery and can serve as molecular biomarkers for bacterial cell viability.

  9. RECOVERY OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES (PHAs) FROM BACTERIAL CELLS USING ENZYMATIC PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Marsudi

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are intracellular material accumulated by several bacteria. Commercial production of PHAs faces the issue of high production cost especially substrate cost and recovery/separation cost. An alternative to reduce the production cost is to use enzyme and or chemical to recover PHAs from bacterial cells. Recovery of PHAs from bacterial cells was done using enzyme, chemical, and a mixture of enzyme and chemical. Enzyme (s) and or chemical(s) were added into culture bro...

  10. RECOVERY OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES (PHAs FROM BACTERIAL CELLS USING ENZYMATIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marsudi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are intracellular material accumulated by several bacteria. Commercial production of PHAs faces the issue of high production cost especially substrate cost and recovery/separation cost. An alternative to reduce the production cost is to use enzyme and or chemical to recover PHAs from bacterial cells. Recovery of PHAs from bacterial cells was done using enzyme, chemical, and a mixture of enzyme and chemical. Enzyme (s and or chemical(s were added into culture broth to disrupt cells after adjusting pH and temperature of the culture broth. Treatment by adding enzyme or chemical only into culture broth showed a low level of PHAs recovered from bacterial cells. Treatment by adding a mixture of enzymes and chemicals showed the best result among 22 examined combinations, i.e. a mixture of EDTA, lisozyme, papain enzyme, and SDS. This combination gave a PHA recovery of 65 % w/w.

  11. Platelet viability (aggregation, migration, recovery) after radiolabelling from hypercholesterolemcis using various tracers (oxine, oxine-sulphate, tropolone, MPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier results indicated a diminished labelling efficiency and recovery negatively linked to actual cholesterol and lipoprotein values in hyperlipoproteinemics. This study was designed to examine whether other alternative tracers exhibit similar results and to study the influence on platelet viability in the presence or absence of PGI2. We demonstrate that no substantial difference occurs between the four tracers concerning labelling efficiency and recovery in normo and hypercholesterolemics. Cholesterol severely affects the labelling parameters for all the tracers to a comparable extent. The absolute platelet function varies considerably, however, the percent changes in normo and hypercholesterolemics seen before and after the labelling procedure do not differ significantly. PGI2 improves recovery in general, however, without affecting labelling efficiency or in vitro viability testing. As prolonged incubation further increases labelling efficiency, the presence and extent of hyperlipoproteinemia should be known in order to avoid poor labelling and viability and subsequently poor clinical results. (orig.)

  12. Bacterial abundance, activity, and viability in the eutrophic River Warnow, northeast Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, H M; Karsten, U; Schumann, R

    2006-01-01

    The River Warnow is the drinking water source for the city of Rostock. Its eutrophic status is accompanied by high amounts of bacteria, which may reach up to 24 x 10(6) cells mL(-1) as recorded during a seasonal study in 2002. Because the river is eutrophic and also heavily loaded with organic matter, this burden is a problem for drinking water purification, as it must be removed completely to not trigger new bacterial growth in the pipeline network. Therefore, restoration measures in the river have to be planned, and bacteria have to be favored as decomposers. That includes the investigation of the physiological state of bacteria in situ. Viable and active cells in the lower reaches of River Warnow were estimated using a broad set of methods. Intact bacteria were investigated by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit, containing a mixture of permeant and impermeant nucleic acid stains. Cells with ribosomes were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization with the EUB338 oligonucleotide probe. Intact cells and ribosome-containing bacteria represented 24% of total numbers stained by 4'6,-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or 66 and 62%, respectively, in relation to all bacteria visualized by the LIVE/DEAD kit. Both fractions were considered as viable, although the fraction of RIB + bacteria is most likely underestimated by the protocol applied. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride (CTC) was applied to mark respiring bacteria. The esterase substrate CellTracker Green 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate showed cells with intracellular hydrolytic activity. Whereas 1.5% of DAPI-stained bacteria were observed as respiring, 3.8% exhibited intracellular hydrolytic activity on average. If these active fractions were calculated as the percentages of intact cells, much higher fractions of 5.4% were respiring and 16% hydrolytic. Temperature was a main factor influencing total and viable cell numbers simultaneously. The results confirm that there are different

  13. Bacterial viability and physical properties of antibacterially modified experimental dental resin composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rüttermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the antibacterial effect and the effect on the material properties of a novel delivery system with Irgasan as active agent and methacrylated polymerizable Irgasan when added to experimental dental resin composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A delivery system based on novel polymeric hollow beads, loaded with Irgasan and methacrylated polymerizable Irgasan as active agents were used to manufacture three commonly formulated experimental resin composites. The non-modified resin was used as standard (ST. Material A contained the delivery system providing 4 % (m/m Irgasan, material B contained 4 % (m/m methacrylated Irgasan and material C 8 % (m/m methacrylated Irgasan. Flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, water sorption (WS, solubility (SL, surface roughness Ra, polymerization shrinkage, contact angle Θ, total surface free energy γS and its apolar γS (LW, polar γS (AB, Lewis acid γS (+and base γS (- term as well as bacterial viability were determined. Significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: The materials A to C were not unacceptably influenced by the modifications and achieved the minimum values for FS, WS and SL as requested by EN ISO 4049 and did not differ from ST what was also found for Ra. Only A had lower FM than ST. Θ of A and C was higher and γS (AB of A and B was lower than of ST. Materials A to C had higher γS (+ than ST. The antibacterial effect of materials A to C was significantly increased when compared with ST meaning that significantly less vital cells were found. CONCLUSION: Dental resin composites with small quantities of a novel antibacterially doped delivery system or with an antibacterial monomer provided acceptable physical properties and good antibacterial effectiveness. The sorption material being part of the delivery system can be used as a vehicle for any other active agent.

  14. Viability of Micro-Organisms Involved in Outbreaks of Bacterial Food Borne Diseases in Dry Extruded Pet Food

    OpenAIRE

    C. Adelantado; Lopez, S.(Instituto de F ısica Corpuscular (IFIC) and Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica and Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), University of Valencia and CSIC, Valencia, Spain); R. Inglada; L. Vilaseca; M.A. Calvo

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the viability of the main micro-organisms involved in outbreaks of bacterial food borne diseases together with two fungal strains experimentally inoculated into six different commercial dry extruded pet foods during six months. Growth of all micro-organisms analyzed decreased along the experimental period, indicating that dry extruded pet food is not an adequate substrate for microbial development and it is safe as pet food since most pathogenic micro-organisms did not ada...

  15. Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug

  16. Energetic and economic viability of olive stone recovery as a renewable energy source: a Southern Italy case study

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Parenti; Piernicola Masella; Lorenzo Guerrini; Antonio Guiso; Paolo Spugnoli

    2014-01-01

    The recovery of olive stones for biofuel is becoming increasingly widespread in olive milling plants. In this study we look at the economic and energetic benefits of using a de-stoner machine in a small-to-medium sized oil milling plant. The performance of the olive stone recovery system was evaluated over a full olive oil production season. The energetic viability of the de-stoner was assessed using a Life Cycle Assessment approach, and the break-even point was achieved when about 56 tons of...

  17. Resveratrol Antagonizes Antimicrobial Lethality and Stimulates Recovery of Bacterial Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanli; Zhou, Jinan; Qu, Yilin; Yang, Xinguang; Shi, Guojing; Wang, Xiuhong; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, peroxide, and hydroxyl radical) are thought to contribute to the rapid bactericidal activity of diverse antimicrobial agents. The possibility has been raised that consumption of antioxidants in food may interfere with the lethal action of antimicrobials. Whether nutritional supplements containing antioxidant activity are also likely to interfere with antimicrobial lethality is unknown. To examine this possibility, resveratrol, a popular antioxidant dietary supplement, was added to cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that were then treated with antimicrobial and assayed for bacterial survival and the recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Resveratrol, at concentrations likely to be present during human consumption, caused a 2- to 3-fold reduction in killing during a 2-hr treatment with moxifloxacin or kanamycin. At higher, but still subinhibitory concentrations, resveratrol reduced antimicrobial lethality by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Resveratrol also reduced the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) characteristic of treatment with quinolone (oxolinic acid). These data support the general idea that the lethal activity of some antimicrobials involves ROS. Surprisingly, subinhibitory concentrations of resveratrol promoted (2- to 6-fold) the recovery of rifampicin-resistant mutants arising from the action of ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or daptomycin. This result is consistent with resveratrol reducing ROS to sublethal levels that are still mutagenic, while the absence of resveratrol allows ROS levels to high enough to kill mutagenized cells. Suppression of antimicrobial lethality and promotion of mutant recovery by resveratrol suggests that the antioxidant may contribute to the emergence of resistance to several antimicrobials, especially if new derivatives and/or formulations of resveratrol markedly increase bioavailability. PMID:27045517

  18. Disinfection of titanium dioxide nanotubes using super-oxidized water decrease bacterial viability without disrupting osteoblast behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Partida, Ernesto; Valdez-Salas, Benjamín; Escamilla, Alan; Curiel, Mario; Valdez-Salas, Ernesto; Nedev, Nicola; Bastidas, Jose M

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes (NTs) on Ti6Al4V alloy were synthesized by anodization using a commercially available super-oxidized water (SOW). The NT surfaces were sterilized by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and disinfected using SOW. The adhesion and cellular morphology of pig periosteal osteoblast (PPO) cells and the behavior of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultured on the sterilized and disinfected surfaces were investigated. A non-anodized Ti6Al4V disc sterilized by UV irradiation (without SOW) was used as control. The results of this study reveal that the adhesion, morphology and filopodia development of PPO cells in NTs are dramatically improved, suggesting that SOW cleaning may not disrupt the benefits obtained by NTs. Significantly decreased bacterial viability in NTs after cleaning with SOW and comparing with non-cleaned NTs was seen. The results suggest that UV and SOW could be a recommendable method for implant sterilization and disinfection without altering osteoblast behavior while decreasing bacterial viability. PMID:26706527

  19. Dendrimer mediated clustering of bacteria: improved aggregation and evaluation of bacterial response and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leire, Emma; Amaral, Sandra P; Louzao, Iria; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron; Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco

    2016-06-24

    Here, we evaluate how cationic gallic acid-triethylene glycol (GATG) dendrimers interact with bacteria and their potential to develop new antimicrobials. We demonstrate that GATG dendrimers functionalised with primary amines in their periphery can induce the formation of clusters in Vibrio harveyi, an opportunistic marine pathogen, in a generation dependent manner. Moreover, these cationic GATG dendrimers demonstrate an improved ability to induce cluster formation when compared to poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide) [p(DMAPMAm)], a cationic linear polymer previously shown to cluster bacteria. Viability of the bacteria within the formed clusters and evaluation of quorum sensing controlled phenotypes (i.e. light production in V. harveyi) suggest that GATG dendrimers may be activating microbial responses by maintaining a high concentration of quorum sensing signals inside the clusters while increasing permeability of the microbial outer membranes. Thus, the reported GATG dendrimers constitute a valuable platform for the development of novel antimicrobial materials that can target microbial viability and/or virulence. PMID:27127812

  20. Energetic and economic viability of olive stone recovery as a renewable energy source: a Southern Italy case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of olive stones for biofuel is becoming increasingly widespread in olive milling plants. In this study we look at the economic and energetic benefits of using a de-stoner machine in a small-to-medium sized oil milling plant. The performance of the olive stone recovery system was evaluated over a full olive oil production season. The energetic viability of the de-stoner was assessed using a Life Cycle Assessment approach, and the break-even point was achieved when about 56 tons of olives had been processed, which is less than the annual production of the mill in question. Similarly, in economic terms, the machine covered its costs after about a quarter of its technical life.

  1. Viability of adhered bacterial cells: tracking MinD protein oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matt; Colville, Keegan; Schultz-Nielsen, Chris; Jericho, Manfred; Dutcher, John

    2010-03-01

    To study bacterial cells using atomic force microscopy, it is necessary to immobilize the cells on a substrate. Because bacterial cells and common substrates such as glass and mica have a net negative charge, positively charged polymers such as poly-L-lysine (PLL) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) are commonly used as adhesion layers. However, the use of adhesion polymers could stress the cell and even render it inviable. Viable E. coli cells use oscillations of Min proteins along the axis of the rod-shaped cells to ensure accurate cell division. By tagging MinD proteins with GFP, oscillations can be observed using fluorescence microscopy. For a healthy cell in an ideal environment, the oscillation period is measured to be ˜40 s. Prior experiments have shown that PLL increases the oscillation period significantly (up to 80%). In the present study, we have used epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) to track MinD protein oscillations in E. coli bacteria adhered to a variety of positively charged polymers on mica as a function of polymer surface coverage.

  2. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. ► Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH4/m2 hr, respectively. ► At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. ► The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH4 flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 ± 0.014, 0.224 ± 0.012 and 0.237 ± 0.008 l CH4/m2 hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m2 hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06–0.89 l/m2 hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42–2.46 l/m2 hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L0) values in the range of 19.8–102.6 m3/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

  3. Effects of in vitro aging and cell growth on the viability and recovery of human diploid fibroblasts, TIG-1, after freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, H; Yamamoto, K

    1981-06-01

    The viability and the recovery (cell attachment to the dish) after thawing of human diploid fibroblasts (TIG-1) frozen by four different methods were studied at different passages. Improved results were observed in a medium of 30% fetal bovine serum plus 15% glycerol, compared with the conventional medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum plus 10% glycerol. Centrifugation to remove glycerol immediately after thawing had a negative effect on the viability and recovery of cells. The recovery of cells after freezing and thawing showed a maximal value in the middle of phase II (PD 35) during the finite lifespan of the cell (average PD 67). This results indicates that the cells at early and late passages are sensitive to injury by freezing and thawing. The modified method yielded improved recovery, especially in the cells at early and late passages, except for the extremely senile stage. The recovery was also affected by the state of cell growth after inoculation. PMID:7266075

  4. Functional recovery of biofilm bacterial communities after copper exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential of bacterial communities in biofilms to recover after copper exposure was investigated. Biofilms grown outdoor in shallow water on glass dishes were exposed in the laboratory to 0.6, 2.1, 6.8 μmol/l copper amended surface water and a reference and subsequently to un-amended surface water. Transitions of bacterial communities were characterised with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and community-level physiological profiles (CLPP). Exposure to 6.8 μmol/l copper provoked distinct changes in DGGE profiles of bacterial consortia, which did not reverse upon copper depuration. Exposure to 2.1 and 6.8 μmol/l copper was found to induce marked changes in CLPP of bacterial communities that proved to be reversible during copper depuration. Furthermore, copper exposure induced the development of copper-tolerance, which was partially lost during depuration. It is concluded that bacterial communities exposed to copper contaminated water for a period of 26 days are capable to restore their metabolic attributes after introduction of unpolluted water in aquaria for 28 days. - Genetically different bacterial communities can have similar functions and tolerance to copper

  5. Coastal bacterial viability and production in the eastern English Channel: A case study during a Phaeocystis globosa bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, D.; Artigas, L. F.; Jauzein, C.; Lizon, F.; Cornille, V.

    2006-10-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial standing stocks (total and viable cells) and production were determined in the coastal surface waters of the eastern English Channel, during different stages of a phytoplankton succession. Two coastal zones of variable freshwater influence were surveyed within the 'coastal flow system' (Wimereux and Somme Bay) where massive and recurrent Phaeocystis globosa blooms take place in spring. The proportion of intact (MEM+) cells, assessed by the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ (L/D) method, varied from 15 to 94% at the two coastal stations studied (median of 46%). MEM+ and total (DAPI) cell counts were significantly correlated over the study period, whereas the higher proportion of MEM+ cells did not correspond to an elevated bacterial cell production (BP). Low levels of living (potentially active) cells were nevertheless responsible for the high productivity levels within the bacterial community when the P. globosa bloom declined. Our study revealed that the bacterial carbon production/primary production ratios (BCP/PP) showed broad variations (7 to 111%) within each site, going from low values (7-16%) when the bloom was the most productive, to higher values (61-111%) at the end of the bloom. This suggested (i) a temporal uncoupling between bacteria and phytoplankton throughout the bloom duration and (ii) a drastic change of the amount of PP potentially processed by the bacterial community among high and low productive periods. The BCP increase after the decline of the P. globosa bloom implies that, at this time, a large part of the phytoplankton-derived organic matter (OM) was remineralised via the bacterial heterotrophic production. With respect to the L/D results, this bacterial remineralisation was due to a small yet productive total cell fraction.

  6. Correlation of bacterial viability with uptake of (14C) acetate into phenolic glycolipid-1 of Mycobacterium leprae within Schwannoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of Mycobacterium leprae, maintained within 33B Schwannoma cells, was estimated in terms of incorporation of (14C) acetate into its specific phenolic glycolipid-1. This measure of viability was correlated with two other assays, viz., fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide staining and mouse footpad growth. Observation of a 2-fold increase in the number of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae over an experimental period of 12 days also corroborated this contention. Furthermore, on addition of anti-leprosy drugs to these intracellular Mycobacterium leprae there was significant decrease in phenolic glycolipid-1 synthesis indicative of loss of viability of the organisms. This study also established the importance of the host cell for active bacillary metabolism, as Mycobacterium leprae maintained in cell-free conditions showed no incorporation into phenolic glycolipid-1. Moreover, compromising the host's protein synthesis capacity with cycloheximide, also led to reduction in bacillary metabolism. As this system measures the metabolic synthesis of a unique Mycobacterium leprae component, it would be useful for development and screening of compounds acting against specific bacillary targets. (author). 19 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Bacterial community diversity in a low-permeability oil reservoir and its potential for enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Guang-Qing; Luo, Yi-Jing; Song, Zhao-Zheng; Zhang, Ji-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of indigenous bacterial community and the functional species in the water samples from three production wells of a low permeability oil reservoir was investigated by high-throughput sequencing technology. The potential of application of indigenous bacteria for enhancing oil recovery was evaluated by examination of the effect of bacterial stimulation on the formation water-oil-rock surface interactions and micromodel test. The results showed that production well 88-122 had the most diverse bacterial community and functional species. The broth of indigenous bacteria stimulated by an organic nutrient activator at aerobic condition changed the wettability of the rock surface from oil-wet to water-wet. Micromodel test results showed that flooding using stimulated indigenous bacteria following water flooding improved oil recovery by 6.9% and 7.7% in fractured and unfractured micromodels, respectively. Therefore, the zone of low permeability reservoir has a great potential for indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery. PMID:23994957

  8. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field

  9. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike; Piceno, Deborah; Stone, Bill; Emanuele, Mark; Sheffield, Jon; Wells, Jeff; Westbrook, Bill; Karnes, Karl; Pearson, Matt; Heisler, Stuart

    2000-04-24

    The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.

  10. Removal of Trace Elements by Cupric Oxide Nanoparticles from Uranium In Situ Recovery Bleed Water and Its Effect on Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilz, Jodi R; Reddy, K J; Nair, Sreejayan; Johnson, Thomas E; Tjalkens, Ronald B; Krueger, Kem P; Clark, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    In situ recovery (ISR) is the predominant method of uranium extraction in the United States. During ISR, uranium is leached from an ore body and extracted through ion exchange. The resultant production bleed water (PBW) contains contaminants such as arsenic and other heavy metals. Samples of PBW from an active ISR uranium facility were treated with cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). CuO-NP treatment of PBW reduced priority contaminants, including arsenic, selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Untreated and CuO-NP treated PBW was used as the liquid component of the cell growth media and changes in viability were determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2) cells. CuO-NP treatment was associated with improved HEK and HEP cell viability. Limitations of this method include dilution of the PBW by growth media components and during osmolality adjustment as well as necessary pH adjustment. This method is limited in its wider context due to dilution effects and changes in the pH of the PBW which is traditionally slightly acidic however; this method could have a broader use assessing CuO-NP treatment in more neutral waters. PMID:26132311

  11. Removal of Trace Elements by Cupric Oxide Nanoparticles from Uranium In Situ Recovery Bleed Water and Its Effect on Cell Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilz, Jodi R.; Reddy, K. J.; Nair, Sreejayan; Johnson, Thomas E.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Krueger, Kem P.; Clark, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    In situ recovery (ISR) is the predominant method of uranium extraction in the United States. During ISR, uranium is leached from an ore body and extracted through ion exchange. The resultant production bleed water (PBW) contains contaminants such as arsenic and other heavy metals. Samples of PBW from an active ISR uranium facility were treated with cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). CuO-NP treatment of PBW reduced priority contaminants, including arsenic, selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Untreated and CuO-NP treated PBW was used as the liquid component of the cell growth media and changes in viability were determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2) cells. CuO-NP treatment was associated with improved HEK and HEP cell viability. Limitations of this method include dilution of the PBW by growth media components and during osmolality adjustment as well as necessary pH adjustment. This method is limited in its wider context due to dilution effects and changes in the pH of the PBW which is traditionally slightly acidic however; this method could have a broader use assessing CuO-NP treatment in more neutral waters. PMID:26132311

  12. Cell proliferation, viability, and in vitro differentiation of equine mesenchymal stem cells seeded on bacterial cellulose hydrogel scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favi, Pelagie M.; Benson, Roberto S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Neilsen, Nancy R. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hammonds, Ryan L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Bates, Cassandra C. [Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Stephens, Christopher P. [Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Center for Materials Processing, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Dhar, Madhu S., E-mail: mdhar@utk.edu [Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The culture of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells on natural biopolymers holds great promise for treatments of connective tissue disorders such as osteoarthritis. The safety and performance of such therapies relies on the systematic in vitro evaluation of the developed stem cell-biomaterial constructs prior to in vivo implantation. This study evaluates bacterial cellulose (BC), a biocompatible natural polymer, as a scaffold for equine-derived bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (EqMSCs) for application in bone and cartilage tissue engineering. An equine model was chosen due to similarities in size, load and types of joint injuries suffered by horses and humans. Lyophilized and critical point dried BC hydrogel scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to confirm nanostructure morphology which demonstrated that critical point drying induces fibre bundling unlike lyophilisation. EqMSCs positively expressed the undifferentiated pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell surface markers CD44 and CD90. The BC scaffolds were shown to be cytocompatible, supporting cellular adhesion and proliferation, and allowed for osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of EqMSCs. The cells seeded on the BC hydrogel were shown to be viable and metabolically active. These findings demonstrate that the combination of a BC hydrogel and EqMSCs are promising constructs for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► Critical point drying induces fibre bundling unlike lyophilisation. ► Cells positively expressed undifferentiated pluripotent stem cell markers. ► BCs were cytocompatible, supported cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation ► Cells seeded on BC scaffolds were viable and metabolically active. ► Findings demonstrate that BC and EqMSCs are promising tissue engineered constructs.

  13. Cell proliferation, viability, and in vitro differentiation of equine mesenchymal stem cells seeded on bacterial cellulose hydrogel scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The culture of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells on natural biopolymers holds great promise for treatments of connective tissue disorders such as osteoarthritis. The safety and performance of such therapies relies on the systematic in vitro evaluation of the developed stem cell-biomaterial constructs prior to in vivo implantation. This study evaluates bacterial cellulose (BC), a biocompatible natural polymer, as a scaffold for equine-derived bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (EqMSCs) for application in bone and cartilage tissue engineering. An equine model was chosen due to similarities in size, load and types of joint injuries suffered by horses and humans. Lyophilized and critical point dried BC hydrogel scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to confirm nanostructure morphology which demonstrated that critical point drying induces fibre bundling unlike lyophilisation. EqMSCs positively expressed the undifferentiated pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell surface markers CD44 and CD90. The BC scaffolds were shown to be cytocompatible, supporting cellular adhesion and proliferation, and allowed for osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of EqMSCs. The cells seeded on the BC hydrogel were shown to be viable and metabolically active. These findings demonstrate that the combination of a BC hydrogel and EqMSCs are promising constructs for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► Critical point drying induces fibre bundling unlike lyophilisation. ► Cells positively expressed undifferentiated pluripotent stem cell markers. ► BCs were cytocompatible, supported cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation ► Cells seeded on BC scaffolds were viable and metabolically active. ► Findings demonstrate that BC and EqMSCs are promising tissue engineered constructs

  14. PLGA-based microparticles loaded with bacterial-synthesized prodigiosin for anticancer drug release: Effects of particle size on drug release kinetics and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayemi, J D; Danyuo, Y; Dozie-Nwachukwu, S; Odusanya, O S; Anuku, N; Malatesta, K; Yu, W; Uhrich, K E; Soboyejo, W O

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of biodegradable poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microparticles that are loaded with bacterial-synthesized prodigiosin drug obtained from Serratia marcescens subsp. Marcescens bacteria for controlled anticancer drug delivery. The micron-sized particles were loaded with anticancer drugs [prodigiosin (PG) and paclitaxel (PTX) control] using a single-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The encapsulation was done in the presence of PLGA (as a polymer matrix) and poly-(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (as an emulsifier). The effects of processing conditions (on the particle size and morphology) are investigated along with the drug release kinetics and drug-loaded microparticle degradation kinetics. The localization and apoptosis induction by prodigiosin in breast cancer cells is also elucidated along with the reduction in cell viability due to prodigiosin release. The implication of this study is for the potential application of prodigiosin PLGA-loaded microparticles for controlled delivery of cancer drug and treatment to prevent the regrowth or locoregional recurrence, following surgical resection of triple negative breast tumor. PMID:27207038

  15. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  16. Changes and recovery of soil bacterial communities influenced by biological soil disinfestation as compared with chloropicrin-treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mowlick, Subrata; Inoue, Takashi; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Soil bacterial composition, as influenced by biological soil disinfestation (BSD) associated with biomass incorporation was investigated to observe the effects of the treatment on the changes and recovery of the microbial community in a commercial greenhouse setting. Chloropicrin (CP) was also used for soil disinfestation to compare with the effects of BSD. The fusarium wilt disease incidence of spinach cultivated in the BSD- and CP-treated plots was reduced as compared with that in the untre...

  17. Changes and recovery of soil bacterial communities influenced by biological soil disinfestation as compared with chloropicrin-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlick, Subrata; Inoue, Takashi; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Soil bacterial composition, as influenced by biological soil disinfestation (BSD) associated with biomass incorporation was investigated to observe the effects of the treatment on the changes and recovery of the microbial community in a commercial greenhouse setting. Chloropicrin (CP) was also used for soil disinfestation to compare with the effects of BSD. The fusarium wilt disease incidence of spinach cultivated in the BSD- and CP-treated plots was reduced as compared with that in the untreated control plots, showing effectiveness of both methods to suppress the disease. The clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that members of the Firmicutes became dominant in the soil bacterial community after the BSD-treatment. Clone groups related to the species in the class Clostridia, such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium tetanomorphum, Clostridium cylindrosporum, Oxobacter pfennigii, etc., as well as Bacillus niacini in the class Bacilli were recognized as the most dominant members in the community. For the CP-treated soil, clones affiliated with the Bacilli related to acid-tolerant or thermophilic bacteria such as Tuberibacillus calidus, Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus, Pullulanibacillus naganoensis, Alicyclobacillus pomorum, etc. were detected as the major groups. The clone library analysis for the soil samples collected after spinach cultivation revealed that most of bacterial groups present in the original soil belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, TM7, etc. were recovered in the BSD-treated soil. For the CP-treated soil, the recovery of the bacterial groups belonging to the above phyla was also noted, but some major clone groups recognized in the original soil did not recover fully. PMID:23958081

  18. Recovery of infectious virus from full-length cowpox virus (CPXV) DNA cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Roth Swaantje J; Höper Dirk; Beer Martin; Feineis Silke; Tischer B Karsten; Osterrieder Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transmission from pet rats and cats to humans as well as severe infection in felids and other animal species have recently drawn increasing attention to cowpox virus (CPXV). We report the cloning of the entire genome of cowpox virus strain Brighton Red (BR) as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and the recovery of infectious virus from cloned DNA. Generation of a full-length CPXV DNA clone was achieved by first introducing a mini-F vector, which allows mainte...

  19. Investigation of spore forming bacterial flooding for enhanced oil recovery in a North Sea chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focuses on core flooding experiments designed to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacteria Bac...

  20. Recovery of Bordetella pertussis from PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples is dependent on bacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrheim, Didrik F; Steinbakk, Martin; Bjørnstad, Martha L; Moghaddam, Amir; Reinton, Nils; Dahl, Mette L; Grude, Nils; Sandven, Per

    2012-12-01

    Viable Bordetella pertussis isolates are essential for surveillance purposes. We performed culture of 223 PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples. B. pertussis was recovered from 45 (20.2%) of the samples. Growth was associated with a high bacterial load, as determined by PCR. Culture from PCR-positive samples is a feasible approach to recover B. pertussis isolates, and culture can be limited to samples with a high bacterial load. PMID:23035189

  1. Recovery of Bordetella pertussis from PCR-Positive Nasopharyngeal Samples Is Dependent on Bacterial Load

    OpenAIRE

    Vestrheim, Didrik F.; Steinbakk, Martin; Bjørnstad, Martha L.; Moghaddam, Amir; Reinton, Nils; Dahl, Mette L.; Grude, Nils; Sandven, Per

    2012-01-01

    Viable Bordetella pertussis isolates are essential for surveillance purposes. We performed culture of 223 PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples. B. pertussis was recovered from 45 (20.2%) of the samples. Growth was associated with a high bacterial load, as determined by PCR. Culture from PCR-positive samples is a feasible approach to recover B. pertussis isolates, and culture can be limited to samples with a high bacterial load.

  2. Recovery of infectious virus from full-length cowpox virus (CPXV DNA cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Swaantje J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission from pet rats and cats to humans as well as severe infection in felids and other animal species have recently drawn increasing attention to cowpox virus (CPXV. We report the cloning of the entire genome of cowpox virus strain Brighton Red (BR as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC in Escherichia coli and the recovery of infectious virus from cloned DNA. Generation of a full-length CPXV DNA clone was achieved by first introducing a mini-F vector, which allows maintenance of large circular DNA in E. coli, into the thymidine kinase locus of CPXV by homologous recombination. Circular replication intermediates were then electroporated into E. coli DH10B cells. Upon successful establishment of the infectious BR clone, we modified the full-length clone such that recombination-mediated excision of bacterial sequences can occur upon transfection in eukaryotic cells. This self-excision of the bacterial replicon is made possible by a sequence duplication within mini-F sequences and allows recovery of recombinant virus progeny without remaining marker or vector sequences. The in vitro growth properties of viruses derived from both BAC clones were determined and found to be virtually indistinguishable from those of parental, wild-type BR. Finally, the complete genomic sequence of the infectious clone was determined and the cloned viral genome was shown to be identical to that of the parental virus. In summary, the generated infectious clone will greatly facilitate studies on individual genes and pathogenesis of CPXV. Moreover, the vector potential of CPXV can now be more systematically explored using this newly generated tool.

  3. An improved cell recovery method for iron oxidizing bacterial (IOB) enrichments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ran; Graf, Joerg; Smets, Barth F.

    2008-01-01

    Two cell recovery methods for IOB enrichments were evaluated for DNA extraction and further PCR-based 16S rRNA gene clone library creation. One was a published method consisting of heating plus oxalic acid treatment and the other one was a new method based on enzymatic agarose digestion (using β...

  4. The Effect of Specific Conditions on Cu, Ni, Zn and Al Recovery from PCBS Waste Using Acidophilic Bacterial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrážiková A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of static, stirring and shaking conditions on copper, zinc, nickel and aluminium dissolution from printed circuit boards (PCBs using the mixed acidophilic bacterial culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The results revealed that static conditions were the most effective in zinc and aluminium dissolution. Zinc was removed almost completely under static conditions, whereas maximum of nickel dissolution was reached under the stirring conditions. The highest copper recovery (36% was reached under stirring conditions. The shaking conditions appeared to be the least suitable. The relative importance of these systems for the bioleaching of copper and nickel decreased in the order: stirring, static conditions, shaking.

  5. Bacterial biosurfactants, and their role in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khire, J M

    2010-01-01

    Surfactants are chemically synthesized surface-active compounds widely used for large number of applications in various industries. During last few years there is increase demand of biological surface-active compounds or biosurfactants which are produced by large number of microorganisms as they exert biodegradability, low toxicity and widespread application compared to chemical surfactants. They can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting agents, spreading agents, foaming agents, functional food ingredients and detergents. Various experiments at laboratory scale on sand-pack columns and field trials have successfully indicated effectiveness of biosurfactants in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). PMID:20545280

  6. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to lettuce leaf surface and bacterial viability in response to chlorine treatment as demonstrated by using confocal scanning laser microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, K H; Frank, J F

    1999-01-01

    Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to observe the location of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on and within lettuce leaves. Sections of leaves (ca. 0.5 by 0.5 cm) were inoculated by submersion in a suspension of E. coli O157:H7 (ca. 10(7) to 10(8) CFU/ml) overnight at 7 degrees C. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody was used to visualize the attached bacteria. E. coli O157:H7 was found attached to the surface, trichomes, stomata, and cut edges. Three-dimensional volume reconstruction of interior portions of leaves showed that E. coli O157:H7 was entrapped 20 to 100 microm below the surface in stomata and cut edges. Agar plate culturing and microscopic observation indicated that E. coli O157:H7 preferentially attached to cut edges, as opposed to the intact leaf surface. Dual staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody and propidium iodide was used to determine viability of cells on artificially contaminated lettuce leaves after treatment with 20 mg/liter chlorine solution for 5 min. Many live cells were found in stomata and on cut edges following chlorine treatment. E. coli O157:H7 did not preferentially adhere to biofilm produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on the leaf surface. In contrast to E. coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas adhered to and grew mainly on the intact leaf surface rather than on the cut edges. PMID:9921820

  7. Removal of Trace Elements by Cupric Oxide Nanoparticles from Uranium In Situ Recovery Bleed Water and Its Effect on Cell Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Schilz, Jodi R.; Reddy, K J; Nair, Sreejayan; Thomas E Johnson; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Krueger, Kem P.; Clark, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    In situ recovery (ISR) is the predominant method of uranium extraction in the United States. During ISR, uranium is leached from an ore body and extracted through ion exchange. The resultant production bleed water (PBW) contains contaminants such as arsenic and other heavy metals. Samples of PBW from an active ISR uranium facility were treated with cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). CuO-NP treatment of PBW reduced priority contaminants, including arsenic, selenium, uranium, and vanadium. U...

  8. Mutagenic activity in disinfected waters and recovery of the potent bacterial mutagen "MX" from water by XAD resin adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Peter; Wondergem, Erik; Kronberg, Leif

    Chlorination of humic water generated mutagenic activity in the Ames test. The formation of the potent bacterial mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity were favoured by acidic chlorination conditions and high chlorine doses. Chlorinated humic waters from different locations differed slightly in the level of mutagenicity as well as in the proportion of activity derived from MX. Chlorination of an industrially polluted surface water with a low content of humic material generated an approximately equal level of mutagenicity (per mg of DOC) as that of chlorinated humic water, but only a minor part (26%) of the activity could be explained by the presence of MX. The mutagenicity and the amount of MX generated were substantially lower when using combined treatment methods (ClO2+Cl2, O3+Cl2) or when substituting chlorine by monochloramine or chlorine dioxide. The recovery of MX by XAD adsorption from water acidified to pH 2 was found to be quantitative.

  9. Short-term disturbance of a grazer has long-term effects on bacterial communities-Relevance of trophic interactions for recovery from pesticide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about the transfer of pesticide effects from higher trophic levels to bacterial communities by grazing. We investigated the effects of pulse exposure to the pyrethroid Fenvalerate on a grazer-prey system that comprised populations of Daphnia magna and bacterial communities. We observed the abundance and population size structure of D. magna by image analysis. Aquatic bacteria were monitored with regard to abundance (by cell staining) and community structure (by a 16S ribosomal RNA fingerprinting method). Shortly after exposure (2 days), the abundance of D. magna decreased. In contrast, the abundance of bacteria increased; in particular fast-growing bacteria proliferated, which changed the bacterial community structure. Long after pulse exposure (26 days), the size structure of D. magna was still affected and dominated by a cohort of small individuals. This cohort of small D. magna grazed actively on bacteria, which resulted in low bacterial abundance and low percentage of fast-growing bacteria. We identified grazing pressure as an important mediator for translating long-term pesticide effects from a grazer population on its prey. Hence, bacterial communities are potentially affected throughout the period that their grazers show pesticide effects concerning abundance or population size structure. Owing to interspecific interactions, the recovery of one species can only be assessed by considering its community context.

