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Sample records for bacterial production measurements

  1. Dual-label radioisotope method for simultaneously measuring bacterial production and metabolism in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial production and amino acid metabolism in aquatic systems can be estimated by simultaneous incubation of water samples with both tritiated methyl-thymidine and 14C-labeled amino acids. This dual-label method not only saves time, labor, and materials, but also allows determination of these two parameters in the same microbial subcommunity. Both organic carbon incorporation and respiration can be estimated. The method is particularly suitable for large-scale field programs and has been used successfully with eutrophic estuarine samples as well as with oligotrophic oceanic water. In the mesohaline portion of Chesapeake Bay, thymidine incorporation ranged seasonally from 2 to 635 pmol liter-1 h-1 and amino acid turnover rates ranged from 0.01 to 28.4% h-1. Comparison of thymidine incorporation with amino acid turnover measurements made at a deep, midbay station in 1985 suggested a close coupling between bacterial production and amino acid metabolism during most of the year. However, production-specific amino acid turnover rates increased dramatically in deep bay waters during the spring phytoplankton bloom, indicating transient decoupling of bacterial production from metabolism. Ecological features such as this are readily detectable with the dual-label method

  2. Bacterial secondary production on vascular plant detritus: relationships to detritus composition and degradation rate.

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, M.A. (María Asunción); Hodson, R E

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial production at the expense of vascular plant detritus was measured for three emergent plant species (Juncus effusus, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia) degrading in the littoral zone of a thermally impacted lake. Bacterial secondary production, measured as tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA, ranged from 0.01 to 0.81 microgram of bacterial C mg of detritus-1 day-1. The three plant species differed with respect to the amount of bacterial productivity they supported per mil...

  3. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

    2000-05-07

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  4. Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

    2000-05-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  5. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ECONOMICAL BACTERIAL CELLULOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Houssni El-Saied; Ahmed I. El-Diwany; Altaf H. Bast; Nagwa A. Atwa; Dina E. El-Ghwas

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the economical production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter subsp. Xylinus (ATCC 10245) in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks cultivated under static conditions. The fermentation media used contained food industrial by-product liquors, such as black strap molasses solution and corn steep liquor (CSL), which represents some of the most economical carbon and nitrogen sources. However, because of the presence of undesirable components in molasses (such as colo...

  6. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ECONOMICAL BACTERIAL CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssni El-Saied

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the economical production of bacterial cellulose (BC by Gluconacetobacter subsp. Xylinus (ATCC 10245 in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks cultivated under static conditions. The fermentation media used contained food industrial by-product liquors, such as black strap molasses solution and corn steep liquor (CSL, which represents some of the most economical carbon and nitrogen sources. However, because of the presence of undesirable components in molasses (such as coloring substances, heavy metals, and other compounds that may act as inhibitors, and in order to eliminate them, crude molasses has been treated with an acid, as an attempt to increase BC productivity. The amount of BC produced using these carbon and nitrogen sources was determined and compared to that produced using previously reported fermentation media. The characterizations of the bacterial cellulose (BC pellicles obtained using either conventional or by-product media were studied by thermal and spectral techniques and compared to those of plant-derived cellulose such as cotton linter, viscose pulp, and microcrystalline cellulose.

  7. Influence of ocean CO2 sequestration on bacterial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is a major greenhouse gas. Increasing atmospheric concentrations are believed to be responsible for a gradual warming of the Earth. Strategies to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by sequestration underground or in the deep ocean are being investigated. An international collaboration to conduct a field experiment on CO2 ocean sequestration was initiated in December 1997. The primary objective of this project is to obtain data that can be applied to assess environmental impacts of direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean. The collaboration is being implemented by a research team comprising engineers and scientists from five nations: Japan, the US, Norway, Canada, and Australia. This paper focuses on studies being conducted as part of the field experiment to investigate the influence of decreased seawater pH from CO2 dissolution on bacterial production in the ocean. A preliminary analysis of the variation in bacterial production under different values of pH and temperature, conducted in July 1999, indicated that there was no measurable effect on the microbial population in the first 24 h of the experiment. However, there was a rapid decline in bacterial production with decreases in pH over a 96 h incubation period. In addition, the impact of reduced pH was more pronounced when the bacteria were grown at warmer temperatures, i.e. with a more rapid potential production rate. Subsequent laboratory experiments were conducted in June 2000 using pressure chambers to determine the effect of depressurization on bacterial production. For this effort, seawater samples were collected from a 600 m deep pipeline off the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. Water was placed in a pressure chamber and allowed to stabilize for 48 h at the ambient pressure and temperature of 600 m depth at the sampling location. After 48 h, the water was depressurized and acidified with CO2 to pH values of 6.95 and 5.6. The acidified water and an

  8. Engineering microbial hosts for production of bacterial natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzi M; Wang, Yajie; Ang, Ee Lui; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-08-27

    Covering up to end 2015Microbial fermentation provides an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis for the production of structurally complex natural products. In most cases, however, production titers are low and need to be improved for compound characterization and/or commercial production. Owing to advances in functional genomics and genetic engineering technologies, microbial hosts can be engineered to overproduce a desired natural product, greatly accelerating the traditionally time-consuming strain improvement process. This review covers recent developments and challenges in the engineering of native and heterologous microbial hosts for the production of bacterial natural products, focusing on the genetic tools and strategies for strain improvement. Special emphasis is placed on bioactive secondary metabolites from actinomycetes. The considerations for the choice of host systems will also be discussed in this review. PMID:27072804

  9. Measurement of Behavioral Evolution in Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert

    2013-03-01

    A curious aspect of bacterial behavior under stress is the induction of filamentation: the anomalous growth of certain bacteria in which cells continue to elongate but do not divide into progeny. We show that E.coli under the influence of the genotoxic antibiotic ciprofloxacin have robust filamentous growth, which provides individual bacteria a mesoscopic niche for evolution until resistant progeny can bud off and propagate. Hence, filamentation is a form of genomic amplification where even a single, isolated bacteria can have access to multiple genomes. We propose a model that predicts that the first arrival time of the normal sized progeny should follow a Gompertz distribution with the mean first arrival time proportional to the elongation rate of filament. These predictions agree with our experimental measurements. Finally, we suggest bacterial filament growth and budding has many similarities to tumor growth and metastasis and can serve as a simpler model to study those complicated processes. Sponsored by the NCI/NIH Physical Sciences Oncology Centers

  10. Solid-Phase Products of Bacterial Oxidation of Arsenical Pyrite

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Liisa; Lindström, E. Börje; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Tuovinen, Olli H.

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial leaching of an As-containing pyrite concentrate produced acidic (pH < 1) leachates. During the leaching, the bacteria solubilized both As and Fe, and these two elements were distributed in solution-phase and solid-phase products. Jarosite and scorodite were the exclusive crystalline products in precipitate samples from the bacterial leaching of the sulfide concentrate.

  11. Plant Natural Products Targeting Bacterial Virulence Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura Nunes; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Macedo, Alexandre José; Trentin, Danielle Silva

    2016-08-24

    Decreased antimicrobial efficiency has become a global public health issue. The paucity of new antibacterial drugs is evident, and the arsenal against infectious diseases needs to be improved urgently. The selection of plants as a source of prototype compounds is appropriate, since plant species naturally produce a wide range of secondary metabolites that act as a chemical line of defense against microorganisms in the environment. Although traditional approaches to combat microbial infections remain effective, targeting microbial virulence rather than survival seems to be an exciting strategy, since the modulation of virulence factors might lead to a milder evolutionary pressure for the development of resistance. Additionally, anti-infective chemotherapies may be successfully achieved by combining antivirulence and conventional antimicrobials, extending the lifespan of these drugs. This review presents an updated discussion of natural compounds isolated from plants with chemically characterized structures and activity against the major bacterial virulence factors: quorum sensing, bacterial biofilms, bacterial motility, bacterial toxins, bacterial pigments, bacterial enzymes, and bacterial surfactants. Moreover, a critical analysis of the most promising virulence factors is presented, highlighting their potential as targets to attenuate bacterial virulence. The ongoing progress in the field of antivirulence therapy may therefore help to translate this promising concept into real intervention strategies in clinical areas. PMID:27437994

  12. Electrical conductivity measurements of bacterial nanowires from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthupandy, Muthusamy; Anand, Muthusamy; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Sait Hameedha Beevi, Akbar; Jeeva Priya, Radhakrishnan

    2015-12-01

    The extracellular appendages of bacteria (flagella) that transfer electrons to electrodes are called bacterial nanowires. This study focuses on the isolation and separation of nanowires that are attached via Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial culture. The size and roughness of separated nanowires were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The obtained bacterial nanowires indicated a clear image of bacterial nanowires measuring 16 nm in diameter. The formation of bacterial nanowires was confirmed by microscopic studies (AFM and TEM) and the conductivity nature of bacterial nanowire was investigated by electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which are nondestructive voltammetry techniques, suggest that bacterial nanowires could be the source of electrons—which may be used in various applications, for example, microbial fuel cells, biosensors, organic solar cells, and bioelectronic devices. Routine analysis of electron transfer between bacterial nanowires and the electrode was performed, providing insight into the extracellular electron transfer (EET) to the electrode. CV revealed the catalytic electron transferability of bacterial nanowires and electrodes and showed excellent redox activities. CV and EIS studies showed that bacterial nanowires can charge the surface by producing and storing sufficient electrons, behave as a capacitor, and have features consistent with EET. Finally, electrochemical studies confirmed the development of bacterial nanowires with EET. This study suggests that bacterial nanowires can be used to fabricate biomolecular sensors and nanoelectronic devices.

  13. How to Measure Export via Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jessica M. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps are an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance and are required for many pathogens to cause infection. They are also being harnessed to improve microbial biotechnological processes, including biofuel production. Therefore, scientists of many specialties must be able to accurately measure efflux activity. However, myriad methodologies have been described and the most appropriate method is not always clear. Within the scientific literature, many methods are misused or data arising are misinterpreted. The methods for measuring efflux activity can be split into two groups, (i) those that directly measure efflux and (ii) those that measure the intracellular accumulation of a substrate, which is then used to infer efflux activity. Here, we review the methods for measuring efflux and explore the most recent advances in this field, including single-cell or cell-free technologies and mass spectrometry, that are being used to provide more detailed information about efflux pump activity. PMID:27381291

  14. How to Measure Export via Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jessica M A; Piddock, Laura J V

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps are an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance and are required for many pathogens to cause infection. They are also being harnessed to improve microbial biotechnological processes, including biofuel production. Therefore, scientists of many specialties must be able to accurately measure efflux activity. However, myriad methodologies have been described and the most appropriate method is not always clear. Within the scientific literature, many methods are misused or data arising are misinterpreted. The methods for measuring efflux activity can be split into two groups, (i) those that directly measure efflux and (ii) those that measure the intracellular accumulation of a substrate, which is then used to infer efflux activity. Here, we review the methods for measuring efflux and explore the most recent advances in this field, including single-cell or cell-free technologies and mass spectrometry, that are being used to provide more detailed information about efflux pump activity. PMID:27381291

  15. Primary and Bacterial Secondary Production in a Southwestern Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Hubbard, James G

    1988-01-01

    Rates of primary and bacterial secondary production in Lake Arlington, Texas, were determined. The lake is a warm (annual temperature range, 7 to 32°C), shallow, monomictic reservoir with limited macrophyte development in the littoral zone. Samples were collected from six depths within the photic zone from a site located over the deepest portion of the lake. Primary production and bacterial production were calculated from NaH14CO3 and [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation, respectively. Peak ins...

  16. Primary and Bacterial Secondary Production in a Southwestern Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Hubbard, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Rates of primary and bacterial secondary production in Lake Arlington, Texas, were determined. The lake is a warm (annual temperature range, 7 to 32°C), shallow, monomictic reservoir with limited macrophyte development in the littoral zone. Samples were collected from six depths within the photic zone from a site located over the deepest portion of the lake. Primary production and bacterial production were calculated from NaH14CO3 and [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation, respectively. Peak instantaneous production ranged between 14.8 and 220.5 μg of C liter−1 h−1. There were two distinct periods of high rates of production. From May through July, production near the metalimnion exceeded 100 μg of C liter−1 h−1. During holomixis, production throughout the water column was in excess of 100 μg of C liter−1 h−1 and above 150 μg of C liter−1 h−1 near the surface. Annual areal primary production was 588 g of C m−2. Bacterial production was markedly seasonal. Growth rates during late fall through spring were typically around 0.002 h−1, and production rates were typically 5 μg of C liter−1 h−1. Growth rates were higher during warmer parts of the year and reached 0.03 h−1 by August. The maximum instantaneous rate of bacterial production was approximately 45 μg of C liter−1 h−1. Annual areal bacterial production was 125 g of C m−2. Temporal and spatial distributions of bacterial numbers and activities coincided with temporal and spatial distributions of primary production. Areal primary and bacterial secondary production were highly correlated (r = 0.77, n = 15, P < 0.002). PMID:16347577

  17. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Basic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways.

  18. Bacterial Contamination of Fuel Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial fuel ethanol is not produced under sterile, pure-culture conditions, and consequently bacterial contamination is a recurring problem. The offending microbes are generally species of lactic acid bacteria that drain the sugar available for conversion to ethanol and scavenge essential micro...

  19. Bacterial production in subarctic peatland lakes enriched by thawing permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Bethany N.; Crevecoeur, Sophie; Matveev, Alex; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2016-08-01

    Peatlands extend over vast areas of the northern landscape. Within some of these areas, lakes and ponds are changing in size as a result of permafrost thawing and erosion, resulting in mobilization of the carbon-rich peatland soils. Our aims in the present study were to characterize the particle, carbon and nutrient regime of a set of thermokarst (thaw) lakes and their adjacent peatland permafrost soils in a rapidly degrading landscape in subarctic Québec, Canada, and by way of fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, production measurements and an in situ enrichment experiment, determine the bacterial characteristics of these waters relative to other thaw lakes and rock-basin lakes in the region. The soil active layer in a degrading palsa (peatland permafrost mound) adjacent to one of the lakes contained an elevated carbon content (51 % of dry weight), high C : N ratios (17 : 1 by mass), and large stocks of other elements including N (3 % of dry weight), Fe (0.6 %), S (0.5 %), Ca (0.5 %) and P (0.05 %). Two permafrost cores were obtained to a depth of 2.77 m in the palsa, and computerized tomography scans of the cores confirmed that they contained high concentrations (> 80 %) of ice. Upon thawing, the cores released nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (from all core depths sampled), and soluble reactive phosphorus (from bottom depths), at concentrations well above those in the adjacent lake waters. The active layer soil showed a range of particle sizes with a peak at 229 µm, and this was similar to the distribution of particles in the upper permafrost cores. The particle spectrum for the lake water overlapped with those for the soil, but extended to larger (surface water) or finer (bottom water) particles. On average, more than 50 % of the bacterial cells and bacterial production was associated with particles > 3 µm. This relatively low contribution of free-living cells (operationally defined as the lakes sampled, including other thaw lakes and shallow rock

  20. Intermittency measurement in two dimensional bacterial turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Xiang; Huang, Yongxiang; Chen, Ming; Lu, Zhiming; Liu, Yulu; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental velocity database of a bacterial collective motion , e.g., \\textit{B. subtilis}, in turbulent phase with volume filling fraction $84\\%$ provided by Professor Goldstein at the Cambridge University UK, was analyzed to emphasize the scaling behavior of this active turbulence system. This was accomplished by performing a Hilbert-based methodology analysis to retrieve the scaling property without the $\\beta-$limitation. A dual-power-law behavior separated by the viscosity scale $\\ell_{\

  1. Bacterial Cellulose Production by Acetobacter xylinum Strains from Agricultural Waste Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongruang, Sasithorn

    Bacterial cellulose is a biopolysaccharide produced from the bacteria, Acetobacter xylinum. Static batch fermentations for bacterial cellulose production were studied in coconut and pineapple juices under 30 °C in 5-1 fermenters by using three Acetobacter strains: A. xylinum TISTR 998, A. xylinum TISTR 975, and A. xylinum TISTR 893. Experiments were carried out to compare bacterial cellulose yields along with growth kinetic analysis. Results showed that A. xylinum TISTR 998 produced a bacterial cellulose yield of 553.33 g/l, while A. xylinum TISTR 893 produced 453.33 g/l and A. xylinum TISTR 975 produced 243.33 g/l. In pineapple juice, the yields for A. xylinum TISTR 893, 975, and 998 were 576.66, 546.66, and 520 g/l, respectively. The strain TISTR 998 showed the highest productivity when using coconut juice. Morphological properties of cellulose pellicles, in terms of texture and color, were also measured, and the textures were not significantly different among treatments.

  2. Bacterial oxygen production in the dark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina F.Ettwig

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and nitrous oxide (N2O are among Nature’s most powerful electron acceptors. In recent years it became clear that microorganisms can take advantage of the oxidizing power of these compounds to degrade recalcitrant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. For two unrelated bacterial species, the ‘NC10’ phylum bacterium ‘Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera’ and the γ-proteobacterial strain HdN1 it has been suggested that under anoxic conditions with nitrate and/or nitrite, monooxygenases are used for methane and hexadecane oxidation, respectively. No degradation was observed with nitrous oxide only. Similarly, “aerobic” pathways for hydrocarbon degradation are employed by (perchlorate-reducing bacteria, which are known to produce oxygen from chlorite (ClO2-. In the anaerobic methanotroph M. oxyfera, which lacks identifiable enzymes for nitrogen formation, substrate activation in the presence of nitrite was directly associated with both oxygen and nitrogen formation. These findings strongly argue for the role of NO, or an oxygen species derived from it, in the activation reaction of methane. Although oxygen generation elegantly explains the utilization of ‘aerobic’ pathways under anoxic conditions, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In this perspective we review the current knowledge about intra-aerobic pathways, their potential presence in other organisms and identify candidate enzymes related to quinol-dependent NO reductases (qNORs that might be involved in the formation of oxygen.

  3. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Erminda Tsouko; Constantina Kourmentza; Dimitrios Ladakis; Nikolaos Kopsahelis; Ioanna Mandala; Seraphim Papanikolaou; Fotis Paloukis; Vitor Alves; Apostolis Koutinas

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L)...

  4. Benthic bacterial biomass and production in the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial biomass, production, and turnover were determined for two freshwater march sites and a site in the main river channel along the tidally influenced Hudson River. The incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine into DNA was used to estimate the growth rate of surface and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial production at marsh sites was similar to, and in some cases considerably higher than, production estimates reported for other aquatic wetland and marine sediment habitats. Production averaged 1.8-2.8 mg C·m-2· hour-1 in marsh sediments. Anaerobic bacteria in marsh sediment incorporated significant amounts of [methyl-3H]thymidine into DNA. Despite differences in dominant vegatation and tidal regime, bacterial biomass was similar (1 x 103 ± 0.08 mg C·m-2) in Trapa, Typha, and Nuphar aquatic macrophyte communities. Bacterial abundance and productivity were lower in sandy sediments associated with Scirpus communities along the Hudson River (0.2 x 103 ± 0.05 mg C·m-2 and 0.3 ± 0.23 mg C · m-2· hour-1, respectively)

  5. Exploiting the commons: cyclic diguanylate regulation of bacterial exopolysaccharide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Sanjuán, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, there is increasing interest for bacterial polysaccharides in a wide variety of industrial sectors. This is due to their chemical and reological properties, and also the possibility to be obtained by fermentation processes. Biosynthesis of a growing number of exopolysaccharides (EPS) has been reported to be regulated by the ubiquitous second messenger c-di-GMP in a limited number of bacterial species. Since most bacteria are yet unexplored, it is likely that an unsuspected number and variety of EPS structures activated by c-di-GMP await to be uncovered. In the search of new EPS, manipulation of bacterial c-di-GMP metabolism can be combined with high throughput approaches for screening of large collections of bacteria. In addition, c-di-GMP activation of EPS production and promotion of cell aggregation may have direct applications in environmental industries related with biofuel production or wastewater treatments. PMID:26773798

  6. Space-based bacterial production of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, C. L.; Bhardwaj, R. C.; Bockris, J. O.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical production of hydrogen by depolarizing the oxygen evolution reaction using human feces and urine, which contains 30-40% bacteria and yeast. The electroactivity of graphite, tungsten carbide, perovskite and RuO2-coated Ebonex (Ti4O7) as anode materials are compared. The scale-up of the process in a laboratory-scale three-dimensional packed bed cell is discussed.

