WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacterial production measurements

  1. Measurement of the incorporation rates of four amino acids into proteins for estimating bacterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, P

    1995-03-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into bacterial DNA and [(3)H]leucine incorporation into proteins are usually used to estimate bacterial production. The incorporation rates of four amino acids (leucine, tyrosine, lysine, alanine) into proteins of bacteria were measured in parallel on natural freshwater samples from the basin of the river Meuse (Belgium). Comparison of the incorporation into proteins and into the total macromolecular fraction showed that these different amino acids were incorporated at more than 90% into proteins. From incorporation measurements at four subsaturated concentrations (range, 2-77 nm), the maximum incorporation rates were determined. Strong correlations (r > 0.91 for all the calculated correlations) were found between the maximum incorporation rates of the different tested amino acids over a range of two orders of magnitude of bacterial activity. Bacterial production estimates were calculated using theoretical and experimental conversion factors. The productions calculated from the incorporation rates of the four amino acids were in good concordance, especially when the experimental conversion factors were used (slope range, 0.91-1.11, and r > 0.91). This study suggests that the incorporation of various amino acids into proteins can be used to estimate bacterial production.

  2. Use of the [14C]Leucine Incorporation Technique To Measure Bacterial Production in River Sediments and the Epiphyton

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Helmut; Pusch, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial production is a key parameter for the understanding of carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems, yet it remains difficult to measure in many aquatic habitats. We therefore tested the applicability of the [14C]leucine incorporation technique for the measurement of bulk bacterial production in various habitats of a lowland river ecosystem. To evaluate the method, we determined (i) extraction efficiencies of bacterial protein from the sediments, (ii) substrate saturation of leucine in sedi...

  3. Use of the [(14)C]leucine incorporation technique to measure bacterial production in river sediments and the epiphyton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H; Pusch, M

    1999-10-01

    Bacterial production is a key parameter for the understanding of carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems, yet it remains difficult to measure in many aquatic habitats. We therefore tested the applicability of the [(14)C]leucine incorporation technique for the measurement of bulk bacterial production in various habitats of a lowland river ecosystem. To evaluate the method, we determined (i) extraction efficiencies of bacterial protein from the sediments, (ii) substrate saturation of leucine in sediments, the biofilms on aquatic plants (epiphyton), and the pelagic zone, (iii) bacterial activities at different leucine concentrations, (iv) specificity of leucine uptake by bacteria, and (v) the effect of the incubation technique (perfused-core incubation versus slurry incubation) on leucine incorporation into protein. Bacterial protein was best extracted from sediments and precipitated by hot trichloroacetic acid treatment following ultrasonication. For epiphyton, an alkaline-extraction procedure was most efficient. Leucine incorporation saturation occurred at 1 microM in epiphyton and 100 nM in the pelagic zone. Saturation curves in sediments were difficult to model but showed the first level of leucine saturation at 50 microM. Increased uptake at higher leucine concentrations could be partly attributed to eukaryotes. Addition of micromolar concentrations of leucine did not enhance bacterial electron transport activity or DNA replication activity. Similar rates of leucine incorporation into protein calculated for whole sediment cores were observed after slurry and perfused-core incubations, but the rates exhibited strong vertical gradients after the core incubation. We conclude that the leucine incorporation method can measure bacterial production in a wide range of aquatic habitats, including fluvial sediments, if substrate saturation and isotope dilution are determined.

  4. Use of the [14C]Leucine Incorporation Technique To Measure Bacterial Production in River Sediments and the Epiphyton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helmut; Pusch, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial production is a key parameter for the understanding of carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems, yet it remains difficult to measure in many aquatic habitats. We therefore tested the applicability of the [14C]leucine incorporation technique for the measurement of bulk bacterial production in various habitats of a lowland river ecosystem. To evaluate the method, we determined (i) extraction efficiencies of bacterial protein from the sediments, (ii) substrate saturation of leucine in sediments, the biofilms on aquatic plants (epiphyton), and the pelagic zone, (iii) bacterial activities at different leucine concentrations, (iv) specificity of leucine uptake by bacteria, and (v) the effect of the incubation technique (perfused-core incubation versus slurry incubation) on leucine incorporation into protein. Bacterial protein was best extracted from sediments and precipitated by hot trichloroacetic acid treatment following ultrasonication. For epiphyton, an alkaline-extraction procedure was most efficient. Leucine incorporation saturation occurred at 1 μM in epiphyton and 100 nM in the pelagic zone. Saturation curves in sediments were difficult to model but showed the first level of leucine saturation at 50 μM. Increased uptake at higher leucine concentrations could be partly attributed to eukaryotes. Addition of micromolar concentrations of leucine did not enhance bacterial electron transport activity or DNA replication activity. Similar rates of leucine incorporation into protein calculated for whole sediment cores were observed after slurry and perfused-core incubations, but the rates exhibited strong vertical gradients after the core incubation. We conclude that the leucine incorporation method can measure bacterial production in a wide range of aquatic habitats, including fluvial sediments, if substrate saturation and isotope dilution are determined. PMID:10508068

  5. Contrasting ability to take up leucine and thymidine among freshwater bacterial groups: implications for bacterial production measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Teresa; Hörtnagl, Paul; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of different freshwater bacterial groups to take up leucine and thymidine in two lakes. Utilization of both substrates by freshwater bacteria was examined at the community level by looking at bulk incorporation rates and at the single-cell level by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization and signal amplification by catalysed reporter deposition with microautoradiography. Our results showed that leucine was taken up by 70–80% of Bacteria-positive cells, whereas only 15–43% of Bacteria-positive cells were able to take up thymidine. When a saturating substrate concentration in combination with a short incubation was used, 80–90% of Betaproteobacteria and 67–79% of Actinobacteria were positive for leucine uptake, whereas thymidine was taken up by bacterial group. Bacterial abundance was a good predictor of the relative contribution of bacterial groups to leucine uptake, whereas when thymidine was used Actinobacteria represented the large majority (> 80%) of the cells taking up this substrate. Increasing the substrate concentration to 100 nM did not affect the percentage of R-BT cells taking up leucine (> 90% even at low concentrations), but moderately increased the fraction of thymidine-positive R-BT cells to a maximum of 35% of the hybridized cells. Our results show that even at very high concentrations, thymidine is not taken up by all, otherwise active, bacterial cells. PMID:19725866

  6. Light Conditions Affect the Measurement of Oceanic Bacterial Production via Leucine Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Massana, Ramon; Gasol, Josep M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of irradiance in the range of 400 to 700 nm or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on bacterial heterotrophic production estimated by the incorporation of 3H-leucine (referred to herein as Leu) was investigated in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and in a coastal North Atlantic site, with Leu uptake rates ranging over 3 orders of magnitude. We performed in situ incubations under natural irradiance levels of Mediterranean samples taken from five depths around solar noon and compared them to incubations in the dark. In two of the three stations large differences were found between light and dark uptake rates for the surfacemost samples, with dark values being on average 133 and 109% higher than in situ ones. Data obtained in coastal North Atlantic waters confirmed that dark enclosure may increase Leu uptake rates more than threefold. To explain these differences, on-board experiments of Leu uptake versus irradiance were performed with Mediterranean samples from depths of 5 and 40 m. Incubations under a gradient of 12 to 1,731 μmol of photons m−2 s−1 evidenced a significant increase in incorporation rates with increasing PAR in most of the experiments, with dark-incubated samples departing from this pattern. These results were not attributed to inhibition of Leu uptake in the light but to enhanced bacterial response when transferred to dark conditions. The ratio of dark to light uptake rates increased as dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased, suggesting that bacterial nutrient deficiency was overcome by some process occurring only in the dark bottles. PMID:11525969

  7. Using the overlay assay to qualitatively measure bacterial production of and sensitivity to pneumococcal bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Natalie; Dawid, Suzanne

    2014-09-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the highly diverse polymicrobial community of the nasopharynx where it must compete with resident organisms. We have shown that bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) dictate the outcome of these competitive interactions. All fully-sequenced pneumococcal strains harbor a bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) locus. The blp locus encodes for a range of diverse bacteriocins and all of the highly conserved components needed for their regulation, processing, and secretion. The diversity of the bacteriocins found in the bacteriocin immunity region (BIR) of the locus is a major contributor of pneumococcal competition. Along with the bacteriocins, immunity genes are found in the BIR and are needed to protect the producer cell from the effects of its own bacteriocin. The overlay assay is a quick method for examining a large number of strains for competitive interactions mediated by bacteriocins. The overlay assay also allows for the characterization of bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides. The assay is performed by pre-inoculating an agar plate with a strain to be tested for bacteriocin production followed by application of a soft agar overlay containing a strain to be tested for bacteriocin sensitivity. A zone of clearance surrounding the stab indicates that the overlay strain is sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the pre-inoculated strain. If no zone of clearance is observed, either the overlay strain is immune to the bacteriocins being produced or the pre-inoculated strain does not produce bacteriocins. To determine if the blp locus is functional in a given strain, the overlay assay can be adapted to evaluate for peptide pheromone secretion by the pre-inoculated strain. In this case, a series of four lacZ-reporter strains with different pheromone specificity are used in the overlay.

  8. Bacterial growth on macrophyte leachate and fate of bacterial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, S.; Carlough, L.; Crocker, M.T.; Gill, H.K.; Meyer, J.L.; Smith, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The role bacteria play in transferring organic carbon to other trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems depends on the efficiency with which they convert dissolved organic [ 14 C]-labelled carbon into bacterial biomass and on the ability of consumers to graze bacteria. The authors have measured the conversion efficiency for bacteria growing on macrophyte-derived dissolved organic carbon and estimated the amount of bacterial production removed by grazing. Bacteria converted this DOC into new tissue with an efficiency of 53%, substantially higher than the apparent conversion efficiency of macrophyte-derived particulate organic carbon or other types of DOC. Two estimates of grazing indicate that the decline in bacterial numbers after the bloom was probably due to grazing by flagellates. These results show the significance of the bacterial link between DOC and other trophic levels

  9. Production of bacterial polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellwood, D C; Evans, C G.T.; Yeo, R G

    1978-06-01

    A process for the biochemical synthesis of polysaccharides comprises growing polysaccharide-producing bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas in a single stage continuous culture in a chemically-defined medium. The term chemically-defined medium denotes a culture medium wherein nutrients other than carbon are provided as inorganic salts or single organic compounds of known molecular structure rather than as complex naturally-derived mixtures. Normally the only organic component of the chemically-defined medium will be a conventional carbon source such as a carbohydrate, especially glucose, or glycerol. Preferably the medium should contain only one nitrogen source, since the use of multiple nitrogen sources, as present in complex media, appears to promote changes in the nature of the culture resulting in loss of polysaccharide production. 22 claims.

  10. Bacterial production of methyl ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been

    2017-01-31

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for increasing production of methyl ketones in a genetically modified host cell that overproduces .beta.-ketoacyl-CoAs through a re-engineered .beta.-oxidation pathway and overexpresses FadM.

  11. Coupling Bacterial Activity Measurements with Cell Sorting by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais; Courties; Lebaron; Troussellier

    1999-08-01

    > Abstract A new procedure to investigate the relationship between bacterial cell size and activity at the cellular level has been developed; it is based on the coupling of radioactive labeling of bacterial cells and cell sorting by flow cytometry after SYTO 13 staining. Before sorting, bacterial cells were incubated in the presence of tritiated leucine using a procedure similar to that used for measuring bacterial production by leucine incorporation and then stained with SYTO 13. Subpopulations of bacterial cells were sorted according to their average right-angle light scatter (RALS) and fluorescence. Average RALS was shown to be significantly related to the average biovolume. Experiments were performed on samples collected at different times in a Mediterranean seawater mesocosm enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus. At four sampling times, bacteria were sorted in two subpopulations (cells smaller and larger than 0.25 µm(3)). The results indicate that, at each sampling time, the growth rate of larger cells was higher than that of smaller cells. In order to confirm this tendency, cell sorting was performed on six subpopulations differing in average biovolume during the mesocosm follow-up. A clear increase of the bacterial growth rates was observed with increasing cell size for the conditions met in this enriched mesocosm.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n2p180.html

  12. Bacterial production of the biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtuvia, Viviana; Villegas, Pamela; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Petroleum-based plastics constitute a major environmental problem due to their low biodegradability and accumulation in various environments. Therefore, searching for novel biodegradable plastics is of increasing interest. Microbial polyesters known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics. Life cycle assessment indicates that PHB is more beneficial than petroleum-based plastics. In this report, bacterial production of PHAs and their industrial applications are reviewed and the synthesis of PHAs in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is described. PHAs are synthesized by a large number of microorganisms during unbalanced nutritional conditions. These polymers are accumulated as carbon and energy reserve in discrete granules in the bacterial cytoplasm. 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate are two main PHA units among 150 monomers that have been reported. B. xenovorans LB400 is a model bacterium for the degradation of polychlorobiphenyls and a wide range of aromatic compounds. A bioinformatic analysis of LB400 genome indicated the presence of pha genes encoding enzymes of pathways for PHA synthesis. This study showed that B. xenovorans LB400 synthesize PHAs under nutrient limitation. Staining with Sudan Black B indicated the production of PHAs by B. xenovorans LB400 colonies. The PHAs produced were characterized by GC-MS. Diverse substrates for the production of PHAs in strain LB400 were analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacterial Populations Associated with Smokeless Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Sanad, Yasser M.; Deck, Joanna; Sutherland, John B.; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J.; Duran, Norma; Holman, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are an estimated 8 million users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) in the United States, and yet limited data on microbial populations within these products exist. To better understand the potential microbiological risks associated with STP use, a study was conducted to provide a baseline microbiological profile of STPs. A total of 90 samples, representing 15 common STPs, were purchased in metropolitan areas in Little Rock, AR, and Washington, DC, in November 2012, March 2013, and July 2013. Bacterial populations were evaluated using culture, pyrosequencing, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Moist-snuff products exhibited higher levels of bacteria (average of 1.05 × 106 CFU/g STP) and diversity of bacterial populations than snus (average of 8.33 × 101 CFU/g STP) and some chewing tobacco products (average of 2.54 × 105 CFU/g STP). The most common species identified by culturing were Bacillus pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. safensis, and B. subtilis, followed by members of the genera Oceanobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Tetragenococcus. Pyrosequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA genes identified the genera Tetragenococcus, Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus, Geobacillus, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus as the predominant taxa. Several species identified are of possible concern due to their potential to cause opportunistic infections and reported abilities to reduce nitrates to nitrites, which may be an important step in the formation of carcinogenic tobacco-specific N′-nitrosamines. This report provides a microbiological baseline to help fill knowledge gaps associated with microbiological risks of STPs and to inform potential regulations regarding manufacture and testing of STPs. IMPORTANCE It is estimated that there 8 million users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) in the United States; however, there are limited data on microbial populations that exist within these products. The current study was undertaken to better understand the

  14. Measurement of Behavioral Evolution in Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert

    2013-03-01

    A curious aspect of bacterial behavior under stress is the induction of filamentation: the anomalous growth of certain bacteria in which cells continue to elongate but do not divide into progeny. We show that E.coli under the influence of the genotoxic antibiotic ciprofloxacin have robust filamentous growth, which provides individual bacteria a mesoscopic niche for evolution until resistant progeny can bud off and propagate. Hence, filamentation is a form of genomic amplification where even a single, isolated bacteria can have access to multiple genomes. We propose a model that predicts that the first arrival time of the normal sized progeny should follow a Gompertz distribution with the mean first arrival time proportional to the elongation rate of filament. These predictions agree with our experimental measurements. Finally, we suggest bacterial filament growth and budding has many similarities to tumor growth and metastasis and can serve as a simpler model to study those complicated processes. Sponsored by the NCI/NIH Physical Sciences Oncology Centers

  15. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  16. Methods for analysis of bacterial autoinducer-2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Michiko E

    2005-07-01

    The quorum-sensing signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is produced by over 50 diverse bacterial species and controls many different processes, including antibiotic production, biofilm formation, and virulence. AI-2 production often varies according to growth phase, media conditions, and the presence of specific factors. This unit describes a biological assay for AI-2 activity produced by a bacterial strain of interest. The assay employs an AI-2 reporter strain, Vibrio harveyi BB170, which produces light in response to AI-2. In the first stage of the assay, culture fluids of the bacterial strain of interest are collected over a time course of growth and filtered to remove cells. In the next stage, these culture fluids are mixed with BB170, and the light produced in response to AI-2 in the culture fluids is measured using a luminometer. BB170 is exquisitely sensitive to AI-2, and therefore, even low amounts of AI-2 can be detected using this bioassay.

  17. Electrical conductivity measurements of bacterial nanowires from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruthupandy, Muthusamy; Anand, Muthusamy; Beevi, Akbar Sait Hameedha; Priya, Radhakrishnan Jeeva; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular appendages of bacteria (flagella) that transfer electrons to electrodes are called bacterial nanowires. This study focuses on the isolation and separation of nanowires that are attached via Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial culture. The size and roughness of separated nanowires were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The obtained bacterial nanowires indicated a clear image of bacterial nanowires measuring 16 nm in diameter. The formation of bacterial nanowires was confirmed by microscopic studies (AFM and TEM) and the conductivity nature of bacterial nanowire was investigated by electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which are nondestructive voltammetry techniques, suggest that bacterial nanowires could be the source of electrons—which may be used in various applications, for example, microbial fuel cells, biosensors, organic solar cells, and bioelectronic devices. Routine analysis of electron transfer between bacterial nanowires and the electrode was performed, providing insight into the extracellular electron transfer (EET) to the electrode. CV revealed the catalytic electron transferability of bacterial nanowires and electrodes and showed excellent redox activities. CV and EIS studies showed that bacterial nanowires can charge the surface by producing and storing sufficient electrons, behave as a capacitor, and have features consistent with EET. Finally, electrochemical studies confirmed the development of bacterial nanowires with EET. This study suggests that bacterial nanowires can be used to fabricate biomolecular sensors and nanoelectronic devices. (paper)

  18. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  19. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Basic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways.

  20. Seasonal and spatial variation of bacterial production and abundance in the northern Levantine Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. YUCEL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in bacterial production and abundance in relation to ambient bio-physicochemical parameters has been investigated in the Levantine Sea. Five stations with different trophic states in an area extending from highly eutrophic Mersin bay to the mesotrophic Rhodes gyre area including the oligotrophic offshore waters were sampled four times. Integrated bacterial production varied between 6.1 and 90.3 µg C m-2 d-1 with higher rates occurring during September 2012 in offshore waters. Bacterial abundance ranged between 0.18 and 7.3 x 105 cells ml-1 within the euphotic zone and was generally higher up to 100 meters throughout the study period. In offshore waters, bacterial production (0.401 to 0.050 µg C m-3 d-1, abundance (4.5 to 1.6 x 105 cells ml-1 and depth of the productive layer decreased from 150 to 75 meters westward along the transect. Although the highest abundance was observed in July 2012 in offshore waters, the highest activity was measured in September 2012. These results indicated that the temperature played a key role in regulating bacterial abundance and production in the area. High chlorophyll concentrations in March did not correspond to high bacterial abundance and production at the same time. Increase in dissolved organic carbon content following spring phytoplankton bloom and the increase in temperature in the mean time might have enhanced the bacterial activity towards summer.

  1. Measuring bacterial cells size with AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Osiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM can be used to obtain high-resolution topographical images of bacteria revealing surface details and cell integrity. During scanning however, the interactions between the AFM probe and the membrane results in distortion of the images. Such distortions or artifacts are the result of geometrical effects related to bacterial cell height, specimen curvature and the AFM probe geometry. The most common artifact in imaging is surface broadening, what can lead to errors in bacterial sizing. Several methods of correction have been proposed to compensate for these artifacts and in this study we describe a simple geometric model for the interaction between the tip (a pyramidal shaped AFM probe and the bacterium (Escherichia coli JM-109 strain to minimize the enlarging effect. Approaches to bacteria immobilization and examples of AFM images analysis are also described.

  2. The Effect of Various Oral Hygiene Products on Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, S.; Aggrawal, A.; Vazirani, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, we tested the antimicrobial effectiveness of six different oral hygiene products. We used three natural cleansing products (coconut oil, sea salt, and baking soda), as well as three synthetic products, which were the Colgate toothpaste varieties of sensitivity, cavity protection, and whitening. We mixed water with each of the products to create a paste that could be uniformly applied to the surface of a disc. We then dipped the discs into the solutions and placed them in petri dishes that were pre-treated with bacterial cells. After 72 hours, we measured the area around the disc that was bacteria-free, which is known as the zone of inhibition. This experiment was repeated twice, with one petri dish per product for each trial, and two different types of agar. We were surprised to discover that almost all the products had no zone of inhibition, with bacteria growing throughout the petri dish, and to the disc. The only cleaning product that showed a significant antibacterial result was the Colgate sensitivity toothpaste. During the two trials, the sensitivity toothpaste had a zone of inhibition of 14.8 cm2 and 8.7 cm2, respectively. Coconut oil was the only other product to have a measurable zone of inhibition with an area of 0.3 cm2. We concluded that only the sensitivity toothpaste was effective in killing bacteria, perhaps due to its different hygienic goal of protecting the tooth's nerves. This toothpaste contains ingredients called potassium nitrate and strontium chloride, which blocks tubules in the dentin, the hard, bony tissue beneath the enamel. Sensitivity toothpaste strengthens the tooth, by blocking decaying substances such as oral bacteria (Knights, 2014).

  3. Bacterial community affects toxin production by Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Albinsson

    Full Text Available The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum grows in association with a complex marine bacterial community that is both essential for growth and can alter culture growth dynamics. Using a bacterial community replacement approach, we examined the intracellular PST content, production rate, and profile of G. catenatum cultures grown with bacterial communities of differing complexity and composition. Clonal offspring were established from surface-sterilized resting cysts (produced by sexual crosses of strain GCDE06 and strain GCLV01 and grown with: 1 complex bacterial communities derived from each of the two parent cultures; 2 simplified bacterial communities composed of the G. catenatum-associated bacteria Marinobacter sp. strain DG879 or Alcanivorax sp. strain DG881; 3 a complex bacterial community associated with an untreated, unsterilized sexual cross of the parents. Toxin content (STX-equivalent per cell of clonal offspring (134-197 fmol STX cell(-1 was similar to the parent cultures (169-206 fmol STX cell(-1, however cultures grown with single bacterial types contained less toxin (134-146 fmol STX cell(-1 than offspring or parent cultures grown with more complex mixed bacterial communities (152-176 fmol STX cell(-1. Specific toxin production rate (fmol STX day(-1 was strongly correlated with culture growth rate. Net toxin production rate (fmol STX cell(-1 day(-1 did not differ among treatments, however, mean net toxin production rate of offspring was 8-fold lower than the parent cultures, suggesting that completion of the sexual lifecycle in laboratory cultures leads to reduced toxin production. The PST profiles of offspring cultures were most similar to parent GCDE06 with the exception of cultures grown with Marinobacter sp. DG879 which produced higher proportions of dcGTX2+3 and GC1+2, and lower proportions of C1+2 and C3+4. Our data demonstrate that the bacterial community can alter intracellular STX

  4. Bacterial community affects toxin production by Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinsson, Maria E; Negri, Andrew P; Blackburn, Susan I; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2014-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum grows in association with a complex marine bacterial community that is both essential for growth and can alter culture growth dynamics. Using a bacterial community replacement approach, we examined the intracellular PST content, production rate, and profile of G. catenatum cultures grown with bacterial communities of differing complexity and composition. Clonal offspring were established from surface-sterilized resting cysts (produced by sexual crosses of strain GCDE06 and strain GCLV01) and grown with: 1) complex bacterial communities derived from each of the two parent cultures; 2) simplified bacterial communities composed of the G. catenatum-associated bacteria Marinobacter sp. strain DG879 or Alcanivorax sp. strain DG881; 3) a complex bacterial community associated with an untreated, unsterilized sexual cross of the parents. Toxin content (STX-equivalent per cell) of clonal offspring (134-197 fmol STX cell(-1)) was similar to the parent cultures (169-206 fmol STX cell(-1)), however cultures grown with single bacterial types contained less toxin (134-146 fmol STX cell(-1)) than offspring or parent cultures grown with more complex mixed bacterial communities (152-176 fmol STX cell(-1)). Specific toxin production rate (fmol STX day(-1)) was strongly correlated with culture growth rate. Net toxin production rate (fmol STX cell(-1) day(-1)) did not differ among treatments, however, mean net toxin production rate of offspring was 8-fold lower than the parent cultures, suggesting that completion of the sexual lifecycle in laboratory cultures leads to reduced toxin production. The PST profiles of offspring cultures were most similar to parent GCDE06 with the exception of cultures grown with Marinobacter sp. DG879 which produced higher proportions of dcGTX2+3 and GC1+2, and lower proportions of C1+2 and C3+4. Our data demonstrate that the bacterial community can alter intracellular STX

  5. Effects of Fe nanoparticles on bacterial growth and biosurfactant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy, E-mail: cvipulanandan@uh.edu [University of Houston, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Cooper, Tim F. [University of Houston, Department of Biology and Biochemistry (United States); Vipulanandan, Geethanjali [University of Houston, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Environmental conditions can have a major impact on bacterial growth and production of secondary products. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of Fe nanoparticles on the growth of Serratia sp. and on its production of a specific biosurfactant was investigated. The Fe nanoparticles were produced using the foam method, and the needle-shaped nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter. It was found that Fe nanoparticles can have either a positive or a negative impact on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production, depending on their concentration. At 1 mg/L of Fe nanoparticle concentration the bacterial growth increased by 57 % and biosurfactant production increased by 63 %. When the Fe nanoparticle concentration was increased to 1 g/L, the bacterial growth decreased by 77 % and biosurfactant activity was undetectable. The biosurfactant itself was not directly affected by Fe nanoparticles over the range of concentrations studied, indicating that the observed changes in biosurfactant activity resulted indirectly from the effect of nanoparticles on the bacteria. These negative effects with nanoparticle exposures were temporary, demonstrated by the restoration of biosurfactant activity when the bacteria initially exposed to Fe nanoparticles were allowed to regrow in the absence of nanoparticles. Finally, the kinetics of bacterial growth and biosurfactant production were modeled. The model's predictions agreed with the experimental results.

  6. Effects of Fe nanoparticles on bacterial growth and biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy; Cooper, Tim F.; Vipulanandan, Geethanjali

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions can have a major impact on bacterial growth and production of secondary products. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of Fe nanoparticles on the growth of Serratia sp. and on its production of a specific biosurfactant was investigated. The Fe nanoparticles were produced using the foam method, and the needle-shaped nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter. It was found that Fe nanoparticles can have either a positive or a negative impact on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production, depending on their concentration. At 1 mg/L of Fe nanoparticle concentration the bacterial growth increased by 57 % and biosurfactant production increased by 63 %. When the Fe nanoparticle concentration was increased to 1 g/L, the bacterial growth decreased by 77 % and biosurfactant activity was undetectable. The biosurfactant itself was not directly affected by Fe nanoparticles over the range of concentrations studied, indicating that the observed changes in biosurfactant activity resulted indirectly from the effect of nanoparticles on the bacteria. These negative effects with nanoparticle exposures were temporary, demonstrated by the restoration of biosurfactant activity when the bacteria initially exposed to Fe nanoparticles were allowed to regrow in the absence of nanoparticles. Finally, the kinetics of bacterial growth and biosurfactant production were modeled. The model's predictions agreed with the experimental results.

  7. Effects of Fe nanoparticles on bacterial growth and biosurfactant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy; Cooper, Tim F.; Vipulanandan, Geethanjali

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions can have a major impact on bacterial growth and production of secondary products. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of Fe nanoparticles on the growth of Serratia sp. and on its production of a specific biosurfactant was investigated. The Fe nanoparticles were produced using the foam method, and the needle-shaped nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter. It was found that Fe nanoparticles can have either a positive or a negative impact on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production, depending on their concentration. At 1 mg/L of Fe nanoparticle concentration the bacterial growth increased by 57 % and biosurfactant production increased by 63 %. When the Fe nanoparticle concentration was increased to 1 g/L, the bacterial growth decreased by 77 % and biosurfactant activity was undetectable. The biosurfactant itself was not directly affected by Fe nanoparticles over the range of concentrations studied, indicating that the observed changes in biosurfactant activity resulted indirectly from the effect of nanoparticles on the bacteria. These negative effects with nanoparticle exposures were temporary, demonstrated by the restoration of biosurfactant activity when the bacteria initially exposed to Fe nanoparticles were allowed to regrow in the absence of nanoparticles. Finally, the kinetics of bacterial growth and biosurfactant production were modeled. The model’s predictions agreed with the experimental results.

  8. Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, E.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Blixt, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated

  9. Seasonal and spatial patterns of heterotrophic bacterial production, respiration, and biomass in the subarctic NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Nelson D.; Boyd, Philip W.; Sugimoto, Kugako; Harrison, Paul J.

    1999-11-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial biomass, production, and respiration rates were measured during winter, spring, and summer in the subarctic NE Pacific from September 1995 to June 1997. Sampling took place on six cruises at five hydrographic stations along the east/west line-P transect from slope waters at P4 (1200 m depth) to the open-ocean waters at Ocean Station Papa (OSP) (4250 m depth). Interannual variability was small relative to seasonal and spatial variability. Biomass, derived from cell counts (assuming 20 fg C cell -1), was ca. 12 μg C l -1 in the winter and increased to 20-35 μg C l -1 in the spring and summer all along line-P. Bacterial production from [ 3H]-thymidine and [ 14C]-leucine incorporation rates was lowest in the winter (ca. 0.5 μg C l -1 d -1) with little spatial variability. Production increased 10-fold in spring at P4 (to ca. 4.5 μg C l -1 d -1). In contrast, only a 2-fold increase in bacterial production was observed over this period at the more oceanic stations. Rates of production in late summer were highest over the annual cycle at all stations ranging from ca. 6 at P4 to ca. 2 μg C l -1 d -1 at OSP. Bacterial (rates increased >10-fold to ca. 100 μg C l -1 d -1 at P4 in the summer, but, interestingly, did not increase from spring to summer at the more oceanic stations. Thus bacterial growth efficiency, defined as production/(production+respiration), decreased in the spring westwards from the slope waters (P4) to the open-ocean (OSP), but increased westwards in the summer. Bacterial production was highly correlated with temperature at OSP ( r2=0.88) and less so at P4 ( r2=0.50). The observed temporal and spatial trends presented in this study suggest that seasonal changes in bacterial biomass were greatly affected by changes in loss processes, that bacterial biomass is regulated by different processes than bacterial production, and that bacterial production alone, without respiration measurements, is not a robust proxy for bacterial

  10. Bacterial community changes in an industrial algae production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Scott P; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Knight, Rob; Reardon, Kenneth F; Chisholm, Stephen T

    2018-04-01

    While microalgae are a promising feedstock for production of fuels and other chemicals, a challenge for the algal bioproducts industry is obtaining consistent, robust algae growth. Algal cultures include complex bacterial communities and can be difficult to manage because specific bacteria can promote or reduce algae growth. To overcome bacterial contamination, algae growers may use closed photobioreactors designed to reduce the number of contaminant organisms. Even with closed systems, bacteria are known to enter and cohabitate, but little is known about these communities. Therefore, the richness, structure, and composition of bacterial communities were characterized in closed photobioreactor cultivations of Nannochloropsis salina in F/2 medium at different scales, across nine months spanning late summer-early spring, and during a sequence of serially inoculated cultivations. Using 16S rRNA sequence data from 275 samples, bacterial communities in small, medium, and large cultures were shown to be significantly different. Larger systems contained richer bacterial communities compared to smaller systems. Relationships between bacterial communities and algae growth were complex. On one hand, blooms of a specific bacterial type were observed in three abnormal, poorly performing replicate cultivations, while on the other, notable changes in the bacterial community structures were observed in a series of serial large-scale batch cultivations that had similar growth rates. Bacteria common to the majority of samples were identified, including a single OTU within the class Saprospirae that was found in all samples. This study contributes important information for crop protection in algae systems, and demonstrates the complex ecosystems that need to be understood for consistent, successful industrial algae cultivation. This is the first study to profile bacterial communities during the scale-up process of industrial algae systems.

  11. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  12. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  13. Benthic bacterial biomass and production in the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, H.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial biomass, production, and turnover were determined for two freshwater march sites and a site in the main river channel along the tidally influenced Hudson River. The incorporation of [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into DNA was used to estimate the growth rate of surface and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial production at marsh sites was similar to, and in some cases considerably higher than, production estimates reported for other aquatic wetland and marine sediment habitats. Production averaged 1.8-2.8 mg C·m -2 · hour -1 in marsh sediments. Anaerobic bacteria in marsh sediment incorporated significant amounts of [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into DNA. Despite differences in dominant vegatation and tidal regime, bacterial biomass was similar (1 x 10 3 ± 0.08 mg C·m -2 ) in Trapa, Typha, and Nuphar aquatic macrophyte communities. Bacterial abundance and productivity were lower in sandy sediments associated with Scirpus communities along the Hudson River (0.2 x 10 3 ± 0.05 mg C·m -2 and 0.3 ± 0.23 mg C · m -2 · hour -1 , respectively)

  14. Measuring Clinical Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E; Lebovitz, Evan E

    2018-06-01

    Productivity measurements have been used to evaluate and compare physicians and physician practices. Anesthesiology is unique in that factors outside anesthesiologist control impact opportunity for revenue generation and make comparisons between providers and facilities challenging. This article uses data from the multicenter University of Pittsburgh Physicians Department of Anesthesiology to demonstrate factors influencing productivity opportunity by surgical facility, between department divisions and subspecialties within multispecialty divisions, and by individuals within divisions. The complexities of benchmarking anesthesiology productivity are demonstrated, and the potential value of creating a productivity profile for facilities and groups is illustrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  16. Bacterial chromate reduction and product characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, R.J.; Buchanan, B.B.; Leighton, T.

    1992-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis reduced hexavalent chromate to trivalent chromium under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Reduction of CR(VI) and appearance of extracellular Cr(III) were demonstrated by electron spin resonance and spectrophotometry. Chromate reduction was stimulated more than five-fold by freeze-thawing, indicating that intracellular reductases or chemical reductants reduce chromate more rapidly than do intact cells. Moderately concentrated cells (10% pellet volume after centrifugation) reduced approximately 40 μM chromate/min (2 mg Cr/1-min) when exposed to 100 μM chromate (5 mg Cr/1). Highly concentrated cells (70% pellet volume) reduced more than 99.8% of 2 mM chromate (100 mg Cr/1) within 15 min. This rate of chromate reduction was of the same order of magnitude as the rate of respiration in aerobic cells. A substantial fraction of the reduction product (ca. 75%) was extracellular Cr(M), which could readily be separated from the cells by centrifugation. At high chromate concentrations, some fraction of reduced CR(VI) appeared to be taken up by cells, consistent with a detection of intracellular paramagnetic products. At low chromate concentrations, undefined growth medium alone reduced Cr(VI), but at a slow rate, relative to cells. Under appropriate conditions, B. subtilis appears to be an organism of choice for detoxifying chromate-contaminated soil and water

  17. Factors limiting heterotrophic bacterial production in the southern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of potential factors limiting bacterial growth was investigated along vertical and longitudinal gradients across the South Eastern Pacific Gyre. The effects of glucose, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate additions on heterotrophic bacterial production (using leucine technique were studied in parallel in unfiltered seawater samples incubated under natural daily irradiance. The enrichments realized on the subsurface showed three types of responses. From 141° W (Marquesas plateau to approx 125° W, bacteria were not bottom-up controlled, as confirmed by the huge potential of growth in non-enriched seawater (median of enhancement factor×39 in 24 h. Within the Gyre (125° W–95° W, nitrogen alone stimulated leucine incorporation rates (median×4.2, but rapidly labile carbon (glucose became a second limiting factor (median×37 when the two elements were added. Finally from the border of the gyre to the Chilean upwelling (95° W–73° W, labile carbon was the only factor stimulating heterotrophic bacterial production. Interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial communities and the direct versus indirect effect of iron and macronutrients on bacterial production were also investigated in four selected sites: two sites on the vicinity of the Marquesas plateau, the centre of the gyre and the Eastern border of the gyre. Both phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were limited by availability of nitrogen within the gyre, but not by iron. Iron limited phytoplankton at Marquesas plateau and at the eastern border of the gyre. However 48 h enrichment experiments were not sufficient to show any clear limitation of heterotrophic bacteria within Marquesas plateau and showed a limitation of these organisms by labile carbon in the eastern border of the Gyre.

  18. Method for Bacterial Growth and Ammonia Production and Effect of Inhibitory Substances in Disposable Absorbent Hygiene Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla; Yhlen, Birgitta; Blomqvist, Marie; Larsson, Peter

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pragmatic laboratory method to provide a technique for developing incontinence products better able to reduce malodor when used in the clinical setting. Bacterial growth and bacterially formed ammonia in disposable absorbent incontinence products was measured by adding synthetic urine inoculated with bacteria to test samples cut from the crotch area of the product. The inhibitory effect's of low pH (4.5 and 4.9) and 3 antimicrobial substances-chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and thymol-at 2 concentrations each, were studied. From the initial inocula of 3.3 log colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL) at baseline, the bacterial growth of the references increased to 5.0 to 6.0 log cfu/mL at 6 hours for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis. At 12 hours there was a further increase to 7.0 to 8.9 log cfu/mL. Adjusting the pH of the superabsorbent in the incontinence product from 6.0 to pH 4.5 and pH 4.9 significantly (P disposable absorbent products to inhibit bacterial growth and ammonia production. This technique, we describe, provides a pragmatic method for assessing the odor-inhibiting capacity of specific incontinence products.

  19. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  20. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  1. Biogenic amine formation and bacterial contribution in Natto products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bitna; Byun, Bo Young; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2012-12-01

    Twenty-one Natto products currently distributed in Korea were analysed for biogenic amine contents and tested to determine physicochemical and bacterial contributions to biogenic amine formation. Among them, nine products (about 43%) had β-phenylethylamine or tyramine contents greater than the toxic dose (30mg/kg and 100mg/kg, respectively) of each amine, although no products showed total amounts of biogenic amines above the harmful level (1000mg/kg), which indicates that the amounts of biogenic amines in some Natto products are not within the safe level for human health. From four different Natto products, that contained noticeable levels of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine, 80 bacterial strains were isolated. All the strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis and highly capable of producing β-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Therefore, it seems likely that the remarkable contents of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine in Natto predominantly resulted from the strains highly capable of producing those amines present in the food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial laccase: recent update on production, properties and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Goradia, Bindi; Saxena, Arunika

    2017-10-01

    Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of phenolic and non-phenolic aromatic compounds in the presence or absence of a mediator. Till date, laccases have mostly been isolated from fungi and plants, whereas laccase from bacteria has not been well studied. Bacterial laccases have several unique properties that are not characteristics of fungal laccases such as stability at high temperature and high pH. Bacteria produce these enzymes either extracellularly or intracellularly and their activity is in a wide range of temperature and pH. It has application in pulp biobleaching, bioremediation, textile dye decolorization, pollutant degradation, biosensors, etc. Hence, comprehensive information including sources, production conditions, characterization, cloning and biotechnological applications is needed for the effective understanding and application of these enzymes at the industrial level. The present review provides exhaustive information of bacterial laccases reported till date.

  3. Bacterial overgrowth and methane production in children with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiby, Alycia; Mehta, Devendra; Gopalareddy, Vani; Jackson-Walker, Susan; Horvath, Karoly

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and methane production in children with encopresis. Radiographic fecal impaction (FI) scores were assessed in children with secondary, retentive encopresis and compared with the breath test results. Breath tests with hypoosmotic lactulose solution were performed in both the study patients (n = 50) and gastrointestinal control subjects (n = 39) groups. The FI scores were significantly higher in the patients with encopresis who were methane producers (P encopresis and 9 of 39 (23%) of control subjects (P = .06). Methane was produced in 56% of the patients with encopresis versus 23.1% of the control subjects in the gastrointestinal group (P encopresis had a higher prevalence of SIBO, elevated basal methane levels, and higher methane production. Methane production was associated with more severe colonic impaction. Further study is needed to determine whether methane production is a primary or secondary factor in the pathogenesis of SIBO and encopresis.

  4. Bacterial Biosensors for Measuring Availability of Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Roelof van der Meer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, pollution risk assessment is based on the measurement of a pollutant’s total concentration in a sample. The toxicity of a given pollutant in the environment, however, is tightly linked to its bioavailability, which may differ significantly from the total amount. Physico-chemical and biological parameters strongly influence pollutant fate in terms of leaching, sequestration and biodegradation. Bacterial sensorreporters, which consist of living micro-organisms genetically engineered to produce specific output in response to target chemicals, offer an interesting alternative to monitoring approaches. Bacterial sensor-reporters detect bioavailable and/or bioaccessible compound fractions in samples. Currently, a variety of environmental pollutants can be targeted by specific biosensor-reporters. Although most of such strains are still confined to the lab, several recent reports have demonstrated utility of bacterial sensing-reporting in the field, with method detection limits in the nanomolar range. This review illustrates the general design principles for bacterial sensor-reporters, presents an overview of the existing biosensor-reporter strains with emphasis on organic compound detection. A specific focus throughout is on the concepts of bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and how bacteria-based sensing-reporting systems can help to improve our basic understanding of the different processes at work.

  5. PRODUCTIVITY OF GROWING PONDS WHEN APPLYING THE BACTERIAL FERTILIZER «PHOSPHOBAKTERIN»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Hryhorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of the bacterial fertilizer "Phosphobacterin" on the formation of the hydrochemical regime, development of the natural food supply and fish productivity in the growing ponds. Methodology. The work was conducted according to generally accepted hydrochemical,, microbiological, hydrobiological and fish farming methods. Findings The article presents the results of a study of the productivity of growing ponds with different methods of the application of the bacterial fertilizer "Phosphobacterin". It was found that the hydrochemical regime of the experimental ponds was formed under the effect of the source of water supply and measures aimed at intensifying the development of the natural food supply and was favorable for the development of feed organisms and the cultivation of fish seeds. Application of the bacterial fertilizer at the beginning of the growing season along the water pond surface proved to be little effective for increasing the productivity of the pond ecosystem as a whole. A more effective method of increasing biological productivity, including fish productivity of growing ponds, was the application of "Phosphobacterin" during the growing season both on the bed and on the water surface in combination with the organic fertilizer - cattle humus. In the experimental pond under complex fertilization, the average phytoplankton biomass during the growing season was 1.5 times, bacterioplankton 1.1 times, zoobenthos 2.6 times higher, and the obtained total fish productivity was 1.2 times higher than in the control pond (when applying only cattle humus. Originality. The peculiarities of formation of hydrochemical and hydrobiological (phyto-, bacterio-, zooplankton, zoobenthos regimes of growing ponds and the fishery indices are studied, both for bacterial fertilizer "Phosphobacterin" independently and together with the traditional organic fertilizer - cattle humus. Practical value. Based on the obtained results

  6. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  7. Smokeless tobacco products harbor diverse bacterial microbiota that differ across products and brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Eoghan M; Kulkarni, Prachi; Claye, Emma; Stanfill, Stephen; Tyx, Robert; Maddox, Cynthia; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Sapkota, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    Smokeless tobacco products contain numerous chemical compounds, including known human carcinogens. Other smokeless tobacco constituents, including bacteria, may also contribute to adverse health effects among smokeless tobacco users. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial constituents of smokeless tobacco. Our goal was to characterize the bacterial microbiota of different smokeless tobacco products and evaluate differences across product types and brands. DNA was extracted from 15 brands of smokeless tobacco products (including dry snuff, moist snuff, snus, and Swedish snus) and 6 handmade products (e.g., toombak) using an enzymatic and mechanical lysis approach. Bacterial community profiling was performed using PCR amplification of the V1-V2 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, followed by 454 pyrosequencing of the resulting amplicons and sequence analysis using the QIIME package. Total viable counts were also determined to estimate the number of viable bacteria present in each product. Average total viable counts ranged from 0 to 9.35 × 10 7  CFU g -1 . Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed high bacterial diversity across the majority of products tested: dry snuff products where characterized by the highest diversity indices compared to other products. The most dominant bacterial phyla across all products were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Significant differences in both bacterial community composition and in silico predicted gene content were observed between smokeless tobacco product types and between brands of specific smokeless tobacco products. These data are useful in order to comprehensively address potential health risks associated with the use of smokeless tobacco products.

  8. Production of bacterial cellulose and enzyme from waste fiber sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly crystalline and mechanically stable nanopolymer, which has excellent potential as a material in many novel applications, especially if it can be produced in large amounts from an inexpensive feedstock. Waste fiber sludge, a residue with little or no value, originates from pulp mills and lignocellulosic biorefineries. A high cellulose and low lignin content contributes to making the fiber sludge suitable for bioconversion, even without a thermochemical pretreatment step. In this study, the possibility to combine production of BC and hydrolytic enzymes from fiber sludge was investigated. The BC was characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, and its mechanical properties were investigated. Results Bacterial cellulose and enzymes were produced through sequential fermentations with the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus and the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Fiber sludges from sulfate (SAFS) and sulfite (SIFS) processes were hydrolyzed enzymatically without prior thermochemical pretreatment and the resulting hydrolysates were used for BC production. The highest volumetric yields of BC from SAFS and SIFS were 11 and 10 g/L (DW), respectively. The BC yield on initial sugar in hydrolysate-based medium reached 0.3 g/g after seven days of cultivation. The tensile strength of wet BC from hydrolysate medium was about 0.04 MPa compared to about 0.03 MPa for BC from a glucose-based reference medium, while the crystallinity was slightly lower for BC from hydrolysate cultures. The spent hydrolysates were used for production of cellulase with T. reesei. The cellulase activity (CMCase activity) in spent SAFS and SIFS hydrolysates reached 5.2 U/mL (87 nkat/mL), which was similar to the activity level obtained in a reference medium containing equal amounts of reducing sugar. Conclusions It was shown that waste fiber sludge is a suitable raw material for production of

  9. Bacterial and Fungal Proteolytic Enzymes: Production, Catalysis and Potential Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues

    2017-09-01

    Submerged and solid-state bioprocesses have been extensively explored worldwide and employed in a number of important studies dealing with microbial cultivation for the production of enzymes. The development of these production technologies has facilitated the generation of new enzyme-based products with applications in pharmaceuticals, food, bioactive peptides, and basic research studies, among others. The applicability of microorganisms in biotechnology is potentiated because of their various advantages, including large-scale production, short time of cultivation, and ease of handling. Currently, several studies are being conducted to search for new microbial peptidases with peculiar biochemical properties for industrial applications. Bioprospecting, being an important prerequisite for research and biotechnological development, is based on exploring the microbial diversity for enzyme production. Limited information is available on the production of specific proteolytic enzymes from bacterial and fungal species, especially on the subgroups threonine and glutamic peptidases, and the seventh catalytic type, nonhydrolytic asparagine peptide lyase. This gap in information motivated the present study about these unique biocatalysts. In this study, the biochemical and biotechnological aspects of the seven catalytic types of proteolytic enzymes, namely aspartyl, cysteine, serine, metallo, glutamic, and threonine peptidase, and asparagine peptide lyase, are summarized, with an emphasis on new studies, production, catalysis, and application of these enzymes.

  10. Mathematical Modelling of Bacterial Meningitis Transmission Dynamics with Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kiddy K. Asamoah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination and treatment are the most effective ways of controlling the transmission of most infectious diseases. While vaccination helps susceptible individuals to build either a long-term immunity or short-term immunity, treatment reduces the number of disease-induced deaths and the number of infectious individuals in a community/nation. In this paper, a nonlinear deterministic model with time-dependent controls has been proposed to describe the dynamics of bacterial meningitis in a population. The model is shown to exhibit a unique globally asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium E0, when the effective reproduction number RVT≤1, and a globally asymptotically stable endemic equilibrium E1, when RVT>1; and it exhibits a transcritical bifurcation at RVT=1. Carriers have been shown (by Tornado plot to have a higher chance of spreading the infection than those with clinical symptoms who will sometimes be bound to bed during the acute phase of the infection. In order to find the best strategy for minimizing the number of carriers and ill individuals and the cost of control implementation, an optimal control problem is set up by defining a Lagrangian function L to be minimized subject to the proposed model. Numerical simulation of the optimal problem demonstrates that the best strategy to control bacterial meningitis is to combine vaccination with other interventions (such as treatment and public health education. Additionally, this research suggests that stakeholders should press hard for the production of existing/new vaccines and antibiotics and their disbursement to areas that are most affected by bacterial meningitis, especially Sub-Saharan Africa; furthermore, individuals who live in communities where the environment is relatively warm (hot/moisture are advised to go for vaccination against bacterial meningitis.

  11. Mutations That Alter the Bacterial Cell Envelope Increase Lipid Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Zhang, Weiping; Langer, Samantha J.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Hu, Dehong; Lemke, Rachelle A.; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Orr, Galya; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2017-05-23

    ABSTRACT

    Lipids from microbes offer a promising source of renewable alternatives to petroleum-derived compounds. In particular, oleaginous microbes are of interest because they accumulate a large fraction of their biomass as lipids. In this study, we analyzed genetic changes that alter lipid accumulation inRhodobacter sphaeroides. By screening anR. sphaeroidesTn5mutant library for insertions that increased fatty acid content, we identified 10 high-lipid (HL) mutants for further characterization. These HL mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to drugs that target the bacterial cell envelope and changes in shape, and some had the ability to secrete lipids, with two HL mutants accumulating ~60% of their total lipids extracellularly. When one of the highest-lipid-secreting strains was grown in a fed-batch bioreactor, its lipid content was comparable to that of oleaginous microbes, with the majority of the lipids secreted into the medium. Based on the properties of these HL mutants, we conclude that alterations of the cell envelope are a previously unreported approach to increase microbial lipid production. We also propose that this approach may be combined with knowledge about biosynthetic pathways, in this or other microbes, to increase production of lipids and other chemicals.

    IMPORTANCEThis paper reports on experiments to understand how to increase microbial lipid production. Microbial lipids are often cited as one renewable replacement for petroleum-based fuels and chemicals, but strategies to increase the yield of these compounds are needed to achieve this goal. While lipid biosynthesis is often well understood, increasing yields of these compounds to industrially relevant levels is a challenge, especially since genetic, synthetic biology, or engineering approaches are not feasible in many microbes. We show that altering the bacterial cell envelope can be used to increase

  12. Violacein: Properties and Production of a Versatile Bacterial Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Yeol Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Violacein-producing bacteria, with their striking purple hues, have undoubtedly piqued the curiosity of scientists since their first discovery. The bisindole violacein is formed by the condensation of two tryptophan molecules through the action of five proteins. The genes required for its production, vioABCDE, and the regulatory mechanisms employed have been studied within a small number of violacein-producing strains. As a compound, violacein is known to have diverse biological activities, including being an anticancer agent and being an antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive pathogens. Identifying the biological roles of this pigmented molecule is of particular interest, and understanding violacein’s function and mechanism of action has relevance to those unmasking any of its commercial or therapeutic benefits. Unfortunately, the production of violacein and its related derivatives is not easy and so various groups are also seeking to improve the fermentative yields of violacein through genetic engineering and synthetic biology. This review discusses the recent trends in the research and production of violacein by both natural and genetically modified bacterial strains.