  10. Short-term disturbance of a grazer has long-term effects on bacterial communities-Relevance of trophic interactions for recovery from pesticide effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foit, Kaarina, E-mail: kaarina.foit@ufz.de [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Chatzinotas, Antonis, E-mail: antonis.chatzinotas@ufz.de [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Liess, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.liess@ufz.de [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Little is known about the transfer of pesticide effects from higher trophic levels to bacterial communities by grazing. We investigated the effects of pulse exposure to the pyrethroid Fenvalerate on a grazer-prey system that comprised populations of Daphnia magna and bacterial communities. We observed the abundance and population size structure of D. magna by image analysis. Aquatic bacteria were monitored with regard to abundance (by cell staining) and community structure (by a 16S ribosomal RNA fingerprinting method). Shortly after exposure (2 days), the abundance of D. magna decreased. In contrast, the abundance of bacteria increased; in particular fast-growing bacteria proliferated, which changed the bacterial community structure. Long after pulse exposure (26 days), the size structure of D. magna was still affected and dominated by a cohort of small individuals. This cohort of small D. magna grazed actively on bacteria, which resulted in low bacterial abundance and low percentage of fast-growing bacteria. We identified grazing pressure as an important mediator for translating long-term pesticide effects from a grazer population on its prey. Hence, bacterial communities are potentially affected throughout the period that their grazers show pesticide effects concerning abundance or population size structure. Owing to interspecific interactions, the recovery of one species can only be assessed by considering its community context.

  11. Short-term disturbance of a grazer has long-term effects on bacterial communities--relevance of trophic interactions for recovery from pesticide effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foit, Kaarina; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Liess, Matthias

    2010-08-15

    Little is known about the transfer of pesticide effects from higher trophic levels to bacterial communities by grazing. We investigated the effects of pulse exposure to the pyrethroid Fenvalerate on a grazer-prey system that comprised populations of Daphnia magna and bacterial communities. We observed the abundance and population size structure of D. magna by image analysis. Aquatic bacteria were monitored with regard to abundance (by cell staining) and community structure (by a 16S ribosomal RNA fingerprinting method). Shortly after exposure (2 days), the abundance of D. magna decreased. In contrast, the abundance of bacteria increased; in particular fast-growing bacteria proliferated, which changed the bacterial community structure. Long after pulse exposure (26 days), the size structure of D. magna was still affected and dominated by a cohort of small individuals. This cohort of small D. magna grazed actively on bacteria, which resulted in low bacterial abundance and low percentage of fast-growing bacteria. We identified grazing pressure as an important mediator for translating long-term pesticide effects from a grazer population on its prey. Hence, bacterial communities are potentially affected throughout the period that their grazers show pesticide effects concerning abundance or population size structure. Owing to interspecific interactions, the recovery of one species can only be assessed by considering its community context. PMID:20554058

  12. Impact of Bioreactor Environment and Recovery Method on the Profile of Bacterial Populations from Water Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xia; Jellison, Kristen L.; Huynh, Kevin; Widmer, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Multiple rotating annular reactors were seeded with biofilms flushed from water distribution systems to assess (1) whether biofilms grown in bioreactors are representative of biofilms flushed from the water distribution system in terms of bacterial composition and diversity, and (2) whether the biofilm sampling method affects the population profile of the attached bacterial community. Biofilms were grown in bioreactors until thickness stabilized (9 to 11 weeks) and harvested from reactor coup...

  13. Maximin, Viability and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Martinet; Luc Doyen

    2010-01-01

    The maximin criterion defines the highest utility level which can be sustained in an intergenerational equity perspective. The viability approach characterizes all the economic trajectories sustaining a given, not necessarily maximal, utility level. In this paper, we exhibit the strong links between maximin and viability: We show that the value function of the maximin problem can be obtained in the viability framework via a static optimization problem under constraints. This result allows us ...

  14. Establishing guidelines to retain viability of probiotics during spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to systematically assess

  15. Establishing Guidelines to Retain Viability of Probiotics during Spray Drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    We present the application of a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to sy

  16. Assessment of myocardial viability using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for recovery of left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial revascularization represents a practical clinical definition for myocardial viability. The evaluation of viable myocardium in patients with severe global left ventricular dysfunction due to coronary artery disease and with regional dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction is an important issue whether left ventricular dysfunction may be reversible or irreversible after therapy. If the dysfunction is due to stunning or hibernation, functional improvement is observed. But stunned myocardium may recover of dysfunction with no revascularization. Hibernation is chronic process due to chronic reduction in the resting myocardial blood flow. There are two types of myocardial hibernation; 'functional hibernation' with preserved contractile reserve and 'structural hibernation' without contractile reserve in segments with preserved glucose metabolism. This review focus on the application of F-18 FDG and other radionuclides to evaluate myocardial viability. In addition the factors influencing predictive value of FDG imaging for evaluating viability and the different criteria for viability are also reviewed

  17. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  18. The Survival and Recovery of Irradiated Bacterial Spores as Affected by Population Density and Some External Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation resistance of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by the pH-value and cell density of the irradiated spore suspensions was investigated. The portions of the survival curves of suspensions of 108, 4 x 103 and 5 x 101 per millilitre viable cell counts, respectively, were compared for a three-orders-of-magnitude decrease in viable cell count. It was established that the initial cell density did not affect radiation resistance of spores. Radiation resistance as affected by pH-value in the range of 3 to 8 was investigated. In the range of pH 5 to 8, the radiation resistance of B. cereus spores was not affected. By lowering the pH-value to below 5, the radiation resistance decreased below that observed in the neutral region. The colony-forming capacity of B. cereus, B. coagulans and B. pumilus as a function of the pH-value in the nutrient medium, and the pH-sensitivity of bacterial spores as affected by radiation, were also investigated. It was established that irradiation increased the pH-sensitivity of surviving bacterial spores in all three strains. The initial phase of spore germination (the phase accompanied by decrease of refractivity of the spores) and the division stage of vegetative cells proved to be the most sensitive to the value of the hydrogen ion concentration. (author)

  19. Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanshan; Luo, Yijing; Cao, Siyuan; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Jiang, Lingxi; Dong, Hanping; Yu, Li; Wu, Wei-Min

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests. PMID:23856587

  20. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  1. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Community DNA in Sludge Undergoing Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD: Pitfalls and Improved Methodology to Enhance Diversity Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Piterina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analysis of the bacterial community structure associated with sludge processed by autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD, was performed using a number of extraction and amplification procedures which differed in yield, integrity, ability to amplify extracted templates and specificity in recovering species present. Interference to PCR and qPCR amplification was observed due to chelation, nuclease activity and the presence of thermolabile components derived from the ATAD sludge. Addition of selected adjuvant restored the ability to amplify community DNA, derived from the thermophilic sludge, via a number of primer sets of ecological importance and various DNA polymerases. Resolution of community profiles by molecular techniques was also influenced by the ATAD sludge extraction procedure as demonstrated by PCR-DGGE profiling and comparison of taxonomic affiliations of the most predominant members within 16S rRNA gene libraries constructed from ATAD DNA extracted by different methods. Several modifications have been shown to be necessary to optimize the molecular analysis of the ATAD thermal niche which may have general applicability to diversity recovery from similar environments.

  2. Discrete Viability Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Augustová, Petra

    Banská Bystrica : Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, 2011, s. 1-17. [Visegrad Conference on Dynamical Systems 2011. Banská Bystrica (SK), 27.06.2011-03.07.2011] Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) GAP103/10/0628 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : viability theory * iterations * discrete dynamical systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://mathematics.fpv.umb.sk/vcds11/

  3. Viability and resilience of complex systems concepts, methods and case studies from ecology and society

    CERN Document Server

    Deffuant, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    One common characteristic of a complex system is its ability to withstand major disturbances and the capacity to rebuild itself. Understanding how such systems demonstrate resilience by absorbing or recovering from major external perturbations requires both quantitative foundations and a multidisciplinary view of the topic. This book demonstrates how new methods can be used to identify the actions favouring the recovery from perturbations on a variety of examples including the dynamics of bacterial biofilms, grassland savannahs, language competition and Internet social networking sites. The reader is taken through an introduction to the idea of resilience and viability and shown the mathematical basis of the techniques used to analyse systems. The idea of individual or agent-based modelling of complex systems is introduced and related to analytically tractable approximations of such models. A set of case studies illustrates the use of the techniques in real applications, and the final section describes how on...

  4. Evaluation of myocardial viability using sequential dual-isotope single photon emission tomography imaging with rest Tl-201/stress Tc-99m tetrofosmin in the prediction of wall motion recovery after revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), differentiation between severely ischemic but potentially viable myocardium and irreversibly infarcted tissue is clinically important, particularly when revascularization procedures are considered. Although thallium (Tl) cardiac imaging has been shown to be a good tool for investigating myocardial viability in CAD, this tracer shows physical limitations, such as a low photon energy and long half-life. We assessed the results of a rest Tl-201/stress Tc-99m tetrofosmin protocol in subjects with prior anterior myocardial infarction. All of the patients had an akinetic or dyskinetic area and more than 75% stenosis in the left anterior descending artery. All of the patients underwent revascularization after the examination. We evaluated the improvement in wall motion after revascularization using the centerline method with contrast left ventricular angiography. Fourteen patients showed reversible defects with the rest Tl-201/stress Tc-99m tetrofosmin protocol or in additional Tl-201 24 h redistribution images. All 14 patients showed a significant improvement in wall motion after revascularization. Dual-isotope rest Tl-201/stress Tc-99m tetrofosmin single photon emission tomography data, acquired separately, may give fast and complete information about myocardial perfusion during stress and at rest, and on about myocardial viability. (author)

  5. Evaluation of different cryoprotective agents in maintenance of viability of Helicobacter pylori in stock culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Davoudi Oskouei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Four different cryoprotective supplemented stock media were evaluated for maintaining better survival and recovery of H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 at two different maintenance temperatures of -20°C and -80°C after one month preservation as frozen stocks. The spread plate colony count method was used to investigate the recovery rate of H. pylori from equally inoculated bacterial suspensions in differently prepared stock cultures. After the preservation of H. pylori for one month in different cryoprotectant-supplemented stock media, the recovery rates for -20°C obtained for stock cultures supplemented with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, polyethylene glycol (PEG, glycerol and glycerol+sucrose, as well as controls with and without human serum alone were 7.13, 6.97, 7.93, 7.99, 6.95 and 0.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. Maintenance of bacteria at -80°C gave statistically higher recovery rates compared to preservation at -20°C with the values of 8.55, 8.24, 8.59, 8.66, 8.01 and 0.0 log CFU/ml for these above mentioned stock cultures. The stock cultures supplemented with glycerol+sucrose and glycerol showed the highest recovery rates, 7.99 and 7.93 for -20°C vs. 8.66 and 8.59 for -80°C respectively, which were statistically different from the others. Our study revealed that H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 could be better preserved at -80°C than -20°C. The best stock media which supported viability or culturability of bacteria were brain heart infusion broth (BHI+glycerol+human serum and BHI+glycerol+sucrose+human serum, where the latter yielded the higher recovery rate.

  6. Assessment of myocardial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, Mark I; Bergmann, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and resultant congestive heart failure is increasing. Patients with this condition are at high risk for cardiac death and usually have significant limitations in their lifestyles. Although there have been advances in medical therapy resulting in improved survival and well being, the best and most definitive therapy, when appropriate, is revascularization. In the setting of coronary artery disease, accounting for approximately two thirds of cases of congestive heart failure, LV dysfunction often is not the result of irreversible scar but rather caused by impairment in function and energy use of still viable-myocytes, with the opportunity for improved function if coronary blood flow is restored. Patients with LV dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularization. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy, whether using thallium-201, Tc-99m sestamibi, or Tc-99m tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularization, including some patients referred instead for cardiac transplantation. Other noninvasive modalities, such as stress echocardiography, also facilitate the assessment of myocardial viability, but there are advantages and disadvantages compared with the nuclear techniques. Nuclear imaging appears to require fewer viable cells for detection, resulting in a higher sensitivity but a lower specificity than stress

  7. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  8. Myocardial Viability and Revascularization: Current Understanding and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pavan; Ivanov, Alexander; Ramasubbu, Kumudha

    2016-06-01

    The initial observation of functional recovery in dysfunctional myocardium following revascularization led to the introduction of the concept of hibernating myocardium. Since then, the pathophysiologic basis of hibernating myocardium has been well described. Multiple imaging modalities have been utilized to prospectively detect viable myocardium and thus predict its functional recovery following revascularization. It has been hypothesized that viability imaging will be instrumental in the selection of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy likely to benefit from revascularization. Multiple observational studies built a large body of evidence supporting this concept. However, data from prospective studies failed to substantiate utility of viability testing. This review aims to summarize the current literature and describe the role of viability imaging in current clinical practice as well as future directions. PMID:27115143

  9. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  10. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...

  11. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  12. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  13. Multiple resource demands and viability in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Byungjoon

    2014-01-01

    Many complex systems demand manifold resources to be supplied from distinct channels to function properly, i.e, water, gas, and electricity for a city. Here, we study a model for viability of such systems demanding more than one type of vital resources produced and distributed by source nodes in multiplex networks. We found a rich variety of behaviors such as discontinuity, bistability, and hysteresis in the fraction of viable nodes with respect to the density of networks and the fraction of source nodes. Our result suggests that viability in multiplex networks is not only exposed to the risk of abrupt collapse but also suffers excessive complication in recovery.

  14. The effects of lactobacillus suppositories in the recovery and recur-rence of bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soror Roozafzay

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The protective effects of lactobacillus in dealing with anaerobic patho-gens as well as the negative impact of metronidazole on lactobacillus of vaginal flora, use of lactobacillus along with metronidazole especially in patients with recurrent infec-tions is recommended. In other words, using lactobacillus with metronidazole for treatment of bacterial vaginosis is more effective than metronidazole alone.

  15. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  16. Extending the viability of acute brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6-12 hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36 hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

  17. Viability of lactobacillus acidophilus in various vaginal tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli M.R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The lactobacilli which are present in vaginal fluids play an important role in prevention of vaginosis and there are considerable interests in formulation of these friendly bacteria into suitable pharmaceutical dosage forms. Formulating these microorganisms for vaginal application is a critical issue as the products should retain viability of lactobacilli during formulation and also storage. The aim of this study was to examine the viability and release of Lactobacillus acidophilus from slow-release vaginal tablets prepared by using six different retarding polymers and from two effervescent tablets prepared by using citric or adipic acid. The Carbomer–based formulations showed high initial viablility compared to those based on HPMC-LV, HPMC-HV, Polycarbophil and SCMC polymers which showed one log decrease in viable cells. All retarding polymers in slow release formulations presented a strong bacterial release at about 2 h except Carbomer polymers which showed to be poor bacterial releasers. Although effervescent formulations produced a quick bacterial release in comparison with polymer based slow-release tablets, they were less stable in cold storage. Due to the strong chelating characteristic of citric acid, the viability was quickly lost for aqueous medium of citric acid in comparison with adipic acid based effervescent tablets.

  18. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Community DNA in Sludge Undergoing Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD): Pitfalls and Improved Methodology to Enhance Diversity Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Anna V. Piterina; John Bartlett; Tony Pembroke, J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular analysis of the bacterial community structure associated with sludge processed by autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD), was performed using a number of extraction and amplification procedures which differed in yield, integrity, ability to amplify extracted templates and specificity in recovering species present. Interference to PCR and qPCR amplification was observed due to chelation, nuclease activity and the presence of thermolabile components derived from the ATAD sl...

  19. RECOVERY OF MORE THAN 10 YEARS-DRYING m o N ascus CULTURES AND ITS PURIFICATION METHODS FROM FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    NANDANG SUHARNA

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to understand the recovery capability of more than 10 years- drying Monascus cultures. A new simple purification technique from fungal contamination using ethanol-soaking treatment was also reported as a part of this study. The result showed that all drying cultures were recovered well and retained their characters such as good growth, pigmen-tation and production of fruit bodies (ascomata), sexual spores (ascospores) and asexual spores. Several cultures showed its...

  20. Assessment of Probiotic Viability during Cheddar Cheese Manufacture and Ripening Using Propidium Monoazide-PCR Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie; Dussault-Lepage, Véronique; Le Boucher, Clémentine; Savard, Patricia; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The use of a suitable food carrier such as cheese could significantly enhance probiotic viability during storage. The main goal of this study was to assess viability of commercial probiotic strains during Cheddar cheesemaking and ripening (4–6 months) by comparing the efficiency of microbiological and molecular approaches. Molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) allow bacterial quantification, and DNA-blocking molecules such as propidium monoazide (PMA) select only the living cells’...

  1. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  2. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Michael McCarthy; Dean Heinze; Rodney van der Ree; Ian Mansergh

    2009-01-01

    Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels f...

  3. RECOVERY OF MORE THAN 10 YEARS-DRYING m o N ascus CULTURES AND ITS PURIFICATION METHODS FROM FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANDANG SUHARNA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to understand the recovery capability of more than 10 years- drying Monascus cultures. A new simple purification technique from fungal contamination using ethanol-soaking treatment was also reported as a part of this study. The result showed that all drying cultures were recovered well and retained their characters such as good growth, pigmen-tation and production of fruit bodies (ascomata, sexual spores (ascospores and asexual spores. Several cultures showed its good growth in 20% ethanol medium. This study also reported suc-cessful purification of cultures from fungal contamination using ethanol-soaking treatment. This self-drying method, therefore, could be suggested as a good long-term preservation method for Monascus cultures. Moreover, purification method from fungal contamination soaked in ethanol 70% or 95% was successfully effective.

  4. Influence of location-dependent protuberance damage on cell viability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG HaiFeng; ZHOU Ming; DI JianKe; ZHAO EnLan; YANG PeiFang; GONG AiHua; SUN XiangLan

    2009-01-01

    The influence of femtosecond laser-induced damages on viability of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is investigated. Several cytokinetic processes including cellular damage, recovery and death are dis-cussed. Using femtosecond laser with the power of 100 μW and cutting speed of 2 μm/s, we cut the cellular protuberance with smaller diameter twice in different locations, and then observe the viability of the damaged cells. Under the same conditions, the root of protuberance with larger diameter is cut six times to observe changes of cellular shape. Whether the damage is located in the end, middle or root of protuberance with smaller diameter, the cell viability can recover within 3 h. When the damage is located in the root of protuberance with larger diameter, the damaged cell will die in the way of oncoais. Cytokinetic phenomena including intracellular high Ca2+ concentration, cellular morphologic change, recovery and oncosis are discussed. Meanwhile, high Ca2+ concentration is observed after femtosec-ond laser surgery. Therefore, femtosecond laser surgery is an important tool for establishing cell damage model and studying cytokinetics.

  5. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  6. Viability of telework at PROCEMPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzner, Maria Amelia de Mesquita

    2003-02-01

    At the end of the 20th century, telework appears as one of the modalities of flexible work, which is related to new organizational structures as well as to increasing use of technology. It revolutionizes the traditional ways of performing work. Its implementation creates a number of questions to be answered by the organizations and the individuals involved. This article presents a case study on the viability of implementing telework at Procempa (The Data Processing Company of the City of Porto Alegre). The case study analyzes the technical, organizational, psychological, legal, and labor union dimensions. As a result of this study, we can identify the organization's stage of readiness for telework, the conditions under which it would be implemented, and the specific issues of an implementation. PMID:12650560

  7. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCarthy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels for the endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus in Australia. The underpasses reduced, but did not completely remove, the negative effects of a road. The expected minimum population size of a “reconnected” population remained 15% lower than that of a comparable “undivided” population. We propose that the extent to which the risk of extinction decreases should be adopted as a measure of effectiveness of mitigation measures and that the use of population modeling become routine in these evaluations.

  8. Microencapsulation in Alginate and Chitosan Microgels to Enhance Viability of Bifidobacterium longum for Oral Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Timothy W.; Üçok, Elif F.; Tiani, Kendra A.; McClements, David J.; Sela, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are incorporated into a wide variety of foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals to promote human health and wellness. However, maintaining bacterial cell viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit remains a challenge. Encapsulation of bifidobacteria within food-grade hydrogel particles potentially mitigates their sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies and strains were encapsulated in core-shell microgels consisting of an alginate core and a microgel shell. Encapsulated obligate anaerobes Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum exhibited differences in viability in a strain-dependent manner, without a discernable relationship to subspecies lineage. This includes viability under aerobic storage conditions and modeled gastrointestinal tract conditions. Coating alginate microgels with chitosan did not improve viability compared to cells encapsulated in alginate microgels alone, suggesting that modifying the surface charge alone does not enhance delivery. Thus hydrogel beads have great potential for improving the stability and efficacy of bifidobacterial probiotics in various nutritional interventions.

  9. Short communication: Improved method for centrifugal recovery of bacteria from raw milk applied to sensitive real-time quantitative PCR detection of Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Jeffrey D; Paul, Moushumi

    2016-05-01

    Centrifugation is widely used to isolate and concentrate bacteria from dairy products before assay. We found that more than 98% of common pathogenic bacteria added to pasteurized, homogenized, or pasteurized homogenized milk were recovered in the pellet after centrifugation, whereas less than 7% were recovered from raw milk. The remaining bacteria partitioned into the cream layer of raw milk within 5 min, and half-saturation of the cream layer required a bacterial load of approximately 5×10(8) cfu/mL. Known treatments (e.g., heat, enzymes or solvents) can disrupt cream layer binding and improve recovery from raw milk, but can also damage bacteria and compromise detection. We developed a simple, rapid agitation treatment that disrupted bacteria binding to the cream layer and provided more than 95% recovery without affecting bacteria viability. Combining this simple agitation treatment with a previously developed real-time quantitative PCR assay allowed the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw milk at 4 cfu/mL within 3 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an effective method for achieving high centrifugal recovery of bacteria from raw milk without impairing bacterial viability. PMID:26971150

  10. Graphene's Viability for Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marcos; Hall, Karla; Rojas, Richard; Santarius, John; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2015-11-01

    Graphene is a source of interest for multiple applications due to its unusual electronic and physical properties. As a coating material, it has reduced oxidation of the main substrate, though no effort has been reported of testing it under fusion conditions. A number of experimental studies have established that defect-free graphene is an excellent barrier material for gases. We explore its viability to maintain a significant pressure difference under ion irradiation. Deuterium is used as a projectile on graphene coated silicon over a range of 10-50 keV energies and various fluences. The vacancy yield (amount of damage) and natural resonance for graphene are found at around 1350 cm-1 and 1550 cm-1, respectively. Damage of each sample is quantified via Raman spectroscopy (RS) using the ratio of the intensities at these wavenumbers. Graphene is also tested here as a coating for some fusion components. Though tungsten is a very promising divertor and first wall candidate, after intense irradiation, it is prone to developing fuzz or grass structures, leading to a diminished lifetime. Graphene grown on tungsten is tested under reactor conditions with 30 keV He ions at several fluences, and the sputtering of both materials is studied via RS and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This work was supported by the Graduate Engineering Research Scholars and the TEAM-Science program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  11. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  12. Cultivation of Fastidious Bacteria by Viability Staining and Micromanipulation in a Soil Substrate Membrane System▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, B. C.; Gillings, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Soil substrate membrane systems allow for microcultivation of fastidious soil bacteria as mixed microbial communities. We isolated established microcolonies from these membranes by using fluorescence viability staining and micromanipulation. This approach facilitated the recovery of diverse, novel isolates, including the recalcitrant bacterium Leifsonia xyli, a plant pathogen that has never been isolated outside the host.

  13. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material

  14. Effect of electrical charges and fields on injury and viability of airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainelis, Gediminas; Górny, Rafał L; Reponen, Tiina; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Baron, Paul; Yadav, Jagjit; Willeke, Klaus

    2002-07-20

    In this study, the effects of the electric charges and fields on the viability of airborne microorganisms were investigated. The electric charges of different magnitude and polarity were imparted on airborne microbial cells by a means of induction charging. The airborne microorganisms carrying different electric charge levels were then extracted by an electric mobility analyzer and collected using a microbial sampler. It was found that the viability of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria, used as a model for sensitive bacteria, carrying a net charge from 4100 negative to 30 positive elementary charges ranged between 40% and 60%; the viability of the cells carrying >2700 positive charges was below 1.5%. In contrast, the viability of the stress-resistant spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (used as simulant of anthrax-causing Bacillus anthracis spores when testing bioaerosol sensors in various studies), was not affected by the amount of electric charges on the spores. Because bacterial cells depend on their membrane potential for basic metabolic activities, drastic changes occurring in the membrane potential during aerosolization and the local electric fields induced by the imposed charges appeared to affect the sensitive cells' viability. These findings facilitate applications of electric charging for environmental control purposes involving sterilization of bacterial cells by imposing high electric charges on them. The findings from this study can also be used in the development of new bioaerosol sampling methods based on electrostatic principles. PMID:12115440

  15. The viability and intestinal epithelial cell adhesion of probiotic strain combination--in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątek, Jacek; Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Olejnik, Anna; Krauss, Hanna; Wierzbicki, Krzysztof; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Głowacki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    To be effective, probiotic bacteria must exhibit a number of functional characteristics, including the resistance to gastric acidity and the ability to adhere to the intestinal epithelium. In this study, we examined in vitro the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) combination after exposure to low pH, and the adhesion of LAB to Caco-2 cells during coincubation of 9 bacterial strains. To test bacterial viability, 6 commercially available products were incubated in 0.1 N HCl at pH 1.2 for 60 min. The greatest growth inhibition was noted for the non-capsulated product containing the Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain (log reduction of CFU = 6.4), and the best survival observed for the product containing 9 bacterial strains, equipped with a modern capsule made according to the Multi-Resistant Encapsulation technology (log reduction of CFU = 0.1). In the adhesion experiment, the combination of 9 bacterial strains was added to 17-day-old Caco-2 cell culture for 90 min. The greatest efficiency of adhesion was observed for the inoculum containing 5.5x10(8) CFU/mL/9.6 cm(2) of Caco-2 and the dose of probiotic bacteria of 190 cells per one Caco-2 cell. As a result, approximately 157 bacterial cells adhered to one Caco-2 cell. The results indicate that the combination of 9 bacterial strains in the examined product is characterized as highly adhesive. PMID:22462453

  16. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  17. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...

  18. Prostatitis - bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Infections spread through sexual contact can cause prostatitis. These include chlamydia and gonorrhea . Sexually transmitted ...

  19. Bacterial Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Köhle, Ülkü; Kükner, Şahap

    2003-01-01

    Conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva, generally characterized by irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing and discharge. Bacterial conjunctivitis may be distinguished from other types of conjunctivitis by the presence of yellow–white mucopurulent discharge. It is the most common form of ocular infection all around the world. Staphylococcus species are the most common bacterial pathogenes, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus i...

  20. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability. PMID:26090553

  1. Approximating viability kernels with support vector machines

    OpenAIRE

    Deffuant, G.; Chapel, L.; Martin, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an algorithm which performs a progressive approximation of a viability kernel, iteratively using a classification method. We establish the mathematical conditions that the classification method should fulfill to guarantee the convergence to the actual viability kernel. We study more particularly the use of support vector machines (SVMs) as classification techniques. We show that they make possible to use gradient optimisation techniques to find a viable control at each time step, a...

  2. Selection of donor and organ viability criteria: expanding donation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, E; Andrés, A

    2007-01-01

    Donation criteria have been becoming more flexible over the years. Currently, the only absolute exclusion criteria are human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), uncontrolled tumor disease and bacterial or viral infections. ClinicaL. conditions dictate organ viability criteria: biochemical, morphological and functional, that must be fulfilled by the donors and their organs in order to focus the decision on which donor organs can be used. These criteria attempt to assure that the transplanted organs function after the extraction, transformation, implantation and reperfusion process without transmitting any infectious or tumour disease. In recent years, the gross and microscopic appearance has become one of the fundamental criteria for selection of potentially viable organs. At present, there is no age limit for hepatic and renal donation; the principal contra-indication is chronic organ damage. The use of each organ must be decided individually after a profound analysis of all the viability criteria, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the implant of a certain organ for the recipient. PMID:17702512

  3. Bacterial carbonatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

  4. The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes on Escherichia coli: multiple indicators of viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Tu Thi Anh; McEvoy, John, E-mail: john.mcevoy@ndsu.edu; Khan, Eakalak [North Dakota State University, Environmental and Conservation Sciences Program (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The impact of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was investigated using four indicators of viability: enzyme activity, membrane integrity, plate count, and total RNA. The study examined the effects of SWCNT concentration (5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 μg/ml), SWCNT length (0.5–2 and 5–30 μm), and bacterial density (6.5 log{sub 10} CFU and 9 log{sub 10} CFU per treatment) on E. coli ATCC 8739 viability. Results show that anti-bacterial activity is dependent on both the length and concentration of SWCNTs. Long SWCNTs (5–30 µm) were more toxic for E. coli than short SWCNTs (0.5–2 µm). The susceptibility of E. coli to SWCNTs was dependent on the initial density of cells in the treatment, with cells at the higher density being more resistant. Estimates of viability reductions were generally similar for the four assays examined; however, the beta galactosidase and LIVE/DEAD assays were more conservative than the plate count as indicators of viability reductions.

  5. Viability of Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast preserved by lyophilization and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda Moura Pietrowski, Giovana; Grochoski, Mayara; Sartori, Gabriela Felkl; Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Hanseniaspora yeasts are known to produce volatile compounds that give fruity aromas in wine and fermented fruit. This study aimed to verify the feasibility of the Hanseniaspora uvarum strain that had been isolated and identified during a previous study and preserved by lyophilization and freezing at -80 °C (cryopreservation). This strain was assessed in relation to its macroscopic and microscopic morphology and for its ability to ferment apple must. After having been subjected to lyophilization and cryopreservation, viability was assessed in relation to these characteristics during 12 months of storage. The strain showed stable colonial features and its microscopic appearance was unchanged during all recoveries. The plate count results showed consistency in both processes. Regarding the fermentative capacity, the kinetic results showed 100% viability for the strain subjected to lyophilization, as well as for those preserved at -80 °C. These results demonstrate that the preservation methods used are compatible with the maintenance of the relevant characteristics of the strain for the period of evaluation of this study (12 months). PMID:26095929

  6. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental...

  7. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  8. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  9. Viability Kernel for Ecosystem Management Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anaya, Eladio Ocana; Oliveros--Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    We consider sustainable management issues formulated within the framework of control theory. The problem is one of controlling a discrete--time dynamical system (e.g. population model) in the presence of state and control constraints, representing conflicting economic and ecological issues for instance. The viability kernel is known to play a basic role for the analysis of such problems and the design of viable control feedbacks, but its computation is not an easy task in general. We study the viability of nonlinear generic ecosystem models under preservation and production constraints. Under simple conditions on the growth rates at the boundary constraints, we provide an explicit description of the viability kernel. A numerical illustration is given for the hake--anchovy couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem.

  10. Probiotic viability – does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampo J. Lahtinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health.

  11. Backup & Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, W

    2009-01-01

    Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.

  12. Recovery Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  13. The Using of Morphometric Parameters in Establishing the Viability of Mouse Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Ada Cean; Nicolae Păcală; Alexandra Ivan; Ioan Bencsik; Dorel Dronca; Gabi Dumitrescu; Oana Ciobotaru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate if morphometric parameters can be used in establishing the viability of the mouse embryos. For the experiments, we used mouse mature oocytes and embryos in vivo obtained. The morphometric parameters taken into consideration were: pellucid zone thickness, outer and inner diameter, and outer and inner perimeter and for oocytes and zygotes the cellular mass diameter was also measured. The oocytes were measured immediately after recovery then they were in ...

  14. Biochemical Characteristics and Viability of Probiotic and Yogurt Bacteria in Yogurt during the Fermentation and Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sarvari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the viability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in yogurt during the fermentation, immediately after fermentation and during refrigerated storage (21 d, 4˚C. Also the biochemical characteristics of milk as affected by the commercial 4-strain mixed starter culture were investigated. Storage time affected the viability of all bacterial species. The concentration of lactic acid during the fermentation increased in parallel with the titrable acidity, and the concentration of acetic acid was proportional to the viability of Bifidobacterium lactis. The acetaldehyde level was decreased in the yogurt from day 0 up to the end of the storage. Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were multiplied considerably during the fermentation. Streptococcus thermophilus could maintain its viability to the highest level, but Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus lost its viability rapidly during the cold storage compared to Streptococcus thermophilus. The multiplication and viability of probiotic bacteria were also influenced by the associative strains and species of yogurt organisms. Bifidobacteria counts were satisfactory. The loss of viability for bifidobacteria was gradual and steady during the storage, and they showed good stability during the storage as compared to Lactobacillus acidophilus.

  15. A stable live bacterial vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunda, Nitesh K; Wafula, Denis; Tram, Meilinn; Wu, Terry H; Muttil, Pavan

    2016-06-01

    Formulating vaccines into a dry form enhances its thermal stability. This is critical to prevent administering damaged and ineffective vaccines, and to reduce its final cost. A number of vaccines in the market as well as those being evaluated in the clinical setting are in a dry solid state; yet none of these vaccines have achieved long-term stability at high temperatures. We used spray-drying to formulate a recombinant live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm; expressing Francisella tularensis immune protective antigen pathogenicity island protein IglC) bacterial vaccine into a thermostable dry powder using various sugars and an amino acid. Lm powder vaccine showed minimal loss in viability when stored for more than a year at ambient room temperature (∼23°C) or for 180days at 40°C. High temperature viability was achieved by maintaining an inert atmosphere in the storage container and removing oxygen free radicals that damage bacterial membranes. Further, in vitro antigenicity was confirmed by infecting a dendritic cell line with cultures derived from spray dried Lm and detection of an intracellularly expressed protective antigen. A combination of stabilizing excipients, a cost effective one-step drying process, and appropriate storage conditions could provide a viable option for producing, storing and transporting heat-sensitive vaccines, especially in regions of the world that require them the most. PMID:27020530

  16. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. PMID:27474242

  17. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    10 sup(10) in lakes and from 4.3 to 8.51 x 10 sup(10) 1 sup(-1) in sea water. The anaerobic retrievability in the lakes was sometimes more by 2 orders. The mean percentages of viability in different lakes varied from 4.3 to 64.5% under aerobic...

  18. Viability of nonminimally coupled f (R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Páramos, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    In this work we explore the viability of nonminimally coupled matter-curvature gravity theories, namely the conditions required for the absence of tachyon instabilities and ghost degrees of freedom. We contrast our finds with recent claims of a pathological behaviour of this class of models, which resorted to, in our view, an incorrect analogy with k-essence.

  19. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  20. EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

  1. Simple method for quantifying viable bacterial numbers in sputum.

    OpenAIRE

    Pye, A.; Stockley, R A; Hill, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To establish a simple method of quantitative culture for determining the viable bacterial numbers present in expectorated sputum samples. METHODS--Sputum samples were homogenised with dithiothreitol, sterile saline or glass beads to determine which method recovered the greatest number of viable bacteria. Culture broths were also incubated with dithiothreitol and sampled over time to determine its effect on bacterial viability. Sputum samples homogenised with dithiothreitol were diluted ...

  2. Viability and stability of biological control agents on cotton and snap bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M L; Des Jardin, E A; Batson, W E; Caceres, J; Brannen, P M; Howell, C R; Benson, D M; Conway, K E; Rothrock, C S; Schneider, R W; Ownley, B H; Canaday, C H; Keinath, A P; Huber, D M; Sumner, D R; Motsenbocker, C E; Thaxton, P M; Cubeta, M A; Adams, P D; Backman, P A; Fajardo, J; Newman, M A; Pereira, R M

    2001-08-01

    Cotton and snap bean were selected for a multi-year, multi-state regional (south-eastern USA) research project to evaluate the efficacy of both commercial and experimental bacterial and fungal biological control agents for the management of damping-off diseases. The goal for this portion of the project was to determine the viability and stability of biological agents after application to seed. The biological seed treatments used included: (1) Bacillaceae bacteria, (2) non-Bacillaceae bacteria, (3) the fungus Trichoderma and (4) the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Seed assays were conducted to evaluate the following application factors: short-term (seed treatment; quality (i.e. isolate purity); compatibility with chemical pesticides and other biocontrol agents; application uniformity between years and plant species. For the bacterial treatments, the Bacillaceae genera (Bacillus and Paenibacillus) maintained the greatest population of bacteria per seed, the best viability over time and the best application uniformity across years and seed type. The non-Bacillaceae genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas had the least viability and uniformity. Although Beauveria bassiana was only evaluated one year, the seed fungal populations were high and uniform. The seed fungal populations and uniformity for the Trichoderma isolates were more variable, except for the commercial product T-22. However, this product was contaminated with a Streptomyces isolate in both the years that it was evaluated. The study demonstrated that Bacillaceae can be mixed with Trichoderma isolates or with numerous pesticides to provide an integrated pest control/growth enhancement package. PMID:11517723

  3. The cybernetics of viability: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    A three-level approach to viability is developed, considering (1) living systems, (2) a niche, understood as the area within the reach of their actions, and (3) an environment. A systematic analysis of the interrelations between these levels shows that living systems emerge with matter/energy processing systems. These can add controller structures when producing excess energy. A three-sensor controller structure enables a living system to deal with unfavourable and scarce environments. Further evolution of these controller structures offers improved ways to act on niches. Maintaining niches in scarce environments can require technology or economy. So social systems emerge, which are understood as aggregates of living systems. Basic patterns of interactions within social systems are analysed. So the introduction of the notion of the niche into the discussion of viability allows us to explain phenomena ranging from properties of single living systems to societal organization.