  7. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  8. Bacterial chromate reduction and product characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus subtilis reduced hexavalent chromate to trivalent chromium under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Reduction of CR(VI) and appearance of extracellular Cr(III) were demonstrated by electron spin resonance and spectrophotometry. Chromate reduction was stimulated more than five-fold by freeze-thawing, indicating that intracellular reductases or chemical reductants reduce chromate more rapidly than do intact cells. Moderately concentrated cells (10% pellet volume after centrifugation) reduced approximately 40 μM chromate/min (2 mg Cr/1-min) when exposed to 100 μM chromate (5 mg Cr/1). Highly concentrated cells (70% pellet volume) reduced more than 99.8% of 2 mM chromate (100 mg Cr/1) within 15 min. This rate of chromate reduction was of the same order of magnitude as the rate of respiration in aerobic cells. A substantial fraction of the reduction product (ca. 75%) was extracellular Cr(M), which could readily be separated from the cells by centrifugation. At high chromate concentrations, some fraction of reduced CR(VI) appeared to be taken up by cells, consistent with a detection of intracellular paramagnetic products. At low chromate concentrations, undefined growth medium alone reduced Cr(VI), but at a slow rate, relative to cells. Under appropriate conditions, B. subtilis appears to be an organism of choice for detoxifying chromate-contaminated soil and water

  9. Bacterial nanocellulose production and application: a 10-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Lencastre-Novaes, Leticia Celia; Lopes, André Moreni; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Grotto, Denise; Gerenutti, Marli; Chaud, Marco Vinicius

    2016-03-01

    Production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is becoming increasingly popular owing to its environmentally friendly properties. Based on this benefit of BNC production, researchers have also begun to examine the capacity for cellulose production through microbial hosts. Indeed, several research groups have developed processes for BNC production, and many studies have been published to date, with the goal of developing methods for large-scale production. During BNC bioproduction, the culture medium represents approximately 30 % of the total cost. Therefore, one important and challenging aspect of the fermentation process is identification of a new cost-effective culture medium that can facilitate the production of high yields within short periods of time, thereby improving BNC production and permitting application of BNC in the biotechnological, medical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this review, we addressed different aspects of BNC production, including types of fermentation processes and culture media, with the aim of demonstrating the importance of these parameters. PMID:26743657

  10. Cell wall mechanical properties as measured with bacterial thread made from Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendelson, N H; Thwaites, J J

    1989-01-01

    Engineering approaches used in the study of textile fibers have been applied to the measurement of mechanical properties of bacterial cell walls by using the Bacillus subtilis bacterial thread system. Improved methods have been developed for the production of thread and for measuring its mechanical properties. The best specimens of thread produced from cultures of strain FJ7 grown in TB medium at 20 degrees C varied in diameter by a factor of 1.09 over a 30-mm thread length. The stress-strain...

  11. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  12. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  13. Thiosulfate as a metabolic product: the bacterial fermentation of taurine

    OpenAIRE

    Denger, Karin; Laue, Heike; Cook, Alasdair M.

    1997-01-01

    Thiosulfate (S2O3²-) is a natural product that is widely utilized in natural ecosystems as an electron sink or as an electron donor. However, the major biological source(s) of this thiosulfate is unknown. We present the first report that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate), the major mammalian solute, is subject to fermentation. This bacterial fermentation was found to be catalyzed by a new isolate, strain GKNTAU, a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, motile rod that formed subterminal spores. Th...

  14. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    OpenAIRE

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis ...

  15. Radioactivity measurements for determining bacterial increase and sensibility to antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors elaborated a sensitive and objective measuring method for determining the bacteria increase in biological material and the sensibility to antibiotics. When 14C glucose is added to the medium as the single source of sugar, the respiratory carbon dioxide formed by the bacteria reflects the rate of increase. The released 14C dioxide can be measured continuously without loss to the environment and the degree of bacterial infection and the antibiotic activity, respectively, can be determined. (author)

  16. Microelectrode measurements of the activity distribution in nitrifying bacterial aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, de, VHJ Vincent; Heuvel, van den, J.; Ottengraf, SPP Simon

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be determined from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the stoichiometry of bacterial nitrification. Both ammonium consumption and nitrate production were localized in the outer shells, with a thickness of approximately 100 to 120 μm, of the aggregates. Under ...

  17. Bacterial activity and bacterioplankton diversity in the eutrophic River Warnow--direct measurement of bacterial growth efficiency and its effect on carbon utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Mareike; Freese, Heike M; Schumann, Rhena

    2011-01-01

    The influence of bacterial activity and diversity on bacterial growth efficiency was investigated in a flatland river. Eutrophic River Warnow drains predominantly agricultural land and is heavily loaded with nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM), especially humic substances. Although the water column bacterial community consists of many inactive or damaged cells, bacterioplankton sustained a high bacterial secondary production of 0.2-14.5 μg C L(-1) h(-1) and a high DNA synthesis (thymidine uptake) of 6.1-15.5 μg C L(-1) h(-1). The direct and short-term measurement of bacterial respiration (by optodes) revealed high respiration rates especially in summer leading to directly estimated bacterial growth efficiencies (BGE) of 2-28%. These values are compared to calculations based only on bacterial production, which considerably overestimated BGEs. From all these data, River Warnow can be characterized as a strongly remineralizing system. River Warnow was dominated among others by Cytophaga/Flavobacteria and Actinobacteria which are typical for organic rich waters because of their ability to degrade high molecular weight compounds. However, community composition did not significantly affect BGE. PMID:20676625

  18. Bacterial antisense RNAs are mainly the product of transcriptional noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloréns-Rico, Verónica; Cano, Jaime; Kamminga, Tjerko; Gil, Rosario; Latorre, Amparo; Chen, Wei-Hua; Bork, Peer; Glass, John I.; Serrano, Luis; Lluch-Senar, Maria

    2016-01-01

    cis-Encoded antisense RNAs (asRNAs) are widespread along bacterial transcriptomes. However, the role of most of these RNAs remains unknown, and there is an ongoing discussion as to what extent these transcripts are the result of transcriptional noise. We show, by comparative transcriptomics of 20 bacterial species and one chloroplast, that the number of asRNAs is exponentially dependent on the genomic AT content and that expression of asRNA at low levels exerts little impact in terms of energy consumption. A transcription model simulating mRNA and asRNA production indicates that the asRNA regulatory effect is only observed above certain expression thresholds, substantially higher than physiological transcript levels. These predictions were verified experimentally by overexpressing nine different asRNAs in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Our results suggest that most of the antisense transcripts found in bacteria are the consequence of transcriptional noise, arising at spurious promoters throughout the genome. PMID:26973873

  19. Bacterial Biosensors for Measuring Availability of Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Roelof van der Meer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, pollution risk assessment is based on the measurement of a pollutant’s total concentration in a sample. The toxicity of a given pollutant in the environment, however, is tightly linked to its bioavailability, which may differ significantly from the total amount. Physico-chemical and biological parameters strongly influence pollutant fate in terms of leaching, sequestration and biodegradation. Bacterial sensorreporters, which consist of living micro-organisms genetically engineered to produce specific output in response to target chemicals, offer an interesting alternative to monitoring approaches. Bacterial sensor-reporters detect bioavailable and/or bioaccessible compound fractions in samples. Currently, a variety of environmental pollutants can be targeted by specific biosensor-reporters. Although most of such strains are still confined to the lab, several recent reports have demonstrated utility of bacterial sensing-reporting in the field, with method detection limits in the nanomolar range. This review illustrates the general design principles for bacterial sensor-reporters, presents an overview of the existing biosensor-reporter strains with emphasis on organic compound detection. A specific focus throughout is on the concepts of bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and how bacteria-based sensing-reporting systems can help to improve our basic understanding of the different processes at work.

  20. Spallation neutron production measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of neutron production by the proton bombardment of range-thick targets of lead (Pb) and of tungsten (W) at energies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 GeV were made for comparison with calculations based on the computer codes LAHET for neutrons with Eη > 20 MeV and MCNP for Eη ≤ 20 MeV and also to compare with each of two prior experiments dating from about 1965. 2 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Simultaneous radioassays of bacterial production and mercury methylation in the periphyton of a tropical and a temperate wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, J R D; Mauro, J B N; Meili, M; Sundbom, M; Haglund, A L; Coelho-Souza, S A; Hylander, L D

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory radioassays were made to study mercury (Hg) methylation together with bacterial production in the periphyton of two aquatic macrophytes, the submerged Myriophyllum spicatum, from a constructed wetland in Sweden and the floating Eichhornia crassipes, from a eutrophied tropical lake in Brazil. Time course incubations were made by addition of (203)HgCl(2) and the methylmercury formed was extracted at pre-defined time intervals. Bacterial production ((14)C-leucine incorporation) was measured at the same time intervals, with plants removed from parallel incubations made with and without addition of cold HgCl(2). For E. crassipes, higher methylmercury production was observed at elevated bacterial production, whereas for M. spicatum, the bacterial production was significantly lower, and Hg methylation was below the detection limit. The combined results confirm the importance of microbial processes for Hg methylation, although other factors are known to influence this process in complex ways. The addition of Hg did not significantly influence bacterial production, while the incubation temperatures used (25 and 35 degrees C) resulted in different methylation rates. Radiotracer techniques for measurements of bacterial production such as (14)C-leucine uptake can provide useful insights into the Hg cycle in aquatic environments, and our data suggest that they may be used as a proxy of mercury methylation potentials. PMID:16956711

  2. The Bacterial Ghost platform system: production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemann, Timo; Koller, Verena Juliana; Muhammad, Abbas; Kudela, Pavol; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Lubitz, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The Bacterial Ghost (BG) platform technology is an innovative system for vaccine, drug or active substance delivery and for technical applications in white biotechnology. BGs are cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. BGs are devoid of all cytoplasmic content but have a preserved cellular morphology including all cell surface structures. Using BGs as delivery vehicles for subunit or DNA-vaccines the particle structure and surface properties of BGs are targeting the carrier itself to primary antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, BGs exhibit intrinsic adjuvant properties and trigger an enhanced humoral and cellular immune response to the target antigen. Multiple antigens of the native BG envelope and recombinant protein or DNA antigens can be combined in a single type of BG. Antigens can be presented on the inner or outer membrane of the BG as well as in the periplasm that is sealed during BG formation. Drugs or supplements can also be loaded to the internal lumen or periplasmic space of the carrier. BGs are produced by batch fermentation with subsequent product recovery and purification via tangential flow filtration. For safety reasons all residual bacterial DNA is inactivated during the BG production process by the use of staphylococcal nuclease A and/or the treatment with β-propiolactone. After purification BGs can be stored long-term at ambient room temperature as lyophilized product. The production cycle from the inoculation of the pre-culture to the purified BG concentrate ready for lyophilization does not take longer than a day and thus meets modern criteria of rapid vaccine production rather than keeping large stocks of vaccines. The broad spectrum of possible applications in combination with the comparably low production costs make the BG platform technology a safe and sophisticated product for the targeted delivery of vaccines and active agents as well as carrier of immobilized enzymes for applications in white biotechnology. PMID:21326832

  3. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  4. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  5. X-rays control bacterial contamination in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to control the lack of bacterial contamination of liquid food products, 'Nestle clinical nutrition' firm uses a new system based on the X-ray image of the content of sealed tins when these tins undergo a quick move on the conveyor belt. This moves induces a wave of product inside the tin and the amplitude of that wave is directly linked to the viscosity of the product which is linked to the presence or not of bacteria. The X-ray image is processed and the wave is characterized by 5 parameters. Any tin for which one at least of the 5 parameters does not match the calibration values is discarded. This system can process 10 tins per second. (A.C.)

  6. Bacterial abundance and production in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Raghukumar, S.; Gauns, M.

    Seasonal and spatial variations in bacterial and picoplankton abundances and bacterial production (thymidine incorporation rates) were determined in the water column up to 150 m in several stations in the central and eastern Arabian Sea. Higher...

  7. Bacterial bioaugmentation for improving methane and hydrogen production from microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The recalcitrant cell walls of microalgae may limit their digestibility for bioenergy production. Considering that cellulose contributes to the cell wall recalcitrance of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, this study investigated bioaugmentation with a cellulolytic and hydrogenogenic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, at different inoculum ratios as a possible method to improve CH4 and H2 production of microalgae. Results Methane production was found to increase by 17?~?24% with the addition of C. thermocellum, as a result of enhanced cell disruption and excess hydrogen production. Furthermore, addition of C. thermocellum enhanced the bacterial diversity and quantities, leading to higher fermentation efficiency. A two-step process of addition of C. thermocellum first and methanogenic sludge subsequently could recover both hydrogen and methane, with a 9.4% increase in bioenergy yield, when compared with the one-step process of simultaneous addition of C. thermocellum and methanogenic sludge. The fluorescence peaks of excitation-emission matrix spectra associated with chlorophyll can serve as biomarkers for algal cell degradation. Conclusions Bioaugmentation with C. thermocellum improved the degradation of C. vulgaris biomass, producing higher levels of methane and hydrogen. The two-step process, with methanogenic inoculum added after the hydrogen production reached saturation, was found to be an energy-efficiency method for hydrogen and methane production. PMID:23815806

  8. Use of metabolic inhibitors to estimate protozooplankton grazing and bacterial production in a monomictic eutrophic lake with an anaerobic hypolimnion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibitors of eucaryotes (cycloheximide and amphotericin B) and procaryotes (penicillin and chloramphenical) were used to estimate bacterivory and bacterial production in a eutrophic lake. Bacterial production appeared to be slightly greater than protozoan grazing in the aerobic waters of Lake Oglethorpe. Use of penicillin and cycloheximide yielded inconsistent results in anaerobic water and in aerobic water when bacterial production was low. Production measured by inhibiting eucaryotes with cycloheximide did not always agree with [3H]thymidine estimates or differential filtration methods. Laboratory experiments showed that several common freshwater protozoans continued to swim and ingest bacterium-size latex beads in the presence of the eucaryote inhibitor. Penicillin also affected grazing rates of some ciliates. The authors recommended that caution and a corroborating method be used when estimating ecologically important parameters with specific inhibitors

  9. Bacterial cellulose production from the litchi extract by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xue-Fang; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-01-01

    Although litchi has both nutrient and edible value, the extremely short preservation time limited its further market promotion. To explore processed litchi products with longer preservation time, litchi extract was selected as an alternative feedstock for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). After 2 weeks of static fermentation, 2.53 g/L of the BC membrane was obtained. The trace elements including magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) in the litchi extract were partly absorbed in the BC membrane, but no potassium (K) element was detected in it, curiously. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs exhibited an ultrafine network nanostructure for the BC produced in the litchi extract. Analysis of the fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the pellicles to be a cellulosic material. Interestingly, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the BC membrane obtained from litchi extract had higher crystallinity of 94.0% than that from HS medium. Overall, the work showed the potential of producing high value-added polymer from litchi resources. PMID:25181328

  10. Heterotrophic bacterial production in the South East Pacific: longitudinal trends and coupling with primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variations of heterotrophic bacterial production and phytoplankton primary production were investigated across South East Pacific Ocean (–141° W, –8° S to –72° W, –35° S in November–December 2004. Bacterial production (³H leucine incorporation integrated over the euphotic zone encompassed a wide range of values, from 43 mg C m−2 d−1 in the hyper-oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre to 392 mg C m−2 d−1 in the upwelling off Chile. Within the gyre (120° W, 22° S records of low phytoplankton biomass (7 mg TChla m−2 were obtained and in situ 14C based particulate primary production rates were as low as 153 mg C m−2 d−1, thus equal to the value considered as a limit for primary production under strong oligotrophic conditions. In the South Pacific gyre average rates of ³H leucine incorporation rates, and leucine incorporation rates per cell (5–21 pmol L−1 h−1 and 15–56×10−21 mol cell−1 h−1, respectively, were in the same range as those reported for other oligotrophic sub tropical and temperate waters. Rates of dark community respiration, determined at selected stations across the transect varied in a narrow range (42–97 mmol O2 m−2 d−1, except for one station in the upwelling off Chile (245 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. Bacterial growth efficiencies varied between 5 and 38% and bacterial carbon demand largely exceeded 14C particulate primary production across the South Pacific Ocean. Net community production also revealed negative values in the South Pacific Gyre (–13±20 to –37±40 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. Such imbalances being impossible in this area far from any external input, we discuss the techniques involved for determining the coupling between

  11. Large Scale Production of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Bacterial Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Ji Won [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Roh, Yul [Chonnam National University, Gwangju; Lauf, Robert J [ORNL; Everett, Susan M [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Microbial production of nano-sized particles has a demonstrated capacity to make highly crystalline pure phase magnetite or with some substitution of Fe by Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn or the rare earths. Microbial production of magnetic nanoparticles can be achieved in large quantities and at low cost. Over 1 kg (wet weight) of Zn-substituted magnetite (nominal composition of Zn0.6Fe2.4O4) has been recovered from 30 L fermentations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to confirm that this mass produced extracellular magnetites exhibited good mono-dispersity. TEM results also showed a highly reproducible particle size and corroborated average crystallite size (ACS) of 13.1 0.8 nm determined through X-ray diffraction (N=7) at a 99 % confidence level. Based on scale-up experiments performed using a 35 L reactor, the increase in ACS reproducibility may be attributed to an increase of electron donor input, availability of divalent substitution metal ions and less ferrous ions in the case of substituted magnetite, increased reactor volume overcoming differences in each batch, or a combination of the above. While costs of commercial nanometer sized magnetite (25-50 nm) may cost $500/kg, microbial production is likely capable of producing 5-90 nm pure or substituted magnetites at a fraction of the cost of traditional chemical synthesis. While there are numerous approaches for the synthesis of nanoparticles, bacterial fermentation of magnetite or metal-substituted magnetite may represent an advantageous manufacturing technology with respect to yield, reproducibility and scalable synthesis with low costs at low energy input.

  12. In vitro effects of anthocyanidins on sinonasal epithelial nitric oxide production and bacterial physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Benjamin M.; Payne, Sakeena J.; Chen, Bei; Mansfield, Corrine; Doghramji, Laurel J.; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Niv, Masha Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: T2R bitter taste receptors play a crucial role in sinonasal innate immunity by upregulating mucociliary clearance and nitric oxide (NO) production in response to bitter gram-negative quorum-sensing molecules in the airway surface liquid. Previous studies showed that phytochemical flavonoid metabolites, known as anthocyanidins, taste bitter and have antibacterial effects. Our objectives were to examine the effects of anthocyanidins on NO production by human sinonasal epithelial cells and ciliary beat frequency, and their impact on common sinonasal pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Ciliary beat frequency and NO production were measured by using digital imaging of differentiated air-liquid interface cultures prepared from primary human cells isolated from residual surgical material. Plate-based assays were used to determine the effects of anthocyanidins on bacterial swimming and swarming motility. Biofilm formation and planktonic growth were also assessed. Results: Anthocyanidin compounds triggered epithelial cells to produce NO but not through T2R receptors. However, anthocyanidins did not impact ciliary beat frequency. Furthermore, they did not reduce biofilm formation or planktonic growth of P. aeruginosa. In S. aureus, they did not reduce planktonic growth, and only one compound had minimal antibiofilm effects. The anthocyanidin delphinidin and anthocyanin keracyanin were found to promote bacterial swimming, whereas anthocyanidin cyanidin and flavonoid myricetin did not. No compounds that were tested inhibited bacterial swarming. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that, although anthocyanidins may elicited an innate immune NO response from human cells, they do not cause an increase in ciliary beating and they may also cause a pathogenicity-enhancing effect in P. aeruginosa. Additional studies are necessary to understand how this would affect the use of anthocyanidins as therapeutics. This study emphasized the

  13. Biogenic nanoparticles: production, characterization, and application of bacterial magnetosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) to navigate along magnetic field lines is based on unique nanosized organelles (magnetosomes), which are membrane-enclosed intracellular crystals of a magnetic iron mineral that assemble into highly ordered chain-like structures. The biomineralization of magnetosomes is a process with genetic control over the accumulation of iron, the deposition of the magnetic crystal within a specific compartment, as well as the assembly, alignment and intracellular organization of particle chains. Magnetite crystals produced by MTB have uniform species-specific morphologies and sizes, which are mostly unknown from inorganic systems. The unusual characteristics of magnetosome particles have attracted a great interdisciplinary interest and inspired numerous ideas for their biotechnological application. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of magnetosome biomineralization in bacteria. In addition, we will present results on the mass production, as well as the biochemical and physico-chemical analysis and functionalization of bacterial magnetosomes, with emphasis on their characterization as a novel class of magnetic nanoparticles. Finally, we describe the potential of magnetosomes in various biomedical and technological applications

  14. Neurotoxicity of glia activated by gram-positive bacterial products depends on nitric oxide production.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. S.; Täuber, M G

    1996-01-01

    The present study examined the mechanism by which bacterial cell walls from two gram-positive meningeal pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and the group B streptococcus, induced neuronal injury in primary cultures of rat brain cells. Cell walls from both organisms produced cellular injury to similar degrees in pure astrocyte cultures but not in pure neuronal cultures. Cell walls also induced nitric oxide production in cultures of astrocytes or microglia. When neurons were cultured together w...