  13. Using Natural Products to Treat Resistant and Persistent Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Robert W.

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to human health both worldwide and in the United States. Most concerning is the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, especially the 'ESKAPE' pathogens for which treatment options are dwindling. To complicate the problem, approvals of antibiotic drugs are extremely low and many research and development efforts in the pharmaceutical industry have ceased, leaving little certainty that critical new antibiotics are nearing the clinic. New antibiotics are needed to continue treating these evolving infections. In addition to antibiotics, approaches that aim to inhibit or prevent antimicrobial resistance could be useful. Also, studies that improve our understanding of bacterial pathophysiology could lead to new therapies for infectious disease. Natural products, especially those from the microbial world, have been invaluable as resources for new antibacterial compounds and as insights into bacterial physiology. The goal of this dissertation is to find new ways to treat resistant bacterial infections and learn more about the pathophysiology of these bacteria. Investigations of natural products to find molecules able to be used as new antibiotics or to modulate resistance and other parts of bacterial physiology are crucial aspects of the included studies. The first included study, which is reported in chapter two, details a chemical investigation of a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. Purification efforts of the microbial metabolites were guided by testing against a resistance nodulation of cell division model of efflux pumps expressed in E. coli. These pumps play an important role in the resistance of MDR Gram negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Through this process, 3,4-dibromopyrrole-2,5-dione was identified as a potent inhibitor of the RND efflux pumps and showed synergistic effects against the E. coli strain with common antibiotics including fluoroquinolones, beta

  14. Use of metabolic inhibitors to estimate protozooplankton grazing and bacterial production in a monomictic eutrophic lake with an anaerobic hypolimnion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.W.; Porter, K.G.

    1986-01-01

    Inhibitors of eucaryotes (cycloheximide and amphotericin B) and procaryotes (penicillin and chloramphenical) were used to estimate bacterivory and bacterial production in a eutrophic lake. Bacterial production appeared to be slightly greater than protozoan grazing in the aerobic waters of Lake Oglethorpe. Use of penicillin and cycloheximide yielded inconsistent results in anaerobic water and in aerobic water when bacterial production was low. Production measured by inhibiting eucaryotes with cycloheximide did not always agree with [ 3 H]thymidine estimates or differential filtration methods. Laboratory experiments showed that several common freshwater protozoans continued to swim and ingest bacterium-size latex beads in the presence of the eucaryote inhibitor. Penicillin also affected grazing rates of some ciliates. The authors recommended that caution and a corroborating method be used when estimating ecologically important parameters with specific inhibitors

  15. Characterizing bacterial communities in paper production-troublemakers revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Anita; Urwyler, Simon K; Glaubitz, Joachim

    2017-08-01

    Biofilm formation is a major cause of reduced paper quality and increased down time during paper manufacturing. This study uses Illumina next-generation sequencing to identify the microbial populations causing quality issues due to their presence in biofilms and slimes. The paper defects investigated contained traces of the films and/or slime of mainly two genera, Tepidimonas and Chryseobacterium. The Tepidimonas spp. found contributed on average 68% to the total bacterial population. Both genera have been described previously to be associated with biofilms in paper mills. There was indication that Tepidimonas spp. were present as compact biofilm in the head box of one paper machine and was filtered out by the paper web during production. On the other hand Tepidimonas spp. were also present to a large extent in the press and white waters of two nonproblematic paper machines. Therefore, the mere presence of a known biofilm producer alone is not sufficient to cause slimes and therefore paper defects and other critical factors are additionally at play. For instance, we identified Acidovorax sp., which is an early colonizer of paper machines, exhibiting the ability to form extracellular DNA matrices for attachment and biofilm formation. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose using acidic food industry by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revin, Victor; Liyaskina, Elena; Nazarkina, Maria; Bogatyreva, Alena; Shchankin, Mikhail

    2018-03-13

    To reduce the cost of obtaining bacterial cellulose, acidic by-products of the alcohol and dairy industries were used without any pretreatment or addition of other nitrogen sources. Studies have shown that the greatest accumulation of bacterial cellulose (6.19g/L) occurs on wheat thin stillage for 3 days of cultivation under dynamic conditions, which is almost 3 times higher than on standard Hestrin and Schramm medium (2.14g/L). The use of whey as a nutrient medium makes it possible to obtain 5.45g/L bacterial cellulose under similar conditions of cultivation. It is established that the pH of the medium during the growth of Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans B-11267 depends on the feedstock used and its initial value. By culturing the bacterium on thin stillage and whey, there is a decrease in the acidity of the waste. It is shown that the infrared spectra of bacterial cellulose obtained in a variety of environments have a similar character, but we found differences in the micromorphology and crystallinity of the resulting biopolymer. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. The regulation of bacterial production in the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin-Leo, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the possibility that periods when the rates of macromolecule syntheses become uncoupled occur in natural assemblages of bacteria was examined by comparing rates of bacterial DNA and protein synthesis. A dual-label method which measures incorporation rates of [ 3 H]thymidine (TdR) into macromolecules (DNA) and of [ 14 C]leucine (Leu) into protein was developed to facilitate simultaneous estimation of these cellular activities in a single incubation. Under controlled conditions, changes in rates of Leu incorporation preceded fluctuations in TdR incorporation and the Leu:TdR ratio varied prior to shifts in growth rate indicating the uncoupling of protein and DNA synthesis which occurs during unbalanced growth. The delay between this uncoupling and a change in growth rate was always shorter than the generation time. In Chesapeake Bay, during October 1986, the Leu:TdR ratio was quite constant over a diel cycle and with depth, but during July 1987, the magnitude of this ratio and its variation through time increased with depth. Growth conditions for heterotrophic bacteria in Chesapeake Bay during summer in surface waters and throughout the water column in fall may be relatively constant leading to balanced growth. In contrast, fluctuating growth conditions in subsurface waters during summer may lead to unbalanced growth

  18. Contribution of heterotrophic bacterial production to the carbon budget of the river Seine (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, P; Garnier, J

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial activity was measured in the river Seine by two methods, (3)H-thymidine incorporation into DNA and (3)H-leucine incorporation into proteins. Both incorporation rates are characterized by low values upstream of Paris, a large increase just downstream of the outfall of the Achères treatment plant effluents, and then decreasing values further downstream. The covariation of both activities is demonstrated by the constancy of the molar ratio (leucine to thymidine incorporation rate) in the range of 6 to 8 for all the samples, except in the perturbed area where it is higher (15 to 35). These high values of molar ratio are linked to the introduction into the river of large sized bacteria ([Symbol: see text]1 µm) with higher incorporation rates per cell or biomass unit than the small autochthonous bacteria (rates of large bacteria were on average 3.7 times higher than those of small bacteria. Bacterial production was calculated with experimentally determined conversion factors (0.5 × 10(18) cells per mole of thymidine incorporated and 900 gC per mole of leucine incorporated) and by taking into account the activity of both size classes of bacteria measured through fractionation experiments (post-incubation filtration). Production estimated in the perturbed area downstream of Ach6res was very high, up to 60 µgC liter(-1)h(-1) in the summer. Carbon consumption by bacteria in the area perturbed by the Ach6res effluents was calculated assuming a growth yield of 0.2 and compared to the load of biodegradable organic matter discharged by the treatment plant. In summer, an additional supply of organic matter is required to account for the intense bacterial activity, suggesting the importance of phytoplankton production in the carbon budget.

  19. Resistance of Aerosolized Bacterial Viruses to Four Germicidal Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Turgeon

    Full Text Available Viral diseases can spread through a variety of routes including aerosols. Yet, limited data are available on the efficacy of aerosolized chemicals to reduce viral loads in the air. Bacteriophages (phages are often used as surrogates for hazardous viruses in aerosol studies because they are inexpensive, easy to handle, and safe for laboratory workers. Moreover, several of these bacterial viruses display physical characteristics similar to pathogenic human and animal viruses, like morphological size, type of nucleic acids, capsid morphology, and the presence of an envelope. In this study, the efficacy of four chemicals was evaluated on four airborne phages at two different relative humidity levels. Non-tailed bacteriophages MS2 (single-stranded RNA, ϕ6 (double-stranded RNA, enveloped, PR772 (double-stranded DNA, and ϕX174 (single-stranded DNA were first aerosolized in a 55L rotative environmental chamber at 19°C with 25% and 50% relative humidity. Then, hydrogen peroxide, Eugenol (phenylpropene used in commercial perfumes and flavorings, Mist® (automobile disinfectant containing Triethylene glycol, and Pledge® (multisurface disinfectant containing Isopropanol, n-Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Amonium Chlorides, and n-Alkyl Dimethyl Ethylbenzyl Ammonium Chloride were nebulized with the phages using a separate nebulizer. Aerosols were maintained in suspension during 10 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours. Viral aerosols were sampled using an SKC BioSampler and samples were analyzed using qPCR and plaque assays. The resistance levels of the four phages varied depending on the relative humidity (RH and germicidal products tested. Phage MS2 was the most stable airborne virus under the environmental conditions tested while phage PR772 was the least stable. Pledge® and Eugenol reduced the infectivity of all airborne phages tested. At 25% RH, Pledge® and Eugenol were more effective at reducing infectivity of RNA phages ϕ6 and MS2. At 50% RH, Pledge® was the most

  20. Production of bacterial protein from sugar cane bagasse pith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, O E; Callieri, D A.S.; Perotti de Galvez, N

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial protein was produced during the fermentation of sugar cane bagasse pith (BP) by a mixture of cellulolytic bacteria, one of them being a species of Cellulomonas. If the BP were treated with 1% NaOH prior to fermentation, the liquor could be used twice more without affecting the yield of bacterial protein. After that, the liquor became too dark and impaired the subsequent washing of BP. If the concentration of N (as NaN0/sub 3/) in the fermentation medium were raised, the conversion factor to protein was lowered, but the amount of protein formed per L per h and the ratio of protein to BP became higher. The evolution of pH, the dry matter content, cellulolytic activity, and protein yield were all affected by the type of N source used. The yield of bacterial protein can probably be increased by automatically controlling the pH and dissolved O levels of the culture.

  1. Why measure radon decay products?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.; Lettner, H.

    1997-01-01

    Combined development in spectrometry, instrumentation and ventilation modelling with its dependence on short- and long-term weather fluctuations renders possible a new, economical metrology for radon decay products. Short-term measurements can, with few restrictions, be converted to annual exposures of an accuracy superior to that from conventional medium-term Rn gas measurements. (orig.) [de

  2. Comparison of Heterotrophic Bacterial Production-Rates in Early Spring in the Turbid Estuaries of the Scheldt and the Elbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, N.K.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Brockmann, U.

    1995-01-01

    In spring bacterial production rates were estimated by tritiated thymidine incorporation in the turbid estuaries of the rivers Scheldt and Elbe. Bacterial production rates in the Scheldt were 5 times higher than in the Elbe. In the Scheldt bacterial production rates correlated better with the DOC

  3. 9 CFR 113.100 - General requirements for inactivated bacterial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instances, the guinea pig safety test provided in § 113.38 shall be conducted in place of the mouse safety... Outline of Production, an inactivated bacterial product shall meet the applicable requirements in this... in poultry as defined in the specific Standard Requirement or Outline of Production for the product...

  4. THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIAL CONCENTRATE "IMMUNOLAKT" ON BAKERY PRODUCTS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Belokurova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the development of new food products is paid much attention in the food industry. These include also bakery products with lactic starter cultures which contain live microorganisms, vitamins of group B: B1, B2, B6, B12, B9, vitamins A, C, E, folic acid. In this article the technological aspects of the probiotic bacterial concentrate "Immunolakt" in the manufacture of bakery products were studied. The experimental product was developed on the basis of traditional technology taking into account the properties of the introduced additives to correct some technological parameters. The research resulted in the development of technology of bakery products with the introduction of probiotic bacterial concentrate "Immunolakt.". To develop the recipes of dough products probiotic bacterial concentrates "Immunolakt" at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% was used instead of a part of yeast in the recipe. Comparative studies of the microstructure of bakery products crumb with the addition of probiotic bacterial concentrate "Immunolakt" and the reference sample were carried out. The content of the probiotic bacterial concentrate of 40% and 60% promoted the formation of a more uniform pore structure and reduction in the number ruptures along their perimeter. Safety indicators of reference and test samples were determined. The number of bacteria of reference and experimental samples of bakery products are in the normal range. The number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria in the test samples is less than in the reference one. Qualimetric evaluation of the quality of finished products was carried out. The developed products are of high organoleptic quality indexes, they are physically and chemically stable, with enhanced nutritional value. Products with the introduction of probiotic bacterial concentrate allow to expand the range of functional orientation bakery products. The use of probiotic bacterial concentrates allows to adjust the course of

  5. Particulate organic matter predicts bacterial productivity in a river dominated estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries act as coastal filters for organic and inorganic fluvial materials in which microbial, biogeochemical, and ecological processes combine to transform organic matter and nutrients prior to export to the coastal ocean. The function of this estuarine 'bioreactor' is linked to the residence times of those materials and to rates of microbial heterotrophic activity. Our ability to forecast the impact of global change on estuarine bioreactor function requires an understanding of the basic controls on microbial community activity and diversity. In the Columbia River estuary, the microbial community undergoes a dramatic seasonal shift in species composition during which a spring bacterioplankton community, dominated by Flavobacteriaceae and Oceanospirillales, is replaced by a summer community, dominated by Rhodobacteraceae and several common marine taxa. This annual shift occurs in July, following the spring freshet, when river flow and river chlorophyll concentration decrease and when estuarine water residence time increases. Analysis of a large dataset from 17 research cruises (1990-2014) showed that the composition of particulate organic matter in the estuary changes after the freshet with decreasing organic carbon and nitrogen content, and increasing contribution of marine and autochthonous estuarine organic matter (based on PO13C and pigment ratios). Bacterial production rates (measured as leucine or thymidine incorporation rates) in the estuary respond to this change, and correlate strongly with labile particulate nitrogen concentration and temperature during individual sampling campaigns, and with the concentration of chlorophyll in the Columbia River across all seasons. Regression models suggest that the concentration of labile particulate nitrogen and the rate of bacterial production can be predicted from sensor measurements of turbidity, salinity, and temperature in the estuary and chlorophyll in the river. These results suggest that the quality of

  6. Comparison of protease production from newly isolated bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasir

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... Protease has gained a very important position in many industries such as food, pharmaceutical, chemical and leather industries. In this research, protease was obtained from bacteria. The bacterial strain was obtained from soil which was collected from different areas of Lahore, Pakistan. Fermentation ...

  7. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Beet Molasses | Keshk | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield of the bacterial cellulose (BC) produced from beet molasses was higher than that using glucose as a sole carbon source. The structure of BC produced in presence of beet molasses was studied using IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. IR spectra show the relative absorbance of CO- C ether linkage (at 1120 ...

  8. Fixed target hadron production measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Panman, J

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of light hadron production cross-sections in proton-nucleus interactions is an important prerequisite to the analysis of a wide variety of experiments. One of the important limiting factors for the precision of accelerator based and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments is the uncertainty in the composition and spectrum of the neutrino flux. Cosmic-ray experiments detecting extensive air-showers can greatly improve their ability to interpret the data when precise hadron production spectra are available over a large range of energies. Dedicated hadron production experiments have been taking data recently and are now publishing their results. Other experiments have just started their data-taking and plan to supply measurements which can significantly extend the kinematic range in which data will be available. Early measurements at the LHC can extend this range to much higher energies than available up to now. Recent results will be shown and compared with hadronic production models. An outl...

  9. Exposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedirko, Veronika; Tran, Hao Quang; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sjöberg, Klas; Ohlsson, Bodil; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Werner, Mårten; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-01-01

    Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking.

  10. Expert Opinion on Three Phage Therapy Related Topics: Bacterial Phage Resistance, Phage Training and Prophages in Bacterial Production Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Rohde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phage therapy is increasingly put forward as a “new” potential tool in the fight against antibiotic resistant infections. During the “Centennial Celebration of Bacteriophage Research” conference in Tbilisi, Georgia on 26–29 June 2017, an international group of phage researchers committed to elaborate an expert opinion on three contentious phage therapy related issues that are hampering clinical progress in the field of phage therapy. This paper explores and discusses bacterial phage resistance, phage training and the presence of prophages in bacterial production strains while reviewing relevant research findings and experiences. Our purpose is to inform phage therapy stakeholders such as policy makers, officials of the competent authorities for medicines, phage researchers and phage producers, and members of the pharmaceutical industry. This brief also points out potential avenues for future phage therapy research and development as it specifically addresses those overarching questions that currently call for attention whenever phages go into purification processes for application.

  11. Mass production of bacterial communities adapted to the degradation of volatile organic compounds (TEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapertot, Miléna; Seignez, Chantal; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Delorme, Sandrine; Peringer, Paul

    2007-06-01

    This study focuses on the mass cultivation of bacteria adapted to the degradation of a mixture composed of toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylenes (TEX). For the cultivation process Substrate Pulse Batch (SPB) technique was adapted under well-automated conditions. The key parameters to be monitored were handled by LabVIEW software including, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and turbidity. Other parameters, such as biomass, ammonium or residual substrate concentrations needed offline measurements. SPB technique has been successfully tested experimentally on TEX. The overall behavior of the mixed bacterial population was observed and discussed along the cultivation process. Carbon and nitrogen limitations were shown to affect the integrity of the bacterial cells as well as their production of exopolymeric substances (EPS). Average productivity and yield values successfully reached the industrial specifications, which were 0.45 kg(DW)m(-3) d(-1) and 0.59 g(DW)g (C) (-1) , respectively. Accuracy and reproducibility of the obtained results present the controlled SPB process as a feasible technique.

  12. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  13. Factors influencing production of lipase under metal supplementation by bacterial strain, Bacillus subtilis BDG-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhevahi, B; Gurusamy, R

    2014-11-01

    Lipases are biocatalyst having wide applications in industries due to their versatile properties. In the present study, a lipolytic bacterial strain, Bacillus subtilis BDG-8 was isolated from an oil based industrial soil. The effect of selenium and nickel as a media supplement on enhancement of lipase production, was studied individually with the isolated strain by varying the concentration of selected metal. 60 μg l(-1) selenium enhanced lipase production to an enzyme activity measuring 7.8 U ml(-1) while 40 μgI(-1) nickel gave the maximum enzyme activity equivalent to 7.5 U ml(-1). However, nickel and selenium together at a range of concentration with an equal w/v ratio, at 60 μg l(-1) each, showed the maximum lipase activity of 8.5 U ml(-1). The effect of pH and temperature on lipase production showed maximum enzyme activity in the presence of each of the metals at pH 7 and 35°C among the other tested ranges. After optimisation of the parameters such as metal concentration, pH and temperature lipase production by Bacillus subtilis BDG-8 had increased several folds. This preliminary investigation may consequently lead as to various industrial applications such as treatment of wastewater contaminated with metal or oil with simultaneous lipase production.

  14. Effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on Serratia bacterial growth and production of biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on the growth and performance of Serratia Jl0300. The nanoparticle effect was quantified not only by the bacterial growth on agar plate after 1 hour interaction with the nanoparticles, but also by its production of a biosurfactant from used vegetable oil. The nanoparticles were prepared using the foam method. The concentrations of the nanoparticles used for the bacterial interaction study were varied from 1 mg/L to 1 g/L. The test results showed that the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production varied with nanoparticle type, concentrations, and interaction time with the bacteria. Au/Fe nanoparticles didn't show toxicity to Serratia after short time (1 h) exposure, while during 8 days fermentation Au/Fe nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Serratia as well as the biosurfactant production when the concentration of the nanoparticles was higher than 10 mg/L. Fe nanoparticles showed inhibition effects to bacterial growth both after short time and long time interaction with Serratia, as well as to biosurfactant production when its concentration was higher than 100 mg/L. Based on the trends observed in this study, analytical models have been developed to predict the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production with varying concentrations of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Modeled the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production. • Effects of Au/Fe nonoparticles on Serratia Bacterial Growth and Production of Biosurfactant. • Scanning Electron Micrograph of bacteria-nanoparticles interaction

  15. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits Lipase Production by Clinical Ocular Isolates Without Affecting Bacterial Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Judith Louise; Khandekar, Neeta; Zhu, Hua; Watanabe, Keizo; Markoulli, Maria; Flanagan, John Terence; Papas, Eric

    2016-02-01

    We sought to determine the relative lipase production of a range of ocular bacterial isolates and to assess the efficacy of glycerol monolaurate (GML) in inhibiting this lipase production in high lipase-producing bacteria without affecting bacterial cell growth. Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis,Propionibacterium acnes, and Corynebacterium spp. were inoculated at a density of 10(6)/mL in varying concentrations of GML up to 25 μg/mL for 24 hours at 37 °C with constant shaking. Bacterial suspensions were centrifuged, bacterial cell density was determined, and production of bacterial lipase was quantified using a commercial lipase assay kit. Staphylococcus spp. produced high levels of lipase activity compared with P. acnes and Corynebacterium spp. GML inhibited lipase production by Staphylococcal spp. in a dose-dependent manner, with S. epidermidis lipase production consistently more sensitive to GML than S. aureus. Glycerol monolaurate showed significant (P < 0.05) lipase inhibition above concentrations of 15 μg/mL in S. aureus and was not cytotoxic up to 25 μg/mL. For S. epidermidis, GML showed significant (P < 0.05) lipase inhibition above 7.5 μg/mL. Lipase activity varied between species and between strains. Staphylococcal spp. produced higher lipase activity compared with P. acnes and Corynebacterium spp. Glycerol monolaurate inhibited lipase production by S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations that did not adversely affect bacterial cell growth. GML can be used to inhibit ocular bacterial lipase production without proving detrimental to commensal bacteria viability.

  16. Effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on Serratia bacterial growth and production of biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy, E-mail: cvipulanandan@uh.edu

    2013-10-15

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on the growth and performance of Serratia Jl0300. The nanoparticle effect was quantified not only by the bacterial growth on agar plate after 1 hour interaction with the nanoparticles, but also by its production of a biosurfactant from used vegetable oil. The nanoparticles were prepared using the foam method. The concentrations of the nanoparticles used for the bacterial interaction study were varied from 1 mg/L to 1 g/L. The test results showed that the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production varied with nanoparticle type, concentrations, and interaction time with the bacteria. Au/Fe nanoparticles didn't show toxicity to Serratia after short time (1 h) exposure, while during 8 days fermentation Au/Fe nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Serratia as well as the biosurfactant production when the concentration of the nanoparticles was higher than 10 mg/L. Fe nanoparticles showed inhibition effects to bacterial growth both after short time and long time interaction with Serratia, as well as to biosurfactant production when its concentration was higher than 100 mg/L. Based on the trends observed in this study, analytical models have been developed to predict the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production with varying concentrations of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Modeled the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production. • Effects of Au/Fe nonoparticles on Serratia Bacterial Growth and Production of Biosurfactant. • Scanning Electron Micrograph of bacteria-nanoparticles interaction.

  17. Comparison of Bacterial Cellulose Production among Different Strains and Fermented Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalili Tabaii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus (PTCC 1734 and two newly isolated strains (from vinegar under static culture conditions was studied. The production of bacterial cellulose was examined in modified Hestrin-Shramm medium by replacing D-glucose with other carbon sources. The results showed that the yield and characteristics of bacterial cellulose were influenced by the type of carbon source. Glycerol gave the highest yield in all of the studied strains (6%, 9.7% and 3.8% for S, A2 strain and Gluconacetobacter xylinus (PTCC 1734, respectively. The maximum dry bacterial cellulose weight in the glycerol containing medium is due to A2 strain (1.9 g l-1 in comparison to Gluconacetobacter xylinus as reference strain (0.76 g l-1. Although all of the studied strains were in Gluconacetobacter family, each used different sugars for maximum production after glycerol (mannitol and fructose for two newly isolated strains and glucose for Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The maximum moisture content was observed when sucrose and food-grade sucrose were used as carbon source. Contrary to expectations, while the maximum thickness of bacterial cellulose membrane was attained when glycerol was used, bacterial cellulose from glycerol had less moisture content than the others. The oxidized cellulose showed antibacterial activities, which makes it as a good candidate for food-preservatives.

  18. Regulation of annual variation in heterotrophic bacterial production in the Schelde estuary (SW Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, N.K.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Peene, J.

    1997-01-01

    Heterotrophic bacterioplankton production (H-3-thymidine incorporation rate) and abundance in the surface water of the Schelde estuary (The Netherlands) were studied during an annual cycle in 1991 along the salinity gradient (0.8 to 33 psu). Bacterial production and numbers increased from the lower

  19. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham G Willsey

    Full Text Available Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment.

  20. The Study Of Metalworking Fluids Biodegradability By Indirect Measurement Of Bacterial Inoculum Respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerulová Kristína

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus for measuring biodegradability of metalworking fluids (MWFs was constructed according to (1, based on the Zahn-Wellens test which enables a continuous determination of CO2 production by the change in conductivity of absorption solution. Results obtained from the testing of 8 different MWFs by this modified method were compared to those obtained in standardized OECD 302 B. The comparison showed better description of bacterial inoculum activity in tested solution; lag phase was easy to indicate. Tested emulsion achieved the level of primary degradability 39.7 – 40.8 %, and semi-synthetics 19.1 – 43.5%. The samples of synthetics where the degradation level reached 43.9 - 58.6 % were identified as the most degradable metalworking fluids.

  1. Bacterial community dynamics and product distribution during pH-adjusted fermentation of vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, N-F; Lü, F; Shao, L-M; Godon, J-J; He, P-J

    2007-10-01

    To estimate the effect of pH on the structures of bacterial community during fermentation of vegetable wastes and to investigate the relationship between bacterial community dynamics and product distribution. The bacterial communities in five batch tests controlled at different pH values [uncontrolled (about pH 4), 5, 6, 7 and 8] were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The two fingerprinting methods provided consistent results and principal component analysis indicated a close similarity of bacterial community at pH 7 and 8 in addition to those at pH 4-6. This clustering also corresponded to dominant metabolic pathway. Thus, pH 7-8 shifted from alcohol-forming to acid-forming, especially butyric acid, whereas both alcohol-forming and acid-forming dominated at pH 5-6, and at pH 4, fermentation was inhibited. Shannon-weaver index was calculated to analyse the DGGE profiles, which revealed that the bacterial diversities at pH 7 and 8 were the highest while those at pH 5 and 4 (uncontrolled) were the lowest. According to sequencing results of the bands excised from DGGE gels, lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp. were predominant at all pH values, but varieties in species were observed as pH changed and time prolonged. The bacterial community during fermentation was materially influenced by pH and the diverse product distribution was related to the shift of different bacterial population. The study reveals that the impact of pH on fermentation product distribution is implemented primarily by changes of bacterial community. It also provides information about the comparison of two fingerprinting methods, DGGE and SSCP.

  2. Recent developments in the production and applications of bacterial cellulose fibers and nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniati, Isabela; Hrymak, Andrew N; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2017-06-01

    Cellulosic nanomaterials provide a novel and sustainable platform for the production of high performance materials enabled by nanotechnology. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly crystalline material and contains pure cellulose without lignin and hemicellulose. BC offers an opportunity to provide control of the products' properties in-situ, via specific BC production methods and culture conditions. The BC potential in advanced material applications are hindered by a limited knowledge of optimal BC production conditions, efficient process scale-up, separation methods, and purification methods. There is a growing body of work on the production of bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNs) from BC fibers. However, there is limited information regarding the effect of BC fibers' characteristics on the production of nanocrystals. This review describes developments in BC and BCNs production methods and factors affecting their yield and physical characteristics.

  3. Estimating bacterial production in marine waters from the simultaneous incorporation of thymidine and leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Leo, G; Kirchman, D L

    1988-08-01

    We examined the simultaneous incorporation of [H]thymidine and [C]leucine to obtain two independent indices of bacterial production (DNA and protein syntheses) in a single incubation. Incorporation rates of leucine estimated by the dual-label method were generally higher than those obtained by the single-label method, but the differences were small (dual/single = 1.1 +/- 0.2 [mean +/- standard deviation]) and were probably due to the presence of labeled leucyl-tRNA in the cold trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction. There were no significant differences in thymidine incorporation between dual- and single-label incubations (dual/ single = 1.03 +/- 0.13). Addition of the two substrates in relatively large amounts (25 nM) did not apparently increase bacterial activity during short incubations (leucine incorporation rates covaried over depth profiles of the Chesapeake Bay. Estimates of bacterial production based on thymidine and leucine differed by less than 25%. Although the need for appropriate conversion factors has not been eliminated, the dual-label approach can be used to examine the variation in bacterial production while ensuring that the observed variation in incorporation rates is due to real changes in bacterial production rather than changes in conversion factors or introduction of other artifacts.

  4. Combined effect of zinc, chromium, and cadmium on bacterial biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsak, M N; Nakani, D V; Chol' naya, G G

    1976-01-01

    The present work was carried out at the Rybinskoye storage-lake in 1974. Some tolerance limits of zinc, chromium and cadmium were chosen for the investigation. The bacterial production was estimated by /sup 14/C heterotrophic assimilation. Natural water included in polyethylene reservoirs was used. The bacterial production was determined in one to three days after the beginning of the experiment. In most off the experiments the negative influence of zinc and chromium on the bacterial biomass production was registered only after 3 days of exposure. The effect of cadmium during the entire period of observations proved to be unreliable. The effect of chromium was fairly constant in different seasons. The interaction of toxicants was not revealed in any the of experiments. 8 references.

  5. Characterization and optimization of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains for polyhydroxyalkanoates (phas) production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S. U.; Jamil, N.; Hussain, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation, sugarcane soil, sewage water and soil containing long chain hydrocarbons was screened to obtain bacterial strains that were able to synthesize poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA). The potential to synthesize PHA was tested qualitatively by Sudan Black staining of colonies growing in glucose and sucrose. Sixteen bacterial strains were isolated, purified and characterized for Gram reaction, biochemical analysis and PHA production. Isolates showed a wide range of tolerance to different commonly used antibiotics. PHA extraction was done by solvent extraction and hypochlorite digestion method. PHA production was optimized for different nitrogen concentrations. (author)

  6. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  7. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  8. Exopolysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, Christophe; Alves, Vitor D.; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors acknowledge Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FC&T), Portugal, through projects PEst-C/EQB/LA0006/2013 and PTDC/AGR-ALI/114706/2009 - "New edible bioactive coatings for the improvement of food products quality." FF acknowledges FCT&T for Post-Doctoral fellowship SFRH/BPD/72280/2010. Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and com...

  9. Bacterial abundance and production in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Raghukumar, S.; Gauns, M.

    bacterial densities of about 1 x 10 sup(9) cells L sup(-1) were observed during the intermonsoon periods of September and April/May compared to the southwest monsoon period of July/August and the winter period of February/March. Although primary production...

  10. BacHBerry:: BACterial Hosts for production of Bioactive phenolics from bERRY fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Almeida, A. Filipa; Andrade, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    BACterial Hosts for production of Bioactive phenolics from bERRY fruits (BacHBerry) was a 3-year project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Union that ran between November 2013 and October 2016. The overall aim of the project was to establish a sustainable and economi...

  11. Exposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma : A nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedirko, Veronika; Tran, Hao Quang; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sjöberg, Klas; Ohlsson, Bodil; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Werner, Mårten; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Aune, Dagfinn; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking. Methods: We used a case-control study design nested within a large

  12. Exopolysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Christophe; Alves, Vitor D; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-01-01

    Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers. This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  13. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  14. Measurement of bacterial capture and phagosome maturation of Kupffer cells by intravital microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surewaard, Bas G.J.; Kubes, Paul

    2017-01-01

    It is central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis to define how bacteria are killed by phagocytic cells. During phagocytosis, the microbe is localized to the phagolysosome where crucial defense mechanisms such as acidification and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are initiated. This

  15. Production of Metabolites as Bacterial Responses to the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in marine environments are often under extreme conditions of e.g., pressure, temperature, salinity, and depletion of micronutrients, with survival and proliferation often depending on the ability to produce biologically active compounds. Some marine bacteria produce biosurfactants, which help to transport hydrophobic low water soluble substrates by increasing their bioavailability. However, other functions related to heavy metal binding, quorum sensing and biofilm formation have been described. In the case of metal ions, bacteria developed a strategy involving the release of binding agents to increase their bioavailability. In the particular case of the Fe3+ ion, which is almost insoluble in water, bacteria secrete siderophores that form soluble complexes with the ion, allowing the cells to uptake the iron required for cell functioning. Adaptive changes in the lipid composition of marine bacteria have been observed in response to environmental variations in pressure, temperature and salinity. Some fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, have only been reported in prokaryotes in deep-sea bacteria. Cell membrane permeability can also be adapted to extreme environmental conditions by the production of hopanoids, which are pentacyclic triterpenoids that have a function similar to cholesterol in eukaryotes. Bacteria can also produce molecules that prevent the attachment, growth and/or survival of challenging organisms in competitive environments. The production of these compounds is particularly important in surface attached strains and in those in biofilms. The wide array of compounds produced by marine bacteria as an adaptive response to demanding conditions makes them suitable candidates for screening of compounds with commercially interesting biological functions. Biosurfactants produced by marine bacteria may be helpful to increase mass transfer in different industrial processes and in the bioremediation of

  16. Measuring bacterial activity and community composition at high hydrostatic pressure using a novel experimental approach: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannicke, Nicola; Frindte, Katharina; Gust, Giselher; Liskow, Iris; Wacker, Alexander; Meyer, Andreas; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2015-05-01

    In this pilot study, we describe a high-pressure incubation system allowing multiple subsampling of a pressurized culture without decompression. The system was tested using one piezophilic (Photobacterium profundum), one piezotolerant (Colwellia maris) bacterial strain and a decompressed sample from the Mediterranean deep sea (3044 m) determining bacterial community composition, protein production (BPP) and cell multiplication rates (BCM) up to 27 MPa. The results showed elevation of BPP at high pressure was by a factor of 1.5 ± 1.4 and 3.9 ± 2.3 for P. profundum and C. maris, respectively, compared to ambient-pressure treatments and by a factor of 6.9 ± 3.8 fold in the field samples. In P. profundum and C. maris, BCM at high pressure was elevated (3.1 ± 1.5 and 2.9 ± 1.7 fold, respectively) compared to the ambient-pressure treatments. After 3 days of incubation at 27 MPa, the natural bacterial deep-sea community was dominated by one phylum of the genus Exiguobacterium, indicating the rapid selection of piezotolerant bacteria. In future studies, our novel incubation system could be part of an isopiestic pressure chain, allowing more accurate measurement of bacterial activity rates which is important both for modeling and for predicting the efficiency of the oceanic carbon pump. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Community respiration/production and bacterial activity in the upper water column of the central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Barry F.; Sherr, Evelyn B.

    2003-04-01

    Community metabolism (respiration and production) and bacterial activity were assessed in the upper water column of the central Arctic Ocean during the SHEBA/JOIS ice camp experiment, October 1997-September 1998. In the upper 50 m, decrease in integrated dissolved oxygen (DO) stocks over a period of 124 d in mid-winter suggested a respiration rate of ˜3.3 nM O 2 h -1 and a carbon demand of ˜4.5 gC m -2. Increase in 0-50 m integrated stocks of DO during summer implied a net community production of ˜20 gC m -2. Community respiration rates were directly measured via rate of decrease in DO in whole seawater during 72-h dark incubation experiments. Incubation-based respiration rates were on average 3-fold lower during winter (11.0±10.6 nM O 2 h -1) compared to summer (35.3±24.8 nM O 2 h -1). Bacterial heterotrophic activity responded strongly, without noticeable lag, to phytoplankton growth. Rate of leucine incorporation by bacteria (a proxy for protein synthesis and cell growth) increased ˜10-fold, and the cell-specific rate of leucine incorporation ˜5-fold, from winter to summer. Rates of production of bacterial biomass in the upper 50 m were, however, low compared to other oceanic regions, averaging 0.52±0.47 ngC l -1 h -1 during winter and 5.1±3.1 ngC l -1 h -1 during summer. Total carbon demand based on respiration experiments averaged 2.4±2.3 mgC m -3 d -1 in winter and 7.8±5.5 mgC m -3 d -1 in summer. Estimated bacterial carbon demand based on bacterial productivity and an assumed 10% gross growth efficiency was much lower, averaging about 0.12±0.12 mgC m -3 d -1 in winter and 1.3±0.7 mgC m -3 d -1 in summer. Our estimates of bacterial activity during summer were an order of magnitude less than rates reported from a summer 1994 study in the central Arctic Ocean, implying significant inter-annual variability of microbial processes in this region.

  18. Ecosystem productivity is associated with bacterial phylogenetic distance in surface marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galand, Pierre E; Salter, Ian; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the link between community diversity and ecosystem function is a fundamental aspect of ecology. Systematic losses in biodiversity are widely acknowledged but the impact this may exert on ecosystem functioning remains ambiguous. There is growing evidence of a positive relationship between species richness and ecosystem productivity for terrestrial macro-organisms, but similar links for marine micro-organisms, which help drive global climate, are unclear. Community manipulation experiments show both positive and negative relationships for microbes. These previous studies rely, however, on artificial communities and any links between the full diversity of active bacterial communities in the environment, their phylogenetic relatedness and ecosystem function remain hitherto unexplored. Here, we test the hypothesis that productivity is associated with diversity in the metabolically active fraction of microbial communities. We show in natural assemblages of active bacteria that communities containing more distantly related members were associated with higher bacterial production. The positive phylogenetic diversity-productivity relationship was independent of community diversity calculated as the Shannon index. From our long-term (7-year) survey of surface marine bacterial communities, we also found that similarly, productive communities had greater phylogenetic similarity to each other, further suggesting that the traits of active bacteria are an important predictor of ecosystem productivity. Our findings demonstrate that the evolutionary history of the active fraction of a microbial community is critical for understanding their role in ecosystem functioning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Enhanced biogas production from penicillin bacterial residue by thermal-alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Weizhang; Li, Guixia; Gao, Yan; Li, Zaixing; Geng, Xiaoling; Li, Yubing; Yang, Jingliang; Zhou, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the orthogonal experimental design was used to determine the optimum conditions for the effect of thermal alkaline; pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of penicillin bacterial residue. The biodegradability of the penicillin; bacterial residue was evaluated by biochemical methane potential tests in laboratory. The optimum values of temperature,; alkali concentration, pretreatment time and moisture content for the thermal-alkaline pretreatment were determined as; 70 °C, 6% (w/v), 30 min, and 85%, respectively. Thermal-alkaline pretreatment could significantly enhance the soluble; chemical oxygen demand solubilization, the suspended solid solubilization and the biodegradability. Biogas production; was enhanced by the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, probably as a result of the breakdown of cell walls and membranes of; micro-organisms, which may facilitate the contact between organic molecules and anaerobic microorganisms.; Keywords: penicillin bacterial residue; anaerobic digestion; biochemical methane potential tests; pretreatment

  20. Factors affecting the bacterial community composition and heterotrophic production of Columbia River estuarine turbidity maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfort, Lydie; Crump, Byron C; Fortunato, Caroline S; McCue, Lee Ann; Campbell, Victoria; Simon, Holly M; Baptista, António M; Zuber, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) function as hotspots of microbial activity and diversity in estuaries, yet, little is known about the temporal and spatial variability in ETM bacterial community composition. To determine which environmental factors affect ETM bacterial populations in the Columbia River estuary, we analyzed ETM bacterial community composition (Sanger sequencing and amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene) and bulk heterotrophic production ( 3 H-leucine incorporation rates). We collected water 20 times to cover five ETM events and obtained 42 samples characterized by different salinities, turbidities, seasons, coastal regimes (upwelling vs. downwelling), locations, and particle size. Spring and summer populations were distinct. All May samples had similar bacterial community composition despite having different salinities (1-24 PSU), but summer non-ETM bacteria separated into marine, freshwater, and brackish assemblages. Summer ETM bacterial communities varied depending on coastal upwelling or downwelling conditions and on the sampling site location with respect to tidal intrusion during the previous neap tide. In contrast to ETM, whole (>0.2 μm) and free-living (0.2-3 μm) assemblages of non-ETM waters were similar to each other, indicating that particle-attached (>3 μm) non-ETM bacteria do not develop a distinct community. Brackish water type (ETM or non-ETM) is thus a major factor affecting particle-attached bacterial communities. Heterotrophic production was higher in particle-attached than free-living fractions in all brackish waters collected throughout the water column during the rise to decline of turbidity through an ETM event (i.e., ETM-impacted waters). However, free-living communities showed higher productivity prior to or after an ETM event (i.e., non-ETM-impacted waters). This study has thus found that Columbia River ETM bacterial communities vary based on seasons, salinity, sampling location, and particle size, with the

  1. Bacterial Production and Enzymatic Activities in Deep-Sea Sediments of the Pacific Ocean: Biogeochemical Implications of Different Temperature Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, R.; Corinaldesi, C.; dell'Anno, A.

    2002-12-01

    The deep-sea bed, acting as the ultimate sink for organic material derived from the upper oceans primary production, is now assumed to play a key role in biogeochemical cycling of organic matter on global scale. Early diagenesis of organic matter in marine sediments is dependent upon biological processes (largely mediated by bacterial activity) and by molecular diffusion. Organic matter reaching the sea floor by sedimentation is subjected to complex biogeochemical transformations that make organic matter largely unsuitable for direct utilization by benthic heterotrophs. Extracellular enzymatic activities in the sediment is generally recognized as the key step in the degradation and utilization of organic polymers by bacteria and a key role in biopolymeric carbon mobilization is played by aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and glucosidase activities. In the present study we investigated bacterial density, bacterial C production and exo-enzymatic activities (aminopeptidase, glucosidase and phosphatase activity) in deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean in relation with the biochemical composition of sediment organic matter (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids), in order to gather information on organic matter cycling and diagenesis. Benthic viral abundance was also measured to investigate the potential role of viruses on microbial loop functioning. Sediment samples were collected at eight stations (depth ranging from 2070-3100 m) along two transects located at the opposite side (north and south) of ocean seismic ridge Juan Fernandez (along latitudes 33° 20' - 33° 40'), constituted by the submerged vulcanoes, which connects the Chilean coasts to Rapa Nui Island. Since the northern and southern sides of this ridge apparently displayed small but significant differences in deep-sea temperature (related to the general ocean circulation), this sampling strategy allowed also investigating the role of different temperature constraints on bacterial activity and

  2. The effect of antibiotics on associated bacterial community of stored product mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopecky

    Full Text Available Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata. The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria.Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mg g(-1 of diet for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor.The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mg g(-1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet.

  3. Thin stillage supplementation greatly enhances bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyh-Ming; Liu, Ren-Han

    2012-09-01

    Thin stillage (TS), a wastewater from rice wine distillery can well sustain the growth of Gluconacetobacter xylinus for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). When used as a supplement to the traditional BC production medium (Hestrin and Schramm medium), the enhancement of BC production increased with the amount of TS supplemented in a static culture of G. xylinus. When TS was employed to replace distilled water for preparing HS medium (100%TS-HS medium), the BC production in this 100%TS-HS medium was enhanced 2.5-fold to a concentration of 10.38 g/l with sugar to BC conversion yield of 57% after 7 days cultivation. The cost-free TS as a supplement in BC production medium not only can greatly enhance the BC production, but also can effectively dispose the nuisance wastewater of rice wine distillery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dark fermentative biohydrogen production by mesophilic bacterial consortia isolated from riverbed sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sneha; Sudhakaran, Anu K.; Sarma, Priyangshu Manab; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Mandal, Ajoy Kumar; Lal, Banwari [Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Habitat Place, Darbari Seth Block, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Gandham, Ganesh [Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Mumbai Refinery, B. D. Patil Marg, Mahul, Mumbai 400074 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Dark fermentative bacterial strains were isolated from riverbed sediments and investigated for hydrogen production. A series of batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of pH, substrate concentration and temperature on hydrogen production from a selected bacterial consortium, TERI BH05. Batch experiments for fermentative conversion of sucrose, starch, glucose, fructose, and xylose indicated that TERI BH05 effectively utilized all the five sugars to produce fermentative hydrogen. Glucose was the most preferred carbon source indicating highest hydrogen yields of 22.3 mmol/L. Acetic and butyric acid were the major soluble metabolites detected. Investigation on optimization of pH, temperature, and substrate concentration revealed that TERI BH05 produced maximum hydrogen at 37 C, pH 6 with 8 g/L of glucose supplementation and maximum yield of hydrogen production observed was 2.0-2.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. Characterization of TERI BH05 revealed the presence of two different bacterial strains showing maximum homology to Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium bifermentans. (author)

  5. Screening of Acetic Acid Bacteria from Pineapple Waste for Bacterial Cellulose Production using Sago Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arfa Yanti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose is a biopolymer produced by fermentation process with the help of bacteria. It has numerous applications in industrial sector with its characteristic as a biodegradable and nontoxic compound in nature. The potential application of BC is limited by its production costs, because BC is produced from expensive culture media. The use of cheap carbon and nutrient sources such as sago liquid waste is an interesting strategy to overcome this limitation. The objective of this study was to obtain the AAB strain that capable to produce bacterial cellulose from sago liquid waste. Isolation of AAB strains was conducted using CARR media and the screening of BC production was performed on Hestrin-Schramm (HS media with glucose as a carbon source. The strains of AAB then were evaluated for their cellulose-producing capability using sago liquid waste as a substrate. Thirteen strains of AAB producing BC were isolated from pineapple waste (pineapple core and peel and seven of them were capable to produce BC using sago liquid waste substrate. One of the AAB strains produced a relatively high BC, i.e. isolate LKN6. The result of morphological and biochemical test was proven that the bacteria was Acetobacter xylinum. The result of this study showed that A. xylinum LKN6 can produce a high yield of BC, therefore this strain is potentially useful for its utilization as a starter in bacterial cellulose production

  6. Performance of improved bacterial cellulose application in the production of functional paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, A H; El-Saied, H

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of producing economic flame retardant bacterial cellulose (BC) and evaluating its behaviour in paper production. This type of BC was prepared by Gluconacetobacter subsp. xylinus and substituting the glucose in the cultivation medium by glucose phosphate as a carbon source; as well as using corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source. The investigated processing technique did not dispose any toxic chemicals that pollute the surroundings or cause unacceptable effluents, making the process environmentally safe. The fire retardant behaviour of the investigated BC has been studied by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA & DTGA). The activation energy of each degradation stage and the order of degradation were estimated using the Coats-Redfern equation and the least square method. Strength, optical properties, and thermogravimetric analysis of BC-phosphate added paper sheets were also tested. The study confirmed that the use of glucose phosphate along with glucose was significant in the high yield production of phosphate containing bacterial cellulose (PCBC1); more so than the use of glucose phosphate alone (PCBC2). Incorporating 5% of the PCBC with wood pulp during paper sheet formation was found to significantly improve kaolin retention, strength, and fire resistance properties as compared to paper sheets produced from incorporating bacterial cellulose (BC). This modified BC is a valuable product for the preparation of specialized paper, in addition to its function as a fillers aid.

  7. Radioactivity measurements for determining bacterial increase and sensitivity to antibiotics. [/sup 14/C tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszsagi-Nagy, E [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest; Lendvay, J [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1976-01-01

    The authors elaborated a sensitive and objective measuring method for determining the bacteria increase in biological material and the sensitivity to antibiotics. When /sup 14/C glucose is added to the medium as the single source of sugar, the respiratory carbon dioxide formed by the bacteria reflects the rate of increase. The released /sup 14/C dioxide can be measured continuously without loss to the environment and the degree of bacterial infection and the antibiotic activity, respectively, can be determined.

  8. Indigenous bacteria and bacterial metabolic products in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Habib Ur; Vahjen, Wilfried; Awad, Wageha A; Zentek, Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is a dynamic ecosystem containing a complex microbial community. In this paper, the indigenous intestinal bacteria and the microbial fermentation profile particularly short chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate, and ammonia concentrations are reviewed. The intestinal bacterial composition changes with age. The bacterial density of the small intestine increases with age and comprises of lactobacilli, streptococci, enterobacteria, fusobacteria and eubacteria. Strict anaerobes (anaerobic gram-positive cocci, Eubacterium spp., Clostridium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Fusobacterium spp. and Bacteroides) are predominating caecal bacteria in young broilers. Data from culture-based studies showed that bifidobacteria could not be isolated from young birds, but were recovered from four-week-old broilers. Caecal lactobacilli accounted for 1.5-24% of the caecal bacteria. Gene sequencing of caecal DNA extracts showed that the majority of bacteria belonged to Clostridiaceae. Intestinal bacterial community is influenced by the dietary ingredients, nutrient levels and physical structure of feed. SCFA and other metabolic products are affected by diet formulation and age. Additional studies are required to know the bacterial metabolic activities together with the community analysis of the intestinal bacteria. Feed composition and processing have great potential to influence the activities of intestinal bacteria towards a desired direction in order to support animal health, well-being and microbial safety of broiler meat.