  4. Viability of the rat hypothalamus in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports on a study of the viability of excised rat hypothalami chiefly by virtue of their ability to synthesize proteins, as assessed by the incorporation of labelled [3H] amino acids into a protein fraction and the effect on this incorporation by inhibitors of protein synthesis. In addition, and in support of previous work, oxygen consumption by the incubated hypothalami has been verified using a Warburg constant volume manometer

  5. The Using of Morphometric Parameters in Establishing the Viability of Mouse Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Cean

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate if morphometric parameters can be used in establishing the viability of the mouse embryos. For the experiments, we used mouse mature oocytes and embryos in vivo obtained. The morphometric parameters taken into consideration were: pellucid zone thickness, outer and inner diameter, and outer and inner perimeter and for oocytes and zygotes the cellular mass diameter was also measured. The oocytes were measured immediately after recovery then they were in vitro fertilized. After 4-6 hours after fecundation the oocytes that manifested the extrusion of the second polar body (zygotes were measured, and at 24 hours after fecundation the unfertilized oocytes were also measured. The embryos were obtained from mouse females superovulated with gonadotrope hormones (eCG and hCG. For the experiments we used embryos in different developmental stages (2, 4 and 8 cells, morula and blastocyst. After recovery the embryos were morphologically analyzed and divided in viable (quality code 1, 2 and 3 and nonviable embryos (quality code 4 (IETS Manual, 1989 and they were measured for establishing the morphometric parameters value. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Minitab 15, and T test. For the oocytes it was noticed that the pellucid zone thickness is registering a slightly increase if the oocyte is fertilized, without significantly difference from recovery, but if the oocyte is not fertilized the pellucid zone thickness decrease from 8.3±1.5 μm to 8.0±1.5 μm. For the embryos in early developmental stages only the thickness of the pellucid zone can be an indication of the viability. For the embryos in morula stage the thickness of the pellucid zone and inner diameter can be used as indicator of viability. For the embryos in blastocyst stage the thickness of the pellucid zone, the inner and outer diameter can be used as a viability indicator.

  6. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexian Dong

    Full Text Available Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10 cells mL(-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  7. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  8. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  9. Resilience and vulnerability to a natural hazard: A mathematical framework based on viability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, Charles; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    This deals with the response of a coupled human and natural system (CHANS) to a natural hazard by using the concepts of resilience and vulnerability within the mathematical framework of viability theory. This theory applies to time-evolving systems such as CHANS and assumes that their desirable properties can be defined as a subset of their state space. Policies can also apply to influence the dynamics of such systems: viability theory aims at finding the policies which keep the properties of a controlled dynamical system for so long as no disturbance hits it. The states of the system such that the properties are guaranteed constitute what is called the viability kernel. This viability framework has been extended to describe the response to a perturbation such as a natural hazard. Resilience describes the capacity of the CHANS to recover by getting back in the viability kernel, where its properties are guaranteed until the onset of the next major event. Defined for a given controlled trajectory that the system may take after the event ends, resilience is (a) whether the system comes back to the viability kernel within a given budget such as a time constraint, but also (b) a decreasing function of vulnerability. Computed for a given trajectory as well, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for a certain trajectory. There can be several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of an associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Computing the resilience and vulnerability of a trajectory enables the viability framework to describe the response of both deterministic and stochastic systems to hazards. In the deterministic case, there is only one response trajectory for a given action policy

  10. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section... ASSESSMENT OF THE REASONABLE REVITALIZATION POTENTIAL OF CERTAIN PUBLIC HOUSING REQUIRED BY LAW § 971.5 Long-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must...

  11. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability from both project implementing agency (PIA) and the end-users need to be ensured. The minimum required prices of electricity from both PIA and end-user perspective have been estimated. While for PIA the cost recovery is the key for viability, the affordability to pay the electricity cost is crucial for the end users. Analysis carried out in this paper on the basis of data obtained from operational projects implemented in India reveal that it is essential to operate the system at a higher capacity utilization factor. While this can be achieved though creating convergence with locally relevant economic activity, it is also observed that micro-enterprises cannot pay beyond a certain price of electricity to keep it sustainable. This paper sets forth a case for developing a regulatory mechanism to extend the tariff fixation for the projects and providing cross-subsidies to ensure long term sustainability of off-grid project. - Highlights: → We design sustainable financial model for viability of biomass gasifier projects. → Analysis based on field data obtained from operational projects in India. Estimated electricity pricing from both implementing agency and end-users perspective. → A regulatory mechanism for tariff fixation and cross subsidization is recommended.

  12. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, Debajit, E-mail: debajitp@teri.res.in [Energy and Resources Institute, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Malhotra, Ramit, E-mail: ramit.malhotra@teri.res.in [Energy and Resources Institute, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kumar, Atul, E-mail: atulk@teri.res.in [Energy and Resources Institute, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability from both project implementing agency (PIA) and the end-users need to be ensured. The minimum required prices of electricity from both PIA and end-user perspective have been estimated. While for PIA the cost recovery is the key for viability, the affordability to pay the electricity cost is crucial for the end users. Analysis carried out in this paper on the basis of data obtained from operational projects implemented in India reveal that it is essential to operate the system at a higher capacity utilization factor. While this can be achieved though creating convergence with locally relevant economic activity, it is also observed that micro-enterprises cannot pay beyond a certain price of electricity to keep it sustainable. This paper sets forth a case for developing a regulatory mechanism to extend the tariff fixation for the projects and providing cross-subsidies to ensure long term sustainability of off-grid project. - Highlights: > We design sustainable financial model for viability of biomass gasifier projects. > Analysis based on field data obtained from operational projects in India. Estimated electricity pricing from both implementing agency and end-users perspective. > A regulatory mechanism for tariff fixation and cross subsidization is recommended.

  13. Recovery of DNA from soils and sediments.

    OpenAIRE

    Steffan, R J; Goksøyr, J; Bej, A K; Atlas, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two different methodological approaches for recovering DNA from soil and sediment bacterial communities: cell extraction followed by lysis and DNA recovery (cell extraction method) versus direct cell lysis and alkaline extraction to recover DNA (direct lysis method). Efficiency of DNA recovery by each method was determined by spectrophotometric absorbance and using a tritiated thymidine tracer. With both procedures, the use of polyvi...

  14. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  15. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  16. Limit of viability: The Swiss experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T M; Roth-Kleiner, M

    2016-09-01

    Progress made in the field of perinatology over the past four decades has led to unprecedented low mortality rates for extremely low birth weight infants. However, because rates of important short-term complications and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors have remained high, the best approach to borderline viable infants continues to be debated. Not surprisingly, guidelines from various national medical societies for the care of infants born at the limit of viability vary considerably. In 2002, the first Swiss recommendations for the care of borderline viable infants were published. They had been developed by a multidisciplinary team of experts from the fields of obstetrics, pediatrics, and neonatology. Despite the availability of national guidelines, center-to-center outcome variability has since persisted, suggesting that care for the most immature infants is not only evidence-based and guideline-driven but also strongly influenced by local neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) culture. In 2011, revised national recommendations for perinatal care at the limit of viability between 22 and 26 completed weeks of gestation were published. It remains to be seen whether this has led to more uniform outcomes across the Swiss centers in the years that followed. PMID:27476994

  17. Viability of resistance thermometers under reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of six commercial resistance thermometers is examined under reactor conditions; the sensitive element was P1-2 platinum wire of diameter 50 /mu/m. The resistances R/sub 0/ of the thermometers at 0/degree/C were 46.00/plus or minus/0.02 /OMEGA/while the ratios were R/sub 100//R/sub 0/.1.391/plus or minus/0.0007. The design and manufacturing technology have been described. The thermometers were irradiated in a VVR-M reactor. The thermometers were calibrated before and after irradiation outside the reactor by the reference-point method at temperatures of l00, 231.8, and 327.2/degree/C. 7 refs

  18. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design.

  19. Viability in holder of irradiated cells: distinguish between repair and cell multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments in which liquid holding recovery (LHR) was measured, the majority of cellular population is formed by non-viable cells and cell multiplication may be important for LHR expression. In order to distinguish between recuperation of viability (true LHR) and cell multiplication, it was necessary to employ improved plating techniques and a fluctuation test based on Poisson distribution. Our results are an indication that this fluctuation test, used together with the traditional method, is a good tool to distinguish repair from cell multiplication. (author)

  20. Viability of Hybrid Systems A Controllability Operator Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Labinaz, G

    2012-01-01

    The problem of viability of hybrid systems is considered in this work. A model for a hybrid system is developed including a means of including three forms of uncertainty: transition dynamics, structural uncertainty, and parametric uncertainty. A computational basis for viability of hybrid systems is developed and applied to three control law classes. An approach is developed for robust viability based on two extensions of the controllability operator. The three-tank example is examined for both the viability problem and robust viability problem. The theory is applied through simulation to an active magnetic bearing system and to a batch polymerization process showing that viability can be satisfied in practice. The problem of viable attainability is examined based on the controllability operator approach introduced by Nerode and colleagues. Lastly, properties of the controllability operator are presented.

  1. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  2. Effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on the viability of different bacterial strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Luděk; Vetterl, Vladimír; Fojt, Lukáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2005), s. 293-300. ISSN 1536-8378 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4004404; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5004107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : bacteria * growth curve * low-frequency electromagnetic field Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2005

  3. Assessment of viability in the bacterial standing stock of the Antarctic Sea from the Indian side

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Chandramohan, D.

    . Zdanowski, M.K., Donachie, S.P., 1993. Bacteria in the sea ice zone between Elephant Island and South Orkneys during the Polish Sea ice zone Expedition. Polar Biol. 13, 245–254. P.A. Loka Bharathi et al. / Oceanologica Acta 24 (2001) 577–580 580 ...

  4. Effects of purification and fluorescent staining on viability of Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Ramanuj; Randhawa, Baljit; Krahenbuhl, James L

    2005-09-01

    Over the years, researchers have carried out experiments with Mycobacterium leprae obtained from either human multibacillary lesions, or infected armadillo tissues, or infected footpad tissues of conventional mice as well as athymic nu/nu mice. In general, these sources of leprosy bacilli are satisfactory for most biochemical and mouse footpad studies, but less than satisfactory for studies in cell biology and immunology where contaminating host tissues pose a serious problem. We examined the utility of a procedure for eliminating mouse footpad tissue from M. leprae suspension using sodium hydroxide solution and its subsequent effect on the viability of the organism by determining the rate of palmitic acid oxidation, bacterial membrane integrity, and growth in the mouse footpad. We found that treating M. leprae suspension, obtained from infected nu/nu mouse footpad, with 0.1N NaOH for 3 min was sufficient to remove the majority of mouse tissue without adversely affecting the viability of the organism. This is a simple and rapid method to get suspensions of nu/nu footpad-derived viable M. leprae essentially free of host tissues, which can be a research reagent for studying the host-pathogen relationship in leprosy. We also report here a method for labeling M. leprae with the fluorescent dye PKH26, without compromising on the viability of the organism. This method may be useful in intracellular trafficking studies of M. leprae or in other cell biology studies that require tracking of the bacteria using fluorescent tag. We observed the staining to be stable in vitro over considerable lengths of time and did not affect the viability of the bacteria. PMID:16830641

  5. Use of sulfite and hydrogen peroxide to control bacterial contamination in ethanol fermentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, I S; B.H. Kim; Shin, P K

    1997-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from an industrial-scale ethanol fermentation process were used to evaluate sulfite as a bacterial-contamination control agent in a cell-recycled continuous ethanol fermentation process. The viabilities of bacteria were decreased by sulfite at concentrations of 100 to 400 mg liter-1, while sulfite at the same concentrations did not change the viability of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain used in this process. Sulfite was effective only in the presence of oxyge...

  6. Evaluation of myocardial viability by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distinguishing between viable and non-viable myocardium is an important clinical issue. Several magnetic resonance (MR) techniques to address this issue have been proposed. Spectroscopy of phosphorus-31 and hydrogen-1 from creatine as well as imaging of sodium-23 and potassium-39 reflect information related to cellular metabolism. The spatial and temporal resolutions of these techniques are limited, however, by the small magnitude of the MR signal. Proton imaging techniques include examination of pathologic alterations in MR relaxation times (T1 and T2), wall thickness and thickening, cine MRI combined with low-dose dobutamine, first-pass contrast enhancement patterns, and delayed contrast enhancement patterns. Of the proton imaging approaches, cine MRI combined with low-dose dobutamine is supported by the largest body of clinical evidence supporting the hypothesis that the technique yields useful information regarding myocardial viability. Recent data suggest that delayed contrast enhancement examines the transmural extent of viable myocardium irrespective of contractile function and that this technique should also be considered in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  7. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of nail infection is often caused by a bacterial infection but may also be caused by herpes, a ... to a type of yeast called Candida , or bacterial infection, and this may lead to abnormal nail growth. ...

  8. Lithium: Sources, Production, Uses, and Recovery Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara; Ayres, Robert U.

    2013-08-01

    The demand for lithium has increased significantly during the last decade as it has become key for the development of industrial products, especially batteries for electronic devices and electric vehicles. This article reviews sources, extraction and production, uses, and recovery and recycling, all of which are important aspects when evaluating lithium as a key resource. First, it describes the estimated reserves and lithium production from brine and pegmatites, including the material and energy requirements. Then, it continues with a description about the current uses of lithium focusing on its application in batteries and concludes with a description of the opportunities for recovery and recycling and the future demand forecast. The article concludes that the demand of lithium for electronic vehicles will increase from 30% to almost 60% by 2020. Thus, in the next years, the recovery and recycling of lithium from batteries is decisive to ensure the long-term viability of the metal.

  9. Achado de bactérias selecionadas em crianças de Trinidad com doença amigdaliana crônica Selected bacterial recovery in Trinidadian children with chronic tonsillar disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexley Maureen Pinto Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Faringoamigdalite na população pediátrica é largamente tratada com antibióticos. OBJETIVO: Estudar a microflora presente na superfície e no núcleo de amígdalas após adenoamigdalectomia eletiva em crianças. MÉTODO: Amígdalas de 102 crianças de Trinidad foram prospectivamente estudadas por meio de culturas e identificações bacteriológicas feitas a partir de amostras das superfícies e núcleos de suas amígdalas entre 2005-2006. RESULTADOS: A partir de 360 amígdalas, foram isolados Streptococcus spp. (51,3%, Staphylococcus spp. (42,3% e Gram-Negativos (6,4%. A identificação de estafilococos e estreptococos tanto na superfície quanto no núcleo foi semelhante (p>0,05. Encontramos mais (pPharyngotonsillitis in children is widely treated with antibiotics. AIM: To examine tonsil surface and core microflora following elective adenotonsillectomy in children. METHODS: Tonsils of 102 Trinidadian children were prospectively examined for surface and core bacteriological culture and identification between 2005-2006. RESULTS: Tonsils (360 yielded 800 isolates of Streptococcus spp. (51.3%, Staphylococcus spp. (42.3% and Gram-negative genera (6.4%. Surface and core recovery of staphylococci and streptococci were similar (p>0.05. More (p<0.001 surfaces (82.2% than cores (63.3% grew Streptococcus spp.; α-haemolytic Streptococcus prevalence was higher (p<0.001 than ß-haemolytic Streptococcus on surfaces (74.4% vs. 18.6% than cores (58.9% vs. 13.7%. Surfaces and cores were not concordant for streptococci (p<0.0004 and α-haemolytic Streptococcus (p<0.007. Surface and core ß-haemolytic Streptococcus yield was higher (p<0.05 in 6-16 than 1-5 year olds (31% and 23.8% vs 12.5% and 8%. S. pyogenes surface and core prevalence was (84.6% vs 70% and (50.0% vs 25.0% in older and younger children respectively. Klebsiella spp. (6.6 %, 2.2%, Proteus (4.4%, 4.4% and Pseudomonas (4.4 %, 1.1% grew on surfaces and cores respectively. CONCLUSION: Tonsil

  10. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will...

  11. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  12. Probing bacterial adhesion at the single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Müller, Torsten; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    cantilever coated with the commercial cell adhesive CellTakTM. We applied the method to study adhesion of living cells to abiotic surfaces at the single-cell level. Immobilisation of single bacterial cells to the cantilever was stable for several hours, and viability was confirmed by Live/Dead staining and......Bacteria initiate attachment to surfaces with the aid of different extracellular proteins and polymeric adhesins. To quantitatively analyse the cell-cell and cell-surface interactions provided by bacterial adhesins, it is essential to go down to single cell level where cell-to-cell variation can be...... considered. We have developed a simple and versatile method to make single-cell bacterial probes for measuring single cell adhesion by force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A single-cell probe was readily made by picking up a bacterial cell from a glass surface by approaching a tipless AFM...

  13. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced a...... number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay...... spurious results. I provide methodological advice on sperm viability staining aimed at minimising artefacts and producing robust conclusions, and discuss possible avenues for future research....

  14. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers. PMID:24579222

  15. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals. METHODS/RESULTS: Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions. CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals

  16. Alternatives for the intermediate recovery of plasmid DNA: performance, economic viability and environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sindelia; Canário, Sónia; Santos, José A L; Prazeres, Duarte M F

    2009-02-01

    Robust cGMP manufacturing is required to produce high-quality plasmid DNA (pDNA). Three established techniques, isopropanol and ammonium sulfate (AS) precipitation (PP), tangential flow filtration (TFF) and aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) with PEG600/AS, were tested as alternatives to recover pDNA from alkaline lysates. Yield and purity data were used to evaluate the economic and environmental impact of each option. Although pDNA yields > or = 90% were always obtained, ATPS delivered the highest HPLC purity (59%), followed by PP (48%) and TFF (18%). However, the ability of ATPS to concentrate pDNA was very poor when compared with PP or TFF. Processes were also implemented by coupling TFF with ATPS or AS-PP. Process simulations indicate that all options require large amounts of water (100-200 tons/kg pDNA) and that the ATPS process uses large amounts of mass separating agents (65 tons/kg pDNA). Estimates indicate that operating costs of the ATPS process are 2.5-fold larger when compared with the PP and TFF processes. The most significant contributions to the costs in the PP, TFF and ATPS processes came from operators (59%), consumables (75%) and raw materials (84%), respectively. The ATPS process presented the highest environmental impact, whereas the impact of the TFF process was negligible. PMID:19039783

  17. Ecological succession and viability of human-associated microbiota on restroom surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Sean M; Schwartz, Tara; Fouquier, Jennifer; Mitchell, Michelle; Sangwan, Naseer; Gilbert, Jack A; Kelley, Scott T

    2015-01-01

    Human-associated bacteria dominate the built environment (BE). Following decontamination of floors, toilet seats, and soap dispensers in four public restrooms, in situ bacterial communities were characterized hourly, daily, and weekly to determine their successional ecology. The viability of cultivable bacteria, following the removal of dispersal agents (humans), was also assessed hourly. A late-successional community developed within 5 to 8 h on restroom floors and showed remarkable stability over weeks to months. Despite late-successional dominance by skin- and outdoor-associated bacteria, the most ubiquitous organisms were predominantly gut-associated taxa, which persisted following exclusion of humans. Staphylococcus represented the majority of the cultivable community, even after several hours of human exclusion. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated virulence genes were found on floors but were not present in assembled Staphylococcus pan-genomes. Viral abundances, which were predominantly enterophages, human papilloma virus, and herpesviruses, were significantly correlated with bacterial abundances and showed an unexpectedly low virus-to-bacterium ratio in surface-associated samples, suggesting that bacterial hosts are mostly dormant on BE surfaces. PMID:25398865

  18. The Influence of the Academic Conservation Biology Literature on Endangered Species Recovery Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Hudgens, Brian R.; Moyle, Leonie C.; John Stinchcombe; Bloch, Philip L.; Sathya Chinnadurai; Morris, William F.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the volume of the academic conservation biology literature, there is little evidence as to what effect this work is having on endangered species recovery efforts. Using data collected from a national review of 136 endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we evaluated whether recovery plans were changing in response to publication trends in four areas of the academic conservation biology literature: metapopulation dynamics, population viability analysis, conservation corridors...

  19. Microbial surfactant-enhanced mineral oil recovery under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

    2008-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir being beyond primary and secondary recovery operations. Effort has been made to isolate and characterize natural biosurfactant produced by bacterial isolates collected from various oil fields of ONGC in Assam. Production of biosurfactant has been considered to be an effective major index for the purpose of enhanced oil recovery. On the basis of the index, four promising bacterial isolates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC7815), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7814), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC8165) were selected for subsequent testing. Biosurfactant produced by the promising bacterial isolates have been found to be effective in the recovery of crude oil from saturated column under laboratory conditions. Two bacterial strains: P. aeruginosa (MTCC7815) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) have been found to be the highest producer of biosurfactant. Tensiometer studies revealed that biosurfactants produced by these bacterial strains could reduce the surface tension (sigma) of the growth medium from 68 to 30 mN m(-1) after 96 h of growth. The bacterial biosurfactants were found to be functionally stable at varying pH (2.5-11) conditions and temperature of 100 degrees C. The treatment of biosurfactant containing, cell free culture broth in crude oil saturated sand pack column could release about 15% more crude oil at 90 degrees C than at room temperature and 10% more than at 70 degrees C under laboratory condition. PMID:18164187

  20. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  1. Real-time measurement of UV-inactivated Escherichia coli bacterial particles by electrospray-assisted UVAPS spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) is a novel commercially available aerosol spectrometer for real-time continuous monitoring of viable bioaerosols, based on fluorescence from living microorganisms. In a previous study, we developed an electrospray-assisted UVAPS using biological electrospray techniques, which have the advantage of generating non-agglomerated single particles by the repulsive electrical forces. With this electrospraying of suspensions containing microorganisms, the analytical system can supply more accurate and quantitative information about living microorganisms than with conventional aerosolization. Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS, we investigated the characteristics of bacterial particles with various viabilities in real-time. Escherichia coli was used as the test microorganism, and its initial viability was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. In the stable cone-jet domain, the particle size distributions of test bacterial particles remained almost uniform regardless of the degree of UV inactivation. However, the fluorescence spectra of the bacterial particles changed with the degree of UV inactivation. The fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability, determined by the sampling and culture method, although the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability. - Research Highlights: → Characteristics of E. coli particles with various viabilities in real-time were investigated Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS. → Initial viability of E. coli was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. → Fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability. → However, the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability.

  2. Real-time measurement of UV-inactivated Escherichia coli bacterial particles by electrospray-assisted UVAPS spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun [Public Health Microbiology Laboratory, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gwi Nam, E-mail: gnbae@kist.re.kr [Environment Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    The ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) is a novel commercially available aerosol spectrometer for real-time continuous monitoring of viable bioaerosols, based on fluorescence from living microorganisms. In a previous study, we developed an electrospray-assisted UVAPS using biological electrospray techniques, which have the advantage of generating non-agglomerated single particles by the repulsive electrical forces. With this electrospraying of suspensions containing microorganisms, the analytical system can supply more accurate and quantitative information about living microorganisms than with conventional aerosolization. Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS, we investigated the characteristics of bacterial particles with various viabilities in real-time. Escherichia coli was used as the test microorganism, and its initial viability was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. In the stable cone-jet domain, the particle size distributions of test bacterial particles remained almost uniform regardless of the degree of UV inactivation. However, the fluorescence spectra of the bacterial particles changed with the degree of UV inactivation. The fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability, determined by the sampling and culture method, although the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability. - Research Highlights: {yields} Characteristics of E. coli particles with various viabilities in real-time were investigated Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS. {yields} Initial viability of E. coli was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. {yields} Fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability. {yields} However, the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability.

  3. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads

  4. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    -vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial......Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...

  5. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  6. Standardization of lyophilization medium for Streptococcus thermophilus subjected to viability escalation on freeze drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to develop a lyophilization medium for Streptococcus thermophilus (NCIM 2904 as the industrial exploitation of this bacterium totally depends upon preservation and lyophilization protocols. Protective effect of 18 compounds were observed individually and in combinations with different sugars, sugar alcohols, polymers, protein concentrates and buffers. Among all the protectants tested, ammonium citrate (1% w/w, K2HPO4 (1% w/w and KH2PO4 (1% w/w provided lowest protection to these bacterial cells while 10% (w/w sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate, sweet whey powder, and skim milk showed significant results in viability escalation. Survival in carbon sources like lactose, sucrose and maltodextrine was also favored maximally. Combination of sodium caseinate 10%, skim milk 5%, sucrose 5%, lactose 5% and mono sodium glutamate 1% in distilled water in ratio of 1:5 with S. thermophilus showed survival percentage of 96%.

  7. Dead or alive? Viability assessment of micro- and mesoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Zetsche, E.M.; F. J. R. Meysman

    2012-01-01

    The rapid and efficient analysis of plankton samples (e.g. enumeration, identification, biomass determination) has been an important driver for recent technological developments in (semi-) automated analysis and imaging instruments. Most focus has been on identification and abundance estimates, while less attention has been given to viability, i.e. the assessment of whether the organisms are dead or alive. However, a wide spectrum of scientific applications requires accurate viability determi...

  8. Mobile social networking application viability: a research framework

    OpenAIRE

    Chee Wei Phang; Juliana Sutanto; Chuan-Hoo Tan; Jan Ondrus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to outline a conceptual framework on mobile applications that support social interactions among users to warrant commercial viability of such applications. Design/methodology/approach –We build on the social network paradigm to propose an activity-based view on mobile application usage, and theoretically link the pertinent features of mobile social networking applications (MSNAs) to a set of measurement metrics concerning their commercial viability. Fi...

  9. Enhancing Osteochondral Allograft Viability: Effects of Storage Media Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Margie S.; Yuen, Audrey S.; Kim, Hubert T.

    2008-01-01

    Osteochondral allograft transplantation is a well-accepted treatment for articular cartilage damage. However, chondrocyte viability declines during graft storage, which may compromise graft performance. We first tested the hypothesis that the composition of commonly used storage media affects the viability of articular chondrocytes over time; we then tested the hypothesis that the addition of insulin growth factor-1 or the apoptosis inhibitor ZVAD-fmk could enhance the storage properties of s...

  10. In vitro radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca microfilariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca cervicalis using [3H]2-deoxy-D-glucose in Hanks' balanced salt solution, pH 7.5, at 30 C is described and compared to the traditional visual motility assay. A correlation of r = 0.92 between the assays was found, with the radiolabel uptake method apparently a more sensitive indicator of microfilarial viability

  11. Flow cytometric assessment of viability of lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bunthof, C.J.; Bloemen, K.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F. M.; Abee, T

    2001-01-01

    The viability of lactic acid bacteria is crucial for their applications as dairy starters and as probiotics. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria. The esterase substrate carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and the dye exclusion DNA binding probes propidium iodide (PI) and TOTO-1 were tested for live/dead discrimination using a Lactococcus, a Streptococcus, three Lactobacillus, two Leuconostoc, an Enterococcus, and a Pediococcu...

  12. Apple, grape or orange juice: Which one offers the best substrate for lactobacilli growth? — A screening study on bacteria viability, superoxide dismutase activity, folates production and hedonic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin, Frederic; Renard, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation can contribute to improve functional aspects of foods. The first goal of this study was to determine amongst apple, grape and orange juices, the onewith the best bacterial growth performance during fermentation by Lactobacillus strains from commercial and artisanal food origins, at 40 °C for 48 h. The juice with the highest bacterial growth was evaluated for bacteria viability during 4 weeks of cold storage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and folates production a...

  13. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  14. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH. PMID:23544135

  15. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Vanhauteghem

    Full Text Available Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG, but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine, under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH.

  16. Observations Regardin Oocyte in Vitro Maturation after Recovery from Slaughter House Females

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriu Carabă; Alexandra Ivan; Nicolae Păcală

    2011-01-01

    The oocytes viability must be taken as an important selection parameter for successful in vitro cultivation. The ovaries were collected from the slaughterhouse and maintained at 4°C for 7 days. Fallowing cumulus -oocytes complexes recovery the viability was tested using two staining methods. For the first experiment we used 27 cumulus - oocytes complexes, stained with Neutral red and for the second experiment we used 11 cumulus - oocytes complexes stained with Trypan blue. Fallowing staining ...

  17. Study of viability of Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1 freeze-dried during storage at 4 and 20°C

    OpenAIRE

    Mputu Kanyinda, Jean-Noël; Thonart, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The drying of bacteria remains a major alternative in order to keep them long term. After centrifugation, the bacterial pellet of Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1 was divided in two fractions one with and one without cryoprotectants (2% glycerol and 5% maltodextrine) and freeze-dried. After freeze drying, powders were sealed in aluminium bag under vacuum and storage at 4 or 20°C. The storage stability of freeze-dried powders was studied by parameters such as loss of viability on the Plate Count A...

  18. Waste heat recovery retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report provides the results of the experience gained and the guidance for the replication of a waste heat recovery system in Lac La Martre, Northwest Territories. In the summer of 1981, a new school of 1800 m {sup 2} was built, which incorporated many energy conservation features. The project demonstrates the technical and ecomomic viability of recovering the waste heat produced by the community's generator motors and using it to almost totally heat the school. Of the three diesel-electric generators which handle the total power supply for Lac La Martre, two (281 kVa and 187 kVa capacity) have been connected to the heat recovery system. The school is provided with two 159 kW capacity boilers which are sized to handle the complete heating load. The system is described, including the heat exchangers, the heat pipe between the power plant and the school, the circulating pumps and the heat metering system. Preliminary load calculations revealed the need to use both the waste heat from the generator's coolant water and the flue gas. Now that the school has operated through a whole winter season, the project can be considered a success up to this point. From an intial capital outlay of Canadian $250,000, savings for fuel of Canadian 26,000/y are now being realized, with a total payback period of 9 years. However, it must be recognized that this system requires a higher level of skill to maintain than a simple on-off system. The difficulties encountered with a similar heat recovery system which was built in Igloolik during the 1970's are briefly discussed. 45 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. The effect of modified polysialic acid based hydrogels on the adhesion and viability of primary neurons and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Yohannes; Berski, Silke; Dräger, Gerald; Nobre, Andrè; Stummeyer, Katharina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Grothe, Claudia

    2008-04-01

    In this study we present the enzymatic and biological analysis of polysialic acid (polySia) based hydrogel in terms of its degradation and cytocompatibility. PolySia based hydrogel is completely degradable by endosialidase enzyme which may avoid second surgery after tissue recovery. Viability assay showed that soluble components of polySia hydrogel did not cause any toxic effect on cultured Schwann cells. Moreover, green fluorescence protein transfected neonatal and adult Schwann cells, neural stem cells and dorsal root ganglionic cells (unlabelled) were seeded on polySia hydrogel modified with poly-L-lysine (Pll), poly-L-ornithine-laminin (porn-laminin) or collagen. Water soluble tetrazolium salt assay revealed that modification of the hydrogel significantly improved cell adhesion and viability. These results infer that polySia based scaffolds in combination with cell adhesion molecules and cells genetically modified to express growth factors would potentially be promising alternative in reconstructive therapeutic strategies. PMID:18255143

  20. Overproduction of DnaE protein (alpha subunit of DNA polymerase III) restores viability in a conditionally inviable Escherichia coli strain deficient in DNA polymerase I.

    OpenAIRE

    Witkin, E M; Roegner-Maniscalco, V

    1992-01-01

    A polA12 recA718 double mutant of Escherichia coli, in which DNA polymerase I is temperature sensitive, was unable to maintain normal DNA synthesis or to form colonies on rich media at 42 degrees C. Overproduction of DnaE protein, the polymerizing alpha subunit of DNA polymerase III, restored bacterial DNA replication and cell viability, as well as the PolI-dependent replication of the plasmid carrying dnaE.

  1. Shuffling bacterial metabolomes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomason, Brendan; Read, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has a far more significant role than gene duplication in bacterial evolution. This has recently been illustrated by work demonstrating the importance of HGT in the emergence of bacterial metabolic networks, with horizontally acquired genes being placed in peripheral pathways at the outer branches of the networks.

  2. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection. PMID:27096872

  3. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...... become valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future....

  4. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim N. Mak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.

  5. Spontaneous occurrence of synergistic bacterial gangrene following external pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of spontaneous synergistic bacterial gangrene occurring after external pelvic irradiation is presented in a 25-year-old woman with invasive cervical cancer. Treatment consisted of aggressive antibiotic therapy and extensive excision and debridement followed by split-thickness skin grafting. Both recovery and cosmetic results were satisfactory. The pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and treatment modalities are presented

  6. Experimental sulfate amendment alters peatland bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickman, R J S; Fulthorpe, R R; Coleman Wasik, J K; Engstrom, D R; Mitchell, C P J

    2016-10-01

    As part of a long-term, peatland-scale sulfate addition experiment, the impact of varying sulfate deposition on bacterial community responses was assessed using 16S tag encoded pyrosequencing. In three separate areas of the peatland, sulfate manipulations included an eight year quadrupling of atmospheric sulfate deposition (experimental), a 3-year recovery to background deposition following 5years of elevated deposition (recovery), and a control area. Peat concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, were measured, the production of which is attributable to a growing list of microorganisms, including many sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The total bacterial and Deltaproteobacterial community structures in the experimental treatment differed significantly from those in the control and recovery treatments that were either indistinguishable or very similar to one another. Notably, the relatively rapid return (within three years) of bacterial community structure in the recovery treatment to a state similar to the control, demonstrates significant resilience of the peatland bacterial community to changes in atmospheric sulfate deposition. Changes in MeHg accumulation between sulfate treatments correlated with changes in the Deltaproteobacterial community, suggesting that sulfate may affect MeHg production through changes in the community structure of this group. PMID:27267720

  7. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl;

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living....... Stigmatization and social barriers occurred. Social relations to peer residents and staff were reported as potentially having a positive and negative impact on recovery. Studies have explored the user's perspectives on recovery but this study contributes with knowledge on how recovery-oriented services have an...

  8. Advanced space recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wailes, William K.

    1989-01-01

    The design evolution of a space recovery system designed by a NASA-contracted study is described, with particular attention given to the design of a recovery system for a propulsion/avionics module (P/AM), which weighs 60,000 lb at the recovery initiation and achieves subsonic terminal descent at or above 50,000 ft msl. The components of the recovery system concept are described together with the operational sequences of the recovery. The recovery system concept offers low cost, low weight, good performance, a potential for pinpoint landing, and an operational flexibility.

  9. Myocardial Viability: What We Knew and What Is New

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Shabana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have shown significant improvements of contractility with favorable long-term prognosis after revascularization. Several imaging techniques are available for the assessment of viable myocardium, based on the detection of preserved perfusion, preserved glucose metabolism, intact cell membrane and mitochondria, and presence of contractile reserve. Nuclear cardiology techniques, dobutamine echocardiography and positron emission tomography are used to assess myocardial viability. In recent years, new advances have improved methods of detecting myocardial viability. This paper summarizes the pathophysiology, methods, and impact of detection of myocardial viability, concentrating on recent advances in such methods. We reviewed the literature using search engines MIDLINE, SCOUPS, and EMBASE from 1988 to February 2012. We used key words: myocardial viability, hibernation, stunning, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies showed that the presence of viable myocardium was associated with a greater likelihood of survival in patients with coronary artery disease and LV dysfunction, but the assessment of myocardial viability did not identify patients with survival benefit from revascularization, as compared with medical therapy alone. This topic is still debatable and needs more evidence.