  15. Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter sp. RKY5 in a Rotary Biofilm Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Jun; Kim, Jin-Nam; Wee, Young-Jung; Park, Don-Hee; Ryu, Hwa-Won

    A rotary biofilm contactor (RBC) inoculated with Gluconacetobacter sp. RKY5 was used as a bioreactor for improved bacterial cellulose production. The optimal number of disk for bacterial cellulose production was found to be eight, at which bacterial cellulose and cell concentrations were 5.52 and 4.98 g/L. When the aeration rate was maintained at 1.25 vvm, bacterial cellulose and cell concentrations were maximized (5.67 and 5.25 g/L, respectively). The optimal rotation speed of impeller in RBC was 15 rpm. When the culture pH in RBC was not controlled during fermentation, the maximal amount of bacterial cellulose (5.53 g/L) and cells (4.91 g/L) was obtained. Under the optimized culture conditions, bacterial cellulose and cell concentrations in RBC reached to 6.17 and 5.58 g/L, respectively.

  16. Bacterial production and their role in the removal of dissolved organic matter from tributaries of drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamjunke, Norbert; Oosterwoud, Marieke R; Herzsprung, Peter; Tittel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in freshwaters are an increasing problem in drinking water reservoirs. In this study we investigated bacterial DOM degradation rates in the tributaries of the reservoirs and tested the hypotheses that (1) DOM degradation is high enough to decrease DOM loads to reservoirs considerably, (2) DOM degradation is affected by stream hydrology, and (3) phosphorus addition may stimulate bacterial DOM degradation. Bacterial biomass production, which was used as a measure of DOM degradation, was highest in summer, and was usually lower at upstream than at downstream sites. An important proportion of bacterial production was realized in epilithic biofilms. Production of planktonic and biofilm bacteria was related to water temperature. Planktonic production weakly correlated to DOM quality and to total phosphorus concentration. Addition of soluble reactive phosphorus did not stimulate bacterial DOM degradation. Overall, DOM was considerably degraded in summer at low discharge levels, whereas degradation was negligible during flood events (when DOM load in reservoirs was high). The ratio of DOM degradation to total DOM release was negatively related to discharge. On annual average, only 0.6-12% of total DOM released by the catchments was degraded within the tributaries. PMID:26799807

  17. The Niches of Bacterial Populations in Productive Waters : Examples from Coastal Waters and Four Eutrophic Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Eiler, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Recent research in microbial ecology has focused on how aquatic bacterial communities are assembled. Only a few of these studies follow a “Gleasonian” approach where the roles of single bacterial populations are in focus. In this thesis, novel molecular tools were used to describe the distribution and evolutionary relationships of microbes in productive aquatic environments. Many new phylogenetic groups of bacteria were identified, likely representing bacterial populations restricted to produ...

  18. Bacterial adenosine triphosphate as a measure of urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    Procedure detects and counts bacteria present in urine samples. Method also determines bacterial levels in other aqueous body fluids including lymph fluid, plasma, blood, spinal fluid, saliva and mucous.

  19. Heterotrophic bacterial production: Relationships to biological and abiological factors in estuarine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecotoxicological effects of creosote contamination on benthic bacterial communities in the Elizabeth River, Virginia were investigated using both structural an functional microbial parameters. Results indicated that cell specific and total heterotrophic bacterial production parameters were depressed in a dose-dependent manner with increasing sediment PAH concentrations. Toxicity effects upon production were modified by temporal trends associated with temperature as well as spatial sediment characteristics. Of the parameters employed, the tritiated thymidine production assay was found to be the most sensitive for detection of ecotoxicological effects. Bacterial abundance and production were examined during a destratification event in the lower James River, Virginia. Bacterial abundance, although significantly different between stations, did not change over the study. Bacterial production (3H-Tdr incorporation) in surface waters was significantly less during the mixed period 187 μg C·1-1· d-1 compared to the most stratified state (324μg C·1-1· d-1). Correlations between bacteria and chlorophyll were diminished during the mixed period. Total and flagellate specific grazing rates upon bacteria were reduced during the onset of destratification. Relationships between bacterial and nutrient parameters also indicated a strong influence of destratification. These results indicate that destratification changes trophic interactions within the microbial loop, which are not necessarily reflected in temporal patterns of bacterial abundance. Bacterioplankton production, and ammonium assimilation and remineralization were examined between April and August 1988 in the lower York River, Va

  20. Why measure radon decay products?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined development in spectrometry, instrumentation and ventilation modelling with its dependence on short- and long-term weather fluctuations renders possible a new, economical metrology for radon decay products. Short-term measurements can, with few restrictions, be converted to annual exposures of an accuracy superior to that from conventional medium-term Rn gas measurements. (orig.)

  1. A portable biosensor system for bacterial concentration measurements in cow's raw milk

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi, Marco; Lanzoni, Massimo; Pompei, Anna; Lazzarini, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Diego; Ricco, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial detection is of primary importance in many fields, such as food and environmental monitoring. Measurements of bacterial concentration are traditionally carried out by means of the Standard Plate Count technique, a reliable method for microbial screening that, however, features long response time and is carried out by qualified personnel in microbiology laboratories. The impedance technique for bacterial concentration detection represents a method very competitive with Standard Plate...

  2. Chasing the Treasures of the Sea – Bacterial Marine Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Gulder, Tobias A.M.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial marine natural products are an important source of novel lead structures for drug discovery. The cytotoxic properties of many of these secondary metabolites are of particular interest for the development of new anti-cancer agents. Tremendous advances in marine molecular biology, genome sequencing, and bioinformatics have paved the way to fully exploit the biomedical potential of marine bacterial products. In addition, unique biosynthetic enzymes discovered from bacteria from the sea...

  3. Interferon production by Shigella flexneri-infected fibroblasts depends upon intracellular bacterial metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, C. B.; Niesel, D W; Holmgren, J.; Jonson, G; Klimpel, G R

    1990-01-01

    The role of bacterial invasion and subsequent intracellular metabolism or replication, or both, in the induction of interferon (IFN) production in primary cultures of murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) was examined. IFN production appeared to be dependent upon bacterial invasion. MEFs that were challenged with Shigella flexneri cultured at 30 degrees C to inhibit the temperature-dependent virulence gene expression that is essential for invasion failed to produce IFN. Furthermore, inhibition of ...

  4. Bacterial translocation and immunohistochemical measurement of gut immune function

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, N.; Robertson, J; Morgan, D; Gregg, K; Mitchell, C.; MacFie, J

    2001-01-01

    Aims—The local immune response in the small bowel mucosa might play a role in bacterial translocation (BT). The aim of this study was to quantify immune cells and secretory antibodies in the small bowel mucosa, and relate this to BT as assessed by culture of a mesenteric lymph node.

  5. Production of bacterial cellulose and enzyme from waste fiber sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Cavka, Adnan; Guo, Xiang; Tang, Shui-Jia; Winestrand, Sandra; Jönsson, Leif J.; Hong, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly crystalline and mechanically stable nanopolymer, which has excellent potential as a material in many novel applications, especially if it can be produced in large amounts from an inexpensive feedstock. Waste fiber sludge, a residue with little or no value, originates from pulp mills and lignocellulosic biorefineries. A high cellulose and low lignin content contributes to making the fiber sludge suitable for bioconversion, even without a thermoc...

  6. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  7. Chemoautotrophic Bacterial Production in the Redoxycline of an Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, J.; Kong, W.; Priscu, J. C.; Morgan-Kiss, R.

    2010-12-01

    Chemolithoautotrophic organisms obtain energy for growth from inorganic substrates and use simple inorganic carbon molecules to construct biomass. As such, chemosynthetic processes are tightly linked to biogeochemical cycles. In polar regions, winter darkness shuts down photosynthetic inputs and the contribution of chemosynthesis to total ecosystem energetics and carbon fixation may be significant. Few reports exist on chemosynthesis in polar environments and the rates of these processes remain largely unexplored. Here we present data on chemoautotrophic activity in the redoxycline (~15m depth) of the permanently ice-covered Lake Bonney in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica (MCM). Rates of radio-labeled bicarbonate incorporation were measured under light and dark conditions using whole community and bacterial sized-fraction (< 3 μm) samples. Rates of uptake in the bacterial sized-fraction (0.18 μg C L-1 d-1) were comparable to that of heterotrophic bacterial activity (0.16 μg C L-1 d-1) as measured by radio-labeled thymidine incorporation. Molecular analyses of the (cbbM) Rubisco gene, a key enzyme in the Calvin cycle, revealed relatives to the Thiobacillus genera confirming the genomic potential for in situ bacterial carbon fixation. Further, quantification of cbbM gene copy number by real time PCR from samples collected throughout the trophogenic zones of the west and east lobes of Lake Bonney confirmed that chemotrophic bacteria harboring form II RubisCO are restricted to depths at or below the redoxycline of the west lobe. These data provide insight into the structure-function relationship between the microbial consortia and carbon budget and imply that chemoautotrophic production in the MCM may provide a significant source of previously un-quantified fixed carbon to the lake system. Studies on other icy systems, including dark, isolated subglacial environments report evidence for chemolithoautotrophy suggesting that chemoautotrophic production can sustain

  8. Proteomics as a Quality Control Tool of Pharmaceutical Probiotic Bacterial Lysate Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Klein

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria have a wide range of applications in veterinary and human therapeutics. Inactivated probiotics are complex samples and quality control (QC should measure as many molecular features as possible. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE/MS has been used as a multidimensional and high throughput method for the identification and validation of biomarkers of disease in complex biological samples such as biofluids. In this study we evaluate the suitability of CE/MS to measure the consistency of different lots of the probiotic formulation Pro-Symbioflor which is a bacterial lysate of heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Over 5000 peptides were detected by CE/MS in 5 different lots of the bacterial lysate and in a sample of culture medium. 71 to 75% of the total peptide content was identical in all lots. This percentage increased to 87-89% when allowing the absence of a peptide in one of the 5 samples. These results, based on over 2000 peptides, suggest high similarity of the 5 different lots. Sequence analysis identified peptides of both E. coli and E. faecalis and peptides originating from the culture medium, thus confirming the presence of the strains in the formulation. Ontology analysis suggested that the majority of the peptides identified for E. coli originated from the cell membrane or the fimbrium, while peptides identified for E. faecalis were enriched for peptides originating from the cytoplasm. The bacterial lysate peptides as a whole are recognised as highly conserved molecular patterns by the innate immune system as microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP. Sequence analysis also identified the presence of soybean, yeast and casein protein fragments that are part of the formulation of the culture medium. In conclusion CE/MS seems an appropriate QC tool to analyze complex biological products such as inactivated probiotic formulations and allows determining the similarity between

  9. Proteomics as a Quality Control Tool of Pharmaceutical Probiotic Bacterial Lysate Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Günter; Schanstra, Joost P; Hoffmann, Janosch; Mischak, Harald; Siwy, Justyna; Zimmermann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have a wide range of applications in veterinary and human therapeutics. Inactivated probiotics are complex samples and quality control (QC) should measure as many molecular features as possible. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE/MS) has been used as a multidimensional and high throughput method for the identification and validation of biomarkers of disease in complex biological samples such as biofluids. In this study we evaluate the suitability of CE/MS to measure the consistency of different lots of the probiotic formulation Pro-Symbioflor which is a bacterial lysate of heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Over 5000 peptides were detected by CE/MS in 5 different lots of the bacterial lysate and in a sample of culture medium. 71 to 75% of the total peptide content was identical in all lots. This percentage increased to 87-89% when allowing the absence of a peptide in one of the 5 samples. These results, based on over 2000 peptides, suggest high similarity of the 5 different lots. Sequence analysis identified peptides of both E. coli and E. faecalis and peptides originating from the culture medium, thus confirming the presence of the strains in the formulation. Ontology analysis suggested that the majority of the peptides identified for E. coli originated from the cell membrane or the fimbrium, while peptides identified for E. faecalis were enriched for peptides originating from the cytoplasm. The bacterial lysate peptides as a whole are recognised as highly conserved molecular patterns by the innate immune system as microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP). Sequence analysis also identified the presence of soybean, yeast and casein protein fragments that are part of the formulation of the culture medium. In conclusion CE/MS seems an appropriate QC tool to analyze complex biological products such as inactivated probiotic formulations and allows determining the similarity between lots. PMID

  10. Jet production measurements at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguly, Sanmay

    2013-01-01

    Jet production cross-section measurements are presented. The measurements are done with the data from Large Hadron Collider (LHC) proton-proton collisions, collected with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. The inclusive jet production measurements are carried out with data collected $\\rm \\sqrt{s} ~= ~7 ~TeV$ and $\\rm 8~TeV$ with total integrated luminosity ($\\mathcal{L}_{int}$) $\\rm 5.0~ fb^{-1}$ and $\\rm 10.71~ fb^{-1}$ respectively. The dijet production measurements are carried out with the $\\rm \\sqrt{s}~ =~ 7 ~TeV$ dataset. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-$k_T$ clustering algorithm with size parameter $R=0.7$. The measured cross sections are corrected for detector effects and compared to perturbative QCD predictions at NLO, corrected for NP factors, using various sets of PDF. The inclusive jet cross-section ratio of the jets reconstructed with the anti-$k_T$ (AK) algorithm and two radius parameter $\\rm R~=~0.5$ and $\\rm R~=~0.7$ are also presented. The data used is $\\rm \\sqrt{s}~ =~ 7 ~TeV$ CMS...

  11. Bacterial Foodborne Disease: Medical Costs and Productivity Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Jean C. Buzby; Roberts, Tanya; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; MacDonald, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Microbial pathogens in food cause an estimated 6.5-33 million cases of human illness and up to 9,000 deaths in the United States each year. Over 40 different foodborne microbial pathogens, including fungi, viruses, parasites, and bacteria, are believed to cause human illnesses. For six bacterial pathogens, the costs of human illness are estimated to be $9.3-$12.9 billion annually. Of these costs, $2.9-$6.7 billion are attributed to foodborne bacteria. These estimates were developed to provide...

  12. Heterotrophic bacterial production: Relationships to biological and abiological factors in estuarine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepfler, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Ecotoxicological effects of creosote contamination on benthic bacterial communities in the Elizabeth River, Virginia were investigated using both structural an functional microbial parameters. Results indicated that cell specific and total heterotrophic bacterial production parameters were depressed in a dose-dependent manner with increasing sediment PAH concentrations. Toxicity effects upon production were modified by temporal trends associated with temperature as well as spatial sediment characteristics. Of the parameters employed, the tritiated thymidine production assay was found to be the most sensitive for detection of ecotoxicological effects. Bacterial abundance and production were examined during a destratification event in the lower James River, Virginia. Bacterial abundance, although significantly different between stations, did not change over the study. Bacterial production ({sup 3}H-Tdr incorporation) in surface waters was significantly less during the mixed period 187 {mu}g C{center dot}1-1{center dot} d{sup {minus}1} compared to the most stratified state (324{mu}g C{center dot}1-1{center dot} d{sup {minus}1}). Correlations between bacteria and chlorophyll were diminished during the mixed period. Total and flagellate specific grazing rates upon bacteria were reduced during the onset of destratification. Relationships between bacterial and nutrient parameters also indicated a strong influence of destratification. These results indicate that destratification changes trophic interactions within the microbial loop, which are not necessarily reflected in temporal patterns of bacterial abundance. Bacterioplankton production, and ammonium assimilation and remineralization were examined between April and August 1988 in the lower York River, Va.

  13. Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith R. Stokes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement. This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the seaweed, Chondrus crispus, and two isolated compounds from terrestrial sources, (+-usnic acid and juglone, against two marine biofilm forming bacteria, Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Bioassays were developed using quantitative imaging and fluorescent labelling to test the natural products over a range of concentrations against initial bacterial attachment. All natural products affected bacterial attachment; however, juglone demonstrated the best anti-biofilm performance against both bacterial species at a concentration range between 5–20 ppm. In addition, for the first time, a dose-dependent inhibition (hormetic response was observed for natural products against marine biofilm forming bacteria.

  14. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham G Willsey

    Full Text Available Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment.

  15. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping; Bennett, Eric P; Pietz, Greg; Saunders, Kristen; Spence, Jean; Nudelman, Edward; Levery, Steven B; White, Thayer; Neveu, John M; Lane, William S; Bourne, Yves; Olsson, Martin L; Henrissat, Bernard; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this technology to clinical practice has been the lack of efficient glycosidase enzymes. Here we report two bacterial glycosidase gene families that provide enzymes capable of efficient removal of A and B antigens at neutral pH with low consumption of recombinant enzymes. The crystal structure of a member of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions. PMID:17401360

  16. The Study Of Metalworking Fluids Biodegradability By Indirect Measurement Of Bacterial Inoculum Respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerulová Kristína

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus for measuring biodegradability of metalworking fluids (MWFs was constructed according to (1, based on the Zahn-Wellens test which enables a continuous determination of CO2 production by the change in conductivity of absorption solution. Results obtained from the testing of 8 different MWFs by this modified method were compared to those obtained in standardized OECD 302 B. The comparison showed better description of bacterial inoculum activity in tested solution; lag phase was easy to indicate. Tested emulsion achieved the level of primary degradability 39.7 – 40.8 %, and semi-synthetics 19.1 – 43.5%. The samples of synthetics where the degradation level reached 43.9 - 58.6 % were identified as the most degradable metalworking fluids.

  17. 9 CFR 113.100 - General requirements for inactivated bacterial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements for inactivated... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.100 General requirements for inactivated... reactivity, (4) Fluorescent antibody tests, (5) Serologic tests, (6) Toxin typing, (7) Somatic or...

  18. Dynamic properties of bacterial pili measured by optical tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Fallman, Erik; Schedin, Staffan; Jass, Jana; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2014-01-01

    The ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to cause urinary tract infections is dependent on their ability to colonize the uroepithelium. Infecting bacteria ascend the urethra to the bladder and then kidneys by attaching to the uroepithelial cells via the differential expression of adhesins. P pili are associated with pyelonephritis, the more severe infection of the kidneys. In order to find means to treat pyelonephritis, it is therefore of interest to investigate the properties P pili. The mechanical behavior of individual P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has recently been investigated using optical tweezers. P pili, whose main part constitutes the PapA rod, composed of ~1000 PapA subunits in a helical arrangement, are distributed over the bacterial surface and mediate adhesion to host cells. We have earlier studied P pili regarding its stretching/elongation properties where we have found and characterized three different elongation regions, of which one constitute an unfolding of the quate...

  19. Isotopomers as a method for differentiating between bacterial and fungal production of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutka, R. L.; Adams, G.; Ostrom, N.; Ostrom, P.

    2007-12-01

    In order to study the importance of fungi to nitrous oxide (N2O) production in the environment it is critical to have a non-intrusive method for differentiating between fungal and bacterial N2O production. Site preference (SP), the difference in d15N between the central and outer N atoms in N2O, has been used to differentiate between bacterial nitrification and denitrification. In this study we compare the SP, d15N and d18O of N2O produced by the two best-studied fungal denitrifiers, Fusarium oxysporum and Cylindrocarpon tonkinense, to data from our previous bacterial studies. Both d18O and SP values remained fairly constant during the course of nitrite reduction which likely reflects isotopic exchange with water in the case of d18O and conservative behavior in SP that has been observed previously (Sutka et al., 2006). We observed a wide range of fractionation factors for fungal denitrification, -74.7 to -6.6 ‰, and non-linear behavior indicating that fractionation was controlled by more than one step. We interpret the small degree of fractionation as reflecting fractionation during diffusion and the more negative values as being controlled by enzymatic fractionation. Data from this and our previous study of bacterial production (Sutka et al., 2006) reveals that N2O produced via nitrification by fungi can be differentiated from N2O produced by bacterial denitrification primarily on the basis of d18O. The site preference of N2O produced by F. oxysporum and C. tonkinense was 37.1 ± 2.5 ‰ and 36.9 ± 2.8 ‰, respectively. These results indicate that isotopomers can be used as a basis for differentiating bacterial and fungal denitrification. Our work further reveals the role that fungal and bacterial nitric oxide reductases have in determining site preference during N2O production.