  9. Recombinant Plants Provide a New Approach to the Production of Bacterial Polysaccharide for Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire M.; Fry, Stephen C.; Gough, Kevin C.; Patel, Alexandra J. F.; Glenn, Sarah; Goldrick, Marie; Roberts, Ian S.; Andrew, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial polysaccharides have numerous clinical or industrial uses. Recombinant plants could offer the possibility of producing bacterial polysaccharides on a large scale and free of contaminating bacterial toxins and antigens. We investigated the feasibility of this proposal by cloning and expressing the gene for the type 3 synthase (cps3S) of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Nicotinia tabacum, using the pCambia2301 vector and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. In planta the recombinant synthase polymerised plant-derived UDP-glucose and UDP-glucuronic acid to form type 3 polysaccharide. Expression of the cps3S gene was detected by RT-PCR and production of the pneumococcal polysaccharide was detected in tobacco leaf extracts by double immunodiffusion, Western blotting and high-voltage paper electrophoresis. Because it is used a component of anti-pneumococcal vaccines, the immunogenicity of the plant-derived type 3 polysaccharide was tested. Mice immunised with extracts from recombinant plants were protected from challenge with a lethal dose of pneumococci in a model of pneumonia and the immunised mice had significantly elevated levels of serum anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibodies. This study provides the proof of the principle that bacterial polysaccharide can be successfully synthesised in plants and that these recombinant polysaccharides could be used as vaccines to protect against life-threatening infections. PMID:24498433

  10. Heterotrophic bacterial production and metabolic balance during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the New Caledonia lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wambeke, France; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Barani, Aude; Berthelot, Hugo; Moutin, Thierry; Rodier, Martine; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Bonnet, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the fate of diazotrophs through the microbial food web are lacking, although N2 fixation can fuel up to 50 % of new production in some oligotrophic oceans. In particular, the role played by heterotrophic prokaryotes in this transfer is largely unknown. In the frame of the VAHINE (VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of diazotroph derived N in the south wEst Pacific) experiment, three replicate large-volume (˜ 50 m3) mesocosms were deployed for 23 days in the new Caledonia lagoon and were intentionally fertilized on day 4 with dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate N2 fixation. We specifically examined relationships between heterotrophic bacterial production (BP) and N2 fixation or primary production, determined bacterial growth efficiency and established carbon budgets. BP was statistically higher during the second phase of the experiment (P2: days 15-23), when chlorophyll biomass started to increase compared to the first phase (P1: days 5-14). Phosphatase alkaline activity increased drastically during the second phase of the experiment, showing adaptations of microbial populations after utilization of the added DIP. Notably, among autotrophs, Synechococcus abundances increased during P2, possibly related to its capacity to assimilate leucine and to produce alkaline phosphatase. Bacterial growth efficiency based on the carbon budget (27-43 %), was notably higher than generally cited for oligotrophic environments and discussed in links with the presence of abundant species of bacteria expressing proteorhodopsin. The main fates of gross primary production (particulate + dissolved) were respiration (67 %) and export through sedimentation (17 %). BP was highly correlated with particulate primary production and chlorophyll biomass during both phases of the experiment but was slightly correlated, and only during P2 phase, with N2 fixation rates. Heterotrophic bacterial production was strongly stimulated after mineral N enrichment

  11. Fluoro-luminometric real-time measurement of bacterial viability and killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Janne; Virta, Marko; Lilius, Esa Matti

    2003-10-01

    The viability and killing of Escherichia coli was measured on a real-time basis using a fluoro-luminometric device, which allows successive measurements of fluorescence and bioluminescence without user intervention. Bacteria were made fluorescent and bioluminescent by expression of gfp and insect luciferase (lucFF) genes. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a highly fluorescent, extremely stable protein, which accumulates in cells during growth, and therefore the measured fluorescence signal was proportional to the total number of cells. The luciferase reaction is dependent of ATP produced by living cells, so that the bioluminescence level was a direct measure of the viable cells. In contrast to the bacterial luciferase, the insect luciferase uses a water-soluble and nonvolatile substrate, which makes automated multi-well microplate assay possible. For the validation of the assay, the proportion of living and dead cell populations was experimentally modified by incubating E. coli cells in the presence of various ethanol concentrations. Bacterial viability and killing measured by a fluoro-luminometric assay correlated fairly well with the reference methods: conventional plate counting, optical density measurement and various flow cytometric analyses. The real-time assay described here allows following the changes in bacterial cultures and assessing the bactericidal and other effects of various chemical, immunological and physical agents simultaneously in large numbers of samples.

  12. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Carolina Santos; Tahan, Soraia; Melli, Lígia Cristina F L; Rodrigues, Mirian Silva do Carmo; de Mello, Ricardo Martin Pereira; Scaletsky, Isabel Cristina Affonso; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2012-11-07

    To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups. All children completed the hydrogen (H(2)) and methane (CH(4)) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H(2) ≥ 20 ppm or CH(4) ≥ 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion. Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school. SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P = 0.0007). Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P = 0.007). A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO. Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P slum. Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methane-producing children (P = 0.017). Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production. Hydrogen is a substrate for methane production in the colon.

  13. Productivity Measurement Of Technical Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss.Pooja Yadav

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing concern over globalization between other things has made the achievement of lifetime skills vital for all classes of people. Achievement of such skills can be developed from technical education programs in the advance of any nation. Skill gaining provides knowledge and inculcates the approaches that are essential for arrival and progress into an occupation. When skills are developed in any occupation it will provide and improve the standard of living with the cover beside poverty thereby behind national development. This paper observes sampling distribution and moving average concept that how technical education can generate the required skills the significance of skill acquisition its roles benefits and sustainability in national development. It also mentions among others that government should look into and improve productivity that can encourage skill achievement for the youths. The solutions are divided the sampling box into few group before stacking up workstation and use table and some other wood product. Cost reduction for each solution was intended and the solution with highest cost decrease is chosen to increase the productivity of the college.

  14. MEASURING PRODUCTIVITY OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Purna Sudhakar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an exhaustive literature review of the techniques and models available tomeasure the productivity of software development teams. Definition of productivity, measuringindividual programmer’s productivity, and measuring software development team productivity arediscussed. Based on the literature review it was found that software productivity measurement canbe done using SLOC (Source Lines of Code, function points, use case points, object points, andfeature points. Secondary research findings indicate that the team size, response time, taskcomplexity, team climate and team cohesion have an impact on software development teamproductivity. List of factors affecting the software development team productivity are studied andreviewed.

  15. Measuring Welfare of Productive Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn the last few decades an increasing number of economists have contributed to new methods of welfare (or utility) measurement. As set out in this journal (Tinbergen, 1985) three groups of economists have been active in this field since 1968, initially relatively independently; an

  16. Effects of carbon dioxide on metabolite production and bacterial communities during kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo Hyun

    2018-04-24

    Bacterial communities and metabolites in kimchi fermented under conventional conditions (CC) compared to CO 2 -rich environments (CO 2 ) were analyzed. After a 20-day fermentation, lactic and acetic acid productions were 54 and 69 mM under CC, and 19 and 12 mM under CO 2 , respectively. The final pH of kimchi fermented under CC (CC-fermenting) and CO 2 (CO 2 -fermenting) were 4.1 and 4.7, respectively. For bacterial communities, OTU and Chao1 indices were both 35 in fresh kimchi, 10 and 15 in CC-fermenting kimchi, and 8 and 24 in CO 2 -fermenting kimchi, respectively. Shannon and Simpson indices were 3.47 and 0.93 in fresh kimchi, 1.87-0.06 and 0.46-0.01 in CC-fermenting kimchi, and 1.65-0.44 and 0.63-0.12 in CO 2 -fermenting kimchi, respectively. Non-lactic acid bacteria were eliminated in fermenting kimchi after 12 days under CC and 6 days under CO 2 . I conclude that carbon dioxide can alter bacterial communities, reduce metabolite production, and improve fermented kimchi quality.

  17. Improvement production of bacterial cellulose by semi-continuous process in molasses medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Fatih; Ozer, Işılay; Aytekin, A Özhan; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has unique properties such as structural, functional, physical and chemical. The mass production of BC for industrial application has recently become attractive to produce more economical and high productive cellulose. In this study, to improve the productivity of bacterial cellulose (BC), BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus FC01 was investigated in molasses medium with static semi-continuous operation mode. Cell dry weight, polysaccharide, sugar and cellulose concentrations were monitored and cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest cellulose yield (1.637 g/L) was obtained in SCP50-7d, which molasses of 1/2 ratio for 7 days by static semi-continuous operation mode. The results show that BC can be highly produced by G. xylinus in molasses with static semi-continuous process than batch process. We claimed that low-cost medium with semi-continuous operation mode in static culture is a good candidate for industrial scale BC productions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the bacterial metagenome in an industrial algae bioenergy production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fulbright, Scott P [Colorado State University; Zeng, Xiaowei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yates, Tracy [Solix Biofuels; Wardle, Greg [Solix Biofuels; Chisholm, Stephen T [Colorado State University; Xu, Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Lammers, Peter [New Mexico State University

    2011-03-16

    Cultivation of oleaginous microalgae for fuel generally requires growth of the intended species to the maximum extent supported by available light. The presence of undesired competitors, pathogens and grazers in cultivation systems will create competition for nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, iron and other micronutrients in the growth medium and potentially decrease microalgal triglyceride production by limiting microalgal health or cell density. Pathogenic bacteria may also directly impact the metabolism or survival of individual microalgal cells. Conversely, symbiotic bacteria that enhance microalgal growth may also be present in the system. Finally, the use of agricultural and municipal wastes as nutrient inputs for microalgal production systems may lead to the introduction and proliferation of human pathogens or interfere with the growth of bacteria with beneficial effects on system performance. These considerations underscore the need to understand bacterial community dynamics in microalgal production systems in order to assess microbiome effects on microalgal productivity and pathogen risks. Here we focus on the bacterial component of microalgal production systems and describe a pipeline for metagenomic characterization of bacterial diversity in industrial cultures of an oleaginous alga, Nannochloropsis salina. Environmental DNA was isolated from 12 marine algal cultures grown at Solix Biofuels, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, and 16S amplicons were sequenced using a 454 automated pyrosequencer. The approximately 70,000 sequences that passed quality control clustered into 53,950 unique sequences. The majority of sequences belonged to thirteen phyla. At the genus level, sequences from all samples represented 169 different genera. About 52.94% of all sequences could not be identified at the genus level and were classified at the next highest possible resolution level. Of all sequences, 79.92% corresponded to 169 genera and 70 other taxa. We

  19. Bacterial Glycosyltransferases: Challenges and opportunities of a highly diverse enzyme class toward tailoring natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eSchmid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme subclass of glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4 currently comprises 97 families as specified by CAZy classification. One of their important roles is in the biosynthesis of disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides by catalyzing the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to other sugar molecules. In addition glycosyltransferases also catalyze the transfer of sugar moieties onto aglycons, which is of great relevance for the synthesis of many high value natural products. Bacterial glycosyltransferases show a higher sequence similarity in comparison to mammalian ones. Even when most glycosyltransferases are poorly explored, state of the art technologies, such as protein engineering, domain swapping or computational analysis strongly enhance our understanding and utilization of these very promising classes of proteins. This perspective article will focus on bacterial glycosyltransferases, especially on classification, screening and engineering strategies to alter substrate specificity. The future development in these fields as well as obstacles and challenges will be highlighted and discussed.

  20. Auto-production of biosurfactants reverses the coffee ring effect in a bacterial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempels, Wouter; de Dier, Raf; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of material at the edge of evaporating droplets, known as the ‘coffee ring effect’, is caused by a radially outward capillary flow. This phenomenon is common to a wide array of systems including colloidal and bacterial systems. The role of surfactants in counteracting these coffee ring depositions is related to the occurrence of local vortices known as Marangoni eddies. Here we show that these swirling flows are universal, and not only lead to a uniform deposition of colloids but also occur in living bacterial systems. Experiments on Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the auto-production of biosurfactants has an essential role in creating a homogeneous deposition of the bacteria upon drying. Moreover, at biologically relevant conditions, intricate time-dependent flows are observed in addition to the vortex regime, which are also effective in reversing the coffee ring effect at even lower surfactant concentrations.

  1. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene mineralization and bacterial production rates of natural microbial assemblages from coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Michael T., E-mail: michael.montgomery@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Coffin, Richard B., E-mail: richard.coffin@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Boyd, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.boyd@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Smith, Joseph P., E-mail: joseph.smith@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Walker, Shelby E., E-mail: Shelby.Walker@noaa.gov [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Osburn, Christopher L., E-mail: chris_osburn@ncsu.edu [Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The nitrogenous energetic constituent, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), is widely reported to be resistant to bacterial mineralization (conversion to CO{sub 2}); however, these studies primarily involve bacterial isolates from freshwater where bacterial production is typically limited by phosphorus. This study involved six surveys of coastal waters adjacent to three biome types: temperate broadleaf, northern coniferous, and tropical. Capacity to catabolize and mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} was a common feature of natural sediment assemblages from these coastal environments (ranging to 270+/-38 {mu}g C kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}). More importantly, these mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. The finding that most natural assemblages surveyed from these ecosystems can mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is consistent with recent reports that assemblage components can incorporate TNT ring carbon into bacterial biomass. These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - Highlights: > TNT mineralization is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediments. > TNT mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. > These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - The capacity to mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediment.

  2. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene mineralization and bacterial production rates of natural microbial assemblages from coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Michael T.; Coffin, Richard B.; Boyd, Thomas J.; Smith, Joseph P.; Walker, Shelby E.; Osburn, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogenous energetic constituent, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), is widely reported to be resistant to bacterial mineralization (conversion to CO 2 ); however, these studies primarily involve bacterial isolates from freshwater where bacterial production is typically limited by phosphorus. This study involved six surveys of coastal waters adjacent to three biome types: temperate broadleaf, northern coniferous, and tropical. Capacity to catabolize and mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO 2 was a common feature of natural sediment assemblages from these coastal environments (ranging to 270+/-38 μg C kg -1 d -1 ). More importantly, these mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. The finding that most natural assemblages surveyed from these ecosystems can mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO 2 is consistent with recent reports that assemblage components can incorporate TNT ring carbon into bacterial biomass. These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - Highlights: → TNT mineralization is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediments. → TNT mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. → These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - The capacity to mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO 2 is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediment.

  3. Temperature-driven adaptation of the bacterial community in peat measured by using thymidine and leucine incorporation

    OpenAIRE

    Ranneklev, Sissel Brit; Bååth, Erland

    2001-01-01

    The temperature-driven adaptation of the bacterial community in peat was studied, by altering temperature to simulate self-heating and a subsequent return to mesophilic conditions. The technique used consisted of extracting the bacterial community from peat using homogenization-centrifugation and measuring the rates of thymidine (TdR) or leucine (Leu) incorporation by the extracted bacterial community at different temperatures. Increasing the peat incubation temperature from 25°C to 35, 45, o...

  4. Strategies for cost-effective and enhanced production of bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mazhar Ul; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Khan, Shaukat; Shah, Nasrullah; Park, Joong Kon

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial attention because of its high purity, mechanical strength, crystallinity, liquid-absorbing capabilities, biocompatibility, and biodegradability etc. These properties allow BC to be used in various fields, especially in industries producing medical, electronic, and food products etc. A major discrepancy associated with BC is its high production cost, usually much higher than the plant cellulose. To address this limitations, researchers have developed several strategies for enhanced production of BC including the designing of advanced reactors and utilization of various carbon sources. Another promising approach is the production of BC from waste materials such as food, industrial, agricultural, and brewery wastes etc. which not only reduces the overall BC production cost but is also environment-friendly. Besides, exploration of novel and efficient BC producing microbial strains provides impressive boost to the BC production processes. To this end, development of genetically engineered microbial strains has proven useful for enhanced BC production. In this review, we have summarized major efforts to enhance BC production in order to make it a cost-effective biopolymer. This review can be of interest to researchers investigating strategies for enhanced BC production, as well as companies exploring pilot projects to scale up BC production for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring and improving productivity in general radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Michelle A; Miranda, Rafael; Johnson, C Daniel; Love, Peggy Sue

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a method of measuring productivity among general radiographers in a moderate-sized hospital and to improve and sustain productivity within that work area. The average times needed to perform the 13 most common examinations were measured. Performance of the various examinations was tracked and multiplied by the time allocated per procedure; this measure was divided by the length of the work shift to determine productivity. Productivity measures were shared among the work group, and decisions to improve productivity (eg, whether to fill open positions) were made by group members. Average time spent per examination type was calculated (range, 10 minutes to 1 hour 16 minutes). At baseline (February 2008), group productivity was 50%. Productivity increased during the first year of monitoring and was sustained through November 2009 (productivity range, 57%-63%). Yearly savings from not filling open positions were estimated to be $174,000. Productivity in a general radiology work area can be measured. Consensus among the work group helped increase productivity and assess progress. This methodology, if widely adopted, could be standardized and used to compare productivity across departments and institutions. Copyright © 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Novel Platform for Evaluating the Environmental Impacts on Bacterial Cellulose Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anindya; Vadanan, Sundaravadanam Vishnu; Lim, Sierin

    2018-04-10

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biocompatible material with versatile applications. However, its large-scale production is challenged by the limited biological knowledge of the bacteria. The advent of synthetic biology has lead the way to the development of BC producing microbes as a novel chassis. Hence, investigation on optimal growth conditions for BC production and understanding of the fundamental biological processes are imperative. In this study, we report a novel analytical platform that can be used for studying the biology and optimizing growth conditions of cellulose producing bacteria. The platform is based on surface growth pattern of the organism and allows us to confirm that cellulose fibrils produced by the bacteria play a pivotal role towards their chemotaxis. The platform efficiently determines the impacts of different growth conditions on cellulose production and is translatable to static culture conditions. The analytical platform provides a means for fundamental biological studies of bacteria chemotaxis as well as systematic approach towards rational design and development of scalable bioprocessing strategies for industrial production of bacterial cellulose.

  7. Bacterial Standing Stock, Activity, and Carbon Production during Formation and Growth of Sea Ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, S; Dieckmann, G S

    1994-08-01

    Bacterial response to formation and growth of sea ice was investigated during autumn in the northeastern Weddell Sea. Changes in standing stock, activity, and carbon production of bacteria were determined in successive stages of ice development. During initial ice formation, concentrations of bacterial cells, in the order of 1 x 10 to 3 x 10 liter, were not enhanced within the ice matrix. This suggests that physical enrichment of bacteria by ice crystals is not effective. Due to low concentrations of phytoplankton in the water column during freezing, incorporation of bacteria into newly formed ice via attachment to algal cells or aggregates was not recorded in this study. As soon as the ice had formed, the general metabolic activity of bacterial populations was strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the ratio of [H]leucine incorporation into proteins to [H]thymidine incorporation into DNA changed during ice growth. In thick pack ice, bacterial activity recovered and growth rates up to 0.6 day indicated actively dividing populations. However, biomass-specific utilization of organic compounds remained lower than in open water. Bacterial concentrations of up to 2.8 x 10 cells liter along with considerably enlarged cell volumes accumulated within thick pack ice, suggesting reduced mortality rates of bacteria within the small brine pores. In the course of ice development, bacterial carbon production increased from about 0.01 to 0.4 mug of C liter h. In thick ice, bacterial secondary production exceeded primary production of microalgae.

  8. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes.

  9. Target Product Profile for a Diagnostic Assay to Differentiate between Bacterial and Non-Bacterial Infections and Reduce Antimicrobial Overuse in Resource-Limited Settings: An Expert Consensus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dittrich

    Full Text Available Acute fever is one of the most common presenting symptoms globally. In order to reduce the empiric use of antimicrobial drugs and improve outcomes, it is essential to improve diagnostic capabilities. In the absence of microbiology facilities in low-income settings, an assay to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial causes would be a critical first step. To ensure that patient and market needs are met, the requirements of such a test should be specified in a target product profile (TPP. To identify minimal/optimal characteristics for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial fever test, experts from academia and international organizations with expertise in infectious diseases, diagnostic test development, laboratory medicine, global health, and health economics were convened. Proposed TPPs were reviewed by this working group, and consensus characteristics were defined. The working group defined non-severely ill, non-malaria infected children as the target population for the desired assay. To provide access to the most patients, the test should be deployable to community health centers and informal health settings, and staff should require 90% and >80% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Other key characteristics, to account for the challenging environment at which the test is targeted, included: i time-to-result <10 min (but maximally <2 hrs; ii storage conditions at 0-40°C, ≤90% non-condensing humidity with a minimal shelf life of 12 months; iii operational conditions of 5-40°C, ≤90% non-condensing humidity; and iv minimal sample collection needs (50-100μL, capillary blood. This expert approach to define assay requirements for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial assay should guide product development, and enable targeted and timely efforts by industry partners and academic institutions.

  10. Technological measures to improve automotive product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gladkov, V.; Kruglov, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the basic technological measures aimed at improving product quality in automotive industry. While paying due attention to solving organizational and technological problems, including the development of certification systems for production processes, it is also necessary to improve the technical standards of specific technologies, equipment and materials as they largely determine product quality. Special emphasis is given to the importance of improving the production of auto...

  11. "Productivity performance measurement - follow-up"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Health has published the third annual report on hospital productivity. This experience has contributed to policy goals becoming more detailed and ambitious. New policy goals are: to include hospital productivity measures at less aggregated levels, to include labour producti...... productivity and hospital psychiatric care, to provide web-based solutions that facilitate access to productivity data, and to develop new classifications of hospital levels related to structural reforms....

  12. Novel approach for the use of dairy industry wastes for bacterial growth media production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Elleuch, Lobna; Dahmeni, Ameni; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail; Snoussi, Mejdi

    2018-04-15

    This work proposes a novel approach for the reuse and the recovery of dairy wastes valuable components. Thermal coagulation was performed for dairy effluents and the main responsible fraction for the organic matter content (protein and fat) was separated. Dairy curds were prepared for the formulation of bacterial growth media. Protein, sugar, fat and fatty acids contents have been assessed. Samples treated at 100 °C exhibited marked improvement in terms of protein (25-50%) recovery compared to those treated at 80 °C. Fatty acid analysis revealed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids (mainly oleic acid) that are essential to promote Lactobacillus growth. Previously isolated and identified bacterial strains from dairy wastes (Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus brevis) were investigated for their ability to grow on the formulated media. All the tested lactic acid bacteria exhibited greater bacterial growth on the formulated media supplemented with glucose only or with both glucose and yeast extract compared to the control media. By reference to the commercial growth medium, the productivity ratio of the supplemented bactofugate (B) and decreaming (D) formulated media exceeded 0.6 for L. paracasei culture. Whereas, the productivity ratio of the supplemented B medium was greater than 1 compared to the control medium for all the tested strains. As for the supplemented D medium, its productivity ratio was greater than 1 compared to the control medium for both L. paracasei and L. plantarum strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Condensed tannins affect bacterial and fungal microbiomes and mycotoxin production during ensiling and upon aerobic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kai; Jin, Long; Niu, Yan D; Huang, Qianqian; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hee Eun; Denise, Hubert; Xu, Zhongjun; Acharya, Surya; Wang, Shunxi; Wang, Yuxi

    2017-12-15

    Purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent.) containing 84.5 g/kg DM of condensed tannin (CT) was ensiled without (Control) or with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for 76 days, followed by 14 days of aerobic exposure. Changes in fermentation characteristics were determined and bacterial and fungal communities were assessed using metagenomic sequencing. Addition of PEG that deactivated CT at ensiling increased ( P aerobic exposure. The PEG treated silage exhibited higher ( P aerobic exposure, whereas it increased ( P aerobic exposure. Addition of PEG at ensiling increased ( P aerobic exposure, whereas the Bacillus were the dominate bacteria after aerobic exposure. In conclusion, CT decreased protein degradation and improved aerobic stability of silage. These desirable outcomes likely reflect the ability of PPC CT to inhibit those microorganisms involved in lowering silage quality and in the production of mycotoxins. IMPORTANCE The present study reports the effects of condensed tannins on the complex microbial communities involved in ensiling and aerobic exposure of purple prairie clover. This study documents the ability of condensed tannins to lower mycotoxin production and associated microbiome. Taxonomic bacterial community profiles were dominated by the Lactobacillales after fermentation, with a notable increase in Bacillus as a result of aerobic exposure. It is interesting to observe that condensed tannins decreased bacterial diversity during both ensiling and aerobic exposure but increased fungal diversity during aerobic exposure only. The present study indicates that the effects of condensed tannins on microbial communities lead to a reduced lactic acid and total volatile fatty acids production, proteolysis and mycotoxin concentration in the terminal silage and an improved aerobic stability. Condensed tannins could be used as additive to control unfavorable microbial development and maybe enhanced feed safety. © Crown copyright 2017.

  14. Control of biofouling by xanthine oxidase on seawater reverse osmosis membranes from a desalination plant: enzyme production and screening of bacterial isolates from the full-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, V; Skillman, L; Li, D; Xie, Z; Ho, G

    2017-07-01

    Control of biofouling on seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes is a major challenge as treatments can be expensive, damage the membrane material and often biocides do not remove the polymers in which bacteria are embedded. Biological control has been largely ignored for biofouling control. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of xanthine oxidase enzyme against complex fouling communities and then identify naturally occurring bacterial strains that produce the free radical generating enzyme. Initially, 64 bacterial strains were isolated from different locations of the Perth Seawater Desalination Plant. In our preceding study, 25/64 isolates were selected from the culture collection as models for biofouling studies, based on their prevalence in comparison to the genomic bacterial community. In this study, screening of these model strains was performed using a nitroblue tetrazolium assay in the presence of hypoxanthine as substrate. Enzyme activity was measured by absorbance. Nine of 25 strains tested positive for xanthine oxidase production, of which Exiguobacterium from sand filters and Microbacterium from RO membranes exhibited significant levels of enzyme production. Other genera that produced xanthine oxidase were Marinomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas and Staphylococcus. Strain variations were observed between members of the genera Microbacterium and Bacillus. Xanthine oxidase, an oxidoreductase enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species, is endogenously produced by many bacterial species. In this study, production of the enzyme by bacterial isolates from a full-scale desalination plant was investigated for potential use as biological control of membrane fouling in seawater desalination. We have previously demonstrated that free radicals generated by a commercially available xanthine oxidase in the presence of a hypoxanthine substrate, effectively dispersed biofilm polysaccharides on industrially fouled membranes

  15. Development of a Low Input and sustainable Switchgrass Feedstock Production System Utilizing Beneficial Bacterial Endophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Chuansheng [IALR; Nowak, Jerzy [VPISU; Seiler, John [VPISU

    2014-10-24

    Switchgrass represents a promising feedstock crop for US energy sustainability. However, its broad utilization for bioenergy requires improvements of biomass yields and stress tolerance. In this DOE funded project, we have been working on harnessing beneficial bacterial endophytes to enhance switchgrass performance and to develop a low input feedstock production system for marginal lands that do not compete with the production of food crops. We have demonstrated that one of most promising plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize roots and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, greenhouse, as well as field conditions. Furthermore, PsJN bacterization improved growth and development of switchgrass seedlings, significantly stimulated plant root and shoot growth, and tiller number in the field, and enhanced biomass accumulation on both poor (p<0.001) and rich (p<0.05) soils, with more effective stimulation of plant growth in low fertility soil. Plant physiology measurements showed that PsJN inoculated Alamo had consistently lower transpiration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher water use efficiency in greenhouse conditions. These physiological changes may significantly contribute to the recorded growth enhancement. PsJN inoculation rapidly results in an increase in photosynthetic rates which contributes to the advanced growth and development. Some evidence suggests that this initial growth advantage decreases with time when resources are not limited such as in greenhouse studies. Additionally, better drought resistance and drought hardening were observed in PsJN inoculated switchgrass. Using the DOE-funded switchgrass EST microarray, in a collaboration with the Genomics Core Facility at the Noble Foundation, we have determined gene expression profile changes in both responsive switchgrass cv. Alamo and non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock (CR) following Ps

  16. Engineering Escherichia coli for Biodiesel Production Utilizing a Bacterial Fatty Acid Methyltransferase▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawabi, Parwez; Bauer, Stefan; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lykidis, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    The production of low-cost biofuels in engineered microorganisms is of great interest due to the continual increase in the world's energy demands. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can potentially be produced in microbes cost-effectively. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are a common component of biodiesel and can be synthesized from either triacylglycerol or free fatty acids (FFAs). Here we report the identification of a novel bacterial fatty acid methyltransferase (FAMT) that catalyzes the formation of FAMEs and 3-hydroxyl fatty acid methyl esters (3-OH-FAMEs) from the respective free acids and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). FAMT exhibits a higher specificity toward 3-hydroxy free fatty acids (3-OH-FFAs) than FFAs, synthesizing 3-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters (3-OH-FAMEs) in vivo. We have also identified bacterial members of the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (FAT) enzyme family with distinct acyl chain specificities. These bacterial FATs exhibit increased specificity toward 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP, generating 3-OH-FFAs, which can subsequently be utilized by FAMTs to produce 3-OH-FAMEs. PhaG (3-hydroxyacyl ACP:coenzyme A [CoA] transacylase) constitutes an alternative route to 3-OH-FFA synthesis; the coexpression of PhaG with FAMT led to the highest level of accumulation of 3-OH-FAMEs and FAMEs. The availability of AdoMet, the second substrate for FAMT, is an important factor regulating the amount of methyl esters produced by bacterial cells. Our results indicate that the deletion of the global methionine regulator metJ and the overexpression of methionine adenosyltransferase result in increased methyl ester synthesis. PMID:21926202

  17. Seaweed as source of energy. 1: effect of a specific bacterial strain on biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasa R.P.; Tarwade, S.J.; Sarma, K.S.R.

    1980-09-01

    Only certain marine bacteria capable of digesting the special type of polysaccharide - agar and alginic acid can bring about the biodegradation of these substances and utilise them as carbon source to produce the organics which will be utilised by the methane bacteria to produce methane. When bacterial strain was used in conjunction with cowdung as a source of methane bacteria in seaweed digester, production of biogas from seaweed was accelerated. Adding of small amount of Ulva to seaweed digester increased the output of gas. (Refs. 4).

  18. Estimating Bacterial Production in Marine Waters from the Simultaneous Incorporation of Thymidine and Leucine

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Leo, Gerardo; Kirchman, David L.

    1988-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous incorporation of [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine to obtain two independent indices of bacterial production (DNA and protein syntheses) in a single incubation. Incorporation rates of leucine estimated by the dual-label method were generally higher than those obtained by the single-label method, but the differences were small (dual/single = 1.1 ± 0.2 [mean ± standard deviation]) and were probably due to the presence of labeled leucyl-tRNA in the cold trichloroacetic ...

  19. Performance Measurement in Global Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    there is a requirement for the process to be monitored and measured relative to the business strategy of an organisation. It was found that performance measurement is a process that helps achieve sustainable business success, encouraging a learning culture within organisations. To this day, much of the research into how...... performance is measured has focussed on the process of product development. However, exploration of performance measurement related to global product development is relatively unexplored and a need for further research is evident. This paper contributes towards understanding how performance is measured...

  20. Bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus by employing alternative culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; Pértile, Renata Aparecida Nedel; dos Santos, Carolina Alves; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Gama, Francisco Miguel; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is used in different fields as a biological material due to its unique properties. Despite there being many BC applications, there still remain many problems associated with bioprocess technology, such as increasing productivity and decreasing production cost. New technologies that use waste from the food industry as raw materials for culture media promote economic advantages because they reduce environmental pollution and stimulate new research for science sustainability. For this reason, BC production requires optimized conditions to increase its application. The main objective of this study was to evaluate BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus using industry waste, namely, rotten fruits and milk whey, as culture media. Furthermore, the structure of BC produced at different conditions was also determined. The culture media employed in this study were composed of rotten fruit collected from the disposal of free markets, milk whey from a local industrial disposal, and their combination, and Hestrin and Schramm media was used as standard culture media. Although all culture media studied produced BC, the highest BC yield-60 mg/mL-was achieved with the rotten fruit culture. Thus, the results showed that rotten fruit can be used for BC production. This culture media can be considered as a profitable alternative to generate high-value products. In addition, it combines environmental concern with sustainable processes that can promote also the reduction of production cost.

  1. Effects of aromatic compounds on the production of bacterial nanocellulose by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Winestrand, Sandra; Guo, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Hong, Feng; Jönsson, Leif J

    2014-04-30

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymeric nanostructured fibrillar network produced by certain microorganisms, principally Gluconacetobacter xylinus. BC has a great potential of application in many fields. Lignocellulosic biomass has been investigated as a cost-effective feedstock for BC production through pretreatment and hydrolysis. It is well known that detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates may be required to achieve efficient production of BC. Recent results suggest that phenolic compounds contribute to the inhibition of G. xylinus. However, very little is known about the effect on G. xylinus of specific lignocellulose-derived inhibitors. In this study, the inhibitory effects of four phenolic model compounds (coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, vanillin and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) on the growth of G. xylinus, the pH of the culture medium, and the production of BC were investigated in detail. The stability of the phenolics in the bacterial cultures was investigated and the main bioconversion products were identified and quantified. Coniferyl aldehyde was the most potent inhibitor, followed by vanillin, ferulic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. There was no BC produced even with coniferyl aldehyde concentrations as low as 2 mM. Vanillin displayed a negative effect on the bacteria and when the vanillin concentration was raised to 2.5 mM the volumetric yield of BC decreased to ~40% of that obtained in control medium without inhibitors. The phenolic acids, ferulic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, showed almost no toxic effects when less than 2.5 mM. The bacterial cultures oxidized coniferyl aldehyde to ferulic acid with a yield of up to 81%. Vanillin was reduced to vanillyl alcohol with a yield of up to 80%. This is the first investigation of the effect of specific phenolics on the production of BC by G. xylinus, and is also the first demonstration of the ability of G. xylinus to convert phenolic compounds. This study gives a better understanding of how

  2. Bacterial production determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation in field rhizospheres as evaluated by comparison to rhizodeposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming

    1995-01-01

    In a sandy loam soil cropped to barley bacterial production in the rhizosphere was compared to the results of a parallel investigation on rhizodeposition. Bacterial production was stimulated in the rhizosphere as revealed by an increased biomass of bacteria (643–883 µg C g-1 soil) and protozoa (7.......2–15 × 104 cells g-1 soil) as well as elevated thymidine incorporation (9.7–12 pmol g-1 soil) in rhizosphere soil compared to bulk soil. Rhizodeposition, as determined by several pulse labellings with 14CO2, was estimated to be 412 µg C g-1 dry wt soil in the 0–15 cm layer. Bacterial production......, as determined by incorporation of 3H-labelled thymidine converted to bacterial C, revealed a plant-induced formation of 1348 µg bacterial C g-1 soil in the 0–15 cm layer. This is probably the first estimate for bacterial production based on thymidine incorporation which has been compared to an estimate of C...

  3. Methane Production in Dairy Cows Correlates with Rumen Methanogenic and Bacterial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Dicksved, Johan; Sun, Li; Gonda, Horacio; Müller, Bettina; Schnürer, Anna; Bertilsson, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is produced as an end product from feed fermentation in the rumen. Yield of CH 4 varies between individuals despite identical feeding conditions. To get a better understanding of factors behind the individual variation, 73 dairy cows given the same feed but differing in CH 4 emissions were investigated with focus on fiber digestion, fermentation end products and bacterial and archaeal composition. In total 21 cows (12 Holstein, 9 Swedish Red) identified as persistent low, medium or high CH 4 emitters over a 3 month period were furthermore chosen for analysis of microbial community structure in rumen fluid. This was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene and by quantitative qPCR of targeted Methanobrevibacter groups. The results showed a positive correlation between low CH 4 emitters and higher abundance of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level of bacteria showed two distinct clusters ( P microbial population or host genetic differences that is reflected in bacterial and archaeal (or methanogens) populations.

  4. Effect of grazers and viruses on bacterial community structure and production in two contrasting trophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domaizon Isabelle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last 30 years, extensive studies have revealed the crucial roles played by microbes in aquatic ecosystems. It has been shown that bacteria, viruses and protozoan grazers are dominant in terms of abundance and biomass. The frequent interactions between these microbiological compartments are responsible for strong trophic links from dissolved organic matter to higher trophic levels, via heterotrophic bacteria, which form the basis for the important biogeochemical roles of microbial food webs in aquatic ecosystems. To gain a better understanding of the interactions between bacteria, viruses and flagellates in lacustrine ecosystems, we investigated the effect of protistan bacterivory on bacterial abundance, production and structure [determined by 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE], and viral abundance and activity of two lakes of contrasting trophic status. Four experiments were conducted in the oligotrophic Lake Annecy and the mesotrophic Lake Bourget over two seasons (early spring vs. summer using a fractionation approach. In situ dark vs. light incubations were performed to consider the effects of the different treatments in the presence and absence of phototrophic activity. Results The presence of grazers (i.e. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of a synergistic effect, i.e. the positive influence of grazers on viral activities in sustaining (directly and indirectly bacterial production and affecting composition, in both oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes.

  5. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bacterial Ghost (BG platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8–10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology.

  6. Cellulosic hydrogen production with a sequencing bacterial hydrolysis and dark fermentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Bai, Ming-Der; Chen, Wen-Ming; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2008-11-01

    In this study, cellulose hydrolysis activity of two mixed bacterial consortia (NS and QS) was investigated. Combination of NS culture and BHM medium exhibited better hydrolytic activity under the optimal condition of 35 degrees C, initial pH 7.0, and 100rpm agitation. The NS culture could hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), rice husk, bagasse and filter paper, among which CMC gave the best hydrolysis performance. The CMC hydrolysis efficiency increased with increasing CMC concentration from 5 to 50g/l. With a CMC concentration of 10g/l, the total reducing sugar (RS) production and the RS producing rate reached 5531.0mg/l and 92.9mg/l/h, respectively. Furthermore, seven H2-producing bacterial isolates (mainly Clostridium species) were used to convert the cellulose hydrolysate into H2 energy. With an initial RS concentration of 0.8g/l, the H2 production and yield was approximately 23.8ml/l and 1.21mmol H2/g RS (0.097mmol H2/g cellulose), respectively.

  7. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of bacteria ranged from 3.0 × 105 to 5.0 × 105 cfu/g in uncontaminated soils and 1.0 × 105 to 3.0 × 105 cfu/g in contaminated soils. The isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium variabilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. The contamination had no significant effect on pH, potassium, sodium, organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soils, while the moisture, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the contaminated soils were significantly different (P < 0.05 compared with the uncontaminated soils. The ability of Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to utilize the refined petroleum products suggest that these bacteria had potential to bioremediate petroleum contaminated soils.

  8. Macrophage activation induced by Brucella DNA suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via enhancing NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Tang, Bin; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-12-01

    Brucella DNA can be sensed by TLR9 on endosomal membrane and by cytosolic AIM2-inflammasome to induce proinflammatory cytokine production that contributes to partially activate innate immunity. Additionally, Brucella DNA has been identified to be able to act as a major bacterial component to induce type I IFN. However, the role of Brucella DNA in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. Here, we showed that stimulation with Brucella DNA promote macrophage activation in TLR9-dependent manner. Activated macrophages can suppresses wild type Brucella intracellular replication at early stage of infection via enhancing NO production. We also reported that activated macrophage promotes bactericidal function of macrophages infected with VirB-deficient Brucella at the early or late stage of infection. This study uncovers a novel function of Brucella DNA, which can help us further elucidate the mechanism of Brucella intracellular survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolasi, Seleksi Dan Opttmasi Produksi Protease Daribeberapaisolat Bakteri*(isolation, Selection and Optimalization of Protease Production of Some Bacterial Isolates)

    OpenAIRE

    Naiola, Elidar; Widhyastuti, Nunuk

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-seven out of sixty-one bacterial isolates from various sources of samples were screened for protease production. The isolate of ISO PL3 could produce the highest enzyme activity, and it was used as a standard bacterial strain in this observation. For any reason,we implemented ISO PL2 to study the optimum condition for producing bacterial protease. Result shows that the maximum protease activity was obtained in a medium containing 100 gram of rice brand in a liter tofu liquid waste. The...

  10. Bacterial Standing Stock, Activity, and Carbon Production during Formation and Growth of Sea Ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica †

    OpenAIRE

    Grossmann, Sönnke; Dieckmann, Gerhard S.

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial response to formation and growth of sea ice was investigated during autumn in the northeastern Weddell Sea. Changes in standing stock, activity, and carbon production of bacteria were determined in successive stages of ice development. During initial ice formation, concentrations of bacterial cells, in the order of 1 × 108 to 3 × 108 liter-1, were not enhanced within the ice matrix. This suggests that physical enrichment of bacteria by ice crystals is not effective. Due to low conce...

  11. Bacterial natural product biosynthetic domain composition in soil correlates with changes in latitude on a continent-wide scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetre, Christophe; Maniko, Jeffrey; Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Sparrow, Ben; Lowe, Andrew J; Brady, Sean F

    2017-10-31

    Although bacterial bioactive metabolites have been one of the most prolific sources of lead structures for the development of small-molecule therapeutics, very little is known about the environmental factors associated with changes in secondary metabolism across natural environments. Large-scale sequencing of environmental microbiomes has the potential to shed light on the richness of bacterial biosynthetic diversity hidden in the environment, how it varies from one environment to the next, and what environmental factors correlate with changes in biosynthetic diversity. In this study, the sequencing of PCR amplicons generated using primers targeting either ketosynthase domains from polyketide biosynthesis or adenylation domains from nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis was used to assess biosynthetic domain composition and richness in soils collected across the Australian continent. Using environmental variables collected at each soil site, we looked for environmental factors that correlated with either high overall domain richness or changes in the domain composition. Among the environmental variables we measured, changes in biosynthetic domain composition correlate most closely with changes in latitude and to a lesser extent changes in pH. Although it is unclear at this time the exact mix of factors that may drive the relationship between biosynthetic domain composition and latitude, from a practical perspective the identification of a latitudinal basis for differences in soil metagenome biosynthetic domain compositions should help guide future natural product discovery efforts. Published under the PNAS license.

  12. Beyond Research Productivity: Matching Productivity Measures to Institutional Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bartholomew

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a unified methodology inclusive of the three primary areas of faculty responsibility (teaching, research, and service to calculate departmental productivity that fills the gap in methodological bench-marking tools for overall faculty productivity. Background:\tA disproportionate number of departmental and faculty productivity indices in higher education rely solely on research. Productivity in other areas of faculty workload areas, like teaching and institutional and community service, are either measured separately or ignored all together – even when those activities are institutionally mandated. This does a disservice to those who work in those institutions and skews incentives. Methodology: This paper utilizes a unified methodology inclusive of the three primary areas of faculty responsibility (teaching, research, and service to calculate depart-mental productivity in five disparate departments (English, Biology, Mathematics, Sociology, and Computer Science common to two universities with differing missions (teaching and service. Findings: The results reveal the bias inherent in relying solely on research as a proxy for overall productivity in institutions that have differing missions. Recommendations for Practitioners: Utilizing better metrics informs higher education administrators, promotes better decision-making, and allows incentives to re-align with desired outcomes. Recommendation for Researchers: This paper recommends combing all aspects of faculty workload into a single benchmark index to better measure departmental productivity. Future Research: Further research into improving this simple index is warranted and would include how to account for quality and other facets of productivity.

  13. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouche, Yogesh S.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS) technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL) in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20%) to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial community in PETL

  14. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Shetty, Sudarshan A; Shouche, Yogesh S; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS) technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL) in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20%) to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial community in PETL

  15. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachiket P Marathe

    Full Text Available Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20% to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial

  16. A low cost color-based bacterial biosensor for measuring arsenic in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Using arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater for drinking or irrigation has caused major health problems for humans around the world, raising a need to monitor As level efficiently and economically. This study developed a color-based bacterial biosensor which is easy-to-use and inexpensive for measuring As and could be complementary to current As detecting techniques. The arsR-lacZ recombinant gene cassette in nonpathogenic strain Escherichia coli DH5α was used in the color-based biosensor which could be observed by eyes or measured by spectrometer. The developed bacterial biosensor demonstrates a quantitative range from 10 to 500μgL(-1) of As in 3-h reaction time. Furthermore, the biosensor was able to successfully detect and estimate As concentration in groundwater sample by measuring optical density at 595nm (OD595). Among different storage methods used in this study, biosensor in liquid at 4°C showed the longest shelf life about 9d, and liquid storage at RT and cell pellet could also be stored for about 3-5d. In conclusion, this study showed that the As biosensor with reliable color signal and economical preservation methods is useful for rapid screening of As pollutant, providing the potential for large scale screening and better management strategies for environmental quality control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ye; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  18. Device for measuring fission product density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Mitsunori.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the fission product density of xenon or the like and enable measurement of real time of fission product density in a reactor by calculating the disintegration and annihilation of the fission product on the basis of neutron detected output. Constitution: The neutron flux in a reactor is detected by a detector, and applied to first and second density calculators. Second fission product density signal of xenon or the like outputted from first device is again inputted to the device to form an annihilation signal due to disintegration to determine the present density of the second fission product of xenon or the like corresponding to the decrease of the neutron due to the poison of xeron or the like. Similarly, second device determines the first fission product density of iodine or the like. (Sekiya, K.)

  19. Production, property, and application of bacterial cellulose; Bakuteriaserurosu no seisan, butsusei no tokucho to sono riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, S.; Watanabe, K. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Lab.; Iguchi, M. [Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)] Nishi, Y. [Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Cellulose produced by bacterial is called bacterial cellulose (BC). The morphology and physical properties of BC are found to be quite unique in comparison with those of higher class plants. The properties are elucidated and a study is made to utilize the properties. The outline of this study is introduced in the sequence of BC production, BC morphology, elucidation of the physical property, and study on the application. BC consists of ultrafine fibers, and the widths of fibers are in the range from (1/199) to (1/1,000) of cotton fibers, forming distinctive network structure. It is assumed that the high Young`s modulus is based on the structural features of BC. Researches have been made on various applications to such fields as audio, paper, food, and compounds where the features of cellulose are utilized effectively. The morphology of cellulose can be varied by adding drugs which can change a part of the protein. It is expected that cellulose structure can be controlled in the future by the application of this technology. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of gastrointestinal bacterial population for the production of holocellulose enzymes for biomass deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asem, Dhaneshwaree; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Passari, Ajit Kumar; Tonsing, Mary Vanlalhruaii; Joshi, J Beslin; Uthandi, Sivakumar; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) habitat of ruminant and non-ruminant animals sustains a vast ensemble of microbes that are capable of utilizing lignocellulosic plant biomass. In this study, an indigenous swine (Zovawk) and a domesticated goat (Black Bengal) were investigated to isolate bacteria having plant biomass degrading enzymes. After screening and enzymatic quantification of eighty-one obtained bacterial isolates, Serratia rubidaea strain DBT4 and Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain DBT87 were revealed as the most potent strains, showing both cellulase and xylanase production. A biomass utilization study showed that submerged fermentation (SmF) of D2 (alkaline pretreated pulpy biomass) using strain DBT4 resulted in the most efficient biomass deconstruction with maximum xylanase (11.98 U/mL) and FPase (0.5 U/mL) activities (55°C, pH 8). The present study demonstrated that bacterial strains residing in the gastrointestinal region of non-ruminant swine are a promising source for lignocellulose degrading microorganisms that could be used for biomass conversion.

  1. Evaluation of gastrointestinal bacterial population for the production of holocellulose enzymes for biomass deconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwaree Asem

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI habitat of ruminant and non-ruminant animals sustains a vast ensemble of microbes that are capable of utilizing lignocellulosic plant biomass. In this study, an indigenous swine (Zovawk and a domesticated goat (Black Bengal were investigated to isolate bacteria having plant biomass degrading enzymes. After screening and enzymatic quantification of eighty-one obtained bacterial isolates, Serratia rubidaea strain DBT4 and Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain DBT87 were revealed as the most potent strains, showing both cellulase and xylanase production. A biomass utilization study showed that submerged fermentation (SmF of D2 (alkaline pretreated pulpy biomass using strain DBT4 resulted in the most efficient biomass deconstruction with maximum xylanase (11.98 U/mL and FPase (0.5 U/mL activities (55°C, pH 8. The present study demonstrated that bacterial strains residing in the gastrointestinal region of non-ruminant swine are a promising source for lignocellulose degrading microorganisms that could be used for biomass conversion.

  2. Bacterial cellulose production from cotton-based waste textiles: enzymatic saccharification enhanced by ionic liquid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Feng; Guo, Xiang; Zhang, Shuo; Han, Shi-fen; Yang, Guang; Jönsson, Leif J

    2012-01-01

    Cotton-based waste textiles were explored as alternative feedstock for production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The cellulosic fabrics were treated with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl). [AMIM]Cl caused 25% inactivation of cellulase activity at a concentration as low as of 0.02 g/mL and decreased BC production during fermentation when present in concentrations higher than 0.0005 g/mL. Therefore, removal of residual IL by washing with hot water was highly beneficial to enzymatic saccharification as well as BC production. IL-treated fabrics exhibited a 5-7-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis rate and gave a seven times larger yield of fermentable sugars than untreated fabrics. BC from cotton cloth hydrolysate was obtained at an yield of 10.8 g/L which was 83% higher than that from the culture grown on glucose-based medium. The BC from G. xylinus grown on IL-treated fabric hydrolysate had a 79% higher tensile strength than BC from glucose-based culture medium which suggests that waste cotton pretreated with [AMIM]Cl has potential to serve as a high-quality carbon source for BC production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing antibiotic resistance in preservative-tolerant bacterial strains isolated from cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orús, Pilar; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Leranoz, Sonia; Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    To ensure the microbiological quality, consumer safety and organoleptic properties of cosmetic products, manufacturers need to comply with defined standards using several preservatives and disinfectants. A drawback regarding the use of these preservatives is the possibility of generating cross-insusceptibility to other disinfectants or preservatives, as well as cross resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the adaptive mechanisms of Enterobacter gergoviae, Pseudomonas putida and Burkholderia cepacia that are involved in recurrent contamination in cosmetic products containing preservatives. Diminished susceptibility to formaldehyde-donors was detected in isolates but not to other preservatives commonly used in the cosmetics industry, although increasing resistance to different antibiotics (β-lactams, quinolones, rifampicin, and tetracycline) was demonstrated in these strains when compared with the wild-type strain. The outer membrane protein modifications and efflux mechanism activities responsible for the resistance trait were evaluated. The development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms due to the selective pressure from preservatives included in cosmetic products could be a risk for the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance in the environment. Nevertheless, the large contribution of disinfection and preservation cannot be denied in cosmetic products. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  4. Enhanced production of bacterial cellulose by using a biofilm reactor and its material property analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirci Ali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial cellulose has been used in the food industry for applications such as low-calorie desserts, salads, and fabricated foods. It has also been used in the paper manufacturing industry to enhance paper strength, the electronics industry in acoustic diaphragms for audio speakers, the pharmaceutical industry as filtration membranes, and in the medical field as wound dressing and artificial skin material. In this study, different types of plastic composite support (PCS were implemented separately within a fermentation medium in order to enhance bacterial cellulose (BC production by Acetobacter xylinum. The optimal composition of nutritious compounds in PCS was chosen based on the amount of BC produced. The selected PCS was implemented within a bioreactor to examine the effects on BC production in a batch fermentation. The produced BC was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. Among thirteen types of PCS, the type SFYR+ was selected as solid support for BC production by A. xylinum in a batch biofilm reactor due to its high nitrogen content, moderate nitrogen leaching rate, and sufficient biomass attached on PCS. The PCS biofilm reactor yielded BC production (7.05 g/L that was 2.5-fold greater than the control (2.82 g/L. The XRD results indicated that the PCS-grown BC exhibited higher crystallinity (93% and similar crystal size (5.2 nm to the control. FESEM results showed the attachment of A. xylinum on PCS, producing an interweaving BC product. TGA results demonstrated that PCS-grown BC had about 95% water retention ability, which was lower than BC produced within suspended-cell reactor. PCS-grown BC also exhibited higher Tmax compared to the control. Finally, DMA results showed that BC from the PCS biofilm reactor increased its mechanical property values, i.e., stress at break and Young's modulus when compared to

  5. Isotope Effects Associated with N2O Production by Fungal and Bacterial Nitric Oxide Reductases: Implications for Enzyme Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, E. L.; Yang, H.; Gandhi, H.; McQuarters, A.; Lehnert, N.; Ostrom, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is both a powerful greenhouse gas and a key participant in ozone destruction. Microbial activity accounts for over 70% of the N2O produced annually, and the atmospheric concentration of N2O continues to rise. Because the fungal and bacterial denitrification pathways are major contributors to microbial N2O production, understanding the mechanism by which NO is reduced to N2O will contribute to both N2O source tracing and quantification. Our strategy utilizes stable isotopes to probe the enzymatic mechanism of microbial N2O production. Although the use of stable isotopes to study enzyme mechanisms is not new, our approach is distinct in that we employ both measurements of isotopic preferences of purified enzyme and DFT calculations, thereby providing a synergistic combination of experimental and computational approaches. We analyzed δ18O, δ15Nα (central N atom in N2O), and δ15Nβ (terminal N atom) of N2O produced by purified fungal cytochrome P450 nitric oxide reductase (P450nor) from Histoplasma capsulatum as well as bacterial cytochrome c dependent nitric oxide reductase (cNOR) from Paracoccus denitrificans. P450nor exhibits an inverse kinetic isotope effect for Nβ (KIE = 0.9651) but a normal isotope effect for both Nα (KIE = 1.0127) and the oxygen atom (KIE = 1.0264). These results suggest a mechanism where NO binds to the ferric heme in the P450nor active site and becomes Nβ. Analysis of the NO-binding step indicated a greater difference in zero point energy in the transition state than the ground state, resulting in the inverse KIE observed for Nβ. Following protonation and rearrangement, it is speculated that this complex forms a FeIV-NHOH- species as a key intermediate. Our data are consistent with the second NO (which becomes Nα and O in the N2O product) attacking the FeIV-NHOH- species to generate a FeIII-N2O2H2 complex that enzymatically (as opposed to abiotically) breaks down to release N2O. Conversely, our preliminary data

  6. Bacterial community structure and variation in a full-scale seawater desalination plant for drinking water production

    KAUST Repository

    Belila, Abdelaziz

    2016-02-18

    Microbial processes inevitably play a role in membrane-based desalination plants, mainly recognized as membrane biofouling. We assessed the bacterial community structure and diversity during different treatment steps in a full-scale seawater desalination plant producing 40,000 m3/d of drinking water. Water samples were taken over the full treatment train consisting of chlorination, spruce media and cartridge filters, de-chlorination, first and second pass reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and final chlorine dosage for drinking water distribution. The water samples were analyzed for water quality parameters (total bacterial cell number, total organic carbon, conductivity, pH, etc.) and microbial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The planktonic microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria (48.6%) followed by Bacteroidetes (15%), Firmicutes (9.3%) and Cyanobacteria (4.9%). During the pretreatment step, the spruce media filter did not impact the bacterial community composition dominated by Proteobacteria. In contrast, the RO and final chlorination treatment steps reduced the Proteobacterial relative abundance in the produced water where Firmicutes constituted the most dominant bacterial group. Shannon and Chao1 diversity indices showed that bacterial species richness and diversity decreased during the seawater desalination process. The two-stage RO filtration strongly reduced the water conductivity (>99%), TOC concentration (98.5%) and total bacterial cell number (>99%), albeit some bacterial DNA was found in the water after RO filtration. About 0.25% of the total bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in all stages of the desalination plant: the seawater, the RO permeates and the chlorinated drinking water, suggesting that these bacterial strains can survive in different environments such as high/low salt concentration and with/without residual disinfectant. These bacterial strains were not caused by contamination during

  7. In situ real-time measurement of physical characteristics of airborne bacterial particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols, including aerosolized bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are associated with public health and environmental problems. One promising control method to reduce the harmful effects of bioaerosols is thermal inactivation via a continuous-flow high-temperature short-time (HTST) system. However, variations in bioaerosol physical characteristics - for example, the particle size and shape - during the continuous-flow inactivation process can change the transport properties in the air, which can affect particle deposition in the human respiratory system or the filtration efficiency of ventilation systems. Real-time particle monitoring techniques are a desirable alternative to the time-consuming process of microscopic analysis that is conventionally used in sampling and particle characterization. Here, we report in situ real-time optical scattering measurements of the physical characteristics of airborne bacteria particles following an HTST process in a continuous-flow system. Our results demonstrate that the aerodynamic diameter of bacterial aerosols decreases when exposed to a high-temperature environment, and that the shape of the bacterial cells is significantly altered. These variations in physical characteristics using optical scattering measurements were found to be in agreement with the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis.