  10. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  11. From bacterial genome to functionality; case bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Marco; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Leahy, Sinead; Moreno-Munoz, Jose Antonio; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2007-11-30

    The availability of complete bacterial genome sequences has significantly furthered our understanding of the genetics, physiology and biochemistry of the microorganisms in question, particularly those that have commercially important applications. Bifidobacteria are among such microorganisms, as they constitute mammalian commensals of biotechnological significance due to their perceived role in maintaining a balanced gastrointestinal (GIT) microflora. Bifidobacteria are therefore frequently used as health-promoting or probiotic components in functional food products. A fundamental understanding of the metabolic activities employed by these commensal bacteria, in particular their capability to utilize a wide range of complex oligosaccharides, can reveal ways to provide in vivo growth advantages relative to other competing gut bacteria or pathogens. Furthermore, an in depth analysis of adaptive responses to nutritional or environmental stresses may provide methodologies to retain viability and improve functionality during commercial preparation, storage and delivery of the probiotic organism. PMID:17629975

  12. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  13. Effect of Chlorine on Giardia lamblia Cyst Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jarroll, Edward L.; Bingham, Alan K.; Meyer, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of chlorine concentration on Giardia lamblia cyst viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of Giardia cysts to undergo excystation was used as the criterion of viability. The experimental variables employed included temperature (25, 15, and 5°C), pH (6, 7, and 8), chlorine-cyst contact time (10, 30, and 60 min), and chlorine concentration (1 to 8 mg/liter). In the pH range studied, cyst survival generally was observed to increase as buffer pH increased. Water...

  14. Improving sample recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the tasks, i.e., tests, studies, external support and modifications planned to increase the recovery of the recovery of the waste tank contents using combinations of improved techniques, equipment, knowledge, experience and testing to better the recovery rates presently being experienced

  15. Youth in Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  16. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  17. Bacterial Meningitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.

  18. Calibrating bacterial evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Ochman, Howard; Elwyn, Susannah; Moran, Nancy A

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to calibrate bacterial evolution have relied on the assumption that rates of molecular sequence divergence in bacteria are similar to those of higher eukaryotes, or to those of the few bacterial taxa for which ancestors can be reliably dated from ecological or geological evidence. Despite similarities in the substitution rates estimated for some lineages, comparisons of the relative rates of evolution at different classes of nucleotide sites indicate no basis for their universal appl...

  19. Autohydrogenotrophic denitrification by a bioelectrochemical process: A viability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Safari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, viability of the autotrophic bacteria was investigated in a denitrification process. Bench-scale bioelectrochemical denitrification with separated chambers reactor were applied for nitrate reduction from synthetic wastewater. The influences of current density, retention time, mixing on viability of autotrophic denitrifying bacteria were investigated in the bioelectrochemical reactor (BER. It was found that by increasing the current density up to 8 mA/cm2, nitrate reduction rate was increased. At higher current density (24 - 32 mA/cm2, denitrification rate due to excess of hydrogen gas on cathode surface and accumulation of nitrite, was decreased. Low current density (<16 mA/cm2 has not had a significant effect on viability of denitrifying bacteria. Mixing of the solution reduced the adverse effects of electric current on bacteria and enhanced the denitrification rate which was mainly due to prevention of bacteria localization, increasing the contact of hydrogen and bacteria, and delay in membrane fouling. The viability of cultivable bacteria has not been significantly influenced by running time.

  20. Dynamics of organizational viability : new perspectives and evidence from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chaohong

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to theoretically explore issues in organizational ecology by searching for cross-pollination with other (sub)disciplines, and to empirically probe into industries in the Chinese transition economy. It focuses on the impact of shifts in environments on the viability of two

  1. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  2. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  3. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the first...

  4. Economic viability of new launched school lunch programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne; Mørkbak, Morten Raun;

    2013-01-01

    activities related to the schools’ support and the users’ feeling of ownership, as well as internal professionalism and leadership in the implementation of the school lunch programme are important for the viability of the programme. Strong performance on the latter factors might to some extent compensate for...... the gap between cost and users’ willingness to pay for school lunches....

  5. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis;

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  6. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  7. Effect of salt hyperosmotic stress on yeast cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logothetis Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During fermentation for ethanol production, yeasts are subjected to different kinds of physico-chemical stresses such as: initially high sugar concentration and low temperature; and later, increased ethanol concentrations. Such conditions trigger a series of biological responses in an effort to maintain cell cycle progress and yeast cell viability. Regarding osmostress, many studies have been focused on transcriptional activation and gene expression in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overall aim of this present work was to further our understanding of wine yeast performance during fermentations under osmotic stress conditions. Specifically, the research work focused on the evaluation of NaCl-induced stress responses of an industrial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae (VIN 13, particularly with regard to yeast cell growth and viability. The hypothesis was that osmostress conditions energized specific genes to enable yeast cells to survive under stressful conditions. Experiments were designed by pretreating cells with different sodium chloride concentrations (NaCl: 4%, 6% and 10% w/v growing in defined media containing D-glucose and evaluating the impact of this on yeast growth and viability. Subsequent fermentation cycles took place with increasing concentrations of D-glucose (20%, 30%, 40% w/v using salt-adapted cells as inocula. We present evidence that osmostress induced by mild salt pre-treatments resulted in beneficial influences on both cell viability and fermentation performance of an industrial wine yeast strain.

  8. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  9. Anthocyanin Incorporated Dental Copolymer: Bacterial Growth Inhibition, Mechanical Properties, and Compound Release Rates and Stability by 1H NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Halyna Hrynash; Vinay Kumar Pilly; Alexandra Mankovskaia; Yaoyang Xiong; Getulio Nogueira Filho; Eduardo Bresciani; Céline Marie Lévesque; Anuradha Prakki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate bacterial growth inhibition, mechanical properties, and compound release rate and stability of copolymers incorporated with anthocyanin (ACY; Vaccinium macrocarpon). Methods. Resin samples were prepared (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA at 70/30 mol%) and incorporated with 2 w/w% of either ACY or chlorhexidine (CHX), except for the control group. Samples were individually immersed in a bacterial culture (Streptococcus mutans) for 24 h. Cell viability (n = 3) was assessed by counting the ...

  10. Assessment of myocardial viability using multidetector computed tomography in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B.J. [Department of Cardiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, D.K., E-mail: kdklsm@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sun, J.S. [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Aim: To assess the prognostic value of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to predict follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery after reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) as defined by echocardiography. Materials and methods: After reperfusion therapy for acute MI, 71 patients underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT and follow-up echocardiography. MDCT findings were compared with echocardiographic findings using kappa statistics. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) and the odds ratios (ORs) of early perfusion defects (EPD), delayed enhancement (DE), and residual perfusion defects (RPD) for predicting follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery were calculated on a segmental basis. Results: The presence of transmural EPD (EPD{sub TM}) or RPD showed good agreement (k = 0.611 and 0.658, respectively) with follow-up myocardial dysfunction, while subendocardial EPD (EPD{sub sub}) or subendocardial DE (DE{sub sub}) showed fair agreement with follow-up myocardial dysfunction (k = 0.235 and 0.234, respectively). The AUC of RPD (0.796) was superior (p < 0.001 and 0.031, respectively) to those of EPD{sub TM} (0.761) and DE{sub TM} (0.771). The presence of EPD{sub TM}, DE{sub TM}, and RPD were significant, independent positive predictors of follow-up myocardial dysfunction (OR = 6.4, 1.9, and 9.8, respectively). EPD{sub TM} was a significant, independent negative predictor of myocardial functional recovery (OR = 0.13). Conclusion: Abnormal myocardial attenuation on two-phase MDCT after reperfusion therapy may provide promising information regarding myocardial viability in patients with acute MI.

  11. Isolation and study of microorganisms from oil samples for application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from a reservoir beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. Stimulation of bacterial growth for biosurfactant production and degradation of heavy oil fractions by indigenous microorganisms can enhance the fluidity and reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. MEOR offers major advantages over conventional EOR, namely low...

  12. Aptamer–polymer functionalized silicon nanosubstrates for enhanced recovered circulating tumor cell viability and in vitro chemosensitivity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinglin; Peng, Caixia; Zhan, Yan; Fan, Liang; Wang, Mengyi; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Jue; Lv, Xiaojuan; Tang, Qiu; Li, Jun; Huang, Xiaodong; Xia, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Selection of the optimal chemotherapy regimen for an individual cancer patient is challenging. The existing chemosensitivity tests are costly, time-consuming, and not amenable to wide utilization within a clinic. This limitation might be addressed by the recently proposed use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor response to therapy. Over the past few decades, various techniques were developed to capture and recover CTCs, but these techniques were often limited by a capture and recovery performance tradeoff between high viability and high efficiency. In this work, we used anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule coated aptamer–poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) functionalized silicon nanowire substrates to capture and release epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive CTCs at 32°C and 4°C, respectively. Then, we applied the nuclease to digest the aptamer to release the captured CTCs (near or at the end of the polymer brush), which cannot be released by heating/cooling process. High viability and purity CTCs could be achieved by decreasing the heating/cooling cycles and enzymatic treatment rounds. Furthermore, the time-saving process is helpful to maintain the morphology and enhance vitality of the recovered CTCs and is beneficial to the subsequent cell culture in vitro. We validated the feasibility of chemosensitivity testing based on the recovered HCC827 cells using an adenosine triphosphate–tumor chemosensitivity assay, and the results suggested that our method can determine which agent and what concentration have the best chemosensitivity for the culturing recovered CTCs. So, the novel method capable of a highly effective capture and recovery of high viability CTCs will pave the way for chemosensitivity testing. PMID:27274239

  13. Aptamer-polymer functionalized silicon nanosubstrates for enhanced recovered circulating tumor cell viability and in vitro chemosensitivity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinglin; Peng, Caixia; Zhan, Yan; Fan, Liang; Wang, Mengyi; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Jue; Lv, Xiaojuan; Tang, Qiu; Li, Jun; Huang, Xiaodong; Xia, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Selection of the optimal chemotherapy regimen for an individual cancer patient is challenging. The existing chemosensitivity tests are costly, time-consuming, and not amenable to wide utilization within a clinic. This limitation might be addressed by the recently proposed use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor response to therapy. Over the past few decades, various techniques were developed to capture and recover CTCs, but these techniques were often limited by a capture and recovery performance tradeoff between high viability and high efficiency. In this work, we used anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule coated aptamer-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) functionalized silicon nanowire substrates to capture and release epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive CTCs at 32°C and 4°C, respectively. Then, we applied the nuclease to digest the aptamer to release the captured CTCs (near or at the end of the polymer brush), which cannot be released by heating/cooling process. High viability and purity CTCs could be achieved by decreasing the heating/cooling cycles and enzymatic treatment rounds. Furthermore, the time-saving process is helpful to maintain the morphology and enhance vitality of the recovered CTCs and is beneficial to the subsequent cell culture in vitro. We validated the feasibility of chemosensitivity testing based on the recovered HCC827 cells using an adenosine triphosphate-tumor chemosensitivity assay, and the results suggested that our method can determine which agent and what concentration have the best chemosensitivity for the culturing recovered CTCs. So, the novel method capable of a highly effective capture and recovery of high viability CTCs will pave the way for chemosensitivity testing. PMID:27274239

  14. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  15. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  16. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  17. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane. PMID:26621472

  18. Essential bacterial helicases that counteract the toxicity of recombination proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Marie-Agnès; Ehrlich, Dusko

    2002-01-01

    PcrA, Rep and UvrD are three closely related bacterial helicases with a DExx signature. PcrA is encoded by Gram-positive bacteria and is essential for cell growth. Rep and UvrD are encoded by Gram-negative bacteria, and mutants lacking both helicases are also not viable. To understand the non-viability of the helicase mutants, we characterized spontaneous extragenic suppressors of a Bacillus subtilis pcrA null mutation. Here we report that one of these suppressors maps in recF and that previo...

  19. MRI of Stroke Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    MRI is a vital tool for the measurement of acute stroke and has been used to visualize changes in activation patterns during stroke recovery. There is emerging interest on using MRI to monitor the structural substrates of spontaneous recovery and neurorestorative treatment of stroke. In this review, we describe the use of MRI and its associated challenges to measure vascular and neuronal remodeling in response to spontaneous and therapy-induced stroke recovery. We demonstrate that MRI methodo...

  20. Metal recycle and recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Zaib-un-nisa

    1999-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The development of techniques for the removal and recovery of metals from industrial effluent taking account of the consequences of the definition of waste in the Basel Convention on transfrontier shipment of waste is reported. The use of fluidised bed cell electrolysis in the recovery of metals from dilute solutions is investigated, and the conditions for recovery optimised. For the first...

  1. Beyond enhanced recovery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagree...... that a "new, clearly defined standard of what "recovery" actually is", demands "a look beyond enhanced recovery"(1) for several reasons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. Recovery of phage lambda from ultraviolet damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery of phage lambda from ultraviolet damage can occur, in the dark, through three types of repair processes as defined by microbiological tests: host-cell reactivation, prophage reactivation, and uv reactivation. This paper reviews the properties of the three repair processes, analyzes their dependence on the functioning of bacterial and phage genes, and discusses their relationship. Progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the three repair processes has been relatively slow, particularly for uv reactivation. It has been shown that host-cell reactivation is due to pyrimidine dimer excision and that prophage reactivation is due to genetic recombination (prereplicative). We provide evidence showing that neither of these mechanisms accounts for uv reactivation of phage lambda. Furthermore, uv reactivation differs from the other repair processes in that it is inducible and error-prone. Whether uv-damaged bacterial DNA is subject to a similar repair process is still an open question

  3. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria.......Biofilm resilience poses major challenges to the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Biofilm bacteria can be considered small groups of “Special Forces” capable of infiltrating the host and destroying important components of the cellular defense system with the aim of crippling the host...

  4. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Song diversity predicts the viability of fragmented bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laiolo

    Full Text Available In the global scenario of increasing habitat fragmentation, finding appropriate indicators of population viability is a priority for conservation. We explored the potential of learned behaviours, specifically acoustic signals, to predict the persistence over time of fragmented bird populations. We found an association between male song diversity and the annual rate of population change, population productivity and population size, resulting in birds singing poor repertoires in populations more prone to extinction. This is the first demonstration that population viability can be predicted by a cultural trait (acquired via social learning. Our results emphasise that cultural attributes can reflect not only individual-level characteristics, but also the emergent population-level properties. This opens the way to the study of animal cultural diversity in the increasingly common human-altered landscapes.

  6. Femtosecond Optical Trapping of Cells: Efficiency and Viability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jixian; LI Fang; XING Qirong

    2009-01-01

    The femtosecond optical trapping capability and the effect of femtosecond laser pulses on cell viability were studied. The maximum lateral velocity at which the particles just failed to be trapped, together with the measured average trapping power, were used to calculate the lateral trapping force(Q-value). The viability of the cells after femtosecond laser trapping was ascertained by vital staining. Measurement of the Q-values shows that femtosecond optical tweezers are just as effective as continuous wave optical tweezers. The experiments demonstrate that there is a critical limit for expo-sure time at each corresponding laser power of femtosecond optical tweezers, and femtosecond laser tweezers are safe for optical trapping at low power with short exposure time.

  7. Mammalian cell viability in electrospun composite nanofiber structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbolat, Mehmet Fatih; Tang, Christina; Bernacki, Susan H; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Khan, Saad

    2011-10-10

    Incorporation of mammalian cells into nanofibers (cell electrospinning) and multilayered cell-nanofiber structures (cell layering) via electrospinning are promising techniques for tissue engineering applications. We investigate the viability of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts after incorporation into poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers and multilayering with poly(caprolactone) nanofibers and analyze the possible factors that affect cell viability. We observe that cells do not survive cell electrospinning but survive cell layering. Assessing the factors involved in cell electrospinning, we find that dehydration and fiber stretching are the main causes of cell death. In cell layering, the choice of solvent is critical, as residual solvent in the electrospun fibers could be detrimental to the cells. PMID:21984502

  8. VIABILITY OF THE PROBIOTIC BACTERIA L. ACIDOPHILUS IN DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Koreňová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. Viability of probiotic bacteria is important in order to provide health benefits. However, many studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. This study cover selective enumeration and survival of probiotic bacteria L. acidophilus in some dairy drinks. L. acidophilus was found in the range from 106 to 107 CFU.g-1 in five types of fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. Two investigated products were up to standard according to Regulation of Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic.doi: 10.5219/147

  9. Challenge testing of gametes to enhance their viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Embryos, oocytes and spermatozoa undergo several manipulations during the in vitro procedures that are an integral part of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in mammals. Consequently, some of the gametes are damaged irreparably, whereas others react to these challenges with some sort of...... survival mechanism that enables them to come through the process. The details of the mechanism remain unknown but, if identified, it could have immense potential as a new way to improve the viability of embryos produced by ART. However, few publications describe systematic ways to challenge test gametes...... and then to use the results as a basis for improving gamete viability. Furthermore, new methods to monitor the reactions of gametes to such challenge tests are needed. In the present review, these two issues are discussed, as are some of the conditions necessary before a challenge test protocol can be...

  10. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  11. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number

  12. Application of Bio-speckle Activity to Assess Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an assessment method for seed viability, using bio-speckle technique. Bio-speckle is caused by moving of the biological material under highly coherent light. If this phenomenon can be measured by successive speckle patterns during the period of germination, it is possible to identify different activities of the seeds. Viable and non-viable pisumsativum seeds were illuminated by a helium-neon laser source of 7mW with wavelength of 632.8 nm. The speckle patterns were recorded by a digital colour charge-couple device camera and stored in the host computer for further analysis using Matlab. Two methods were used to obtain information of biological activities from these speckle patterns. It was observed that the seeds activities can be distinguished as viable seeds and non-viable seeds. The results indicate that bio-speckle can be used to assess seed viability.

  13. Assessing the impact of roads on animal population viability

    OpenAIRE

    Grift, van der, B.; Verboom, J.; Pouwels, R.

    2003-01-01

    Different tools have been developed to study the potential effects of spatial developments, such as the construction of roads, on the viability of animal populations. For instance, with dynamic (meta)population models the impacts of spatial developments can be accurately quantified. However, these models are often species specific and require detailed field research to validate the parameters used. If a multi-species analyses is needed, the use of such models is often impractical and expensiv...

  14. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  15. Fermented red ginseng extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jisun; Jeon, Seong Bin; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Hyeji; Kim, Ju; Kwon, Bo Ra; Yu, Kang-Yeol; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Hwang, Seung-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-04-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most widely recognized medicinal herb due to its remedial effects in various disorders, such as cancers, diabetes, and heart problems. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of fermented red ginseng extract (f-RGE; provided by Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju, South Korea) in a parallel comparison with the effect of nonfermented red ginseng extract (nf-RGE; control) on several cancer cell lines--MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and reprogrammed MCF-7 cells (mimicking cancer stem cells). Cells were cultured at various concentrations of RGE (from 0.5 up to 5 mg/mL) and their viabilities and proliferative properties were examined. Our data demonstrate the following: (1) nf-RGE inhibited cell viability at ≥1 mg/mL for MCF-7 cells and ≥2 mg/mL for HepG2 cells, (2) in the presence of a carcinogenic agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), nf-RGE treatment in combination with paclitaxel synergistically decreased MCF-7 as well as HepG2 cell viability, (3) f-RGE (which contained a greater level of Rg3 content) more effectively decreased the viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to nf-RGE, and (4) f-RGE appeared more potent for inhibiting cancerous differentiation of reprogrammed MCF-7 cells in a synergistic fashion with paclitaxel, especially in the presence of TPA, compared to nf-RGE. These findings suggest that f-RGE treatment may be more effective for decreasing cancer cell survival by inducing apoptotic cell death and also presumably for preventing cancer stem cell differentiation compared to nf-RGE. PMID:25658580

  16. The political viability of a negative income tax

    OpenAIRE

    Jon R. Neill

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers three propositions relating to the political viability of the negative income tax. One, despite its work disincentive, a majority of households would support a linear income tax that makes cash payments to low income households. However two, when government consumption is sufficiently high, a majority would favor a proportional tax over such a tax. Three, under certain conditions, a majority of households will prefer public provision of a private good or an in-kind transfer ...

  17. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Adam W.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BM...

  18. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC VIABILITY FOR LONG-TERM INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Patnaik

    2014-01-01

    he decision making to invests money in long term projects. A high-quality decision process requires that the choices are feasible and well-formulated, that consequence are understood and well explored, that the preferences are included when comparing the full array of costs and benefits of the proposed decision and the action taken are focused on getting result. In case of a new project, financial viability can be judged on the following parameters: Total estimated cost of the...

  19. Economic viability of wind and solar energy for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non conventional energy sources have begun to move from fringes of technological possibility towards commercial viability. Out of the four sources, i e. solar, wind, biogas and minimicro hydel the first two viz. wind and solar energy are of relevance for industries in western region of India. This has to be seen in the context of developments in technology and hence economics both worldwide and in India. (author)

  20. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  1. The Limited Viability of Dual Exchange-Rate Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob A. Frenkel; Assaf Razin

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the viability of dual exchange-rate regimes. Typically, under such a regime the exchange rates applicable to current-account(commercial) transactions and to capital-account (financial) transactions differ from each other. This difference may be determined in the free market if the authorities peg the commercial exchange rate and set a binding quota on external borrowing, or it may result from direct pegging of both exchange rates. The analysis starts with a specification o...

  2. The evolutionary dynamics of haplodiploidy: genome architecture and haploid viability

    OpenAIRE

    Blackmon, Heath; Hardy, Nate B.; Ross, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Haplodiploid reproduction, where males are haploid and females are diploid, is widespread among animals, yet we understand little about the forces responsible for its evolution. The current theory is that haplodiploidy has evolved through genetic conflicts, as it provides a transmission advantage to mothers. Male viability is thought to be a major limiting factor; diploid individuals tend to harbor many recessive lethal mutations. This theory predicts that the evolution of haplodiploidy is mo...

  3. Viability And Conidial Production Of Entomopathogenic Fungi Penicillium SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Nurariaty Agus; Annie P. Saranga; Ade Rosmana; Ade Sugiarti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Penicillium sp. order Eurotiales class Eurotiomycetes family Trichocomaceae is one of the entomopathogenic fungi that have the potential to be developed as biological control agent of pests.The study aims to determine the viability and spora production of Entomopathogenic fungi Penicillium sp. Experiments was conducted in Pests Identification and Biological Control laboratory Department of Plant Pest and Disease Faculty of Agriculture Hasanuddin University. The fungus Penicillium sp....

  4. Organ preservation and viability in kidney and liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Maathuis, Marcus Hubertus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Organ preservation for transplantation. The easy way or best method? Kidney and liver transplantations are routinely performed nowadays to treat end stage organ diseases. However, the increasing gap between demand and supply, has necessitated the transplantation community to expand donor criteria and accept donor organs which sustained more damage. Organ preservation should maintain organ viability after an organ has been disconnected from the circulation in the donor. At this moment static c...

  5. THE VIABILITY OF INFORMAL MICROENTERPRISE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    DOUGLAS WOODWARD; ROBERT ROLFE; ANDRÉ LIGTHELM; PAULO GUIMARÃES

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes entrepreneurs in South Africa's informal sector. The aim is to determine the extent to which African informal retail trade spawns viable enterprises. To assess the prospects for South Africa's informal retail sector, we obtained questionnaires from owners of small-scale establishments in a random sample taken throughout the country in 2007. Owner's income and sales data provided a basis for investigating viability. Regression analysis tests hypotheses identified as crucial...

  6. Real-time measurement of UV-inactivated Escherichia coli bacterial particles by electrospray-assisted UVAPS spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun; Bae, Gwi Nam

    2011-08-01

    The ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) is a novel commercially available aerosol spectrometer for real-time continuous monitoring of viable bioaerosols, based on fluorescence from living microorganisms. In a previous study, we developed an electrospray-assisted UVAPS using biological electrospray techniques, which have the advantage of generating non-agglomerated single particles by the repulsive electrical forces. With this electrospraying of suspensions containing microorganisms, the analytical system can supply more accurate and quantitative information about living microorganisms than with conventional aerosolization. Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS, we investigated the characteristics of bacterial particles with various viabilities in real-time. Escherichia coli was used as the test microorganism, and its initial viability was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. In the stable cone-jet domain, the particle size distributions of test bacterial particles remained almost uniform regardless of the degree of UV inactivation. However, the fluorescence spectra of the bacterial particles changed with the degree of UV inactivation. The fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability, determined by the sampling and culture method, although the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability. PMID:21621246

  7. Viability Tests for Fresh and Stored Haemopoietic Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews current methods of measurement of the viability of fresh and stored haemopoietic cells. The life expectancy of granulocytes and monocytes after transfusion can be studied by in-vitro labelling with 3H-DFP and subsequent autoradiography. The evaluation of data in about 30 patients with various haemopoietic conditions indicates a wide variation of the disappearance half-time of granulocytes. 3H-cytidine labels essentially all lymphocytes in vitro, predominantly in their RNA. Transfusion of 3H-cytidine-labelled lymphocytes enables one to measure the lower limit of their life-expectancy as well as their rate of RNA metabolism. If bone-marrow cells are labelled in vitro with 3H-thymidine and subsequently transfused, their capability to circulate, to reach the haemopoietic tissue of the host, to proliferate and to mature can be demonstrated. However, the repopulating capacity of frozen and thawed marrow is independent of the ability of 3H-TDR-labelled marrow cells to circulate, proliferate and mature. It is assumed that bone-marrow cells capable of repopulating depleted haemopoietic tissue are resting under steady-state conditions and can be labelled by means of 3H-TDR only using special conditions. Thus the only viability tests for fresh and stored bone-marrow cells at present appear to be bioassay methods at the animal experimental level. The results indicate the need for the development of reliable viability tests for stem cells applicable in both experimental and clinical conditions. (author)

  8. PET/SPECT imaging: From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert [Department of Surgery, Isala Clinics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, Gooitzen M. van [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijckx, Gert-Jan [Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com

    2010-04-15

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could improve selection of patients with a vulnerable plaque and evaluation of brain viability in ischemic stroke. Objective: To describe the current applications of PET and SPECT as a diagnostic tool in relation to ischemic stroke. Methods: A literature search using PubMed identified articles. Manual cross-referencing was also performed. Results: Several papers, all observational studies, identified PET/SPECT to be used as a tool to monitor systemic atheroma modifying treatment and to select high-risk patients for surgery regardless of the degree of luminal stenosis in carotid lesions. Furthermore, PET/SPECT is able to quantify the penumbra region during ischemic stroke and in this way may identify those patients who may benefit from timely intervention. Discussion: Functional imaging modalities such as PET/SPECT may become important tools for risk-assessment and evaluation of treatment strategies in carotid plaque vulnerability and brain viability. Prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/SPECT.

  9. PET/SPECT imaging: From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could improve selection of patients with a vulnerable plaque and evaluation of brain viability in ischemic stroke. Objective: To describe the current applications of PET and SPECT as a diagnostic tool in relation to ischemic stroke. Methods: A literature search using PubMed identified articles. Manual cross-referencing was also performed. Results: Several papers, all observational studies, identified PET/SPECT to be used as a tool to monitor systemic atheroma modifying treatment and to select high-risk patients for surgery regardless of the degree of luminal stenosis in carotid lesions. Furthermore, PET/SPECT is able to quantify the penumbra region during ischemic stroke and in this way may identify those patients who may benefit from timely intervention. Discussion: Functional imaging modalities such as PET/SPECT may become important tools for risk-assessment and evaluation of treatment strategies in carotid plaque vulnerability and brain viability. Prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/SPECT.

  10. Contribution of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin to bacterial virulence and to intraperitoneal alterations in peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, A K; Gleason, T G; Sawyer, R G; Pruett, T L

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-hemolysin (Hly) is a common exotoxin produced by Escherichia coli that enhances virulence in a number of clinical infections. The addition of hemolysin production to laboratory bacterial strains is known to increase the lethality of E. coli peritonitis. However, the mechanisms involved have not been determined and the contribution of hemolysin to the alterations in the host intraperitoneal environment and the leukocyte response is not known. Utilizing a rat peritonitis model, we show that wild-type hemolytic E. coli strains have a significant competitive advantage over nonhemolytic strains within the peritoneum. To examine the specific contribution of Hly to E. coli-induced virulence and alterations within the peritoneum, a mixed peritonitis model of E. coli, Bacteroides fragilis, and sterile fecal adjuvant was used. Three transformed E. coli strains were utilized: one strongly secretes active hemolysin (WAF 270), a second secretes active hemolysin but a reduced amount (WAF 260), and the third does not produce hemolysin (WAF 108). After an equal inoculum of each of the three strains, WAF 270 produced a markedly increased lethality and an increased recovery of both E. coli and B. fragilis from the host relative to the other strains. Changes in the intraperitoneal pH, degree of erythrocyte lysis, and recruitment and viability of leukocytes within the peritoneum following the induction of peritonitis differed significantly between the strongly hemolytic and nonhemolytic strains. Induction of peritonitis with WAF 270 caused a pronounced decrease in intraperitoneal pH, lysis of most of the intraperitoneal erythrocytes, and a marked decrease in recoverable viable leukocytes compared to WAF 108. Thus, hemolysin production by E. coli within the peritoneum may alter not only the host's ability to control the hemolytic strain itself but also other organisms. PMID:10603385

  11. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  12. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or scraped, the injury should be washed with soap and water and covered with a sterile bandage. Petrolatum may be applied to open areas to keep the tissue moist and to try to prevent bacterial invasion. Doctors recommend that people do not use ...

  13. Bacterial microflora of nectarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...

  14. Genefish: an alternate metagenomic approach for capturing targeted bacterial diversity in an engineered recipient E. coli strain

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, Nathalie; Faugier, Aurélie; Lavire, Céline; Jacquiod, Samuel; Philippot, Laurent; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lazzaroni, Jean-Claude; Simonet, Pascal; Franqueville, Laure

    2009-01-01

    The metagenomic approach, defined as the direct recovery and cloning of bacterial DNA from the environment in domesticated bacterial hosts has been widely used to study bacterial populations and their functional genes in numerous environments. The advantage of this approach over conventional culture based techniques is that it encompasses a wider range of bacteria by bypassing the bias of uncultivability of more than 99% of the bacteria in soil. However, in complex and rich environments such ...

  15. Heme uptake in bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Heidi; Chim, Nicholas; Credali, Alfredo; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the survival of organisms. Bacterial pathogens possess specialized pathways to acquire heme from their human hosts. In this review, we present recent structural and biochemical data that provide mechanistic insights into several bacterial heme uptake pathways, encompassing the sequestration of heme from human hemoproteins to secreted or membrane-associated bacterial proteins, the transport of heme across bacterial membranes, and the degradation of heme within...

  16. Influence of microencapsulation and spray drying on the viability of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goderska, Kamila; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Improved production methods of starter cultures, which constitute the most important element of probiotic preparations, were investigated. The aim of the presented research was to analyse changes in the viability of Lactobacillus. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum after stabilization (spray drying, liophilization, fluidization drying) and storage in refrigerated conditions for 4 months. The highest numbers of live cells, up to the fourth month of storage in refrigerated conditions, of the order of 10(7) cfu/g preparation were recorded for the B. bifidum DSM 20239 bacteria in which the N-Tack starch for spray drying was applied. Fluidization drying of encapsulated bacteria allowed obtaining a preparation of the comparable number of live bacterial cells up to the fourth month of storage with those encapsulated bacteria, which were subjected to freeze-drying but the former process was much shorter. The highest survivability of the encapsulated L. acidophilus DSM 20079 and B. bifidum DSM 20239 cells subjected to freeze-drying was obtained using skimmed milk as the cryoprotective substance. Stabilization of bacteria by microencapsulation can give a product easy to store and apply to produce dried food composition. PMID:18646401

  17. Effect of storage method on spore viability in five globally threatened fern species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Luis G; Amigo, Javier; Pangua, Emilia; Pajarón, Santiago

    2002-10-01

    Spore germination of five globally threatened fern species [Culcita macrocarpa C. Presl, Dryopteris aemula (Aiton) O. Kuntze, D. corleyi Fraser-Jenkins, D. guanchica Gibby and Jermy and Woodwardia radicans (L.) Sm.] was determined after 1, 6 or 12 months of storage in glass vials (dry storage) or on agar (wet storage) at -20, 5 or 20 degrees C. In all species, storage technique, storage temperature and the technique-temperature interaction all had a significant effect on germination percentage. In most cases, the germination percentage was best maintained by wet storage at 5 or 20 degrees C. In the case of the hygrophilous species C. macrocarpa and W. radicans, 6 or 12 months' dry storage killed most spores. Only Woodwardia radicans germinated in the dark during wet storage at 20 degrees C. Wet storage at 5 degrees C prevented dark germination, and reduced bacterial and fungal contamination. Wet storage at -20 degrees C killed all or most spores in all species. In the three Dryopteris species, the differences among the storage conditions tested were smaller than in C. macrocarpa and W. radicans, and the decline in spore viability during storage was less marked, with high germination percentages being observed after 12 months of dry storage at all three temperatures. Dry storage, which has lower preparation time and space requirements than wet storage, was generally more effective at the lower temperatures (-20 or 5 degrees C). PMID:12324269

  18. Evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Joel L.; Skophammer, Ryan G.; Regus, John U.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse bacterial lineages form beneficial infections with eukaryotic hosts. The origins, evolution, and breakdown of these mutualisms represent important evolutionary transitions. To examine these key events, we synthesize data from diverse interactions between bacteria and eukaryote hosts. Five evolutionary transitions are investigated, including the origins of bacterial associations with eukaryotes, the origins and subsequent stable maintenance of bacterial mutualism with hosts, the captur...

  19. A novel chromatographic procedure for purification of bacterial plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, M; Bywater, R; Hellman, L

    1983-07-01

    A new, rapid procedure for purifying bacterial plasmids with high recovery is described. The sequence of operations consists essentially of treatment with alkali, ribonuclease, and proteinase K, followed by chisam extraction and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-1000, and finally a precipitation step using isopropanol at room temperature. The method gives rather good yields of plasmid DNA of high purity, and lends itself to scaling up. PMID:6312836

  20. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    introduced to study the process efficiency: the dimensionless time at which average recovery between pure water injection and maximum surfactant effect is reached. This characteristic recovery period (CRP) was studied as a function of the different MEOR parameters such as bacterial activity, filtration......In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... applied to filtration model provides formation of two oil banks during recovery. This feature is not reproduced by application of REA model or DBF with growth in attached phase. This makes it possible to select a right model based on the qualitative analysis of the experimental data. A criterion is...

  1. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

  2. Bacterial proteases and virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing...... tolerance to adverse conditions such as those experienced in the host. In the membrane, HtrA performs similar functions whereas the extracellular proteases, in close contact with host components, pave the way for spreading infections by degrading host matrix components or interfering with host cell...... cell. These extracellular proteases are activated in complex cascades involving auto-processing and proteolytic maturation. Thus, proteolysis has been adopted by bacterial pathogens at multiple levels to ensure the success of the pathogen in contact with the human host....

  3. Non-disruptive measurement system of cell viability in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, F.; Nelsen, B. L.; Baselt, T.; Berger, T.; Wiele, M.; Prade, I.; Hartmann, P.

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient and oxygen transport, as well as the removal of metabolic waste are essential processes to support and maintain viable tissue. Current bioreactor technology used to grow tissue cultures in vitro has a fundamental limit to the thickness of tissues. Based on the low diffusion limit of oxygen a maximum tissue thickness of 200 μm is possible. The efficiency of those systems is currently under investigation. During the cultivation process of the artificial tissue in bioreactors, which lasts 28 days or longer, there are no possibilities to investigate the viability of cells. This work is designed to determine the influence of a non-disruptive cell viability measuring system on cellular activity. The measuring system uses a natural cellular marker produced during normal metabolic activity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a coenzyme naturally consumed and produced during cellular metabolic processes and has thoroughly been studied to determine the metabolic state of a cell. Measuring the fluorescence of NADH within the cell represents a non-disruptive marker for cell viability. Since the measurement process is optical in nature, NADH fluorescence also provides a pathway for sampling at different measurement depths within a given tissue sample. The measurement system we are using utilizes a special UV light source, to excite the NADH fluorescence state. However, the high energy potentially alters or harms the cells. To investigate the influence of the excitation signal, the cells were irradiated with a laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm and examined for cytotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a non-cytotoxic system that is applicable for large-scale operations during drug-tissue interaction testing.