  20. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holvoet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7% versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%. The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  1. Dynamic properties of bacterial pili measured by optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallman, Erik G.; Andersson, Magnus J.; Schedin, Staffan S.; Jass, Jana; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2004-10-01

    The ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to cause urinary tract infections is dependent on their ability to colonize the uroepithelium. Infecting bacteria ascend the urethra to the bladder and then kidneys by attaching to the uroepithelial cells via the differential expression of adhesins. P pili are associated with pyelonephritis, the more severe infection of the kidneys. In order to find means to treat pyelonephritis, it is therefore of interest to investigate the properties P pili. The mechanical behavior of individual P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has recently been investigated using optical tweezers. P pili, whose main part constitutes the PapA rod, composed of ~1000 PapA subunits in a helical arrangement, are distributed over the bacterial surface and mediate adhesion to host cells. We have earlier studied P pili regarding its stretching/elongation properties where we have found and characterized three different elongation regions, of which one constitute an unfolding of the quaternary (helical) structure of the PapA rod. It was shown that this unfolding takes place at an elongation independent force of 27 +/- 2 pN. We have also recently performed studies on its folding properties and shown that the unfolding/folding of the PapA rod is completely reversible. Here we present a study of the dynamical properties of the PapA rod. We show, among other things, that the unfolding force increases and that the folding force decreases with the speed of unfolding and folding respectively. Moreover, the PapA rod can be folded-unfolded a significant number of times without loosing its characteristics, a phenomenon that is believed to be important for the bacterium to keep close contact to the host tissue and consequently helps the bacterium to colonize the host tissue.

  2. Productivity Measurement: Alternative Approaches and Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Mawson; Kenneth I. Carlaw; Nathan McLellan

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a review of conceptual and methodological issues in measuring productivity. Attention is given to the concept of productivity and the relationship between productivity and technological change. Different approaches to measuring productivity are surveyed and the results from a number of NZ productivity studies are summarised. The availability of appropriate input and output data is essential for the accurate measurement of productivity and therefore this paper also discusse...

  3. Measurement of Bacterial Bioluminescence Intensity and Spectrum: Current Physical Techniques and Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Ionescu, Rodica Elena

    2016-01-01

    : Bioluminescence is light production by living organisms, which can be observed in numerous marine creatures and some terrestrial invertebrates. More specifically, bacterial bioluminescence is the "cold light" produced and emitted by bacterial cells, including both wild-type luminescent and genetically engineered bacteria. Because of the lively interplay of synthetic biology, microbiology, toxicology, and biophysics, different configurations of whole-cell biosensors based on bacterial bioluminescence have been designed and are widely used in different fields, such as ecotoxicology, food toxicity, and environmental pollution. This chapter first discusses the background of the bioluminescence phenomenon in terms of optical spectrum. Platforms for bacterial bioluminescence detection using various techniques are then introduced, such as a photomultiplier tube, charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) based integrated circuit. Furthermore, some typical biochemical methods to optimize the analytical performances of bacterial bioluminescent biosensors/assays are reviewed, followed by a presentation of author's recent work concerning the improved sensitivity of a bioluminescent assay for pesticides. Finally, bacterial bioluminescence as implemented in eukaryotic cells, bioluminescent imaging, and cancer cell therapies is discussed. PMID:25981856

  4. Exploring the links between natural products and bacterial assemblages in the sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán-Soriano, Oriol; Banaigs, Bernard; Casamayor, Emilio O; Becerro, Mikel A

    2011-02-01

    The sponge Aplysina aerophoba produces a large diversity of brominated alkaloids (BAs) and hosts a complex microbial assemblage. Although BAs are located within sponge cells, the enzymes that bind halogen elements to organic compounds have been exclusively described in algae, fungi, and bacteria. Bacterial communities within A. aerophoba could therefore be involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds. This study investigates whether changes in both the concentration of BAs and the bacterial assemblages are correlated in A. aerophoba. To do so, we quantified major natural products using high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed bacterial assemblages using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis on the 16S rRNA gene. We identified multiple associations between bacteria and natural products, including a strong relationship between a Chloroflexi phylotype and aplysinamisin-1 and between an unidentified bacterium and aerophobin-2 and isofistularin-3. Our results suggest that these bacteria could either be involved in the production of BAs or be directly affected by them. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports that find a significant correlation between natural products and bacterial populations in any benthic organism. Further investigating these associations will shed light on the organization and functioning of host-endobiont systems such as Aplysina aerophoba. PMID:21115701

  5. Nitric oxide production in celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following bacterial challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Cook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this in vitro investigation, nitric oxide (NO production was induced within celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following microbial challenge. Celomocytes were pre-loaded with the fluorescent indicator 4-amino-5-methylamino-2’, 7’-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA in order to detect the presence of intracellular nitric oxide subsequent to a 16 h incubation with chemically-fixed soil bacteria including Bacillus megaterium, Arthrobacter globiformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Azotobacter chroococcum at a range of multiplicities of infection (MOIs. Flow cytometric analysis measuring increases in relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, which is directly proportional to the amount of intracellular NO produced, permitted determination of statistical significance (p < 0.05 of exposed celomocytes compared to baseline controls. Significant increases in NO were detected reproducibly in celomocytes treated with all bacterial species used. The most prominent results were observed after exposure to Gram positive B. megaterium and A. globiformis where 100 % of earthworms tested exhibited statistically significant increases of RFI at MOIs of 100:1 and 500:1, respectively. Furthermore, significant decreases in NO production in bacteria-stimulated earthworm celomocytes incubated with the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride were observed. These results demonstrate microbial induction of NO synthesis in earthworms and provide evidence of an antimicrobial role of NO in the innate immune system.

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-limitation of bacterial productivity and growth in the Oligotrophic Sub-Tropical North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Matthew M.; Moore, C. M.; Langlois, Rebecca; Milne, A; Achterberg, Eric P.; Nachtigall, Kerstin; Lochte, Karin; Geider, R. J.; LaRoche, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial productivity and biomass are thought to be limited by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in much of the world’s oceans. However, the mixed layer of oligotrophic oceans is often depleted in dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate, raising the possibility that macronutrients may also limit heterotrophic bacterial growth. We used nutrient bioassay experiments to determine whether inorganic nutrients (N, P, Fe) and/or DOC could limit bacterial productivity and biomass in the central Nort...

  7. Oxygen-­dependent regulation of bacterial lipid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2015-05-12

    Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the somewhat unique ability to increase membrane production at low O₂ tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reporter of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O₂ and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O₂ tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. Our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O₂ tension.

  8. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Severin

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate-functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1 changes in taxonomic diversity, 2 changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3 changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i.e. their functional traits. From experiment (B we could thus estimate changes in functional traits in communities in experiment (A. Bacterial production was affected by dispersal, but not consistently among lakes. Neither change in taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity with dispersal could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Instead, changes in trait composition with dispersal, especially the communities' ability to use p-coumaric acid, an aromatic compound, could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Changes in this trait caused by dispersal seemed especially important for bacterial productivity in waters with a high aromaticity of the organic matter pool. We conclude that the effect of dispersal on bacterial communities can affect ecosystem functioning in different ways, through changes in functional key-traits which are important for the local environment.

  9. Application of Bacterial Laccases for Sustainable Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lörcher, Samuel; Koschorreck, Katja; Shipovskov, Stepan;

    number of special applications, such as disposable implantable power suppliers for medical sensor-transmitters and drug delivery/activator systems and self-powered enzyme-based biosensors; and they do offer practical advantages of using abundant organic raw materials for clean and sustainable energy...... production. Progress in enzyme biotechnology and electrochemistry enables now construction of biofuel cells exploiting a wide spectrum of enzymes wired to electrodes, able of prolonged for up to several months function.1-3 One of the most attractive designs exploits direct electronic communication between....... Exploitation of laccase-based biocathodes in the biofuel cells and in the hybrid biobattery-type or photovoltaic power sources could essentially broaden their application, enabling extraction of energy from the sea water/water dissolved oxygen. Here we demonstrate up to 0.8 mW cm-2 extracted power densities...

  10. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  11. Are D-manno-configured Amadori products ligands of the bacterial lectin FimH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloe, Tobias-Elias; Stamer, Insa; Hojnik, Cornelia; Wrodnigg, Tanja M; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2015-01-01

    The Amadori rearrangement was employed for the synthesis of C-glycosyl-type D-mannoside analogues, namely 1-propargylamino- and 1-phenylamino-1-deoxy-α-D-manno-heptopyranose. They were investigated as ligands of type 1-fimbriated E. coli bacteria by means of molecular docking and bacterial adhesion studies. It turns out that Amadori rearrangement products have a limited activity as inhibitors of bacterial adhesion because the β-C-glycosidically linked aglycone considerably hampers complexation within the carbohydrate binding site of the type 1-fimbrial lectin FimH. PMID:26199665

  12. A novel small-caliber bacterial cellulose vascular prosthesis: production, characterization, and preliminary in vivo testing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre F. Leitão; Miguel A Faria; Faustino, Augusto M. R.; Moreira, Ricardo; Mela, Petra; Loureiro, Luís; Silva, Ivone; Gama, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular grafts are used to bypass damaged or diseased blood vessels. Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been studied for use as an off-the-shelf graft. Herein, we present a novel, cost-effective, method for the production of small caliber BC grafts with minimal processing or requirements. The morphology of the graft wall produced a tensile strength above that of native vessels, performing similarly to the current commercial alternatives. As a result of the production method, the luminal surface of...

  13. Effects of aromatic compounds on the production of bacterial nanocellulose by Gluconacetobacter xylinus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuo; Winestrand, Sandra; Guo, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Hong, Feng; Jönsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymeric nanostructured fibrillar network produced by certain microorganisms, principally Gluconacetobacter xylinus. BC has a great potential of application in many fields. Lignocellulosic biomass has been investigated as a cost-effective feedstock for BC production through pretreatment and hydrolysis. It is well known that detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates may be required to achieve efficient production of BC. Recent results suggest tha...

  14. Can procalcitonin measurement help in differentiating between bacterial infection and other kinds of inflammatory processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevaux, I; Andre, M; Colombier, M; Albuisson, E; Meylheuc, F; Begue, R; Piette, J; Aumaitre, O

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the levels of procalcitonin (PCT) in various inflammatory states seen in an internal medicine department and to evaluate the possible discriminative role of PCT in differentiating bacterial infection from other inflammatory processes. Methods: PCT, C reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell count (WBC) were measured in patients admitted to the department for fever or biological inflammatory syndrome, or both. The serum of 173 consecutive patients was analysed according to the aetiological diagnosis. The patients were divided into two groups: group I (n=60) with documented bacterial or fungal infection; group II (n=113) with abacterial inflammatory disease. Results: PCT levels were >0.5 ng/ml in 39/60 (65%) patients in group I. In group II, three patients with a viral infection had slightly increased PCT levels (0.7, 0.8, and 1.1 ng/ml) as did two others, one with crystal arthritis and the other with vasculitis (0.7 ng/ml in both cases). All other patients in group II had PCT levels 0.5 ng/ml was taken as the marker of bacterial infection (sensitivity 65%, specificity 96%). PCT values were more discriminative than WBC and CRP in distinguishing a bacterial infection from another inflammatory process. Conclusion: PCT levels only rose significantly during bacterial infections. In this study PCT levels >1.2 ng/ml were always evidence of bacterial infection and the cue for starting antibiotic treatment. PMID:12634233

  15. Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose by Leifsonia sp. CBNU-EW3 isolated from the earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of five bacterial strains were isolated from earthworm, Eisenia fetida and examined for bacterial cellulose (BC) production in Hestrin–Schramm medium (HS). Among the five strains tested, CBNU-EW3 exhibited excellent BC production and was identified as Leifsonia sp. by 16S rDNA sequence analy...

  16. Ecosystem productivity is associated with bacterial phylogenetic distance in surface marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galand, Pierre E; Salter, Ian; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the link between community diversity and ecosystem function is a fundamental aspect of ecology. Systematic losses in biodiversity are widely acknowledged but the impact this may exert on ecosystem functioning remains ambiguous. There is growing evidence of a positive relationship between species richness and ecosystem productivity for terrestrial macro-organisms, but similar links for marine micro-organisms, which help drive global climate, are unclear. Community manipulation experiments show both positive and negative relationships for microbes. These previous studies rely, however, on artificial communities and any links between the full diversity of active bacterial communities in the environment, their phylogenetic relatedness and ecosystem function remain hitherto unexplored. Here, we test the hypothesis that productivity is associated with diversity in the metabolically active fraction of microbial communities. We show in natural assemblages of active bacteria that communities containing more distantly related members were associated with higher bacterial production. The positive phylogenetic diversity-productivity relationship was independent of community diversity calculated as the Shannon index. From our long-term (7-year) survey of surface marine bacterial communities, we also found that similarly, productive communities had greater phylogenetic similarity to each other, further suggesting that the traits of active bacteria are an important predictor of ecosystem productivity. Our findings demonstrate that the evolutionary history of the active fraction of a microbial community is critical for understanding their role in ecosystem functioning. PMID:26289961

  17. Production of Metabolites as Bacterial Responses to the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in marine environments are often under extreme conditions of e.g., pressure, temperature, salinity, and depletion of micronutrients, with survival and proliferation often depending on the ability to produce biologically active compounds. Some marine bacteria produce biosurfactants, which help to transport hydrophobic low water soluble substrates by increasing their bioavailability. However, other functions related to heavy metal binding, quorum sensing and biofilm formation have been described. In the case of metal ions, bacteria developed a strategy involving the release of binding agents to increase their bioavailability. In the particular case of the Fe3+ ion, which is almost insoluble in water, bacteria secrete siderophores that form soluble complexes with the ion, allowing the cells to uptake the iron required for cell functioning. Adaptive changes in the lipid composition of marine bacteria have been observed in response to environmental variations in pressure, temperature and salinity. Some fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, have only been reported in prokaryotes in deep-sea bacteria. Cell membrane permeability can also be adapted to extreme environmental conditions by the production of hopanoids, which are pentacyclic triterpenoids that have a function similar to cholesterol in eukaryotes. Bacteria can also produce molecules that prevent the attachment, growth and/or survival of challenging organisms in competitive environments. The production of these compounds is particularly important in surface attached strains and in those in biofilms. The wide array of compounds produced by marine bacteria as an adaptive response to demanding conditions makes them suitable candidates for screening of compounds with commercially interesting biological functions. Biosurfactants produced by marine bacteria may be helpful to increase mass transfer in different industrial processes and in the bioremediation of

  18. Publishing productivity measures in ONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn Camus

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the joint publication launch of this edition of ELMR and The ONS Productivity Handbook.This July 2007 Economic & Labour Market Review (ELMR) is a special productivity edition and is published alongside The ONS Productivity Handbook: A Statistical Overview and Guide. Presenting all Officefor National Statistics (ONS) productivity estimates, sources, methods and analysis, this single volume will serve as a valuable reference on the subject. Articles printed in this edition of ELMR h...

  19. Recombinant production of bacterial toxins and their derivatives in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan Cemal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is a popular heterologous expression host for the recombinant production of a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins. The rapid emergence of P. pastoris as a robust heterologous expression host was facilitated by the ease with which it can be manipulated and propagated, which is comparable to that of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. P. pastoris offers further advantages such as the tightly-regulated alcohol oxidase promoter that is particularly suitable for heterologous expression of foreign genes. While recombinant production of bacterial toxins and their derivatives is highly desirable, attempts at their heterologous expression using the traditional E. coli expression system can be problematic due to the formation of inclusion bodies that often severely limit the final yields of biologically active products. However, recent literature now suggests that P. pastoris may be an attractive alternative host for the heterologous production of bacterial toxins, such as those from the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, and Corynebacterium, as well as their more complex derivatives. Here, we review the recombinant production of bacterial toxins and their derivatives in P. pastoris with special emphasis on their potential clinical applications. Considering that de novo design and construction of synthetic toxin genes have often been necessary to achieve optimal heterologous expression in P. pastoris, we also present general guidelines to this end based on our experience with the P. pastoris expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa1 toxin.

  20. Lasso peptides: an intriguing class of bacterial natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Julian D; Zimmermann, Marcel; Xie, Xiulan; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2015-07-21

    Natural products of peptidic origin often represent a rich source of medically relevant compounds. The synthesis of such polypeptides in nature is either initiated by deciphering the genetic code on the ribosome during the translation process or driven by ribosome-independent processes. In the latter case, highly modified bioactive peptides are assembled by multimodular enzymes designated as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) that act as a protein-template to generate chemically diverse peptides. On the other hand, the ribosome-dependent strategy, although relying strictly on the 20-22 proteinogenic amino acids, generates structural diversity by extensive post-translational-modification. This strategy seems to be highly distributed in all kingdoms of life. One example for this is the lasso peptides, which are an emerging class of ribosomally assembled and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) from bacteria that were first described in 1991. A wide range of interesting biological activities are known for these compounds, including antimicrobial, enzyme inhibitory, and receptor antagonistic activities. Since 2008, genome mining approaches allowed the targeted isolation and characterization of such molecules and helped to better understand this compound class and their biosynthesis. Their defining structural feature is a macrolactam ring that is threaded by the C-terminal tail and held in position by sterically demanding residues above and below the ring, resulting in a unique topology that is reminiscent of a lariat knot. The ring closure is achieved by an isopeptide bond formed between the N-terminal α-amino group of a glycine, alanine, serine, or cysteine and the carboxylic acid side chain of an aspartate or glutamate, which can be located at positions 7, 8, or 9 of the amino acid sequence. In this Account, we discuss the newest findings about these compounds, their biosynthesis, and their physicochemical properties. This includes the suggested

  1. Heterotrophic bacterial production and metabolic balance during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the New Caledonia lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wambeke, F.; Pfreundt, U.; Barani, A.; Berthelot, H.; Moutin, T.; Rodier, M.; Hess, W. R.; Bonnet, S.

    2015-12-01

    N2 fixation fuels ~ 50 % of new primary production in the oligotrophic South Pacific Ocean. The VAHINE mesocosm experiment designed to track the fate of diazotroph derived nitrogen (DDN) in the New Caledonia lagoon. Here, we examined the temporal dynamics of heterotrophic bacterial production during this experiment. Three replicate large-volume (~ 50 m3) mesocosms were deployed and were intentionally fertilized with dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate N2 fixation. We specifically examined relationships between N2 fixation rates and primary production, determined bacterial growth efficiency and established carbon budgets of the system from the DIP fertilization to the end of the experiment (days 5-23). Heterotrophic bacterioplankton production (BP) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) were statistically higher during the second phase of the experiment (P2: days 15-23), when chlorophyll biomass started to increase compared to the first phase (P1: days 5-14). Among autotrophs, Synechococcus abundances increased during P2, possibly related to its capacity to assimilate leucine and to produce alkaline phosphatase. Bacterial growth efficiency based on the carbon budget was notably higher than generally cited for oligotrophic environments (27-43 %), possibly due to a high representation of proteorhodopsin-containing organisms within the picoplanctonic community. The carbon budget showed that the main fate of gross primary production (particulate + dissolved) was respiration (67 %), and export through sedimentation (17 %). BP was highly correlated with particulate primary production and chlorophyll biomass during both phases of the experiment but slightly correlated, and only during P2 phase, with N2 fixation rates. Our results suggest that most of the DDN reached the heterotrophic bacterial community through indirect processes, like mortality, lysis and grazing.

  2. TLR2-induced IL-10 production impairs neutrophil recruitment to infected tissues during neonatal bacterial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Elva B; Alves, Joana; Madureira, Pedro; Oliveira, Liliana; Ribeiro, Adília; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Ferreira, Paula

    2013-11-01

    Sepsis is the third most common cause of neonatal death, with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) being the leading bacterial agent. The pathogenesis of neonatal septicemia is still unsolved. We described previously that host susceptibility to GBS infection is due to early IL-10 production. In this study, we investigated whether triggering TLR2 to produce IL-10 is a risk factor for neonatal bacterial sepsis. We observed that, in contrast to wild-type (WT) pups, neonatal TLR2-deficient mice were resistant to GBS-induced sepsis. Moreover, if IL-10 signaling were blocked in WT mice, they also were resistant to sepsis. This increased survival rate was due to an efficient recruitment of neutrophils to infected tissues that leads to bacterial clearance, thus preventing the development of sepsis. To confirm that IL-10 produced through TLR2 activation prevents neutrophil recruitment, WT pups were treated with the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 prior to nebulization with the neutrophil chemotactic agent LTB4. Neutrophil recruitment into the neonatal lungs was inhibited in pups treated with Pam3CSK4. However, the migration was restored in Pam3CSK4-treated pups when IL-10 signaling was blocked (either by anti-IL-10R mAb treatment or by using IL-10-deficient mice). Our findings highlight that TLR2-induced IL-10 production is a key event in neonatal susceptibility to bacterial sepsis. PMID:24078699

  3. Bacterial neuraminidase increases IL-8 production in lung epithelial cells via NF-κB-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial neuraminidase, a sialic acid-degrading enzyme, is one of the virulent factors produced in pathogenic bacteria like as other bacterial components. However little is known about whether bacterial neuraminidase can initiate or modify a cellular response, such as cytokine production, in epithelial cells at infection and inflammation. We demonstrate here that bacterial neuraminidase, but not heat-inactivated neuraminidase, up-regulates expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and protein in lung epithelial A549 and NCI-H292 cells. We also show that bacterial neuraminidase significantly up-regulates IL-8 promoter activity as well as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) reporter activity. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB signaling suppressed IL-8 mRNA expression induced by bacterial neuraminidase. Taken together, desialylation-induced IL-8 production in lung epithelial cells may play an important role in infection-associated inflammatory events.