  8. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized th...

  9. Bacterial production in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil evaluated by ³H-leucine incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra M. Gonzalez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the necessary ³H-leucine concentration to estimate bacterial production in Guanabara Bay through saturation curves. A second aim was to collect preliminary data of bacterial production in two distinct sites corresponding to different water qualities: Urca inlet and Governador Island. Saturation curves were made with water samples taken at the main circulation channel of the bay, Paquetá Island, and the two sites mentioned before. The ³H-leucine curves showed similar pattern for all studied areas, indicating the ideal isotope concentration to be 10 nM. Bacterial biomass production ranged from 0.40 to 4.53 µgC L-1 h-1 in Urca and from 3.86 to 73.72 µgC L-1 h-1 in Governador Island indicating the relationship between nutrients and organic matter supply and bacterial productivity. This work is an important reference for studies on trophodynamics, biogeochemical cycles and modelling in Guanabara Bay.O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar curvas de saturação a fim de otimizar a concentração de ³H-leucina necessária para avaliar produção bacteriana na Baía de Guanabara. Objetivou-se ainda a aquisição de dados preliminares de produção bacteriana em dois locais distintos em termos de qualidade de água : enseada da Urca e Ilha do Governador. As amostras para as curvas foram obtidas na região do Canal Central e na Ilha de Paquetá, além dos dois locais de coleta citados acima. Seguiu-se a metodologia descrita por Kirchman et al. (1985 e modificada por Smith & Azam (1992. As curvas de ³H-leucina mostraram um padrão semelhante para todas as áreas estudadas, indicando a concentração ótima de isótopo de 10 nM. A produção de biomassa bacteriana variou de 0,40 a 4,53 µgC L-1 h-1 na Urca e de 3,86 a 73,72 µgC L-1 h-1 na Ilha do Governador confirmando a relação entre a disponibilidade de nutrientes e matéria orgânica e o aumento da produtividade bacteriana. Essas análises poderão ser

  10. Seaweed as source of energy. I: effect of a specific bacterial strain on biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.S.; Tarwade, S.J.; Sarma, K.S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Biogas was produced from seaweed by making use of alginate-digesting marine bacteria that were isolated from decomposing seaweed and can digest seaweed carbohydrates (agar and alginic acid). Laboratory digesters containing 100 g seaweed were inoculated with 50 mL broth cultures of different seaweed-derived bacterial strains, and the maximum amount of degradation obtained was 28% (compared with 13% for a bacteria-free digestion). Cow dung was added as a source of methanogenic bacteria, and the amount of biogas produced was more than double the amount obtained when seaweed and cow dung were digested in the absence of the seaweed-derived bacteria. Adding a small amount of Ulva to the seaweed digester increased the production of biogas.

  11. Pesticide side effects in an agricultural soil ecosystem as measured by amoA expression quantification and bacterial diversity changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Hjort Hjelmsø, Mathis; Schostag, Morten

    2015-01-01

    , but only transiently. The bacterial and archaeal amoA transcripts were both sensitive bioindicators of pesticide side effects. Additionally, the numbers of bacterial amoA transcripts correlated with nitrate production in N-amended microcosms. Dazomet reduced the total bacterial numbers by one log unit...

  12. b-Production measurements with ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, Simon

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce b-hadrons with unprecedentedly high statistics, and with a higher energy reach than any previous machine. The ATLAS detector will offer excellent acceptance and performance for b physics studies and will make high statistics measurements of b-quark production to probe QCD. ATLAS can contribute to an understanding of the large discrepancy seen between the QCD prediction and Tevatron cross-section measurements. Measurements will be made of the absolute and differential production cross-sections. Measurements of bb-bar correlations will be made to test the NLO contributions to the cross-section and to place limits on non-perturbative effects

  13. Novel keratin modified bacterial cellulose nanocomposite production and characterization for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Zalike; Sendemir Urkmez, Aylin; Hames, E Esin

    2017-06-01

    As it is known that bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biocompatible and natural biopolymer due to which it has a large set of biomedical applications. But still it lacks some desired properties, which limits its uses in many other applications. Therefore, the properties of BC need to be boosted up to an acceptable level. Here in this study for the first time, a new natural nanocomposite was produced by the incorporating keratin (isolated from human hair) to the BC (produced by Acetobacter xylinum) to enhance dermal fibroblast cells' attachment. Two different approaches were used in BC based nanocomposite production: in situ and post modifications. BC/keratin nanocomposites were characterized using SEM, FTIR, EDX, XRD, DSC and XPS analyses. Both production methods have yielded successful results for production of BC based nanocomposite-containing keratin. In vitro cell culture experiments performed with human skin keratinocytes and human skin fibroblast cells indicate the potential of the novel BC/keratin nanocomposites for use in skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-06

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytoplankton production systems in a shellfish hatchery: variations of the bacterial load and diversity of vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, J; Fernández-Pardo, A; Nóvoa, S; Barja, J L; Prado, S

    2015-06-01

    Outbreaks of disease caused by some Vibrio species represent the main production bottleneck in shellfish hatcheries. Although the phytoplankton used as food is one of the main sources of bacteria, studies of the associated bacterial populations, specifically vibrios, are scarce. The aim of the study was the microbiological monitoring of the microalgae as the first step in assessing the risk disease for bivalve cultures. Two phytoplankton production systems were sampled weekly throughout 1-year period in a bivalve hatchery. Quantitative analysis revealed high levels of marine heterotrophic bacteria in both systems throughout the study. Presumptive vibrios were detected occasionally and at low concentrations. In most of the cases, they belonged to the Splendidus and Harveyi clades. The early detection of vibrios in the microalgae may be the key for a successful bivalve culture. Their abundance and diversity were affected by factors related to the hatchery environment. This work represents the first long study where the presence of vibrios was evaluated rigorously in phytoplankton production systems and provides a suitable microbiological protocol to control and guarantee the quality of the algal cultures to avoid the risk of transferring potential pathogens to shellfish larvae and/or broodstock. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24h before sampling (late addition) resulted in {approx}2x greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to {approx}3x more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  17. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg: SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2 greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid-and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3 more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  18. ATLAS measurements of vector boson production

    CERN Document Server

    Vittori, Camilla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell­Yan production of W and Z/gamma* bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center­of­mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. In the 8 TeV data, we present recent measurements in the di­lepton mass range up to the TeV scale, double­differentially in dilepton mass and rapidity(­separation). The measurements are compared to state­of­the­art calculations at NNLO in QCD and constrain the photon content of the proton. First precise inclusive measurements of W and Z production at 13 TeV are presented. W/Z and W charge ratios profit from a cancellation of experimental uncertainties. The angular distributions of the Drell­Yan lepton pairs around the Z­boson mass peak probe the underlying QCD dynamic of the Z­boson production mechanisms. We present a measurement of the complete set of angular coefficients describing these distributions...

  19. A consistent and predictable commercial broiler chicken bacterial microbiota in antibiotic-free production displays strong correlations with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy J; Youmans, Bonnie P; Noll, Sally; Cardona, Carol; Evans, Nicholas P; Karnezos, T Peter; Ngunjiri, John M; Abundo, Michael C; Lee, Chang-Won

    2018-04-06

    Defining the baseline bacterial microbiome is critical towards understanding its relationship with health and disease. In broiler chickens, the core microbiome and its possible relationships with health and disease have been difficult to define due to high variability between birds and flocks. Presented are data from a large, comprehensive microbiota-based study in commercial broilers. The primary goals of this study included understanding what constitutes the core bacterial microbiota in the broiler gastrointestinal, respiratory, and barn environments; how these core players change across age, geography, and time; and which bacterial taxa correlate with enhanced bird performance in antibiotic-free flocks. Using 2,309 samples from 37 different commercial flocks within a vertically integrated broiler system, and metadata from these and an additional 512 flocks within that system, the baseline bacterial microbiota was defined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The effects of age, sample type, flock, and successive flock cycles were compared, and results indicate a consistent, predictable, age-dependent bacterial microbiota, irrespective of flock. The tracheal bacterial microbiota of broilers was comprehensively defined, and Lactobacillus was the dominant bacterial taxa in the trachea. Numerous bacterial taxa were identified which were strongly correlated with broiler chicken performance, across multiple tissues. While many positively correlated taxa were identified, negatively associated potential pathogens were also identified in the absence of clinical disease, indicating subclinical dynamics occurring that impact performance. Overall, this work provides necessary baseline data for the development of effective antibiotic alternatives, such as probiotics, for sustainable poultry production. Importance Multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens are perhaps the greatest medical challenge we will face in the 21 st century and beyond. Antibiotics are necessary in animal

  20. Measuring excess capital capacity in agricultural production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Kumbhakar, S.C.; Myers, R.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept "excess capital capacity" and employ a stochastic input requirement frontier to measure excess capital capacity in agricultural production. We also propose a two-step estimation method that allows endogenous regressors in stochastic frontier models. The first step uses

  1. Measuring the coolness of interactive products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Coolness has recently started to be explored as a design goal for interactive products from practitioners as well as researchers within human–computer interaction (HCI), but there is still a need to further operationalise the concept and explore how we can measure it. Our contribution in this paper...

  2. Leaky RAG Deficiency in Adult Patients with Impaired Antibody Production against Bacterial Polysaccharide Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph B Geier

    Full Text Available Loss of function mutations in the recombination activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 have been reported to cause a T-B-NK+ type of severe combined immunodeficiency. In addition identification of hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 has led to an expansion of the spectrum of disease to include Omenn syndrome, early onset autoimmunity, granuloma, chronic cytomegalovirus- or EBV-infection with expansion of gamma/delta T-cells, idiophatic CD4 lymphopenia and a phenotype resembling common variable immunodeficiency. Herein we describe a novel presentation of leaky RAG1 and RAG2 deficiency in two unrelated adult patients with impaired antibody production against bacterial polysaccharide antigens. Clinical manifestation included recurrent pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media and in one patient recurrent cutaneous vasculitis. Both patients harbored a combination of a null mutation on one allele with a novel hypomorphic RAG1/2 mutation on the other allele. One of these novel mutations affected the start codon of RAG1 and resulted in an aberrant gene and protein expression. The second novel RAG2 mutation leads to a truncated RAG2 protein, lacking the C-terminus with intact core RAG2 and reduced VDJ recombination capacity as previously described in a mouse model. Both patients presented with severely decreased numbers of naïve CD4+ T cells and defective T independent IgG responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens, while T cell-dependent IgG antibody formation e.g. after tetanus or TBEV vaccination was intact. In conclusion, hypomorphic mutations in genes responsible for SCID should be considered in adults with predominantly antibody deficiency.

  3. ATLAS measurements of vector boson production

    CERN Document Server

    Levchenko, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of vector boson production with associated jets Productions of light and heavy-flavour jets in association with a W or a Z boson in proton-proton collisions are important processes to study QCD in multi-scale environments and the proton parton content. The cross section, differential in several kinematics variables, have been measured with the ATLAS detector in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions and compared to high-order QCD calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The results demonstrate the need for the inclusion of high-multiplicity matrix elements in the calculations of high jet multiplicities. The ratio of (Z+jets)/(W+jets) provides a precise test of QCD due to the large cancellations of theoretical and experimental uncertainties. Measurement of W+c production cross section has a unique sensitivity to the strange-quark density, which is poorly known at low x. W or Z boson production in association with b-quark jets, on the other hand, probes the b-quark density in the proton and the b-qu...

  4. Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum Growth and Deoxynivalenol Production in Wheat Kernels with Bacterial Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijuan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the main causal pathogen affecting small-grain cereals, and it produces deoxynivalenol, a kind of mycotoxin, which displays a wide range of toxic effects in human and animals. Bacterial strains isolated from peanut shells were investigated for their activities against F. graminearum by dual-culture plate and tip-culture assays. Among them, twenty strains exhibited potent inhibition to the growth of F. graminearum, and the inhibition rates ranged from 41.41% to 54.55% in dual-culture plate assay and 92.70% to 100% in tip-culture assay. Furthermore, eighteen strains reduced the production of deoxynivalenol by 16.69% to 90.30% in the wheat kernels assay. Finally, the strains with the strongest inhibitory activity were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical methods and also 16S rDNA and gyrA gene analysis as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The current study highlights the potential application of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites in the prevention of fungal growth and mycotoxin production in wheat kernels. As a biological strategy, it might avoid safety problems and nutrition loss which always caused by physical and chemical strategies.

  5. ATLAS measurement of Electroweak Vector Boson production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00453010; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/γ⁎ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of the perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements of the double differential cross-sections as a function of the dilepton mass and rapidity. The measurements are compared to state of calculations at NNLO in QCD and constrain the photon content of the proton. The angular distributions of the Drell-Yan lepton pairs around the Z-boson mass peak probe the underlying QCD dynamics of the Z-boson production mechanisms. The complete set of angular coefficients describing these distributions is presented and compared to theoretical predictions highlighting different approaches of the QCD and EW modelling. First precise inclusive measurements of W and Z production at 13 TeV are presented. $W/Z$ and $W^{+}/W^{−}$ ratios profit from a cancellation of experimental uncertainties.

  6. Metagenetic analysis of the bacterial communities of edible insects from diverse production cycles at industrial rearing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, D; Crauwels, S; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2017-11-16

    Despite the continuing development of new insect-derived food products, microbial research on edible insects and insect-based foods is still very limited. The goal of this study was to increase the knowledge on the microbial quality of edible insects by comparing the bacterial community composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus) from several production cycles and rearing companies. Remarkable differences in the bacterial community composition were found between different mealworm rearing companies and mealworm production cycles from the same company. In comparison with mealworms, the bacterial community composition of the investigated crickets was more similar among different companies, and was highly similar between both cricket species investigated. Mealworm communities were dominated by Spiroplasma and Erwinia species, while crickets were abundantly colonised by (Para)bacteroides species. With respect to food safety, only a few operational taxonomic units could be associated with potential human pathogens such as Cronobacter or spoilage bacteria such as Pseudomonas. In summary, our results implicate that at least for cricket rearing, production cycles of constant and good quality in terms of bacterial composition can be obtained by different rearing companies. For mealworms however, more variation in terms of microbial quality occurs between companies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  8. Measuring the productivity of university research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voth, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    University Research Reactors (URRs) on 33 campuses in the United States provide valuable contributions to academic instruction and research programs. In most cases, there are no alternative diagnostic techniques to supplant the need for a reactor and associated facilities. Since URRs constitute a major financial commitment, it is important that they be operated in a productive manner. Productivity may be defined as the sum of new knowledge generated, existing knowledge transferred to others, and analytical services provided to assist in the generation of new knowledge; another definition of productivity is this sum expressed as a function of the cost incurred. In either case, a consistent measurement is difficult and more qualitative than quantitative. A uniform reporting system has been proposed that defines simplified categories through which meaningful comparisons can be performed

  9. Development of a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry assay for the bacterial transglycosylation reaction through measurement of Lipid II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchaert, Bart; Wyseure, Tine; Breukink, Eefjan; Adams, Erwin; Declerck, Paul; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Transglycosylation is the second to last step in the production of bacterial peptidoglycan. It is catalyzed by a transglycosylation site in class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) or monofunctional glycosyl transferases. Several potential inhibitors have been suggested and need to be tested for

  10. Variation analysis of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates production using saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiqa Tufail

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA are efficient, renewable and environment friendly polymeric esters. These polymers are synthesized by a variety of microbes under stress conditions. This study was carried out to check the suitability of waste frying oil in comparison to other oils for economical bioplastic production. Six bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus (KF270349, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KF270350, Bacillus subtilis (KF270351, Brevibacterium halotolerance (KF270352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KF270353, and Stenotrophomonas rhizoposid (KF270354 by ribotyping. All strains were PHA producers so were selected for PHA synthesis using four different carbon sources, i.e., waste frying oil, canola oil, diesel and glucose. Extraction of PHA was carried out using sodium hypochlorite method and maximum amount was detected after 72 h in all cases. P. aeruginosa led to maximum PHA production after 72 h at 37 °C and 100 rpm using waste frying oil that was 53.2% PHA in comparison with glucose 37.8% and cooking oil 34.4%. B. cereus produced 40% PHA using glucose as carbon source which was high when compared against other strains. A significantly lesser amount of PHA was recorded with diesel as a carbon source for all strains. Sharp Infrared peaks around 1740-1750 cm-1 were present in Fourier Transform Infrared spectra that correspond to exact position for PHA. The use of waste oils and production of poly-3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate (3HB-co-3HV by strains used in this study is a good aspect to consider for future prospects as this type of polymer has better properties as compared to PHBs.

  11. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  12. Production of macroaggregates from dissolved exopolymeric substances (EPS) of bacterial and diatom origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhaskar, P.V.; Grossart, H.P.; Bhosle, N.B.; Simon, M.

    .J. (1985) Bacterial cell walls and surfaces. In Bacterial Adhesion. (Savage D.C. and Fletcher M, Eds) Plenum press, New York, pp: 45-70. 53. Coombs, J. and Volcani, B. E. (1968) Studies on the biochemistry and fine structure of silica-shell formation...

  13. Bacterial wall products induce downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on endothelial cells via a CD14-dependent mechanism: implications for surgical wound healing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, C

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogenic cytokine which has been identified as the principal polypeptide growth factor influencing endothelial cell (EC) migration and proliferation. Ordered progression of these two processes is an absolute prerequisite for initiating and maintaining the proliferative phase of wound healing. The response of ECs to circulating VEGF is determined by, and directly proportional to, the functional expression of VEGF receptors (KDR\\/Flt-1) on the EC surface membrane. Systemic sepsis and wound contamination due to bacterial infection are associated with significant retardation of the proliferative phase of wound repair. The effects of the Gram-negative bacterial wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) on VEGF receptor function and expression are unknown and may represent an important biological mechanism predisposing to delayed wound healing in the presence of localized or systemic sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a series of in vitro experiments investigating this phenomenon and its potential implications for infective wound repair. VEGF receptor density on ECs in the presence of LPS and BLP was assessed using flow cytometry. These parameters were assessed in hypoxic conditions as well as in normoxia. The contribution of CD14 was evaluated using recombinant human (rh) CD14. EC proliferation in response to VEGF was quantified in the presence and absence of LPS and BLP. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that LPS and BLP have profoundly repressive effects on VEGF receptor density in normoxic and, more pertinently, hypoxic conditions. The observed downregulation of constitutive and inducible VEGF receptor expression on ECs was not due to any directly cytotoxic effect of LPS and BLP on ECs, as measured by cell viability and apoptosis assays. We identified a pivotal role for soluble\\/serum CD14, a highly specific bacterial wall product receptor, in

  14. Production and Characterization of a New Bacterial Cellulose/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose (BC is characterized for its high water holding capacity, high crystallinity, an ultrafine fiber network and high tensile strength. This work demonstrates the production of a new interpenetrated polymer network nanocomposite obtained through the incorporation of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA on the BC matrix and evaluates the effect of oven drying on the morphological, mechanical and mass transfer properties of the composite membranes. Both the addition of PVA and oven drying induce the appearance of larger pores (circa 1–3 µm in average diameter in dried BC/PVA membranes. Both types of treatments also affect the permeability of the composite, as assessed by the diffusion coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG molecules (900, 8,000, 35,000 and 100,000 Da across the membranes. Finally, the Young’s modulus of dry pristine BC decreases following PVA incorporation, resulting in a change from 3.5 GPa to 1 GPa and a five-fold loss in tensile strength.

  15. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites. PMID:22852578

  16. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrey Silvia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum. The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines. Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.

  17. Legacy effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation on soil bacterial community composition and production of pathogen-suppressing volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike evan Agtmaal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that microbial volatiles (VOCs play an important role in natural suppression of soil-borne diseases, but little is known on the factors that influence production of suppressing VOCs. In the current study we examined whether a stress-induced change in soil microbial community composition would affect the production by soils of VOCs suppressing the plant-pathogenic oomycete Pythium. Using pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal gene fragments we compared the composition of bacterial communities in sandy soils that had been exposed to anaerobic disinfestation (AD, a treatment used to kill harmful soil organisms, with the composition in untreated soils. Three months after the AD treatment had been finished, there was still a clear legacy effect of the former anaerobic stress on bacterial community composition with a strong increase in relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes and a significant decrease of the phyla Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi and Chlorobi. This change in bacterial community composition coincided with loss of production of Pythium suppressing soil volatiles (VOCs and of suppression of Pythium impacts on Hyacinth root development. One year later, the composition of the bacterial community in the AD soils was reflecting that of the untreated soils. In addition, both production of Pythium-suppressing VOCs and suppression of Pythium in Hyacinth bioassays had returned to the levels of the untreated soil. GC/MS analysis identified several VOCs, among which compounds known to be antifungal, that were produced in the untreated soils but not in the AD soils. These compounds were again produced 15 months after the AD treatment. Our data indicate that soils exposed to a drastic stress can temporarily lose pathogen suppressive characteristics and that both loss and return of these suppressive characteristics coincides with shifts in the soil bacterial community composition. Our data are

  18. Denitrifying bacterial communities affect current production and nitrous oxide accumulation in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A · m(-3) NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A · m(-3) NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation.

  19. Synchronous Measurement of Ultrafast Anisotropy Decay of the B850 in Bacterial LH2 Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun-Peng; Du Lu-Chao; Zhu Gang-Bei; Wang Zhuan; Weng Yu-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast anisotropic decay is a prominent parameter revealing ultrafast energy and electron transfer; however, it is difficult to be determined reliably owing to the requirement of a simultaneous availability of the parallel and perpendicular polarized decay kinetics. Nowadays, any measurement of anisotropic decay is a kind of approach to the exact simultaneity. Here we report a novel method for a synchronous ultrafast anisotropy decay measurement, which can well determine the anisotropy, even at a very early time, as the rising phase of the excitation laser pulse. The anisotropic decay of the B850 in bacterial light harvesting antenna complex LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in solution at room temperature with coherent excitation is detected by this method, which shows a polarization response time of 30 fs, and the energy transfer from the initial excitation to the bacteriochlorophylls in B850 ring takes about 70 fs. The anisotropic decay that is probed at the red side of the absorption spectrum, such as 880 nm, has an initial value of 0.4, corresponding to simulated emission, while the blue side with an anisotropy of 0.1 contributes to the ground-state bleaching. Our results show that the coherent excitation covering the whole ring might not be realized owing to the symmetry breaking of LH2: from C_9 symmetry in membrane to C_2 symmetry in solution. (atomic and molecular physics)

  20. Synchronous Measurement of Ultrafast Anisotropy Decay of the B850 in Bacterial LH2 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Du, Lu-Chao; Zhu, Gang-Bei; Wang, Zhuan; Weng, Yu-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Ultrafast anisotropic decay is a prominent parameter revealing ultrafast energy and electron transfer; however, it is difficult to be determined reliably owing to the requirement of a simultaneous availability of the parallel and perpendicular polarized decay kinetics. Nowadays, any measurement of anisotropic decay is a kind of approach to the exact simultaneity. Here we report a novel method for a synchronous ultrafast anisotropy decay measurement, which can well determine the anisotropy, even at a very early time, as the rising phase of the excitation laser pulse. The anisotropic decay of the B850 in bacterial light harvesting antenna complex LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in solution at room temperature with coherent excitation is detected by this method, which shows a polarization response time of 30 fs, and the energy transfer from the initial excitation to the bacteriochlorophylls in B850 ring takes about 70 fs. The anisotropic decay that is probed at the red side of the absorption spectrum, such as 880 nm, has an initial value of 0.4, corresponding to simulated emission, while the blue side with an anisotropy of 0.1 contributes to the ground-state bleaching. Our results show that the coherent excitation covering the whole ring might not be realized owing to the symmetry breaking of LH2: from C9 symmetry in membrane to C2 symmetry in solution.

  1. HIF-1α is essential for effective PMN bacterial killing, antimicrobial peptide production and apoptosis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Berger

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α, is a transcription factor that controls energy metabolism and angiogenesis under hypoxic conditions, and a potent regulator of innate immunity. The studies described herein examined the role of HIF-1α in disease resolution in BALB/c (resistant, cornea heals mice after ocular infection with Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the current studies focused on the neutrophil (PMN, the predominant cell infiltrate in keratitis. Using both siRNA and an antagonist (17-DMAG, the role of HIF-1α was assessed in P. aeruginosa-infected BALB/c mice. Clinical score and slit lamp photography indicated HIF-1α inhibition exacerbated disease and corneal destruction. Real time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, Greiss and MPO assays, bacterial load, intracellular killing, phagocytosis and apoptosis assays further tested the regulatory role of HIF-1α. Despite increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and increased MPO levels after knocking down HIF-1α expression, in vivo studies revealed a decrease in NO production and higher bacterial load. In vitro studies using PMN provided evidence that although inhibition of HIF-1α did not affect phagocytosis, both bacterial killing and apoptosis were significantly affected, as was production of antimicrobial peptides. Overall, data provide evidence that inhibition of HIF-1α converts a normally resistant disease response to susceptible (corneal thinning and perforation after induction of bacterial keratitis. Although this inhibition does not appear to affect PMN transmigration or phagocytosis, both in vivo and in vitro approaches indicate that the transcriptional factor is essential for effective bacterial killing, apoptosis and antimicrobial peptide production.

  2. Hybrid combinations containing natural products and antimicrobial drugs that interfere with bacterial and fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchino, Susana A; Butassi, Estefanía; Cordisco, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A

    2017-12-15

    works respectively. Regarding combinations against bacterial biofilms, in vitro studies were performed in all works by using several different methods of higher variety than the used against fungal biofilms. Biofilms of both the gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria were prepared, although biofilm of Staphylococcus spp. were the most used in the collected works. Among the discovered potentiators of antibacterial drugs, 75% were terpenes, including mono, di- and triterpenes, and, among the atibacterial drugs, several structurally diverse types were used in the combinations: aminoglycosides, β-lactams, glucopeptides and fluoroquinolones. The potentiating capacity of natural products, mainly terpenes, on the antibiofilm effect of antimicrobial drugs opens a wide range of possibilities for the combination antimicrobial therapy. More in vivo studies on combinations of natural products with antimicrobial drugs acting against biofilms are highly required to cope the difficult to treat biofilm-associated infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. From rotten grapes to industrial exploitation: Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37, a micro-factory for macroscale production of bacterial nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Agarwal, Pragati; Singh, Jyoti; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, R P

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), being ultrapure and unique in its properties, is a booming and ageless precursor of several breakthrough technologies of materials sciences; however, its low yield and high cost has created a challenge for its usage at industrial level. Herein, we report a novel, high yielding bacterial cell factory Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37, isolated from rotten grapes, for the production of high quality and value added BNC. The strain was kinetically analyzed to evaluate BNC production under different physiological conditions and had demonstrated the production of 9.98±0.24gL -1 BNC at the expense of 12.08±1.94gL -1 sugar following 2 weeks of cultivation, thus having the conversion yield of 0.82g BNC/g sugar which seems to be the maximum reported yield so far. The analysis of produced pellicle using FTIR, 13 C CP MAS NMR, FE-SEM, XRD and TGA had shown similar structural, morphological and chemical characteristics with that of bacterial nanocellulose. Thus, K. europaeus SGP37 appears to be a potential strain and may offer a promising platform for industrial scale production of nanocelluloses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized the ovary in a previously undescribed manner; bacteria were found in the posterior of the ovary, adjacent to the lateral oviduct. This local infection in the ovary resulted in melanization and activation of the cellular immune response at the site of infection. PMID:17400292

  5. Organic loading rates affect composition of soil-derived bacterial communities during continuous, fermentative biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yonghua; Bruns, Mary Ann [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Husen; Salerno, Michael; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Bacterial community composition during steady-state, fermentative H{sub 2} production was compared across a range of organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5-19 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} in a 2-l continuous flow reactor at 30 C. The varied OLRs were achieved with glucose concentrations of 2.5-10 g l{sup -1} and hydraulic retention times of 1-10 h. The synthetic wastewater feed was amended with L-cysteine and maintained at a pH of 5.5. For each run at a given glucose concentration, the reactor was inoculated with an aliquot of well-mixed agricultural topsoil that had been heat-treated to reduce numbers of vegetative cells. At OLRs less than 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, DNA sequences from ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis profiles revealed more diverse and variable populations (Selenomonas, Enterobacter, and Clostridium spp.) than were observed above 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} (Clostridium spp. only). An isolate, LYH1, was cultured from a reactor sample (10 g glucose l{sup -1} at a 10-h HRT) on medium containing L-cysteine. In confirming H{sub 2} production by LYH1 in liquid batch culture, lag periods for H{sub 2} production in the presence and absence of L-cysteine were 5 and 50 h, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of LYH1 indicated that the isolate was a Clostridium sp. affiliated with RNA subcluster Ic, with >99% similarity to Clostridium sp. FRB1. In fluorescent in situ hybridization tests, an oligonucleotide probe complementary to the 16S rRNA of LYH1 hybridized with 90% of cells observed at an OLR of 2 g COD h{sup -1}, compared to 26% of cells at an OLR of 0.5 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1}. An OLR of 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} appeared to be a critical threshold above which clostridia were better able to outcompete Enterobacteriaceae and other organisms in the mixed soil inoculum. Our results are discussed in light of other biohydrogen studies employing pure cultures and mixed inocula. (author)

  6. Cooked meat products made of coarsely ground pork: the main bacterial strains of bacterial flora, their heat resistance and effect on spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Petäjä

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the bacterial flora of the surface layer and the core of meat products made of coarsely ground pork at the moment of spoilage when stored at 7°C or 4°C. The dominating strains were isolated, their heat resistance was studied in APT-broth, on APT-agar and in coarsely ground cured pork, and their growth after heating and effect on spoilage were followed in coarsely ground cured pork. The first signs of spoilage appeared in the surface layer of the products. The strains were coccoid lactic acid bacteria with counts ranging from 3,5 to 7.8 log cfu (colony forming units/g. They survived only accidentally after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth. The core of the products contained only coccoid lactic acid bacteria or only pseudomonads or both as the main bacterial strains. The counts ranged from 2.6 to 6.0 log cfu/g. Most of the strains isolated from the core survived after heating for 30 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth in at least three tests out of six. The most noticeable result of the study was the occurence of heat-resistant pseudomonads in the core. It must be pointed out that all pseudomonads found survived after heating for 60 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth, and often after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork (core 72°C. The cfu number of the two most heat-resistant streptococcus strains decreased only 1 log unit over 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork. The numbers of inoculated pseudomonads decreased but those of streptococci rose by a maximum of 1 log unit when the experimental porks were kept at 4°C after heating. This indicates that streptococci and pseudomonads probably do not constitute a serious spoilage factor in cooked meat products, but spoilage is generally effected by bacteria which have contaminated the surface layer of the products after heat treatment.

  7. Evaluation of quantitative PCR measurement of bacterial colonization of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Myszka, Kamila; Borkowska, Monika; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2010-01-01

    Microbial colonization is an important step in establishing pathogenic or probiotic relations to host cells and in biofilm formation on industrial or medical devices. The aim of this work was to verify the applicability of quantitative PCR (Real-Time PCR) to measure bacterial colonization of epithelial cells. Salmonella enterica and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line was used as a model. To verify sensitivity of the assay a competition of the pathogen cells to probiotic microorganism was tested. The qPCR method was compared to plate count and radiolabel approach, which are well established techniques in this area of research. The three methods returned similar results. The best quantification accuracy had radiolabel method, followed by qPCR. The plate count results showed coefficient of variation two-times higher than this of qPCR. The quantitative PCR proved to be a reliable method for enumeration of microbes in colonization assay. It has several advantages that make it very useful in case of analyzing mixed populations, where several different species or even strains can be monitored at the same time.

  8. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B.; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of −3.0 ± 0.4 nN and −330 ± 43 aJ (10−18 J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions. PMID:26585552

  9. Optimization of Culture Parameters for Maximum Polyhydroxybutyrate Production by Selected Bacterial Strains Isolated from Rhizospheric Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathwal, Priyanka; Nehra, Kiran; Singh, Manpreet; Jamdagni, Pragati; Rana, Jogender S

    2015-01-01

    The enormous applications of conventional non-biodegradable plastics have led towards their increased usage and accumulation in the environment. This has become one of the major causes of global environmental concern in the present century. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable plastic is known to have properties similar to conventional plastics, thus exhibiting a potential for replacing conventional non-degradable plastics. In the present study, a total of 303 different bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples collected from the rhizospheric area of three crops, viz., wheat, mustard and sugarcane. All the isolates were screened for PHB (Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid) production using Sudan Black staining method, and 194 isolates were found to be PHB positive. Based upon the amount of PHB produced, the isolates were divided into three categories: high, medium and low producers. Representative isolates from each category were selected for biochemical characterization; and for optimization of various culture parameters (carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, different pH, temperature and incubation time periods) for maximizing PHB accumulation. The highest PHB yield was obtained when the culture medium was supplemented with glucose as the carbon source, ammonium sulphate at a concentration of 1.0 g/l as the nitrogen source, and by maintaining the C/N ratio of the medium as 20:1. The physical growth parameters which supported maximum PHB accumulation included a pH of 7.0, and an incubation temperature of 30 degrees C for a period of 48 h. A few isolates exhibited high PHB accumulation under optimized conditions, thus showing a potential for their industrial exploitation.

  10. Measuring healthcare productivity - from unit to system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Vesa Johannes; Peltokorpi, Antti; Torkki, Paulus; Tallbacka, Kaj

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare productivity is a growing issue in most Western countries where healthcare expenditure is rapidly increasing. Therefore, accurate productivity metrics are essential to avoid sub-optimization within a healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to focus on healthcare production system productivity measurement. Design/methodology/approach - Traditionally, healthcare productivity has been studied and measured independently at the unit, organization and system level. Suggesting that productivity measurement should be done in different levels, while simultaneously linking productivity measurement to incentives, this study presents the challenges of productivity measurement at the different levels. The study introduces different methods to measure productivity in healthcare. In addition, it provides background information on the methods used to measure productivity and the parameters used in these methods. A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical information for managers. Findings - The study introduces different approaches and methods to measure productivity in healthcare. Practical implications - A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical benefits for managers. Originality/value - The authors focus on the measurement of the whole healthcare production system and try to avoid sub-optimization. Additionally considering an individual patient approach, productivity measurement is examined at the unit level, the organizational level and the system level.

  11. Production of Bacterial Cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii Using Corn Steep Liquor As Nutrient Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. S. Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is mainly produced by plants, although many bacteria, especially those belonging to the genus Gluconacetobacter, produce a very peculiar form of cellulose with mechanical and structural properties that can be exploited in numerous applications. However, the production cost of bacterial cellulose (BC is very high to the use of expensive culture media, poor yields, downstream processing, and operating costs. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of industrial residues as nutrients for the production of BC by Gluconacetobacter hansenii UCP1619. BC pellicles were synthesized using the Hestrin–Schramm (HS medium and alternative media formulated with different carbon (sugarcane molasses and acetylated glucose and nitrogen sources [yeast extract, peptone, and corn steep liquor (CSL]. A jeans laundry was also tested. None of the tested sources (beside CSL worked as carbon and nutrient substitute. The alternative medium formulated with 1.5% glucose and 2.5% CSL led to the highest yield in terms of dry and hydrated mass. The BC mass produced in the alternative culture medium corresponded to 73% of that achieved with the HS culture medium. The BC pellicles demonstrated a high concentration of microfibrils and nanofibrils forming a homogenous, compact, and three-dimensional structure. The biopolymer produced in the alternative medium had greater thermal stability, as degradation began at 240°C, while degradation of the biopolymer produced in the HS medium began at 195°C. Both biopolymers exhibited high crystallinity. The mechanical tensile test revealed the maximum breaking strength and the elongation of the break of hydrated and dry pellicles. The dry BC film supported up to 48 MPa of the breaking strength and exhibited greater than 96.98% stiffness in comparison with the hydrated film. The dry film supported up to 48 MPa of the breaking strength and exhibited greater than 96.98% stiffness in comparison with the hydrated film

  12. Impact of metal stress on the production of secondary metabolites in Pteris vittata L. and associated rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoang Nam; Michalet, Serge; Bodillis, Josselin; Nguyen, Tien Dat; Nguyen, Thi Kieu Oanh; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Haddad, Mohamed; Nazaret, Sylvie; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève

    2017-07-01

    Plants adapt to metal stress by modifying their metabolism including the production of secondary metabolites in plant tissues. Such changes may impact the diversity and functions of plant associated microbial communities. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of metals on the secondary metabolism of plants and the indirect impact on rhizosphere bacterial communities. We then compared the secondary metabolites of the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. collected from a contaminated mining site to a non-contaminated site in Vietnam and identified the discriminant metabolites. Our data showed a significant increase in chlorogenic acid derivatives and A-type procyanidin in plant roots at the contaminated site. We hypothesized that the intensive production of these compounds could be part of the antioxidant defense mechanism in response to metals. In parallel, the structure and diversity of bulk soil and rhizosphere communities was studied using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed strong differences in bacterial composition, characterized by the dominance of Proteobacteria and Nitrospira in the contaminated bulk soil, and the enrichment of some potential human pathogens, i.e., Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium, and Cupriavidus in P. vittata's rhizosphere at the mining site. Overall, metal pollution modified the production of P. vittata secondary metabolites and altered the diversity and structure of bacterial communities. Further investigations are needed to understand whether the plant recruits specific bacteria to adapt to metal stress.

  13. Evaluation of bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu, a typical Chinese traditional bacteria-fermented soybean product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Gao, Wei; Ren, Dan; Chen, Xi; Li, Juan-juan

    2013-04-01

    Kedong sufu is a typical bacteria-fermented sufu in China. Isolation and identification of the autochthonous bacteria involved would allow the design of specific starters for this speciality. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and culturing. In terms of bacterial diversity, 22 strains were isolated and identified and 27 strains were detected by DGGE. Regarding bacterial dynamics, the results of culturing and PCR-DGGE exhibited a similar trend towards dominant strains. Throughout the fermentation of sufu, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus were the dominant microflora, while the secondary microflora comprised Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus lutetiensis, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. This study is the first to reveal the bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. This information will help in the design of autochthonous starter cultures for the production of Kedong sufu with desirable characteristic sensory profiles and shorter ripening times. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Temperature-driven adaptation of the bacterial community in peat measured by using thymidine and leucine incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranneklev, S B; Bååth, E

    2001-03-01

    The temperature-driven adaptation of the bacterial community in peat was studied, by altering temperature to simulate self-heating and a subsequent return to mesophilic conditions. The technique used consisted of extracting the bacterial community from peat using homogenization-centrifugation and measuring the rates of thymidine (TdR) or leucine (Leu) incorporation by the extracted bacterial community at different temperatures. Increasing the peat incubation temperature from 25 degrees C to 35, 45, or 55 degrees C resulted in a selection of bacterial communities whose optimum temperatures for activity correlated to the peat incubation temperatures. Although TdR and Leu incorporations were significantly correlated, the Leu/TdR incorporation ratios were affected by temperature. Higher Leu/TdR incorporation ratios were found at higher temperatures of incubation of the extracted bacterial community. Higher Leu/TdR incorporation ratios were also found for bacteria in peat samples incubated at higher temperatures. The reappearance of the mesophilic community and disappearance of the thermophilic community when the incubation temperature of the peat was shifted down were monitored by measuring TdR incorporation at 55 degrees C (thermophilic activity) and 25 degrees C (mesophilic activity). Shifting the peat incubation temperature from 55 to 25 degrees C resulted in a recovery of the mesophilic activity, with a subsequent disappearance of the thermophilic activity. The availability of substrate for bacterial growth varied over time and among different peat samples. To avoid confounding effects of substrate availability, a temperature adaptation index was calculated. This index consisted of the log(10) ratio of TdR incorporation at 55 and 25 degrees C. The temperature index decreased linearly with time, indicating that no thermophilic activity would be detected by the TdR technique 1 month after the temperature downshift. There were no differences between the slopes of the

  15. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, E.

    2011-01-01

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β - - 47 Sc, 67 Cu - β + - 44 Sc, 64 Cu, 82 Sr/ 82 Rb, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga - and α emitters - 211 At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - nat Cu or nat Ni - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the nat Ti(p,X) 47 Sc and 68 Zn(p,2p) 67 Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68 Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  16. Bacterial biomass in warm-core Gulf Stream ring 82-B: mesoscale distributions, temporal changes and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducklow, Hugh

    1986-11-01

    The distribution of bacterioplankton biomass and productivity in warm-core Gulf Stream ring 82-B generally corresponded to the physical and dynamical structure of the ring. Mean cell volumes were uniform for 4 months, but were larger by a factor of 2-3 in the high velocity (frontal) region (HVR) near the ring edge. As a result of this gradient and higher abundances, water column biomass and production were highest in the front, which appeared to be a local maximum in those properties. In this regard bacterioplankton contrasted strongly to phytoplankton, which exhibited strong local maxima at the center of the ring in June. In April when the water column inside the ring was isothermal to 450 m, bacterial biomass and production were low and uniform to 250 and 50 m, respectively. Bacterioplankton responded dramatically to the vernal restratification of the ring. In June when the surface layer was characterized by a strong pycnocline at 10-40 m, bacterial biomass and production often had strong subsurface maxima, and were 3 and 5 times greater than in April, respectively. Abundance exceeded 1.5 × 10 9 cells l -1 at ring center and exceeded 3 × 10 9 l -1 in the HVR. Turnover rates for the euphotic zone bacterioplankton as a whole were 0.24 d -1 in April, 0.56 d -1 in June, and 0.27 d -1 in August at ring center. Bacterial production averaged 12% of hourly primary production (range 1-32%), suggesting that bacteria control a significant and sometimes large portion of the carbon cycling in the euphotic zone. These data suggest that warm-core rings are sites of enhanced variability of bacterioplankton properties in the open sea. Furthermore, the data strongly support recent work showing that frontal zones are sites of locally enhanced bacterial biomass and production. In the ring system as a whole, the euphotic zone bacterioplankton biomass and production were comparable to and occasionally greater than the biomass and production of the >64 μm zooplankton, especially in

  17. Controls on bacterial and archaeal community structure and greenhouse gas production in natural, mined, and restored Canadian peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eBasiliko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Northern peatlands are important global C reservoirs, largely because of their slow rates of microbial C mineralization. Particularly in sites that are heavily influenced by anthropogenic disturbances, there is scant information about microbial ecology and whether or not microbial community structure influences greenhouse gas production. This work characterized communities of bacteria and archaea using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and functional genes across eight natural, mined, or restored peatlands in two locations in eastern Canada. Correlations were explored among chemical properties of peat, bacterial and archaeal community structure, and carbon dioxide and methane production rates under oxic and anoxic conditions. Bacteria and archaea similar to those found in other peat soil environments were detected. In contrast to other reports, methanogen diversity was low in our study, with only 2 groups of known or suspected methanogens. Although mining and restoration affected substrate availability and microbial activity, these land-uses did not consistently affect bacterial or archaeal community composition. In fact, larger differences were observed between the two locations and between oxic and anoxic peat samples than between mined and restored sites, with anoxic samples characterized by less detectable bacterial diversity and stronger dominance by members of the phylum Acidobacteria. There were also no apparent strong linkages between prokaryote community structure and methane or carbon dioxide production, suggesting that different organisms exhibit functional redundancy and/or that the same taxa function at very different rates when exposed to different peat substrates. In contrast to other earlier work focusing on fungal communities across similar mined and restored peatlands, bacterial and archaeal communities appeared to be more resistant or resilient to peat substrate changes brought

  18. Parallel reaction monitoring on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer increases reproducibility of phosphopeptide detection in bacterial phosphoproteomics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumer, Christoph; Griesbaum, Lena; Kovacevic, Alen; Soufi, Boumediene; Nalpas, Nicolas C; Macek, Boris

    2018-03-29

    Increasing number of studies report the relevance of protein Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation in bacterial physiology, yet the analysis of this type of modification in bacteria still presents a considerable challenge. Unlike in eukaryotes, where tens of thousands of phosphorylation events likely occupy more than two thirds of the proteome, the abundance of protein phosphorylation is much lower in bacteria. Even the state-of-the-art phosphopeptide enrichment protocols fail to remove the high background of abundant unmodified peptides, leading to low signal intensity and undersampling of phosphopeptide precursor ions in consecutive data-dependent MS runs. Consequently, large-scale bacterial phosphoproteomic datasets often suffer from poor reproducibility and a high number of missing values. Here we explore the application of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer in bacterial phosphoproteome analysis, focusing especially on run-to-run sampling reproducibility. In multiple measurements of identical phosphopeptide-enriched samples, we show that PRM outperforms data-dependent acquisition (DDA) in terms of detection frequency, reaching almost complete sampling efficiency, compared to 20% in DDA. We observe a similar trend over multiple heterogeneous phosphopeptide-enriched samples and conclude that PRM shows a great promise in bacterial phosphoproteomics analyses where reproducible detection and quantification of a relatively small set of phosphopeptides is desired. Bacterial phosphorylated peptides occur in low abundance compared to their unmodified counterparts, and are therefore rarely reproducibly detected in shotgun (DDA) proteomics measurements. Here we show that parallel reaction monitoring complements DDA analyses and makes detection of known, targeted phosphopeptides more reproducible. This will be of significance in replicated MS measurements that have a goal to reproducibly detect and quantify phosphopeptides of interest. Copyright

  19. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Santala, Suvi; Zhang, Tian; Santala, Ville

    2017-11-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long chain alkyl esters. In the first stage, the carbon dioxide is reduced to organic compounds, mainly acetate, in a MES process by Sporomusa ovata. In the second stage, the liquid end-products of the MES process are converted to the final product by a second microorganism, Acinetobacter baylyi in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon-neutral chemicals or biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploiting the aerobic endospore-forming bacterial diversity in saline and hypersaline environments for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Couto, Camila Rattes; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Azevedo Jurelevicius, Diogo; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-10-28

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules with great applicability in the food, pharmaceutical and oil industries. Endospore-forming bacteria, which survive for long periods in harsh environments, are described as biosurfactant producers. Although the ubiquity of endospore-forming bacteria in saline and hypersaline environments is well known, studies on the diversity of the endospore-forming and biosurfactant-producing bacterial genera/species in these habitats are underrepresented. In this study, the structure of endospore-forming bacterial communities in sediment/mud samples from Vermelha Lagoon, Massambaba, Dois Rios and Abraão Beaches (saline environments), as well as the Praia Seca salterns (hypersaline environments) was determined via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial strains were isolated from these environmental samples and further identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains presenting emulsification values higher than 30 % were grouped via BOX-PCR, and the culture supernatants of representative strains were subjected to high temperatures and to the presence of up to 20 % NaCl to test their emulsifying activities in these extreme conditions. Mass spectrometry analysis was used to demonstrate the presence of surfactin. A diverse endospore-forming bacterial community was observed in all environments. The 110 bacterial strains isolated from these environmental samples were molecularly identified as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Thalassobacillus, Halobacillus, Paenibacillus, Fictibacillus and Paenisporosarcina. Fifty-two strains showed emulsification values of at least 30%, and they were grouped into 18 BOX groups. The stability of the emulsification values varied when the culture supernatants of representative strains were subjected to high temperatures and to the presence of up to 20% NaCl. The presence of surfactin was demonstrated in one of the most promising strains. The environments studied can harbor endospore

  1. Product Stigmaticity : Understanding, Measuring and Managing Product-Related Stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, K.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma-free Product Design. Many of the products intended to relieve us from discomforting or unsafe situations and many medical and assistive devices are experienced as unpleasant and uncomfortable. On top of their discomfort, product users may also experience social unease from the people around

  2. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector.