  4. Bacterial chemotactic oligopeptides and the intestinal mucosal barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intestinal absorption and enterohepatic circulation of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-125I-tyrosine, a bioactive synthetic analog of the bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine has been investigated in the rat. In ileum and proximal and distal colon, dithiothreitol, which increases mucosal permeability, increased peptide absorption and biliary recovery fourfold, 70-fold, and 20-fold over control values, respectively. When dithiothreitol was combined with d-l-benzyl succinate, a potent inhibitor of intestinal carboxypeptidase, absorption and biliary recovery from ileal loops increased markedly to 40-fold over control, whereas there was no further increase in absorption from colon loops. There was a strong correlation between biliary N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-125I-tyrosine recovery and intestinal absorption of 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetate, a marker of passive mucosal permeability (r = 0.97). We conclude that in the ileum both enzymic degradation and restricted mucosal permeability contribute to the intestinal barrier to luminal bacterial formyl oligopeptides. In the colon, however, enzymic mechanisms are less active and restricted mucosal permeability is the major factor. Abnormalities of the intestinal mucosal barrier to proinflammatory bacterial peptides could play a role in inflammatory disorders of the gut

  5. Supramolecular bacterial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Shrikrishnan

    2015-01-01

    For nearly over a decade, a wide variety of dynamic and responsive supramolecular architectures have been investigated and developed to address biological systems. Since the non-covalent interactions between individual molecular components in such architectures are similar to the interactions found in living systems, it was possible to integrate chemically-synthesized and naturally-occurring components to create platforms with interesting bioactive properties. Bacterial cells and recombinant ...

  6. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references

  7. Solvent recycle/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  8. A framework for developing objective and measurable recovery criteria for threatened and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes Boor, Gina K

    2014-02-01

    For species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service are tasked with writing recovery plans that include "objective, measurable criteria" that define when a species is no longer at risk of extinction, but neither the act itself nor agency guidelines provide an explicit definition of objective, measurable criteria. Past reviews of recovery plans, including one published in 2012, show that many criteria lack quantitative metrics with clear biological rationale and are not meeting the measureable and objective mandate. I reviewed how objective, measureable criteria have been defined implicitly and explicitly in peer-reviewed literature, the ESA, other U.S. statutes, and legal decisions. Based on a synthesis of these sources, I propose the following 6 standards be used as minimum requirements for objective, measurable criteria: contain a quantitative threshold with calculable units, stipulate a timeframe over which they must be met, explicitly define the spatial extent or population to which they apply, specify a sampling procedure that includes sample size, specify a statistical significance level, and include justification by providing scientific evidence that the criteria define a species whose extinction risk has been reduced to the desired level. To meet these 6 standards, I suggest that recovery plans be explicitly guided by and organized around a population viability modeling framework even if data or agency resources are too limited to complete a viability model. When data and resources are available, recovery criteria can be developed from the population viability model results, but when data and resources are insufficient for model implementation, extinction risk thresholds can be used as criteria. A recovery-planning approach centered on viability modeling will also yield appropriately focused data-acquisition and monitoring plans and will facilitate a seamless transition

  9. Cell structure and percent viability by a slide centrifuge technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, M G; Hosking, C S

    1982-01-01

    It was found that a slide centrifuge (Cytospin) preparation of a cell suspension allowed a reliable assessment of not only cell structure but also the percentage of non-viable cells. The non-viable cells appeared as "smear" cells and paralleled in number the cells taking up trypan blue. Direct experiment showed the unstained viable cells in a trypan blue cell suspension remained intact in a Cytospin preparation while the cells taking up trypan blue were the "smear" cells. The non-viability of...

  10. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we performed a population viability analysis on 3 domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus) of Danish origin, namely, the Frederiksborg, the Knabstrupper, and the Jutland breeds. Because of their small population sizes, these breeds are considered endangered. The Vortex software...... (Frederiksborg ) at its present 30% level. Monitoring of the breeds in the future, however, may be exploited to adjust the breeding strategies. We suggest that the large amount of data required by Vortex makes it very useful for analyzing domestic animals because of the comprehensive data material often...

  11. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  12. Aptamer-polymer functionalized silicon nanosubstrates for enhanced recovered circulating tumor cell viability and in vitro chemosensitivity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen QL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Qinglin Shen1,2,*, Caixia Peng2,3,*, Yan Zhan1, Liang Fan1, Mengyi Wang1, Qing Zhou4, Jue Liu2,4, Xiaojuan Lv1, Qiu Tang1, Jun Li1,2, Xiaodong Huang2, Jiahong Xia2 1Department of Oncology, 2Key Laboratory for Molecular Diagnosis of Hubei Province, 3Central Laboratory, 4Department of Pharmacy, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Selection of the optimal chemotherapy regimen for an individual cancer patient is challenging. The existing chemosensitivity tests are costly, time-consuming, and not amenable to wide utilization within a clinic. This limitation might be addressed by the recently proposed use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs, which provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor response to therapy. Over the past few decades, various techniques were developed to capture and recover CTCs, but these techniques were often limited by a capture and recovery performance tradeoff between high viability and high efficiency. In this work, we used anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule coated aptamer–poly (N-isopropylacrylamide functionalized silicon nanowire substrates to capture and release epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive CTCs at 32°C and 4°C, respectively. Then, we applied the nuclease to digest the aptamer to release the captured CTCs (near or at the end of the polymer brush, which cannot be released by heating/cooling process. High viability and purity CTCs could be achieved by decreasing the heating/cooling cycles and enzymatic treatment rounds. Furthermore, the time-saving process is helpful to maintain the morphology and enhance vitality of the recovered CTCs and is beneficial to the subsequent cell culture in vitro. We validated the feasibility of chemosensitivity testing based on the recovered HCC827 cells using an adenosine triphosphate–tumor chemosensitivity

  13. Effect of process variables on particle size and viability of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in genipin-gelatin microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, N T; Borza, A; Moreau, D L; Allan-Wojtas, P M; Hansen, L Truelstrup

    2007-03-01

    Gelatin microspheres cross-linked with genipin were developed to encapsulate the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 The effects of different gelatin concentrations (10-19% w/v), bloom strengths (175 and 300), surfactants, stirring rates during emulsion formation and genipin concentrations (0-10 mM) on the microsphere sizes and viability of bacterial cells were investigated. Principal Component Analysis revealed microsphere size distribution differed depending on the presence or absence of surfactants as well as a trend of increasing micropshere size with increasing gelatin concentration and bloom strength. Lower stirring rates resulted in larger microspheres with higher encapsulation yields of bifidobacteria Microsphere size and cell viability were not significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by increasing genipin concentrations up to 10 mM whereas microsphere stability in simulated gastric juice increased with increasing genipin concentration. The encapsulation yields were higher in 175 bloom strength gelatin microspheres than in 300. Cold-stage scanning electron microscopy showed encapsulated bacteria distributed throughout the genipin cross-linked gelatin matrix. PMID:17454426

  14. Bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose-vaccarin membranes for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuyu; Qiu, Liying; Cui, Jing; Wei, Qufu

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) and bacterial cellulose-vaccarin (BC-Vac) membranes were successfully produced in large scale. BC was synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinum. BC-Vac membranes were prepared by immersing BC in vaccarin solution. The surface morphologies of BC and BC-Vac membranes were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscopy (AFM). The images showed that BC-Vac exhibited the characteristic 3D nanofibrillar network of BC matrix but there was adhesion between fibers. The mechanical properties of BC and BC-Vac membranes were evaluated and the results indicated that the adding of drug vaccarin into the BC membranes increased the malleability indicated by the increment in elongation at break compared with BC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was conducted to confirm the incorporation of vaccarin in BC-Vac and investigate the hydroxyl interactions between BC and drug vaccarin. Cell viability and cell attachment studies demonstrated that BC and BC-Vac membranes had no cytotoxicity and could be a good carrier for cell growth. The wound healing performance was examined in vivo by rat skin models. Histological observations revealed that wounds treated with BC-Vac epithelialized and regenerated faster than treated with BC. Therefore, BC-Vac was considered as a potential candidate for wound dressing materials. PMID:26652377

  15. Selective Removal of DNA from Dead Cells of Mixed Bacterial Communities by Use of Ethidium Monoazide

    OpenAIRE

    Nocker, Andreas; Camper, Anne K.

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between viable and dead bacterial cells poses a major challenge in microbial diagnostics. Due to the persistence of DNA in the environment after cells have lost viability, DNA-based quantification methods overestimate the number of viable cells in mixed populations or even lead to false-positive results in the absence of viable cells. On the other hand, RNA-based diagnostic methods, which circumvent this problem, are technically demanding and suffer from some drawbacks. A prom...

  16. Microbial colonization of contact lenses, tear film deposition, bacterial adhesion and disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Lívia

    2008-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica (ramo de conhecimento em Tecnologia Microbiana) Biomedical devices are susceptible of microbial contamination. Adhering bacteria to contact lenses (CLs) may induce ocular infections, being microbial keratitis (MK) the most sight threatening. The present Thesis investigates the role of surface properties and conditioning film on microbial colonization, bacterial adhesion, detachment, viability and disinfection of silicone hy...

  17. Impact of Protective Compounds on the Viability, Physiological State and Lipid Degradation of FreezeDried Pseudomonas Fluorescens BTP1 during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mputu Kanyinda, Jean-Noël; C. Pierart; Weekers, F; Destain, Jacqueline; Thonart, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The drying of bacteria remains a major alternative in order to keep them long term. After centrifugation, the bacterial pellet of Pseudomonas fluorescensBTP1 was divided in two fractions one with protecting compounds (2% glycerol or 5% maltodextrine) and one without and freeze-dried. After freeze drying, powders were sealed in aluminium bag under vacuum and stored at 4 or 20°C. The parameters such as viability, the conductivity and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty a...

  18. Effects of light interruption on sleep and viability of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Liu

    Full Text Available Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability.

  19. Recovery Audit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  20. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  1. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  2. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  3. RECOVERY OF RUTHENIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.

    1961-01-01

    A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.

  4. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  5. A bridge towards recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Saccomanni

    2013-01-01

    Italy has a potential to reverse the negative cycle of the last years and to continue its action in budgetary reforms for recovery. Institutions, companies, banks must work together with a common strategy for revitalizing productive investments, technological innovation, education

  6. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...... ecological recovery for any assessed products, and invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. This framework proposes an integrative approach based on well-defined specific protection goals, scientific knowledge derived by means of experimentation, modelling and monitoring, and the selection...

  7. Cell viability and functionality of probiotic bacteria in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel eVinderola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, according to the definition adopted by the World Health Organization in 2002, are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Recent studies show that the same probiotic strain produced and/or preserved under different storage conditions, may present different responses regarding their susceptibility to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, its capacity to adhere to the intestinal epithelium, or its immunomodulating capacity, being the functionality affected without changes in cell viability. This could imply that the control of cell viability is not always enough to guarantee the functionality (probiotic capacity of a strain. Therefore, a new challenge arises for food technologists and microbiologists when it comes to designing and monitoring probiotic food: to be able to monitor the cell functionality a probiotic microorganism along all the stages the strain goes through from the moment it is produced and included into the food vehicle until to the moment of consumption. Conventional methodological tools or others still to be developed must be used. The application of cell membrane functionality markers, the use of tests of resistence to intestinal barriers, the study of surface properties and the application of in vivo models comes together as complementary tools to assess the actual capacity of a probiotic into a specific food to exert functional effects regardless the number of viable cells present at the moment of consumption.

  8. Economic viability of present-day biomass energy installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated, comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic viability of biomass energy installations. The installations examined included wood-fired installations, biogas installations and those using bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The system boundaries involved are defined and various factors that influence cost calculations are examined. The resulting heat and electricity prices for various energy sources and systems are presented and discussed. Examples of small and large-scale installations are presented. For wood-energy, combined heat and power system producing electricity at powers of 1 to 5 MWe are looked at and the various factors influencing their viability are discussed. Biogas installations of various sizes are discussed and the differing investment costs involved are commented on. Here, large industrial installations using communal green wastes are also examined and the influence of communal waste-collection charges on the price for the electricity generated is discussed, as is the influence of the market for the residual compost produced. The production and use of biogas in public wastewater treatment plants is also looked at, including the use of co-substrates. As far as biogenic liquid fuels such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol are concerned, the report takes a brief look at the situation concerning installations in Switzerland and reviews the production costs involved. Various conclusions are drawn for the various energy sources reviewed as well as for the prices for heat and electrical energy obtained

  9. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers. PMID:24673547

  10. Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, K.A. [National Environment Research Council, Cambridge (United Kingdom). British Antarctic Survey

    2005-06-01

    The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Cell viability decreased with increased exposure time and with exposure to shorter wavelengths of solar radiation. Cell survival also declined with decreasing cloud cover, solar zenith angle and ozone column depth. However, particulates in sewage increased the persistence of viable bacteria. Ultraviolet radiation doses over Rothera Point were highest during the austral summer. During this time, solar radiation may act to partially reduce the number of viable sewage-derived microorganisms in the surface seawater around Antarctic outfalls. Nevertheless, this effect is not reliable and every effort should be made to fully treat sewage before release into the Antarctic marine environment. (author)

  11. Determination of Ancylostoma caninum ova viability using metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Beale, D J; Ahmed, W; Karpe, A V; Magalhaes, R J Soares; Morrison, P D; Palombo, E A

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation between viable and non-viable hookworm ova in environmental samples is necessary in order to implement strategies to mitigate re-infections in endemic regions. In this study, an untargeted metabolic profiling method was developed that utilised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to investigate hookworm ova viability. Ancylostoma caninum was used to investigate the metabolites within viable and non-viable ova. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the data resulted in the identification of 53 significant metabolites across all hookworm ova samples. The major compounds observed in viable and non-viable hookworm ova were tetradecanoic acid, commonly known as myristic acid [fold change (FC) = 0.4], and dodecanoic acid, commonly known as lauric acid (FC = 0.388). Additionally, the viable ova had self-protecting metabolites such as prostaglandins, a typical feature absent in non-viable ova. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolic profiling using GC-MS methods can be used to determine the viability of canine hookworm ova. Further studies are needed to assess the applicability of metabolic profiling using GC-MS to detect viable hookworm ova in the mixed (viable and non-viable) populations from environmental samples and identify the metabolites specific to human hookworm species. PMID:27236650

  12. Resuscitation at the limits of viability--an Irish perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, R A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in neonatal care continue to lower the limit of viability. Decision making in this grey zone remains a challenging process. OBJECTIVE: To explore the opinions of healthcare providers on resuscitation and outcome in the less than 28-week preterm newborn. DESIGN\\/METHODS: An anonymous postal questionnaire was sent to health care providers working in maternity units in the Republic of Ireland. Questions related to neonatal management of the extreme preterm infant, and estimated survival and long-term outcome. RESULTS: The response rate was 55% (74% obstetricians and 70% neonatologists). Less than 1% would advocate resuscitation at 22 weeks, 10% of health care providers advocate resuscitation at 23 weeks gestation, 80% of all health care providers would resuscitate at 24 weeks gestation. 20% of all health care providers would advocate cessation of resuscitation efforts on 22-25 weeks gestation at 5 min of age. 65% of Neonatologists and 54% trainees in Paediatrics would cease resuscitation at 10 min of age. Obstetricians were more pessimistic about survival and long term outcome in newborns delivered between 23 and 27 weeks when compared with neonatologists. This difference was also observed in trainees in paediatrics and obstetrics. CONCLUSION: Neonatologists, trainees in paediatrics and neonatal nurses are generally more optimistic about outcome than their counterparts in obstetrical care and this is reflected in a greater willingness to provide resuscitation efforts at the limits of viability.

  13. Effects of Triclosan on Neural Stem Cell Viability and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo Kyung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Yang, Sung Min; Bang, Minji; Choi, Chang Soon; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial or sanitizing agent used in personal care and household products such as toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes and kitchen utensils. There are increasing evidence of the potentially harmful effects of triclosan in many systemic and cellular processes of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of triclosan in the survivability of cultured rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Cortical cells from embryonic day 14 rat embryos were isolated and cultured in vitro. After stabilizing the culture, triclosan was introduced to the cells with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM and in varied time periods. Thereafter, cell viability parameters were measured using MTT assay and PI staining. TCS decreased the cell viability of treated NSC in a concentration-dependent manner along with increased expressions of apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while reduced expression of Bcl2. To explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS in NSC, we measured the activation of MAPKs and intracellular ROS. TCS at 50 μM induced the activations of both p38 and JNK, which may adversely affect cell survival. In contrast, the activities of ERK, Akt and PI3K, which are positively correlated with cell survival, were inhibited. Moreover, TCS at this concentration augmented the ROS generation in treated NSC and depleted the glutathione activity. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS can induce neurodegenerative effects in developing rat brains through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation. PMID:26759708

  14. New small molecules targeting apoptosis and cell viability in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Maugg

    Full Text Available Despite the option of multimodal therapy in the treatment strategies of osteosarcoma (OS, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, the standard therapy has not changed over the last decades and still involves multidrug chemotherapy and radical surgery. Although successfully applied in many patients a large number of patients eventually develop recurrent or metastatic disease in which current therapeutic regimens often lack efficacy. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In this study, we performed a phenotypic high-throughput screening campaign using a 25,000 small-molecule diversity library to identify new small molecules selectively targeting osteosarcoma cells. We could identify two new small molecules that specifically reduced cell viability in OS cell lines U2OS and HOS, but affected neither hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 nor primary human osteoblasts (hOB. In addition, the two compounds induced caspase 3 and 7 activity in the U2OS cell line. Compared to conventional drugs generally used in OS treatment such as doxorubicin, we indeed observed a greater sensitivity of OS cell viability to the newly identified compounds compared to doxorubicin and staurosporine. The p53-negative OS cell line Saos-2 almost completely lacked sensitivity to compound treatment that could indicate a role of p53 in the drug response. Taken together, our data show potential implications for designing more efficient therapies in OS.

  15. Survival and viability of cells from iron depositing bacterial strains in pretests for the EXPOSE-R2-Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Feyh, N.; de Vera, J.P.; Szewzyk, U

    2014-01-01

    Five environmental isolates (Pseudomonas sp. BS1, Hyphomonas sp. BS2, Tetrasphaera sp. FL1, Pedomicrobium sp. FL6 and Leptothrix sp. OT_B_406) were chosen for EXPOSE-R2 including pretests (EVT1/2, SVT) due to their ability to form Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide-containing biofilms as observed for natural communities of iron depositing bacteria. Samples were produced by drying iron-containing cell aggregates on Mars regolith simulant mixtures (S-/P-MRS) (Böttger et al., 2012). Different Mars- and ...

  16. Direct In Situ Viability Assessment of Bacteria in Probiotic Dairy Products Using Viability Staining in Conjunction with Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Auty, M. A. E.; Gardiner, G. E.; McBrearty, S. J.; O'Sullivan, E. O.; Mulvihill, D M; Collins, J K; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C; Ross, R.P

    2001-01-01

    The viability of the human probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Bifidobacterium sp. strain UCC 35612 in reconstituted skim milk was assessed by confocal scanning laser microscopy using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability stain. The technique was rapid (

  17. The effects of Brazilian propolis on etiological agents of mastitis and the viability of bovine mammary gland explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiordalisi, Samira A L; Honorato, Luciana A; Loiko, Márcia R; Avancini, César A M; Veleirinho, Maria B R; Machado Filho, Luiz C P; Kuhnen, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of Brazilian propolis from Urupema, São Joaquim, and Agua Doce (Santa Catarina State) and green propolis from Minas Gerais State, and the effects of propolis on bovine mammary gland explant viability. The propolis samples differed in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Green propolis showed the highest content of flavonoids, followed by the sample from São Joaquim. The propolis from Urupema showed the lowest flavonoid content along with the lowest antioxidant activity. The total phenolics were similar across all studied samples. Despite phytochemical differences, the propolis samples from Minas Gerais, São Joaquim, and Urupema presented the same level of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains. The reduction in S. aureus growth was, on average, 1.5 and 4 log10 times at 200 and 500 μg/mL, respectively. At concentrations of 1,000 μg/mL, all propolis reduced bacterial growth to zero. On the other hand, when the propolis were tested against strains of Escherichia coli, the samples presented weak antimicrobial activity. Mammary explants were maintained in culture for 96h without a loss in viability, demonstrating the applicability of the model in evaluating the toxicity of propolis. The origin and chemical composition of the propolis had an effect on mammary explant viability. We encountered inhibitory concentrations of 272.4, 171.8, 63.85, and 13.26 μg/mL for the propolis from Água Doce, Urupema, São Joaquim, and Mina Gerais, respectively. A clear association between greater antimicrobial activity and toxicity for mammary explants was observed. Of all propolis tested, the Urupema sample was noteworthy, as it showed antimicrobial activity at less toxic concentrations than the other samples, reducing bacterial growth to an average of 9.3 × 10(2) cfu/mL after 6h of contact using 200 μg/mL of extract. The results demonstrate the potential for Brazilian

  18. Uranium recovery from slags of metallic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center of the Nuclear Fuel of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research - IPEN finished the program of attainment of fuel development for research reactors the base of Uranium Scilicet (U3 Si2) from Hexafluoride of Uranium (UF6) with enrichment 20% in weight of 235U. In the process of attainment of the league of U 3 Si 2 we have as Uranium intermediate product the metallic one whose attainment generates a slag contend Uranium. The present work shows the results gotten in the process of recovery of Uranium in slags of calcined slags of Uranium metallic. Uranium the metallic one is unstable, pyrophoricity and extremely reactive, whereas the U3O8 is a steady oxide of low chemical reactivity, what it justifies the process of calcination of slags of Uranium metallic. The calcination of the Uranium slag of the metallic one in oxygen presence reduces Uranium metallic the U3O8. Experiments had been developed varying it of acid for Uranium control and excess, nitric molar concentration gram with regard to the stoichiometric leaching reaction of temperature of the leaching process. The 96,0% income proves the viability of the recovery process of slags of Uranium metallic, adopting it previous calcination of these slags in nitric way with low acid concentration and low temperature of leaching. (author)

  19. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  20. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte; Kruse, Torben; Nordström, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  1. Bacterial terpene cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2016-01-01

    Covering: up to 2015. This review summarises the accumulated knowledge about characterised bacterial terpene cyclases. The structures of identified products and of crystallised enzymes are included, and the obtained insights into enzyme mechanisms are discussed. After a summary of mono-, sesqui- and diterpene cyclases the special cases of the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol synthases that are both particularly widespread in bacteria will be presented. A total number of 63 enzymes that have been characterised so far is presented, with 132 cited references. PMID:26563452

  2. The Cost of Restoration as a Way of Defining Resilience: a Viability Approach Applied to a Model of Lake Eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Martin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple stable states or alternative equilibria in ecological systems have been recognized since the 1960s in the ecological literature. Very often, the shift between alternative states occurs suddenly and the resource flows from these systems are modified. Resilience is the capacity of a system to undergo disturbance and maintain its functions and controls. It has multiple levels of meaning, from the metaphorical to the specific. However, most studies that explore resilience-related ideas have used resilience as a metaphor or theoretical construct. In a few cases, it has been defined operationally in the context of a model of a particular system. In this paper, resilience is defined consistently with the theoretical uses of the term, in the context of ecosystem models within an application to a simple model of lake eutrophication. The theoretical definitions of resilience and the characteristics of the operational definition that are necessary for ensuring consistency are reviewed. A mathematical formulation of resilience is built in the framework of the viability theory. This formulation emphasizes the link between resilience and the cost of the recovery after a disturbance. This cost is first chosen in relation to the time of crisis in the application to a model of lake eutrophication. The resilience values are then obtained by numerical integration. For another choice of the cost function, the viability algorithm is needed to compute the resilience values. These applications demonstrate the usefulness of our operational definition.

  3. Cytotoxicity and Effects on Cell Viability of Nickel Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jose E.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles are finding an increased use in biomedical applications and research. Nanobeads are widely used for cell separation, biosensing and cancer therapy, among others. Due to their properties, nanowires (NWs) are gaining ground for similar applications and, as with all biomaterials, their cytotoxicity is an important factor to be considered before conducting biological studies with them. In this work, the cytotoxic effects of nickel NWs (Ni NWs) were investigated in terms of cell viability and damage to the cellular membrane. Ni NWs with an average diameter of 30-34 nm were prepared by electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina templates. The templates were obtained by a two-step anodization process with oxalic acid on an aluminum substrate. Characterization of NWs was done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX), whereas their morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell viability studies were carried out on human colorectal carcinoma cells HCT 116 by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cell proliferation colorimetric assay, whereas the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) homogenous membrane fluorimetric assay was used to measure the degree of cell membrane rupture. The density of cell seeding was calculated to obtain a specific cell number and confluency before treatment with NWs. Optical readings of the cell-reduced MTT products were measured at 570 nm, whereas fluorescent LDH membrane leakage was recorded with an excitation wavelength of 525 nm and an emission wavelength of 580 - 640 nm. The effects of NW length, cell exposure time, as well as NW:cell ratio, were evaluated through both cytotoxic assays. The results show that cell viability due to Ni NWs is affected depending on both exposure time and NW number. On the other hand, membrane rupture and leakage was only significant at later exposure times. Both

  4. Recovery of fertility un irradiated Epestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of damaged sperm of Epestia cautella irradiated with 10 krad was determined. Two groups of irradiated 1-day-old males were taken. The males of the first group were mated repeatedly with virgin unirradiated females. While the mating of the males of the second group was delayed for various intervais after treatment. Percentage egg hatch was used to detect any changes in the fertility of the damaged sperm. The results showed that neither when the irradiated males were mated successively nor when their mating was delayed after treatment, did the viability of their damaged sperm recover. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Comparative study of dobutamine stress echocardiography and dual single-photon emission computed tomography (Thallium-201 and I-123 BMIPP) for assessing myocardial viability after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasugi, Naoko; Hiroki, Tadayuki [Fukuoka Univ., Chikushino (Japan). Chikushi Hospital; Koyanagi, Samon [National Fukuoka-Higashi Hospital, Koga (Japan). Clinical Research Inst.; Ohzono, Keizaburo; Sakai, Kikuo; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Sako, Shigeki; Homma, Tomoki; Azakami, Shirou [National Kyushu Medical Center, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Discordance between the {sup 123}I-labelled 15-iodophenyl-3-R, S-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and {sup 201}Tl findings may indicate myocardial viability (MV). This study compared dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using the dual tracers for assessment of MV and prediction of functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DSE and dual SPECT were studied in 35 patients after AMI, of whom 28 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in the acute stage. Dual SPECT was performed to compare the defect score of BMIPP and {sup 201}Tl. The left ventricular wall motion score (WMS) was estimated during DSE and 6 months later to assess functional recovery of the infarct area. The rate of agreement of MV between dual SPECT and DSE was 89% (p<0.01), and the sensitivity and specificity of DSE for dual SPECT in MV assessment was 86% and 93%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for functional recovery by dual SPECT were 76% and 67%, respectively, and by DSE were 90% and 79%, respectively. Four of 5 patients with positive MV by dual SPECT, but without functional recovery, had residual stenosis of the infarct-related artery. The WMS and defect scores of BMIPP and {sup 201}Tl were significantly smaller in patients with functional recovery than in those without. Assessment of MV using DSE concords with the results of dual SPECT in the early stage of AMI. DSE may have a higher predictive value for long-term functional recovery at the infarct area. However, a finding of positive MV by dual SPECT, without functional recovery, may indicate residual stenosis of the infarct-related artery, although the number of cases was small. Combined assessment by dual SPECT and DSE may be useful for detecting MV and jeopardized myocardium. Furthermore, the results suggest that functional recovery of dysfunctional myocardium may depend on the size of the infarct and risk area. (author)

  6. A case study of bats and white-nose syndrome demonstrating how to model population viability with evolutionary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslo, Brooke; Fefferman, Nina H

    2015-08-01

    Ecological factors generally affect population viability on rapid time scales. Traditional population viability analyses (PVA) therefore focus on alleviating ecological pressures, discounting potential evolutionary impacts on individual phenotypes. Recent studies of evolutionary rescue (ER) focus on cases in which severe, environmentally induced population bottlenecks trigger a rapid evolutionary response that can potentially reverse demographic threats. ER models have focused on shifting genetics and resulting population recovery, but no one has explored how to incorporate those findings into PVA. We integrated ER into PVA to identify the critical decision interval for evolutionary rescue (DIER) under which targeted conservation action should be applied to buffer populations undergoing ER against extinction from stochastic events and to determine the most appropriate vital rate to target to promote population recovery. We applied this model to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) affected by white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing massive declines in several North American bat populations. Under the ER scenario, the model predicted that the DIER period for little brown bats was within 11 years of initial WNS emergence, after which they stabilized at a positive growth rate (λ = 1.05). By comparing our model results with population trajectories of multiple infected hibernacula across the WNS range, we concluded that ER is a potential explanation of observed little brown bat population trajectories across multiple hibernacula within the affected range. Our approach provides a tool that can be used by all managers to provide testable hypotheses regarding the occurrence of ER in declining populations, suggest empirical studies to better parameterize the population genetics and conservation-relevant vital rates, and identify the DIER period during which management strategies will be most effective for species conservation. PMID:25808080

  7. Viability and adaptation potential of indigenous microorganisms from natural gas field fluids in high pressure incubations with supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Janin; Rakoczy, Jana; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-21

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently under debate as large-scale solution to globally reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. Depleted gas or oil reservoirs and saline aquifers are considered as suitable reservoirs providing sufficient storage capacity. We investigated the influence of high CO2 concentrations on the indigenous bacterial population in the saline formation fluids of a natural gas field. Bacterial community changes were closely examined at elevated CO2 concentrations under near in situ pressures and temperatures. Conditions in the high pressure reactor systems simulated reservoir fluids i) close to the CO2 injection point, i.e. saturated with CO2, and ii) at the outer boundaries of the CO2 dissolution gradient. During the incubations with CO2, total cell numbers remained relatively stable, but no microbial sulfate reduction activity was detected. After CO2 release and subsequent transfer of the fluids, an actively sulfate-respiring community was re-established. The predominance of spore-forming Clostridiales provided evidence for the resilience of this taxon against the bactericidal effects of supercritical (sc)CO2. To ensure the long-term safety and injectivity, the viability of fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria has to be considered in the selection, design, and operation of CCS sites. PMID:24320192

  8. Bacterial contamination of enteral diets.

    OpenAIRE

    de Leeuw, I H; Vandewoude, M F

    1986-01-01

    Enteral feeding solutions can be contaminated by bacterial micro-organisms already present in the ingredients, or introduced during preparation or transport, or in the hospital ward. During jejunostomy feeding without pump or filter, ascending bacterial invasion of the feeding bag is possible. In patients with lowered immune response contaminated feedings can cause serious septic clinical problems. The progressive loss of the nutritional value of the enteral feeding solution by bacterial cont...

  9. Transport powered by bacterial turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peshkov, Anton; Sokolov, Andrey; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that collective turbulent-like motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedge-like "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that a maximal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp regi...

  10. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis; Shivaram Bhat; Athar A Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Since its initial description in 1964, research has transformed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) from a feared disease (with reported mortality of 90%) to a treatable complication of decompensated cirrhosis,albeit with steady prevalence and a high recurrence rate. Bacterial translocation, the key mechanism in the pathogenesis of SBP, is only possible because of the concurrent failure of defensive mechanisms in cirrhosis.Variants of SBP should be treated. Leucocyte esterase reagent strips have managed to shorten the 'tap-toshot' time, while future studies should look into their combined use with ascitic fluid pH. Third generation cephalosporins are the antibiotic of choice because they have a number of advantages. Renal dysfunction has been shown to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with SBP. Albumin is felt to reduce the risk of renal impairment by improving effective intravascular volume, and by helping to bind proinflammatory molecules. Following a single episode of SBP, patients should have long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and be considered for liver transplantation.

  11. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M;

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...... susceptibility occurred in 21 (23%) of 92 cases of known aetiology, compared to an estimated 6% in nationally notified cases (p <0.001). Ceftriaxone plus penicillin as empirical treatment was appropriate in 97% of ABM cases in the study population, and in 99.6% of nationally notified cases. The notification rate...... was 75% for penicillin-susceptible episodes, and 24% for penicillin-non-susceptible episodes (p <0.001). Cases involving staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were under-reported. Among 51 ABM cases with no identified risk factors, nine of 11 cases with penicillin...

  12. [Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, also called metastatic bacterial endophthalmitis, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a rare and potentially sight-threatening ocular infection that occurs when bacteria reach the eye via the bloodstream, cross the blood-ocular barrier, and multiply within the eye. It usually affects immunocompromised patients and those suffering from diabetes mellitus, malignancy, or cardiac disease, but has also been reported after invasive procedures or in previously healthy people. In most cases, the ocular symptoms occur after the diagnosis of septicemia or systemic infection. Ocular symptoms include decreased vision, redness, discharge, pain, and floaters. The ocular inflammatory signs may be anterior and/or posterior. Bilateral involvement occurs in nearly 25% of cases. A wide range of microorganisms are involved, with differences in their frequency according to geography as well as the patient's age and past medical history, because of variations in the predisposing conditions and the source of the sepsis. The majority of patients are initially misdiagnosed, and ophthalmologists should be aware of this because prompt local and general management is required to save the eye and/or the patient's life. PMID:21145128

  13. EFFECTIVE MARKET SEGMENTATION AND VIABILITY OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking has become a global phenomenon as both Islamic and western countries have embraced it. However, the move by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN to introduce Islamic Banking in Nigeria was met with many criticisms, especially from the Non-Muslims. As a divorce from subjective criticisms typical of religious opponents’ discussions, the study examined the viability of Islamic banking in Nigeria using market segmentation criteria. Being a library research, secondary data was obtained from various secondary sources and analyzed descriptively. The study found that, the targeted Muslim segment is substantial, identifiable, measurable, accessible and reliable. Hence, the study concludes that the introduction of Islamic banking in Nigeria is worthwhile and the future of Islamic banks in the country is bright and prosperous. The study, therefore, recommends that though Islamic banking has come to stay, Muslims and non-Muslims should support its establishment as all citizens irrespective of religious affiliation are likely to benefit from it.

  14. [Effect of heavy water on the viability of bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, N V; Parkhomenko, T V; Popov, V G; Sventitskiĭ, E N; Iakovleva, L Iu

    1988-01-01

    Influence of heavy water (D2O) on the membrane energization, the efflux of hydrogen ions and the respiration of bacteria E. coli M-17 was studied. As has been shown, heavy water of a low concentration (0.05-0.20% v/v) activates and of a high concentration (above 10%) inhibits the absorption of lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) and of oxygen by cells. The return of these characteristics to the initial levels after the removal of D2O points to a reversible action of D2O. A protective effect of D2O towards membrane energization and rate of respiration on dried cells was observed. This fact is in agreement with the data on viability of bacteria. The indicated protective action increases at the stage of rehydration in the presence of D2O. PMID:3390482

  15. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  16. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles.

  17. Relationship between humidity and influenza A viability in droplets and implications for influenza's seasonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yang

    Full Text Available Humidity has been associated with influenza's seasonality, but the mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unclear. There is no consistent explanation for influenza's transmission patterns that applies to both temperate and tropical regions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ambient humidity and viability of the influenza A virus (IAV during transmission between hosts and to explain the mechanisms underlying it. We measured the viability of IAV in droplets consisting of various model media, chosen to isolate effects of salts and proteins found in respiratory fluid, and in human mucus, at relative humidities (RH ranging from 17% to 100%. In all media and mucus, viability was highest when RH was either close to 100% or below ∼50%. When RH decreased from 84% to 50%, the relationship between viability and RH depended on droplet composition: viability decreased in saline solutions, did not change significantly in solutions supplemented with proteins, and increased dramatically in mucus. Additionally, viral decay increased linearly with salt concentration in saline solutions but not when they were supplemented with proteins. There appear to be three regimes of IAV viability in droplets, defined by humidity: physiological conditions (∼100% RH with high viability, concentrated conditions (50% to near 100% RH with lower viability depending on the composition of media, and dry conditions (<50% RH with high viability. This paradigm could help resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the relationship between IAV viability in aerosols and humidity, and results in human mucus could help explain influenza's seasonality in different regions.

  18. Characteristics and Warning Indexes of Rice Seeds Viability Loss During Storage at 45℃ Constant Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xin-xiong; CHEN Xiao-ling

    2002-01-01

    Seed aging characteristics of rice was investigated in this study. Seeds of 34 japonica rice (O-ryza sativa subsp. japonica) varieties were held at 45℃ constant temperature. Changes in seed viability and seed vigor during aging process were measured to study seed viability-losing characteristic and to determine warning index for seed viability loss. As a result, seed viability survival curves were obtained across different rice accessions at 45℃ constant temperature. The curves appeared to be contra-sigmoid survival curves. The loss of seed viability in the aging process consisted of two phases. The first phase took a long duration, in which the viability of vigorous seeds declined slowly. In the second phase, seed viability declined rapidly. It was obvious that seed viability declined inconsistently during storage. It also showed that seed germination was prolonged and the seedling was significantly weakened before the coming of the rapid declining phase of seed viability. These two parameters could be used to indicate seed quality during storage. The rate of compatibility of tests (RCT), coefficient of variation (CV), vigor of seedling, the day the seeds start to germinate could be used as warning indexes to indicate overall quality of a mass of accessions. These warning indexes could also be used in monitoring the viability of seeds stored in the seed genebank.