  4. Effects of the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum on bacterial production and carbon flow in experimental benthic systems under increasing organic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Ronald; Kop, Arjen J.; Malschaert, Johannes F. P.; Van Duyl, Fleur C.

    1997-05-01

    Effects of the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum on benthic bacterial production were studied in marine sediment boxcosms, to which different amounts of organic matter (30, 60 and 90 g C m -2) were added. Bacterial production was estimated from incorporation rates of 3H-labelled leucine. The distribution of organic carbon in the boxcosm sediments was monitored. Measurements were done over a period of 27 days after the introduction of organic matter. Non-enriched boxcosms were used as controls. In macrobenthos-free boxcosms, the bacterial response to organic-matter additions mainly took place in the organic-matter layer on the sediment surface and in the upper 3 mm of the sediment. In the presence of E. cordatum, more organic matter was transported into the sediment, and the bacterial production rates in deeper sediment layers were higher. Increasing the organic loading did not further enhance these rates. It is concluded that E. cordatum stimulates bacterial production in deeper sediment layers by increasing the transport of organic matter into the sediment and perhaps also by promoting its degradation. At an increasing load with organic matter, the relative importance of the effects of E. cordatum decreases.

  5. Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jørgensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after long-term bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations (32 days with natural and artificial seawater, indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol% and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3–14 mol%. DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol%, followed by glucose (22 mol% and the remaining neutral sugars (7–11 mol%. The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural and artificial seawater samples, suggests that the microbial carbon pump also applies for neutral sugars and amino acids and that bacterially-produced biomolecules persist for long periods in the ocean.

  6. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Ina; Östman, Örjan; Lindström, Eva S.

    2013-01-01

    in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1) changes in taxonomic diversity, 2) changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3) changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A......) a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B) a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i.......e. their functional traits. From experiment (B) we could thus estimate changes in functional traits in communities in experiment (A). Bacterial production was affected by dispersal, but not consistently among lakes. Neither change in taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity with dispersal could explain the observed...

  7. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Santos Mello; Soraia Tahan; Lígia Cristina FL Melli; Mirian Silva do Carmo Rodrigues; Ricardo Martin Pereira de Mello; Isabel Cristina Affonso Scaletsky; Mauro Batista de Morais

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. METHODS: This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children fro...

  8. Biodegradation of Leonardite by an alkali-producing bacterial community and characterization of the degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong-Guo; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Jin-Shui; Li, Bao-Zhen; Yuan, Hong-Li

    2012-03-01

    In this study, three bacterial communities were obtained from 12 Leonardite samples with the aim of identifying a clean, effective, and economic technique for the dissolution of Leonardite, a type of low-grade coal, in the production of humic acid (HA). The biodegradation ability and characteristics of the degraded products of the most effective bacterial community (MCSL-2), which degraded 50% of the Leonardite within 21 days, were further investigated. Analyses of elemental composition, (13)C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared revealed that the contents of C, O, and aliphatic carbon were similar in biodegraded humic acid (bHA) and chemically (alkali) extracted humic acid (cHA). However, the N and carboxyl carbon contents of bHA was higher than that of cHA. Furthermore, a positive correlation was identified between the degradation efficiency and the increasing pH of the culture medium, while increases of manganese peroxidase and esterase activities were also observed. These data demonstrated that both alkali production and enzyme reactions were involved in Leonardite solubilization by MCSL-2, although the former mechanism predominated. No fungus was observed by microscopy. Only four bacterial phylotypes were recognized, and Bacillus licheniformis-related bacteria were identified as the main group in MCSL-2 by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, thus demonstrating that Leonardite degradation ability has a limited distribution in bacteria. Hormone-like bioactivities of bHA were also detected. In this study, a bacterial community capable of Leonardite degradation was identified and the products characterized. These data implicate the use of such bacteria for the exploitation of Leonardite as a biofertilizer. PMID:22075634

  9. Production and Characterization of a New Bacterial Cellulose/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Gama; Fernando Dourado; João Pedro Silva; Alexandre F. Leitão

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is characterized for its high water holding capacity, high crystallinity, an ultrafine fiber network and high tensile strength. This work demonstrates the production of a new interpenetrated polymer network nanocomposite obtained through the incorporation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the BC matrix and evaluates the effect of oven drying on the morphological, mechanical and mass transfer properties of the composite membranes. Both the addition of PVA and oven drying...

  10. The bacterial abundance and production in the East China Sea:seasonal variations and relationships with the phytoplankton biomass and production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bingzhang; HUANG Bangqin; XIE Yuyuan; GUO Cui; SONG Shuqun; LI Hongbo; LIU Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    The East China Sea is a productive marginal sea with a wide continental shelf and plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and transferring terrigenous organic matter to the open ocean. To investigate the roles of heterotrophic bacteria in the biogeochemical dynamics in the East China Sea, bacterial biomasses (BB) and productions (BP) were measured in four cruises. The spatial distributions of the BB and the BP were highly season-dependent. Affected by the Changjiang River discharge, the BB and the BP were high in shelf waters (bottom depth not deeper than 50 m) and generally decreased offshore in August 2009. In December 2009 to January 2010, and November to December 2010, the BB and the BP were high in waters with medium bottom depth. The onshore-offshore decreasing trends of the BB and the BP also existed in May-June 2011, when the BB was significantly higher than in other cruises in shelf break waters (bottom depth deeper than 50 m but not deeper than 200 m). The results of generalized additive models (GAM) suggest that the BB increased with the temperature at a range of 8-20°C, increased with the chlorophyll concentration at a range of 0.02-3.00 mg/m3 and then declining, and decreased with the salinity from 28 to 35. The relationship between the temperature and the log-transformed bacterial specific growth rate (SGR) was linear. The estimated temperature coefficient (Q10) of the SGR was similar with that of the phytoplankton growth. The SGR also increased with the chlorophyll concentration. The ratio of the bacterial to phytoplankton production ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.40, being significantly higher in November-December 2010 than in May-June 2011. Calculated from the bacterial production and growth efficiency, the bacterial respiration consumed, on average, 59%, 72%and 23%of the primary production in August 2009, November-December 2010, and May-June 2011, respectively.

  11. Contribution of airborne microbes to bacterial production and N2 fixation in seawater upon aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahav, Eyal; Ovadia, Galit; Paytan, Adina; Herut, Barak

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol deposition may supply a high diversity of airborne microbes, which can affect surface microbial composition and biological production. This study reports a diverse microbial community associated with dust and other aerosol particles, which differed significantly according to their geographical air mass origin. Microcosm bioassay experiments, in which aerosols were added to sterile (0.2 µm filtered and autoclaved) SE Mediterranean Sea (SEMS) water, were performed to assess the potential impact of airborne bacteria on bacterial abundance, production, and N2 fixation. Significant increase was observed in all parameters within a few hours, and calculations suggest that airborne microbes can account for one third in bacterial abundance and 50-100% in bacterial production and N2-fixation rates following dust/aerosol amendments in the surface SEMS. We show that dust/aerosol deposition can be a potential source of a wide array of microorganisms, which may impact microbial composition and food web dynamics in oligotrophic marine systems such as the SEMS.

  12. Production of a Recombinant Vaccine Candidate against Burkholderia pseudomallei Exploiting the Bacterial N-Glycosylation Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarioFeldman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines developing immune responses towards surface carbohydrates conjugated to proteins are effective in preventing infection and death by bacterial pathogens. Traditional production of these vaccines utilizes complex synthetic chemistry to acquire and conjugate the glycan to a protein. However, glycoproteins produced by bacterial protein glycosylation systems are significantly easier to produce, and could possible be used as vaccine candidates. In this work we functionally expressed the B. pseudomallei O polysaccharide (OPS II, the C. jejuni oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase, and a suitable glycoprotein (AcrA in a designer E. coli strain with a higher efficiency for production of glycoconjugates. We were able to produce and purify the OPS II-AcrA glycoconjugate, and MS analysis confirmed correct glycan was produced and attached. We observed the attachment of the O-acetylated deoxyhexose directly to the acceptor protein, which expands the range of substrates utilized by the OTase PglB. Injection of the glycoprotein into mice generated an IgG immune response against B. pseudomallei, and this response was partially protective against an intranasal challenge. Our experiments show that bacterial engineered glycoconjugates can be utilized as vaccine candidates against B. pseudomallei. Additionally, our new E. coli strain SDB1 is more efficient in glycoprotein production, and could have additional applications in the future.

  13. Dark fermentative biohydrogen production by mesophilic bacterial consortia isolated from riverbed sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sneha; Sudhakaran, Anu K.; Sarma, Priyangshu Manab; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Mandal, Ajoy Kumar; Lal, Banwari [Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Habitat Place, Darbari Seth Block, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Gandham, Ganesh [Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Mumbai Refinery, B. D. Patil Marg, Mahul, Mumbai 400074 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Dark fermentative bacterial strains were isolated from riverbed sediments and investigated for hydrogen production. A series of batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of pH, substrate concentration and temperature on hydrogen production from a selected bacterial consortium, TERI BH05. Batch experiments for fermentative conversion of sucrose, starch, glucose, fructose, and xylose indicated that TERI BH05 effectively utilized all the five sugars to produce fermentative hydrogen. Glucose was the most preferred carbon source indicating highest hydrogen yields of 22.3 mmol/L. Acetic and butyric acid were the major soluble metabolites detected. Investigation on optimization of pH, temperature, and substrate concentration revealed that TERI BH05 produced maximum hydrogen at 37 C, pH 6 with 8 g/L of glucose supplementation and maximum yield of hydrogen production observed was 2.0-2.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. Characterization of TERI BH05 revealed the presence of two different bacterial strains showing maximum homology to Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium bifermentans. (author)

  14. Bacterial stress enrichment enhances anaerobic hydrogen production in cattle manure sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L

    2006-10-01

    Methodology was evaluated to selectively enrich hydrogen-producing species present in biological sludge produced during organic wastewater treatment. The influence of bacterial stress enrichment on anaerobic hydrogen-producing microorganisms was investigated in batch tests using serum bottles. Enrichment conditions investigated included application of acute physical and chemical stresses: wet heat, dry heat and desiccation, use of a methanogen inhibitor, freezing and thawing, and chemical acidification with and without preacidification of the sludge at pH 3. For each enrichment sample, cultivation pH value was set at an initial value of 7. After application of selective enrichment (by bacterial stress), hydrogen production was significantly higher than that of untreated original sludge. Hydrogen production from the inocula with bacterial stress enrichment was 1.9-9.8 times greater when compared with control sludge. Chemical acidification using perchloric acid showed the best hydrogen production potential, irrespective of preacidification. Enhancement is due to the selective capture of hydrogen-producing sporeformers, which induces altered anaerobic fermentative metabolism. PMID:16525779

  15. Recombinant plants provide a new approach to the production of bacterial polysaccharide for vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Smith

    Full Text Available Bacterial polysaccharides have numerous clinical or industrial uses. Recombinant plants could offer the possibility of producing bacterial polysaccharides on a large scale and free of contaminating bacterial toxins and antigens. We investigated the feasibility of this proposal by cloning and expressing the gene for the type 3 synthase (cps3S of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Nicotinia tabacum, using the pCambia2301 vector and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. In planta the recombinant synthase polymerised plant-derived UDP-glucose and UDP-glucuronic acid to form type 3 polysaccharide. Expression of the cps3S gene was detected by RT-PCR and production of the pneumococcal polysaccharide was detected in tobacco leaf extracts by double immunodiffusion, Western blotting and high-voltage paper electrophoresis. Because it is used a component of anti-pneumococcal vaccines, the immunogenicity of the plant-derived type 3 polysaccharide was tested. Mice immunised with extracts from recombinant plants were protected from challenge with a lethal dose of pneumococci in a model of pneumonia and the immunised mice had significantly elevated levels of serum anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibodies. This study provides the proof of the principle that bacterial polysaccharide can be successfully synthesised in plants and that these recombinant polysaccharides could be used as vaccines to protect against life-threatening infections.

  16. 30 CFR 250.1633 - Production measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production measurement. 250.1633 Section 250... SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1633 Production measurement. (a) General. Measurement equipment and security procedures shall be designed, installed, used, maintained,...

  17. Heterotrophic bacterial production and metabolic balance during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the New Caledonia lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wambeke, France; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Barani, Aude; Berthelot, Hugo; Moutin, Thierry; Rodier, Martine; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Bonnet, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the fate of diazotrophs through the microbial food web are lacking, although N2 fixation can fuel up to 50 % of new production in some oligotrophic oceans. In particular, the role played by heterotrophic prokaryotes in this transfer is largely unknown. In the frame of the VAHINE (VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of diazotroph derived N in the south wEst Pacific) experiment, three replicate large-volume (˜ 50 m3) mesocosms were deployed for 23 days in the new Caledonia lagoon and were intentionally fertilized on day 4 with dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate N2 fixation. We specifically examined relationships between heterotrophic bacterial production (BP) and N2 fixation or primary production, determined bacterial growth efficiency and established carbon budgets. BP was statistically higher during the second phase of the experiment (P2: days 15-23), when chlorophyll biomass started to increase compared to the first phase (P1: days 5-14). Phosphatase alkaline activity increased drastically during the second phase of the experiment, showing adaptations of microbial populations after utilization of the added DIP. Notably, among autotrophs, Synechococcus abundances increased during P2, possibly related to its capacity to assimilate leucine and to produce alkaline phosphatase. Bacterial growth efficiency based on the carbon budget (27-43 %), was notably higher than generally cited for oligotrophic environments and discussed in links with the presence of abundant species of bacteria expressing proteorhodopsin. The main fates of gross primary production (particulate + dissolved) were respiration (67 %) and export through sedimentation (17 %). BP was highly correlated with particulate primary production and chlorophyll biomass during both phases of the experiment but was slightly correlated, and only during P2 phase, with N2 fixation rates. Heterotrophic bacterial production was strongly stimulated after mineral N enrichment

  18. Fusion product measurements at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a description of the diagnostic systems and techniques, based on the detection of nuclear fusion reaction products, which have been exploited at JET in order to obtain information on plasma conditions. The presentation has been illustrated with experimental findings which represent the first results from the various systems. (author)

  19. BIOSECURITY MEASURES IN INTENSIVE PIG PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Antunović; Laura Vargović; Dalibor Cvrković; Katarina Kundih; Robert Spajić; Velimir Sili; Dražen Hižman; Željko Pavičić; Mario Ostović

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary pig production requires high demand on breeding large number of animals/pigs in a relatively small space while attaining maximum productivity. Their productivity is related to their health and ever-growing concern about less use of antibiotics in pig production. Measures have been taken to prevent diseases rather than cure them. Biosecurity measures prevent entry of pathogens into farm and their transmission between buildings. There are many critical points that must be taken car...

  20. Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Khunjamayum Romapati; Deka, Manab; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-04-16

    Ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish Puntius sophore (Ham.) in Manipur state of Northeast India. The microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. The culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community structural change in comparison to its raw material. To understand the bacterial dynamics during this dry fermentation, time series samples collected over a period of nine months through destructive sampling from two indigenous ngari production centres were analysed by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. A total of 210 bacteria isolated from the samples were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) based grouping and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis. The dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii (38.0%), Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis (16.8%), a novel phylotype related to Lactobacillus pobuzihii (7.2%), Enterococcus faecium (7.2%), Bacillus indicus (6.3%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (3.8%). Distinct bacterial dynamics with the emergence of T. halophilus at third month (10(6)CFU/g), L. pobuzihii at sixth month (10(6)CFU/g), S. carnosus at three to six months (10(4)CFU/g) and B. indicus at six to nine months (10(5)CFU/g) in both the production centres was observed during ngari fermentation. However, the other two dominant bacteria S. cohnii and E. faecium were isolated throughout the fermentation with the population of 10(6)CFU/g and 10(4)CFU/g respectively. Culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis further showed the presence of additional species, in which Kocuria halotolerans and Macrococcus caseolyticus disappeared during fermentation while Clostridium irregulare and

  1. Size of bacterial ice-nucleation sites measured in situ by radiation inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four bacterial species are known to catalyze ice formation at temperatures just below 00C. To better understand the relationship between the molecular structure of bacterial ice-nucleation site(s) and the quantitative and qualitative features of the ice-nucleation-active phenotype, the authors determined by γ-radiation analysis the in situ size of ice-nucleation sites in strains of Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia herbicola and in Escherichia coli HB101 carrying the plasmid pICE1.1. Lyophilized cells of each bacterial strain were irradiated with a flux of γ radiation from 0 to 10.2 Mrad. Differential concentrations of active ice nuclei decreased as a first-order function of radiation dose in all strains as temperature was decreased from -20C to -140C in 10C intervals. Sizes of ice nuclei were calculated from the +-radiation flux at which 37% of initial ice nuclei active within each 10C temperature interval remained. The minimum mass of a functional ice nucleus was about 150 kDa for all strains. The size of ice nuclei increased logarithmically with increasing temperature from -120CC to -20C, where the estimated nucleant mass was 19,000 kDa. The ice nucleant in these three bacterial species may represent an oligomeric structure, composed at least in part of an ice gene product that can self-associate to assume many possible sizes

  2. MEASURING PRODUCTIVITY OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Purna Sudhakar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an exhaustive literature review of the techniques and models available tomeasure the productivity of software development teams. Definition of productivity, measuringindividual programmer’s productivity, and measuring software development team productivity arediscussed. Based on the literature review it was found that software productivity measurement canbe done using SLOC (Source Lines of Code, function points, use case points, object points, andfeature points. Secondary research findings indicate that the team size, response time, taskcomplexity, team climate and team cohesion have an impact on software development teamproductivity. List of factors affecting the software development team productivity are studied andreviewed.

  3. Productivity Measurement Of Technical Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss.Pooja Yadav

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing concern over globalization between other things has made the achievement of lifetime skills vital for all classes of people. Achievement of such skills can be developed from technical education programs in the advance of any nation. Skill gaining provides knowledge and inculcates the approaches that are essential for arrival and progress into an occupation. When skills are developed in any occupation it will provide and improve the standard of living with the cover beside poverty thereby behind national development. This paper observes sampling distribution and moving average concept that how technical education can generate the required skills the significance of skill acquisition its roles benefits and sustainability in national development. It also mentions among others that government should look into and improve productivity that can encourage skill achievement for the youths. The solutions are divided the sampling box into few group before stacking up workstation and use table and some other wood product. Cost reduction for each solution was intended and the solution with highest cost decrease is chosen to increase the productivity of the college.

  4. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance. PMID:27023388

  5. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene mineralization and bacterial production rates of natural microbial assemblages from coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrogenous energetic constituent, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), is widely reported to be resistant to bacterial mineralization (conversion to CO2); however, these studies primarily involve bacterial isolates from freshwater where bacterial production is typically limited by phosphorus. This study involved six surveys of coastal waters adjacent to three biome types: temperate broadleaf, northern coniferous, and tropical. Capacity to catabolize and mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO2 was a common feature of natural sediment assemblages from these coastal environments (ranging to 270+/-38 μg C kg-1 d-1). More importantly, these mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. The finding that most natural assemblages surveyed from these ecosystems can mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO2 is consistent with recent reports that assemblage components can incorporate TNT ring carbon into bacterial biomass. These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - Highlights: → TNT mineralization is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediments. → TNT mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. → These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - The capacity to mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO2 is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediment.