  3. Quantitative estimation of net rates of production of bacterial and protozoal nitrogen and their interconversion in the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is described using 35 S-labelled bacteria or protozoa by which the rates of production of microbial and protozoal protein N may be calculated. The results indicate an average microbial protein yield of about 13.7gN.d -1 in sheep maintained on a diet consisting largely of cottonseed cake and wheat and rice bran. Evidence is presented that protozoa made little contribution to the microbial protein-N leaving the rumen. Also, the average rate of N flow from the protozoal to the bacterial pool was about 3.5g.d -1 , whereas about 1.4g.d -1 of bacterial N was consumed by protozoa. (author)

  4. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  5. The Effect of Chrysonilia crassa Additive on Duodenal & Caecal Morphology, Bacterial & Fungal Number, and Productivity of Ayam Kampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turrini Yudiarti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi is a microorganism that can live in gastrointestinal tract of chicken. One type of fungi is multicellular or filamentous fungi. C.crassa is a species of filamentous fungi that has been isolated in the earlier study and it showed the best probiotic potency in vitro. The obyective of this research was to study the effect of addition of dried culture of  C.crassa in feed on intestinal & caecal morphology, bacterial & fungal number, and  productivity of indigenous chicken (ayam kampung. Research used completely randomized design with four treatments. The treatments were the level of  dried culture in basal diet (0%, 0.25 %,  0.50 % and 0.75 %. Each treatment was replicated 5 times and each replicate consists of 10 chickens. The parameters observed were : villi morphology, number of bacteria and fungi in the duodenum and cecum of chickens aged 1, 21 and 35 days and productivity i.e. feed intake, final body weight and feed conversion. The results showed that 0.50% dried culture of C.crassa could increase the duodenal villi width, decreased the number of bacterial and fungal colonies in duodenum and caecum, but it did not increase productivity. The conclusion : C.crassa could stimulate the duodenal villi development and decreased the number of the bacteria and fungi in the gastrointestinal tract, yet it has no positive impact on the chicken productivity.

  6. The Effect of Chrysonilia crassa Additive on Duodenal & Caecal Morphology, Bacterial & Fungal Number, and Productivity of Ayam Kampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi is a microorganism that can live in gastrointestinal tract of chicken. One type of fungi is multicellular or filamentous fungi. C.crassa is a species of filamentous fungi that has been isolated in the earlier study and it showed the best probiotic potency in vitro. The obyective of this research was to study the effect of addition of dried culture of C.crassa in feed on intestinal & caecal morphology, bacterial & fungal number, and productivity of indigenous chicken (ayam kampung. Research used completely randomized design with four treatments. The treatments were the level of dried culture in basal diet (0%, 0.25 %, 0.50 % and 0.75 %. Each treatment was replicated 5 times and each replicate consists of 10 chickens. The parameters observed were : villi morphology, number of bacteria and fungi in the duodenum and cecum of chickens aged 1, 21 and 35 days and productivity i.e. feed intake, final body weight and feed conversion. The results showed that 0.50% dried culture of C.crassa could increase the duodenal villi width, decreased the number of bacterial and fungal colonies in duodenum and caecum, but it did not increase productivity. The conclusion : C.crassa could stimulate the duodenal villi development and decreased the number of the bacteria and fungi in the gastrointestinal tract, yet it has no positive impact on the chicken productivity

  7. Experimental measurements of negative hydrogen ion production from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.G.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the production of H - from surfaces bombarded with hydrogen are reviewed. Some measurements of H + and H 0 production from surfaces are also discussed with particular emphasis on work which might be relevant to ion source applications

  8. Bacterial production of site specific {sup 13}C labeled phenylalanine and methodology for high level incorporation into bacterially expressed recombinant proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaraju, Bhargavi; McFeeters, Hana; Vogler, Bernhard; McFeeters, Robert L., E-mail: robert.mcfeeters@uah.edu [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of ever larger systems have benefited from many different forms of isotope labeling, in particular, site specific isotopic labeling. Site specific {sup 13}C labeling of methyl groups has become an established means of probing systems not amenable to traditional methodology. However useful, methyl reporter sites can be limited in number and/or location. Therefore, new complementary site specific isotope labeling strategies are valuable. Aromatic amino acids make excellent probes since they are often found at important interaction interfaces and play significant structural roles. Aromatic side chains have many of the same advantages as methyl containing amino acids including distinct {sup 13}C chemical shifts and multiple magnetically equivalent {sup 1}H positions. Herein we report economical bacterial production and one-step purification of phenylalanine with {sup 13}C incorporation at the Cα, Cγ and Cε positions, resulting in two isolated {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C spin systems. We also present methodology to maximize incorporation of phenylalanine into recombinantly overexpressed proteins in bacteria and demonstrate compatibility with ILV-methyl labeling. Inexpensive, site specific isotope labeled phenylalanine adds another dimension to biomolecular NMR, opening new avenues of study.

  9. Bacterial carbon cycling in a subarctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Sejr, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    of viruses on bacterial mortality (4–36% of cell production) and carbon cycling. Heterotrophic bacterial consumption was closely coupled with autochthonous BDOC production, and the majority of the primary production was consumed by pelagic bacteria at all seasons. The relatively low measured BGE emphasized......In this seasonal study, we examined the environmental controls and quantitative importance of bacterial carbon consumption in the water column and the sediment in the subarctic Kobbefjord, Greenland. Depth-integrated bacterial production in the photic zone varied from 5.0 ± 2.7 mg C m−2 d−1...... in February to 42 ± 28 mg C m−2 d−1 in May and 34 ± 7 mg C m−2 d−1 in September, corresponding to a bacterial production to primary production ratio of 0.34 ± 0.14, 0.07 ± 0.04, and 0.08 ± 0.06, respectively. Based on measured bacterial growth efficiencies (BGEs) of 0.09–0.10, pelagic bacterial carbon...

  10. Measuring the CCN and IN ability of bacterial isolates: implications for the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, S.; Waters, S.; Konstantinidis, K.; Nenes, A.; DeLeon-Rodriguez, N.

    2015-12-01

    Ice nucleation is an important process in the climate system as it influences global precipitation processes, and can affect the vertical distribution of clouds with effects that both cool and warm the atmosphere. Of the pathways to ice nucleation, immersion mode, which occurs when ice nuclei (IN) particles are surrounded by an aqueous phase that subsequently freezes, dominates primary ice production in mixed-phase clouds. A simple but effective method to study immersion freezing is to utilize a droplet freezing assay (DFA) that consists of an aluminum plate, precisely cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture. Using such a system we study the immersion IN characteristics of bacterial isolates (for temperatures ranging from -15oC to 0oC) isolated from rainwater and air collected in Atlanta, GA and Puerto Rico, over storms throughout the year. Despite their relatively large size and the presence of hydrophilic groups on the outer membranes of many bacteria, it is unclear if bacteria possess an inherent ability to nucleate an aqueous phase (a requirement for immersion freezing) for the wide range of supersaturations found in clouds. For this, we measure the cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity of each isolate (over the 0.05% to 0.6% supersaturation range) using a Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter. Initial results have shown certain isolates to be very efficient CCN, allowing them to form droplets even for the very low supersaturations found in radiation fogs. In combination, these experiments provide insight into the potential dual-ability of some bacteria, isolated from the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico, to act as both efficient CCN and IN.

  11. Lower Carboniferous Siderites: A Product of Bottom Seeps and Bacterial Metanogenesis (Subpolar Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshkina, A. I.; Ryabinkina, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Complex modern micro- and spectroscopic methods for study of siderite concretions in the Lower Carboniferous terrigenous strata on the Kozhym River (Subpolar Urals) have shown that its formation was caused by destruction of clay minerals due to the activity of bacterial communities. The abundance of these bacteria was caused by gas-fluid seeps and bacterial methanogenesis processes in bottom deposits. In basins with normal marine fauna, this led to local desalination, hydrogen sulfide contamination, mass collapse of primary organisms, and the development of element-specific bacteria. The occurrence of these bacteria caused the formation of specific authigenic mineralization in the concretion of sideritic bacteriolites: the framboidal pyrite, sphalerite, galenite, barite, sulfoselenides, and tellurides.

  12. Aryl Polyenes, a Highly Abundant Class of Bacterial Natural Products, Are Functionally Related to Antioxidative Carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöner, Tim A; Gassel, Sören; Osawa, Ayako; Tobias, Nicholas J; Okuno, Yukari; Sakakibara, Yui; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Sandmann, Gerhard; Bode, Helge B

    2016-02-02

    Bacterial pigments of the aryl polyene type are structurally similar to the well-known carotenoids with respect to their polyene systems. Their biosynthetic gene cluster is widespread in taxonomically distant bacteria, and four classes of such pigments have been found. Here we report the structure elucidation of the aryl polyene/dialkylresorcinol hybrid pigments of Variovorax paradoxus B4 by HPLC-UV-MS, MALDI-MS and NMR. Furthermore, we show for the first time that this pigment class protects the bacterium from reactive oxygen species, similarly to what is known for carotenoids. An analysis of the distribution of biosynthetic genes for aryl polyenes and carotenoids in bacterial genomes is presented; it shows a complementary distribution of these protective pigments in bacteria. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Culture-independent bacterial community analysis of the salty-fermented fish paste products of Thailand and Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARUI, Junichiro; BOULOM, Sayvisene; PANTHAVEE, Wanchai; MOMMA, Mari; KUSUMOTO, Ken-Ichi; NAKAHARA, Kazuhiko; SAITO, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial community analysis, using a culture-independent method (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), detected 17 species of bacteria including species of the genera Tetragenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Weissella Halanaerobium, Clostridium, and Sphingomonas in a traditional salty-fermented fish paste known as pla-ra or pa-daek in Thailand and Laos, which is used as a storage-stable multi-purpose seasoning. The representative genus of lactic acid bacteria seemed to vary in the 10 products collected from Thailand and Laos. Tetragenococci were common in products from central Thailand and Vientiane in Laos which had salinities of not less than 11% and pH values ranging from 5.6 to 6.1. However, lactobacilli were common in products from northern Thailand which had the lowest salinities (8.3–8.6%) and pH values (4.5–4.8) of all the samples examined. Two Lactobacillus and one Tetragenococcus species were detected in one product from northeastern Thailand containing 10% salt. These results suggest that salinity in pla-ra/pa-daek is an important determinant of the representative genus of lactic acid bacteria such as, Tetragenococcus or Lactobacillus. Additionally, differences in the acidity between these two groups seemed to be related to the production of d-/l-lactic acid in the lactic acid bacteria in each product. This is the first study to report a correlation between bacterial community structure and taste components in pla-ra/pa-daek products from various regions. This scientific work on a traditional fermented food will be useful in helping local producers meet differing consumer preferences in various regions. PMID:25918672

  14. Surface-Selective Preferential Production of Reactive Oxygen Species on Piezoelectric Ceramics for Bacterial Killing

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Guoxin; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; He, Tianrui; Chen, Junqi; Mao, Chuanbin; Ning, Chengyun

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be used to kill bacterial cells, and thus the selective generation of ROS from material surfaces is an emerging direction in antibacterial material discovery. We found the polarization of piezoelectric ceramic causes the two sides of the disk to become positively and negatively charged, which translate into cathode and anode surfaces in an aqueous solution. Because of the microelectrolysis of water, ROS are preferentially formed on the cathode surface. Conseq...

  15. Production of putrescine-capped stable silver nanoparticle: its characterization and antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saswati; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gupta, Kamala; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Integration of biology with nanotechnology is now becoming attention-grabbing area of research. The antimicrobial potency of silver has been eminent from antiquity. Due to the recent desire for the enhancement of antibacterial efficacy of silver, various synthesis methods of silver in their nano dimensions are being practiced using a range of capping material. The present work highlights a facile biomimetic approach for production of silver nanoparticle being capped and stabilized by putrescine, possessing a diameter of 10-25 ± 1.5 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles have been analyzed spectrally and analytically. Morphological studies are carried out by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and crystallinity by selected area electron diffraction patterns. Moreover, the elemental composition of the capped nanoparticles was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. A comparative study (zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration) regarding the interactions and antibacterial potentiality of the capped silver nanoparticles with respect to the bare ones reveal the efficiency of the capped one over the bare one. The bacterial kinetic study was executed to monitor the interference of nanoparticles with bacterial growth rate. The results also highlight the efficacy of putrescine-capped silver nanoparticles as effective growth inhibitors against multi-drug resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains, which may, thus, potentially be applicable as an effective antibacterial control system to fight diseases.

  16. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Ting, Yen-Peng [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan [Sourashtra Coll., Madurai (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Biocorrosion Group; Rahman, Pattanathu K.S.M. [Teesside Univ., Tees Valley (United Kingdom). Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Group

    2010-01-15

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of effectiveness of bacterial product which can degrade pesticide-dimethoate on the scale of true practice test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Thi Le Ha; Tran Thi Thuy; Le Hai; Nguyen Duy Hang; Vo Thi Thu Ha; Nguyen Tuong Ly Lan; Le Tat Mua; Tran Kim Duyen; Mai Hoang Lam

    2004-01-01

    Dimethoate, an organophosphate pesticide has been widely used in Dalat, Lamdong. It is much toxic to birds, human being and other mammals. Its widespread use has caused environmental concern on the basic of frequent detection of dimethoate in soil and water. Microorganisms are key agents in the degradation of waste, oil and a vast array of organic pesticide in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In previous study, bacteria products which can degrade. Dimethoate were produced. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of bacterial product which can degrade Pesticide-Dimethoate on the scale of true practice test. The results indicated that application bacteria product to soil grown with Cauliflower and Chinese Cabbage sprayed with organic phosphorus pesticides (Dimethoate and Chloropyrifos), the pesticide residues in soil, water and vegetables were as follow: The residues of Dimethoate and Chloropyrifos in soil grown with Cauliflower, Chinese cabbages are different. They concentrated mostly in the surface litter and top soil layers with the depth from 0 to 20 cm. From the depth of 20 cm to 100 cm, the pesticide residues were ignorable. Residue of Chloropyrifos in soil was small as well. Dimethoate residues in soil grown with Cauliflower were higher than that of Chinese cabbages. On the basis of the environmental criteria of Ministry for Science, Technology and Environment (6/95), Dimethoate residues in soil grown with cauliflowers were in excess of the maximum limit. In the case of using bacteria product to soil, pesticide residues in soil were decreased. The results also indicated that Chloropyrifos residues in water (water obtained at the depth of 75 cm and 100 cm by days) were small. Residue of Dimethoate in water small. Residue of Dimethoate in water obtained from the Cauliflower bed were higher than of Chinese cabbages one. Using bacteria product to soil, pesticide residues in water decreased. On the basis of the environmental criteria of

  18. Heterotrophic bacterial production, respiration, and growth efficiency associated with upwelling intensity in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomina; Kim, Sung-Han; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Hyun, Jung-Ho

    2017-09-01

    We investigated bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR), as well as the physico-chemical properties of the water column, to elucidate the effect of upwelling on heterotrophic bacterial metabolic activities and growth efficiency (BGE) in July 2012 and May 2013 in the Ulleung Basin (UB), East/Japan Sea. The upwelled conditions were characterized by higher chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations resulting from the upward shift of the nitracline compared to that of the non-upwelled condition. Analyses of the size fractions of Chl-a and pigment composition revealed that large size phytoplankton (> 20 μm), mainly consisting of diatoms, appeared to be the major phytoplankton component. BP and BR were significantly correlated with Chl-a (P 0.05). These results suggest that bacterial metabolic activities are stimulated by the availability of organic resources enhanced by upwelling in the UB. Further statistical analysis showed that the difference in BP and BGE with variations in upwelling intensity were significant (P = 0.018 for BP, P = 0.035 for BGE), but the difference in BR was not significant (P = 0.321). These results suggest that metabolic energy is partitioned more for BP under a strong upwelling condition, i.e. high nutrient and Chl-a conditions. In contrast, the energy generated via respiration was partitioned more for maintaining metabolism rather than for biomass production under weakly or non-upwelled conditions, i.e. stratified and low Chl-a conditions. Overall, our results suggest that any changes in upwelling intensity would significantly affect the carbon cycle associated with the fate of primary production, and the role of the microbial loop in the UB where changes in the intensity and frequency of upwelling associated with climatic changes are in progress.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial biomass and production in a coastal arctic ecosystem: Franklin Bay, western Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Marie-Ã. Ve; Roy, SéBastien; Lovejoy, Connie; Gratton, Yves; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2008-07-01

    The Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) included the overwintering deployment of a research platform in Franklin Bay (70°N, 126°W) and provided a unique seasonal record of bacterial dynamics in a coastal region of the Arctic Ocean. Our objectives were (1) to relate seasonal bacterial abundance (BA) and production (BP) to physico-chemical characteristics and (2) to quantify the annual bacterial carbon flux. BA was estimated by epifluorescence microscopy and BP was estimated from 3H-leucine and 3H-thymidine assays. Mean BA values for the water column ranged from 1.0 (December) to 6.8 × 105 cells mL-1 (July). Integral BP varied from 1 (February) to 80 mg C m-2 d-1 (July). During winter-spring, BP was uncorrelated with chlorophyll a (Chl a), but these variables were significantly correlated during summer-autumn (rs = 0.68, p winter, late winter-late spring, and summer. A baseline level of BB and BP was maintained throughout late winter-late spring despite the persistent cold and darkness, with irregular fluctuations that may be related to hydrodynamic events. During this period, BP rates were correlated with colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) but not Chl a (rs BP.CDOM∣Chl a = 0.20, p < 0.05, N = 176). Annual BP was estimated as 6 g C m-2 a-1, implying a total BP of 4.8 × 1010 g C a-1 for the Franklin Bay region. These results show that bacterial processes continue throughout all seasons and make a large contribution to the total biological carbon flux in this coastal arctic ecosystem.

  20. The Effect of Chrysonilia crassa Additive on Duodenal & Caecal Morphology, Bacterial & Fungal Number, and Productivity of Ayam Kampung

    OpenAIRE

    Turrini Yudiarti; V. D. Yunianto B.I; R. Murwani; E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-01-01

    Fungi is a microorganism that can live in gastrointestinal tract of chicken. One type of fungi is multicellular or filamentous fungi. C.crassa is a species of filamentous fungi that has been isolated in the earlier study and it showed the best probiotic potency in vitro. The obyective of this research was to study the effect of addition of dried culture of  C.crassa in feed on intestinal & caecal morphology, bacterial & fungal number, and  productivity of indigenous chicken (ayam kamp...

  1. Real-time detection of antibiotic activity by measuring nanometer-scale bacterial deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriya, Rafael; Syal, Karan; Jing, Wenwen; Mo, Manni; Yu, Hui; Haydel, Shelley E.; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-12-01

    Diagnosing antibiotic-resistant bacteria currently requires sensitive detection of phenotypic changes associated with antibiotic action on bacteria. Here, we present an optical imaging-based approach to quantify bacterial membrane deformation as a phenotypic feature in real-time with a nanometer scale (˜9 nm) detection limit. Using this approach, we found two types of antibiotic-induced membrane deformations in different bacterial strains: polymyxin B induced relatively uniform spatial deformation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells leading to change in cellular volume and ampicillin-induced localized spatial deformation leading to the formation of bulges or protrusions on uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 cells. We anticipate that the approach will contribute to understanding of antibiotic phenotypic effects on bacteria with a potential for applications in rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  2. Monitoring of Multilayered Bacterial Biofilm Morphology by Cryo-SEM for Raman Spectroscopy Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Šerý, Mojmír; Zemánek, Pavel; Nebesářová, Jana; Růžička, F.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 187-188 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : multilayered bacterial biofilm * morphology by Cryo-SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  3. Modifications in bacterial groups and short chain fatty acid production in the gut of healthy adult rats after long-term consumption of dietary Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Pastoriza de la Cueva, Silvia; Peinado, M Jesús; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Navarro, M Pilar; Rubio, Luis A

    2017-10-01

    Bread crust (BC) is one of the major sources of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in the Western diet. This work was designed to analyze the impact of diets containing important levels of MRPs from BC on intestinal bacterial growth and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in adult rats. Additionally, the pools of compounds excreted in feces attending to their molecular weights were analyzed. Rats were fed for 88days a control diet or diets containing BC or its soluble high molecular weight (HMW), soluble low molecular weight (LMW) or insoluble fractions, respectively. Intestinal (cecum) microbiota composition was determined by qPCR analysis. Consumption of the BC diet lowered (PMaillard reaction products are in vivo fermented by the gut microbiota, thereby changing both the pattern of SCFAs production and the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Productivity measurement in a sports organisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-03

    May 3, 2013 ... the productivity of work units or teams within organisations through performance ... permanent preferences for different outcomes such as safety, self-esteem ( ..... should be the most important aspects of the game that, when ...

  5. Manipulating the glycosylation pathway in bacterial and lower eukaryotes for production of therapeutic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted...... to produce proteins with humanlike glycan structures setting the stage for production of pharmaceutical proteins in bacteria, yeasts and algae....

  6. Surface-Selective Preferential Production of Reactive Oxygen Species on Piezoelectric Ceramics for Bacterial Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guoxin; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; He, Tianrui; Chen, Junqi; Mao, Chuanbin; Ning, Chengyun

    2016-09-21

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be used to kill bacterial cells, and thus the selective generation of ROS from material surfaces is an emerging direction in antibacterial material discovery. We found the polarization of piezoelectric ceramic causes the two sides of the disk to become positively and negatively charged, which translate into cathode and anode surfaces in an aqueous solution. Because of the microelectrolysis of water, ROS are preferentially formed on the cathode surface. Consequently, the bacteria are selectively killed on the cathode surface. However, the cell experiment suggested that the level of ROS is safe for normal mammalian cells.

  7. Multi-parameter flow cytometry as a process analytical technology (PAT) approach for the assessment of bacterial ghost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemann, Timo; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Meitz, Andrea; Lubitz, Werner; Herwig, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a tool for the analysis of single-cell properties in a cell suspension. In this contribution, we present an improved FCM method for the assessment of E-lysis in Enterobacteriaceae. The result of the E-lysis process is empty bacterial envelopes-called bacterial ghosts (BGs)-that constitute potential products in the pharmaceutical field. BGs have reduced light scattering properties when compared with intact cells. In combination with viability information obtained from staining samples with the membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dye bis-(1,3-dibutylarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC4(3)), the presented method allows to differentiate between populations of viable cells, dead cells, and BGs. Using a second fluorescent dye RH414 as a membrane marker, non-cellular background was excluded from the data which greatly improved the quality of the results. Using true volumetric absolute counting, the FCM data correlated well with cell count data obtained from colony-forming units (CFU) for viable populations. Applicability of the method to several Enterobacteriaceae (different Escherichia coli strains, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri 2a) could be shown. The method was validated as a resilient process analytical technology (PAT) tool for the assessment of E-lysis and for particle counting during 20-l batch processes for the production of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 BGs.

  8. Comparison of rumen bacterial communities in dairy herds of different production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indugu, Nagaraju; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Baker, Linda D; Ferguson, James D; Vanamala, Jairam K P; Pitta, Dipti W

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen bacterial composition in high and low yielding dairy cows within and between two dairy herds. Eighty five Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation (79-179 days in milk) were selected from two farms: Farm 12 (M305 = 12,300 kg; n = 47; 24 primiparous cows, 23 multiparous cows) and Farm 9 (M305 = 9700 kg; n = 38; 19 primiparous cows, 19 multiparous cows). Each study cow was sampled once using the stomach tube method and processed for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using the Ion Torrent (PGM) platform. Differences in bacterial communities between farms were greater (Adonis: R 2  = 0.16; p forage type and proportion in the diets. A combination of corn silage and alfalfa silage may have contributed to the increased proportion of Proteobacteria in Farm 12. It was concluded that Farm 12 had a greater proportion of specialist bacteria that have the potential to enhance rumen fermentative digestion of feedstuffs to support higher milk yields.

  9. Engineering bacterial biopolymers for the biosorption of heavy metals; new products and novel formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutnick, D.L.; Bach, H.

    2000-01-01

    Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution remains a major challenge in environmental biotechnology. One of the approaches considered for application involves biosorption either to biomass or to isolated biopolymers. Many bacterial polysaccharides have been shown to bind heavy metals with varying degrees of specificity and affinity. While various approaches have been adopted to generate polysaccharide variants altered in both structure and activity, metal biosorption has not been examined. Polymer engineering has included structural modification through the introduction of heterologous genes of the biosynthetic pathway into specific mutants, leading either to alterations in polysaccharide backbone or side chains, or to sugar modification. In addition, novel formulations can be designed which enlarge the family of available bacterial biopolymers for metal-binding and subsequent recovery. An example discussed here is the use of amphipathic bioemulsifiers such as emulsan, produced by the oil-degrading Acinetobacter lwoffii RAG-1, that forms stable, concentrated (70%), oil-in-water emulsions (emulsanosols). In this system metal ions bind primarily at the oil/water interface, enabling their recovery and concentration from relatively dilute solutions. In addition to the genetic modifications described above, a new approach to the generation of amphipathic bioemulsifying formulations is based on the interaction of native or recombinant esterase and its derivatives with emulsan and other water-soluble biopolymers. Cation-binding emulsions are generated from a variety of hydrophobic substrates. The features of these and other systems will be discussed, together with a brief consideratiton of possible applications. (orig.)

  10. Measuring productivity differences in equilibrium search models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanot, Gauthier; Neumann, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium search models require unobserved heterogeneity in productivity to fit observed wage distribution data, but provide no guidance about the location parameter of the heterogeneity. In this paper we show that the location of the productivity heterogeneity implies a mode in a kernel density...... estimate of the wage distribution. The number of such modes and their location are identified using bump hunting techniques due to Silverman (1981). These techniques are applied to Danish panel data on workers and firms. These estimates are used to assess the importance of employer wage policy....

  11. Effects of different fermentation methods on bacterial cellulose and acid production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus in Cantonese-style rice vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Chen, Siqian; Yi, Jiulong; Hou, Zongxia

    2014-07-01

    A strain of acidogenic bacterium was isolated from the fermentation liquid of Cantonese-style rice vinegar produced by traditional surface fermentation. 16S rDNA identification confirmed the bacterium as Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which synthesizes bacterial cellulose, and the acid productivity of the strain was investigated. In the study, the effects of the membrane integrity and the comparison of the air-liquid interface membrane with immerged membrane on total acidity, cellulose production, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and number of bacteria were investigated. The cellulose membrane and the bacteria were observed under SEM for discussing their relationship. The correlations between oxygen consumption and total acid production rate were compared in surface and shake flask fermentation. The results showed the average acid productivity of the strain was 0.02g/(100mL/h), and the integrity of cellulose membrane in surface fermentation had an important effect on total acidity and cellulose production. With a higher membrane integrity, the total acidity after 144 h of fermentation was 3.75 g/100 mL, and the cellulose production was 1.71 g/100 mL after 360 h of fermentation. However, when the membrane was crushed by mechanical force, the total acidity and the cellulose production were as low as 0.36 g/100 mL and 0.14 g/100 mL, respectively. When the cellulose membrane was forced under the surface of fermentation liquid, the total acid production rate was extremely low, but the activity of ADH in the cellulose membrane was basically the same with the one above the liquid surface. The bacteria were mainly distributed in the cellulose membrane during the fermentation. The bacterial counts in surface fermentation were more than in the shake flask fermentation and G. xylinus consumed the substrate faster, in surface fermentation than in shake flask fermentation. The oxygen consumption rate and total acid production rate of surface fermentation were respectively 26

  12. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  13. Power Curve Measurements, quantify the production increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  14. Influence of Integrated Use of Inorganic fertiliser and Organic manures on Bacterial Wilt Incidence (WI) and Tuber Yield in Potato Production Systems in Southern Slopes of Mt. Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mriithi, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most damaging of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Kenya and worldwide. In Kenya Potato tuber yield losses due to BW infection are estimated at 50-100%. Low soil fertility is also one of the most important constraints limiting potato production in central Kenya highlands. Farmers tackle this problem through use of inorganic fertilisers and organic manures, both of which amend the soil environment to influence bacterial wilt development. Undecomposed organic manures can also introduce the pathogen into a clean field. Between short rains 1999 and 2000, 10 on-farm researcher/farmer-designed and farmer-managed trials were done at Kianjuki catchment in Embu District. The objective was to use farmers' participatory research approach and select the most suitable organic and inorganic fertiliser combination(s) with lowest BWI and acceptable usable tuber yields. And also demonstrate use of some components of integrated disease management methods in reduction of disease incidence and spread. Seven treatments were proposed, presented to the farmers for discussion and the most relevant four were selected for evaluation . A newly released potato variety 'Asante' was planted during the short-rains 1999 and long rains 2000. BWI didn't;t result in significant differences between treatments but the tuber yields were significantly different in short-rains 1999 and 2000. During short-rains 2000, both BWI and tuber yields and unusable tubers differed significantly between treatments. The results confirmed that use of well-decomposed manures or manures from pathogen-free areas can be used in combination with inorganic fertilisers to improve soil fertility and potato tuber yields in smallholder farm without influencing BWI. Use of certified seed tubers in pathogen free fields and following recommendation field sanitation measures, resulted in apparently bacterial wilt free crop

  15. Measurements of fusion product emission profiles in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Murphy, T.J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tait, G.D.; Zweben, S.J.

    1986-11-01

    The techniques and results of fusion product emission profile measurements are reviewed. While neutron source strength profile measurements have been attempted by several methods, neutron scattering is a limitation to the results. Profile measurements using charged fusion products have recently provided an alternative since collimation is much easier for the charged particles

  16. Issues in Measurement and International Comparison of Productivity - An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ark, Bart

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development in theory and measurement of productivity performance in an international comparative perspective. It emphasises the need for a better link between the theory and practice of measurement, in particular concerning measurement of productivity levels. The paper

  17. Estimating product-to-product variations in metal forming using force measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Gosse Tjipke; Van Den Boogaard, Ton

    2017-01-01

    The limits of production accuracy of metal forming processes can be stretched by the development of control systems for compensation of product-to-product variations. Such systems require the use of measurements from each semi-finished product. These measurements must be used to estimate the final

  18. Nanomaterial-based sensors for detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins as well as pork adulteration in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stephen Inbaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety draws considerable attention in the modern pace of the world owing to rapid-changing food recipes and food habits. Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogens, toxins, and other contaminants pose serious threat to human health. Besides, a large amount of money is spent on both analyses and control measures, which causes significant loss to the food industry. Conventional detection methods for bacterial pathogens and toxins are time consuming and laborious, requiring certain sophisticated instruments and trained personnel. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising field for solving food safety issues in terms of detecting contaminants, enabling controlled release of preservatives to extend the shelf life of foods, and improving food-packaging strategies. Nanomaterials including metal oxide and metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots are gaining a prominent role in the design of sensors and biosensors for food analysis. In this review, various nanomaterial-based sensors reported in the literature for detection of several foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins are summarized highlighting their principles, advantages, and limitations in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, and multiplexing capability. In addition, the application through a noncross-linking method without the need for any surface modification is also presented for detection of pork adulteration in meat products.

  19. Measurement of Charmonium Production Cross Section at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Frosini, M

    2010-01-01

    The great abundance of charmonium states, collected from the start up of LHC, allows to study its production mechanism. In particular the total and differential $J/\\psi$ production cross section are measured in the transverse momentum range [0;10] GeV/$c$ and in the pseudorapidity range $y \\in$ [2.5;4]. The measurements are performed disentagling the prompt (direct production in $pp$ collisions and feed down from excited charmonium states) and delayed ($b$-hadron decays products) component.

  20. Glycerol as a Cheaper Carbon Source in Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production by Gluconacetobacter Xylinus DSM46604 in Batch Fermentation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azila Adnan; Nair, G.R.; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymer of glucose monomers, which has unique properties including high crystallinity and high strength. It has potential to be used in biomedical applications such as making artificial blood vessel, wound dressings, and in the paper making industry. Extensive study on BC aimed to improve BC production such as by using glycerol as a cheaper carbon source. BC was produced in shake flask culture using five different concentrations of glycerol (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/ L). Using concentration of glycerol above 20 g/ L inhibited culture growth and BC production. Further experiments were performed in batch culture (3-L bioreactor) using 20 g/ L glycerol. It produced yield and productivity of 0.15 g/ g and 0.29 g/ L/ day BC, respectively. This is compared with the control medium, 50 g/ L glucose, which only gave yield and productivity of 0.05 g/ g and 0.23 g/ L/ day, respectively. Twenty g/ L of glycerol enhanced BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 in batch fermentation system. (author)

  1. Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

    2014-05-01

    The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-β) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Product formation from thiophene by a mixed bacterial culture. Influence of benzene as growth substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Isabelle Marie; Mosbæk, Hans; Arvin, Erik

    2003-01-01

    phase of transformation. The microorganisms were able to transform thiophene in the absence of benzene at a zero-order rate. Thiophene was converted to five oxidation products, regardless of the presence of benzene. Benzene had no influence on the distribution of these oxidation products. The main...... oxidation product, a thiophene sulphoxide dimer, represented 78+/-12% of the transformed thiophene, while the second most important product, also a thiophene sulphoxide dimer, represented 20+/-2% of the converted thiophene. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Application of customised bacterial inoculants for grass haylage production and its effectiveness on nutrient composition and fermentation quality of haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Kim, Da Hye; Srisesharam, Srigopalram; Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Park, Hyung Soo; Yoon, Yong Hee; Kim, Won Ho; Song, Young Gil; Choi, Ki Choon

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of customised Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-10, KCC-19 and K-46 on nutrient composition and fermentation quality of low moisture Italian ryegrass (IRG) forage. An addition of customised bacterial inoculants (CBI) did not affect the nutrient compositions and digestibility rates of haylage. The lactic acid content was higher in CBI-inoculated haylage, whereas the amount of acetic acid and butyric acid production was significantly reduced than the control. CBI-inoculated haylage exhibited higher numbers of bacterial colonies that reduced the pH of the haylage. Low pH in haylage is an important criterion for preventing undesirable microbial growth and improves fermentation quality of haylage. PCR studies indicated that the DNA of L. plantarum was predominantly amplified. It evidenced that the CBI is the main reason behind the improvement of haylage fermentation as compared to control. Overall results suggested that KCC-10, KCC-19 and K-46 are considered as potent strains for improving fermentation quality of low moisture forage and preserve its stability for a long time.

  4. Bacterial community structure and variation in a full-scale seawater desalination plant for drinking water production

    KAUST Repository

    Belila, Abdelaziz; El Chakhtoura, Joline; Otaibi, N.; Muyzer, G.; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Saikaly, Pascal; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    showed that bacterial species richness and diversity decreased during the seawater desalination process. The two-stage RO filtration strongly reduced the water conductivity (>99%), TOC concentration (98.5%) and total bacterial cell number (>99%), albeit

  5. Application of bacterial cytological profiling to crude natural product extracts reveals the antibacterial arsenal of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonejuie, Poochit; Trial, Rachelle M; Newton, Gerald L; Lamsa, Anne; Ranmali Perera, Varahenage; Aguilar, Julieta; Liu, Wei-Ting; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit

    2016-05-01

    Although most clinically used antibiotics are derived from natural products, identifying new antibacterial molecules from natural product extracts is difficult due to the complexity of these extracts and the limited tools to correlate biological activity with specific molecules. Here, we show that bacterial cytological profiling (BCP) provides a rapid method for mechanism of action determination on plates and in complex natural product extracts and for activity-guided purification. We prepared an extract from Bacillus subtilis 3610 that killed the Escherichia coli lptD mutant and used BCP to observe two types of bioactivities in the unfractionated extract: inhibition of translation and permeablization of the cytoplasmic membrane. We used BCP to guide purification of the molecules responsible for each activity, identifying the translation inhibitors bacillaene and bacillaene B (glycosylated bacillaene) and demonstrating that two molecules contribute to cell permeabilitization, the bacteriocin subtilosin and the cyclic peptide sporulation killing factor. Our results suggest that bacillaene mediates translational arrest, and show that bacillaene B has a minimum inhibitory concentration 10 × higher than unmodified bacillaene. Finally, we show that BCP can be used to screen strains on an agar plate without the need for extract preparation, greatly saving time and improving throughput. Thus, BCP simplifies the isolation of novel natural products, by identifying strains, crude extracts and fractions with interesting bioactivities even when multiple activities are present, allowing investigators to focus labor-intensive steps on those with desired activities.

  6. Design and characterization of synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for direct production of isobutanol from cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minty, Jeremy J; Singer, Marc E; Scholz, Scott A; Bae, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Foster, Clifton E; Liao, James C; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

    2013-09-03

    Synergistic microbial communities are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit appealing features, such as sophisticated metabolic capabilities and robustness. This has inspired fast-growing interest in engineering synthetic microbial consortia for biotechnology development. However, there are relatively few reports of their use in real-world applications, and achieving population stability and regulation has proven to be challenging. In this work, we bridge ecology theory with engineering principles to develop robust synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for efficient biosynthesis of valuable products from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The required biological functions are divided between two specialists: the fungus Trichoderma reesei, which secretes cellulase enzymes to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass into soluble saccharides, and the bacterium Escherichia coli, which metabolizes soluble saccharides into desired products. We developed and experimentally validated a comprehensive mathematical model for T. reesei/E. coli consortia, providing insights on key determinants of the system's performance. To illustrate the bioprocessing potential of this consortium, we demonstrate direct conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and pretreated corn stover to isobutanol. Without costly nutrient supplementation, we achieved titers up to 1.88 g/L and yields up to 62% of theoretical maximum. In addition, we show that cooperator-cheater dynamics within T. reesei/E. coli consortia lead to stable population equilibria and provide a mechanism for tuning composition. Although we offer isobutanol production as a proof-of-concept application, our modular system could be readily adapted for production of many other valuable biochemicals.

  7. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial and fungal biomass and carbon dioxide production in Louisiana coastal swamp forest sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal and bacterial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production/emission was determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, + 100, + 250 and + 400 mV) covering the anaerobic range found in wetland soil and sediment. Carbon dioxide production was determined by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition method. Cycloheximide (C 15 H 23 NO 4 ) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C 21 H 39 N 7 O 12 ) as the bacterial inhibitor. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > + 250 mV), fungi contributed more than bacteria to the CO 2 production. Under highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), bacteria contributed more than fungi to the total CO 2 production. The fungi/bacteria (F/B) ratios varied between 0.71-1.16 for microbial biomass C, and 0.54-0.94 for microbial biomass N. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the F/B ratios for microbial biomass C and N were higher than that for highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV). In moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 13.54-14.26) was slightly higher than for bacteria (C/N: 9.61-12.07). Under highly reducing redox conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 10.79-12.41) was higher than for bacteria (C/N: 8.21-9.14). For bacteria and fungi, the C/N microbial biomass ratios under moderately reducing conditions were higher than that in highly reducing conditions. Fungal CO 2 production from swamp forest could be of greater ecological significance under moderately reducing sediment conditions contributing to the greenhouse effect (GHE) and the global warming potential (GWP). However, increases in coastal submergence associated with global sea level rise and resultant decrease in sediment redox potential from increased flooding would likely shift CO 2 production to bacteria

  8. Production and characterization of nanospheres of bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum from processed rice bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelzer, F.D.E.; Faria-Tischer, P.C.S.; Vitorino, J.C.; Sierakowski, Maria-R.; Tischer, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), biosynthesized by Acetobacter xylinum, was produced in a medium consisting of rice bark pre-treated with an enzymatic pool. Rice bark was evaluated as a carbon source by complete enzymatic hydrolysis and monosaccharide composition (GC-MS of derived alditol acetates). It was treated enzymatically and then enriched with glucose up to 4% (w/v). The BC produced by static and aerated processes was purified by immersion in 0.1 M NaOH, was characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and the biosynthetic nanostructures were evaluated by Scanning Electronic (SEM), Transmission Electronic (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The BC films arising from static fermentation with rice bark/glucose and glucose are tightly intertwined, partially crystalline, being type II cellulose produced with rice bark/glucose, and type I to the produced in a glucose medium. The nanostructurated biopolymer obtained from the rice bark/glucose medium, produced in a reactor with air flux had micro- and nanospheres linked to nanofibers of cellulose. These results indicate that the bark components, namely lignins, hemicelluloses or mineral contents, interact with the cellulose forming micro- and nanostructures with potential use to incorporate drugs

  9. The SOS chromotest: bacterial cells to detect and characterize genotoxic products and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quillardet, P.; Hofnung, M.

    1994-01-01

    The advanced knowledge we have on the bacterium Escherichia coli has facilitated the development of the colorimetric and fast assay, the SOS chromotest, which involves a single tester strain and gives a qualitative and a quantitative assay of the action of a genotoxic agent. We discuss a number of possibilities opened by this test in order to make a genetic diagnosis of the chemical nature of the damages caused in the genetic material by means of a battery of strains which have been genetically modified for that purpose. In order to give an idea of the accuracy of the bacterial responses and of the way they can be used to characterize the DNA damage by a genetic approach, the case of alkylating agents is described in a relatively detailed fashion, and the case of oxidative agents is rapidly mentioned. The sensitivity to ionizing radiation is such that the test is able to detect doses of the order of 1 Gy. We discuss briefly how it could be possible to increase this sensitivity by genetically inactivating repair systems which process the injuries caused by these agents, and how the use of a battery of tester strains could also give information on the nature of injuries caused by various types of ionizing radiation. (authors). 39 refs. 4 figs. 1 tab

  10. Effect of organic acids production and bacterial community on the possible mechanism of phosphorus solubilization during composting with enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Mingzi; Cao, Zhenyu; Lu, Qian; Yang, Tianxue; Fan, Yuying; Wei, Zimin

    2018-01-01

    Enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) agent were acquired by domesticated cultivation, and inoculated into kitchen waste composting in different stages. The effect of different treatments on organic acids production, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization and their relationship with bacterial community were investigated during composting. Our results pointed out that inoculation affected pH, total acidity and the production of oxalic, lactic, citric, succinic, acetic and formic acids. We also found a strong advantage in the solubilization of TCP and phosphorus (P) availability for PSB inoculation especially in the cooling stage. Redundancy analysis and structural equation models demonstrated inoculation by different methods changed the correlation of the bacterial community composition with P fractions as well as organic acids, and strengthened the cooperative function related to P transformation among species during composting. Finally, we proposed a possible mechanism of P solubilization with enriched PSB inoculation, which was induced by bacterial community and organic acids production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Successful phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil at an oil exploration and production company by plants-bacterial synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Kaneez; Imran, Asma; Amin, Imran; Khan, Qaiser M; Afzal, Muhammad

    2018-06-07

    Phytoremediation is a promising approach for the cleanup of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. This study aimed to develop plant-bacterial synergism for the successful remediation of crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortia of three endophytic bacteria was augmented to two grasses, Leptochloa fusca and Brachiaria mutica, grown in oil-contaminated soil (46.8 g oil kg -1 soil) in the vicinity of an oil exploration and production company. Endophytes augmentation improved plant growth, crude oil degradation, and soil health. Maximum oil degradation (80%) was achieved with B. mutica plants augmented with the endophytes and it was significantly (P oil reduction indicates that catabolic gene expression is important for hydrocarbon mineralization. This investigation showed that the use of endophytes with appropriate plant is an effective strategy for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil under field conditions.

  12. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hegnhøj, J

    1991-01-01

    During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured....... Bacterial growth was found in five patients with chronic liver disease, who were diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), since no intra-abdominal focus could be demonstrated. Thus, the incidence of SBP in this material was 7.7% (95% confidence limits: 2.5-17%). SBP was caused...

  13. Measurement of inelastic charmonium production at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steder, Michael

    2008-09-15

    This thesis presents measurements of inelastic photoproduction and electroproduction of J/{psi} mesons in ep scattering at HERA. The data was collected by the H1 detector during the HERA II running and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of L {approx} 166 pb{sup -1} in the photoproduction analysis and L {approx} 315 pb{sup -1} in the electroproduction analysis. In both analyses the elasticity of the J/{psi} meson is restricted to a medium range of 0.3 {<=} z {<=} 0.9. The kinematic range of the photoproduction analysis is defined by Q{sup 2} {approx} 0 GeV{sup 2}, 60 {<=}W{sub {gamma}}{sub p}{<=} 240 GeV and P{sub {tau}}{sub ,{psi}}{>=} 1 GeV{sup 2}, whereas the electroproduction analysis is restricted to 3.6 {<=} Q{sup 2} {<=} 100 GeV{sup 2}, 50 {<=}W{sub {gamma}}{sub p}{<=} 225 GeV, and P{sup *}{sub {tau}}{sub ,} {sub {psi}} {>=} 1 GeV. Here P{sup *}{sub {tau}}{sub ,} {sub {psi}} denotes the transverse momentum of the J/{psi} in the {gamma}p center of mass frame. In both kinematic ranges, single differential and double differential cross sections are measured with increased precision with respect to previous analyses. The polarisation of the J/{psi} mesons is studied in fits to the decay angular distributions cos({theta}{sup *}) and {phi}{sup *}. The measured cross sections are compared to different theoretical predictions. The most successful calculation in describing the data accounts for higher order corrections by using a k{sub {tau}} factorisation ansatz in the color singlet model (CSM). In addition, this thesis reviews the description of the data by calculations at leading and next to leading order in the CSM. The polarisation variables are compared to calculations in the factorisation ansatz in NRQCD, in addition to the leading order CSM predictions. (orig.)

  14. Methods and measures of enhancing production capacity of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yuhui

    2013-01-01

    Limited by resource conditions and mining conditions, the production capacity of uranium mines is generally small. The main factors to affect the production capacity determination of uranium mines are analyzed, the ways and measures to enhance the production capacity of uranium mines are explored from the innovations of technology and management mode. (author)

  15. Dosimetric measurement of the disintegration rate of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solymosi, J.; Nagy, L.G.; Zagyvai, P.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations on the disintegration rate of fission products of 238 U and 239 Pu are presented. The intensity of the β-and γ-radiation of fission products were measured continously in an interval of 1-1300 hours following the fission, offering the possibility for determining the general and specific characteristics of the individual fission products. A universal measuring procedure was elaborated for the rapid in situ determination of the dosimetric features of fission products, which is suitable for the accurate evaluation and prediction of external absorbed dose even in case of fission products of various origin and unknown composition. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Measuring Productivity Change without Neoclassical Assumptions: A Conceptual Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe measurement of productivity change (or difference) is usually based on models that make use of strong assumptions such as competitive behaviour and constant returns to scale. This survey discusses the basics of productivity measurement and shows that one can dispense with most if not

  17. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model......We argue that in the presence of transaction costs, observed productivity measures may in many cases understate the true productivity, as production data seldom distinguish between resources entering the production process and resources of a similar type that are sacrificed for transaction costs....... Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...

  18. Exposure to bacterial signals does not alter pea aphids' survival upon a second challenge or investment in production of winged offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ter Braak

    Full Text Available Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections.

  19. Effect of partially replacing a barley-based concentrate with flaxseed-based products on the rumen bacterial population of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Lopez, E; Moats, J; Aluthge, N D; Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T; Penner, G B; Fernando, S C

    2018-01-01

    The effects of partial replacement of a barley-based concentrate with flaxseed-based products on the rumen bacterial population of lactating Holstein dairy cows were evaluated. Treatments fed were CONT, a normal diet that included barley silage, alfalfa hay and a barley-based concentrate that contained no flaxseed or faba beans; FLAX, inclusion of a nonextruded flaxseed-based product containing 55·0% flaxseed, 37·8% field peas and 6·9% alfalfa; EXT, similar to FLAX, but the product was extruded and EXTT, similar to FLAX, but product was extruded and field peas were replaced by high-tannin faba beans. The rumen bacterial population was evaluated by utilizing 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most abundant phyla, families and genera were unaffected. However, some taxa were affected; for example, unsaturated fatty acid content was negatively correlated with Clostridiaceae, and tannin content was negatively correlated with BS11 and Paraprevotellaceae. Predominant rumen bacterial taxa were not affected, but the abundance of some taxa found in lower proportions shifted, possibly due to sensitivity to unsaturated fatty acids or tannins. Flaxseed-based products were effective for partially replacing barley-based concentrate in rations of lactating dairy cows. No negative effects of these products were observed on the abundance of predominant rumen bacterial taxa, with only minor shifts in less abundant bacteria. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Does Input Quality Drive Measured Differences in Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Jeremy T.; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande

    is roughly of the same order of magnitude as some competitive effects found in the literature, but input quality measures do not explain most productivity dispersion, despite economically large production function coefficients. We find that the wage bill explains as much dispersion as human capital measures.......Firms in the same industry can differ in measured productivity by multiples of 3. Griliches (1957) suggests one explanation: the quality of inputs differs across firms. We add labor market history variables such as experience and firm and industry tenure, as well as general human capital measures...

  1. Use of bacterial co-cultures for the efficient production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Andrew; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-02

    The microbial production of chemicals has traditionally relied on a single engineered microbe to enable the complete bioconversion of substrate to final product. Recently, a growing fraction of research has transitioned towards employing a modular co-culture engineering strategy using multiple microbes growing together to facilitate a divide-and-conquer approach for chemical biosynthesis. Here, we review key success stories that leverage the unique advantages of co-culture engineering, while also addressing the critical concerns that will limit the wide-spread implementation of this technology. Future studies that address the need to monitor and control the population dynamics of each strain module, while maintaining robust flux routes towards a wide range of desired products will lead the efforts to realize the true potential of co-culture engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial L-arabinose isomerases: industrial application for D-tagatose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudebbouze, Samira; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

    2011-12-01

    D-tagatose is a natural monosaccharide with a low caloric value and has an anti-hyperglycemiant effect. This hexose has potential applications both in pharmaceutical and agro-food industries. However, the use of D-tagatose remains limited by its production cost. Many production procedures including chemical and biological processes were developed and patented. The most profitable production way is based on the use of L-arabinose isomerase which allows the manufacture of D-tagatose with an attractive rate. Future developments are focused on the generation of L-arabinose isomerases having biochemical properties satisfying the industrial applications. This report provides a brief review of the most recent patents that have been published relating to this area.

  3. Development of a Bacterial Biosensor for Rapid Screening of Yeast p-Coumaric Acid Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siedler, Solvej; Khatri, Narendar K.; Zsohar, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    device, rapidly sort droplets containing yeast cells producing high amounts of extracellular p-coumaric acid using the fluorescent E. coli biosensor signal. As additional biosensors become available, such approaches will find broad applications for screening of an extracellular product.......Transcription factor-based biosensors are used to identify producer strains, a critical bottleneck in cell factory engineering. Here, we address two challenges with this methodology: transplantation of heterologous transcriptional regulators into new hosts to generate functional biosensors...... and biosensing of the extracellular product concentration that accurately reflects the effective cell factory production capacity. We describe the effects of different translation initiation rates on the dynamic range of a p-coumaric acid biosensor based on the Bacillus subtilis transcriptional repressor Pad...