  19. Involvement of the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult in bacterial defense response of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Konstantin V; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kurilenko, Valeria V

    2013-03-26

    Bacterial infections are one of the most important problems in mass aquaculture, causing the loss of millions of juvenile organisms. We isolated 22 bacterial strains from the cavity fluid of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus and used phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences to separate the bacterial strains into 9 genera (Aliivibrio, Bizionia, Colwellia, Olleya, Paenibacillus, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio). Incubating Strongylocentrotus intermedius larvae with a strain from each of the 9 bacterial genera, we investigated the viability of the larvae, the amount of pigment cells, and the level of polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression. Results of the assay on sea urchin development showed that all bacterial strains, except Pseudoalteromonas and Bizionia, suppressed sea urchin development (resulting in retardation of the embryos' development with cellular disorders) and reduced cell viability. We found that pks expression in the sea urchin larvae after incubation with the bacteria of 9 tested genera was significantly increased, while the sult expression was increased only after the treatment with Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella. Shikimic acid, which is known to activate the biosynthesis of naphthoquinone pigments, increased the tolerance of the sea urchin embryos to the bacteria. In conclusion, we show that the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult are involved in the bacterial defense response of sea urchins. PMID:23548362

  20. Exchange of rotor components in functioning bacterial flagellar motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor driven by the electrochemical potential of a coupling ion. The interaction between a rotor and stator units is thought to generate torque. The overall structure of flagellar motor has been thought to be static, however, it was recently proved that stators are exchanged in a rotating motor. Understanding the dynamics of rotor components in functioning motor is important for the clarifying of working mechanism of bacterial flagellar motor. In this study, we focused on the dynamics and the turnover of rotor components in a functioning flagellar motor. Expression systems for GFP-FliN, FliM-GFP, and GFP-FliG were constructed, and each GFP-fusion was functionally incorporated into the flagellar motor. To investigate whether the rotor components are exchanged in a rotating motor, we performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. After photobleaching, in a tethered cell producing GFP-FliN or FliM-GFP, the recovery of fluorescence at the rotational center was observed. However, in a cell producing GFP-FliG, no recovery of fluorescence was observed. The transition phase of fluorescence intensity after full or partially photobleaching allowed the turnover of FliN subunits to be calculated as 0.0007 s-1, meaning that FliN would be exchanged in tens of minutes. These novel findings indicate that a bacterial flagellar motor is not a static structure even in functioning state. This is the first report for the exchange of rotor components in a functioning bacterial flagellar motor.

  1. Periodic growth of bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takemasa; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Hiramatsu, Fumiko; Kobayashi, Naoki; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Kurosu, Sayuri; Nakatsuchi, Michio; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2005-06-01

    The formation of concentric ring colonies by bacterial species Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis has been investigated experimentally, focusing our attention on the dependence of local cell density upon the bacterial motility. It has been confirmed that these concentric ring colonies reflect the periodic change of the bacterial motility between motile cell state and immotile cell state. We conclude that this periodic change is macroscopically determined neither by biological factors (i.e., biological clock) nor by chemical factors (chemotaxis as inhibitor). And our experimental results strongly suggest that the essential factor for the change of the bacterial motility during concentric ring formation is the local cell density.

  2. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  3. Viability of imaging structures inside human dentin using dental transillumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandisoli, C. L.; Alves-de-Souza, F. D.; Costa, M. M.; Castro, L.; Ana, P. A.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C.

    2014-02-01

    Dental Transillumination (DT) is a technique for imaging internal structures of teeth by detecting infrared radiation transmitted throughout the specimens. It was successfully used to detect caries even considering dental enamel and dentin scatter infrared radiation strongly. Literature reports enamel's scattering coefficient is 10 to 30 times lower than dentin; this explain why DT is useful for imaging pathologies in dental enamel, but does not disable its using for imaging dental structures or pathologies inside the dentin. There was no conclusive data in the literature about the limitations of using DT to access biomedical information of dentin. The goal in this study was to present an application of DT to imaging internal structures of dentin. Slices of tooth were confectioned varying the thickness of groups from 0.5 mm up to 2,5 mm. For imaging a FPA InGaAs camera Xeva 1.7- 320 (900-1700 nm; Xenics, Inc., Belgium) and a 3W lamp-based broadband light source (Ocean Optics, Inc., USA) was used; bandpass optical filters at 1000+/-10 nm, 1100+/-10 nm, 1200+/-10 nm and 1300+/-50 nm spectral region were also applied to spectral selection. Images were captured for different camera exposure times and finally a computational processing was applied. The best results revealed the viability to imaging dent in tissue with thickness up to 2,5 mm without a filter (900-1700nm spectral range). After these results a pilot experiment of using DT to detect the pulp chamber of an incisive human tooth was made. New data showed the viability to imaging the pulp chamber of specimen.

  4. Recovery of culturable of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during operation of a liquid-based bioaerosol sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection fluids used in liquid-based bioaerosol samplers can influence the viability of microorganisms. In this study we determined the recovery efficiency of vegetative E. coli O157:H7 cells that were spiked into low viscosity evaporating collection fluids during operation of a BioSampler™ for up...

  5. Application of Neural Network in Prediction of Financial Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Roli Pradhan; K. K. Pathak; V.P. Singh

    2011-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction is very important for all the organization since it affects the economy and causes a rise in many social problems with incremental high costs. There are large number of techniques that have been developed to predict the bankruptcy of firms, which helps the decision makers such as investors and financial analysts to plan in accordance to the financial position of the firm regarding the terms of credit as well as the recovery of the lent amount. The Altman Model for predic...

  6. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  7. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail

  8. Evaluating miscible flood projects for acquisition or viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very little information exists regarding evaluating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects, in particular miscible floods. Due to the size and scope of most tertiary recovery projects, standard evaluation rules and techniques are too general and vague to adequately model these schemes. A procedure for identifying the risks associated with miscible EOR projects is presented. It is essential to set up a cash flow model that accurately represents the future performance of a miscible flood. Included in the model are the timing of crucial events such as expected solvent breakthrough and the injection of trace gas. The cash flow analysis allows a quick audit procedure and converts production into a monetary or economic evaluation criteria that can easily be compared to other investment alternatives. When evaluating a miscible flood project, forecasting production, solvent and chase gas recovery costs can become quite complex. An organized procedure for an evaluation will ensure that a comprehensive and thorough examination of all the data is completed, and will increase confidence levels associated with decision making. 32 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Effects of Dielectrophoresis on Growth, Viability and Immuno-reactivity of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhunia Arun K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dielectrophoresis (DEP has been regarded as a useful tool for manipulating biological cells prior to the detection of cells. Since DEP uses high AC electrical fields, it is important to examine whether these electrical fields in any way damage cells or affect their characteristics in subsequent analytical procedures. In this study, we investigated the effects of DEP manipulation on the characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes cells, including the immuno-reactivity to several Listeria-specific antibodies, the cell growth profile in liquid medium, and the cell viability on selective agar plates. It was found that a 1-h DEP treatment increased the cell immuno-reactivity to the commercial Listeria species-specific polyclonal antibodies (from KPL by ~31.8% and to the C11E9 monoclonal antibodies by ~82.9%, whereas no significant changes were observed with either anti-InlB or anti-ActA antibodies. A 1-h DEP treatment did not cause any change in the growth profile of Listeria in the low conductive growth medium (LCGM; however, prolonged treatments (4 h or greater caused significant delays in cell growth. The results of plating methods showed that a 4-h DEP treatment (5 MHz, 20 Vpp reduced the viable cell numbers by 56.8–89.7 %. These results indicated that DEP manipulation may or may not affect the final detection signal in immuno-based detection depending on the type of antigen-antibody reaction involved. However, prolonged DEP treatment for manipulating bacterial cells could produce negative effects on the cell detection by growth-based methods. Careful selection of DEP operation conditions could avoid or minimize negative effects on subsequent cell detection performance.

  10. Misuse of Checklist Assessments in Endangered Species Recovery Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Ruckelshaus

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource agencies worldwide must develop species recovery plans that specify threats, propose targets required for recovery, and evaluate the extent to which habitat alteration and restoration may influence species decline and recovery. To evaluate the impacts of proposed habitat alterations on species of conservation concern, standardized protocols may be adopted even when supporting data are scarce. For example, a habitat matrix was developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS to guide consultations under the Endangered Species Act for actions that may affect the functioning of the freshwater habitat used by several federally listed salmonid species. The habitat matrix has also been advocated as a tool for recovery planning by agencies apart from the NMFS, who could use it to define the habitat conditions assumed to be necessary for salmonid population viability and hence recovery. This use of the habitat matrix in a recovery context has not been evaluated, and, despite its widespread use as a regulatory tool, the empirical relationships between many of the habitat matrix variables and salmonid populations remain unexplored. By amassing data on habitat assessments and trends in fish abundance, we empirically evaluate the relationship between habitat matrix scores and salmonid population metrics. We found that abundance trends for populations of three species of threatened and endangered salmonids (chinook, coho, and steelhead were unrelated to these habitat matrix assessments. This study reveals the danger of assuming quantitative relationships between habitat and organism and cautions against co-opting protocols from the regulatory realm for recovery planning for endangered species.

  11. [Small intestine bacterial overgrowth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Ki, E L; Roduit, J; Delarive, J; Guyot, J; Michetti, P; Dorta, G

    2010-01-27

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterised by nutrient malabsorption and excessive bacteria in the small intestine. It typically presents with diarrhea, flatulence and a syndrome of malabsorption (steatorrhea, macrocytic anemia). However, it may be asymptomatic in the eldery. A high index of suspicion is necessary in order to differentiate SIBO from other similar presenting disorders such as coeliac disease, lactose intolerance or the irritable bowel syndrome. A search for predisposing factor is thus necessary. These factors may be anatomical (stenosis, blind loop), or functional (intestinal hypomotility, achlorydria). The hydrogen breath test is the most frequently used diagnostic test although it lacks standardisation. The treatment of SIBO consists of eliminating predisposing factors and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. PMID:20214190

  12. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating...... the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the...... benefits and drawbacks of varying the degree of complexity. This review aims to facilitate multispecies biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge on interspecies interactions. Recent technological advances have enabled total diversity analysis of highly complex and diverse microbial...

  13. Modelling and laboratory investigation of microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desouky, S.M. [King Saud University, College of Engineering, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Daim, M.M.; Sayyouh, M.H.; Dahab, A.S. [Cairo University, College of Engineering and Petroleum Engineering Department, Giza (Egypt)

    1996-08-15

    A one-dimensional model was developed to simulate the process of enhanced oil recovery by microorganisms. The model involves five components (oil, water, bacteria, nutrient and metabolites), with adsorption, diffusion, chemotaxis, growth and decay of bacteria, nutrient consumption, permeability damage and porosity reduction effects. Experiments were conducted to identify the parameters affecting the transport and growth of three bacterial strains: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Bacillus in porous media. Several correlations were developed from the experimental laboratory data and were used in the simulator. Comparison between the experimental and simulated results emphasized the validity of the developed simulator and determined its degree of accuracy (average absolute relative error=8.323%). The simulator was used to investigate the effects of indigenous bacteria, slug size, incubation time, residual oil saturation, absolute permeability, and injection flow rate on oil recovery. Results show that more oil can be recovered by using Streptococcus with molasses as a medium. Oil recovery is sensitive to variation in concentration of injected indigenous bacteria, size of bacterial culture slug, incubation time and residual oil saturation. The change of absolute permeability, or injection flow rate, has no effect on oil recovery efficiency by bacteria

  14. Stochastic Viability of Second Generation Biofuel Chains: Micro-economic Spatial Modeling in France

    OpenAIRE

    Bamiére, Laure; Martinet, Vincent; Gouel, Christophe; Le Cadre, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    Within an overall project to assess the ability of the agricultural sector to contribute to bioenergy production, we set out here to examine the economic and technological viability of a bioenergy facility in an uncertain economic context, using the stochastic viability approach. We consider two viability constraints: the facility demand for lignocellulosic feedstock has to be satisfied each year and the associated supply cost has to be lower than de profitability threshold of the facility. W...

  15. Influence of corona discharge field on seed viability and dynamics of germination

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rutkauskas; A. Pozeliene; S. Lynikiene

    2006-01-01

    Literature sources state that an electromagnetic field causes physiological-biochemical changes in seeds. Water assimilation becomes faster, breathing of a germinating seed intensifies and its viability improves. Having reviewed the data about using electromagnetic fields in stimulating seed viability by different authors, it becomes obvious that research of seed germination dynamics is scarce. In addition, viability of illcondition seeds is rarely indicated. The research reported herein was ...

  16. Effects of temperature on the morphological, polymeric, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovsky, Leonid; Sturtevant, Rachael A; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J

    2015-02-17

    Changes in temperature were found to affect the morphology, cell viability, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms. S. epidermidis biofilms are commonly associated with hospital-acquired medical device infections. We observed the effect of heat treatment on three physical properties of the biofilms: the bacterial cell morphology and viability, the polymeric properties of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and the rheological properties of the bulk biofilm. After application of a 1 h heat treatment at 45 °C, cell reproduction had ceased, and at 60 °C, cell viability was significantly reduced. Size exclusion chromatography was used to fractionate the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) based on size. Chemical analysis of each fraction showed that the relative concentrations of the polysaccharide, protein, and DNA components of the EPS were unchanged by the heat treatment at 45 and 60 °C. The results suggest that the EPS molecular constituents are not significantly degraded by the temperature treatment. However, some aggregation on the scale of 100 nm was found by dynamic light scattering at 60 °C. Finally, relative to control biofilms maintained at 37 °C, we observed an order of magnitude reduction in the biofilm yield stress after 60 °C temperature treatment. No such difference was found for treatment at 45 °C. From these results, we conclude that the yield stress of bacterial biofilms is temperature-sensitive and that this sensitivity is correlated with cell viability. The observed significant decrease in yield stress with temperature suggests a means to weaken the mechanical integrity of S. epidermidis biofilms with applications in areas such as the treatment of biofilm-infected medical devices. PMID:25602470

  17. Planning tiger recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per;

    2015-01-01

    approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits...

  18. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  19. Anatomically Correct Surface Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for 3D surface recovery in partial surface scans. The method is based on an Active Shape Model, which is used to predict missing data. The model is constructed using a bootstrap framework, where an initially small collection of hand-annotated samples is used to fit to and...

  20. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  1. Recovery in the East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As robust as the economic recovery in East Asia has been in recent months,attention must now be turned to managing emerging risks challenging macroeconomic stability,said World Bank’s latest East Asia and Pacific Economic Update released on October 19.Edited excerpts follow

  2. Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N- in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study bacterial azoreductases. The construction of the recombinant protein by cloning and the overexpression of azoreductase is described. The mechanisms and function of bacterial azoreductases can be studied by other molecular techniques discussed in this review, such as RT-PCR, southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, zymography, and muta-genesis in order to understand bacterial azoreductase properties, function and application. In addition, understanding the regulation of azoreductase gene expression will lead to the systematic use of gene manipulation in bacterial strains for new strategies in future waste remediation technologies.

  3. Experimental Study of Bacterial Penetration into Chalk Rock: Mechanisms and Effect on Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery, as bacteria can plug the water-swept zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. However, complete understanding of the penetration...

  4. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  5. Determination of viability of preserved skin in low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skin from fresh human cadavers was stored in 4-18 degree C refrigerator. Before it was grafted for treatment of burn patients, it was quickly put into 40 degree C water and bring back to a former condition. The survival rate of skin was related with time and temperature of store. We used oxygen consumption to observe the change of viability of preserved skin. Oxygen consumption of skin was observed with apparatus made in the 304th Hospital of Peoples Liberation Army. The operating temperature was 5 - 45 degree C. Determination range was 0 - 199 mm Hg, resolving power of digital display was I mm Hg, instrumental error < 0.5 s'. Fresh human cadavers skin was made into 0.3 - 0.4 mm thick piece. Cleaned with NaCl 0.9% for three time. Then it was kept in neomycin solution for fifteen minutes. Then cut into 0.5 x 0.5 cm slices and stored in neomycin (2mg/ml). The skin was stored in 4 degree C refrigerator for five different periods (1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days). Then the Oxygen consumption was determined immediately. The oxygen consumption was also determined before and after it was stored for 24 hours. After the skin was stored in 4 and -18 degree C for 24 hours the oxygen consumption was determined immediately. The prepared skin, which was stored in ordinary refrigerator, was useful and simple. The preserved skin was grafted onto the bum patient and survival rate was high and in short time. But the result showed the viability of preserved skin reduced with time. The result showed that the oxygen consumption of skin, which was stored at 4 degree C, on the fifth day was 62.23% and on day 7 was 30.5%. The study showed that the preserved skin which was stored at 4 degree C for five days was better while the vitality of skin evidently reduced after seven days and the survival rate was low. The oxygen consumption of preserved skin that was stored in -18 degree C refrigerator for 24 hours was 100%. But in 4 degree C refrigerator it was 89.1%. The result showed that the

  6. Mathematical modeling of the soaking period in a microbial enhanced oil recovery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behlulgil, K. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Dept.; Durgut, I. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics Dept.

    2003-09-01

    In this study, experimental conditions of the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technique applied for Garzan oil (26{sup o} API; southeast Turkey) were utilized in a mathematical model that describes the transport of bacteria and its nutrients by convective and dispersive forces, including bacterial decay and growth. From the results of the variation of bacterial concentration with distance, it was observed that the bacterial concentration increased as the nutrients were consumed with time. Although some bacteria died during the experiments, this did not slow down the overall increase in bacterial population significantly at earlier times. However, in the later periods of the soaking process, severe bacterial decay occurred due to the lack of nutrients. The pressure behavior in the model during the shut-in period was also calculated and agreed well with the experimental results. (author)

  7. Demonstrating the Viability and Affordability of Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandyke, Melissa K.

    2006-01-01

    A set of tasks have been identified to help demonstrate the viability, performance, and affordability of surface fission systems. Completion of these tasks will move surface fission systems closer to reality by demonstrating affordability and performance potential. Tasks include fabrication and test of a 19-pin section of a Surface Power Unit Demonstrator (SPUD); design, fabrication, and utilization of thermal simulators optimized for surface fission' applications; design, fabrication, and utilization of GPHS module thermal simulators; design, fabrication, and test of a fission surface power system shield; and work related to potential fission surface power fuel/clad systems. Work on the SPUD will feed directly into joint NASA MSFC/NASA GRC fabrication and test of a surface power plant Engineering Development Unit (EDU). The goal of the EDU will be to perform highly realistic thermal, structural, and electrical testing on an integrated fission surface power system. Fission thermal simulator work will help enable high fidelity non-nuclear testing of pumped NaK surface fission power systems. Radioisotope thermal simulator work will help enable design and development of higher power radioisotope systems (power ultimately limited by Pu-238 availability). Shield work is designed to assess the potential of using a water neutron shield on the surface of the moon. Fuels work is geared toward assessing the current potential of using fuels that have already flown in space.

  8. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  9. Viability of Variable Generalised Chaplygin gas - a thermodynamical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, D

    2016-01-01

    The viability of the variable generalised Chaplygin gas (VGCG) model is analysed from the standpoint of its thermodynamical stability criteria with the help of an equation of state, $P = - \\frac{B}{\\rho^{\\alpha}}$, where $B = B_{0}V^{-\\frac{n}{3}}$. Here $B_{0}$ is assumed to be a positive universal constant, $n$ is a constant parameter and $V$ is the volume of the cosmic fluid. We get the interesting result that if the well-known stability conditions of a fluid is adhered to, the values of $n$ are constrained to be negative definite to make $ \\left(\\frac{\\partial P}{\\partial V}\\right)_{S} <0$ \\& $ \\left(\\frac{\\partial P}{\\partial V}\\right)_{T} <0$ throughout the evolution. Moreover the positivity of thermal capacity at constant volume $c_{V}$ as also the validity of the third law of thermodynamics are ensured in this case. For the particular case $n = 0$ the effective equation of state reduces to $\\Lambda$CDM model in the late stage of the universe while for $n <0$ it mimics a phantom-like cosmo...

  10. Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

  11. The viability of photovoltaics on the Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.

    1994-01-01

    The viability of photovoltaics (PV) on the Martian surface may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Martian environment. Probably the greatest threat is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surface of the planet. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a series of experiments were conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at NASA Ames Research Center. The effects of dust composition, particle size, wind velocity, angle of attack, and protective coatings on the transmittance of light through PV coverglass were determined. Both initially clear and initially dusted samples were subjected both to clear winds and simulated dust storms in the MARSWIT. It was found that wind velocity, particle size, and angle of attack are important parameters affecting occlusion of PV surfaces, while dust composition and protective coatings were not. Neither induced turbulence nor direct current biasing up to 200 volts were effective abatement techniques. Abrasion diffused the light impinging on the PV cells, but did not reduce total coverglass transmittance by more than a few percent.

  12. On the viability of quintessential inflationary models from observational data

    CERN Document Server

    de Haro, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Assuming that primordial density fluctuationas are nearly Gaussian, from a frequentist viewpoint, the two-dimensional marginalized joint coincidence contour in the plane $(n_s,r)$ (being $n_s$ the spectral index and $r$ the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations), without the presence of running is usually used to test the viability of the inflationary models. The models that provide, between $50$ and $60$ e-folds, a curve in that plane, which lies outside the $95.5 \\%$ C.L are ruled out. I will basically argue that the this low number of e-folds is unjustified, and that models leading to a theoretical value of the running different from zero must be checked with observational data allowing the running. When both prescriptions are taken into account, dealing in the context of quintessential inflation, i.e. when the potential is a combination of an inflationary with a quintessential one that leads to a deflationary regime, inflationary models such as the quartic or the Higgs potential are allowed.

  13. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Green

    Full Text Available Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies.

  14. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam W; Bailey, Larissa L

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA) using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica) metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools) using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA) and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies. PMID:26658734

  15. A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strømme

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h−1, compared to 1.09 h−1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL VIABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ADOPTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Alves de Souto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The agroecology represents a new focus to the study and management of alternative agricultural systems, andhas offered a theoretical framework whose purpose is to analyze the agricultural processes widely, in otherwords, see agriculture from a systemic approach, highlighting the sustainability inherent to the natural cycles andbiological interactions. Alternative practices of agricultural management has been recently adopted by familyfarmers in Lagoa Seca city - PB, aiming to protect the environment from the intense degrading actions of theconventional agriculture, as well as to improve the farmers life quality. This way, this study aims to identify theagroecological practices which have been adopted by the family farmers in different transition stages,highlighting the local experiences which were experienced and its environmental viability to the region,considering the agroecology principles as a steering mechanism and determinant for such analysis. Therefore,this study has been performed through a based questionnaire, observation in loco and the application of a semistructured interview. The obtained data through this research have revealed that the adopted practices byagroecological farmers from Lagoa Seca have provided the soil, water and local biota conservation, ensuring themaintenance in long term of these natural resources to the current and future generations, besides to promote anincrease in the life quality of the farmers and their families.

  17. Viability of osteocytes in bone autografts harvested for dental implantology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone autograft remains a very useful and popular way for filling bone defects. In maxillofacial surgery or implantology, it is used to increase the volume of the maxilla or mandible before placing dental implants. Because there is a noticeable delay between harvesting the graft and its insertion in the receiver site, we evaluated the morphologic changes at the light and transmission electron microscopy levels. Five patients having an autograft (bone harvested from the chin) were enrolled in the study. A small fragment of the graft was immediately fixed after harvesting and a second one was similarly processed at the end of the grafting period when bone has been stored at room temperature for a 20 min ± 33 s period in saline. A net increase in the number of osteocyte lacunae filled with cellular debris was observed (+41.5%). However no cytologic alteration could be observed in the remaining osteocytes. The viability of these cells is known to contribute to the success of autograft in association with other less well-identified factors.

  18. Viability of osteocytes in bone autografts harvested for dental implantology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, Bernard [CFI-College Francais d' Implantologie, 6 rue de Rome, 75008 Paris (France); Gaudin, Christine; Georgeault, Sonia; Mallet, Romain; Basle, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.chappard@univ-angers.f [INSERM, U 922-LHEA, Faculte de Medecine, 49045 Angers Cedex (France)

    2009-02-15

    Bone autograft remains a very useful and popular way for filling bone defects. In maxillofacial surgery or implantology, it is used to increase the volume of the maxilla or mandible before placing dental implants. Because there is a noticeable delay between harvesting the graft and its insertion in the receiver site, we evaluated the morphologic changes at the light and transmission electron microscopy levels. Five patients having an autograft (bone harvested from the chin) were enrolled in the study. A small fragment of the graft was immediately fixed after harvesting and a second one was similarly processed at the end of the grafting period when bone has been stored at room temperature for a 20 min +- 33 s period in saline. A net increase in the number of osteocyte lacunae filled with cellular debris was observed (+41.5%). However no cytologic alteration could be observed in the remaining osteocytes. The viability of these cells is known to contribute to the success of autograft in association with other less well-identified factors.

  19. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm and lemon essential oil (0.08- 0.12- 0.16% completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability.

  20. Predictive accuracy of population viability analysis in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, B W; O'Grady, J J; Chapman, A P; Burgman, M A; Akçakaya, H R; Frankham, R

    2000-03-23

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is widely applied in conservation biology to predict extinction risks for threatened species and to compare alternative options for their management. It can also be used as a basis for listing species as endangered under World Conservation Union criteria. However, there is considerable scepticism regarding the predictive accuracy of PVA, mainly because of a lack of validation in real systems. Here we conducted a retrospective test of PVA based on 21 long-term ecological studies--the first comprehensive and replicated evaluation of the predictive powers of PVA. Parameters were estimated from the first half of each data set and the second half was used to evaluate the performance of the model. Contrary to recent criticisms, we found that PVA predictions were surprisingly accurate. The risk of population decline closely matched observed outcomes, there was no significant bias, and population size projections did not differ significantly from reality. Furthermore, the predictions of the five PVA software packages were highly concordant. We conclude that PVA is a valid and sufficiently accurate tool for categorizing and managing endangered species. PMID:10746724

  1. Viability of primary cultured retinal neurons in a hyperglycemic condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Liu; Xueliang Xu; Renhong Tang; Guoping Chen; Xiang Lei; Limo Gao; Wenjie Li; Yu Chen

    2013-01-01

    using 0.05% trypsin digestion. The cell suspension was incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's 79.86% of primary cultured retinal cells were positive and immunocytochemical staining showed that the purity of anti-neurofilament heavy chain antibody-positive cells was 71.53%, indicating that the primary culture system of rat retinal neurons was a reliable and stable cell system with neurons as the predominant cell type. The primary cultured retinal neurons were further treated with 0, 5.5, 15, 25, and 35 mM glucose for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide test and flow cytometry showed that with increasing glucose concentration and treatment duration, the viability of retinal neurons was reduced, and apoptosis increased. In particular, 35 mM glucose exhibited the most significant effect at 72 hours. Thus, rat retinal neurons treated with 35 mM glucose for 72 hours can be used to simulate a neuronal model of diabetic retinopathy.

  2. Evaluation of the viability and energy metabolism of canine pancreas graft subjected to significant warm ischemia damage during preservation by UW solution cold storage method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hui Yuan; Gui-Chen Li; He Zhang; Ying Cheng; Ning Zhao; Yong-Feng Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the viability and energy metabolism of long warm ischemically damaged pancreas during preservation by the UW solution cold storage method.METHODS: The pancreas grafts subjected to 30-120 min warm ischemia were preserved by the UW solution cold storage method for 24 h. The tissue concentrations of adenine nucleotides (AN) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)and total adenine nucleotides (TAN) were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the viability of the pancreas graft was tested in the canine model of segmental pancreas autotransplantation.RESULTS: The functional success rates of pancreas grafts of groups after 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min of warm ischemia were 100%, 100%, 67.7%, 0%, respectively.There was an excellent correlation between the posttransplant viability and tissue concentration of ATP and TAN at the end of preservation.CONCLUSION: The UW solution cold storage method was effective for functional recovery of the pancreas suffering 60-min warm ischemia. The tissue concentration of ATP and TAN at the end of 24 h preservation by the UW solution cold storage method would predict the posttransplant outcome of pancreas graft subjected to significant warm ischemia.

  3. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  4. Platinum Recovery from Synthetic Extreme Environments by Halophilic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Synthia; Props, Ruben; Fitts, Jeffrey P; Smet, Rebecca De; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vanhaecke, Frank; Boon, Nico; Hennebel, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Metal recycling based on urban mining needs to be established to tackle the increasing supply risk of critical metals such as platinum. Presently, efficient strategies are missing for the recovery of platinum from diluted industrial process streams, often characterized by extremely low pHs and high salt concentrations. In this research, halophilic mixed cultures were employed for the biological recovery of platinum (Pt). Halophilic bacteria were enriched from Artemia cysts, living in salt lakes, in different salt matrices (sea salt mixture and NH4Cl; 20-210 g L(-1) salts) and at low to neutral pH (pH 3-7). The main taxonomic families present in the halophilic cultures were Halomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, and Idiomarinaceae. The halophilic cultures were able to recover >98% Pt(II) and >97% Pt(IV) at pH 2 within 3-21 h (4-453 mg Ptrecovered h(-1) g(-1) biomass). X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the reduction to Pt(0) and transmission electron microscopy revealed both intra- and extracellular Pt precipitates, with median diameters of 9-30 nm and 11-13 nm, for Pt(II) and Pt(IV), respectively. Flow cytometric membrane integrity staining demonstrated the preservation of cell viability during platinum recovery. This study demonstrates the Pt recovery potential of halophilic mixed cultures in acidic saline conditions. PMID:26854514

  5. Silver recovery aqueous techniques from diverse sources: Hydrometallurgy in recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, S

    2016-04-01

    The demand of silver is ever increasing with the advance of the industrialized world, whereas worldwide reserves of high grade silver ores are retreating. However, there exist large stashes of low and lean grade silver ores that are yet to be exploited. The main impression of this work was to draw attention to the most advance technologies in silver recovery and recycling from various sources. The state of the art in recovery of silver from different sources by hydrometallurgical and bio-metallurgical processing and varieties of leaching, cementing, reducing agents, peeling, electro-coagulants, adsorbents, electro-dialysis, solvent extraction, ion exchange resins and bio sorbents are highlighted in this article. It is shown that the major economic driver for recycling of depleted sources is for the recovery of silver. In order to develop an nature-friendly technique for the recovery of silver from diverse sources, a critical comparison of existing technologies is analyzed for both economic viability and environmental impact was made in this amendment and silver ion toxicity is highlighted. PMID:26926782

  6. Economic assessment of energy recovery from different sewage treatment options: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy recovery from sewage sludge waste treatment is examined critically to establish whether it can become a commercially viable proposition. Biogas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants using methane from sewage are assessed in terms of economic viability. Without inclusion in the United Kingdom's Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation subsidy, biogas-fired CHP plants are shown not to be economically viable. High maintenance costs are identified as a factor leading to the failure of these schemes. (UK)

  7. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...... an acceptable efficiency. Furthermore, solutions to secure the air tightness of the building envelope are suggested. The paper does not address problems with condensate of water in the exchanger that may freeze in cold climate conditions. This complex of problem is dealt with in a separate paper....

  8. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    growth curves are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold......In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X......-ray diffraction technique for studies of the evolution of grains within polycrystalline materials. The much smaller volume of the crystallites of interest here in comparison to grains implies that the existing method is not applicable due to overlap of diffraction spots. In this work this obstacle is overcome by...

  9. Water recovery in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C

    1999-03-01

    In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802

  10. Evolution of Bacterial Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  11. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  12. The rare bacterial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

  13. Transport Powered by Bacterial Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peshkov, Anton; Sokolov, Andrey; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that collective turbulentlike motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer the directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedgelike "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that an optimal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp region of the carrier, which is shielded from the outside turbulent fluctuations.

  14. Transport powered by bacterial turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peshkov, Anton; Sokolov, Andrey; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Aranson, Igor S

    2014-04-18

    We demonstrate that collective turbulentlike motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer the directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedgelike "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that an optimal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp region of the carrier, which is shielded from the outside turbulent fluctuations. PMID:24785075

  15. Viability, Acid and Bile Tolerance of Spray Dried Probiotic Bacteria and Some Commercial Probiotic Supplement Products Kept at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-06-01

    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment. PMID:27145163

  16. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  17. The Recovery Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen A. Ross

    2011-01-01

    We can only estimate the distribution of stock returns but we observe the distribution of risk neutral state prices. Risk neutral state prices are the product of risk aversion - the pricing kernel - and the natural probability distribution. The Recovery Theorem enables us to separate these and to determine the market's forecast of returns and the market's risk aversion from state prices alone. Among other things, this allows us to determine the pricing kernel, the market risk premium, the pro...

  18. Recovery of uranium values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is provided for the recovery of uranium from an organic extractant phase containing an amine. The extractant phase is contacted in a number of mixing stages with an acidic aqueous stripping phase containing sulphate ions, and the phases are passed together through a series of mixing stages while maintaining a dispersion of droplets of one phase in the other. Uranium is precipitated from the final stage by raising the pH. An apparatus having several mixing chambers is described

  19. Energy Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

  20. Recovery in aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X-ray diffraction technique for studies of the evolution of grains within polycrystalline materials. The much smaller volume of the crystallites of interest here in comparison to grains implies that the ...

  1. European Recovery System (ERS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hörschgen, Marcus; Pfeuffer, Horst; Janke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Up to the TEXUS-44 microgravity research mission, successfully launched in February 2008, the payloads of the TEXUS vehicles were exclusively equipped with the Magellan (former Bristol Aerospace Ltd.) ORSA recovery system, integrated into the ogive nose cone. With the intention to gain more independency from the North American market and the inherent procurement and ITAR regulations problems, the European Space Agency (ESA) has taken initiative to contract industry for the development and bui...

  2. 45 CFR 1302.20 - Grantee to show both legal status and financial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grantee to show both legal status and financial viability. 1302.20 Section 1302.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... both legal status and financial viability. (a) Upon the occurrence of a change in the legal...

  3. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... justification report? 203.85 Section 203.85 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Required Reports § 203.85 What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? This report... economic viability and relief justification report must contain the following items for an oil and...

  4. BACTERIAL LEACHING OF ELECTRONIC SCRAP: INFLUENCE OF PROCESS PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Harue Yamane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of bacterial leaching in the ore treatment is already known and also can be applied such as treatment of electronic waste to copper recovery. This paper investigates the influence of process parameters (pulp density, inoculums volume, rotation speed and initial concentration of ferrous iron on bacterial leaching of copper from printed circuit board of computers using the bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans–LR. Printed circuit boards from computers were comminuted using a hammer mill. The powder obtained was magnetically separated and the non-magnetic material used in this study. A shake flask study was carried out on the non-magnetic material using a shaker. The results show that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans–LR can leach 99% of copper from printed circuit boards (non–magnetic material under the determined conditions through of the studies.

  5. Economic viability of innovative nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear power has established its position as one of the most stable electricity supply sources in many countries in the world, supplying about 17% of total electricity generated. However, in order to keep that position, there are two important challenges that nuclear energy will face in the coming decades. They are: competition, and social/political acceptance (including non-proliferation and terrorism). There is an increasing concern that existing nuclear technologies may not be able to overcome such tough challenges. It is expected that innovative technologies can be a part of the solutions to overcome such challenges. This paper focuses on economic viability of innovative nuclear reactor and its associated fuel cycle technologies. First, it is important to consider the long term energy paths and potential role of nuclear power under different scenarios. We applied global energy optimization model based on IPCC scenarios. Then, we look at Japan, where electricity market is being liberalized, in order to explore how liberalization will have influence economic viability of nuclear power. The following are our basic conclusions: CO2 constraints as well as power generation cost competitiveness could affect future growth of nuclear power quite significantly. Current trend suggests that nuclear power would not grow much without CO2 constraints, or even face minus growth if its power generation cost became higher. On the other hand, cost reduction with CO2 constraints could accelerate future expansion of nuclear power quite significantly; In addition to life-long average generation cost, other investment criteria (such as asset productivity) may become critically important under the liberalized market. Under the liberalized electricity market, short term investment criteria could become more important than 30 year life time average cost. This suggests that small initial investment is more acceptable than large capital investment. Advanced nuclear reactor

  6. Spatial and Temporal Measurements of Temperature and Cell Viability in Response to Nanoparticle Mediated Photothermal Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Jon R [ORNL; Rodgers, Amanda [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Harvie, Erica [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Carswell, William [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Torti, Suzy [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Rylander, Christopher [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Rylander, Nichole M [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Nanoparticle enhanced photothermal therapy is a promising alternative to tumor resection. However, quantitative measurements of cellular response to these treatments are limited. This paper introduces a Bimodal Enhanced Analysis of Spatiotemporal Temperature (BEAST) algorithm to rapidly determine the viability of cancer cells in vitro following photothermal therapy alone or in combination with nanoparticles. Materials & Methods: To illustrate the capability of the BEAST viability algorithm, single wall carbon nanohorns were added to renal cancer (RENCA) cells in vitro and time-dependent spatial temperature maps measured with an infrared camera during laser therapy were correlated with post-treatment cell viability distribution maps obtained by cell-staining fluorescent microscopy. Conclusion: The BEAST viability algorithm accurately and rapidly determined the cell viability as function of time, space, and temperature.