  6. Characterization of the bacterial metagenome in an industrial algae bioenergy production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fulbright, Scott P [Colorado State University; Zeng, Xiaowei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yates, Tracy [Solix Biofuels; Wardle, Greg [Solix Biofuels; Chisholm, Stephen T [Colorado State University; Xu, Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Lammers, Peter [New Mexico State University

    2011-03-16

    Cultivation of oleaginous microalgae for fuel generally requires growth of the intended species to the maximum extent supported by available light. The presence of undesired competitors, pathogens and grazers in cultivation systems will create competition for nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, iron and other micronutrients in the growth medium and potentially decrease microalgal triglyceride production by limiting microalgal health or cell density. Pathogenic bacteria may also directly impact the metabolism or survival of individual microalgal cells. Conversely, symbiotic bacteria that enhance microalgal growth may also be present in the system. Finally, the use of agricultural and municipal wastes as nutrient inputs for microalgal production systems may lead to the introduction and proliferation of human pathogens or interfere with the growth of bacteria with beneficial effects on system performance. These considerations underscore the need to understand bacterial community dynamics in microalgal production systems in order to assess microbiome effects on microalgal productivity and pathogen risks. Here we focus on the bacterial component of microalgal production systems and describe a pipeline for metagenomic characterization of bacterial diversity in industrial cultures of an oleaginous alga, Nannochloropsis salina. Environmental DNA was isolated from 12 marine algal cultures grown at Solix Biofuels, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, and 16S amplicons were sequenced using a 454 automated pyrosequencer. The approximately 70,000 sequences that passed quality control clustered into 53,950 unique sequences. The majority of sequences belonged to thirteen phyla. At the genus level, sequences from all samples represented 169 different genera. About 52.94% of all sequences could not be identified at the genus level and were classified at the next highest possible resolution level. Of all sequences, 79.92% corresponded to 169 genera and 70 other taxa. We

  7. Auto-production of biosurfactants reverses the coffee ring effect in a bacterial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempels, Wouter; de Dier, Raf; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of material at the edge of evaporating droplets, known as the ‘coffee ring effect’, is caused by a radially outward capillary flow. This phenomenon is common to a wide array of systems including colloidal and bacterial systems. The role of surfactants in counteracting these coffee ring depositions is related to the occurrence of local vortices known as Marangoni eddies. Here we show that these swirling flows are universal, and not only lead to a uniform deposition of colloids but also occur in living bacterial systems. Experiments on Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the auto-production of biosurfactants has an essential role in creating a homogeneous deposition of the bacteria upon drying. Moreover, at biologically relevant conditions, intricate time-dependent flows are observed in addition to the vortex regime, which are also effective in reversing the coffee ring effect at even lower surfactant concentrations.

  8. Sclerotiamide: The First Non-Peptide-Based Natural Product Activator of Bacterial Caseinolytic Protease P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavey, Nathan P; Coker, Jesse A; Ruben, Eliza A; Duerfeldt, Adam S

    2016-04-22

    Caseinolytic protease P (ClpP) maintains essential roles in bacterial homeostasis. As such, both the inhibition and activation of this enzyme result in bactericidal activity, making ClpP a promising target for antibacterial drug development. Herein, we report the results of a fluorescence-based screen of ∼450 structurally diverse fungal and bacterial secondary metabolites. Sclerotiamide (1), a paraherquamide-related indolinone, was identified as the first non-peptide-based natural product activator of ClpP. Structure-activity relationships arising from the initial screen, preliminary biochemical evaluation of 1, and rationale for the exploitation of this chemotype to develop novel ClpP activators are presented. PMID:26967980

  9. Bacterial Glycosyltransferases: Challenges and opportunities of a highly diverse enzyme class toward tailoring natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eSchmid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme subclass of glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4 currently comprises 97 families as specified by CAZy classification. One of their important roles is in the biosynthesis of disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides by catalyzing the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to other sugar molecules. In addition glycosyltransferases also catalyze the transfer of sugar moieties onto aglycons, which is of great relevance for the synthesis of many high value natural products. Bacterial glycosyltransferases show a higher sequence similarity in comparison to mammalian ones. Even when most glycosyltransferases are poorly explored, state of the art technologies, such as protein engineering, domain swapping or computational analysis strongly enhance our understanding and utilization of these very promising classes of proteins. This perspective article will focus on bacterial glycosyltransferases, especially on classification, screening and engineering strategies to alter substrate specificity. The future development in these fields as well as obstacles and challenges will be highlighted and discussed.

  10. Measurement of complement receptor 1 on neutrophils in bacterial and viral pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoskelainen Jukka; Laitinen Iina; Lilius Esa-Matti; Nuutila Jari; Hohenthal Ulla; Kotilainen Pirkko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A reliable prediction of the causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not possible based on clinical features. Our aim was to test, whether the measurement of the expression of complement receptors or Fcγ receptors on neutrophils and monocytes would be a useful preliminary test to differentiate between bacterial and viral pneumonia. Methods Sixty-eight patients with CAP were studied prospectively. Thirteen patients had pneumococcal pneumonia; 13 patients, i...

  11. Light-Stimulated Bacterial Production and Amino Acid Assimilation by Cyanobacteria and Other Microbes in the North Atlantic Ocean▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa K Michelou; Cottrell, Matthew T.; Kirchman, David L.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the contribution of photoheterotrophic microbes—those capable of light-mediated assimilation of organic compounds—to bacterial production and amino acid assimilation along a transect from Florida to Iceland from 28 May to 9 July 2005. Bacterial production (leucine incorporation at a 20 nM final concentration) was on average 30% higher in light than in dark-incubated samples, but the effect varied greatly (3% to 60%). To further characterize this light effect, we examined the abund...

  12. Magnesium aminoclay enhances lipid production of mixotrophic Chlorella sp. KR-1 while reducing bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bohwa; Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Lee, Jiye; Nam, Bora; Kim, Dong-Myung; Lee, Kyubock; Lee, Young-Chul; Oh, You-Kwan

    2016-11-01

    Improving lipid productivity and preventing overgrowth of contaminating bacteria are critical issues relevant to the commercialization of the mixotrophic microalgae cultivation process. In this paper, we report the use of magnesium aminoclay (MgAC) nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production from oleaginous Chlorella sp. KR-1 with simultaneous control of KR-1-associated bacterial growth in mixotrophic cultures with glucose as the model substrate. Addition of 0.01-0.1g/L MgAC promoted microalgal biomass production better than the MgAC-less control, via differential biocidal effects on microalgal and bacterial cells (the latter being more sensitive to MgAC's bio-toxicity than the former). The inhibition effect of MgAC on co-existing bacteria was, as based on density-gradient-gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, largely dosage-dependent and species-specific. MgAC also, by inducing an oxidative stress environment, increased both the cell size and lipid content of KR-1, resulting in a considerable, ∼25% improvement of mixotrophic algal lipid productivity (to ∼410mgFAME/L/d) compared with the untreated control. PMID:27543952

  13. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes. PMID:10312194

  14. Target Product Profile for a Diagnostic Assay to Differentiate between Bacterial and Non-Bacterial Infections and Reduce Antimicrobial Overuse in Resource-Limited Settings: An Expert Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Tadesse, Birkneh Tilahun; Moussy, Francis; Chua, Arlene; Zorzet, Anna; Tängdén, Thomas; Dolinger, David L; Page, Anne-Laure; Crump, John A; D'Acremont, Valerie; Bassat, Quique; Lubell, Yoel; Newton, Paul N; Heinrich, Norbert; Rodwell, Timothy J; González, Iveth J

    2016-01-01

    Acute fever is one of the most common presenting symptoms globally. In order to reduce the empiric use of antimicrobial drugs and improve outcomes, it is essential to improve diagnostic capabilities. In the absence of microbiology facilities in low-income settings, an assay to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial causes would be a critical first step. To ensure that patient and market needs are met, the requirements of such a test should be specified in a target product profile (TPP). To identify minimal/optimal characteristics for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial fever test, experts from academia and international organizations with expertise in infectious diseases, diagnostic test development, laboratory medicine, global health, and health economics were convened. Proposed TPPs were reviewed by this working group, and consensus characteristics were defined. The working group defined non-severely ill, non-malaria infected children as the target population for the desired assay. To provide access to the most patients, the test should be deployable to community health centers and informal health settings, and staff should require 90% and >80% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Other key characteristics, to account for the challenging environment at which the test is targeted, included: i) time-to-result non-condensing humidity with a minimal shelf life of 12 months; iii) operational conditions of 5-40°C, ≤90% non-condensing humidity; and iv) minimal sample collection needs (50-100μL, capillary blood). This expert approach to define assay requirements for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial assay should guide product development, and enable targeted and timely efforts by industry partners and academic institutions. PMID:27559728

  15. Spring constants and adhesive properties of native bacterial biofilm cells measured by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volle, C B; Ferguson, M A; Aidala, K E; Spain, E M; Núñez, M E

    2008-11-15

    Bacterial biofilms were imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and their elasticity and adhesion to the AFM tip were determined from a series of tip extension and retraction cycles. Though the five bacterial strains studied included both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria and both environmental and laboratory strains, all formed simple biofilms on glass surfaces. Cellular spring constants, determined from the extension portion of the force cycle, varied between 0.16+/-0.01 and 0.41+/-0.01 N/m, where larger spring constants were measured for Gram-positive cells than for Gram-negative cells. The nonlinear regime in the extension curve depended upon the biomolecules on the cell surface: the extension curves for the smooth Gram-negative bacterial strains with the longest lipopolysaccharides on their surface had a larger nonlinear region than the rough bacterial strain with shorter lipopolysaccharides on the surface. Adhesive forces between the retracting silicon nitride tip and the cells varied between cell types in terms of the force components, the distance components, and the number of adhesion events. The Gram-negative cells' adhesion to the tip showed the longest distance components, sometimes more than 1 microm, whereas the shortest distance adhesion events were measured between the two Gram-positive cell types and the tip. Fixation of free-swimming planktonic cells by NHS and EDC perturbed both the elasticity and the adhesive properties of the cells. Here we consider the biochemical meaning of the measured physical properties of simple biofilms and implications to the colonization of surfaces in the first stages of biofilm formation. PMID:18815013

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES TO IMPROVE AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCT QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Gladkov, V.; Kruglov, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the basic technological measures aimed at improving product quality in automotive industry. While paying due attention to solving organizational and technological problems, including the development of certification systems for production processes, it is also necessary to improve the technical standards of specific technologies, equipment and materials as they largely determine product quality. Special emphasis is given to the importance of improving the production of auto...

  17. Development of a Low Input and sustainable Switchgrass Feedstock Production System Utilizing Beneficial Bacterial Endophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Chuansheng [IALR; Nowak, Jerzy [VPISU; Seiler, John [VPISU

    2014-10-24

    Switchgrass represents a promising feedstock crop for US energy sustainability. However, its broad utilization for bioenergy requires improvements of biomass yields and stress tolerance. In this DOE funded project, we have been working on harnessing beneficial bacterial endophytes to enhance switchgrass performance and to develop a low input feedstock production system for marginal lands that do not compete with the production of food crops. We have demonstrated that one of most promising plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize roots and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, greenhouse, as well as field conditions. Furthermore, PsJN bacterization improved growth and development of switchgrass seedlings, significantly stimulated plant root and shoot growth, and tiller number in the field, and enhanced biomass accumulation on both poor (p<0.001) and rich (p<0.05) soils, with more effective stimulation of plant growth in low fertility soil. Plant physiology measurements showed that PsJN inoculated Alamo had consistently lower transpiration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher water use efficiency in greenhouse conditions. These physiological changes may significantly contribute to the recorded growth enhancement. PsJN inoculation rapidly results in an increase in photosynthetic rates which contributes to the advanced growth and development. Some evidence suggests that this initial growth advantage decreases with time when resources are not limited such as in greenhouse studies. Additionally, better drought resistance and drought hardening were observed in PsJN inoculated switchgrass. Using the DOE-funded switchgrass EST microarray, in a collaboration with the Genomics Core Facility at the Noble Foundation, we have determined gene expression profile changes in both responsive switchgrass cv. Alamo and non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock (CR) following Ps

  18. Coastal bacterial viability and production in the eastern English Channel: A case study during a Phaeocystis globosa bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, D.; Artigas, L. F.; Jauzein, C.; Lizon, F.; Cornille, V.

    2006-10-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial standing stocks (total and viable cells) and production were determined in the coastal surface waters of the eastern English Channel, during different stages of a phytoplankton succession. Two coastal zones of variable freshwater influence were surveyed within the 'coastal flow system' (Wimereux and Somme Bay) where massive and recurrent Phaeocystis globosa blooms take place in spring. The proportion of intact (MEM+) cells, assessed by the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ (L/D) method, varied from 15 to 94% at the two coastal stations studied (median of 46%). MEM+ and total (DAPI) cell counts were significantly correlated over the study period, whereas the higher proportion of MEM+ cells did not correspond to an elevated bacterial cell production (BP). Low levels of living (potentially active) cells were nevertheless responsible for the high productivity levels within the bacterial community when the P. globosa bloom declined. Our study revealed that the bacterial carbon production/primary production ratios (BCP/PP) showed broad variations (7 to 111%) within each site, going from low values (7-16%) when the bloom was the most productive, to higher values (61-111%) at the end of the bloom. This suggested (i) a temporal uncoupling between bacteria and phytoplankton throughout the bloom duration and (ii) a drastic change of the amount of PP potentially processed by the bacterial community among high and low productive periods. The BCP increase after the decline of the P. globosa bloom implies that, at this time, a large part of the phytoplankton-derived organic matter (OM) was remineralised via the bacterial heterotrophic production. With respect to the L/D results, this bacterial remineralisation was due to a small yet productive total cell fraction.

  19. Production of bacterial cellulose membranes in a modified airlift bioreactor by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Chi; Li, Meng-Hsun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a novel bioreactor for producing bacterial cellulose (BC) is proposed. Traditional BC production uses static culture conditions and produces a gelatinous membrane. The potential for using various types of bioreactor, including a stirred tank, conventional airlift, and modified airlift with a rectangular wire-mesh draft tube, in large-scale production has been investigated. The BC obtained from these bioreactors is fibrous or in pellet form. Our proposed airlift bioreactor produces a membrane-type BC from Gluconacetobacter xylinus, the water-holding capacity of which is greater than that of cellulose types produced using static cultivation methods. The Young's modulus of the product can be manipulated by varying the number of net plates in the modified airlift bioreactor. The BC membrane produced using the proposed bioreactor exhibits potential for practical application. PMID:25823854

  20. Partial Characteristics of Hydrogen Production by Fermentative Hydrogen-producing Bacterial Strain B49

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiangjing(王相晶); Ren Nanqi; Xiang Wensheng; Lin Ming; Guo Wanqian

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of hydrogen production by a novel fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 (AF481148 in EMBL), batch experiments are conducted under different conditions. Hydrogen production has a correlation with cell growth and the consumption of glucose and soluble protein. The optimum pH for cell growth is 4.5±0.15. At acidic pH 4.0±0.15, the bacteria has the maximum accumulated hydrogen volume of 2382 ml/L culture and the maximum hydrogen evolution rate of 339.9 ml/L culture*h with 1% glucose. The optimum temperature for cell growth and hydrogen production is 35℃. In addition, fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 can generate hydrogen from the decomposition of other organic substrates such as wheat, soybean, corn, and potato. Moreover, it can also produce hydrogen from molasses wastewater and brewage wastewater, and hydrogen yields are 137.9 ml H2/g COD and 49.9 ml H2/g COD, respectively.

  1. Improvement of dielectrophoretic impedance measurement method by bacterial concentration utilizing negative dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, R [R and D Center, Panasonic Healthcare Co., Ltd., 2131-1, Minanikata, Toon, Ehime (Japan); Takayama, H; Shonishi, Y; Hisajima, T; Mao, L; Nakano, M; Suehiro, J, E-mail: hamada.ryo@jp.panasonic.com [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-08-17

    In this study, the concept design for the improvement of the bacterial detection sensitivity of the DEPIM (Dielectrophoretic Impedance Measurement) method has been proposed. The cells in the micro-chamber are repelled and concentrated by n-DEP (negative dielectrophosesis). The concentrated cells are captured by p-DEP (positive DEP) and detected by measuring the change in the electrical impedance. The numerical simulations and the preliminary test were performed to investigate the effectiveness of the n-DEP concentration. When n-DEP concentration was employed, the increase in the rate of the conductance became approximately two times higher than that obtained without n-DEP.

  2. Improvement of dielectrophoretic impedance measurement method by bacterial concentration utilizing negative dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the concept design for the improvement of the bacterial detection sensitivity of the DEPIM (Dielectrophoretic Impedance Measurement) method has been proposed. The cells in the micro-chamber are repelled and concentrated by n-DEP (negative dielectrophosesis). The concentrated cells are captured by p-DEP (positive DEP) and detected by measuring the change in the electrical impedance. The numerical simulations and the preliminary test were performed to investigate the effectiveness of the n-DEP concentration. When n-DEP concentration was employed, the increase in the rate of the conductance became approximately two times higher than that obtained without n-DEP.

  3. Size of bacterial ice-nucleation sites measured in situ by radiation inactivation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindarajan, A.G.; Lindow, S.E.

    1988-03-01

    Four bacterial species are known to catalyze ice formation at temperatures just below 0/sup 0/C. To better understand the relationship between the molecular structure of bacterial ice-nucleation site(s) and the quantitative and qualitative features of the ice-nucleation-active phenotype, the authors determined by ..gamma..-radiation analysis the in situ size of ice-nucleation sites in strains of Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia herbicola and in Escherichia coli HB101 carrying the plasmid pICE1.1. Lyophilized cells of each bacterial strain were irradiated with a flux of ..gamma.. radiation from 0 to 10.2 Mrad. Differential concentrations of active ice nuclei decreased as a first-order function of radiation dose in all strains as temperature was decreased from -2/sup 0/C to -14/sup 0/C in 1/sup 0/C intervals. Sizes of ice nuclei were calculated from the /sup +/-radiation flux at which 37% of initial ice nuclei active within each 1/sup 0/C temperature interval remained. The minimum mass of a functional ice nucleus was about 150 kDa for all strains. The size of ice nuclei increased logarithmically with increasing temperature from -12/sup 0/CC to -2/sup 0/C, where the estimated nucleant mass was 19,000 kDa. The ice nucleant in these three bacterial species may represent an oligomeric structure, composed at least in part of an ice gene product that can self-associate to assume many possible sizes.

  4. Production of recombinant proteins and metabolites in yeasts: when are these systems better than bacterial production systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Danilo; Gasser, Brigitte; Fossati, Tiziana; Maurer, Michael; Branduardi, Paola; Sauer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2011-02-01

    Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technologies allow the production of a wide range of peptides, proteins and metabolites from naturally non-producing cells. Since human insulin was the first heterologous compound produced in a laboratory in 1977, rDNA technology has become one of the most important technologies developed in the 20th century. Recombinant protein and metabolites production is a multi-billion dollar market. The development of a new product begins with the choice of the cell factory. The final application of the compound dictates the main criteria that should be taken into consideration: (1) quality, (2) quantity, (3) yield and (4) space time yield of the desired product. Quantity and quality are the most predominant requirements that must be considered for the commercial production of a protein. Quantity and yield are the requirements for the production of a metabolite. Finally, space time yield is crucial for any production process. It therefore becomes clear why the perfect host does not exist yet, and why-despite important advances in rDNA applications in higher eukaryotic cells-microbial biodiversity continues to represent a potential source of attractive cell factories. In this review, we compare the advantages and limitations of the principal yeast and bacterial workhorse systems. PMID:21125266

  5. Bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus by employing alternative culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; Pértile, Renata Aparecida Nedel; dos Santos, Carolina Alves; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Gama, Francisco Miguel; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is used in different fields as a biological material due to its unique properties. Despite there being many BC applications, there still remain many problems associated with bioprocess technology, such as increasing productivity and decreasing production cost. New technologies that use waste from the food industry as raw materials for culture media promote economic advantages because they reduce environmental pollution and stimulate new research for science sustainability. For this reason, BC production requires optimized conditions to increase its application. The main objective of this study was to evaluate BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus using industry waste, namely, rotten fruits and milk whey, as culture media. Furthermore, the structure of BC produced at different conditions was also determined. The culture media employed in this study were composed of rotten fruit collected from the disposal of free markets, milk whey from a local industrial disposal, and their combination, and Hestrin and Schramm media was used as standard culture media. Although all culture media studied produced BC, the highest BC yield-60 mg/mL-was achieved with the rotten fruit culture. Thus, the results showed that rotten fruit can be used for BC production. This culture media can be considered as a profitable alternative to generate high-value products. In addition, it combines environmental concern with sustainable processes that can promote also the reduction of production cost. PMID:25472434

  6. Effects of aromatic compounds on the production of bacterial nanocellulose by Gluconacetobacter xylinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymeric nanostructured fibrillar network produced by certain microorganisms, principally Gluconacetobacter xylinus. BC has a great potential of application in many fields. Lignocellulosic biomass has been investigated as a cost-effective feedstock for BC production through pretreatment and hydrolysis. It is well known that detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates may be required to achieve efficient production of BC. Recent results suggest that phenolic compounds contribute to the inhibition of G. xylinus. However, very little is known about the effect on G. xylinus of specific lignocellulose-derived inhibitors. In this study, the inhibitory effects of four phenolic model compounds (coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, vanillin and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) on the growth of G. xylinus, the pH of the culture medium, and the production of BC were investigated in detail. The stability of the phenolics in the bacterial cultures was investigated and the main bioconversion products were identified and quantified. Results Coniferyl aldehyde was the most potent inhibitor, followed by vanillin, ferulic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. There was no BC produced even with coniferyl aldehyde concentrations as low as 2 mM. Vanillin displayed a negative effect on the bacteria and when the vanillin concentration was raised to 2.5 mM the volumetric yield of BC decreased to ~40% of that obtained in control medium without inhibitors. The phenolic acids, ferulic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, showed almost no toxic effects when less than 2.5 mM. The bacterial cultures oxidized coniferyl aldehyde to ferulic acid with a yield of up to 81%. Vanillin was reduced to vanillyl alcohol with a yield of up to 80%. Conclusions This is the first investigation of the effect of specific phenolics on the production of BC by G. xylinus, and is also the first demonstration of the ability of G. xylinus to convert phenolic compounds. This study gives a

  7. Bacterial production determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation in field rhizospheres as evaluated by comparison to rhizodeposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming; Christensen, Søren

    1995-01-01

    .2–15 × 104 cells g-1 soil) as well as elevated thymidine incorporation (9.7–12 pmol g-1 soil) in rhizosphere soil compared to bulk soil. Rhizodeposition, as determined by several pulse labellings with 14CO2, was estimated to be 412 µg C g-1 dry wt soil in the 0–15 cm layer. Bacterial production, as......In a sandy loam soil cropped to barley bacterial production in the rhizosphere was compared to the results of a parallel investigation on rhizodeposition. Bacterial production was stimulated in the rhizosphere as revealed by an increased biomass of bacteria (643–883 µg C g-1 soil) and protozoa (7...... determined by incorporation of 3H-labelled thymidine converted to bacterial C, revealed a plant-induced formation of 1348 µg bacterial C g-1 soil in the 0–15 cm layer. This is probably the first estimate for bacterial production based on thymidine incorporation which has been compared to an estimate of C...