  4. Measures for Increasing of Company’s Production Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Žikevičiūtė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Production capacity improvements are poorly explored areas of economic literature and the existing methods are difficult to apply. For this reason, the organization has only a superficial analysis of capacity, but after all this time, each production company had to improve the production capacity for the market economy and the most economical use of production factors.This article explores the company’s production capacity for better use of tools. It also presents the capacity of their concept, establishment, evaluates the factors leading to their production capacity, for developing efficiency measures and model presentation.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Simultaneous biogas upgrading and biochemicals production using anaerobic bacterial mixed cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Basma; Abou-Shanab, Reda; El-Gammal, Maie

    2018-01-01

    , the biogas was upgraded to biomethane (CH4 >95%), which can be used as a vehicle fuel or injected into the natural gas grid. To establish an efficient fermentative microbial platform, a thermal (at two different temperatures of 70 °C and 90 °C) and a chemical pretreatment method using 2-bromoethanesulfonate...... treatment methods and gas ratios has also been unravelled using 16S rRNA analysis. The chemical treatment of the inoculum had successfully blocked the activity of methanogens and enhanced the VFAs production, especially acetate. The chemical treatment led to a significantly better acetate production (291 mg...

  6. Bacterial contaminants from frozen puff pastry production process and their growth inhibition by antimicrobial substances from lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumjuankiat, Kittaporn; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee

    2017-05-01

    Seventy-five bacterial contaminants which still persisted to cleaning system from three puff pastry production lines (dough forming, layer and filling forming, and shock freezing) were identified using 16S rDNA as seven genera of Bacillus , Corynebacterium , Dermacoccus , Enterobacter , Klebsiella, Pseudomonas , and Staphylococcus with detection frequencies of 24.00, 2.66, 1.33, 37.33, 1.33, 2.66, and 30.66, respectively. Seventeen species were discovered while only 11 species Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus, Corynebacterium striatum , Dermacoccus barathri , Enterobacter asburiae, Staphylococcus kloosii, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. warneri , and S. aureus were detected at the end of production. Based on their abundance, the highest abundance of E. asburiae could be used as a biomarker for product quality. While a low abundance of the mesophile pathogen C. striatum , which causes respiratory and nervous infection and appeared only at the shock freezing step was firstly reported for its detection in bakery product. Six antimicrobial substances (AMSs) from lactic acid bacteria, FF1-4, FF1-7, PFUR-242, PFUR-255, PP-174, and nisin A were tested for their inhibition activities against the contaminants. The three most effective were FF1-7, PP-174, and nisin A exhibiting wide inhibition spectra of 88.00%, 85.33%, and 86.66%, respectively. The potential of a disinfectant solution containing 800 AU/ml of PP-174 and nisin A against the most resistant strains of Enterobacter , Staphylococcus , Bacillus and Klebsiella was determined on artificially contaminated conveyor belt coupons at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 hr. The survival levels of the test strains were below 1 log CFU/coupon at 0 hr. The results suggested that a combined solution of PP-174 and nisin A may be beneficial as a sanitizer to inhibit bacterial contaminants in the frozen puff pastry industry.

  7. Repurposing a bacterial quality control mechanism to enhance enzyme production in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterologous expression of many proteins in bacteria, yeasts, and plants is often limited by low titers of functional protein. To address this problem, we have created a two-tiered directed evolution strategy in Escherichia coli that enables optimization of protein production while maintaining high ...

  8. A bacterial cell factory for efficient production of ethanol from whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for homo-ethanol production from lactose using a genetically modified lactic acid bacterium of the invention, where the cells are provided with a substrate comprising dairy waste supplemented with an amino nitrogen source (such as acid hydrolysed corn steep liquo...

  9. Limited bacterial diversity within a treatment plant receiving antibiotic containing waste from bulk drug production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marathe, Nachiket P.; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Larsson, D.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted

  10. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M.

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

  11. A study regarding measurements of bacterial contamination levels in radiology room equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University Graduate School, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyeon Je [Dept. of Clinical Pathology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae; Kim, Chang Bok [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae Kwang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Reported some level of bacteria in areas that are well made contact in Radiology imaging room evaluate the importance of cleanliness in the hospital management of equipment to check for the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Gwang-ju and Jeol-la city and medium-sized hospitals in the material with a cotton swab and rub evenly Radiology selection cassette, a handle, Apron of the imaging apparatus having the most contact with patients from July 2016 to August 2016 as a target in place and special studios 6, and saline solution will placed in a test tube containing. The swab sample was diluted 1,000 times, you can see the bacteria and the intestinal bacterial selective medium Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA), Muller-Hinton Agar (MHA), EosinMethylene Blue (EMB), ENDO (BD, NJ, USA) then incubated smear to. In the incubator (incubator, SANYO, Japan) was observed after incubation of bacteria and counting the total number of bacteria also Colonies (colony) suspected intestinal bacteria were isolated and cultured on KIA medium (BD, NJ, USA). As a result, it was found that this came Gram positive Coccus A hospital handle the F hospital, from the C Gram positive Coccus cassette and handle the F hospital. The striking yellow coloring Staphylococcus aureus 110 agar (STA 110) in the medium sample, but it is suspected staphylococcal Coccus to the final identifcation in the laboratory is not a single specimen of the two samples from Gram positive Coccus biochemical identifcation. Identifcation Kit is an API could not, it was thought to be non-Staphylococcus aureus was cultured on blood agar suggesting that (BAP) blood of dance. Dynamic tests were conducted biochemical API kit of the two samples were identifed from Gram positive Coccus bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) is F hospital cassette was confrmed Eenterobacter cloaca in A hospital possession. Did not aggregate O-26, O-111, O-157 and the serum test was conducted in the laboratory from the E. coli F cassette hospital.

  12. A study regarding measurements of bacterial contamination levels in radiology room equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Jin; Song, Hyeon Je; Dong, Kyung Rae; Kim, Chang Bok; Ryu, Jae Kwang

    2017-01-01

    Reported some level of bacteria in areas that are well made contact in Radiology imaging room evaluate the importance of cleanliness in the hospital management of equipment to check for the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Gwang-ju and Jeol-la city and medium-sized hospitals in the material with a cotton swab and rub evenly Radiology selection cassette, a handle, Apron of the imaging apparatus having the most contact with patients from July 2016 to August 2016 as a target in place and special studios 6, and saline solution will placed in a test tube containing. The swab sample was diluted 1,000 times, you can see the bacteria and the intestinal bacterial selective medium Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA), Muller-Hinton Agar (MHA), EosinMethylene Blue (EMB), ENDO (BD, NJ, USA) then incubated smear to. In the incubator (incubator, SANYO, Japan) was observed after incubation of bacteria and counting the total number of bacteria also Colonies (colony) suspected intestinal bacteria were isolated and cultured on KIA medium (BD, NJ, USA). As a result, it was found that this came Gram positive Coccus A hospital handle the F hospital, from the C Gram positive Coccus cassette and handle the F hospital. The striking yellow coloring Staphylococcus aureus 110 agar (STA 110) in the medium sample, but it is suspected staphylococcal Coccus to the final identifcation in the laboratory is not a single specimen of the two samples from Gram positive Coccus biochemical identifcation. Identifcation Kit is an API could not, it was thought to be non-Staphylococcus aureus was cultured on blood agar suggesting that (BAP) blood of dance. Dynamic tests were conducted biochemical API kit of the two samples were identifed from Gram positive Coccus bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) is F hospital cassette was confrmed Eenterobacter cloaca in A hospital possession. Did not aggregate O-26, O-111, O-157 and the serum test was conducted in the laboratory from the E. coli F cassette hospital

  13. Reliability of Haemophilus influenzae biofilm measurement via static method, and determinants of in vitro biofilm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Najla A; Tristram, Stephen; Narkowicz, Christian K; Jacobson, Glenn A

    2016-12-01

    Information is lacking regarding the precision of microtitre plate (MTP) assays used to measure biofilm. This study investigated the precision of an MTP assay to measure biofilm production by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and the effects of frozen storage and inoculation technique on biofilm production. The density of bacterial final growth was determined by absorbance after 18-20 h incubation, and biofilm production was then measured by absorbance after crystal violet staining. Biofilm formation was categorised as high and low for each strain. For the high biofilm producing strains of NTHi, interday reproducibility of NTHi biofilm formation measured using the MTP assay was excellent and met the acceptance criteria, but higher variability was observed in low biofilm producers. Method of inoculum preparation was a determinant of biofilm formation with inoculum prepared directly from solid media showing increased biofilm production for at least one of the high producing strains. In general, storage of NTHi cultures at -80 °C for up to 48 weeks did not have any major effect on their ability to produce biofilm.

  14. TARSyn: Tunable Antibiotic Resistance Devices Enabling Bacterial Synthetic Evolution and Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Martinez, Virginia; Mirzadeh, Kiavash

    2018-01-01

    Evolution can be harnessed to optimize synthetic biology designs. A prominent example is recombinant protein production-a dominating theme in biotechnology for more than three decades. Typically, a protein coding sequence (cds) is recombined with genetic elements, such as promoters, ribosome...... and allows expression levels in large clone libraries to be probed using a simple cell survival assay on the respective antibiotic. The power of the approach is demonstrated by substantially increasing production of two commercially interesting proteins, a Nanobody and an Affibody. The method is a simple......-level expression-an example of synthetic evolution. However, manual screening limits the ability to assay expression levels of all putative sequences in the libraries. Here we have solved this bottleneck by designing a collection of translational coupling devices based on a RNA secondary structure. Exchange...

  15. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To impr......Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli...... membrane protein F (OmpF) and osmotically inducible protein Y (OsmY). Based on the results of this initial study, we carried out an extended expression screen employing the OsmY fusion and multiple constructs of a more diverse set of human proteins. Using this high-throughput compatible system, we clearly...

  16. Evaluation of measures to decrease intra-operative bacterial contamination in orthopaedic implant surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobben, BAS; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether behavioural and systemic measures wilt decrease intra-operative contamination during total hip or knee replacements. The influence of these measures on subsequent prolonged wound discharge, superficial surgical site infection and deep periprosthetic

  17. The Genome-Based Metabolic Systems Engineering to Boost Levan Production in a Halophilic Bacterial Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Busra; Ozer, Tugba; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic systems engineering is being used to redirect microbial metabolism for the overproduction of chemicals of interest with the aim of transforming microbial hosts into cellular factories. In this study, a genome-based metabolic systems engineering approach was designed and performed to improve biopolymer biosynthesis capability of a moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6 T producing levan, which is a fructose homopolymer with many potential uses in various industries and medicine. For this purpose, the genome-scale metabolic model for AAD6 T was used to characterize the metabolic resource allocation, specifically to design metabolic engineering strategies for engineered bacteria with enhanced levan production capability. Simulations were performed in silico to determine optimal gene knockout strategies to develop new strains with enhanced levan production capability. The majority of the gene knockout strategies emphasized the vital role of the fructose uptake mechanism, and pointed out the fructose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS fru ) as the most promising target for further metabolic engineering studies. Therefore, the PTS fru of AAD6 T was restructured with insertional mutagenesis and triparental mating techniques to construct a novel, engineered H. smyrnensis strain, BMA14. Fermentation experiments were carried out to demonstrate the high efficiency of the mutant strain BMA14 in terms of final levan concentration, sucrose consumption rate, and sucrose conversion efficiency, when compared to the AAD6 T . The genome-based metabolic systems engineering approach presented in this study might be considered an efficient framework to redirect microbial metabolism for the overproduction of chemicals of interest, and the novel strain BMA14 might be considered a potential microbial cell factory for further studies aimed to design levan production processes with lower production costs.

  18. Strategies for production of active eukaryotic proteins in bacterial expression system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orawan Khow; Sunutcha Suntrarachun

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria have long been the favorite expression system for recombinant protein production. However, the flaw of the system is that insoluble and inactive proteins are co-produced due to codon bias, protein folding, phosphorylation, glycosylation, mRNA stability and promoter strength. Factors are cited and the methods to convert to soluble and active proteins are described, for example a tight control of Escherichia coli milieu, refolding from inclusion body and through fusion technology.

  19. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  20. The effect of temperature and effluent recycle rate on hydrogen production by undefined bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, L; Masilela, P; Obazu, F; Gray, V M

    2011-10-01

    Biohydrogen production in an anaerobic fluidized granular bed bioreactor was strongly dependent on temperature and effluent recycle rates. At 45 °C as the effluent recycle rate was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 L/min, the total H₂ output for the bioreactor increased from 10.6 to 43.2 L/h. Volumetric H(2) productivity also increased from 2.1 to 8.7 L H₂/L/h. At 70°C as the effluent recycle was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 L/min, the total H₂ output for the bioreactor increased from 13.8 to 73.8L/h. At 70 °C volumetric H(2) productivities increased from 2.8 to 14.8L H₂/L/h as the effluent recycle rate was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 L/min. At 45 °C % H₂ was 45% and reached 67% at 70 °C. Maximum hydrogen yields at 45 °C were 1.24 and 2.2 mol H₂/mol glucose at 70 °C. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial laminarinase for application in ethanol production from brown algae Sargassum sp. using halotolerant yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.T. Perez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae are known to have many industrial applications, with current research targeting the potential of macroalgal biomass as feedstock in production of biofuels. Marine algal biomass is rich in storage carbohydrates, laminarin, and cellulose, which can be converted to fermentable sugars using appropriate enzymes, for fermentation to ethanol. This study focused on ethanol production from macroalgae using only enzymatic treatment for saccharification of algal biomass. This involved the isolation and identification of cellulase and laminarinase-producing microorganisms from mangrove area in the Philippines and production of partially purified enzymes for algal biomass saccharification. Results showed that the partially purified laminarinase produced from Bacillus sp. was capable of hydrolyzing the laminarin present in the macroalage. Fermentation of the algal hydrolysate yielded only small amount of ethanol due to lack of other pre-treatment methods, however, it was observed that higher ethanol was produced in saccharification treatments using a combination of cellulase and laminarinase which implies a possible synergistic effect between the two enzymes.

  2. Semi-spontaneous oral text production: measurements in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2009-12-01

    Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple measurements for the analysis of semi-spontaneous oral text production by speakers with aphasia. Specifically, the measurements are related to the production of verbs and nouns, and the realization of different sentence types. The proposed measurements should be clinically relevant, easily applicable, and linguistically meaningful. The measurements have been applied to oral descriptions of the 'Cookie Theft' picture by eight monolingual Norwegian speakers, four with an anomic type of aphasia and four without any type of language impairment. Despite individual differences in both the clinical and the non-clinical group, most of the measurements seem to distinguish between speakers with and without aphasia.

  3. Thickness measuring instrument for rubber cord calender production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Songfeng

    1988-01-01

    The thickness measuring gauge has been used to measure the rubber film thickness on the coating of textile cord at tire four cord calenders. Combined with micro-computer it completes the automatic control system and acheives automatic thickness measurement and adjustment. The fundamentals, construction, specifications, characteristic and application results are described. Prominent economic benefit has been gained for tire production

  4. Measurements of photon and jet production properties with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237016; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-09-09

    Summary of recent ATLAS measurements of jet and photon production using proton–proton (pp) collisions from the Large Hadron Collider. The charged-particle multiplicity in jets, and jet charge measurements are presented using 8 TeV pp collisions. Differential measurements of jet and photon cross-sections are shown for 7, 8 and 13 TeV pp collisions.

  5. Yearly variation of bacterial production in the Arraial do Cabo protection area (Cabo Frio upwelling region): an evidence of anthropogenic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Souza, Sérgio A; Pereira, Gilberto C; Coutinho, Ricardo; Guimarães, Jean R D

    2013-12-01

    Arraial do Cabo is where upwelling occurs more intensively on the Brazilian coast. Although it is a protection area it suffers anthropogenic pressure such as harbor activities and sporadic sewage emissions. Short-time studies showed a high variability of bacterial production (BP) in this region but none of them evaluated BP during long periods in a large spatial scale including stations under different natural (upwelling and cold fronts) and anthropogenic pressures. During 2006, we sampled surface waters 10 times (5 in upwelling and 5 in subsidence periods) in 8 stations and we measured BP, temperature as well as the concentrations of inorganic nutrients, pigments and particulate organic matter (POM). BP was up to 400 times higher when sewage emissions were observed visually and it had a positive correlation with ammonia concentrations. Therefore, in 2007, we did two samples (each during upwelling and subsidence periods) during sewage emissions in five stations under different anthropogenic pressure and we also measured particles abundance by flow cytometry. The 12 samples in the most impacted area confirmed that BP was highest when ammonia was higher than 2 μM, also reporting the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and suspended particles. However, considering all measured variables, upwelling was the main disturbing factor but the pressure of fronts should not be neglected since it had consequences in the auto-heterotrophic coupling, increasing the concentrations of non fluorescent particles and POM. Stations clustered in function of natural and anthropogenic pressures degrees and both determined the temporal-spatial variability.

  6. 'In-Crystallo' Capture of a Michaelis Complex And Product Binding Modes of a Bacterial Phosphotriesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.J.; Foo, J.-L.; Kim, H.-K.; Carr, P.D.; Liu, J.-W.; Salem, G.; Ollis, D.L.

    2009-05-18

    The mechanism by which the binuclear metallophosphotriesterases (PTEs, E.C. 3.1.8.1) catalyse substrate hydrolysis has been extensively studied. The {mu}-hydroxo bridge between the metal ions has been proposed to be the initiating nucleophile in the hydrolytic reaction. In contrast, analysis of some biomimetic systems has indicated that {mu}-hydroxo bridges are often not themselves nucleophiles, but act as general bases for freely exchangeable nucleophilic water molecules. Herein, we present crystallographic analyses of a bacterial PTE from Agrobacterium radiobacter, OpdA, capturing the enzyme-substrate complex during hydrolysis. This model of the Michaelis complex suggests the alignment of the substrate will favor attack from a solvent molecule terminally coordinated to the {alpha}-metal ion. The bridging of both metal ions by the product, without disruption of the {mu}-hydroxo bridge, is also consistent with nucleophilic attack occurring from the terminal position. When phosphodiesters are soaked into crystals of OpdA, they coordinate bidentately to the {beta}-metal ion, displacing the {mu}-hydroxo bridge. Thus, alternative product-binding modes exist for the PTEs, and it is the bridging mode that appears to result from phosphotriester hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis of the PTE and promiscuous phosphodiesterase activities confirms that the presence of a {mu}-hydroxo bridge during phosphotriester hydrolysis is correlated with a lower pK{sub a} for the nucleophile, consistent with a general base function during catalysis.

  7. Cellular adverse actions of dibromoacetonitrile, a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal levels in rat thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Takumi; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Erdenedalai, Erdenebat; Enhetomuru, Anu; Imai, Shoji; Oyama, Yasuo

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal concentrations on rat thymocytes, by using a cytometric technique with appropriate fluorescent dyes. By using this method, the possibility that DBAN induces cellular actions related to oxidative stress was assessed. DBAN reduced the content of cellular nonprotein thiols under Zn 2+ -free conditions. It elevated the intracellular level of Zn 2+ , being independent from external Zn 2+ . DBAN increased cell vulnerability to the cytotoxic action of hydrogen peroxide. These actions of DBAN were likely related to oxidative stress. DBAN is formed by the reaction of bromides and chlorinated oxidants during water disinfection. Hydrolysis of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, an antimicrobial used in hydraulic fracturing fluids for production of shale gas and oil, produces DBAN. Therefore, the concern regarding the levels of DBAN in industrial water systems is necessary to avoid the environmental risk to humans and wild mammals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Clostridium difficile Cell Wall Glycopolymer Locus Influences Bacterial Shape, Polysaccharide Production and Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Chu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a diarrheagenic pathogen associated with significant mortality and morbidity. While its glucosylating toxins are primary virulence determinants, there is increasing appreciation of important roles for non-toxin factors in C. difficile pathogenesis. Cell wall glycopolymers (CWGs influence the virulence of various pathogens. Five C. difficile CWGs, including PSII, have been structurally characterized, but their biosynthesis and significance in C. difficile infection is unknown. We explored the contribution of a conserved CWG locus to C. difficile cell-surface integrity and virulence. Attempts at disrupting multiple genes in the locus, including one encoding a predicted CWG exporter mviN, were unsuccessful, suggesting essentiality of the respective gene products. However, antisense RNA-mediated mviN downregulation resulted in slight morphology defects, retarded growth, and decreased surface PSII deposition. Two other genes, lcpA and lcpB, with putative roles in CWG anchoring, could be disrupted by insertional inactivation. lcpA- and lcpB- mutants had distinct phenotypes, implying non-redundant roles for the respective proteins. The lcpB- mutant was defective in surface PSII deposition and shedding, and exhibited a remodeled cell surface characterized by elongated and helical morphology, aberrantly-localized cell septae, and an altered surface-anchored protein profile. Both lcpA- and lcpB- strains also displayed heightened virulence in a hamster model of C. difficile disease. We propose that gene products of the C. difficile CWG locus are essential, that they direct the production/assembly of key antigenic surface polysaccharides, and thereby have complex roles in virulence.

  10. Commercialization of bacterial cell factories for the sustainable production of polyhydroxyalkanoate thermoplastics: progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Janmejai K; Mallick, Nirupama; Singh, Akhilesh K

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitous conventional plastics, generally manufactured from finite, nonsustainable fossil fuels are non-biodegradable wonder entities but their ill effect on Mother Nature has subsequently raised major environmental concerns like their safe disposal, solid waste management and several potential hazards. Such concerns have fuelled initiatives for research globally towards development of sustainable and eco-friendly bioplastics. The new generation of plastics called 'bioplastics' are polymers of long chain of repeating monomer units that are classified as photodegradable, semi-biodegradable, chemically synthesized and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The commonly emerged novel bioplastics are polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HAs) called PHAs, which are lipoidic storage materials found in the cytosol of vast and diverse forms of bacteria. Among 150 different PHAs known so far, poly- 3-hydroxybutyrate is the most common and comprehensively characterized PHA. Interestingly, PHAs are only completely biodegradable plastics with material properties comparable to conventional plastics that can be achieved by regulating the co-monomers incorporation into PHAs backbone. PHA bioplastics are exploited in the form of user-friendly goods viz. films, absorbable sutures, bone plates, drug carriers, etc. Besides advantages, such useful entity(s) has major shortcomings as well like high production cost compared to conventional plastics. Precisely, in PHAs production, about fifty percent of the overall price is due to the carbon substrates. Consequently, exploring novel cost-effective substrates is a major compulsion for successful commercialization of this bioplastic, which is anticipated to reduce the cost of production as a result of advancing and intensifying research work. This review presents an insight and patent developments in the field of PHAs bioplastics.

  11. Characterization and crop production efficiency of diazotrophic bacterial isolates from coastal saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shilajit; Tripathi, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Ashis; Ghosh, Sagarmoy; Chakrabarti, Kalyan

    2012-01-20

    Use of eco-friendly area specific salt tolerant bioinoculants is better alternatives to chemical fertilizer for sustainable agriculture in coastal saline soils. We isolated diverse groups of diazotrophic bacteria from coastal saline soils of different forest and agricultural lands in the Sundarbans, West Bengal, India, to study their effect on crop productivity in saline soils. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular identifications of the isolates were performed. The isolates produced indole acetic acid, phosphatase, and solubilized insoluble phosphates. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA identified the SUND_BDU1 strain as Agrobacterium and the strains SUND_LM2, Can4 and Can6 belonging to the genus Bacillus. The ARA activity, dinitrogen fixation and presence of nifH genes indicated they were diazotrophs. Field trials with these strains as bioinoculants were carried out during 2007-2009, with rice during August-December followed by Lady's finger during April-June. Microplots, amended with FYM inoculated with four bioinoculants individually were compared against sole FYM (5 t ha(-1)) and a sole chemical fertilizer (60:30:30 kg ha(-1) NPK) treated plot. The strain Can6 was by far the best performer in respect of yield attributes and productivity of studied crops. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Saponin, an inhibitory agent of carbon dioxide production by white cells : its use in the microbiologic examination of blood components in an automated bacterial culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorne, Hans; van der Tuuk Adriani, W.P A; van der Ven, L.I; Bosch, E.H; de Natris, T; Smit Sibinga, C.Th.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood components with a white cell count >100 x 10(9) per L may cause false-positive results when the BacT/Alert system is used for the microbiologic examination. The effects of different concentrations of saponin on bacterial growth and on carbon dioxide production by blood fractions

  13. Transient changes in milk production efficiency and bacterial community composition resulting from near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- and low-efficiency Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) prior to exchange and over time post-exchange. Three pai...

  14. Measurement of Single-top Quark Production with ATLAS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Holzbauer, J L

    2011-01-01

    Single-top production processes have been studied using 0.7 fb-1 of data from 7 TeV center-of-mass energy proton-proton collisions collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Single-top is electroweak top production and the standard model includes three production modes. Each contains a Wtb vertex, allowing the possibility of a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element |Vtb|. Single-top could also be sensitive to new physics, such as flavor changing neutral currents or heavy W' bosons. Using cut-based selections, a limit of < 39.1 pb is set for dilepton Wt production and < 26.5 pb for s-channel production. For the t-channel measurement, both cut-based and neural network analyses are performed and the cross-section is measured to be 90 +32 -22 pb, where 65 +28 -19 pb is expected according to standard model.

  15. Isolation of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterial strains efficient in hydrogen production at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were isolated from root zone associations of aquatic plants like Azolla, Salvinia and Eichhornia, as well as the deep-water rice. Based on the gross cell morphology and pigmentation, the isolates resembled Rhodopseudomonas sp. and have been designated as BHU strains 1 to 4, respectively. When subjected to elevated temperature (from 33-45{sup o}C), substantial growth/hydrogen production could be observed only in strains 1 and 4. Strains 2 and 3 on the other hand, showed diminished growth and negligible hydrogen photoproduction. The BHU strains 1 and 4 have been selected as the most active (thermostable) hydrogen producing strains of local origin as far as the Indian tropical climate is concerned. (author).

  16. Comparison of some indigenous bacterial strains of pseudomonas ssp. for production of biosurfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahafeeq, M.; Kokub, D.; Khalid, Z.M.; Malik, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Some indigenous pseudomonas spp. were found to have the ability of emulsification, lowering the surface and interfacial tensions, and formation of high reciprocal CMCs. Six strains of Pseudomonas spp were compared for biosurfactant production grown on hexadecane. Supernatant from whole culture broth of these strains could lower surface tension from 65 mN/m to 28-32 nM/m, interfacial tension from 40 nM/m to 1-3 mN/m and had high reciprocal CMCs. When compared for emulsification ability by the culture broth of these strains, the emulsification index (E24) was found to range between 60-65. Biosurfactant containing culture broth of some strains could retain the property up to 80 C, pH of 13 and sodium chloride concentration for 17% which indicates their possible role in some depleted oil well. (author)

  17. Method s for Measuring Productivity in Libraries and Information Centres

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alaaei

    2009-01-01

      Within Information centers, productivity is the result of optimal and effective use of information resources, service quality improvement, increased user satisfaction, pleasantness of working environment, increased motivation and enthusiasm of staff to work better. All contribute to the growth and development of information centers. Thus these centers would need to be familiar with methods employed in productivity measurement. Productivity is one of the criteria for evaluating system perfor...

  18. Integral measurements of neutron production in spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frehaut, J.; Deneuville, D.; Ledoux, X.; Lochard, J.P.; Longuet, J.L.; Petibon, E.; Alrick, K.; Bownan, D.; Cverna, F.; King, N.S.P.; Morgan, G.L.; Greene, G.; Hanson, A.; Snead, L.; Thompson, R.; Ward, T.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of neutron production for thick iron, tungsten and lead targets of different diameter prototypic for spallation systems have been made at SATURNE in an incident proton energy range from 400 MeV to 2 GeV. TIERCE code system calculations are in good agreement with experiment for iron and large diameter tungsten and lead targets. They overestimate the measured neutron production for tungsten and lead targets for diameter ≤20 cm. (author)

  19. Productivity measurement and growth in Nigeria: challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze C. IKEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity (growth measurements (describing the assessment of an economy’s rate of change in the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input use and related analysis are regular undertakings by staff of economic development of most nations and development institutions such as the OECD. Although they strive to accomplish objectives related to studying efficiency or the achievement of maximum output physically achievable under the use of current technology and given inputs, accounting for the contribution of real costs savings; introduction of benchmarks for production processes and to highlight living standards obtaining at points in time, its emphasis has been at the expense of examination of issues related to society (institutions, history, innovation and productivity change, which are concerned with promoting growth beyond mere productivity accounting. This paper has attempted to address all these issues as they pertain to Nigeria’s rather stagnant or declining economy. This slight modification was prompted by changes from philosophers concerned with the wider area of productivity measurement and change. The literature agrees that productivity measurement (growth accounting only “identified the significance of different proximate sources of growth” but fails to employ institutional, historical case studies to investigate the underlying causes of the growth, innovation and productivity change. Details of deficiencies related to the foregoing issues are examined and policy recommendations drafted and presented to assist practitioners, policy and decision makers and other stakeholders.

  20. Alginato bacteriano: aspectos tecnológicos, características e produção Bacterial alginate: technological aspects, characteristics and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer used for a variety of industrial applications, for example, in the textiles, cosmetics, foods, agricultural and biotechnological industries. This biopolymer is traditionally extracted from some brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae and can be produced by bacteria isolated from soil, as Azotobacter vinelandii, like capsular polysaccharide using glucose, sucrose, among others as carbon sources. The main difference between the alginate of seaweed and the bacterial ones, is the biggest degree of acetylation of this last one, with great influence in the gel force. These chemical characteristics and production of bacterial alginate are presented in this work.

  1. Malmquist Index, an Alternative Technique for Measuring Credit Institutions Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study tackles the banking system’s productivity in a more complex manner, that integrates multiple input, multiple output variables, abdicating from the reductionist perspective of clasical methods, which imposed limits in the number of variables, in the process of productivity measurement and interpretation. The advantage of Malmquist productivity indexes consists both in a quantitative evaluation of the global productivity of a credit institution over a specified period of time, and in the decomposition of productivity, in order to underline how much of its change is due to the catch-up effect, and, respectively, to the implementation of new technologies. The results obtained revealed that credit institutions placed on the first three places in the banking system, according to assets value, maintained constant their productivity level during the analysed period, meanwhile the other institutions in our sample registered a slowly improvement in productivity, determined, mainly, by technological changes.

  2. Measurement of single top quark production with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Several measurements of single top quark production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV, using data collected with the CMS experiment, are presented. The analyses investigate separately the productions of top via t-channel exchange, in association with a W boson (tW) or via the s-channel. Final states with at least one charged lepton and one b-jet are explored to measure inclusive production cross sections. Fiducial and differential cross section measurements in the t-channel are also reported. The measurements can be used to constrain directly the Vtb CKM matrix element by comparing with the most precise standard model theory predictions. Measurements of rare processes involving a top quark and a neutral EWK boson (Z or photon) are also discussed.

  3. Improvement of vitamin B-6 production by gamma radiation in bacterial isolates from soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trongpanich, Yanee; Anutrakunchai, Chitchanok; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    A vitamin B-6 producing bacterium, Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 was isolated from soil and produced vitamin B-6 (mainly pyridoxamine) 0.27 mg per liter. Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 is mesophile bacterium which was not able to grow at over 4 0C. The objective of this study was to improve vitamin B-6 production in high temperature by gamma radiation. The result showed that 677 mutant isolates which were obtained from irradiation dose 0.8 and 1 kGy, were able to grow at 5 0C. Only 4 isolates (08-361, 10-3, 10-94 and 10-98) showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed that isolate 08-361 showed higher amount of vitamin b-6 than wild type. However, this value of vitamin B-6 from this mutant was lower than that when screening. Forms of produced vitamin B-6 from mutant were identified by HPLC. The result showed produced vitamin B-6 were PM and PMP, similar with wild type. Effect of gamma radiation stability of mutant is further study.

  4. Analytical measurements of fission products during a severe nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doizi, D.; Reymond la Ruinaz, S.; Haykal, I.; Manceron, L.; Perrin, A.; Boudon, V.; Vander Auwera, J.; tchana, F. Kwabia; Faye, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Fukushima accident emphasized the fact that ways to monitor in real time the evolution of a nuclear reactor during a severe accident remain to be developed. No fission products were monitored during twelve days; only dose rates were measured, which is not sufficient to carry out an online diagnosis of the event. The first measurements were announced with little reliability for low volatile fission products. In order to improve the safety of nuclear plants and minimize the industrial, ecological and health consequences of a severe accident, it is necessary to develop new reliable measurement systems, operating at the earliest and closest to the emission source of fission products. Through the French program ANR « Projet d'Investissement d'Avenir », the aim of the DECA-PF project (diagnosis of core degradation from fission products measurements) is to monitor in real time the release of the major fission products (krypton, xenon, gaseous forms of iodine and ruthenium) outside the nuclear reactor containment. These products are released at different times during a nuclear accident and at different states of the nuclear core degradation. Thus, monitoring these fission products gives information on the situation inside the containment and helps to apply the Severe Accident Management procedures. Analytical techniques have been proposed and evaluated. The results are discussed here.

  5. Analytical measurements of fission products during a severe nuclear accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doizi D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima accident emphasized the fact that ways to monitor in real time the evolution of a nuclear reactor during a severe accident remain to be developed. No fission products were monitored during twelve days; only dose rates were measured, which is not sufficient to carry out an online diagnosis of the event. The first measurements were announced with little reliability for low volatile fission products. In order to improve the safety of nuclear plants and minimize the industrial, ecological and health consequences of a severe accident, it is necessary to develop new reliable measurement systems, operating at the earliest and closest to the emission source of fission products. Through the French program ANR « Projet d’Investissement d’Avenir », the aim of the DECA-PF project (diagnosis of core degradation from fission products measurements is to monitor in real time the release of the major fission products (krypton, xenon, gaseous forms of iodine and ruthenium outside the nuclear reactor containment. These products are released at different times during a nuclear accident and at different states of the nuclear core degradation. Thus, monitoring these fission products gives information on the situation inside the containment and helps to apply the Severe Accident Management procedures. Analytical techniques have been proposed and evaluated. The results are discussed here.

  6. Measurement of plasma production and neutralization in gas neutralizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, D.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B.; Jones, K.; Agagu, A.; Hu, B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to satisfy the need of experimental data for the designing of gas neutralizers we have started a project aimed at measuring all relevant cross sections for the charge exchange of H - , H 0 and H + projectiles, as well as the cross sections for the production of ions in the target. The expected results of these latter measurements are shown schematically

  7. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  8. Measures to Evaluate the Effects of DBS on Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, Gary; Yunusova, Yana; Bunton, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate measures of speech production that could be used to document effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) on speech performance, especially in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). A small set of evaluative criteria for these measures is presented first, followed by consideration of several speech physiology and speech acoustic measures that have been studied frequently and reported on in the literature on normal speech production, and speech production affected by neuromotor disorders (dysarthria). Each measure is reviewed and evaluated against the evaluative criteria. Embedded within this review and evaluation is a presentation of new data relating speech motions to speech intelligibility measures in speakers with PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and control speakers (CS). These data are used to support the conclusion that at the present time the slope of second formant transitions (F2 slope), an acoustic measure, is well suited to make inferences to speech motion and to predict speech intelligibility. The use of other measures should not be ruled out, however, and we encourage further development of evaluative criteria for speech measures designed to probe the effects of DBS or any treatment with potential effects on speech production and communication skills. PMID:24932066

  9. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...

  10. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  11. Measurement of W/Z production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvan, JB; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The production of W and Z bosons at the LHC has been measured with the ATLAS detector. These measurements include inclusive and differential cross sections, $W$ polarisation, and the polarisation of tau leptons from W decays. They show sensitivity to the proton structure and are also used to test predictions from perturbative QCD and phenomenological models.

  12. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, J.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH 3 -N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH 3 -N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH 3 -N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH 3 -N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH 3 -N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Reduced Silver Nanoparticle Phytotoxicity in Crambe abyssinica with Enhanced Glutathione Production by Overexpressing Bacterial γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanxin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2015-08-18

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used in consumer products, and their release has raised serious concerns about the risk of their exposure to the environment and to human health. However, biochemical mechanisms by which plants counteract NP toxicity are largely unknown. We have previously engineered Crambe abyssinica plants expressing the bacterial γ-glutamylecysteine synthase (γ-ECS) for enhancing glutathione (GSH) levels. In this study, we investigated if enhanced levels of GSH and its derivatives can protect plants from Ag NPs and AgNO3 (Ag(+) ions). Our results showed that transgenic lines, when exposed to Ag NPs and Ag(+) ions, were significantly more tolerant, attaining a 28%-46% higher biomass and 34-49% more chlorophyll content, as well as maintaining 35-46% higher transpiration rates as compared to those of wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic γ-ECS lines showed 2-6-fold Ag accumulation in shoot tissue and slightly lower or no difference in root tissue relative to levels in WT plants. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in γ-ECS lines were also 27.3-32.5% lower than those in WT Crambe. These results indicate that GSH and related peptides protect plants from Ag nanotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first direct report of Ag NP detoxification by GSH in transgenic plants, and these results will be highly useful in developing strategies to counteract the phytotoxicty of metal-based nanoparticles in crop plants.

  14. Long-term organic-inorganic fertilization ensures great soil productivity and bacterial diversity after natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Weibing; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Wei; Ren, Yi; Huang, Ting; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Natural ecosystems comprise the planet's wild plant and animal resources, but large tracts of land have been converted to agroecosystems to support the demand for agricultural products. This conversion limits the number of plant species and decreases the soil biological diversity. Here we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to evaluate the responses of soil bacterial communities in long-term converted and fertilized red soils (a type of Ferralic Cambisol). We observed that soil bacterial diversity was strongly affected by different types of fertilization management. Oligotrophic bacterial taxa demonstrated large relative abundances in chemically fertilized soil, whereas copiotrophic bacterial taxa were found in large relative abundances in organically fertilized and fallow management soils. Only organic-inorganic fertilization exhibited the same local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as that of a natural ecosystem. However, the independent use of organic or inorganic fertilizer reduced local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and caused biotic homogenization. This study demonstrated that the homogenization of bacterial communities caused by natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion can be mitigated by employing rational organic-inorganic fertilization management.

  15. Production of glycolipidic bio surfactants by environment bacteria: diversity and physiological part; Production de biosurfactants glycolipidiques par les bacteries de l`environnement: diversite et role physiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arino, S

    1996-10-09

    About a hundred bacterial strains, isolated from soils, polluted or not by hydrocarbons, were tested for their capacity to excrete glycosides. The biggest productions were obtained for a soluble carbon source (glycerol) in a culture medium limited in the nitrogen source. In these conditions, 18 g/l of rhamnose lipids were produced by train Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1 in a 200 h culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1, Cellulomonas celulans SA43 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 43060 were studied in detail. The bio-surfactants produced were identified respectively as rhamnose lipids, oligosaccharide lipids and trehalose lipids, using various original analytical methods. Sugars and fatty acids composing these glycolipids had been shown to be usual components of the outer part of the cell wall in these microbial species. Moreover, cell hydrophobicity of the producing bacteria varied in time during culture. These results showed that both the cell wall and the extracellular glycolipids take part in the process of hydrocarbon uptake in the polluted environments. As other bacteria of the same species from different origins present the same characteristics, it may be concluded that glycolipid excretion does not constitute a specific response for hydrocarbon assimilation. In fact, a more general physiological role of glycolipids, concerning modifications of hydrophobic interfaces between the producing bacteria and their surrounding environment, could explain the production of glycolipids, and could also be utilized in hydrocarbon uptake. (author)

  16. Measurement of beauty production from dimuon events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Beauty production in events containing two muons in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb{sup -1}. A low transverse-momentum threshold for muon identification, in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon system, gives access to almost the full phase space for beauty production. The total cross section for beauty production in ep collisions at {radical}(s) = 318 GeV has been measured to be {sigma}{sub tot}(ep {yields} b anti bX) = 13.9 {+-} 1.5(stat.){sub -4.3}{sup +4.0}(syst.) nb. Differential cross sections and a measurement of b anti b correlations are also obtained, and compared to other beauty cross-section measurements, Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions. (orig.)

  17. Measurement of beauty production from dimuon events at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Beauty production in events containing two muons in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb -1 . A low transverse-momentum threshold for muon identification, in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon system, gives access to almost the full phase space for beauty production. The total cross section for beauty production in ep collisions at (s) 1/2 = 318 GeV has been measured to be σ tot (ep → b b-bar X) = 13.9 ± 1.5(stat.) +4.0 -4.3 (syst.) nb. Differential cross sections and a measurement of b b-bar correlations are also obtained, and compared to other beauty cross-section measurements, Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions.

  18. Accredited dose measurements for validation of radiation sterilized products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    for control of radiation sterilization. The accredited services include: 1. 1. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with cobalt-60 gamma rays. 2. 2. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with 10 MeV electrons. 3. 3. Issue of and measurement with calibrated dosimeters. 4. 4. Measurement...... of the dosimetric parameters of an irradiation facility. 5. 5. Measurement of absorbed dose distribution in irradiated products. The paper describes these services and the procedures necessary for their execution....

  19. Effect of L-glucose and D-tagatose on bacterial growth in media and a cooked cured ham product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, D A; Pegg, R B; Shand, P J

    2000-01-01

    Cured meats such as ham can undergo premature spoilage on account of the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria. This spoilage is generally evident from a milkiness in the purge of vacuum-packaged sliced ham. Although cured, most hams are at more risk of spoilage than other types of processed meat products because they contain considerably higher concentrations of carbohydrates, approximately 2 to 7%, usually in the form of dextrose and corn syrup solids. Unfortunately, the meat industry is restricted with respect to the choice of preservatives and bactericidal agents. An alternative approach from these chemical compounds would be to use novel carbohydrate sources that are unrecognizable to spoilage bacteria. L-Glucose and D-tagatose are two such potential sugars, and in a series of tests in vitro, the ability of bacteria to utilize each as an energy source was compared to that of D-glucose. Results showed that both L-glucose and D-tagatose are not easily catabolized by a variety of lactic bacteria and not at all by pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In a separate study, D-glucose, L-glucose, and D-tagatose were added to a chopped and formed ham formulation and the rate of bacterial growth was monitored. Analysis of data by a general linear model revealed that the growth rates of total aerobic and lactic acid bacteria were significantly (P D-tagatose than those containing L- or D-glucose. Levels of Enterobacteriaceae were initially low and these bacteria did not significantly (P D-tagatose at 10 degrees C was extended by 7 to 10 days. These results indicate that D-tagatose could deter the growth of microorganisms and inhibit the rate of spoilage in a meat product containing carbohydrates.

  20. Biochemical fingerprinting of water coliform bacteria, a new method for measuring phenotypic diversity and for comparing different bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, I; Allestam, G; Stenström, T A; Möllby, R

    1991-01-01

    A simple, automated microplate system for biochemical characterization of water isolates can be used to obtain fingerprints of the bacterial flora from various water samples. Mathematical models for calculating the diversities and similarities between bacterial populations are described for such fingerprints. The diversity may give information on whether an indigenous or allochthonous flora is present, and the similarities between bacterial populations, as calculated by using a population similarity coefficient (Sp), may indicate contaminations between different water samples. The system was demonstrated on coliform bacterial populations from various water samples, with or without suspected intercontamination. For unrelated water samples, the Sps were close to 0, whereas repeated samples of the same source showed Sps of 0.64 to 0.74. The Sp values from several water samples were also clustered to form a dendrogram, thus indicating the relative similarities between the bacterial populations to confirm suspected common sources of pollution. PMID:1781680

  1. Evaluation of a radioisotope labelling technique for measuring bacterial adherence on fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youlo Hsieh; Timm, Debra; Merry, Joanne

    1986-01-01

    A technique utilizing tritiated thymidine labelled bacteria to quantify bacteria on fabrics has been evaluated. Quenching or self-absorption of isotope solution and labelled bacteria suspension by some of the fabrics has been observed. The extents of self-absorption of both isotope and labelled bacteria solutions on various fabrics was found to be dependent upon the fiber contents, i.e. the chemical compositions, of the substrata. This observation confirms that reduction of scintillation efficiency or self-absorption does occur when radio-labelled substances in suspensions were measured with the presence of some fabrics. Cautions should be taken when radio-labelling techniques are applied to detect isotope-labelled micro-organisms or other substances which are in contact with fabrics in the form of solutions. However, when there is no excess and nonattached labelled bacteria in the aqueous surrounding of the fabric, scintillation counting efficiency of the labelled bacteria on all fabrics studied remained constant over a period of 8 h. This indicates that the application of the described isotope labelling procedure is appropriate for quantifying adherent bacteria on fibrous substrate. (author)

  2. Hospitals Productivity Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabipour, Amin; Najarzadeh, Maryam; Arab, Mohammad; Farzianpour, Freshteh; Ghasemzadeh, Roya

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique and Malmquist indices. This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software. Six hospitals (50%) had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF) was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05) (except in 2009 years). Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.

  3. Measuring green productivity of country: A generlized metafrontier Malmquist productivity index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Ying Lin, Eugene; Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures environmental productivity in 70 countries over the period 1981–2007. Differences in green (environmental) productivity growth across countries under distinct country specific production frontier are measured using directional distance function model, which incorporates desirable output (GDP) and undesirable output (CO 2 emissions). The metafrontier which envelops the two country groups, developed countries and developing countries, are estimated using balanced panel data for the sample countries over the study period. A parametric method is used to compute technical efficiency change, technical change, and scale efficiency change, which aggregate to the generalized metafrontier Malmquist productivity index. The overall results indicated the two country groups operated under distinct stochastic production frontiers and therefore used different production technologies. It is found that developing countries achieved higher growth in their average environmental productivity relative to the metafrontier. Thus the results coincide with the convergence growth theory

  4. Estimating product-to-product variations in metal forming using force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havinga, Jos; van den Boogaard, Ton

    2017-10-01

    The limits of production accuracy of metal forming processes can be stretched by the development of control systems for compensation of product-to-product variations. Such systems require the use of measurements from each semi-finished product. These measurements must be used to estimate the final quality of each product. We propose to predict part of the product-to-product variations in multi-stage forming processes based on force measurements from previous process stages. The reasoning is that final product properties as well as process forces are expected to be correlated since they are both affected by material and process variation. In this study, an approach to construct a moving window process model based on historical data from the process is presented. These regression models can be built and updated in real-time during production. The approach is tested with data from a demonstrator process with cutting, deep drawing and bending stages. It is shown that part of the product-to-product variations in the process can be predicted with the developed process model.

  5. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    . Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...... and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model...... and compare different parametric, semiparametric, and nonparametric model specifications. Our results generally support our hypothesis. Especially, large trading networks and dense household networks have a positive influence on a farm’s productivity. Furthermore, our results indicate that transaction costs...

  6. Productivity Measurement in Manufacturing and the Expenditure Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Bertel; Sørensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies conversion factors based on the expenditure approach and evaluates the appropriateness for international comparisons of output levels in manufacturing. We apply a consistency check based on the insight that relative productivity levels should be invariant to the choice of base....... The conclusion is insensitive to the applied method for developing conversion factors. The implication is that we cannot measure relative productivity levels in manufacturing across countries using the expenditure approach....

  7. Assessment of global precipitation measurement satellite products over Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed T.; Al-Zahrani, Muhammad A.; Sharif, Hatim O.

    2018-04-01

    Most hydrological analysis and modeling studies require reliable and accurate precipitation data for successful simulations. However, precipitation measurements should be more representative of the true precipitation distribution. Many approaches and techniques are used to collect precipitation data. Recently, hydrometeorological and climatological applications of satellite precipitation products have experienced a significant improvement with the emergence of the latest satellite products, namely, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG) products, which can be utilized to estimate and analyze precipitation data. This study focuses on the validation of the IMERG early, late and final run rainfall products using ground-based rain gauge observations throughout Saudi Arabia for the period from October 2015 to April 2016. The accuracy of each IMERG product is assessed using six statistical performance measures to conduct three main evaluations, namely, regional, event-based and station-based evaluations. The results indicate that the early run product performed well in the middle and eastern parts as well as some of the western parts of the country; meanwhile, the satellite estimates for the other parts fluctuated between an overestimation and an underestimation. The late run product showed an improved accuracy over the southern and western parts; however, over the northern and middle parts, it showed relatively high errors. The final run product revealed significantly improved precipitation estimations and successfully obtained higher accuracies over most parts of the country. This study provides an early assessment of the performance of the GPM satellite products over the Middle East. The study findings can be used as a beneficial reference for the future development of the IMERG algorithms.

  8. Rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae produces multiple DSF-family signals in regulation of virulence factor production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Jae-Soon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease. Xoo produces a range of virulence factors, including EPS, extracellular enzyme, iron-chelating siderophores, and type III-secretion dependent effectors, which are collectively essential for virulence. Genetic and genomics evidence suggest that Xoo might use the diffusible signal factor (DSF type quorum sensing (QS system to regulate the virulence factor production. However, little is known about the chemical structure of the DSF-like signal(s produced by Xoo and the factors influencing the signal production. Results Xoo genome harbours an rpf cluster comprising rpfB, rpfF, rpfC and rpfG. The proteins encoded by these genes are highly homologous to their counterparts in X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, suggesting that Xcc and Xoo might use similar mechanisms for DSF biosynthesis and autoregulation. Consistent with in silico analysis, the rpfF mutant was DSF-deficient and the rpfC mutant produced about 25 times higher DSF-like activity than the wild type Xoo strain KACC10331. From the supernatants of rpfC mutant, we purified three compounds showing strong DSF-like activity. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that two of them were the previously characterized DSF and BDSF; the third one was a novel unsaturated fatty acid with 2 double bonds and was designated as CDSF in this study. Further analysis showed that all the three DSF-family signals were synthesized via the enzyme RpfF encoded by Xoo2868. DSF and BDSF at a final concentration of 3 μM to the rpfF mutant could fully restore its extracellular xylanase activity and EPS production to the wild type level, but CDSF was less active than DSF and BDSF in induction of EPS and xylanase. DSF and CDSF shared a similar cell density-dependent production time course with the maximum production being detected at 42 h after inoculation, whereas the maximum production of BDSF was observed

  9. Measurement of the perceived quality of a product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maire J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For some companies, visual inspection has become an essential step when seeking to improve the quality of their products. The aim of this control is to be sure of the perceived quality of the product, which often goes well beyond the quality expected by the customer. For this type of control, the controller should be able to detect any anomaly on a product, characterize this anomaly, and then evaluate it in order to decide if the product should be accepted or rejected. This paper describes how this characterization can be carried out and, more specifically, how to measure the impact of the local environment of an anomaly on the perceived quality of the product.