  7. Impedance microflow cytometry for viability studies of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Berardino, Marco; Hebeisen, Monika; Hessler, Thomas; Ziswiler, Adrian; Largiadèr, Stephanie; Schade, Grit

    2011-02-01

    Impedance-based Coulter counters and its derivatives are widely used cell analysis tools in many laboratories and use normally DC or low frequency AC to perform these electrical analyses. The emergence of micro-fabrication technologies in the last decade, however, provides a new means of measuring electrical properties of cells. Microfluidic approaches combined with impedance spectroscopy measurements in the radio frequency (RF) range increase sensitivity and information content and thus push single cell analyses beyond simple cell counting and sizing applications towards multiparametric cell characterization. Promising results have been shown already in the fields of cell differentiation and blood analysis. Here we emphasize the potential of this technology by presenting new data obtained from viability studies on microorganisms. Impedance measurements of several yeast and bacteria strains performed at frequencies around 10 MHz enable an easy discrimination between dead and viable cells. Moreover, cytotoxic effects of antibiotics and other reagents, as well as cell starvation can also be monitored easily. Control analyses performed with conventional flow cytometers using various fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide, oxonol) indicate a good correlation and further highlight the capability of this device. The label-free approach makes on the one hand the use of usually expensive fluorochromes obsolete, on the other hand practically eliminates laborious sample preparation procedures. Until now, online cell monitoring was limited to the determination of viable biomass, which provides rather poor information of a cell culture. Impedance microflow cytometry, besides other aspects, proposes a simple solution to these limitations and might become an important tool for bioprocess monitoring applications in the biotech industry.

  8. Important population viability analysis parameters for giant pandas (Aliuropoda melanoleuca)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minghao GONG; Yanling SONG; Zhisong YANG; Chen LIN

    2012-01-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool to evaluate the risk of extinction for endangered species and aid conservation decision-making.The quality of PVA output is dependent on parameters related to population dynamics and life-history; however,it has been difficult to collect this information for the giant panda (Aliuropoda melanoleuca),a rare and endangered mammal native to China,confined to some 30 fragmented habitat patches.Since giant pandas are long-lived,mature late,have lower reproductive rates,and show little sexual dimorphism,obtaining data to perform adequate PVA has been difficult.Here,we develop a parameter sensitivity index by modeling the dynamics of six giant panda populations in the Minshan Mountains,in order to determine the parameters most influential to giant panda populations.Our data shows that the giant panda populations are most sensitive to changes in four female parameters:initial breeding age,reproductive rate,mortality rate between age 0 and 1,and mortality rate of adults.The parameter sensitivity index strongly correlated with initial population size,as smaller populations were more sensitive to changes in these four variables.This model suggests that demographic parameters of females have more influence on the results of PVA,indicating that females may play a more important role in giant panda population dynamics than males.Consequently,reintroduction of female individuals to a small giant panda population should be a high priority for conservation efforts.Our findings form a technical basis for the coming program of giant panda reintroduction,and inform which parameters are crucial to successfully and feasibly monitoring wild giant panda populations.

  9. Prospective evaluation of femoral head viability following femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone scans of 33 patients (pts) with recent subcapital fractures (fx) of the femur were evaluated prospectively to determine their value in predicting femoral head visability. Each of the 33 pts (ll men, 22 women, age range 30-92) had a pre-operative bone scan within 72 hrs of the fx (23 pts within 24 hrs). Anterior and posterior planar views of both hips and pinhole views (50% of pts) were obtained 2 hrs after administration of Tc-99m HDP. The femoral head was classified as perfused if it showed the same activity as the opposite normal side or if it showed only slightly decreased activity. Femoral heads showing absent activity were classified as nonperfused. Overall, 20 of the 33 pts showed a photopenic femoral head on the side of the fx. Only 2 pts showed increased activity at hte site of the fx. Internal fixation of the fx was performed in 23 pts, 12 of whom had one or more follow-up scans. Five of these 12 pts showed absent femoral head activity on their initial scan, but 2 showed later reperfusion. The other 7 pts showed good perfusion initially, with only 1 later showing decreased femoral head activity. The other 10 pts (7 of whom had absent femoral head activity) had immediate resection of the femoral head and insertion of a Cathcart prosthesis. The results suggest that femoral head activity seen on a bone scan in the immediate post-fx period is not always a reliable indicator of femoral head viability. Decreased femoral head activity may reflect, in part, compromised perfusion secondary to post-traumatic edema, with or without anatomic disruption of the blood supply

  10. Knockdown of phosphoethanolamine transmethylation enzymes decreases viability of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witola, William H; Cooks-Fagbodun, Sheritta; Ordonez, Adriana Reyes; Matthews, Kwame; Abugri, Daniel A; McHugh, Mark

    2016-06-15

    The phosphobase methylation pathway, in which phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) successively catalyze the methylation of phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine, is essential in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two PMT-encoding genes (HcPMT1 and HcPMT2) cloned from Haemonchus contortus have been shown, by in vitro assays, to possess enzymatic characteristics similar to those of C. elegans PMTs, but their physiological significance in H. contortus is yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we endeavored to determine the importance of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the survival of H. contortus by adapting the use of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) antisense approach to block the translation of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the worms. We found that PPMOs targeting HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 down-regulated the expression of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 proteins in adult H. contortus. Analysis of the effect of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 knockdown showed that it significantly decreased worm motility and viability, thus validating HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 as essential enzymes for survival of H. contortus. Studies of gene function in H. contortus have been constrained by limited forward and reverse genetic technologies for use in H. contortus. Thus, our success in adaptation of use of PPMO antisense approach in H. contortus provides an important reverse genetic technological advance for studying this parasitic nematode of veterinary significance. PMID:27198768

  11. Myocardial viability assessed by Tl-201 SPECT. Redistribution versus reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to verify if a third series of images acquired by reinjection thallium-201, 24 h after conventional myocardial perfusion with the radioisotope, improves the identification of myocardial viability segments. The methods: we studied 30 patients, mean age 57.7 ±9.4 years, with old myocardial infarction using thallium (Tl)-201 SPECT, and we obtained three series of images (stress, redistribution after 4 h and reinjection after 24 h. Cardiac images were divided in 5 segments (apical, lateral, anterior, septal and inferior) and each one received a value by a score system according to the Tl-201 myocardial uptake (0=normal uptake; 1=mild hypoperfusion; 2=moderate hypoperfusion; 3=severe hypoperfusion or no myocardial uptake). We considered viable myocardium when the uptake of Tl-201 in the segment related to te myocardial infarction increases at least 1 point in two different axis of Tl-201 SPECT. The results: seven (23,3%) patients demonstrated increase of Tl-201 uptake only at reinjection images, showing a high efficacy of the method. Nine (30%) patients showed persistent hypoperfusion at all series of images suggesting only fibrosis in the are related to the infarction. Fourteen (46,7%) patients showed increase of Tl-201 concentration at redistribution images; among these patients, six showed improvement of myocardial uptake at reinjection. This condition was interpreted as regional chronic ischemic process: hibernating myocardium. The conclusion was that Tl-201 hypoperfusion at redistribution images without significant changes in relation to the stress images do not represent fibrosis at all. The reinjection technic was better than conventional redistribution in the detection of viable myocardium. This data allows a better therapeutic orientation. (author)

  12. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

  13. Optimising the economic viability of grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of photovoltaic (PV) array size, orientation, inclination, load profile, electricity buying price, feed-in tariffs, PV/inverter sizing ratio ('sizing ratio') and PV/inverter cost ratio ('cost ratio') on the economic viability of a grid-connected PV system was investigated using a validated TRNSYS simulation model. The results showed that the fractional load met directly by a PV system depends on matching between PV supply and building load profile, sizing ratio and PV inclination. The profitability of a grid-connected PV system increases if the PV system is sized to reduce excess PV electrical energy fed to the grid when the feed-in tariff is lower than electricity buying price. The effect of feed-in tariffs on PV saving for selected European countries has been shown. The cost of the PV electricity depends on sizing ratio, PV and inverter lifetimes, cost ratio, PV inclination and financial parameters. The effect of cost ratio on the optimum PV/inverter sizing ratio is less significant when the cost ratio lies within 7-11. The minimum PV electricity cost at low and high insolation conditions were obtained for sizing ratios of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively. The lowest PV electricity cost was found for surface slopes within 30-40 for the selected European locations. The PV electricity cost for cost ratio of 5 and 13 varied from 0.44-0.85 EURkWh-1 to 0.38-0.76 EURkWh-1, respectively within high to low insolation conditions when the PV module unit cost, market discount rate, PV size, PV lifetime and inverter lifetime were assumed to be 6.5 EURWp-1, 3%, 13 kWp, 20 years and 10 years, respectively. (author)

  14. Polysaccharides and bacterial plugging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1991-11-01

    Before any successful application of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process can be realized, an understanding of the cells' transport and retentive mechanisms in porous media is needed. Cell transport differs from particle transport in their ability to produce polysaccharides, which are used by cells to adhere to surfaces. Cell injection experiments have been conducted using Leuconostoc cells to illustrate the importance of cellular polysaccharide production as a transport mechanism that hinders cell movement and plugs porous media. Kinetic studies of the Leuconostoc cells, carried out to further understand the plugging rates of porous media, have shown that the cells' growth rates are approximately equal when provided with monosaccharide (glucose and fructose) or sucrose. The only difference in cell metabolism is the production of dextran when sucrose is supplied as a carbon source. Experimentally it has also been shown that the cells' growth rate is weakly dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media, and strongly dependent upon the concentration of yeast extract. The synthesis of cellular dextran has been found to lag behind cell generation, thus indicating that the cells need to reach maturity before they are capable of expressing the detransucrase enzyme and synthesizing insoluble dextran. Dextran yields were found to be dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media. 10 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran. A laboratory research based on Austin methods (Austin, B., Austin, D.A. 1993) was conducted for bacterial study on 3 sturgeon species naming A. persicus, A. stellatus and A. nudiventris during different growth stages. Bacterial flora of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Edwardsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas and Plesiomonas were determined. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: quality of water in rearing ponds, different conditions for growth stages, suitable time for colonization of bacterial flora in rearing pond, water temperature increase in fingerlings size and feeding condition. (author)

  16. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbendieck, Reed M.; Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Straight, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities. PMID:27551280

  17. Viability study of automobile shredder residue as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Mar; Aracil, Ignacio; Font, Rafael; Anzano, Manuela; Fullana, Andrés; Collina, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Car Fluff samples collected from a shredding plant in Italy were classified based on particle size, and three different size fractions were obtained in this way. A comparison between these size fractions and the original light fluff was made from two different points of view: (i) the properties of each size fraction as a fuel were evaluated and (ii) the pollutants evolved when each size fraction was subjected to combustion were studied. The aim was to establish which size fraction would be the most suitable for the purposes of energy recovery. The light fluff analyzed contained up to 50 wt.% fines (particle sizerefuse-derived fuel (RDF). Results obtained suggest that removing fines from the original ASR sample would lead to a material product that is more suitable for use as RDF. PMID:23856312

  18. Energy balance for uranium recovery from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E.; Lindner, H. [The University of Texas, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The energy return on investment (EROI) of an energy resource is the ratio of the energy it ultimately produces to the energy used to recover it. EROI is a key viability measure for a new recovery technology, particularly in its early stages of development when financial cost assessment would be premature or highly uncertain. This paper estimates the EROI of uranium recovery from seawater via a braid adsorbent technology. In this paper, the energy cost of obtaining uranium from seawater is assessed by breaking the production chain into three processes: adsorbent production, adsorbent deployment and mooring, and uranium elution and purification. Both direct and embodied energy inputs are considered. Direct energy is the energy used by the processes themselves, while embodied energy is used to fabricate their material, equipment or chemical inputs. If the uranium is used in a once-through fuel cycle, the braid adsorbent technology EROI ranges from 12 to 27, depending on still-uncertain performance and system design parameters. It is highly sensitive to the adsorbent capacity in grams of U captured per kg of adsorbent as well as to potential economies in chemical use. This compares to an EROI of ca. 300 for contemporary terrestrial mining. It is important to note that these figures only consider the mineral extraction step in the fuel cycle. At a reference performance level of 2.76 g U recovered per kg adsorbent immersed, the largest energy consumers are the chemicals used in adsorbent production (63%), anchor chain mooring system fabrication and operations (17%), and unit processes in the adsorbent production step (12%). (authors)

  19. Energy balance for uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy return on investment (EROI) of an energy resource is the ratio of the energy it ultimately produces to the energy used to recover it. EROI is a key viability measure for a new recovery technology, particularly in its early stages of development when financial cost assessment would be premature or highly uncertain. This paper estimates the EROI of uranium recovery from seawater via a braid adsorbent technology. In this paper, the energy cost of obtaining uranium from seawater is assessed by breaking the production chain into three processes: adsorbent production, adsorbent deployment and mooring, and uranium elution and purification. Both direct and embodied energy inputs are considered. Direct energy is the energy used by the processes themselves, while embodied energy is used to fabricate their material, equipment or chemical inputs. If the uranium is used in a once-through fuel cycle, the braid adsorbent technology EROI ranges from 12 to 27, depending on still-uncertain performance and system design parameters. It is highly sensitive to the adsorbent capacity in grams of U captured per kg of adsorbent as well as to potential economies in chemical use. This compares to an EROI of ca. 300 for contemporary terrestrial mining. It is important to note that these figures only consider the mineral extraction step in the fuel cycle. At a reference performance level of 2.76 g U recovered per kg adsorbent immersed, the largest energy consumers are the chemicals used in adsorbent production (63%), anchor chain mooring system fabrication and operations (17%), and unit processes in the adsorbent production step (12%). (authors)

  20. The Bacterial Microflora of Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, B.

    2002-01-01

    The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen) of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate on whether or not muscle is actually sterile. The numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations often reflect those of the surrounding water. The role of the bacteria includes the ability to degrade complex m...

  1. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. UNESP. Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose Mauricio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo. Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP/USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  2. Bacterial Culture of Neonatal Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    AH Movahedian; R Moniri; Z Mosayebi

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of bacterial sepsis with focus on Gram negative organisms in neonates admitted at Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, during a 3-yr period, from September 2002 to September 2005. Blood culture was performed on all neonates with risk factors or signs of suggestive sepsis. Blood samples were cultured using brain heart infusion (BHI) broth accordi...

  3. Bacterial Alkaloids Prevent Amoebal Predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, Martin; Götze, Sebastian; Barnett, Robert; Willing, Karsten; Stallforth, Pierre

    2016-07-25

    Bacterial defense mechanisms have evolved to protect bacteria against predation by nematodes, predatory bacteria, or amoebae. We identified novel bacterial alkaloids (pyreudiones A-D) that protect the producer, Pseudomonas fluorescens HKI0770, against amoebal predation. Isolation, structure elucidation, total synthesis, and a proposed biosynthetic pathway for these structures are presented. The generation of P. fluorescens gene-deletion mutants unable to produce pyreudiones rendered the bacterium edible to a variety of soil-dwelling amoebae. PMID:27294402

  4. Mast cells in bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnberg, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are implicated in immunity towards bacterial infection, but the molecular mechanisms by which mast cells contribute to the host response are only partially understood. Previous studies have examined how mast cells react to purified bacterial cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. To investigate how mast cells react to live bacteria we co-cultured mast cells and the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus equi (S. equi) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)...

  5. Studies of Experimental Bacterial Translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Stenbäck, Anders

    2005-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to maintaining patients with short bowel syndrome on parenteral nutrition, or successfully transplanting these patients with a small bowel graft, is the many severe infections that occur. Evidence is accumulating that translocating bacteria from the patient’s bowel causes a significant part of these infections. In this thesis bacterial translocation is studied in a Thiry-Vella loop of defunctionalised small bowel in the rat. Bacterial translocation to the mesenteric ...

  6. Bacterial translocation: impact of probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Bengt; Mangell, Peter; Adawi, Diya; Molin, Göran

    2004-01-01

    There is a considerable amount of data in humans showing that patients who cannot take in nutrients enterally have more organ failure in the intensive care unit, a less favourable prognosis, and a higher frequency of septicaemia, in particular involving bacterial species from the intestinal tract. However, there is little evidence that this is connected with translocation of bacterial species in humans. Animal data more uniformly imply the existence of such a connection. The main focus of thi...

  7. Electrical spiking in bacterial biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Elisa; Ciszak, Marzena; Santopolo, Luisa; Frascella, Arcangela; Giovannetti, Luciana; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In nature, biofilms are the most common form of bacterial growth. In biofilms, bacteria display coordinated behaviour to perform specific functions. Here, we investigated electrical signalling as a possible driver in biofilm sociobiology. Using a multi-electrode array system that enables high spatio-temporal resolution, we studied the electrical activity in two biofilm-forming strains and one non-biofilm-forming strain. The action potential rates monitored during biofilm-forming bacterial gro...

  8. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it a...

  9. Bacterial contamination of radiopharmaceutical preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examinations of the microflora of the air, personnel hands' skin, and surface of the equipment were performed in the Centre for Nuclear research, Libya. It is stated that bacterial contamination was maximal in winter and minimal in summer. The authors believe that human factor is the crucial in bacterial contamination. The microflora detected at the surfaces of equipment contains increased levels of radioresistent forms of bacteria. 8 refs.; 3 tabs

  10. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  11. Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Alvarado Guevara

    2006-03-01

    causales son virales lo cual conlleva a las diferentes sub-clasificaciones. También en ciertos casos puede ser ocasionada por hongos, bacterias atípicas, micobacterias y parásitos.In Costa Rica the bacterial meningitis had turn into a high-priority subject in which to monitoring epidemiologist. It had been talked about in the last months, to dice an increase in the attention is published of this subject, due to this phenomenon it becomes necessary to make a revision of topic. Meningitis is an inflammation of leptomeninges and colonization of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (LCR due to different agents, which produces meningeal symptoms (ex. migraine, neck rigidity, and photophobia and pleocytosis in LCR. De pending on the variables to take into account is possible to group it in different classifications, taking into account the time of evolution are possible to be divided in acute or chronic, to first with few hours or days of beginning of the symptoms, whereas the chronicle also presents a silence course but of the disease of approximately 4 weeks of instauration. There is a difference according to its etiologic agent; they can be infectious and non-infectious. Examples of common non-infectious causes include medications (ex, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics and carcinomatosis. A classification exists as well according to the causal agent. The acute bacterial meningitis remarks a bacterial origin of the syndrome, which characterizes by the by an acute onset of meningeal symptoms and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Each one of the bacteriological agents, parasitic or fungus finishes by characterizing the different presentations of the clinical features (ex, meningocóccica meningitis, Cryptococcus meningitis. Finally, there is also the aseptic meningitis, denominated in this form because it’s nonpyogenic cellular response caused by many types of agents. The patients show an acute beginning of symptoms, fever and lymphocytic pleocytosis. After

  12. The effects of the hypothermic management of brain dead dogs on preserving graft viability in heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, H; Sakata, K; Takahashi, T; Ogiwara, H; Otaki, A; Ishikawa, S; Morishita, Y

    1998-02-01

    The effect of hypothermic management for brain dead dogs on preserving graft viability was evaluated through preservation and transplantation. After the occurrence of brain death, 43 dogs were divided into two groups; the normothermic group (37.2+/-0.3 degrees C) and the hypothermic group (31.8+/-0.3 degrees C) according to the esophageal temperature. After the 6-hour management of brain dead donors, the heart beat was arrested using a cardioplegic solution followed by coronary vascular bed washout. The donor heart was then harvested and preserved for 12 hours with simple immersion into the University of Wisconsin solution. Following preservation, orthotopic transplantation was performed in six grafts randomly selected from each group. During the 6-hour management of brain dead dogs; 1) heart rates, rate-pressure products, and the total amount of catecholamine were significantly (p<0.05) lower in the hypothermic group than in the normothermic group, and 2) lactate contents collected from the coronary sinus blood and O2-extraction rates of the heart tended to be lower in the hypothermic group than in the normothermic group. During 12 hours of preservation, intracellular pH and creatine phosphate contents were higher in the hypothermic group than in the normothermic group. Following orthotopic transplantation, the animals in the hypothermic group showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher recovery rate of left ventricular (LV) pressure and the maximum rate of the rise of LV pressure compared with normothermic group animals. We conclude that the hypothermic management of brain dead dogs may be effective in preserving graft viability and may provide a clinical application for heart transplantation with acceptable outcomes. PMID:9537536

  13. 7 CFR 58.135 - Bacterial estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bacterial estimate. 58.135 Section 58.135 Agriculture... Milk § 58.135 Bacterial estimate. (a) Methods of Testing. Milk shall be tested for bacterial estimate... of Testing. A laboratory examination to determine the bacterial estimate shall be made on...

  14. Waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  15. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R. [AeroAstro, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  16. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Peterson, Douglas L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  17. Plant viability and phenotype evolution in DDW presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Deuterium depleted water (DDW) is a newly available tool for decreasing deuterium concentration in organisms. Relatively few things are known about the plant viability and organogenesis evolution in the presence of 2D. The experiments were conducted both in vitro and ex vitro. Chrysanthemum and tobacco genotypes were chosen as biologic materials. Our main purpose was to study the plants evolution in such conditions. The first stages of plant's life cycle were developed in vitro in controlled environment. The last periods run in normal conditions (in a growth chamber). The in vitro technology was used to deliver throughout growth media different amount of deuterium: low (30 ppm, V5) and high (150 ppm V1). The other variants were a mixture between boiled water/DDW: V2 (3/1), V3 (2/2) and V4 (1/3). For in vitro culture Murashige-Skoog (1962) growth media was prepared in above mentioned liquid mixtures. The growth of ex vitro potted plants took place as described previously. In vitro, the development of Chrysanthemum and tobacco neo - plantlets was favorable on low 2D concentration media. In comparison to Control the Chrysanthemum shoot growth was significantly repressed (d=1.76 cm; p>0.01) but the leaf area was much larger on plantlets developed on 30 ppm 2D media (d=0.37cm2; p>0.01). Immediately after the initiation of in vitro culture the tobacco explants revealed a higher biological activity. In ex vitro conditions the 'Chrysanthemum DDW plants' recovered their growth rate and after 50 days this parameter was significantly higher than in control plants (d=8.5 cm; p>0.01). The leaf area explosively increased from 0.427 cm2 to 2476.9 cm2 covered by a statistically significant difference. The same behavior was observed in tobacco plants. A large variability was detected among ex vitro plants, especially in the tobacco descendants. The molecular analysis did not revealed significant differences among the experimental variants. Our experiments in vitro and ex

  18. Loop transfer recovery for general observer architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A general and concise formulation is given of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem based on recovery errors. Three types of recovery errors are treated: open loop recovery, sensitivity recovery and input-output recovery errors. The three corresponding versions of the asymptotic recover...

  19. The effect of electromagnetic fields, from two commercially available water treatment devices, on bacterial culturability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyadasa, Chathuri; Yeager, Thomas R; Gray, Stephen R; Stewart, Matthew B; Ridgway, Harry F; Pelekani, Con; Orbell, John D

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available pulsed-electromagnetic field (PEMF) devices are currently being marketed and employed to ostensibly manage biofouling. The reliable application and industry acceptance of such technologies require thorough scientific validation - and this is currently lacking. We have initiated proof-of-principle research in an effort to investigate whether such commercially available PEMF devices can influence the viability (culturability) of planktonic bacteria in an aqueous environment. Thus two different commercial PEMF devices were investigated via a static (i.e. non-flowing) treatment system. 'Healthy' Escherichia coli cells, as well as cultures that were physiologically compromised by silver nano-particles, were exposed to the PEMFs from both devices under controlled conditions. Although relatively minor, the observed effects were nevertheless statistically significant and consistent with the hypothesis that PEMF exposure under controlled conditions may result in a decrease in cellular viability and culturability. It has also been observed that under certain conditions bacterial growth is actually stimulated. PMID:27003078

  20. Detecting viability transitions of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research suggests that human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) can be promising candidates for cell-based therapy. Since large population and high viability are generally required, detecting viability transitions of these cells is crucial for their population expansion and quality control. Here, as a non-invasive method, Raman micro-spectroscopy is applied to examine hUC-MSCs with different viability. Using peak fitting and statistic t-test, the Raman peaks with obvious differences between the cells with high viability (> 90%) and low viability (-1, symmetric stretching of C–C in lipids at 877 cm-1 and CH deformation in proteins at 1342 cm-1 show the most significant changes (p < 0.001). When the cell viability decreases, the intensities of the former two peaks are both about doubled while that of the latter peak reduces by about 30%. Based on these results, we propose that the viability of hUC-MSCs can be characterized by these three peaks. And their intensity changes can be understood from the model of excessive reactive oxygen species interacting with the bio-macromolecules

  1. Microflora of the red pepper and its viability in the gamma radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reports the studies of microbiological state of red pepper collected from six different sources. Bacterial strains found has been isolated. The influence of the ionizing radiation on these bacterial cultures has been determined. Parameters of kinetic model describing decay of bacterial population have been calculated. Results are applicable for design of food sterilization protocols

  2. Microfluidic Approaches to Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hee-Deung Park; Junghyun Kim; Seok Chung

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms—aggregations of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substrates (EPS)—are an important subject of research in the fields of biology and medical science. Under aquatic conditions, bacterial cells form biofilms as a mechanism for improving survival and dispersion. In this review, we discuss bacterial biofilm development as a structurally and dynamically complex biological system and propose microfluidic approaches for the study of bacterial biofilms. Biofilms develop t...

  3. The human vaginal bacterial biota and bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition. PMID:19282975

  4. Study progress of cardiac MRI technology in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most common diseases that cause disability and death around the world. Correctly and effectively assessing the myocardial viability after myocardial infarction can reduce the disabled rate and mortality rate. At present, many methods could be used to assess myocardial viability. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) technology has a lot of advantages compared to other methods. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of CMR in assessment of myocardial viability after myocardial infarction, and compared CMR with other technologies. (authors)

  5. The effect of silver impregnation of surgical scrub suits on surface bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A I; Halladay, L J; Cripps, P

    2012-06-01

    Silver-impregnated fabrics are widely used for their antibacterial and antifungal effects, including for clinical clothing such as surgical scrub suits (scrubs). This study investigated whether silver impregnation reduces surface bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. Using agar contact plates, abdominal and lumbar areas of silver-impregnated nylon or polyester/cotton scrubs were sampled for surface bacterial contamination before (0 h) and after 4 and 8h of use. The number of bacterial colonies on each contact plate was counted after 24 and 48 h incubation at 37°C. Standard basic descriptive statistics and mixed-effects linear regression were used to investigate the association of possible predictors of the level of bacterial contamination of the scrubs with surface bacterial counts. Silver-impregnated scrubs had significantly lowered bacterial colony counts (BCC) at 0 h compared with polyester/cotton scrubs. However, after 4 and 8h of wear, silver impregnation had no effect on BCC. Scrub tops with higher BCC at 0 h had significantly higher BCC at 4 and 8h, suggesting that contamination present at 0 h persisted during wear. Sampling from the lumbar area was associated with lower BCC at all three time points. Other factors (contamination of the scrub top with a medication/drug, restraint of patients, working in the anaesthesia recovery area) also affected BCC at some time points. Silver impregnation appeared to be ineffective in reducing bacterial contamination of scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. PMID:22015140

  6. Amyloid-linked cellular toxicity triggered by bacterial inclusion bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aggregation of proteins in the form of amyloid fibrils and plaques is the characteristic feature of some pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. The mechanisms by which the aggregation processes result in cell damage are under intense investigation but recent data indicate that prefibrillar aggregates are the most proximate mediators of toxicity rather than mature fibrils. Since it has been shown that prefibrillar forms of the nondisease-related misfolded proteins are highly toxic to cultured mammalian cells we have studied the cytoxicity associated to bacterial inclusion bodies that have been recently described as protein deposits presenting amyloid-like structures. We have proved that bacterial inclusion bodies composed by a misfolding-prone β-galactosidase fusion protein are clearly toxic for mammalian cells but the β-galactosidase wild type enzyme forming more structured thermal aggregates does not impair cell viability, despite it also binds and enter into the cells. These results are in the line that the most cytotoxic aggregates are early prefibrilar assemblies but discard the hypothesis that the membrane destabilization is Key event to subsequent disruption of cellular processes, such as ion balance, oxidative state and the eventually cell death

  7. Dynamic of bacterial communities attached to lightened phytodetritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Morgan; Bonin, Patricia; Amiraux, Rémi; Michotey, Valérie; Guasco, Sophie; Armitano, Joshua; Jourlin-Castelli, Cécile; Vaultier, Frédéric; Méjean, Vincent; Rontani, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    The effects of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) transfer to bacteria attached on phytodetritus were investigated under laboratory-controlled conditions. For this purpose, a nonaxenic culture of Emiliania huxleyi in late stationary phase was studied for bacterial viability. Our results indicated that only 9 ± 3% of attached bacteria were alive compared to 46 ± 23% for free bacteria in the E. huxleyi culture. Apparently, under conditions of low irradiance (36 W m(-2)), during the culture, the cumulative dose received (22,000 kJ m(-2)) was sufficiently important to induce an efficient (1)O2 transfer to attached bacteria during the senescence of E. huxleyi cells. At this stage, attached bacteria appeared to be dominated by pigmented bacteria (Maribacter, Roseobacter, Roseovarius), which should resist to (1)O2 stress probably due to their high contents of carotenoids. After subsequent irradiation of the culture until fully photodegradation of chlorophyll, DGGE analyses showed that the diversity of bacteria attached to E. huxleyi cells is modified by light. Photooxidative alterations of bacteria were confirmed by the increasing amounts of cis-vaccenic photoproducts (bacterial marker) per bacteria observed during irradiation time. Interestingly, preliminary chemotaxis experiments showed that Shewanella oneidensis considered here as a model of motile bacteria was attracted by phytodetritus producing or not (1)O2. This lack of repulsive effects could explain the high mortality rate of bacteria measured on E. huxleyi cells. PMID:25687611

  8. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Fiona, E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk; Jenkins, Huw T., E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Samuel C. [University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Byrne, Robert T. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 25, 81377 Munich (Germany); Dodson, Eleanor J.; Antson, Alfred A., E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer.

  9. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer

  10. Recovery of Sparsely Corrupted Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Studer, Christoph; Pope, Graeme; Bölcskei, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the recovery of signals exhibiting a sparse representation in a general (i.e., possibly redundant or incomplete) dictionary that are corrupted by additive noise admitting a sparse representation in another general dictionary. This setup covers a wide range of applications, such as image inpainting, super-resolution, signal separation, and recovery of signals that are impaired by, e.g., clipping, impulse noise, or narrowband interference. We present deterministic recovery guarantees based on a novel uncertainty relation for pairs of general dictionaries and we provide corresponding practicable recovery algorithms. The recovery guarantees we find depend on the signal and noise sparsity levels, on the coherence parameters of the involved dictionaries, and on the amount of prior knowledge on the support sets of signal and noise. We finally identify situations under which the recovery guarantees are tight.

  11. Implementing Performance Competitive Logical Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lomet, David; Zwilling, Michael

    2011-01-01

    New hardware platforms, e.g. cloud, multi-core, etc., have led to a reconsideration of database system architecture. Our Deuteronomy project separates transactional functionality from data management functionality, enabling a flexible response to exploiting new platforms. This separation requires, however, that recovery is described logically. In this paper, we extend current recovery methods to work in this logical setting. While this is straightforward in principle, performance is an issue. We show how ARIES style recovery optimizations can work for logical recovery where page information is not captured on the log. In side-by-side performance experiments using a common log, we compare logical recovery with a state-of-the art ARIES style recovery implementation and show that logical redo performance can be competitive.

  12. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  13. New Treatments for Bacterial Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. M. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the newer treatments for bacterial keratitis. Data Sources. PubMed literature search up to April 2012. Study Selection. Key words used for literature search: “infectious keratitis”, “microbial keratitis”, “infective keratitis”, “new treatments for infectious keratitis”, “fourth generation fluoroquinolones”, “moxifloxacin”, “gatifloxacin”, “collagen cross-linking”, and “photodynamic therapy”. Data Extraction. Over 2400 articles were retrieved. Large scale studies or publications at more recent dates were selected. Data Synthesis. Broad spectrum antibiotics have been the main stay of treatment for bacterial keratitis but with the emergence of bacterial resistance; there is a need for newer antimicrobial agents and treatment methods. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and corneal collagen cross-linking are amongst the new treatments. In vitro studies and prospective clinical trials have shown that fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are better than the older generation fluoroquinolones and are as potent as combined fortified antibiotics against common pathogens that cause bacterial keratitis. Collagen cross-linking was shown to improve healing of infectious corneal ulcer in treatment-resistant cases or as an adjunct to antibiotics treatment. Conclusion. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are good alternatives to standard treatment of bacterial keratitis using combined fortified topical antibiotics. Collagen cross-linking may be considered in treatment-resistant infectious keratitis or as an adjunct to antibiotics therapy.

  14. Interfering with Bacterial Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kerstin; Steinbach, Anke; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) describes the exchange of chemical signals in bacterial populations to adjust the bacterial phenotypes according to the density of bacterial cells. This serves to express phenotypes that are advantageous for the group and ensure bacterial survival. To do so, bacterial cells synthesize autoinducer (AI) molecules, release them to the environment, and take them up. Thereby, the AI concentration reflects the cell density. When the AI concentration exceeds a critical threshold in the cells, the AI may activate the expression of virulence-associated genes or of luminescent proteins. It has been argued that targeting the QS system puts less selective pressure on these pathogens and should avoid the development of resistant bacteria. Therefore, the molecular components of QS systems have been suggested as promising targets for developing new anti-infective compounds. Here, we review the QS systems of selected gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, namely, Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and discuss various antivirulence strategies based on blocking different components of the QS machinery. PMID:26819549

  15. Bacterial tactic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, J P

    1999-01-01

    Many, if not most, bacterial species swim. The synthesis and operation of the flagellum, the most complex organelle of a bacterium, takes a significant percentage of cellular energy, particularly in the nutrient limited environments in which many motile species are found. It is obvious that motility accords cells a survival advantage over non-motile mutants under normal, poorly mixed conditions and is an important determinant in the development of many associations between bacteria and other organisms, whether as pathogens or symbionts and in colonization of niches and the development of biofilms. This survival advantage is the result of sensory control of swimming behaviour. Although too small to sense a gradient along the length of the cell, and unable to swim great distances because of buffetting by Brownian motion and the curvature resulting from a rotating flagellum, bacteria can bias their random swimming direction towards a more favourable environment. The favourable environment will vary from species to species and there is now evidence that in many species this can change depending on the current physiological growth state of the cell. In general, bacteria sense changes in a range of nutrients and toxins, compounds altering electron transport, acceptors or donors into the electron transport chain, pH, temperature and even the magnetic field of the Earth. The sensory signals are balanced, and may be balanced with other sensory pathways such as quorum sensing, to identify the optimum current environment. The central sensory pathway in this process is common to most bacteria and most effectors. The environmental change is sensed by a sensory protein. In most species examined this is a transmembrane protein, sensing the external environment, but there is increasing evidence for additional cytoplasmic receptors in many species. All receptors, whether sensing sugars, amino acids or oxygen, share a cytoplasmic signalling domain that controls the activity of a

  16. Selection of Bacteria with Favorable Transport Properties Through Porous Rock for the Application of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Long-Kuan; Chang, Philip W.; Findley, John E.; Yen, Teh Fu

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a bench-scale study on the transport in highly permeable porous rock of three bacterial species—Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida, and Clostridium acetobutylicum—potentially applicable in microbial-enhanced oil recovery processes. The transport of cells during the injection of bacterial suspension and nutrient medium was simulated by a deep bed filtration model. Deep bed filtration coefficients and the maximum capacity of cells in porous rock were measured. Low to inte...