  8. "Productivity performance measurement - follow-up"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Health has published the third annual report on hospital productivity. This experience has contributed to policy goals becoming more detailed and ambitious. New policy goals are: to include hospital productivity measures at less aggregated levels, to include labour producti......The Danish Ministry of Health has published the third annual report on hospital productivity. This experience has contributed to policy goals becoming more detailed and ambitious. New policy goals are: to include hospital productivity measures at less aggregated levels, to include labour...... productivity and hospital psychiatric care, to provide web-based solutions that facilitate access to productivity data, and to develop new classifications of hospital levels related to structural reforms....

  9. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of bacteria ranged from 3.0 × 105 to 5.0 × 105 cfu/g in uncontaminated soils and 1.0 × 105 to 3.0 × 105 cfu/g in contaminated soils. The isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium variabilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. The contamination had no significant effect on pH, potassium, sodium, organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soils, while the moisture, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the contaminated soils were significantly different (P < 0.05 compared with the uncontaminated soils. The ability of Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to utilize the refined petroleum products suggest that these bacteria had potential to bioremediate petroleum contaminated soils.

  10. Effect of grazers and viruses on bacterial community structure and production in two contrasting trophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domaizon Isabelle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last 30 years, extensive studies have revealed the crucial roles played by microbes in aquatic ecosystems. It has been shown that bacteria, viruses and protozoan grazers are dominant in terms of abundance and biomass. The frequent interactions between these microbiological compartments are responsible for strong trophic links from dissolved organic matter to higher trophic levels, via heterotrophic bacteria, which form the basis for the important biogeochemical roles of microbial food webs in aquatic ecosystems. To gain a better understanding of the interactions between bacteria, viruses and flagellates in lacustrine ecosystems, we investigated the effect of protistan bacterivory on bacterial abundance, production and structure [determined by 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE], and viral abundance and activity of two lakes of contrasting trophic status. Four experiments were conducted in the oligotrophic Lake Annecy and the mesotrophic Lake Bourget over two seasons (early spring vs. summer using a fractionation approach. In situ dark vs. light incubations were performed to consider the effects of the different treatments in the presence and absence of phototrophic activity. Results The presence of grazers (i.e. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of a synergistic effect, i.e. the positive influence of grazers on viral activities in sustaining (directly and indirectly bacterial production and affecting composition, in both oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes.

  11. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bacterial Ghost (BG platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8–10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology.

  12. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a signi...

  13. A Novel Small-Caliber Bacterial Cellulose Vascular Prosthesis: Production, Characterization, and Preliminary In Vivo Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Alexandre F; Faria, Miguel A; Faustino, Augusto M R; Moreira, Ricardo; Mela, Petra; Loureiro, Luís; Silva, Ivone; Gama, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Vascular grafts are used to bypass damaged or diseased blood vessels. Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been studied for use as an off-the-shelf graft. Herein, we present a novel, cost-effective, method for the production of small caliber BC grafts with minimal processing or requirements. The morphology of the graft wall produced a tensile strength above that of native vessels, performing similarly to the current commercial alternatives. As a result of the production method, the luminal surface of the graft presents similar topography to that of native vessels. We have also studied the in vivo behavior of these BC graft in order to further demonstrate their viability. In these preliminary studies, 1 month patency was achieved, with the presence of neo-vessels and endothelial cells on the luminal surface of the graft. PMID:26388180

  14. Quantum entanglement measure based on wedge product

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Hoshang

    2006-01-01

    We construct an entanglement measure that coincides with the generalized concurrence for a general pure bipartite state based on wedge product. Moreover, we construct an entanglement measure for pure multi-qubit states, which are entanglement monotone. Furthermore, we generalize our result on a general pure multipartite state.

  15. BIOSECURITY MEASURES IN INTENSIVE PIG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Antunović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary pig production requires high demand on breeding large number of animals/pigs in a relatively small space while attaining maximum productivity. Their productivity is related to their health and ever-growing concern about less use of antibiotics in pig production. Measures have been taken to prevent diseases rather than cure them. Biosecurity measures prevent entry of pathogens into farm and their transmission between buildings. There are many critical points that must be taken care of: location, workers, farm entrance, breeding progeny, semen, transport animals, food, dead animals, feces, waste water, DDD, biosecurity in buildings etc. Standardized rules of biosecurity on farms need to be strictly followed to maintain high production.

  16. Performance Measurement in Global Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    An organisation looking to form collaborations across borders is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. Recent studies highlighted key challenges and success factors organisation’s face when globalising stages of product development. To optimize performance along these factors...... there is a requirement for the process to be monitored and measured relative to the business strategy of an organisation. It was found that performance measurement is a process that helps achieve sustainable business success, encouraging a learning culture within organisations. To this day, much of the...... research into how performance is measured has focussed on the process of product development. However, exploration of performance measurement related to global product development is relatively unexplored and a need for further research is evident. This paper contributes towards understanding how...

  17. Diel variability of heterotrophic bacterial production and UV doses in the South East Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diel variability of heterotrophic bacterial production (BP was investigated in the South East Pacific from October to December 2004 during the BIOSOPE cruise. Three sites differing by their trophic status were studied: Marquesas Islands (MAR; 08° S, 141° W, the centre of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG (GYR; 26° S, 114° W and the eastern part of the SPG (EGY; 32° S, 91° W. At the three sites, diel variability of BP ranged from 17 to 40% and from 13 to 22% for volumetric surface (5 m and integrated (to Ze and Zm data, respectively. The main feature we observed was at 5 m, an abrupt increase (×2 to ×4 in leucine activity during the afternoon-sunset period (12:00–18:00 at the site MAR and 15:00–21:00 at the site GYR and lowest activities recorded between 10:00 and 14:00. To assess the potential influence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR: 280–400 nm on this BP diel variability, we determined, from in situ optical measurements, the mean tri-hourly ultraviolet B (UVB, 305 nm and ultraviolet A (UVA, 380 nm doses (irradiances integrated over time within the mixed layer (Hm(UVB and Hm(UVA, respectively. The wavelengths 305 nm and 380 nm were used as biologically effective wavelengths for the induction of DNA damages (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers: CPDs and photoenzymatic repairs (PERs, respectively. In the SPG, daily Hm(UVB and Hm(UVA were 0.6 and 14 kJ m−2 nm−1, respectively. The latter were probably the highest daily doses ever measured in the marine environment. The Hm(UVB/Hm(UVA ratio (Q increased by 58, 117 and 46% from 06:00–09:00 to 12:00–15:00, and decreased by 36, 26 and 16% from 12:00–15:00 to 15:00–18:00 at the sites MAR, GYR and EGY, respectively. The relationship between Q and BP suggested a significant influence of UVR on the diel

  18. Measuring seaports’ productivity: A Malmquist productivity index decomposition approach

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses three different Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) decompositions to measure Greek seaports’ productivity for the time period 2006-2010. In addition bootstrap techniques are applied in order for confidence intervals of the MPIs and their components to be constructed and therefore to verify if the indicated changes are significant in a statistical sense. Finally, a second stage nonparametric analysis has been applied identifying the effect of seaports’ size on their productivit...

  19. Bacterial community structure and variation in a full-scale seawater desalination plant for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belila, A; El-Chakhtoura, J; Otaibi, N; Muyzer, G; Gonzalez-Gil, G; Saikaly, P E; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-05-01

    Microbial processes inevitably play a role in membrane-based desalination plants, mainly recognized as membrane biofouling. We assessed the bacterial community structure and diversity during different treatment steps in a full-scale seawater desalination plant producing 40,000 m(3)/d of drinking water. Water samples were taken over the full treatment train consisting of chlorination, spruce media and cartridge filters, de-chlorination, first and second pass reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and final chlorine dosage for drinking water distribution. The water samples were analyzed for water quality parameters (total bacterial cell number, total organic carbon, conductivity, pH, etc.) and microbial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The planktonic microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria (48.6%) followed by Bacteroidetes (15%), Firmicutes (9.3%) and Cyanobacteria (4.9%). During the pretreatment step, the spruce media filter did not impact the bacterial community composition dominated by Proteobacteria. In contrast, the RO and final chlorination treatment steps reduced the Proteobacterial relative abundance in the produced water where Firmicutes constituted the most dominant bacterial group. Shannon and Chao1 diversity indices showed that bacterial species richness and diversity decreased during the seawater desalination process. The two-stage RO filtration strongly reduced the water conductivity (>99%), TOC concentration (98.5%) and total bacterial cell number (>99%), albeit some bacterial DNA was found in the water after RO filtration. About 0.25% of the total bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in all stages of the desalination plant: the seawater, the RO permeates and the chlorinated drinking water, suggesting that these bacterial strains can survive in different environments such as high/low salt concentration and with/without residual disinfectant. These bacterial strains were not caused by contamination during

  20. Bacterial community structure and variation in a full-scale seawater desalination plant for drinking water production

    KAUST Repository

    Belila, A.

    2016-02-18

    Microbial processes inevitably play a role in membrane-based desalination plants, mainly recognized as membrane biofouling. We assessed the bacterial community structure and diversity during different treatment steps in a full-scale seawater desalination plant producing 40,000 m3/d of drinking water. Water samples were taken over the full treatment train consisting of chlorination, spruce media and cartridge filters, de-chlorination, first and second pass reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and final chlorine dosage for drinking water distribution. The water samples were analyzed for water quality parameters (total bacterial cell number, total organic carbon, conductivity, pH, etc.) and microbial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The planktonic microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria (48.6%) followed by Bacteroidetes (15%), Firmicutes (9.3%) and Cyanobacteria (4.9%). During the pretreatment step, the spruce media filter did not impact the bacterial community composition dominated by Proteobacteria. In contrast, the RO and final chlorination treatment steps reduced the Proteobacterial relative abundance in the produced water where Firmicutes constituted the most dominant bacterial group. Shannon and Chao1 diversity indices showed that bacterial species richness and diversity decreased during the seawater desalination process. The two-stage RO filtration strongly reduced the water conductivity (>99%), TOC concentration (98.5%) and total bacterial cell number (>99%), albeit some bacterial DNA was found in the water after RO filtration. About 0.25% of the total bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in all stages of the desalination plant: the seawater, the RO permeates and the chlorinated drinking water, suggesting that these bacterial strains can survive in different environments such as high/low salt concentration and with/without residual disinfectant. These bacterial strains were not caused by contamination during

  1. Production of bacterial cellulose with controlled deuterium-hydrogen substitution for neutron scattering studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Hugh; Shah, Riddhi; Evans, Barbara R; He, Junhong; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Jones, A Daniel; Langan, Paul; Davison, Brian H; Urban, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic enrichment of biomacromolecules is a widely used technique that enables the investigation of the structural and dynamic properties to provide information not accessible with natural abundance isotopic composition. This study reports an approach for deuterium incorporation into bacterial cellulose. A media formulation for growth of Acetobacter xylinus subsp. sucrofermentans and Gluconacetobacter hansenii was formulated that supports cellulose production in deuterium (D) oxide. The level of D incorporation can be varied by altering the ratio of deuterated and protiated glycerol used during cell growth in the D2O-based growth medium. Spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry show that the level of deuterium incorporation is high (>90%) for the perdeuterated form of bacterial cellulose. The small-angle neutron scattering profiles of the cellulose with different amounts of D incorporation are all similar indicating that there are no structural changes in the cellulose due to substitution of deuterium for hydrogen. In addition, by varying the amount of deuterated glycerol in the media it was possible to vary the scattering length density of the deuterated cellulose. The ability to control deuterium content of cellulose extends the range of experiments using techniques such as neutron scattering to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of cellulose, and its interactions with other biomacromolecules as well as synthetic polymers used for development of composite materials. PMID:26577730

  2. ATLAS measurements of vector boson production

    CERN Document Server

    Debenedetti, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Vector boson production in pp collisions at 7, 8 and 13 TeV has been extensively studied by ATLAS. Recent results include the precision measurements of the transverse momentum of the Z/gamma* boson production, sensitive to soft resummation effects, hard jet emissions and electroweak corrections. A precise measurement of the angular coefficients of the Z­boson production tests the underlying QCD dynamics of the Drell­Yan process. A first measurement of the inclusive W and Z cross section at a cms energy of 13TeV has been derived. The Production of jets in association with a vector boson is an important process to study QCD in a multi­scale environment. Cross sections, differential in several kinematics variables, have been measured with the ATLAS detector and compared to state­of­the­art QCD calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. First measurements of vector boson + jets production have been performed at cms energies of 13TeV. An overview of these results is given.

  3. High-throughput assessment of bacterial ecology in hog, cow and ovine casings used in sausages production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecchi, Annalisa; Pisacane, Vincenza; Miragoli, Francesco; Polka, Justyna; Falasconi, Irene; Morelli, Lorenzo; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2015-11-01

    Natural casings derived from different intestine portions have been used for centuries in the production of fresh and dry-fermented sausages. Here we analysed by means of culture-dependent methods and Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons the bacterial ecology of hog, cow and ovine casings at different stages of their preparation for sausages production. Several strains of Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Vagococcus and Clostridium were counted, isolated and characterised at phylogenetic level. High-throughput sequencing analyses revealed a high bacterial diversity, which differed strongly between casings of different animal species. The technological processes involved in the preparation for casing had also a strong impact on the casings bacterial ecology, with a significant reduction of undesired microorganisms, and an increase in the proportion of lactobacilli and staphylococci. Natural casings were demonstrated to be complex ecological environments, whose role as microbiological inoculants in the production of sausages should not be underestimated. PMID:26003605

  4. Bacterial production of conjugated linoleic and linolenic Acid in foods: a technological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Lara; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc; De Smet, Stefaan; Raes, Katleen

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomers are present in foods derived from ruminants as a result of the respective linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) metabolism by ruminal microorganisms and in animals' tissues. CLA and CLNA have isomer-specific, health-promoting properties, including anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activity, as well as the ability to reduce body fat. Besides ruminal microorganisms, such as Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, many food-grade bacteria, such as bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and propionibacteria, are able to convert LA and LNA to CLA and CLNA, respectively. Linoleate isomerase activity, responsible for this conversion, is strain-dependent and probably related to the ability of the producer strain to tolerate the toxic effects of LA and LNA. Since natural concentrations of CLA and CLNA in ruminal food products are relatively low to exert their health benefits, food-grade bacteria with linoleate isomerase activity could be used as starter or adjunct cultures to develop functional fermented dairy and meat products with increased levels of CLA and CLNA or included in fermented products as probiotic cultures. However, results obtained so far are below expectations due to technological bottlenecks. More research is needed to assess if bacterial production kinetics can be increased and can match food processing requirements. PMID:24915316

  5. Optimization of bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus using carob and haricot bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgi, Eyup; Bayir, Ece; Sendemir-Urkmez, Aylin; Hames, E Esin

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) can be used in medical, biomedical, electronic, food, and paper industries because of its unique properties distinguishing it from plant cellulose. BC production was statistically optimized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain using carob and haricot bean (CHb) medium. Eight parameters were evaluated by Plackett-Burman Design and significant three parameters were optimized by Central Composite Design. Optimal conditions for production of BC in static culture were found as: 2.5g/L carbon source, 2.75g/L protein source, 9.3% inoculum ratio, 1.15g/L citric acid, 2.7g/L Na2HPO4, 30°C incubation temperature, 5.5 initial pH, and 9days of incubation. This study reveals that BC production can be carried out using carob and haricot bean extracts as carbon and nitrogen sources, and CHb medium has higher buffering capacity compared to Hestrin and Schramm media. Model obtained from this study is used to predict and optimize BC production yield using CHb medium. PMID:26906562

  6. Enhanced production of bacterial cellulose by using a biofilm reactor and its material property analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirci Ali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial cellulose has been used in the food industry for applications such as low-calorie desserts, salads, and fabricated foods. It has also been used in the paper manufacturing industry to enhance paper strength, the electronics industry in acoustic diaphragms for audio speakers, the pharmaceutical industry as filtration membranes, and in the medical field as wound dressing and artificial skin material. In this study, different types of plastic composite support (PCS were implemented separately within a fermentation medium in order to enhance bacterial cellulose (BC production by Acetobacter xylinum. The optimal composition of nutritious compounds in PCS was chosen based on the amount of BC produced. The selected PCS was implemented within a bioreactor to examine the effects on BC production in a batch fermentation. The produced BC was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. Among thirteen types of PCS, the type SFYR+ was selected as solid support for BC production by A. xylinum in a batch biofilm reactor due to its high nitrogen content, moderate nitrogen leaching rate, and sufficient biomass attached on PCS. The PCS biofilm reactor yielded BC production (7.05 g/L that was 2.5-fold greater than the control (2.82 g/L. The XRD results indicated that the PCS-grown BC exhibited higher crystallinity (93% and similar crystal size (5.2 nm to the control. FESEM results showed the attachment of A. xylinum on PCS, producing an interweaving BC product. TGA results demonstrated that PCS-grown BC had about 95% water retention ability, which was lower than BC produced within suspended-cell reactor. PCS-grown BC also exhibited higher Tmax compared to the control. Finally, DMA results showed that BC from the PCS biofilm reactor increased its mechanical property values, i.e., stress at break and Young's modulus when compared to

  7. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized th...

  8. The bacterial community during early production stages of intensively reared halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rannveig Björnsdóttir 1959

    2010-01-01

    High bacterial numbers and the establishment of an unfavourable bacterial community has been identified as possible causes of the high mortalities commonly observed during early life stages of intensively reared Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). The impact of particular bacterial species is, however, poorly defined and still remains disputable. Highly variable larval survival and overall success were observed and analysis of the bacterial community revealed a high variatio...

  9. Measurement of Highly Qualified Employees Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese TOKARČÍKOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays all economies are more and more based on knowledge and information. Economists therefore are increasingly interested in the measurement of productivity of highly qualified employees. While in the case of other factors of production (labour, land, capital we know the number of economic and statistical approaches how to deal with the measurement of efficiency or productivity, there is no single methodology in relation to highly qualified employees. Also there is a lack of an internationally agreed definition of highly qualified employees. This article offers possible approaches in this field focusing mainly on a staff segment with tertiary education. Although measuring of qualitative impacts is sometimes difficult, it does not mean that it is impossible. On the contrary, properly interpreted and applied indicators increase employment on the labour market and reinforce the positive contributions of highly qualified employees in the business.