  10. Dimensional measurements with submicrometer uncertainty in production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, L.; Gudnason, M. M.; Madruga, D.

    2015-01-01

    The work concerns a laboratory investigation of a method to achieve dimensional measurements with submicrometer uncertainty under conditions that are typical of a production environment. The method involves the concurrent determination of dimensions and material properties from measurements carried...... gauge blocks along with their uncertainties were estimated directly from the measurements. The length of the two workpieces at the reference temperature of 20 °C was extrapolated from the measurements and compared to certificate values. The investigations have documented that the developed approach...

  11. Integral measurement of fission products capture in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Deidier, Loick.

    1979-12-01

    For the SUPERPHENIX reactor project, it was necessary to know fission products capture with about 10% accuracy in the fast breeder reactor spectra. In this purpose, integral measurements have been carried out on the main separated products by different experimental technics (oscillation, activation and irradiation methods), but particularly on irradiated fuel pins from RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to directly obtain total effect of fission products. Same tendencies have been observed for both enriched uranium fuel and LMFBR characteristic plutonium fuel. All experimental results have been introduced in CARNAVAL cross section set [fr

  12. New CMS measurements of Higgs boson production and decay properties

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Combined measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates, as well its couplings to vector bosons and fermions, are presented. The analyses are based on the LHC proton-proton collision dataset recorded by the CMS detector at 13 TeV. The combination is based on the analysis of all the production processes gluon fusion, vector boson fusion and production with a W or a Z boson or a pair of top quarks, and of the H→ZZ, WW, γγ, ττ, bb, and μμ decay modes. Dedicated searches for invisible Higgs boson decays are also considered.

  13. Method s for Measuring Productivity in Libraries and Information Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alaaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available   Within Information centers, productivity is the result of optimal and effective use of information resources, service quality improvement, increased user satisfaction, pleasantness of working environment, increased motivation and enthusiasm of staff to work better. All contribute to the growth and development of information centers. Thus these centers would need to be familiar with methods employed in productivity measurement. Productivity is one of the criteria for evaluating system performance. In the past decades particular emphasis has been placed on measurement and improvement of human resource, creativity, innovation and expert analysis. Contemplation and efforts made towards identification of problems and issues and new means to make more useful and better resource management is the very definition of productivity. Simply put, productivity is the relationship between system output and the elements garnered to produce these outputs. The causality between variables and factors impacting on productivity is very complex. In information centers, given the large volume of elements involved, it seems necessary to increase efficiency and productivity

  14. LHCb: Measurement of $D^{\\pm}$ Production Asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Xing, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Heavy quark production in 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC need not be flavour symmetric. Here the production asymmetry, $A_p$ , between $D_s^+$ and $D_s^-$ mesons is measured using the $\\phi\\pi$ decay mode. The difference between $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ detection efficiencies is measured using the ratio of fully reconstructed to partially reconstructed $D^*$ decays. Using 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the LHCb detector, we find $A_p = (-0.39 \\pm 0.22 \\pm 0.08)$%.

  15. Measurements of the Vector boson production with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Stephen Albert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z bosons at the LHC are an essential part of the ATLAS standard model physics program. These processes are a probe to understand perturbative QCD and the structure of the proton. Differential measurements of the Z boson cross section produced in association with jets can be compared to different LO and NLO MC generators to test the accuracy of these predictions. A selection of recent results are presented on varying studies of W and Z boson production.

  16. Di-boson production measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Laurent; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements diboson production cross sections in proton-proton interactions at 7 and 8 TeV are reported from the ATLAS experiment. The cross section results are measured in phase space regions defined by the decay kinematics and then extrapolated to the full phase spaces. Cross sections for WV (V=W or Z) production in the leptonic or semileptonic channels are compared to (N)NLO predictions of the Standard Model and are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. First LHC Run-2 results will be included if available.

  17. Does Input Quality Drive Measured Differences in Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Jeremy T.; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande

    2011-01-01

    One explanation for productivity dispersion is that the quality of inputs differs across firms. We add labor market history variables such as experience and firm and industry tenure, as well as general human capital measures such as schooling and sex. Adding these variables decreases the ratio...... of the 90th to 10th productivity quantiles from 3.27 to 2.68 across eight Danish manufacturing and service industries. We also use the wage bill and worker fixed effects. We find that the wage bill explains as much dispersion as human capital measures....

  18. Validity of the tritiated thymidine method for estimating bacterial growth rates: measurement of isotope dilution during DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, P.C.; Moriarty, D.J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA was used to estimate bacterial growth rates in aquatic environments. To be accurate, the calculation of growth rates has to include a factor for the dilution of isotope before incorporation. The validity of an isotope dilution analysis to determine this factor was verified in experiments reported here with cultures of a marine bacterium growing in a chemostat. Growth rates calculated from data on chemostat dilution rates and cell density agreed well with rates calculated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA and isotope dilution analysis. With sufficiently high concentrations of exogenous thymidine, de novo synthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate was inhibited, thereby preventing the endogenous dilution of isoope. The thymidine technique was also shown to be useful for measuring growth rates of mixed suspensions of bacteria growing anaerobically. Thymidine was incorporated into the DNA of a range of marine pseudomonads that were investigated. Three species did not take up thymidine. The common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus species did not incorporate thymidine into DNA

  19. Evaluation of hyperimmune colostrum production in bovine against cariogenic streptococci and its impact on growth and bacterial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Ramezanalizadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dental caries is the most common infectious diseases. Among the oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are considered as the main causes of tooth decay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing specific antibodies against cariogenic bacteria and its antimicrobial effects on the growth and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three pregnant bovine immunized with killed antigens of strains of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mutans with Streptococcus Sobrinus and Streptococcus sobrinus through intramuscular injections. After delivery, The colostrum samples were collected, and the changes of anti-streptococci antibodies titers in colostrum and serum were determined by agglutination. Also,their antimicrobial effects against the growth and adhesion of oral streptococci were surveyed by the microtiter plate method. Data were analysed by One-Wey ANOVA in SPSS software. Results: The results showed that in hyperimmunized bovine , the antibodies titers against injected bacteria were from 1.1000 to 1.3000 in sera samples and from 1.320 to 1.1280 in whey of colostrum samples. Colostrum of hyperimmune cows reduced the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus Sobrinus about 69 and 43 percents, respectively and also, the low dilutions of it reduced bacterial growth. Conclusion:  According to the antibacterial effect immune colostrum on two strains of cariogenic bacteria in vitro, It appears that this material could be useful in the prevention and control of dental caries.

  20. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Blaut, Michael; Loh, Gunnar; Klaus, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    In literature, contradictory effects of dietary fibers and their fermentation products, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), are described: On one hand, they increase satiety, but on the other hand, they provide additional energy and promote obesity development. We aimed to answer this paradox by investigating the effects of fermentable and non-fermentable fibers on obesity induced by high-fat diet in gnotobiotic C3H/HeOuJ mice colonized with a simplified human microbiota. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented either with 10% cellulose (non-fermentable) or inulin (fermentable) for 6 weeks. Feeding the inulin diet resulted in an increased diet digestibility and reduced feces energy, compared to the cellulose diet with no differences in food intake, suggesting an increased intestinal energy extraction from inulin. However, we observed no increase in body fat/weight. The additional energy provided by the inulin diet led to an increased bacterial proliferation in this group. Supplementation of inulin resulted further in significantly elevated concentrations of total SCFA in cecum and portal vein plasma, with a reduced cecal acetate:propionate ratio. Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Fasn, Gpam) and fatty acid elongation/desaturation (Scd1, Elovl3, Elovl6, Elovl5, Fads1 and Fads2) were decreased in inulin-fed animals. Accordingly, plasma and liver phospholipid composition were changed between the different feeding groups. Concentrations of omega-3 and odd-chain fatty acids were increased in inulin-fed mice, whereas omega-6 fatty acids were reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that, during this short-term feeding, inulin has mainly positive effects on the lipid metabolism, which could cause beneficial effects during obesity development in long-term studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of the efficiency of bacterial and fungal laccases in delignification and detoxification of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, María; Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Eugenio, María E; Blánquez, Alba; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, María E; Ibarra, David

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluates the potential of a bacterial laccase from Streptomyces ipomoeae (SilA) for delignification and detoxification of steam-exploded wheat straw, in comparison with a commercial fungal laccase from Trametes villosa. When alkali extraction followed by SilA laccase treatment was applied to the water insoluble solids fraction, a slight reduction in lignin content was detected, and after a saccharification step, an increase in both glucose and xylose production (16 and 6%, respectively) was observed. These effects were not produced with T. villosa laccase. Concerning to the fermentation process, the treatment of the steam-exploded whole slurry with both laccases produced a decrease in the phenol content by up to 35 and 71% with bacterial and fungal laccases, respectively. The phenols reduction resulted in an improved performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, improving ethanol production rate. This enhancement was more marked with a presaccharification step prior to the SSF process.

  2. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values dependi...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk....

  3. Aggregate Multi-Factor Productivity: Measurement Issues in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Egert, Balazs

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses for 34 OECD countries the extent to which the calculation of aggregate multi-factor productivity (MFP) is sensitive to alternative parameterisations. The starting point is the definition of MFP used in previous work in the OECD’s Economics Department (e.g. Johansson et al. 2013). They include alternative MFP measures, with human capital included or excluded, with different measures of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) exchange rates, using time-varying capital depreciation rat...

  4. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  5. Bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity in foal faeces: changes from birth to pre-weaning and the impact of maternal supplementation with fermented feed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubladier, Céline; Julliand, Véronique; Danel, Justine; Philippeau, Christelle

    2013-09-28

    The present study aimed at (1) describing age-related changes in faecal bacterial functional groups involved in carbohydrate degradation and in their activities in foals (n 10) from birth (day (d) 0) to 6 months (d180) and (2) investigating the effect of maternal supplementation (five mares per treatment) from d - 45 to d60 with fermented feed products on response trends over time of the foal bacterial carbohydratedegrading capacity. Maternal supplementation with fermented feed products stimulated foal growth from d0 to d60 and had an impact on the establishment of some digestive bacterial groups and their activities in foals from d0 to d5 but not in the longer term. Irrespective of the maternal treatment, total bacteria, total anaerobic, lactate-utilising and amylolytic bacteria were established immediately after birth (Panaerobes and lactate utilisers were established rapidly between d0 and d2 (P=0·021 and 0·066, respectively) and the increase in the percentage of propionate occurred earlier (P=0·013). Maternal supplementation had no effect on the establishment of fibrolytic bacteria and their activity. Cellulolytic bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes first appeared at d2 and d5, and increased progressively, reaching stable values at d30 and d60, respectively. From the second week of life, the increase in the molar percentage of acetate and the ratio (acetate + butyrate):propionate (P<0·05) suggested that fibrolytic activity had begun. From d60, only minor changes in bacterial composition and activities occurred, showing that the bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity was established at 2 months of age.

  6. Independent behavior of bacterial laccases to inducers and metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... The medium for production was a high nitrogen medium containing ... effects of metal ions on either laccase production or laccase activity were not clear. ... this study was to isolate bacterial strains that produce ... The growth of cell culture was measured by using optical ... Conditions of laccase production.

  7. Measuring on-shelf availability of FMCG products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological development and the process of globalization influence the increase of customers' awareness. In these circumstances they are becoming more demanding, expecting retailers to offer them the right product at the right time and at the right place. The result is one of the basic tasks of retailers, which reflects in providing an adequate level of product availability in retail stores. In order to prevent the stock-out situation, special attention should be dedicated to its identification and measurement. These operations are very important for establishing and implementing other various measures for increasing product availability and thus sales and competitiveness of retail companies. In this regard, besides theoretical considerations of product availability, we presented the basic methods for its measurement. Also, by using the sample of six Fast Moving Consumer goods categories, we applied the method based on the analysis of POS data. In addition to identifying the out-of-stock rates, we confirmed the results of other studies that product availability varies among different categories and retail stores.

  8. Application of the Stochastic Production Frontier to the Measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the existing technology of the fish producers, proper management that bears in mind the use of improved fish species, maintenance of number of ponds and increased education of the fish producers on current techniques of production are policy measures that could help improve on the technical efficiency of fish ...

  9. Measurement of Electroweak Top Quark Production at {D\\O}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yun-Tse [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We present a new model-independent measurement of the electroweak single top-quark production cross section in proton-antiproton (p- $\\bar{p}$) collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV in 9.7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the DØ detector.

  10. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  11. Measurements of the Vector boson production with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lapertosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/γ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for W+, W− and Z/γ bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/γ∗ mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is a further important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. The ATLAS ...

  12. Measurements of the vector boson production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lapertosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of $W$ and $Z$ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for $W^+$, $W^{-}$ and $Z$ bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the $Z$ mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution Functions, in particular the strange density are found. $Z$ boson cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is a further important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. ...

  13. Quarkonia production in small and large systems measured by ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jorge; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The experimentally observed dissociation and regeneration of bound quarkonium states in heavy-ion collisions provide a powerful tool to probe the dynamics of the hot, dense plasma. These measurements are sensitive to the effects of color screening, color recombination, or other, new suppression mechanisms. In the large-statistics Run 2 lead-lead and proton-lead collision data, these phenomena can be probed with unprecedented precision. Measurements of the ground and excited quarkonia states, as well as their separation into prompt and non-prompt components, provide further opportunities to study the dynamics of heavy parton energy loss in these large systems. In addition, quarkonium production rates, and their excited to ground states ratios, in small, asymmetric systems are an interesting probe of cold nuclear matter effects. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on quarkonia production will be presented, including new, differential measurements of charmonium suppression and azimuthal modulation in lead-lea...

  14. Measurements of the vector boson production with the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapertosa, A.

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution Functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z boson cross sections are also measured at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is a further important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new measurements of Z boson plus jets cross sections, differential in several kinematic variables, in proton-proton collision data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The measurements are compared to state-of-the art theory predictions. They are sensitive to higher-order pQCD effects, probe flavour and mass schemes and can be used to constrain the proton structure. In addition, a new measurement of the splitting scales of the kt jet-clustering algorithm for final states containing a Z boson candidate at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented.

  15. Measurement of photon production cross sections with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Turra, Ruggero; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the proton structure. The ATLAS Collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rapidity and photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pairs at 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators. The production of prompt photons in association with jets provides an additional testing ground for perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a hard colourless probe less affected by hadronisation effects than jet production. The dynamics of isolated-photon plus jet production in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 and 13 TeV will be presented and discussed.

  16. Effect of Different Carbon Sources on Bacterial Nanocellulose Production and Structure Using the Low pH Resistant Strain Komagataeibacter Medellinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Molina-Ramírez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose (BC is a polymer obtained by fermentation with microorganism of different genera. Recently, new producer species have been discovered, which require identification of the most important variables affecting cellulose production. In this work, the influence of different carbon sources in BC production by a novel low pH-resistant strain Komagataeibacter medellinensis was established. The Hestrin-Schramm culture medium was used as a reference and was compared to other media comprising glucose, fructose, and sucrose, used as carbon sources at three concentrations (1, 2, and 3% w/v. The BC yield and dynamics of carbon consumption were determined at given fermentation times during cellulose production. While the carbon source did not influence the BC structural characteristics, different production levels were determined: glucose > sucrose > fructose. These results highlight considerations to improve BC industrial production and to establish the BC property space for applications in different fields.

  17. Measuring the Level of Agreement Between Cloacal Gram's Stains and Bacterial Cultures in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Mitchell, Mark A; Whittington, Julia K; Roy, Alma; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-12-01

    Cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are routinely performed during avian physical examinations to assess the microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Although cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are considered routine diagnostic procedures, the level of agreement between the individual tests has not been determined. To investigate the level of agreement between results from Gram's stain and bacterial culture when used to assess cloacal or fecal samples from psittacine birds, samples were taken from 21 clinically healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) and tested by Gram's stain cytology and bacterial culture. Most bacteria (97.2%) identified by Gram's stain were gram positive. However, gram-negative organisms were identified in 7 of 21 (33.3%; 95% confidence interval: 13.3%-53.3%) birds. Escherichia coli was the only gram-negative organism identified on culture. Agreement between results of Gram's stain and culture was fair (weighted κ = 0.27). The results of this study suggest that Gram's stains and bacterial culture may need to be performed with a parallel testing strategy to limit the likelihood of misclassifying the microbial flora of psittacine patients.

  18. Upper bounds on quantum uncertainty products and complexity measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Angel; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain) and Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The position-momentum Shannon and Renyi uncertainty products of general quantum systems are shown to be bounded not only from below (through the known uncertainty relations), but also from above in terms of the Heisenberg-Kennard product . Moreover, the Cramer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and Lopez-Ruiz, Mancini, and Calbet shape measures of complexity (whose lower bounds have been recently found) are also bounded from above. The improvement of these bounds for systems subject to spherically symmetric potentials is also explicitly given. Finally, applications to hydrogenic and oscillator-like systems are done.

  19. Measurement of $\\Delta^{++}$(1232) production in hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Anykeyev, V B; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Rybin, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zhigunov, V P; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1995-01-01

    A measurement of the \\Delta^{++}(1232) inclusive production in hadronic decays of the Z at LEP is presented, based on 1.3 million hadronic events collected~ by the DELPHI~ detector in the 1994 LEP running~ period. The DELPHI ring imaging Cherenkov counters are used for identifying hadrons. The average \\Delta^{++}(1232) multiplicity per hadronic event is 0.079 \\pm 0.015 which is more than a factor of two below the JETSET, HERWIG and UCLA model predictions. It agrees with a recently proposed universal mass dependence of particle production rates in e^{+}e^- annihilations.

  20. Microbiology and biogeochemistry of sediments and rhizosphere of mangroves: bacterial production, sulphate-reduction and methylation of mercury with methodological focus on incubation-extraction of 14C-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijo, Issabella Vitoria Abduche

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are one of the most important ecosystems when it comes to cycling of various elements, including carbon and mercury. Microbiological processes that occur in sediment are essential for carbon mineralization, its conversion into biomass and for availability of mercury to the food chain. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are one of the main groups responsible for degradation of organic compounds in marine sediments and mercury methylation, especially in the rhizosphere of macrophyte. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial production (BP) over different sedimentary profiles as well as mercury methylation (% MeHg), sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and bacterial production in the rhizosphere of a ubiquitous mangrove tree. Radiochemical approaches were used to access bacterial production ( 14 C-leucine), sulfate reduction ( 35 SO 4 ) and mercury methylation ( 203 Hg). Study area was located at Coroa Grande (Sepetiba bay) and Jequia mangrove (Guanabara bay). Methodological studies using 14 C-leucine as a tool to assess bacterial production in mangrove sediment were not found. In this context, we tested two leucine uptake methodologies for measuring bacterial production in mangrove sediments according to Baath et al. (2001) Soil Biol. Biochem., v.33,p. 1571-1574 and Fischer and Pusch (1999) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., v.6, p.4411-4418. Our results suggest that an adaptation of both techniques were suitable to measure BP in mangrove sediment. We also provided underlying parameters of the method such as saturation level and linearity of leucine incorporation that can be used as guidance for future studies in mangrove. Once the methodology was established, we accessed BP along a shallow sedimentary profile in three physiographic mangroves types: basin, fringe and riverine. BP was highly heterogeneous in different physiographic types of mangroves and along the sediment profiles.The mangrove located at Guanabara bay presented BP which was 50 times higher than tho one

  1. ATLAS reach for Quarkonium production and polarization measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Etzion, Erez; 8th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm and Beauty Hadrons

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC is preparing to take data from the first proton-proton collisions expected in the next few months. We report on the analysis of simulated data samples for production of heavy Quarkonium states J/psi and Upsilon, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 10 pb^-1 with center of mass energy of 14 TeV expected at the early ATLAS data. We review various aspects of prompt Quarkonium production at LHC: the accessible ranges in transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, spin alignment of vector states, separation of color octet and color singlet production mechanism and feasibility of observing radiative decays Xi_c and Xi_b decays. Strategies of various measurements are outlined and methods of separating promptly produced J/psi and Upsilon mesons from various backgrounds are discussed.

  2. Di-boson production measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This talk covers the results of the measurements of diboson production cross sections in proton- proton interactions at 7 TeV in 2011 and at 8 TeV in 2012, performed by the ATLAS experiment. The cross sections are measured in phase space regions defined by the decay kinematics, the detector acceptance and then extrapolated to the full phase space. Cross sections for VV (V=W, Z, γ) production in the leptonic or semileptonic channels are compared to (N)NLO predictions of the Standard Model. Kinematic spectra are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. All cross sections are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. No experimental evidence is found of anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. PACS: 14.70.-e Gauge bosons.

  3. Measurement of isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-09-15

    Isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 320 pb{sup -1}. Measurements were made in the isolated-photon transverse-energy and pseudo- rapidity ranges 45 GeV. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive isolated photon production as functions of Q{sup 2}, x, E{sub T}{sup {gamma}} and {eta}{sup {gamma}}. Leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo simulations and perturbative QCD predictions give a reasonable description of the data over most of the kinematic range. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-09-01

    Isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 320 pb -1 . Measurements were made in the isolated-photon transverse-energy and pseudo- rapidity ranges 4 T γ γ 2 , in the range 10 2 2 and for invariant masses of the hadronic system W X >5 GeV. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive isolated photon production as functions of Q 2 , x, E T γ and η γ . Leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo simulations and perturbative QCD predictions give a reasonable description of the data over most of the kinematic range. (orig.)

  5. LEP measurements on production, mass, lifetime of beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.

    1993-10-01

    Present knowledge about the individual properties of the different beauty particles is discussed using the results of the LEP experiments. Individual lifetimes for B d 0 and B + are found to be equal within 10% whilst a 15% precision is reached for B s 0 and Λ b . The Λ b lifetime is found to be smaller than τ B + with a 2.7 σ significance. The production rate of each of these particles is measured at the 20% level. Preliminary evidence for Ξ b production has been reported. Finally, the B s 0 meson mass has been measured to be 5373 ± 4 MeV/c 2 . (author) 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Bacterial decolorization and detoxification of black liquor from rayon grade pulp manufacturing paper industry and detection of their metabolic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Abhishek, Amar; Sankhwar, Monica

    2011-06-01

    This study deals with the decolorization of black liquor (BL) by isolated potential bacterial consortium comprising Serratia marcescens (GU193982), Citrobacter sp. (HQ873619) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193983). The decolorization of BL was studied by using the different nutritional as well as environmental parameters. In this study, result revealed that the ligninolytic activities were found to be growth associated and the developed bacterial consortium was efficient for the reduction of COD, BOD and color up to 83%, 74% and 85%, respectively. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of BL has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that, most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment while, formic acid hydrazide, 4-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, carbamic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and erythropentanoic acid were found as new metabolites. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized BL. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial community structure and variation in a full-scale seawater desalination plant for drinking water production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belila, A.; El-Chakhtoura, J.; Otaibi, N.; Muyzer, G.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Saikaly, P.E.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial processes inevitably play a role in membrane-based desalination plants, mainly recognized as membrane biofouling. We assessed the bacterial community structure and diversity during different treatment steps in a full-scale seawater desalination plant producing 40,000 m3/d of drinking

  8. Latest LHCb measurements of Electroweak Boson Production in Run-1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest LHCb measurements of forward Electroweak Boson Production using proton-proton collisions recorded in LHC Run-1. The seminar shall discuss measurements of the 8 TeV W & Z boson production cross-sections. These results make use of LHCb's excellent integrated luminosity determination to provide constraints on the parton distribution functions which describe the inner structure of the proton. These LHCb measurements probe a region of phase space at low Bjorken-x where the other LHC experiments have limited sensitivity. We also present measurements of cross-section ratios, and ratios of results in 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. These results provide precision tests of the Standard Model. The seminar shall also present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry (A_FB) in Z boson decays to two muons. This result allows for precision tests of the coupling of the Z boson to left and right handed particles, providing sensitivity to the effective weak mixing angle (...

  9. Quality Measurement in the Wood Products Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Omar Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to learn about quality measurement practices in a wood products supply chain. According to the Supply Chain Management paradigm, companies no longer compete as individual entities, but as part of complex networks of suppliers and customers, linked together by flows of materials and information. Evidence suggests that a high degree of integration between supply chain members is essential to achieve superior market and financial performance. This study investigat...

  10. Measurement of Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilking, Michael Joseph [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Neutrinos are among the least understood particles in the standard model of particle physics. At neutrino energies in the 1 GeV range, neutrino properties are typically determined by observing the outgoing charged lepton produced in a charged current quasi-elastic interactions. The largest charged current background to these measurements comes from charged current pion production interactions, for which there is very little available data.

  11. Measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1990-03-01

    The IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Measurement, Calculation and Evaluation of Photon Production Cross-Sections was held in Smolenice, Czechoslovakia, 5-7 February 1990. The meeting was hosted by the Institute of Physics of the Electro-Physical Research Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava. This report contains the conclusions and recommendations of this meeting. The papers which the participants have presented at the meeting will be published as an INDC Report. (author)

  12. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  13. Responses of soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure to closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures): A case study of Dongting Lake wetland, middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Guo, Shenglian; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Lu; Lu, Lunhui; Yuan, Yujie

    2016-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure, which are critical to global ecosystem and fundamental ecological processes, are sensitive to anthropogenic activities and environmental conditions. In this study, we examined the possible effects of closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures, ban on anthropogenic activity, widely employed for many important wetlands) on SMB, soil bacterial community structure and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling in Dongting Lake wetland. Soil samples were collected from management area (MA) and contrast area (CA: human activities, such as hunting, fishing and draining, are permitted) in November 2013 and April 2014. Soil properties, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and bacterial community structure were investigated. Comparison of the values of MA and CA showed that SMB and bacterial community diversity of the MA had a significant increase after 7 years closed-off management. The mean value of Shannon-Weiner diversity index of MA and CA respectively were 2.85 and 2.07. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nosZ of MA were significant higher than those of CA. the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nirK of MA were significant lower than those of CA. However, there was no significant change in the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirS. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ALICE measurements of heavy-flavour production at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of open charm and beauty production in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC gives access to the mechanisms of heavy-quark transport and energy loss in hot and dense QCD matter. The ALICE apparatus allows us to measure heavy flavour particles over a wide acceptance, using hadronic and electronic final states at central rapidity and muonic final states at forward rapidity, in both cases with coverage down to low transverse momentum. These measurements, in pp collisions, besides constituting the reference for the heavy-ion studies, provide acceptance-wise unique information on heavy-quark production at LHC energies. After presenting results for pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 2.76 and 7 TeV, we focus on the observation of the suppression of heavy-flavour production in central Pb-Pb collisions and of the azimuthal anisotropy of charmed hadrons in semi-central collisions at 2.76 TeV.

  15. Measurement of charmed particle production in hadronic reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure the production cross-section for charmed particles in hadronic reactions, study their production mechanism, and search for excited charmed hadrons.\\\\ \\\\ Charmed Mesons and Baryons will be measured in $\\pi$ and $p$ interactions on Beryllium between 100 and 200 GeV/c. The trigger will be on an electron from the leptonic decay of one charmed particle by signals from the Cerenkov counter (Ce), the electron trigger calorimeter (eCal), scintillation counters, and proportional wire chambers. The accompanying charmed particle will be measured via its hadronic decay in a two-stage magnetic spectrometer with drift chambers (arms 2, 3a, 3b, 3c), two large-area multicell Cerenkov counters (C2, C3) and a large-area shower counter ($\\gamma$-CAL). The particles which can be measured and identified include $\\gamma, e, \\pi^{\\pm}, \\pi^{0}, K^{\\pm}, p, \\bar{p}$ so that a large number of hadronic decay modes of charmed particles can be studied. \\\\ \\\\ A silicon counter telescope with 5 $\\m...

  16. An operon for production of bioactive gibberellin A4 phytohormone with wide distribution in the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Raimund; Turrini, Paula C G; Nett, Ryan S; Leach, Jan E; Verdier, Valérie; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Peters, Reuben J

    2017-05-01

    Phytopathogens have developed elaborate mechanisms to attenuate the defense response of their host plants, including convergent evolution of complex pathways for production of the GA phytohormones, which were actually first isolated from the rice fungal pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi. The rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) has been demonstrated to contain a biosynthetic operon with cyclases capable of producing the universal GA precursor ent-kaurene. Genetic (knock-out) studies indicate that the derived diterpenoid serves as a virulence factor for this rice leaf streak pathogen, serving to reduce the jasmonic acid-mediated defense response. Here the functions of the remaining genes in the Xoc operon are elucidated and the distribution of the operon in X. oryzae is investigated in over 100 isolates. The Xoc operon leads to production of the bioactive GA 4 , an additional step beyond production of the penultimate precursor GA 9 mediated by the homologous operons recently characterized from rhizobia. Moreover, this GA biosynthetic operon was found to be widespread in Xoc (> 90%), but absent in the other major X. oryzae pathovar. These results indicate selective pressure for production of GA 4 in the distinct lifestyle of Xoc, and the importance of GA to both fungal and bacterial pathogens of rice. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Nitrous oxide production and mRNA expression analysis of nitrifying and denitrifying bacterial genes under floodwater disappearance and fertilizer application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riya, Shohei; Takeuchi, Yuki; Zhou, Sheng; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2017-06-01

    A pulse of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission has been observed following the disappearance of floodwater by drainage. However, its mechanism is not well understood. We conducted a column study to clarify the mechanism for N 2 O production during floodwater disappearance by using a microsensor and determining the bacterial gene expression. An increase in N 2 O flux was observed following floodwater disappearance after the addition of NH 4 + , with a corresponding increase in the concentrations of NO 3 - and dissolved N 2 O in the oxic and anoxic soil layers, respectively. The transcription level of the bacterial amoA mRNA did not change, while that of nirK mRNA increased sharply after an hour of floodwater disappearance. An additional anoxic soil slurry experiment demonstrated that the addition of NO 3 - induced the expression of nirK gene and caused a concomitant increase in N 2 O production. These findings suggest that NO 3 - production in the oxic layers is important as it provides a substrate and induces the synthesis of denitrification enzymes in the anoxic layer during N 2 O production.

  18. Jet angularity measurements for single inclusive jet production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Lee, Kyle; Ringer, Felix

    2018-04-01

    We study jet angularity measurements for single-inclusive jet production at the LHC. Jet angularities depend on a continuous parameter a allowing for a smooth interpolation between different traditional jet shape observables. We establish a factorization theorem within Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) where we consistently take into account in- and out-of-jet radiation by making use of semi-inclusive jet functions. For comparison, we elaborate on the differences to jet angularities measured on an exclusive jet sample. All the necessary ingredients for the resummation at next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy are presented within the effective field theory framework. We expect semiinclusive jet angularity measurements to be feasible at the LHC and we present theoretical predictions for the relevant kinematic range. In addition, we investigate the potential impact of jet angularities for quark-gluon discrimination.

  19. Application of x-ray residual stress measurement to products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Iwamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    The X-ray residual stress measuring method is the only nondestructive method for measuring residual stress in polycrystalline materials. It is capable of obtaining information not only on macroscopic stress but also microscopic stress. The authors are employing this method for the development of pre-service and in-service inspection methods and for the improvement of various manufacturing techniques. In this paper, the results of measurement of some products as examples of its application are described. The examples introduced concern the following: (1) Selection of optimum conditions in heat treatment and stress-relief treatment. (2) Residual stress produced by mechanical processes such as autofrettage and flow form. (3) Check of manufacturing processes of rotary shaft and welded parts. (4) Estimation of fatigue strength of shot-peened part. (5) Detection of fatigue damage of shot-peened part. (auth.)

  20. A general product measurability theorem with applications to variational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth L. Kuttler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes the existence of measurable weak solutions to evolution problems with randomness by proving and applying a novel theorem on product measurability of limits of sequences of functions. The measurability theorem is used to show that many important existence theorems within the abstract theory of evolution inclusions or equations have straightforward generalizations to settings that include random processes or coefficients. Moreover, the convex set where the solutions are sought is not fixed but may depend on the random variables. The importance of adding randomness lies in the fact that real world processes invariably involve randomness and variability. Thus, this work expands substantially the range of applications of models with variational inequalities and differential set-inclusions.

  1. Helium production measurements for neutron dosimetry and damage correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV; Lippincott, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    Helium accumulation fluence monitors (HAFM's), consisting of miniature vanadium capsules containing small, accurately-known amounts of 10 B or 6 Li, are being used routinely for neutron dosimetry measurements in breeder reactor environments. Additionally, solid wires of Al, Fe and Cu have been irradiated by 14.8-MeV neutrons from the d-T reaction, and measurements of the helium production along these wires have given detailed neutron fluence profiles. Additional materials with relatively high (n,α) cross sections are being tested in a wide variety of neutron environments to select HAFM sets that will provide spectral information by unfolding techniques. The mass spectrometric helium measurement technique has been demonstrated to produce results with better than 2% (1 sigma) absolute accuracy. Intercomparisons with other laboratories have demonstrated good correlations with radiometric and fission chamber dosimetry results

  2. Development of an instrument for direct ozone production rate measurements: measurement reliability and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip S.; Wood, Ezra; Kundu, Shuvashish; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) is an important pollutant that affects both global climate change and regional air quality, with the latter linked to detrimental effects on both human health and ecosystems. Ozone is not directly emitted in the atmosphere but is formed from chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and sunlight. The photochemical nature of ozone makes the implementation of reduction strategies challenging and a good understanding of its formation chemistry is fundamental in order to develop efficient strategies of ozone reduction from mitigation measures of primary VOCs and NOx emissions. An instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPRs) was developed and deployed in the field as part of the IRRONIC (Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison) field campaign. The OPR instrument is based on the principle of the previously published MOPS instrument (Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor) but using a different sampling design made of quartz flow tubes and a different Ox (O3 and NO2) conversion-detection scheme composed of an O3-to-NO2 conversion unit and a cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS) NO2 monitor. Tests performed in the laboratory and in the field, together with model simulations of the radical chemistry occurring inside the flow tubes, were used to assess (i) the reliability of the measurement principle and (ii) potential biases associated with OPR measurements. This publication reports the first field measurements made using this instrument to illustrate its performance. The results showed that a photo-enhanced loss of ozone inside the sampling flow tubes disturbs the measurements. This issue needs to be solved to be able to perform accurate ambient measurements of ozone production rates with the instrument described in this study. However, an attempt was made to investigate the OPR sensitivity to NOx by adding NO inside the instrument

  3. Bacterial carbon utilization in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Alexandra; Langergraber, Günter; Watzinger, Andrea; Haberl, Raimund; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2008-03-01

    Subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands with intermittent loading are considered as state of the art and can comply with stringent effluent requirements. It is usually assumed that microbial activity in the filter body of constructed wetlands, responsible for the removal of carbon and nitrogen, relies mainly on bacterially mediated transformations. However, little quantitative information is available on the distribution of bacterial biomass and production in the "black-box" constructed wetland. The spatial distribution of bacterial carbon utilization, based on bacterial (14)C-leucine incorporation measurements, was investigated for the filter body of planted and unplanted indoor pilot-scale constructed wetlands, as well as for a planted outdoor constructed wetland. A simple mass-balance approach was applied to explain the bacterially catalysed organic matter degradation in this system by comparing estimated bacterial carbon utilization rates with simultaneously measured carbon reduction values. The pilot-scale constructed wetlands proved to be a suitable model system for investigating microbial carbon utilization in constructed wetlands. Under an ideal operating mode, the bulk of bacterial productivity occurred within the first 10cm of the filter body. Plants seemed to have no significant influence on productivity and biomass of bacteria, as well as on wastewater total organic carbon removal.

  4. A Hybrid Fuzzy Model for Lean Product Development Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osezua Aikhuele, Daniel; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    In the effort for manufacturing companies to meet up with the emerging consumer demands for mass customized products, many are turning to the application of lean in their product development process, and this is gradually moving from being a competitive advantage to a necessity. However, due to lack of clear understanding of the lean performance measurements, many of these companies are unable to implement and fully integrated the lean principle into their product development process. Extensive literature shows that only few studies have focus systematically on the lean product development performance (LPDP) evaluation. In order to fill this gap, the study therefore proposed a novel hybrid model based on Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and the extension of Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-TOPSIS methods for the assessment of the LPDP. Unlike the existing methods, the model considers the importance weight of each of the decision makers (Experts) since the performance criteria/attributes are required to be rated, and these experts have different level of expertise. The rating is done using a new fuzzy Likert rating scale (membership-scale) which is designed such that it can address problems resulting from information lost/distortion due to closed-form scaling and the ordinal nature of the existing Likert scale.

  5. Bacterial production, glucosidase activity and particle-associated carbohydrates in Dona Paula bay, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhaskar, P.V.; Bhosle, N.B.

    theaquaticenvironmentcontributingupto80%ofthedissolvedand 5–25% of the particulate organic carbon (Decho,1990; Benner et al., 1992; Biersmith and Benner, 1998). Although free and combined amino acids are the most preferred carbon and nitrogen source 1. Introduction... of bulk bacterial biomass and enzyme activity is varyingly attributed to particle-associated bacteria and free-living bacteria (Palumbo et al., 1984; Griffith et al., 1990; Karner and Herndl,1992; Bidle and Fletcher,1995). The enzymatic breakdown...

  6. N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine Affects Growth, Extracellular Polysaccharide Production, and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Solid Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Ann-Cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

    2003-01-01

    N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Usi...

  7. Measurements of the potential ozone production rate in a forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, L.; Sklaveniti, S.; Kramer, L.; Bloss, W.; Flynn, J. H., III; Alvarez, S. L.; Erickson, M.; Dusanter, S.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Millet, D. B.; Alwe, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are a significant source of organic compounds globally and alongside NOx play a key role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere. Understanding how changes in NOx concentrations feed through to altered ozone production in BVOC dominated environments will aid our understanding of future atmospheric composition, notably as developing nations transition from NOx dominated to NOx limited chemistry as a result of mitigation strategies. Here we empirically investigate this ambient ozone formation potential. We report deployment of a custom built instrument to measure in near real time the potential for in situ chemical ozone production, using an artificial light source. Our results are thus indicative of the ozone formation potential for a sampled ambient air mixture, including full VOC complexity, i.e. independent of characterization of individual organic compounds. Ground level measurements were performed as part of the PROPHET-AMOS 2016 field campaign, at a site located within a Northern Michigan forest that has typically low NOx abundance, but high isoprene and terpenoid loadings. As the ambient NOx concentrations were low during the campaign, experiments were performed in which NO was artificially added to the sampled ambient air mixture, to quantify changes in the potential ozone production rate as a function of NOx, and hence the ozone forming characteristics of the ambient air. Preliminarily results from these experiments are presented, and indicate that while ozone production increases with added NO, significant variation was observed for a given NO addition, reflecting differences in the ambient VOC chemical reactivity and ozone formation tendency.

  8. Prevalence of tabacco product use in Latvia and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco products is a major problem having a serious effect on public health. Deaths from external causes are those that can be prevented by ensuring environmental safety and educating the society about the effect of lifestyle habits and behaviour on health of an individual. Not only research data reveal the prevalence of tobacco use but also the rate of tobacco sales. Tobacco industry marketing includes advertising, sales promotion and sponsorship strategies that are aimed at promotion of tobacco use. Demand for tobacco products is influenced also by changes in legislation relating to ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. Therefore it is necessary to introduce an agreed strategy for reducing tobacco use. The countries that have ratified the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (the Convention should develop and implement an effective tobacco control programme. In Latvia the number of daily smokers gradually decreases thanks to the extensive smoking restrictions though tobacco manufacturers use all the available media, radio and television, newspapers, magazines, advertisements and Internet, to advertise their products. Therefore in order to combat the prevalence of smoking first of all it is necessary to limit cigarette marketing and sales and to carry out monitoring and development of tobacco control measures on the state level. The sales of legal cigarettes have decreased in Latvia starting from 2009. However, the increase in tax rates and prices has contributed to the movement of illegal goods therefore it is necessary to take additional restrictive measures concerning the movement of illegal goods. Though amendments to legislation of Latvia relating to tobacco control comply with the requirements of the WHO Convention it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of control measures and to improve them. Systematic and comprehensive education of the public is required to encourage the change of

  9. Measurement and characterization of fission products released from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.F.; Collins, J.L.; Lorenz, R.A.; Norwood, K.S.; Strain, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of commercial LWR fuel have been heated under simulated accident conditions to determine the extent and the chemical forms of fission product release. This project was sponsored by the USNRC under a broad program of reactor safety studies. Of the five tests discussed, the fractional releases of Kr, I, and Cs varied from approx. 2% at 1400 0 C to >50% at 2000 0 C; much smaller fractions of Ru, Ag, Sb, and Te were measured in some tests. The major chemical forms in the effluent appeared to include CsI, CsOH, Sb, Te, and Ag

  10. Measurement and characterization of fission products released from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.F.; Collins, J.L.; Lorenz, R.A.; Norwood, K.S.; Strain, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of commercial LWR fuel have been heated under simulated accident conditions to determine the extent and the chemical forms of fission product release. Of the five tests discussed, the fractional releases of Kr, I, and Cs varied from proportional 2% at 1400 0 C to >50% at 2000 0 C; much smaller fractions of Ru, Ag, Sb, and Te were measured in some tests. The major chemical forms in the effluent appeared to include CsI, CsOH, Sb, Te, and Ag. (orig./HP)

  11. New challenge in the speciation of selenium. Measurement and production on nano selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokisch, J; Sztrik, A; Babka, B; Zommara, M; Daroczi, L [Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, Debrecen (Hungary). Institute of Bio- and Environmental Energetics

    2009-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We have found that several species of probiotic bacteria also used in food industry for making yogurts is capable of producing spherical elemental selenium nanospheres having an average diameter in the range of 50-500 nm when 1-1000 mg/L selenium was added to the medium in the form of selenite ions. Elemental selenium produced thereby has a high degree of purity, is spherical, and its size and crystalline form depends on the bacterium species applied. We have found that some species of the probiotic yogurt bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium bifidum or Bifidobacterium longum) are capable of producing the grey crystalline form of elemental selenium which is so far unprecedented in the art for any bacteria capable of producing elemental selenium nanoparticles. Our finding, therefore, enables the first time the development of economical industrial bacterial fermentation based processes for the production of a high quality elemental selenium material comprising uniformly sized grey or red nanospheres having an average diameter in the range of 50-500 nm. The size and the crystalline form of the produced nanosized (50-500 nm) spherical particles is defined by the selected microorganism. This genetic pre-determination result in reproducible production of a material having individual characteristics which can be used in numerous fields of industry and research. The produced nano selenium could be a good raw material for a production of certified reference materials. The measurement of the produced elemental nanoselenium is a new challenge for the speciation analysis. A sample preparation and measurement method was developed and investigated for the analysis of different selenium forms by HPLC-AFS system. The atomic fluorescence (AFS) was a reliable and simple detection method for the elemental nano selenium. The elemental selenium can produce hydride in the system or can be converted to selenite with HCl/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} digestion.

  12. Selection of potent bacterial strain for over-production of PHB by using low cost carbon source for eco-friendly bioplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Abdul Rehman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microbial PHB production is a promising tool for the plastic industry for the synthesis of environmental friendly, biodegradable plastic in contrast to the conventional petro-chemical based non-degradable plastics. The selection of potent bacterial strains, inexpensive carbon source, efficient fermentation and recovery processes are important aspects that were taken into account during this study. Methods: Different bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus Spp, P. putida and P. fluorescens were screened for maximum PHB production. Under media optimization, various carbon and nitrogen sources (alone or in combination were used to achieve the maximum PHB production. Finally the degradation tests of the PHB sheet were also performed to test its biodegradability potential. Results: Shake flask studies have shown the PHB concentrations upto 7.02, 4.50 and 34.4 mg/g of dry cell mass of P. putida, P. fluorescens and Bacillus Spp. respectively. Almost same results were observed at laboratory scale production of PHB in 10 L fermenter i.e. 6.28, 6.23 and 39.5 mg/g of dry cell mass by P. putida, P. fluorescens and Bacillus Spp. respectively. On the basis of these observations, Bacillus Spp. was chosen for laboratory scale PHB production. Corn steep liquor (4% was chosen as the best medium to achieve the highest PHB contents. Isolated PHB has shown biodegradation in soil up to 86.7% at 37oC. Conclusion: The Bacillus Spp. Proved to be the best strain for PHB production on only 4% CSL which is cheapest and easily available.

  13. Neutral meson production measurements with the ALICE at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganoti Paraskevi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identified hadron spectra are considered to be sensitive to the transport properties of strongly interacting matter produced in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. π0 and η mesons in ALICE are identified via their two-photon decays by using calorimeters and the central tracking system. In the latter, photons are measured via their conversion to electron-positron pairs in the material of the inner ALICE barrel tracking detectors. The measured production spectra in pp, p–Pb and Pb–Pb collisions at mid–rapidity and over a wide pT range will be presented in the available Large Hadron Collider (LHC energies of Run I. The resulting nuclear modification factor RAA at different centrality classes shows a clear pattern of strong suppression in the hot QCD medium with respect to pp collisions. Comparison of the ALICE results on neutral mesons with lower-energy experiments is also discussed.

  14. Measurement of the particle production properties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, Alessia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the particle production properties with the ATLAS detector A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of high-energy collisions. The ATLAS collaboration extended previous studies at 7 TeV with a leading track or jet or Z boson by a new study at 13 TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle in dependence of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event as well as the onset of hard emissions. The results are compared to predictions of several MC generators. A similar comparison between measurements and MC generator predictions will be shown for the strange meson content in topquark pair events. Studies of particle correlations in high-energy collisions can provide valuable insights into the detailed understanding of the space-time geometry of the hadronization region. The ATLA...

  15. Measurements of the Vector boson production with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kordas, Kostas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The electroweak sector of the Standard Model can be tested by precision measurements of its fundamental parameters, such as the W boson mass or the electroweak mixing angle. In this talk, we present the first measurement of the W boson mass, based on the 7 TeV data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb$^{-1}$. With these samples the detector and physics modelling has been studied in great detail, leading to an overall uncertainty of 19 MeV. The ATLAS collaboration also performed a new precise triple differential cross-section measurement as a function of M(ll), dilepton rapidity and $cos\\theta^{*}$ defined in the Collins-Soper frame. This measurement provides sensitivity to the PDFs and the Z forward-backward asymmetry, $A_{FB}$, which is derived and will be presented. The later builds the foundation for a possible future extraction of the weak-mixing angle. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is an important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment...

  16. Measurement of Fission Product Yields from Fast-Neutron Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Henderson, R.; Kenneally, J.; Macri, R.; McNabb, D.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.

    2014-09-01

    One of the aims of the Stockpile Stewardship Program is a reduction of the uncertainties on fission data used for analyzing nuclear test data [1,2]. Fission products such as 147Nd are convenient for determining fission yields because of their relatively high yield per fission (about 2%) and long half-life (10.98 days). A scientific program for measuring fission product yields from 235U,238U and 239Pu targets as a function of bombarding neutron energy (0.1 to 15 MeV) is currently underway using monoenergetic neutron beams produced at the 10 MV Tandem Accelerator at TUNL. Dual-fission chambers are used to determine the rate of fission in targets during activation. Activated targets are counted in highly shielded HPGe detectors over a period of several weeks to identify decaying fission products. To date, data have been collected at neutron bombarding energies 4.6, 9.0, 14.5 and 14.8 MeV. Experimental methods and data reduction techniques are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  17. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  18. Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishichayan; Bhike, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of fission products yields (FPYs) are an important source of information on the fission process. During the past couple of years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the FPYs from quasi monoenergetic neutron-induced fission on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and has revealed an unexpected energy dependence of both asymmetric fission fragments at energies below 4 MeV. This peculiar FPY energy dependence was more pronounced in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. In an effort to understand and compare the effect of the incoming probe on the FPY distribution, we have carried out monoenergetic photon-induced fission experiments on the same 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets. Monoenergetic photon beams of Eγ = 13.0 MeV were provided by the HIγS facility, the world's most intense γ-ray source. In order to determine the total number of fission events, a dual-fission chamber was used during the irradiation. These irradiated samples were counted at the TUNL's low-background γ-ray counting facility using high efficient HPGe detectors over a period of 10 weeks. Here we report on our first ever photofission product yield measurements obtained with monoenegetic photon beams. These results are compared with neutron-induced FPY data.

  19. Measurement of CP asymmetries in neutralino production at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, O.; Rolbiecki, K.; Terwort, M.; Schade, P.

    2011-08-01

    We study the prospects to measure the CP-sensitive triple-product asymmetries in neutralino production e + e - → χ 0 i χ 0 1 and subsequent leptonic twobody decays χ 0 i → l R l, l R → χ 0 1 l for l=e,μ within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We include a full detector simulation of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The simulation was performed at a center of mass energy of √(s)=500 GeV, including the relevant Standard Model background processes, a realistic beam energy spectrum, beam backgrounds and a beam polarization of 80% and -60% for the electron and positron beams, respectively. In order to effectively disentangle different signal samples and reduce SM and SUSY backgrounds we apply a method of kinematic reconstruction. Assuming an integrated luminosity of 500 fb -1 collected by the experiment and the performance of the current ILD detector, we arrive at a relative measurement accuracy of 10% for the CP-sensitive asymmetry in our scenario. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of CP asymmetries in neutralino production at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, O; Rolbiecki, K; Schade, P; Terwort, M

    2012-01-01

    We study the prospects to measure the CP-sensitive triple-product asymmetries in neutralino production e+e- -> ~chi^0_i ~chi^0_1 and subsequent leptonic two-body decays ~chi^0_i -> ~l_R l, ~l_R -> ~chi^0_1 l, for l=e, mu, within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We include a full detector simulation of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The simulation was performed at a center of mass energy of sqrt{s}=500 GeV, including the relevant Standard Model background processes, a realistic beam energy spectrum, beam backgrounds and a beam polarization of 80% and -60% for the electron and positron beams, respectively. In order to effectively disentangle different signal samples and reduce SM and SUSY backgrounds we apply a method of kinematic reconstruction. Assuming an integrated luminosity of 500 fb^-1 collected by the experiment and the performance of the current ILD detector, we arrive at a relative measurement accuracy of 10% for the CP-sensitive asymmetry in our scen...

  1. Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishichayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of fission products yields (FPYs are an important source of information on the fission process. During the past couple of years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the FPYs from quasi monoenergetic neutron-induced fission on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and has revealed an unexpected energy dependence of both asymmetric fission fragments at energies below 4 MeV. This peculiar FPY energy dependence was more pronounced in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. In an effort to understand and compare the effect of the incoming probe on the FPY distribution, we have carried out monoenergetic photon-induced fission experiments on the same 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets. Monoenergetic photon beams of Eγ = 13.0 MeV were provided by the HIγS facility, the world's most intense γ-ray source. In order to determine the total number of fission events, a dual-fission chamber was used during the irradiation. These irradiated samples were counted at the TUNL's low-background γ-ray counting facility using high efficient HPGe detectors over a period of 10 weeks. Here we report on our first ever photofission product yield measurements obtained with monoenegetic photon beams. These results are compared with neutron-induced FPY data.