  17. Selective suppression of bacterial contaminants by process conditions during lignocellulose based yeast fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers Eva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contamination of bacteria in large-scale yeast fermentations is a serious problem and a threat to the development of successful biofuel production plants. Huge research efforts have been spent in order to solve this problem, but additional ways must still be found to keep bacterial contaminants from thriving in these environments. The aim of this project was to develop process conditions that would inhibit bacterial growth while giving yeast a competitive advantage. Results Lactic acid bacteria are usually considered to be the most common contaminants in industrial yeast fermentations. Our observations support this view but also suggest that acetic acid bacteria, although not so numerous, could be a much more problematic obstacle to overcome. Acetic acid bacteria showed a capacity to drastically reduce the viability of yeast. In addition, they consumed the previously formed ethanol. Lactic acid bacteria did not show this detrimental effect on yeast viability. It was possible to combat both types of bacteria by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol to the wood hydrolysate medium used. As a result of NaCl + ethanol additions the amount of viable bacteria decreased and yeast viability was enhanced concomitantly with an increase in ethanol concentration. The successful result obtained via addition of NaCl and ethanol was also confirmed in a real industrial ethanol production plant with its natural inherent yeast/bacterial community. Conclusions It is possible to reduce the number of bacteria and offer a selective advantage to yeast by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol when cultivated in lignocellulosic medium such as wood hydrolysate. However, for optimal results, the concentrations of NaCl + ethanol must be adjusted to suit the challenges offered by each hydrolysate.

  18. Teaching recovery to medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeney, Larkin

    2013-03-01

    Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.

  19. Register file soft error recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  20. Probabilistic accident sequence recovery analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery analysis is a method that considers alternative strategies for preventing accidents in nuclear power plants during probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consideration of possible recovery actions in PRAs has been controversial, and there seems to be a widely held belief among PRA practitioners, utility staff, plant operators, and regulators that the results of recovery analysis should be skeptically viewed. This paper provides a framework for discussing recovery strategies, thus lending credibility to the process and enhancing regulatory acceptance of PRA results and conclusions. (author)

  1. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... enzymes that are unique in exploiting the ATP/GTP-binding Walker motif to catalyze phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues. Characterized for the first time only a decade ago, BY-kinases have now come to the fore. Important regulatory roles have been linked with these enzymes, via their involvement...... in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by...

  2. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  3. Phylogenetic organization of bacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ember M; Mau, Rebecca L; Schwartz, Egbert; Caporaso, J Gregory; Dijkstra, Paul; van Gestel, Natasja; Koch, Benjamin J; Liu, Cindy M; Hayer, Michaela; McHugh, Theresa A; Marks, Jane C; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Phylogeny is an ecologically meaningful way to classify plants and animals, as closely related taxa frequently have similar ecological characteristics, functional traits and effects on ecosystem processes. For bacteria, however, phylogeny has been argued to be an unreliable indicator of an organism's ecology owing to evolutionary processes more common to microbes such as gene loss and lateral gene transfer, as well as convergent evolution. Here we use advanced stable isotope probing with (13)C and (18)O to show that evolutionary history has ecological significance for in situ bacterial activity. Phylogenetic organization in the activity of bacteria sets the stage for characterizing the functional attributes of bacterial taxonomic groups. Connecting identity with function in this way will allow scientists to begin building a mechanistic understanding of how bacterial community composition regulates critical ecosystem functions. PMID:26943624

  4. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  5. Gas recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to decontaminate a gas stream containing radioactive krypton, a preliminary step of removing oxygen and oxides of nitrogen by catalytic reaction with hydrogen is performed. The gas stream is then passed serially through a drier, a carbon dioxide adsorber and a xenon adsorber to remove sequentially water, CO2 and xenon therefrom. The gas exiting the xenon adsorber is passed to a krypton recovery plant wherein krypton is concentrated to a first level in a primary distillation column by contact with a reflux liquid in a packed section of the column. The liquid and vapour collecting at the bottom of the column is passed to a separator in which the liquid is separated from the vapour. The liquid is partially evaporated in a vessel to increase concentration thereof and is brought to a concentration of approximately 90 mole % or greater in a second distillation column thereby enabling efficient storage of a radioactive krypton product. (author)

  6. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  7. Desulfurisation and sulfur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.; Finn, A.; Scott, L. [Costain Oil, Gas and Process Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    This article highlights technical issues associated with different sulphur recovery processes in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Details are given of the Stretford process developed by British Gas for the removal of low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from natural gas and other hydrocarbon gases; the SulFerox process developed by Shell and Dow for removing moderate amounts of sulphur from contaminated gases using a proprietary iron salt for extracting the sulphur; solvent systems for removing moderately high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in sour gas or liquid petroleum gases (LPG); the simple Claus process involving the partial combustion of hydrogen sulphide forming sulphur dioxide which reacts with hydrogen sulphide to form sulphur; and enhanced Claus processes. Sour water stripping processes for hydrogen sulphide contaminated water from hydrocarbon processing, tail gas treatment of Claus plant offgases, and hydrotreating are also discussed.

  8. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  9. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  10. Evaluation of skin viability effect on ethosome and liposome-mediated psoralen delivery via cell uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Tai; Shen, Li-Na; Wu, Zhong-Hua; Zhao, Ji-Hui; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of skin viability on its permeability to psoralen delivered by ethosomes, as compared with liposomes. With decreasing skin viability, the amount of liposome-delivered psoralen that penetrated through the skin increased, whereas skin deposition of psoralen from both ethosomes and liposomes reduced. Psoralen delivery to human-immortalized epidermal cells was more effective using liposomes, whereas delivery to human embryonic skin fibroblast cells was more effective when ethosomes were used. These findings agreed with those of in vivo studies showing that skin psoralen deposition from ethosomes and liposomes first increased and then plateaued overtime, which may indicate gradual saturation of intracellular drug delivery. It also suggested that the reduced deposition of ethosome- or liposome-delivered psoralen in skin with reduced viability may relate to reduced cellular uptake. This work indicated that the effects of skin viability should be taken into account when evaluating nanocarrier-mediated drug skin permeation. PMID:25070929

  11. Cell viability - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Open... Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Cell viability - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  12. Microfluidic high viability neural cell separation using viscoelastically tuned hydrodynamic spreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhigang; Hjort, Klas; Wicher, Grzegorz;

    2008-01-01

    A high viability microfluidic cell separation technique of high throughput was demonstrated based on size difference continuous mode hydrodynamic spreading with viscoelastic tuning. Using water with fluorescent dye as sample fluid and in parallel introducing as elution a viscoelastic biocompatibl...

  13. Bacterial contamination of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, J

    2001-10-01

    Despite considerable advances in the safety of blood components, transfusion associated bacterial infection (TABI) remains an unresolved problem. As yet there are no perfect preventative, screening and/or detection methodologies for eliminating contaminated units. Until a practical, rapid, cost-effective and logistically acceptable test becomes available, we should be satisfied with the choice of various limited solutions that at least partially improve the bacterial safety of blood components. It is also necessary to establish standardised guidelines and agreed upon systematic procedures for the recognition and reporting of the laboratory and clinical evaluation of adverse reactions in recipients of contaminated blood components. PMID:11761277

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Bacterial Persisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisonneuve, Etienne; Gerdes, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    All bacteria form persisters, cells that are multidrug tolerant and therefore able to survive antibiotic treatment. Due to the low frequencies of persisters in growing bacterial cultures and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms, the phenomenon has been challenging to study. However, recent...... technological advances in microfluidics and reporter genes have improved this scenario. Here, we summarize recent progress in the field, revealing the ubiquitous bacterial stress alarmone ppGpp as an emerging central regulator of multidrug tolerance and persistence, both in stochastically and environmentally...

  15. Selection and application of microorganisms to improve oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P.F.; Moreira, R.S.; Almeida, R.C.C.; Guimaraes, A.K.; Carvalho, A.S. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Ecologia de Microrganismos da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Avenida Reitor Miguel Calmon, s/n, Vale do Canela, CEP 41.160-100 Salvador BA (Brazil); Quintella, C.; Esperidia, M.C.A. [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barao de Geremoabo, s/n, Campus Universitario de Ondina, CEP 40.170-290, Salvador BA (Brazil); Taft, C.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-08-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (Meor) is an incontestably efficient alternative to improve oil recovery, especially in mature fields and in oil reservoirs with high paraffinic content. This is the case for most oil fields in the Reconcavo basin of Bahia, Brazil. Given the diverse conditions of most oil fields, an approach to apply Meor technology should consider primarily: (i) microbiological studies to select the appropriate microorganisms and (ii) mobilization of oil in laboratory experiments before oil field application. A total of 163 bacterial strains, selectively isolated from various sources, were studied to determine their potential to be used in Meor. A laboratory microbial screening based on physiological and metabolic profiles and growth rates under conditions representative for oil fields and reservoirs revealed that 10 bacterial strains identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2), Bacillus licheniformis (2), Bacillus brevis (1), Bacillus polymyxa (1), Micrococcus varians (1), Micrococcus sp. (1), and two Vibrio species demonstrated potential to be used in oil recovery. Strains of B. licheniformis and B. polymyxa produced the most active surfactants and proved to be the most anaerobic and thermotolerant among the selected bacteria. Micrococcus and B. brevis were the most salt-tolerant and polymer producing bacteria, respectively, whereas Vibrio sp. and B. polymyxa strains were the most gas-producing bacteria. Three bacterial consortia were prepared with a mixture of bacteria that showed metabolic and technological complementarity and the ability to grow at a wide range of temperatures and salinity characteristics for the oil fields in Bahia, Brazil. Oil mobilization rates in laboratory column experiments using the three consortia of bacteria varied from 11.2 to 18.3 % [v/v] of the total oil under static conditions. Consortia of B. brevis, B. icheniformis and B. polymyxa exhibited the best oil mobilization rates. Using these consortia under anaerobic

  16. On the determining role of network structure titania in silicone against bacterial colonization: Mechanism and disruption of biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu

    2014-01-01

    Silicone-based biomedical devices are prone to microbial adhesion, which is the primary cause of concern in the functioning of the artificial device. Silicone exhibiting long-term and effective antibacterial ability is highly desirable to prevent implant related infections. In this regard, nanophase titania was incorporated in silicone as an integral part of the silicone network structure through cross-link mechanism, with the objective to reduce bacterial adhesion to a minimum. The bacterial adhesion was studied using crystal violet assay, while the mechanism of inhibition of biofilm formation was studied via electron microscopy. The incorporation of nanophase titania in silicone dramatically reduced the viability of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the capability to adhere on the surface of hybrid silicone by ∼ 93% in relation to stand alone silicone. The conclusion of dramatic reduction in the viability of S. aureus is corroborated by different experimental approaches including biofilm inhibition assay, zone of inhibition, and through a novel experiment that involved incubation of biofilm with titania nanoparticles. It is proposed that the mechanism of disruption of bacterial film in the presence of titania involves puncturing of the bacterial cell membrane. - Highlights: • Network structure titania in silicone imparts antimicrobial activity. • Ability to microbial adhesion is significantly reduced. • Antimicrobial mechanism involves rupture of biofilm.

  17. On the determining role of network structure titania in silicone against bacterial colonization: Mechanism and disruption of biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicone-based biomedical devices are prone to microbial adhesion, which is the primary cause of concern in the functioning of the artificial device. Silicone exhibiting long-term and effective antibacterial ability is highly desirable to prevent implant related infections. In this regard, nanophase titania was incorporated in silicone as an integral part of the silicone network structure through cross-link mechanism, with the objective to reduce bacterial adhesion to a minimum. The bacterial adhesion was studied using crystal violet assay, while the mechanism of inhibition of biofilm formation was studied via electron microscopy. The incorporation of nanophase titania in silicone dramatically reduced the viability of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the capability to adhere on the surface of hybrid silicone by ∼ 93% in relation to stand alone silicone. The conclusion of dramatic reduction in the viability of S. aureus is corroborated by different experimental approaches including biofilm inhibition assay, zone of inhibition, and through a novel experiment that involved incubation of biofilm with titania nanoparticles. It is proposed that the mechanism of disruption of bacterial film in the presence of titania involves puncturing of the bacterial cell membrane. - Highlights: • Network structure titania in silicone imparts antimicrobial activity. • Ability to microbial adhesion is significantly reduced. • Antimicrobial mechanism involves rupture of biofilm

  18. Fat Graft Viability in the Subcutaneous Plane versus the Local Fat Pad

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan S. Constantine, BA; Bridget Harrison, MD; Kathryn E. Davis, PhD; Rod J. Rohrich, MD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fat grafting has been increasingly utilized in both aesthetic and reconstructive surgical procedures, yet the basic scientific understanding of fat grafting has lagged behind the pace of clinical innovation and utilization. This lack of basic scientific understanding has perhaps manifested itself in the wide range of graft viability reported across the literature. This study attempts to further the underlying mechanisms of fat graft take and viability through the comparison of the...

  19. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for ...

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Molecular Viability Assay for Pneumocystis carinii

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Nancy; Vermund, Sten; Lasbury, Mark; Lee, C.-H.; Bartlett, Marilyn; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    Despite recent declines in incidence, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) remains the most commonly occurring opportunistic illness among persons with AIDS in the United States. While P. carinii DNA has been detected in patient respiratory specimens and in air samples collected from various indoor environments housing PCP patients, the viability of these organisms is unknown. For this reason, we have developed and evaluated a molecular viability assay for P. carinii. This method is based upo...

  1. Prediction of viability of leek (Allium porrum) seeds by a new test

    OpenAIRE

    I. Güvenç; H. C. Kaymak

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the suitability of boiling water test in the prediction of seed viability in leek seed and to compare this test with standard germination and vigour test. Basic principle of boiling water test is the evaluation of radicle protrusion from the seeds immersed to boiling water for certain time. The viability of aged and unaged leek seeds in boiling water test was correlated with standard germination and vigour test. In this research. the mean germin...

  2. Aspiration, but not injection, decreases cultured equine mesenchymal stromal cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lynn B.; Russell, Keith A.; Koenig, Judith B.; Thomas G. Koch

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have received significant attention as therapy for various conditions due to their proposed regenerative and immune-modulating capacity. MSC are commonly administered to the patient through a hypodermic needle. Currently, little information is available on the effect of such injection has on equine MSC immediate and delayed viability. We hypothesize that viability of equine MSC is not correlated with needle diameter durin...

  3. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Bottari; Giovanni Campari; Monica Gatti

    2014-01-01

    The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Ye...

  4. A rapid method for evaluation of cell number and viability by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rubeai, M.; Welzenbach, K.; Lloyd, D R; Emery, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    A simple, rapid and reliable method has been developed for assessing the number and viability of cells, as well as cell size, in suspension culture by the use of flow cytometry. Propidium iodide exclusion is used for viability determination and fluorescent beads serve as an internal standard for cell enumeration. The main advantages of this method are its ability to handle a large number of samples with a high degree of precision and its specificity in detecting viable cells quantitatively in...

  5. Strategic framework for social and economic viability in inclusive innovation projects

    OpenAIRE

    Posthumus, A.L.; de Boer, J.; Stroek C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurs with the ambition to structurally cater the Base of the Pyramid (BoP) market face two challenges. On the one hand, they need to ‘go local’ to ensure local ownership. On the other hand, they have to work towards a scalable business model. This paper presents a framework which combines the innovation phases with the challenges of local ownership (social viability) and scalability (economic viability). The framework is addressed to entrepreneurs developing products or services for ...

  6. The effect of temperature on the viability of human mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Reissis, Yannis; García-Gareta, Elena; Korda, Michelle; Blunn, Gordon W.; Hua, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Impaction allograft with cement is a common technique used in revision hip surgeries for the last 20 years. However, its clinical results are inconsistent. Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded onto allograft can enhance bone formation. This in vitro study investigates whether the increase in temperature related to the polymerisation of bone cement will affect the viability of human MSCs. Methods The viability of human MSCs was measured after incubat...

  7. Seed viability of Jatropha curcas in different fruit maturity stages after storage

    OpenAIRE

    IGP MULIARTA ARYANA; BAMBANG BUDI SANTOSO; ARIS BUDIANTO

    2012-01-01

    Santoso BB, Budianto A, Aryana IGPM. 2012. Seed viability of Jatropha curcas in different fruit maturity stages after storage. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 113-117. The effect of fruit maturity stages and seed storage period to seed viability were investigated. Seed samples of West Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara genotype of Jatropha curcas were collected from standing two year old trees at experimental field. The seed samples obtained were in four different stages of fruit maturity involving early mat...

  8. Lactate as a Novel Quantitative Measure of Viability in Schistosoma mansoni Drug Sensitivity Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stephanie; Zöphel, Dorina; Subbaraman, Harini; Unger, Clemens; Held, Jana; Engleitner, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H.; Kreidenweiss, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Whole-organism compound sensitivity assays are a valuable strategy in infectious diseases to identify active molecules. In schistosomiasis drug discovery, larval-stage Schistosoma allows the use of a certain degree of automation in the screening of compounds. Unfortunately, the throughput is limited, as drug activity is determined by manual assessment of Schistosoma viability by microscopy. To develop a simple and quantifiable surrogate marker for viability, we targeted glucose metabolism, wh...

  9. Reduction of pollen viability of cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) by honeybee body hairs contact

    OpenAIRE

    Dibos, Chloe; Gibert, Caroline; Suchail, Séverine; Vaissière, Bernard; El Maataoui, Mohamed; Queen's University Belfast

    2008-01-01

    Honeybees take part in 80% of Angiosperms pollination. With pollen transport and transfer from flower to flower, they increase fruit and seed set compared to hand pollination. Nevertheless, it was shown in some species that bee contact decreases pollen viability. The aim of this study was to assess the bee contact effect on Cucurbitaceae pollen viability during different times. The studied model is cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L.), an economically important crop of Southern F...

  10. [Technic of studying microorganism viability in a simulated aerosol state on fiberglass microfilaments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniukhov, V F; Krasnozhenov, G G; Labushkin, Iu G; Olenichev, A V; Petrosov, V V

    1980-07-01

    A specially developed method of studying the viability of microorganisms in the simulated aerosol state on glass microfibers was used to show that the survival rate of E. coli and F. tularensis on fiber-glass spheres was similar to that in true aerosol, as observed in a static aerosol chamber. The proposed method allows to study the viability of microbial cells after prolonged existence in aerosol under any environmental condition both in open spaces and closed rooms. PMID:7001815

  11. NPP Cernavoda unit 2 economic viability: The challenge for an advanced financing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The completion of Cernavoda Unit-2 being no doubt, the viability of the project was analyzed and strengthened. Economic justification of the decision to complete Unit-2 is described, including assessment of its safety design guides, design requirements and engineering design solutions in the light of changes in codes, guideline, standards and actual regulatory requirements. Cost-benefit analysis demonstrates the economic viability of the project

  12. Effect of alcohols on filamentation, growth, viability and biofilm development in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Ravikumar B Shinde; Mohan Karuppayil, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report the potential of alcohols as morphogenetic regulators in Candida albicans. All the alcohols tested influenced various modes of growth like planktonic as well as biofilm forms. Viability was affected at high concentrations. Among the alcohols, the response of C. albicans to amyl alcohol (pentanol) was noteworthy. Amyl alcohol at a concentration 0.5% which was not inhibitory to growth and viability specifically inhibited morphogenetic switching from yeast to hyphal forms...

  13. Loss of rachis cell viability is associated with ripening disorders in grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Geoffrey E.; Bondada, Bhaskar R.; Keller, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Rachises of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) clusters that appeared healthy or displayed symptoms of the ripening disorders berry shrivel (BS) or bunch-stem necrosis (BSN) were treated with the cellular viability stain fluorescein diacetate and examined by confocal microscopy. Clusters with BS and BSN symptoms experienced a decrease of cell viability throughout the rachis, and their berries contained 70–80% less sugar than healthy berries. The xylem-mobile dye basic fuchsin, infiltrated via the cut ...

  14. Prediction of viability of leek (Allium porrum seeds by a new test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Güvenç

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the suitability of boiling water test in the prediction of seed viability in leek seed and to compare this test with standard germination and vigour test. Basic principle of boiling water test is the evaluation of radicle protrusion from the seeds immersed to boiling water for certain time. The viability of aged and unaged leek seeds in boiling water test was correlated with standard germination and vigour test. In this research. the mean germination of unaged leek seeds varied from 29,639% to 70,18% depending on the cultivars. While the range of boiling water test in unaged leek seeds was between 35.57% to 51,06%, the range for emergence was between 27,63% to 72,05%. The viability of aged and unaged leek seeds in boiling water test was correlated with standard germination test. According to the results of this research, it might be assessed that boiling water test is a rapid and simple method to measure seed viability by evaluating radicle protrusion of leek seeds in boiling water. In conclusion. boiling water test as a new viability test for leek seed could be used as a rapid method for determining the viability in leek seeds.

  15. Non-invasive imaging in detecting myocardial viability: Myocardial function versus perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal A. Elfigih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the most prevalent and single most common cause of morbidity and mortality [1] with the resulting left ventricular (LV dysfunction an important complication. The distinction between viable and non-viable myocardium in patients with LV dysfunction is a clinically important issue among possible candidates for myocardial revascularization. Several available non-invasive techniques are used to detect and assess ischemia and myocardial viability. These techniques include echocardiography, radionuclide images, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and recently myocardial computed tomography perfusion imaging. This review aims to distinguish between the available non-invasive imaging techniques in detecting signs of functional and perfusion viability and identify those which have the most clinical relevance in detecting myocardial viability in patients with CAD and chronic ischemic LV dysfunction. The most current available studies showed that both myocardial perfusion and function based on non-invasive imaging have high sensitivity with however wide range of specificity for detecting myocardial viability. Both perfusion and function imaging modalities provide complementary information about myocardial viability and no optimum single imaging technique exists that can provide very accurate diagnostic and prognostic viability assessment. The weight of the body of evidence suggested that non-invasive imaging can help in guiding therapeutic decision making in patients with LV dysfunction.

  16. Recovery of volatile products from dilute high-fouling process streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, P W; Lococo, D B

    2000-01-01

    As biomass hydrolysis and fermentation technologies approach commercial viability, advancements in product recovery technologies will be required. For cases in which fermentation products are more volatile than water, recovery by distillation is often the technology of choice. Distillation technologies that will allow the economic recovery of dilute volatile products from streams containing a variety of impurities have been developed and commercially demonstrated. Distillation tower and tray designs, along with specialized heat-exchanger designs, allowing for extended processing intervals on solutions containing lignocellulosic residues, organic acids, and inorganic salts concentrations > 100 g/L are in commercial operation. In the case of ethanol, distillation energy consumption efficiencies for processing solutions containing 120 g/L. These proprietary technologies have been applied individually at commercial scale, and designs have been developed that incorporate the combined technologies with only a marginal increase in capital investment compared to traditional methods. PMID:10849857

  17. Influence of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole on cell viability, membrane integrity, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila cultivated in a vegetable-based broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of carvacrol (CAR) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) alone (at the MIC) or in combination at subinhibitory amounts (both at 1/8 MIC) on the cell viability, membrane permeability, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila INCQS 7966 (A. hydrophila) cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. CAR and CIN alone or in combination severely affected the viability of the bacteria and caused dramatic changes in the cell membrane permeability, leading to cell death, as observed by confocal laser microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images of bacterial cells exposed to CAR or CIN or the mixture of both compounds revealed severe changes in cell wall structure, rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinking of cells, condensation of cytoplasmic content, leakage of intracellular material, and cell collapse. These findings suggest that CAR and CIN alone or in combination at subinhibitory amounts could be applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in foods, particularly as sanitizing agents in vegetables. PMID:25710162

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PROBIOTIC STRAIN Lactobacillus plantarum ISOLATED FROM “SHA’A” AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS VIABILITY IN LOCAL HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambou Ngoufack François

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The acid and bile tolerant strain of Lactobacillus plantarum 2S isolated from sha’a, a maize-based traditionally fermented beverage from Cameroon, was screened for bacteriocin properties and its viability in local pasteurized honey. Bacteriocin activity were checked after their treatment with different enzymes, organic solvents, sodium chloride (NaCl and detergents as well as their heat stability and effect of pH was studied. This strain produced an antimicrobial substance sensitive to proteolytic enzymes (trypsin and pepsin, thus confirming its proteinaceous nature. pH changes and heat treatment up to 121°C had no effect on the activity of the bacteriocin produced. This bacteriocins inhibited the growth of various indicator organisms with Lactobacillus plantarum 5S having the widest inhibition spectrum. Besides, it showed broad antibacterial activity spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens including several that are classified as Especially Dangerous Infections by World Health Organization. The mode of action against Lactobacillus plantarum 5S and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovare Typhi ATCC 6539 is bacteriostatic. After 28 days of storage at 4 °C or 25°C, the viable cell numbers of all bacterial strain in both samples were not changed. Lactobacillus plantarum 2S exhibited best viability in honey stored at 4 °C for 28 days and did not altered the physico-chemical characteristics of honey.

  19. Untreated Recovery from Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome…

  20. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo;

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  1. Surface-modified bacterial nanofibrillar PHB scaffolds for bladder tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Demirbilek, Murat; Şam, Mesut; Sağlam, Necdet; Mızrak, Alpay Koray; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is in vitro investigation of the feasibility of surface-modified bacterial nanofibrous poly [(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) graft for bladder reconstruction. In this study, the surface of electrospun bacterial PHB was modified with PEG- or EDA via radio frequency glow discharge method. After plasma modification, contact angle of EDA-modified PHB scaffolds decreased from 110 ± 1.50 to 23 ± 0.5 degree. Interestingly, less calcium oxalate stone deposition was observed on modified PHB scaffolds compared to that of non-modified group. Results of this study show that surface-modified scaffolds not only inhibited calcium oxalate growth but also enhanced the uroepithelial cell viability and proliferation. PMID:24863802

  2. Proteomics of foodborne bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on recent research on foodborne bacterial pathogens that use mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques as well as protein microarrays. Mass spectrometry ionization techniques (e.g. electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization), analyzers (e.g. ion ...

  3. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  4. Regulation of Bacterial Peptidoglycan Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Michel

    2016-07-01

    How bacterial cells control the activity of peptidoglycan polymerases has remained mysterious. Biochemical characterization of derivatives of penicillin-binding protein PBP1b that are functional in the absence of lipoprotein LpoB provides evidence for allosteric control of PBP1b glycosyltransferase activity via binding of LpoB to the PBP1b UBH1 domain. PMID:27236859

  5. How carotenoids protect bacterial photosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cogdell, R J; Howard, T. D.; Bittl, R.; Schlodder, E; Geisenheimer, I; Lubitz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The essential function of carotenoids in photosynthesis is to act as photoprotective agents, preventing chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls from sensitizing harmful photodestructive reactions in the presence of oxygen. Based upon recent structural studies on reaction centres and antenna complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria, the detailed organization of the carotenoids is described. Then with specific reference to bacterial antenna complexes the details of the photoprotective role, ...

  6. Food irradiation and bacterial toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors' findings indicate that irradiation confers no advantage over heat processing in respect of bacterial toxins (clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin A). It follows that irradiation at doses less than the ACINF recommended upper limit of 10 kGy could not be used to improve the ambient temperature shelf life on non-acid foods. (author)

  7. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.

  8. BACTERIAL INHIBITORS IN LAKE WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The populations of six bacterial genera fell rapidly after their addition to sterile lake water but not after their addition to buffer. The decline in numbers of two species that were studied further, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Micrococcus flavus, occurred even when the buffer was...

  9. Bacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease of salmonid fish that impacts sustainable production for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in juvenile salmonids and prespawning a...

  10. Recovery after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kokki, Hannu; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja

    2016-04-01

    Cataract surgery is the most common ophthalmological surgical procedure, and it is predicted that the number of surgeries will increase significantly in the future. However, little is known about the recovery after surgery. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, severity and duration of pain and other ocular discomfort symptoms experienced after cataract surgery. The other objectives were to identify the factors associated with lower postoperative patient satisfaction and to measure the effect of cataract surgery on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and visual function in everyday life. The study design was a prospective follow-up study. The course of the recovery and the presence of ocular symptoms were evaluated by interviewing the patients via a questionnaire at 1 day, 1 week, 6 weeks and one year after surgery The visual functioning in everyday life was measured with Visual Functioning Index VF-7 and Catquest-9SF-questionnaires and furthermore the HRQoL was measured with the 15D-instrument before surgery and at 12 months after surgery. The patients returned the questionnaires by mail and were interviewed in the hospital on the day of the surgery. The same patients filled-in all the questionnaires. The patient reports were used to collect the data on medical history. A total of 303 patients were approached at Kuopio University Hospital in 2010-2011 and of these 196 patients were eligible and willing to participate, with postoperative data being available from 186 (95%) patients. A systematic review article was included in the study procedure and it revealed the wide range in the reported incidence of postoperative ocular pain. Some of the identified randomized controlled studies reported no or only minor pain whereas in some studies significant pain or pain lasting for several weeks has been described in more than 50% of the study patients. In the present study setting, pain was reported by 34% during the first

  11. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, M.; Beek, D. van de; Weisfelt, M.; Gans, J. de; Schmand, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy c

  12. Immune recovery vitritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Immune recovery vitritis (IRV is symptomatic vitritis of > 1+ severity associated with inactive cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis. It is an opportunistic infection of the eye, in the patients who suffer from AIDS, and is treated with a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. As a result of this therapy, there is an immune reconstitution in the body and inflammation of the vitreous body. Objective The aim of the study was to show the incidence of IRV in patients treated with HAART. Method A retrospective study was conducted in patients who suffered from CMV retinitis. Twenty-one were treated with HAART and had the diagnosis of CMV retinitis, as well. All of them were examined by the same ophthalmologist who peformed slit lamp examination with mydriasis and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results Nine of 21 patients developed IRV as a complication of HAART, two had cystoid macular edema (CMO. Conclusion CMV retinitis develops when the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes drops below 50/mm3. This results in necrotic retinitis which, if untreated, leads to complete loss of vision. With the introduction of HAART, we learned that the reconstitution of immune status was achieved as well as life expectancy, but there was a dramatic decline in the opportunistic infection, including CMV retinitis, as well. With the immune reconstitution, the inflammation develops in the eye, known as IRV. Sometimes, it is necessary to treat this condition, but in the case of our patients, the inflammation was mild, and no treatment was necessary.

  13. LHC Report: Rocky Recovery

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The last technical stop finished on Friday 8 July, but the machine returned to its pre-stop performance level over a week later.   Efficiency of LHC fills between 16 July and 20 July, 2011. The cryogenics team had the entire ring cold by Saturday morning and the usual post-technical stop tests with circulating beams started soon after. Unfortunately, they were interrupted by a major perturbation to CERN’s electrical network caused by an impressive thunderstorm that swept over the Pays de Gex. There were major knock-on effects, including the loss of cooling to the cryogenics and an inevitable recovery period once normal service had been re-established. The beams were circulating again by Tuesday afternoon and the post-technical stop checks continued, beefed up with further tests to address a number of issues related to the power cut.  Before the stop, the LHC had managed to get 1380 bunches per beam into collisions and the plan was to ramp back up relatively quickly to this leve...

  14. Sodium recovery vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable to efficiently separate and recover sodium or reaction product in the secondly coolant circuit of FBR type nuclear power plant. Constitution: an upper element is disposed above a cyclone in a sodium recovery vessel, to which a gas formed by sodium-water reaction is caused to flow. Sodium and gases formed by sodium-water reaction introduced from a gas inlet of pressure open system pipeways descend downwardly as swirling stream in a cylindrical vessel within the circumferential flow channel along the outer wall of the shround surrounding the cyclone and the inner wall of the cylindrical vessel. In this case, liquid sodium is separated from the gas, falls to the bottom of the cylindrical vessel as an accumulated liquid. The gas stream passes between each of the elements in the upper element to enable separation of sodium or reaction product, as well as separated sodium and reaction product are urged to the outer circumferential side since all of the upper element and the buffer plate are arranged with their outer circumferential being lowered. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Heat recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat transfer is a living science and technical advances are constantly being made. However, in many cases, progress is limited by the equipment that is available on the market, rather than by knowledge of the heat transfer process. A case in point is the design of economizers: in such equipment a small quantity of water (with a relatively good heat transfer coefficient) is heated by a large quantity of low-pressure gas (with an inherently low heat transfer coefficient). As a first step in design finned tubing is used to lessen the discrepancy in coefficients. From this point, it becomes apparent that the equipment consists of a small number of tubes (to maintain good velocity on the water side) of considerable length (to provide sufficient area). In the process industries the base pressure, though low, may be in the region of 0.5 bar, and there is no convenient flue in which to place the heat recovery coil. It is therefore contained in a flat-sided enclosure, which is ill-fitted to pressure containment and is therefore reinforced with a plethora of structural sections. Such inelegant construction is quite common in North America; in Europe, cylindrical containments of vast size have been supplied for the same purposes. The real shortcoming is a successful marriage of different disciplines to produce reliable and efficient heat transfer equipment suitably contained

  16. The Influence of the Academic Conservation Biology Literature on Endangered Species Recovery Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Hudgens

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the volume of the academic conservation biology literature, there is little evidence as to what effect this work is having on endangered species recovery efforts. Using data collected from a national review of 136 endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we evaluated whether recovery plans were changing in response to publication trends in four areas of the academic conservation biology literature: metapopulation dynamics, population viability analysis, conservation corridors, and conservation genetics. We detected several changes in recovery plans in apparent response to publication trends in these areas (e.g., the number of tasks designed to promote the recovery of an endangered species shifted, although these tasks were rarely assigned a high priority. Our results indicate that, although the content of endangered species recovery plans changes in response to the literature, results are not uniform across all topics. We suggest that academic conservation biologists need to address the relative importance of each topic for conservation practice in different settings. [See Erratum

  17. Mps1 kinase regulates tumor cell viability via its novel role in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Ling, Y; Guo, Y; Bai, Y; Shi, X; Gong, F; Tan, P; Zhang, Y; Wei, C; He, X; Ramirez, A; Liu, X; Cao, C; Zhong, H; Xu, Q; Ma, R Z

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mitotic kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) for tumor therapy has been investigated for many years. Although it was suggested that Mps1 regulates cell viability through its role in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), the underlying mechanism remains less defined. In an endeavor to reveal the role of high levels of mitotic kinase Mps1 in the development of colon cancer, we unexpectedly found the amount of Mps1 required for cell survival far exceeds that of maintaining SAC in aneuploid cell lines. This suggests that other functions of Mps1 besides SAC are also employed to maintain cell viability. Mps1 regulates cell viability independent of its role in cytokinesis as the genetic depletion of Mps1 spanning from metaphase to cytokinesis affects neither cytokinesis nor cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a single-cycle inhibition strategy that allows disruption of Mps1 function only in mitosis. Using this strategy, we found the functions of Mps1 in mitosis are vital for cell viability as short-term treatment of mitotic colon cancer cell lines with Mps1 inhibitors is sufficient to cause cell death. Interestingly, Mps1 inhibitors synergize with microtubule depolymerizing drug in promoting polyploidization but not in tumor cell growth inhibition. Finally, we found that Mps1 can be recruited to mitochondria by binding to voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) via its C-terminal fragment. This interaction is essential for cell viability as Mps1 mutant defective for interaction fails to main cell viability, causing the release of cytochrome c. Meanwhile, deprivation of VDAC1 can make tumor cells refractory to loss of Mps1-induced cell death. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of the novel mitochondrial function Mps1 is sufficient to kill tumor cells. PMID:27383047

  18. Spatial distribution of marine airborne bacterial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Seifried, Jasmin S; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of bacterial populations in marine bioaerosol samples was investigated during a cruise from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea via Skagerrak and Kattegat. The analysis of the sampled bacterial communities with a pyrosequencing approach revealed that the most abundant phyla were represented by the Proteobacteria (49.3%), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.3%), and Firmicutes (8.3%). Cyanobacteria were assigned to 1.5% of all bacterial reads. A core of 37 bacterial ...

  19. Bacterial population genetics, evolution and epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, B. G.; Maiden, M C

    1999-01-01

    Asexual bacterial populations inevitably consist of an assemblage of distinct clonal lineages. However, bacterial populations are not entirely asexual since recombinational exchanges occur, mobilizing small genome segments among lineages and species. The relative contribution of recombination, as opposed to de novo mutation, in the generation of new bacterial genotypes varies among bacterial populations and, as this contribution increases, the clonality of a given population decreases. In con...

  20. Population Genomics and the Bacterial Species Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Margaret A.; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in bacterial evolution has been elevated to such a degree that many bacteriologists now question the very existence of bacterial species. If gene transfer is as rampant as comparative genomic studies have suggested, how could bacterial species survive such genomic fluidity? And yet, most bacteriologists recognize, and name, as species, clusters of bacterial isolates that share complex phenotypic properties. The Core Genome Hypo...