  2. Assessing the impact of lyophilization process in production of implants based on the bacterial cellulose using Raman spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, E V; Timchenko, P E; Pisareva, E V; Vlasov, M Yu; Revin, V V; Klenova, N A; Asadova, A A

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the research results of lyophilization process influence on the composition of hybrid materials based on the bacterial cellulose (BC) using Raman spectroscopy method. As an object of research was used BC, as well as hybrids based on it, comprising the various combinations of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and collagen. Our studies showed that during the lyophilization process changes the ratio of the individual components. It was found that for samples hybrid based on BC with addition of HAP occurs increase of PO 4 3- peak intensity in the region 956 cm -1 with decreasing width, which indicates a change in the degree of HAP crystallinity. (paper)

  3. Assessing the impact of lyophilization process in production of implants based on the bacterial cellulose using Raman spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Revin, V. V.; Klenova, N. A.; Asadova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the research results of lyophilization process influence on the composition of hybrid materials based on the bacterial cellulose (BC) using Raman spectroscopy method. As an object of research was used BC, as well as hybrids based on it, comprising the various combinations of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and collagen. Our studies showed that during the lyophilization process changes the ratio of the individual components. It was found that for samples hybrid based on BC with addition of HAP occurs increase of PO4 3- peak intensity in the region 956 cm-1 with decreasing width, which indicates a change in the degree of HAP crystallinity.

  4. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  5. Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-02-01

    Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator (ZnS(Ag)) and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current ({approx gt} 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model.

  7. Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, Rejean Louis [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator [ZnS(Ag)] and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current (≳ 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model.

  8. Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator [ZnS(Ag)] and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current (approx-gt 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model

  9. Structure of a bacterial glycoside hydrolase family 63 enzyme in complex with its glycosynthase product, and insights into the substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Ichikawa, Megumi; Yokoi, Gaku; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Mori, Haruhide; Kitano, Yoshikazu; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    Proteins belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 63 (GH63) are found in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Although the eukaryotic GH63 proteins have been identified as processing α-glucosidase I, the substrate specificities of the bacterial and archaeal GH63 proteins are not clear. Here, we converted a bacterial GH63 enzyme, Escherichia coli YgjK, to a glycosynthase to probe its substrate specificity. Two mutants of YgjK (E727A and D324N) were constructed, and both mutants showed glycosynthase activity. The reactions of E727A with β-D-glucosyl fluoride and monosaccharides showed that the largest amount of glycosynthase product accumulated when galactose was employed as an acceptor molecule. The crystal structure of E727A complexed with the reaction product indicated that the disaccharide bound at the active site was 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranose (Glc12Gal). A comparison of the structures of E727A-Glc12Gal and D324N-melibiose showed that there were two main types of conformation: the open and closed forms. The structure of YgjK adopted the closed form when subsite -1 was occupied by glucose. These results suggest that sugars containing the Glc12Gal structure are the most likely candidates for natural substrates of YgjK. © 2013 FEBS.

  10. Molecular diversity of bacterial communities from subseafloor rock samples in a deep-water production basin in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Weid, Irene; Korenblum, Elisa; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Dino, Rodolfo; Sebastian, Gina Vasquez; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    The deep subseafloor rock in oil reservoirs represents a unique environment in which a high oilcontamination and very low biomass can be observed. Sampling this environment has been a challenge owing to the techniques used for drilling and coring. In this study, the facilities developed by the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS for accessing deep subsurface oil reservoirs were used to obtain rock samples at 2,822-2,828 m below the ocean floor surface from a virgin field located in the Atlantic Ocean, Rio de Janeiro. To address the bacterial diversity of these rock samples, PCR amplicons were obtained using the DNA from four core sections and universal primers for 16S rRNA and for APS reductase (aps) genes. Clone libraries were generated from these PCR fragments and 87 clones were sequenced. The phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA clone libraries showed a wide distribution of types in the domain bacteria in the four core samples, and the majority of the clones were identified as belonging to Betaproteobacteria. The sulfate-reducing bacteria community could only be amplified by PCR in one sample, and all clones were identified as belonging to Gammaproteobacteria. For the first time, the bacterial community was assessed in such deep subsurface environment.

  11. Improvement of simultaneous Cr(VI) and phenol removal by an immobilised bacterial consortium and characterisation of biodegradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañon, Ornella M; González, Paola S; Barros, Germán G; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2017-07-25

    Microbial bioremediation emerged some decades ago as an eco-friendly technology to restore polluted sites. Traditionally, the search for microorganisms suitable for bioremediation has been based on the selection of isolated strains able to remove a specific type of pollutant. However, this strategy has now become obsolete, since co-pollution is a global reality. Thus, current studies attempt to find bacterial cultures capable of coping with a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. In this sense, the bacterial consortium SFC 500-1 has demonstrated efficiency for Cr(VI) and phenol removal, both of which are found in many industrial wastewaters. In the present study, the ability of SFC 500-1 for simultaneous removal was improved through its entrapment in a Ca-alginate matrix. This strategy led to an increased removal of Cr(VI), which was partially reduced to Cr(III). Immobilised cells were able to tolerate and degrade phenol up to 1,500mg/l at high rates, forming catechol and cis,cis-muconate as oxidation intermediates. Successful removal potential through 5 cycles of reuse, as well as after long-term storage, was another important advantage of the immobilised consortium. These characteristics make SFC 500-1 an interesting system for potential application in the biotreatment of co-polluted effluents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Hadronic resonance production measured with the ALICE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Hadronic resonances serve as a unique tool to study the properties of hot and dense matter pro- duced in heavy-ion collisions. These properties can be studied by measuring the ratios of hadronic resonance yields to the yields of longer-lived hadrons which can be used to investigate the re- scattering effects and the chemical freeze-out temperature. Resonance measurements in pp and p–Pb collisions provide a necessary baseline for heavy-ion data and help to disentangle the initial- state effects from medium-induced effects. The ALICE Collaboration has measured resonances such as, K ∗ (892) 0 and φ (1020) in pp, p–Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC energies. These resonances are reconstructed via their hadronic decay channel in a wide momentum range at midrapidity. In this work, we present recent results on the transverse momentum spectra, mean transverse momentum, ratios of resonance production relative to that of long-lived hadrons.

  13. Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and X-irradiation on the production of colony-stimulating factor and the maintenance of granulopoiesis in bone marrow culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, H.; Miyanomae, T.; Tsurusawa, M.; Fujita, J.; Mori, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and X-irradiation on CSF production and granulopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures were studied. Levels of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) increased soon after the refeeding of the culture, but the activity was undetectable at day 7. Addition of LPS induced a significant increase in CSF levels in the culture, followed by an elevated granulopoiesis. The increase in CSF levels was suppressed when culture medium that had been harvested at refeeding on day 7 was added. Although irradiation did not increase CSF production, granulopoiesis was markedly stimulated shortly after irradiation. Thus granulopoiesis in long-term bone marrow culture may also be regulated by humoral factors such as CSF, and the culture system may represent the in vivo response to haemopoietic stimuli. (author)

  14. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  15. Particle size fractionation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs): seasonal distribution and bacterial production in the St Lawrence estuary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, S; Levasseur, M; Doucette, G; Cantin, G

    2002-10-01

    We determined the seasonal distribution of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and PST producing bacteria in > 15, 5-15, and 0.22-5 microm size fractions in the St Lawrence. We also measured PSTs in a local population of Mytilus edulis. PST concentrations were determined in each size fraction and in laboratory incubations of sub-samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), including the rigorous elimination of suspected toxin 'imposter' peaks. Mussel toxin levels were determined by mouse bioassay and HPLC. PSTs were detected in all size fractions during the summer sampling season, with 47% of the water column toxin levels associated with particles smaller than Alexandrium tamarense ( 15 microm size fraction, we estimated that as much as 92% of PSTs could be associated with particles other than A. tamarense. Our results stress the importance of taking into account the potential presence of PSTs in size fractions other than that containing the known algal producer when attempting to model shellfish intoxication, especially during years of low cell abundance. Finally, our HPLC results confirmed the presence of bacteria capable of autonomous PST production in the St Lawrence as well as demonstrating their regular presence and apparent diversity in the plankton. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Ecotoxicological assessment of soils polluted with chemical waste from lindane production: Use of bacterial communities and earthworms as bioremediation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Selene; Gonzalvo, Pilar; Valdehita, Ana; Molina-Molina, José Manuel; Navas, José María; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández-Cascán, Jesús; Navarro, Enrique

    2017-11-01

    An ecotoxicological survey of soils that were polluted with wastes from lindane (γ-HCH) production assessed the effects of organochlorine compounds on the metabolism of microbial communities and the toxicity of these compounds to a native earthworm (Allolobophora chlorotica). Furthermore, the bioremediation role of earthworms as facilitators of soil washing and the microbial degradation of these organic pollutants were also studied. Soil samples that presented the highest concentrations of ε-HCH, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, pentachlorobenzene and γ-HCH were extremely toxic to earthworms in the short term, causing the death of almost half of the population. In addition, these soils inhibited the heterotrophic metabolic activity of the microbial community. These highly polluted samples also presented substances that were able to activate cellular detoxification mechanisms (measured as EROD and BFCOD activities), as well as compounds that were able to cause endocrine disruption. A few days of earthworm activity increased the extractability of HCH isomers (e.g., γ-HCH), facilitating the biodegradation of organochlorine compounds and reducing the intensity of endocrine disruption in soils that had low or medium contamination levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure International Agricultural Efficiency and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Carlos Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Numerous methods for measuring multifactor productivity have been used by economists. This report uses a recently developed approach, data envlopment analysis, to measure productivity. This method can be used not only to calculate productivity but also to divide productivity measures into indices that measure technical efficiency and technical change. Technical efficiency measures the efficiency with which resources are used. Technical change measures changes in output arising from improved t...

  18. Measured radionuclide production from copper, gold and lead spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, T.A.; Belian, A.P. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Spallation target materials are chosen so as to produce large numbers of neutrons while at the same time avoiding the creation of long-lived radioactive wastes. While there has been considerable research to determine the number of neutrons produced per incident particle for various target materials, there has been less effort to precisely quantify the types and amounts of radionuclides produced. Accurate knowledge of the radioactive species produced by spallation reactions is important for specifying waste disposal criteria for targets. In order to verify the production rates calculated by LAHET, a study has been conducted using the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Cyclotron to measure radionuclide yields from copper, gold, and lead targets.

  19. Measurement of Dijet Production at Low $Q^{2}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Chyla, J.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kuckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz, I.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tasevsky, M.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Yan, W.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2004-01-01

    Triple differential dijet cross sections in e^\\pm p interactions are presented in the region of photon virtualities 27GeV, E_T2>5GeV, and pseudorapidities -2.5 < eta_1^*, eta_2^* <0. The measurements are made in the gamma^* p centre-of-mass frame, using an integrated luminosity of 57pb^-1. The data are compared with NLO QCD calculations and LO Monte Carlo programs with and without a resolved virtual photon contribution. NLO QCD calculations fail to describe the region of low Q^2 and low jet transverse energies, in contrast to a LO Monte Carlo generator which includes direct and resolved photon interactions with both transversely and longitudinally polarised photons. Initial and final state parton showers are tested as a mechanism for including higher order QCD effects in low E_T jet production.

  20. Cortisol production rates measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, N.V.; Yergey, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Cortisol production rates (FPRs) in physiologic and pathologic states in humans have been investigated over the past 30 years. However, there has been conflicting evidence concerning the validity of the currently accepted value of FPRs in humans (12 to 15 mg/m2/d) as determined by radiotracer methodology. The present study reviews previous methods proposed for the measurement of FPRs in humans and discusses the applications of the first method for the direct determination of 24-hour plasma FPRs during continuous administration of a stable isotope, using a thermospray high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The technique is fast, sensitive, and, unlike gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, does not require derivatization, allowing on-line detection and quantification of plasma cortisol after a simple extraction procedure. The results of determination of plasma FPRs by stable tracer/mass spectrometry are directly in units of mass/time and, unlike radiotracer methods, are independent of any determination of volume of distribution or cortisol concentration. Our methodology offers distinct advantages over radiotracer techniques in simplicity and reliability since only single measurements of isotope ratios are required. The technique was validated in adrenalectomized patients. Circadian variations in daily FRPs were observed in normal volunteers, and, to date, results suggest a lower FRP in normal children and adults than previously believed. 88 references

  1. Dose-area product measurement for patients in diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhawad, Safaa Ibrahim Awad Elkarim

    2001-09-01

    There is a wide spread of the utilization of medical diagnostic x-ray in Sudan upon the last years, in private clinics as well as in public hospitals. The aim of this study was to measure the doses to patients from x-ray in radiography departments in Khartoum State. Use was made of ionization chamber that measures the product of dose times the exposed area of the patient in units of Gy cm 2 . The work was performed in 7 hospitals over 250 patients. 71.2% of the patients were males and 28.8% females. From this work, it appears that the chest radiography represent 42% of the total exposure of human body organs to radiography, there was also a clear variation in doses resulting from this exposure for different x-ray machines. The results of this study were compared with similar from Germany, Finland, New Zealand and Norway; which are recently available studies. The comparison showed those investigation of abdomen, spine and pelvis result in higher radiation doses. No data for limb exposure were obtained from these countries, in Sudan exposure of the limb carry radiation doses compared to the rest of the human body.(Author)

  2. Measurement of baryon production in B-meson decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Jensen, T.; Johnson, D.R.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Ng, C.R.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Kroha, H.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Li, W.C.; Lou, X.C.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Jain, V.; Kennett, R.; Mestayer, M.D.; Moneti, G.C.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thusalidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Letson, T.; Alexander, J.; Artuso, M.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lewis, J.D.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Pisharody, M.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Silverman, A.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Sadoff, A.J.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Procario, M.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Haas, P.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.

    1992-01-01

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we observe B-meson decays to Λ c + and report on improved measurements of inclusive branching fractions and momentum spectra of other baryons. For the inclusive decay bar B→Λ c + X with Λ c + →pK - π + , we find that the product branching fraction B(bar B→Λ c + X)B(Λ c + →pK - π + )=(0.273±0.051± 0.039)%. Our measured inclusive branching fractions to noncharmed baryons are B(B→pX)=(8.0±0.5±0.3)%, B(B→ΛX)=(3.8±0.4±0.6)%, and B(B→Ξ - X)=(0.27±0.05±0.04)%. From these rates and studies of baryon-lepton and baryon-antibaryon correlations in B decays, we have estimated the branching fraction B(bar B→Λ c + X) to be (6.4±0.8±0.8)%. Combining these results, we calculate B(Λ c + →pK - π + ) to be (4.3±1.0±0.8)%

  3. Bacterial cells with improved tolerance to polyamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Provided are bacterial cells genetically modified to improve their tolerance to certain commodity chemicals, such as polyamines, and methods of preparing and using such bacterial cells for production of polyamines and other compounds.......Provided are bacterial cells genetically modified to improve their tolerance to certain commodity chemicals, such as polyamines, and methods of preparing and using such bacterial cells for production of polyamines and other compounds....

  4. Bacterial cells with improved tolerance to polyols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial cells genetically modified to improve their tolerance to certain commodity chemicals, such as diols and other polyols, and to methods of preparing and using such bacterial cells for production of polyols and other compounds.......The present invention relates to bacterial cells genetically modified to improve their tolerance to certain commodity chemicals, such as diols and other polyols, and to methods of preparing and using such bacterial cells for production of polyols and other compounds....

  5. Measures for Increasing of Company’s Production Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesta Žikevičiūtė; Irena Zabielavičienė

    2012-01-01

    Production capacity improvements are poorly explored areas of economic literature and the existing methods are difficult to apply. For this reason, the organization has only a superficial analysis of capacity, but after all this time, each production company had to improve the production capacity for the market economy and the most economical use of production factors.This article explores the company’s production capacity for better use of tools. It also presents the capacity of their conce...

  6. Co-transcriptomic Analysis by RNA Sequencing to Simultaneously Measure Regulated Gene Expression in Host and Bacterial Pathogen

    KAUST Repository

    Ravasi, Timothy; Mavromatis, Charalampos Harris; Bokil, Nilesh J.; Schembri, Mark A.; Sweet, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Intramacrophage pathogens subvert antimicrobial defence pathways using various mechanisms, including the targeting of host TLR-mediated transcriptional responses. Conversely, TLR-inducible host defence mechanisms subject intramacrophage pathogens to stress, thus altering pathogen gene expression programs. Important biological insights can thus be gained through the analysis of gene expression changes in both the host and the pathogen during an infection. Traditionally, research methods have involved the use of qPCR, microarrays and/or RNA sequencing to identify transcriptional changes in either the host or the pathogen. Here we describe the application of RNA sequencing using samples obtained from in vitro infection assays to simultaneously quantify both host and bacterial pathogen gene expression changes, as well as general approaches that can be undertaken to interpret the RNA sequencing data that is generated. These methods can be used to provide insights into host TLR-regulated transcriptional responses to microbial challenge, as well as pathogen subversion mechanisms against such responses.

  7. Co-transcriptomic Analysis by RNA Sequencing to Simultaneously Measure Regulated Gene Expression in Host and Bacterial Pathogen

    KAUST Repository

    Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-24

    Intramacrophage pathogens subvert antimicrobial defence pathways using various mechanisms, including the targeting of host TLR-mediated transcriptional responses. Conversely, TLR-inducible host defence mechanisms subject intramacrophage pathogens to stress, thus altering pathogen gene expression programs. Important biological insights can thus be gained through the analysis of gene expression changes in both the host and the pathogen during an infection. Traditionally, research methods have involved the use of qPCR, microarrays and/or RNA sequencing to identify transcriptional changes in either the host or the pathogen. Here we describe the application of RNA sequencing using samples obtained from in vitro infection assays to simultaneously quantify both host and bacterial pathogen gene expression changes, as well as general approaches that can be undertaken to interpret the RNA sequencing data that is generated. These methods can be used to provide insights into host TLR-regulated transcriptional responses to microbial challenge, as well as pathogen subversion mechanisms against such responses.

  8. Measurement of the rate of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Srivastava, V.N.

    1974-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the in vivo estimation of the rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. The animals were given their daily ration in 12 equal amounts at 2 hourly intervals. The bacterial cells from the rumen were labelled either with 14 C or 35 S by in vitro incubation in the presence of (U- 14 C)DL-leucine or 35 S-sodium sulphate. Labelled bacterial cells were injected in a single dose in the rumen. Samples from the ruminal fluid were drawn at various time intervals for 9 hours and the specific radioactivity of the bacteria was determined. The dilution in the specific radioactivity was used to calculate the turnover time and rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. (author)

  9. Microbial production of xylitol from xylose and L-arabinose: conversion of L-arabitol to xylitol using bacterial oxidoreductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial production of xylitol, using hemicellulosic biomass such as agricultural residues, is becoming more attractive for reducing its manufacturing cost. L-arabitol is a particular problem to xylitol production from hemicellulosic hydrolyzates that contain both xylose and L-arabinose because it...

  10. Effect Of GAMMA-Irradiation On Production And Characteristics Of Chitosan Produced From Crustacean Waste By Using Some Bacterial Strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INAS ISMAIL MAHMOUD RAAFAT

    2015-01-01

    The main study focused on separation of chitin from crustacean waste (shrimp shell) using some proteolytic bacterial isolates. After that, chitosan was obtained by deactylation and its characteristics were studied using some characterizing tools. The produced chitosan was degraded to different molecular weights and evaluated as an antibacterial agent. Seventy bacterial isolates were obtained from different sources (soil, plant roots and shrimp shell waste) and tested for their ability to produce proteolytic enzymes. One isolate was selected, due its high proteolytic activity and ability to grow using shrimp as carbon and nitrogen source on shrimp shell agar medium and identified as Bacillus subtilis NA12 by 16S-rRNA gene sequences with a high degree of similarity (99 %) as a gene bank database. Factors affecting deproteinization (DP) and demineralization (DM) efficiency of shrimp shell waste (SSW) (carbon source and its optimal concentration, shrimp shell waste concentration, inoculum size and fermentation time) were studied. The most efficient DP (92.40 %) and DM (81.37 %) of SSW by B. subtilis NA12 were sucrose 10 % (w/v) and inoculum size 15 % (v/v 35 x 108 CFU/ml ) to ferment shrimp shell waste 5 % (w/v) for 6 days of fermentation time. The effect of γ-irradiation on the performance of selected bacterial strain was studied to maximize chitin yield. Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology was employed to establish the relationship between the previous variables, implied that the model was highly significant. It was found that a sucrose concentration of 5 % (w/v), SSW of 12.5 % (w/v), inoculum size of 10 % (v/v) and fermentation time of 7 days; had a predicted value of DP of 97.65 % whereas the actual experiment gave 96.37 %. The predicted value of DM was 82.94 % whereas the actual experiment gave 82.19 %. Chitosan polymer was successfully prepared by the deacetylation reaction from fermented shrimp shell waste (SSW) by Bacillus subtilis NA12

  11. Bacterial production and growth rate estimation from [3H]thymidine incorporation for attached and free-living bacteria in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Ayo, B.; Barcina, I.; Egea, L.

    1990-01-01

    Production and specific growth rates of attached and free-living bacteria were estimated in an oligotrophic marine system, La Salvaje Beach, Vizcaya, Spain, and in a freshwater system having a higher nutrient concentration, Butron River, Vizcaya, Spain. Production was calculated from [methyl- 3 H]thymidine incorporation by estimating specific conversion factors (cells or micrograms of C produced per mole of thymidine incorporated) for attached and free-living bacteria, respectively, in each system. Conversion factors were not statistically different between attached and free-living bacteria: 6.812 x 10 11 and 8.678 x 10 11 μg of C mol -1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the freshwater system, and 1.276 x 10 11 and 1.354 x 10 11 μg of C mol -1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the marine system. Therefore, use of a unique conversion factor for the mixed bacterial population is well founded. However, conversion factors were higher in the freshwater system than in the marine system. This could be due to the different tropic conditions of the two systems. Free-living bacteria contributed the most to production in the two systems (85% in the marine system and 67% in the freshwater system) because of their greater contribution to total biomass. Specific growth rates calculated from production data and biomass data were similar for attached and free-living bacteria

  12. Comparative effectiveness of different carriers to improve the efficacy of bacterial consortium for enhancing wheat production under salt affected field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, S.; Zahir, Z. A.; Asghar, H. N.; Chaudhry, U. K.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most crucial problems for sustainable agriculture which is severely affecting crop growth and decreasing the food production. On another hand, burgeoning population in the world demands to produce more food. So, there is a need of hours to increase agricultural production particularly cereals from salt affected soils by adopting cost effective and environment friendly approaches. Use of bio-inoculants with salt tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be a promising option to enhance the production of cereals in salt affected soils. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate different carriers compost, peat, biogas slurry and press mud along with PGPR to enhance wheat production under salinity stress. Consortium containing equal proportion of three PGPR strains (Bacillus cereus strain Y5, Bacillus sp. Y14 and Bacillus subtilis strain Y16) was used with different carriers for seed coating. Finely ground and sterilized carriers were mixed in broth and coated on the surface of wheat seeds with different carriers. Coated seeds were sown in saline field with salinity range of 10-13 dS m/sup -1/. Results revealed that multi-strain bacterial inoculation improved the gas exchange, ionic, biochemical, growth and yield attributes of wheat crop under salinity stress. However, use of different carriers further improved the efficacy of multi-strain inoculation and significantly increased growth, yield and physiological parameters of wheat. The results of compost, peat and biogas slurry as carrier for bio-inoculants were statistically similar. (author)

  13. Evidence for WZ Production and a Measurement of the WZ Production Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, James D. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation describes a test of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics by measuring the probability, or cross section, of simultaneously producing a W boson and a Z boson from proton-antiproton collisions. The SM predicts the cross section of WZ production to be 3.68 ± 0.25 pb. The SM and physics of WZ production are described in Chapter 2 of this dissertation. The 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy proton-antiproton collisions are provided by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) Tevatron Collider. The W and Z particles are detected using the D0 detector, which is described in Chapter 3. The data were collected by the detector during 2002-2006 corresponding to 1 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions. This data set is described in Chapter 6. The measurement uses the trilepton (evee, μvee, evμμ, and μvμμ) decay channels, in which a W decays to a charged lepton plus a neutrino and a Z decays to a pair of charged leptons. The W and Z particle selection criteria, detection efficiency, and background determination are described in Chapter 7. We observe 13 candidate events in 1 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions. In this data set we expect to see 4.5 ± 0.6 background events, and we expect to see 9.2 ± 1.0 signal events. The probability of 4.5 ± 0.6 background events to fluctuate to 13 or more events is 1.2 x 10-3 which is a 3.0 σ deviation from the background estimate. A log likelihood method is used to determine the most likely cross section as determined by the measured signal efficiencies, the expected backgrounds, and the observed data. Presented in Chapter 8 is a measurement of the cross section for p$\\bar{p}$ → WZ + X at √s = 1.96 TeV. The WZ diboson production cross section is measured to be σWZ = 2.7$+1.7\\atop{-1.3}$ pb. This is in agreement with the predicted Standard Model cross section.

  14. Changes in production efficiency in China identification and measuring

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bing; Watada, Junzo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating  Production Efficiency in China examines production from engineering and statistics perspectives rather than from economics and mathematics perspectives. The authors present an observable benchmark as the criterion of the production efficiency to replace the unobservable production frontier surface. This book discusses several different computing technologies, controllable variable as a path of identification, changes in production efficiency by decision making on specific operating conditions, and optimal resource allocation. The book provides a channel to tap inside the success stories of China, exploiting the way of changes in production efficiency during China’s development in the past 30 years. This book examines the concepts and realization of production efficiencies across all areas of the economy. Also the book provides the perspective of foreign direct investment (FDI) absorption to identify how Chinese economy changes in production efficiency.

  15. Evidence of a bacterial core in the stored products pest Plodia interpunctella: the influence of different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Gargari, Giorgio; Guglielmetti, Simone; Faoro, Franco; Lozzia, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Daria; Limonta, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    The potential influence of insects' feeding behaviour on their associated bacterial communities is currently a matter of debate. Using the major pest of commodities, Plodia interpunctella, as a model and adopting a culture-independent approach, the impact of different diets on the host-associated microbiota was evaluated. An analysis of similarity showed differences among the microbiotas of moths fed with five substrates and provided evidence that diet represents the only tested factor that explains this dissimilarity. Bacteria shared between food and insects provide evidence for a limited conveyance to the host of the bacteria derived from the diet; more likely, the content of carbohydrates and proteins in the diets promotes changes in the insect's microbiota. Moth microbiotas were characterized by two robust entomotypes, respectively, associated with a carbohydrate-rich diet and a protein-rich diet. These results were also confirmed by the predicted metagenome functional potential. A core microbiota, composed of six taxa, was shared between eggs and adults, regardless of the origin of the population. Finally, the identification of possible human and animal pathogens on chili and associated with the moths that feed on it highlights the possibility that these bacteria may be conveyed by moth frass. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Augmentation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide Production with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as a Novel Epigenetic Therapy for Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan D. Yedery

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance seriously threatens our ability to treat many common and medically important bacterial infections. Novel therapeutics are needed that can be used alone or in conjunction with antibiotics. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs are important effectors of the host innate defense that exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms. CAMPs are carried within phagocytic granules and are constitutively or inducibly expressed by multiple cell types, including epithelial cells. The role of histone modification enzymes, specifically the histone deacetylases (HDAC, in down-regulating the transcription of CAMP-encoding genes is increasingly appreciated as is the capacity of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi to block the action of HDACs to increase CAMP expression. The use of synthetic and natural HDACi molecules to increase CAMPs on mucosal surfaces, therefore, has potential therapeutic applications. Here, we review host and pathogen regulation of CAMP expression through the induction of HDACs and assess the therapeutic potential of natural and synthetic HDACi based on evidence from tissue culture systems, animal models, and clinical trials.

  17. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  18. Open-charm production measurements with ALICE at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagano, P.

    2016-01-01

    The LHC heavy-ion physics program aims at investigating the properties of strongly-interacting matter under extreme conditions of temperature and energy density where the formation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is expected. Heavy-flavour hadrons, containing charm and beauty quarks, are considered efficient probes to investigate the properties of the QGP produced in heavy-ion collisions. Heavy quarks are produced in hard partonic scattering processes in the initial stage of hadronic collisions and propagate through the hot and dense medium created in the collision losing energy interacting with the medium via radiative and collisional processes. The high precision tracking, good vertexing capabilities and excellent particle identification offered by the ALICE experiment allow us to measure particles containing heavy quarks in a wide transversemomentum range in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. A review of the main results on prompt D-mesons production, reconstructed via their hadronic decays at mid-rapidity, in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV, p-Pb collisions at √s_N_N = 5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at √s_N_N = 2.76 TeV will be shown

  19. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebel, K.; Beck, E.; Strohmaier, K.; Schaller, H.

    1986-01-01

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible λPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in 35 S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro

  20. The methodical substantiation of measures to improve the use of basic production assets of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Svetlana Anatolevna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculating the performance measures to improve the use of basic production assets of the enterprise: production cost, production volume, number of additional workers, depreciation and amortization.

  1. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp with Mixed Bacterial Cultures for Lactic Acid and Propylene Glycol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Berlowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles. Lactic acid is one of the primary platform chemicals, and can be used to synthesize a wide variety of useful products, including green propylene glycol. A series of controlled batch fermentations was conducted under various conditions, including pretreatment with enzymatic hydrolysis. Inoculation was performed in two sequential stages, to avoid carbon catabolite repression. Biologically-synthesized lactic acid was catalytically reduced to propylene glycol over 5% Ru/C. The highest lactic acid yield was obtained with mixed cultures. The yield of propylene glycol from the biological lactic acid was similar to that obtained with a water solution of pure lactic acid. Our results show that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation enables generation of lactic acid, suitable for further chemical transformations, from agricultural residues.

  2. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... and highlighted their importance in bacterial physiology. Having no orthologues in Eukarya, BY-kinases are receiving a growing attention from the biomedical field, since they represent a particularly promising target for anti-bacterial drug design....

  3. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  4. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  5. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  6. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  7. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria eAntoniou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants (BS are green amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm biosurfactant producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on biosurfactant production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Results indicate that biosurfactant production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of biosurfactants that enables biodegradation of the crude oil. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of crude oil has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents.

  8. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are "green" amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents.

  9. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are “green” amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS – lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  10. Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2011-06-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production.

  11. Measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from vegetable production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhengqin; Xie, Yingxin; Xing, Guangxi; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Butenhoff, Chris

    Nitrous oxide (N 2O) emissions resulting from Chinese vegetable production were measured. A site in suburban Nanjing (East coast; Jiangsu Province) was monitored from November 2001 to January 2003, in which five consecutive vegetable crops were sown. The crops consisted of radish, baby bok choy, lettuce, second planting of baby bok choy, and finally celery. Results suggested that N 2O emission events occur in pulses. The average N 2O-N flux for all five crops was 148±9 μg N m -2 h -1 and the average emission rate was 12±0.7 kg N ha -1. The average seasonal emission fluxes ranged from 37 μg N m -2 h -1 in the radish plot to 300 μg N m -2 h -1 in the celery plot. The celery field produced the greatest cumulative emission of 5.8 kg N ha -1 while the baby bok choy field had the lowest rate of 0.96-1.0 kg N ha -1. In total, 0.73% of applied fertilizer N was emitted as N 2O-N as a whole. The lettuce field had the largest emission factor of 2.2%. Results indicate that emissions from vegetable field are a potential source of national N 2O inventory. Temporal variation is much greater than spatial variation and the corresponding CV averaged 115% and 22%, respectively. Under the same total sampling quantity, increasing sampling frequency is more important than increasing spatial replicates.

  12. Production and purification of anti-bacterial biometabolite from wild-type Lactobacillus, isolated from fermented bamboo shoot: future suggestions and a proposed system for secondary metabolite onsite recovery during continuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-02-01

    Wild-type lactobacillus isolated form Khorisa, a fermented bamboo shoot product of Assam, India were evaluated for production anti-bacterial secondary biometabolites, against Staphylococcus aureus. Submerged fermentation technique was used for the production of secondary anti-microbial biometabolite by a single wild-type lactobacillus strain, which tested positive for the release of anti-bacterial factor(s). Crude cell-free supernatant was obtained, followed by extraction in water-immiscible solvents viz., chloroform, hexane, petroleum ether. Chloroform extract of cell-free crude supernatant showed maximum yield (0.054 g/ml) and inhibited all indicator bacterial strains viz., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Yields of hexane and petroleum ether extract were 0.052 and 0.026 g/ml, respectively. Minimum lethal dose concentration assay of the chloroform extract showed LDmin values at 27, 1.68, and 1.68 mg/ml for E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus, respectively. Kill time for all the indicator bacterial strains were less than 12 h. The efficacy of the anti-bacterial substance seemed to depend on the presence of organic acids, particularly lactic acid. Conceptual-based suggestion for the development of an onsite secondary metabolites recovery system during continuous fermentation has also been attempted.

  13. Development and selection of fungal and bacterial mutants using ionizing radiation and radioisotopes for improved enzyme production (cellulase and coagulase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, K.I.

    1975-01-01

    Ultraviolet and gamma radiations, chemical mutagens, and combinations of chemical and physical mutagens were used in order to obtain mutants of Bacillus mesentericus and Trichoderma viridae with a higher production of coagulase and cellulase, respectively. It was possible to isolate mutant strains, with enzyme activity increased by a factor of 2 and 3

  14. Bacterial and phytoplankton production in the maximum turbidity zone of three European estuaries: the Elbe, Westerschelde and Gironde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, N.K.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Peene, J.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and production of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in spring are presented for three turbid European estuaries, the Elbe (Germany), the Westerschelde (The Netherlands) and the Gironde (France), with emphasis on the effect of turbidity on microbial community densities and activities.

  15. Inactivation of bacterial pathogens in yoba mutandabota, a dairy product fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.; Besten, den H.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Mutandabota is a dairy product consumed as a major source of proteins and micronutrients in Southern Africa. In this study the microbial safety of traditional and a variant of mutandabota fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba (yoba mutandabota) was investigated by challenging the

  16. Reduced Silver Nanoparticle Phytotoxicity in Crambe abyssinica with Enhanced Glutathione Production by Overexpressing Bacterial y-Glutamylcysteine Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanxin Ma; Sudesh Chhikara; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Craig Musante; Jason C. White; Baoshan Xing; Om Parkash Dhankher

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used in consumer products, and their release has raised serious concerns about the risk of their exposure to the environment and to human health. However, biochemical mechanisms by which plants counteract NP toxicity are largely unknown. We have previously engineered Crambe abyssinica plants expressing the...

  17. Legacy effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation on soil bacterial community composition and production of pathogen-suppressing volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van G.J.; Agtmaal, van M.; Hol, G.; Hundscheid, M.P.J.; Runia, W.T.; Hordijk, C.; Boer, de W.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that microbial volatiles (VOCs) play an important role in natural suppression of soil-borne diseases, but little is known on the factors that influence production of suppressing VOCs. In the current study we examined whether a stress-induced change in soil microbial

  18. Legacy effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation on soil bacterial community composition and production of pathogen-suppressing volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Agtmaal, Maaike; van Os, Gera; Hol, Gera; Hundscheid, M.P.J.; Runia, Willemien; Hordijk, Cees; De Boer, Wietse

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that microbial volatiles (VOCs) play an important role in natural suppression of soil-borne diseases, but little is known on the factors that influence production of suppressing VOCs. In the current study we examined whether a stress-induced change in soil

  19. Semi-Spontaneous Oral Text Production: Measurements in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2009-01-01

    Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple…

  20. Can the primary algae production be measured precisely?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, M.; Lundsgaard, C.

    1996-01-01

    Algae production in seawater is extremely important as a basic link in marine food chains. Evaluation of the algae quantity is based on 14CO 2 tracer techniques while natural circulation and light absorption in seawater is taken insufficiently into account. Algae production can vary by 500% in similar nourishment conditions, but varying water mixing conditions. (EG)

  1. Measuring forest and wild product contributions to household welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Hogarth, Nicholas J.; Bong, Indah Waty

    2017-01-01

    in the lowest bracket. Consumption of forest products and importance as a coping strategy was higher in the most upstream village, where sale of forest products in times of shock was more marked in the most downstream village (where forest coping strategies were also least important). The Forestry Modules...

  2. Human Perception Measures for Product Design and Development—A Tutorial to Measurement Methods and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hatzfeld

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This tutorial describes the necessary steps for designing and conducting a perception experiment in order to obtain design parameters for human–machine interactions. It is intended for engineers and product designers, which require design parameters not included in the current state of the art. Topics addressed are the preposition of hypotheses, the selection of parameters, psychophysical measurement procedures and the calculation of sample sizes. Relevant steps for data analysis from psychology and social sciences are applied to the engineering and design context and guidelines for reporting results are given. The required steps are illustrated with an example experiment assessing detection thresholds of damping parameters of haptic automotive rotary controls with regard to parameters like knob diameter and distraction. Results imply significant effects of knob diameter on both absolute and differential thresholds, but no effect of distraction, implying a good transferability of laboratory results to real-world applications.

  3. Production of plastic scintillation survey meter for clearance verification measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Kunio; Ishigami, Tsutomu; Tomii, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    In the Nuclear Science Research Institute, the decommissioning of various nuclear facilities is carried out according to the plan for meeting the midterm goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). An increase in the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas will be expected along with the dismantlement of nuclear facilities in the future. The radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas has been carried out in small-scale nuclear facilities including the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). However, the radiation measurement with an existing measuring device was difficult in effects of radiation from radioactive materials that remains in buried piping. On the other hand, there is no experience that the clearance verification measurement is executed in the JAEA. The generation of a large amount of clearance object will be expected along with the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the future. The plastic scintillation survey meter (hereafter, 'PL measuring device') was produced to apply to the clearance verification measurement and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. The basic characteristic test and the actual test were confirmed using the PL measuring device. As a result of these tests, it was found that the evaluation value of radioactivity with the PL measuring device was accuracy equal with the existing measuring device. The PL measuring device has feature of the existing measuring device with a light weight and easy operability. The PL measuring device can correct the gamma ray too. The PL measuring device is effective to the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. (author)

  4. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) are green amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm biosurfactant producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop c...

  5. A pilot-scale study of biohydrogen production from distillery effluent using defined bacterial co-culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsala, T.M.; Raj, S. Mohan; Manimaran, A. (Shri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, Photosynthesis and Energy Division, Tharamani, Chennai, India, 600)

    2008-10-15

    We evaluated the feasibility of improving the scale of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from sugar cane distillery effluent using co-cultures of Citrobacter freundii 01, Enterobacter aerogenes E10 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris P2 at 100 m{sup 3} scale. The culture conditions at 100 ml and 2 L scales were optimized in minimal medium and we observed that the co-culture of the above three strains enhanced H{sub 2} productivity significantly. Results at the 100 m{sup 3} scale revealed a maximum of 21.38 kg of H{sub 2}, corresponding to 10692.6 mol, which was obtained through batch method at 40 h from reducing sugar (3862.3 mol) as glucose. The average yield of H{sub 2} was 2.76 mol mol{sup -1} glucose, and the rate of H{sub 2} production was estimated as 0.53 kg/100 m{sup 3}/h. Our results demonstrate the utility of distillery effluent as a source of clean alternative energy and provide insights into treatment for industrial exploitation. (author)

  6. Measuring Higgs CP properties through top quark production at a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - tion process at a photon linear collider. Observables which can be obtained by circular polarization of colliding photons and polarization measurement through the angular dis- tribution of the top quark decays are useful not only for measuring ...

  7. Bacterial Levan: tecnological aspects, characteristics and production/ Levana Bacteriana: aspectos tecnológicos, características e produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Levan is an exopolysaccharide, constituted by fructose units, ? (2- 6 linked, obtained by transfructosilation reaction during microorganisms fermentation in a sucrose rich but wi thout glucose, fructose or mixtures in the culture media. Bacterial levan production is a good alternative fructose source, besides having certain functional characteristics in the human body, such as a hypocholesterolemic and an anticarcinogenic agent. In the food industry, levan can be used to fix colors and flavors, as well as thickening and stabilizing agent. In the bacterial levan production, Zymomonas mobilis has been considered the best possible alternative, since it uses as carbon source sucrose or industrial residues that contain this sugar, in different concentrations, in a mineral salts rich medium. Levan production is not only influenced by carbon source and its concentration, but also by pH, temperature and type of salts. Moreover, the oxygenation of the fermentation medium, also affect the characteristics of the molecule and the cellular growth. In this revision some important topics concerning the bacterial levan production are presented.Levana é um exopolissacarídeo, constituído por unidades de frutose, unidas através de ligações ? (2- 6, obtido pela reação de transfrutosilação durante a fermentação de microrganismos em meio rico em sacarose mas não em frutose, glucose ou misturas de ambas. Pesquisas sobre bactérias produtoras de levana vêm sendo implementadas, uma vez que a mesma é uma fonte alternativa de frutose, além de apresentar características funcionais no organismo humano, como agente hipocolesterolêmico e anticarcinogênico. Na indústria de alimentos a levana pode ser empregada como fixador de cores e sabores, bem como espessante e estabilizante de vários alimentos. Das bactérias produtoras de levana, Zymomonas mobilis tem sido a melhor alternativa, uma vez que usa como fonte de carbono a sacarose ou resíduos industriais

  8. Measurements and thermodynamics of hydrotreater product sludge stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    Sludge is a by-product of the hydrotreating process of asphaltene during feedstock conversions. The stability of the asphaltenes in the system is related to the produced sludge. The remaining asphaltenes are unstable due to chemical changes in the mixture even though a large conversion of heptane asphaltene occurs. The flocculation titration technique was applied to several feedstocks and catalysts to understand changes in stability and to develop conversion schemes that avoid sludge formation. The effect of temperature conversion was studied in detail. Results obtained by flocculation titration were in agreement with size exclusion chromatography, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and other methods. The authors also examined the chemical changes in product and in product asphaltenes. It was concluded that high hydrotreatment temperature leads to the formation of unstable products as cracking occurs. It was shown that molecular weight of asphaltenes decreases during the hydroprocessing, and the transition temperature is related to the feed. tabs., figs.

  9. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. The efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness, and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results and observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with PWRs. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of lay-up and various start-up conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on corrosion-product transport on the primary side of steam generators are also discussed. (author)

  10. W, Z and top production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00258880

    2018-01-01

    Due to its unique pseudorapidity coverage between 2 and 5 and excellent performance, the LHCb detector allows for complementary probe of electroweak and QCD processes to those at ATLAS and CMS experiments. Studies of electroweak boson and top production provide important probes of the Standard Model at LHC energies and constrain parton distribution functions. The recent results on theW, Z and top production are briefly summarized in the present proceedings.

  11. Relative Contribution of nirK- and nirS- Bacterial Denitrifiers as Well as Fungal Denitrifiers to Nitrous Oxide Production from Dairy Manure Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Philippot, Laurent; Hattori, Shohei; Nakajima, Keiichi; Ito, Yumi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-12-19

    The relative contribution of fungi, bacteria, and nirS and nirK denirifiers to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission with unknown isotopic signature from dairy manure compost was examined by selective inhibition techniques. Chloramphenicol (CHP), cycloheximide (CYH), and diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTC) were used to suppress the activity of bacteria, fungi, and nirK-possessing denitrifiers, respectively. Produced N 2 O were surveyed to isotopocule analysis, and its 15 N site preference (SP) and δ 18 O values were compared. Bacteria, fungi, nirS, and nirK gene abundances were compared by qPCR. The results showed that N 2 O production was strongly inhibited by CHP addition in surface pile samples (82.2%) as well as in nitrite-amended core samples (98.4%), while CYH addition did not inhibit the N 2 O production. N 2 O with unknown isotopic signature (SP = 15.3-16.2‰), accompanied by δ 18 O (19.0-26.8‰) values which were close to bacterial denitrification, was also suppressed by CHP and DDTC addition (95.3%) indicating that nirK denitrifiers were responsible for this N 2 O production despite being less abundant than nirS denitrifiers. Altogether, our results suggest that bacteria are important for N 2 O production with different SP values both from compost surface and pile core. However, further work is required to decipher whether N 2 O with unknown isotopic signature is mostly due to nirK denitrifiers that are taxonomically different from the SP-characterized strains and therefore have different SP values rather than also being interwoven with the contribution of the NO-detoxifying pathway and/or of co-denitrification.

  12. Transplastomic expression of bacterial L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase enhances photosynthesis and biomass production in response to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, W M; Altpeter, F

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic engineering for beta-alanine over-production in plants is expected to enhance environmental stress tolerance. The Escherichia coli L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase (AspDC) encoded by the panD gene, catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate to generate beta-alanine and carbon dioxide. The constitutive E. coli panD expression cassette was co-introduced with the constitutive, selectable aadA expression cassette into the chloroplast genome of tobacco via biolistic gene transfer and homologous recombination. Site specific integration of the E. coli panD expression cassette into the chloroplast genome and generation of homotransplastomic plants were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively, following plant regeneration and germination of seedlings on selective media. PanD expression was verified by assays based on transcript detection and in vitro enzyme activity. The AspDC activities in transplastomic plants expressing panD were drastically increased by high-temperature stress. beta-Alanine accumulated in transplastomic plants at levels four times higher than in wildtype plants. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence on plants subjected to severe heat stress at 45 degrees C under light verified that photosystem II (PSII) in transgenic plants had higher thermotolerance than in wildtype plants. The CO(2) assimilation of transplastomic plants expressing panD was more tolerant to high temperature stress than that of wildtype plants, resulting in the production of 30-40% more above ground biomass than wildtype control. The results presented indicate that chloroplast engineering of the beta-alanine pathway by over-expression of the E. coli panD enhances thermotolerance of photosynthesis and biomass production following high temperature stress.

  13. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring the value of older people's production: a diary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlen Klas-Göran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The productive capacity of retired people is usually not valued. However, some retirees produce much more than we might expect. This diary-based study identifies the activities of older people, and suggests some value mechanisms. One question raised is whether it is possible to scale up this diary study into a larger representative study. Methods Diaries kept for one week were collected among 23 older people in the north of Sweden. The texts were analysed with a grounded theory approach; an interplay between ideas and empirical data. Results Some productive activities of older people must be valued as the opportunity cost of time or according to the market value, and others must be valued with the replacement cost. In order to make the choice between these methods, it is important to consider the societal entitlement. When there is no societal entitlement, the first or second method must be used; and when it exists, the third must be used. Conclusions An explicit investigation of the content of the entitlement is needed to justify the choice of valuation method for each activity. In a questionnaire addressing older people's production, each question must be adjusted to the type of production. In order to fully understand this production, it is important to consider the degree of free choice to conduct an activity, as well as health-related quality of life.

  15. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-10-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. Efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results of observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with pressurized-water reactors. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of layup and various startup conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on CPT on the primary side of SGs are also discussed. (author)

  16. Radioactivity Measurement in the Detergent Products by Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksouri, Abir

    2009-01-01

    Our study focuses on the evaluation of the level of radioactivity in the detergents. We have determined the specific activities of gamma emitting radionuclides belonging to the natural families of uranium, thorium and potassium using gamma spectrometry. The activities of radionuclides ( 235 U, 238U , 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40K) and their descendants are below the minimum detectable activity for dishwasher products, soaps, bleaches and shampoos, whereas they are found to levels considered very low (between 0,2 and 13 Bq/kg on average) in the products washes linens. These values are always lower than those of raw materials, what is explained by the conservation of radioactive material throughout the manufacturing process. The effective dose due to external exposure estimated below the regulatory standard recommended (<1 mSv / year), allows us to show that detergent products are not contaminated by radioactivity, are healthy and do not have harmful radiological impact on the consumer.

  17. Novel dark fermentation involving bioaugmentation with constructed bacterial consortium for enhanced biohydrogen production from pretreated sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotay, Shireen Meher; Das, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India)

    2009-09-15

    The present study summarizes the observations on various nutrient and seed formulation methods using sewage sludge that have been aimed at ameliorating the biohydrogen production potential. Pretreatment methods viz., acid/base treatment, heat treatment, sterilization, freezing-thawing, microwave, ultrasonication and chemical supplementation were attempted on sludge. It was observed that pretreatment was essential not only to reduce the needless, competitive microbial load but also to improve the nutrient solublization of sludge. Heat treatment at 121 C for 20 min was found to be most effective in reducing the microbial load by 98% and hydrolyzing the organic fraction of sludge. However, this pretreatment alone was either not sufficient or inconsistent in developing a suitable microbial consortium for hydrogen production. Hydrogen yield was found to improve 1.5-4 times upon inoculation with H{sub 2}-producing microorganisms. A defined microbial consortium was developed consisting of three established bacteria viz., Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1. Following pretreatments soluble proteins and lipids (the major component of the sludge) were also found to be consumed besides carbohydrates. This laid out the concurrent proteolytic/lipolytic ability of the developed H{sub 2}-producing consortium. 1:1:1 v/v ratio of these bacteria in consortium was found to give the maximum yield of H{sub 2} from sludge, 39.15 ml H{sub 2}/g COD{sub reduced}. 15%v/v dilution and supplementation with 0.5%w/v cane molasses prior to heat treatment was found to further improve the yield to 41.23 ml H{sub 2}/g COD{sub reduced}. (author)

  18. Inactivation of bacterial pathogens in yoba mutandabota, a dairy product fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Nout, Martinus J R; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-01-18

    Mutandabota is a dairy product consumed as a major source of proteins and micronutrients in Southern Africa. In this study the microbial safety of traditional and a variant of mutandabota fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba (yoba mutandabota) was investigated by challenging the products with five important food pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus. Pasteurized full-fat cow's milk was used for producing traditional and yoba mutandabota, and was inoculated with a cocktail of strains of the pathogens at an inoculum level of 5.5 log cfu/mL. Survival of the pathogens was monitored over a potential consumption time of 24h for traditional mutandabota, and over 24h of fermentation followed by 24h of potential consumption time for yoba mutandabota. In traditional mutandabota (pH3.4 ± 0.1) no viable cells of B. cereus and C. jejuni were detected 3h after inoculation, while L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. significantly declined (Pfermentation, mainly due to organic acids produced during fermentation. Only Salmonella spp. was able to grow in yoba mutandabota during the first 9h of fermentation, but then decreased in viable plate count. None of the tested pathogens were detected (>3.5 log inactivation) after 3h into potential consumption time of yoba mutandabota. Inactivation of pathogens in mutandabota is of public health significance because food-borne pathogens endanger public health upon consumption of contaminated food, especially in Southern Africa where there are many vulnerable consumers of mutandabota such as children, elderly and immuno-compromised people with HIV/AIDS. The findings of this study demonstrate that mutandabota fermented with L. rhamnosus yoba has antimicrobial properties against the tested pathogens and it is safer compared to the traditional mutandabota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Parasitological measures to characterize different livestock production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Mejer, H.; Enemark, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    OF practices include outdoor production with