  10. Prospecting for new bacterial metabolites: a glossary of approaches for inducing, activating and upregulating the biosynthesis of bacterial cryptic or silent natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarins-Tutt, Joseph Scott; Barberi, Tania Triscari; Gao, Hong; Mearns-Spragg, Andrew; Zhang, Lixin; Newman, David J; Goss, Rebecca Jane Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Covering: up to 2015. Over the centuries, microbial secondary metabolites have played a central role in the treatment of human diseases and have revolutionised the pharmaceutical industry. With the increasing number of sequenced microbial genomes revealing a plethora of novel biosynthetic genes, natural product drug discovery is entering an exciting second golden age. Here, we provide a concise overview as an introductory guide to the main methods employed to unlock or up-regulate these so called 'cryptic', 'silent' and 'orphan' gene clusters, and increase the production of the encoded natural product. With a predominant focus on bacterial natural products we will discuss the importance of the bioinformatics approach for genome mining, the use of first different and simple culturing techniques and then the application of genetic engineering to unlock the microbial treasure trove. PMID:26538321

  11. Identification and characterization of a bacterial hyaluronidase and its production in recombinant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Luciano; Gavira, Jose A; Pernagallo, Salvatore; Unciti-Broceta, Juan D; Sanchez Martin, Rosario M; Diaz-Mochon, Juan J; Vaccaro, Susanna; Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Pineda-Molina, Estela; Caruso, Salvatore; Musumeci, Luca; Di Pasquale, Roberta; Pontillo, Angela; Sincinelli, Francesca; Pavan, Mauro; Secchieri, Cynthia

    2016-07-01

    Hyaluronidases (Hyals) are broadly used in medical applications to facilitate the dispersion and/or absorption of fluids or medications. This study reports the isolation, cloning, and industrial-scale recombinant production, purification and full characterization, including X-ray structure determination at 1.45 Å, of an extracellular Hyal from the nonpathogenic bacterium Streptomyces koganeiensis. The recombinant S. koganeiensis Hyal (rHyal_Sk) has a novel bacterial catalytic domain with high enzymatic activity, compared with commercially available Hyals, and is more thermostable and presents higher proteolytic resistance, with activity over a broad pH range. Moreover, rHyal_Sk exhibits remarkable substrate specificity for hyaluronic acid (HA) and poses no risk of animal cross-infection. PMID:27311405

  12. Bacterial production in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil evaluated by ³H-leucine incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra M. Gonzalez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the necessary ³H-leucine concentration to estimate bacterial production in Guanabara Bay through saturation curves. A second aim was to collect preliminary data of bacterial production in two distinct sites corresponding to different water qualities: Urca inlet and Governador Island. Saturation curves were made with water samples taken at the main circulation channel of the bay, Paquetá Island, and the two sites mentioned before. The ³H-leucine curves showed similar pattern for all studied areas, indicating the ideal isotope concentration to be 10 nM. Bacterial biomass production ranged from 0.40 to 4.53 µgC L-1 h-1 in Urca and from 3.86 to 73.72 µgC L-1 h-1 in Governador Island indicating the relationship between nutrients and organic matter supply and bacterial productivity. This work is an important reference for studies on trophodynamics, biogeochemical cycles and modelling in Guanabara Bay.O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar curvas de saturação a fim de otimizar a concentração de ³H-leucina necessária para avaliar produção bacteriana na Baía de Guanabara. Objetivou-se ainda a aquisição de dados preliminares de produção bacteriana em dois locais distintos em termos de qualidade de água : enseada da Urca e Ilha do Governador. As amostras para as curvas foram obtidas na região do Canal Central e na Ilha de Paquetá, além dos dois locais de coleta citados acima. Seguiu-se a metodologia descrita por Kirchman et al. (1985 e modificada por Smith & Azam (1992. As curvas de ³H-leucina mostraram um padrão semelhante para todas as áreas estudadas, indicando a concentração ótima de isótopo de 10 nM. A produção de biomassa bacteriana variou de 0,40 a 4,53 µgC L-1 h-1 na Urca e de 3,86 a 73,72 µgC L-1 h-1 na Ilha do Governador confirmando a relação entre a disponibilidade de nutrientes e matéria orgânica e o aumento da produtividade bacteriana. Essas análises poderão ser

  13. Construction of force measuring optical tweezers instrumentation and investigations of biophysical properties of bacterial adhesion organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers are a technique in which microscopic-sized particles, including living cells and bacteria, can be non-intrusively trapped with high accuracy solely using focused light. The technique has therefore become a powerful tool in the field of biophysics. Optical tweezers thereby provide outstanding manipulation possibilities of cells as well as semi-transparent materials, both non-invasively and non-destructively, in biological systems. In addition, optical tweezers can measure minute forces (< 10-12 N), probe molecular interactions and their energy landscapes, and apply both static and dynamic forces in biological systems in a controlled manner. The assessment of intermolecular forces with force measuring optical tweezers, and thereby the biomechanical structure of biological objects, has therefore considerably facilitated our understanding of interactions and structures of biological systems. Adhesive bacterial organelles, so called pili, mediate adhesion to host cells and are therefore crucial...

  14. Bacterial diversity and mycotoxin reduction during maize fermentation (steeping for ogi production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiamaka A Okeke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity and community structure of two maize varieties (white and yellow during fermentation/steeping for ogi production, and the influence of spontaneous fermentation on mycotoxin reduction in the gruel were studied. A total of 142 bacterial isolates obtained at 24–96h intervals were preliminarily identified by conventional microbiological methods while 60 selected isolates were clustered into 39 OTUs consisting of 15 species, 10 genera and 3 phyla by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Lactic acid bacteria constituted about 63% of all isolated bacteria and the genus Pediococcus dominated (white maize = 84.8%; yellow maize = 74.4%. Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus paraplantarum were found at all steeping intervals of white and yellow maize, respectively, while P. claussenii was present only at the climax stage of steeping white maize. In both maize varieties, P. pentosaceus was found at 24–72h. Mycotoxin concentrations (µg/kg in the unsteeped grains were: white maize (aflatoxin B1 = 0.60; citrinin = 85.8; cyclopiazonic acid = 23.5; fumonisins (B1/B2/B3 = 68.4–483; zearalenone = 3.3 and yellow maize (aflatoxins (B1/B2/M1 = 22.7–513; citrinin = 16,800; cyclopiazonic acid = 247; fumonisins (B1/B2/B3 = 252–1,586; zearalenone = 205. Mycotoxins in both maize varieties were significantly (p<0.05 reduced across steeping periods. This study reports for the first time: (a the association of L. paraplantarum, P. acidilactici and P. claussenii with ogi production from maize, (b citrinin occurrence in Nigerian maize and ogi, and (c aflatoxin M1, citrinin and cyclopiazonic acid degradation/loss due to fermentation in traditional cereal-based fermented food.

  15. Fruit peels support higher yield and superior quality bacterial cellulose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Jyoti Vasant; Rajwade, Jyutika Milind; Paknikar, Kishore Madhukar

    2015-08-01

    Fruit peels, also known as rinds or skins, are wastes readily available in large quantities. Here, we have used pineapple (PA) and watermelon (WM) peels as substrates in the culture media (containing 5 % sucrose and 0.7 % ammonium sulfate) for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). The bacterial culture used in the study, Komagataeibacter hansenii produced BC under static conditions as a pellicle at the air-liquid interface in standard Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium. The yield obtained was ~3.0 g/100 ml (on a wet weight basis). The cellulosic nature of the pellicle was confirmed by CO2, H2O, N2, and SO2 (CHNS) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the pellicle revealed the presence of flat twisted ribbonlike fibrils (70-130 nm wide). X-ray diffraction analysis proved its crystalline nature (matching cellulose I) with a crystallinity index of 67 %. When K. hansenii was grown in PA and WM media, BC yields were threefolds or fourfolds higher than those obtained in HS medium. Interestingly, textural characterization tests (viz., SEM, crystallinity index, resilience, hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, shear energy and stress, and energy required for puncturing the pellicle) proved that the quality of BC produced in PA and WM media was superior to the BC produced in HS medium. These findings demonstrate the utility of the newly designed media for getting higher yields and better quality of BC, which could make fermentative production of BC more attractive on a commercial scale. PMID:25957154

  16. Food additives reduce lactic acid bacterial growth in culture medium and in meat products, increasing product shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Mendes Pereira Sarmento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in meat and meat products leads to product spoilage, and thus shortens product shelf life. Although food additives are known to decrease LAB growth, this effect has not been analyzed in detail. Here, a detailed analysis was performed of the effects of sodium chloride, sodium polyphosphate, sodium lactate, sodium nitrite/nitrate, and garlic on the growth of the Lactobacillus plantarum in culture medium. The results were used to design and test experimental formulations of meat products. Initially, the effect of food additives on L. plantarum was evaluated using a Fractional Factorial Design (FFD, followed by a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD. The Modified Gompertz Model was adjusted to the growth curves to determine the Kinetic parameters of bacterial growth (logarithmic increase in the population, specific growth rate, and lag phase extension. Higher sodium lactate and sodium chloride levels had a negative impact on L. plantarum growth parameters (p?0.05. Therefore, we designed experimental formulations of mortadella and smoked pork sausages containing 4% sodium lactate (w w-1 and 2.4-3.5% sodium chloride (w w-1, and determined LAB growth from samples of stored products produced according to these formulations, in order to determine product shelf life. There was an increased lag phase of LAB growth for most experimental formulations. Also, the experimental smoked pork sausages had a longer shelf life, which was increased by at least 22 days, suggesting that the proposed formulation, with higher than standard lactate concentration, increased the product’s shelf life.

  17. Pesticide side effects in an agricultural soil ecosystem as measured by amoA expression quantification and bacterial diversity changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Hjort Hjelmsø, Mathis; Schostag, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    of specific microbial genes or as changes in diversity. To assess the impact of pesticides on gene expression, we focused on the amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation. We hypothesized that the amount of amoA transcript decreases upon pesticide application, and to test this hypothesis, we used...... soil microcosms and exposed them to dazomet, mancozeb or no pesticide. Treatment with dazomet reduced both the bacterial and archaeal amoA transcript numbers by more than two log units and produced long-term effects for more than 28 days. Mancozeb also inhibited the numbers of amoA transcripts......, but only transiently. The bacterial and archaeal amoA transcripts were both sensitive bioindicators of pesticide side effects. Additionally, the numbers of bacterial amoA transcripts correlated with nitrate production in N-amended microcosms. Dazomet reduced the total bacterial numbers by one log unit...

  18. Top pair production measurements at ATLAS.

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Federica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential top-quark pair cross sections in proton-proton collisions at both 8 TeV and 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of the top quark production are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top pair production in the TeV regime. The results, extrapolated to particle and parton level, are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NNLO QCD calculations.

  19. On ws-convergence of product measures

    OpenAIRE

    Balder, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    A canonical redecomposition makes it possible to study the wstopology for measures on a product space by means of recent techniques developed for the narrow topology for transition probabilities Thus a central result is obtained that generalizes both Prohorovs theorem and Komlos theorem it is in terms of pointwise wconvergence of averages of transition measures Komlosconvergence New results for sequential wsconvergence follow these include two versions of Prohorovs theorem for relative sequen...

  20. Performance Measurement in Global Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    An organisation looking to form collaborations across borders is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. Recent studies highlighted key challenges and success factors organisation’s face when globalising stages of product development. To optimize performance along these factors there is a requirement for the process to be monitored and measured relative to the business strategy of an organisation. It was found that performance measurement is a process that helps achieve sus...

  1. ATLAS measurements of vector boson production

    CERN Document Server

    Vittori, Camilla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell­Yan production of W and Z/gamma* bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center­of­mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. In the 8 TeV data, we present recent measurements in the di­lepton mass range up to the TeV scale, double­differentially in dilepton mass and rapidity(­separation). The measurements are compared to state­of­the­art calculations at NNLO in QCD and constrain the photon content of the proton. First precise inclusive measurements of W and Z production at 13 TeV are presented. W/Z and W charge ratios profit from a cancellation of experimental uncertainties. The angular distributions of the Drell­Yan lepton pairs around the Z­boson mass peak probe the underlying QCD dynamic of the Z­boson production mechanisms. We present a measurement of the complete set of angular coefficients describing these distributions...

  2. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates. PMID:25498666

  3. On ws-convergence of product measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    A canonical redecomposition makes it possible to study the wstopology for measures on a product space by means of recent techniques developed for the narrow topology for transition probabilities Thus a central result is obtained that generalizes both Prohorovs theorem and Komlos theorem it is in ter

  4. PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A journal article by: Ernst Worrell1, John A. Laitner, Michael Ruth, and Hodayah Finman Abstract: We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published dat...

  5. Productivity measures and the "new economy"

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Carlson; Schweitzer, Mark E.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. economy's recent extraordinary performance has led some to claim that trend output growth is accelerating to a much higher rate than any we have experienced in a quarter century; they also maintain that the signs of productivity's acceleration have been masked by measurement problems. The authors, however, find scant evidence to support such claims.

  6. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

    2015-04-20

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC. PMID:25662694

  7. Measurement strategies for the determination of airborne bacterial endotoxin in sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Jörgen; Beijer, Lena; Jonsson, Titti; Rylander, Ragnar

    2002-08-01

    Working in sewage plants can involve exposure to different types of microorganisms, viruses and chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different measurement strategies to determine airborne bacterial endotoxin in such plants. Sewage treatment plants in three municipalities in western Sweden were included. Measurements of airborne endotoxin were performed in April-May and September-October 2001 using personal and stationary samplers. The air sampling times ranged from 60 to 444 min. In stationary and personal sampler measurements, the amounts of airborne endotoxin detected were generally low. At specific worksites, however, higher endotoxin values were identified, with the highest values at worksites located indoors. The results suggest that the exposure situation is relatively stable over a short time period at a specific worksite and that higher values can be recorded during work practices where agitation of wastewater occurs. The results further suggest that airborne endotoxin exposure situations in sewage treatment plants are complex. Sampling techniques, indoor/outdoor measurements and identification of specific worksites/tasks where there is a risk of airborne endotoxin exposure are important factors that must be considered in order to obtain relevant exposure determinations and establish preventive measures from a health risk perspective. PMID:12176770

  8. Measurement of radioactivity in volcanic products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Jun

    1988-10-01

    Radioactivity in volcanic products was measured for obtaining new knowledge about volcano. A distribution map of /sup 2//sup 2//sup 8/Ra//sup 2//sup 2//sup 6/Ra in the volcanic products of Japanese Islands volcanic front was prepared. From the map, it was understood that only Izu-Mariana Arc was different from other series of vocanos. Concerning Volcano Sakurajima, /sup 2//sup 2//sup 2/Rn//sup 2//sup 2//sup 0/Rn ratio in the pumice produced by the eruption was measured for studying its change with days after creation. Regarding the lava of Miyake Island, change of /sup 2//sup 1//sup 4/Bi with time was measured. 3 figures.

  9. Change in singing voice production, objectively measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Harm K; Stark, James A; Miller, Donald G

    2003-12-01

    Although subglottal pressures in conversational speech are relatively easily measured and thus known, the higher values that sometimes occur in singing (especially in tenors) have received little attention in the literature. Still more unusual is the opportunity to measure a large-scale change over decades in the application of pressure in singing production. This study compares measurements of subglottal pressure in a tenor/singing teacher (JS) at two points in his career: in his early thirties, when he was a subject in HS's dissertation study on the efficiency of voice production; and recently, in his fifties, in connection with JS's forthcoming book on the history of the pedagogy of Bel Canto. Although a single case study, its points of special interest include the high values initially measured (up to 100 cm H2O) and the reduction of this figure by more than 50% in the maximal values of the recent measurements. The study compares these values with those of other singers in the same laboratory (both with esophageal balloon and directly, with a catheter passed through the glottis) and in the literature, as well as discusses in detail the problems pertaining to the measurement (repeatability, correcting for lung volume, etc.). As a sophisticated subject, JS makes some pertinent observations about the changes in his use of subglottal pressure. PMID:14740931

  10. Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum Growth and Deoxynivalenol Production in Wheat Kernels with Bacterial Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijuan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the main causal pathogen affecting small-grain cereals, and it produces deoxynivalenol, a kind of mycotoxin, which displays a wide range of toxic effects in human and animals. Bacterial strains isolated from peanut shells were investigated for their activities against F. graminearum by dual-culture plate and tip-culture assays. Among them, twenty strains exhibited potent inhibition to the growth of F. graminearum, and the inhibition rates ranged from 41.41% to 54.55% in dual-culture plate assay and 92.70% to 100% in tip-culture assay. Furthermore, eighteen strains reduced the production of deoxynivalenol by 16.69% to 90.30% in the wheat kernels assay. Finally, the strains with the strongest inhibitory activity were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical methods and also 16S rDNA and gyrA gene analysis as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The current study highlights the potential application of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites in the prevention of fungal growth and mycotoxin production in wheat kernels. As a biological strategy, it might avoid safety problems and nutrition loss which always caused by physical and chemical strategies.

  11. Using wastewater after lipid fermentation as substrate for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Wang, Bo; Shi, Si-Lan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Can; Luo, Jun; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-01-20

    In this study, lipid fermentation wastewater (fermentation broth after separation with yeast biomass) with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) value of 25,591 mg/L was used as substrate for bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus for the first time. After 5 days of fermentation, the highest BC yield (0.659 g/L) was obtained. Both monosaccharide and polysaccharides present in lipid fermentation wastewater could be utilized by G. xylinus simultaneously during fermentation. By this bioconversion, 30.0% of COD could be removed after 10 days of fermentation and the remaining wastewater could be used for further BC fermentation. The crystallinity of BC samples in lipid fermentation wastewater increased gradually during fermentation but overall the environment of lipid fermentation wastewater showed small influence on BC structure by comparison with that in traditional HS medium by using FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD. By this work, the possibility of using lipid fermentation wastewater containing low value carbohydrate polymer (extracellular polysaccharides) for high value carbohydrate polymer (BC) production was proven. PMID:26572346

  12. Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings in the presence and absence of bacterial extracellular products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulence of three 2009 West Alabama isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila in the presence or absence of extracellular products (ECP) from overnight bacterial culture to channel catfish fingerlings (4.6 +/- 1.3g) was investigated by both bath immersion and intraperitoneal ...

  13. ATLAS measurement of Electroweak Vector Boson production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00453010; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/γ∗ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our un- derstanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements of the double differential cross-sections in dilepton mass and rapidity. The measurements are compared to state of calculations at NNLO in QCD and constrain the photon content of the proton. The angular distributions of the Drell-Yan lepton pairs around the Z-boson mass peak probe the underlying QCD dynamic of the Z-boson production mechanisms. The complete set of angular coefficients describing these dis- tributions is presented and compare to theoretical predictions highlighting different approaches of the QCD and EW modelling. First precise inclusive measurements of W and Z production at 13 TeV are presented. W/Z and W+/W− ratios profit from a cancellation of experimental uncertainties.

  14. Inadequate Clearance of Translocated Bacterial Products in HIV-Infected Humanized Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Ursula; Schlaepfer, Erika; Baenziger, Stefan; Nischang, Marc; Regenass, Stephan; Schwendener, Reto; Kempf, Werner; Nadal, David; Speck, Roberto F.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial translocation from the gut and subsequent immune activation are hallmarks of HIV infection and are thought to determine disease progression. Intestinal barrier integrity is impaired early in acute retroviral infection, but levels of plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a marker of bacterial translocation, increase only later. We examined humanized mice infected with HIV to determine if disruption of the intestinal barrier alone is responsible for elevated levels of LPS and if bacterial ...

  15. Inadequate clearance of translocated bacterial products in HIV-infected humanized mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, U.; Schlaepfer, E; Baenziger, S; Nischang, M; Regenass, S.; Schwendener, R.; Kempf, W; Nadal, D; Speck, R F

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial translocation from the gut and subsequent immune activation are hallmarks of HIV infection and are thought to determine disease progression. Intestinal barrier integrity is impaired early in acute retroviral infection, but levels of plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a marker of bacterial translocation, increase only later. We examined humanized mice infected with HIV to determine if disruption of the intestinal barrier alone is responsible for elevated levels of LPS and if bacterial ...

  16. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  17. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area

  18. Production and partial purification of protease by selected bacterial strains using raw milk as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study was investigated to optimize and partially purify the proteases produced by the food borne bacterial strains.Methodology and Results: Four bacterial strains such as Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis and Enterobacter aerogenes were isolated from food wastes. These strains were individually inoculated in to the formulated culture media supplied with three different concentrations (1:1 to 1:3 of raw milk as major substrate. Among the concentrations, 1:2 ratio of substrate supplied medium showed maximum (0.133 to 8.000 IU/mL protease production by all the tested organisms. After optimization, the organisms were tested for protease production at various pH (3 to 9, and temperature (30 to 80 °C. The result showed that all the organisms were capable of producing maximum protease at pH 6 (8.533 to 10.133 IU/mL and at 50 °C (8.666 to 10.666 IU/mL. The crude enzymes produced by the tested organisms were individually purified by two different methods viz sodium alginate and ammonium sulphate-butanol methods. The purity of the protease determined in these two methods was ranged between 3.24 to 5.44 I and 3.13 to 5.55 IU/mL respectively. The partially purified enzymes were further analysed through SDS-PAGE; accordingly the molecular weight of protein produced by the test organisms was determined in between 49.44 and 50.98 kDa.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Among the tested strains P. vulgaris was identified as the major protease producer in optimized culture condition of 50o C and pH6. The molecular mass of the partially purified protease of P. vulgaris was 50.32 KDa. Further research on optimization of other fermentation parameters using statistical tools with P. vulgaris is needed to scale up the process.

  19. Measuring Employee Turnover in Australian Pig Production

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Emma; Bent, Martin J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Limited availability of competent and motivated staff has been repeatedly cited as one of the major constraints on pig production in Australia. Whilst a considerable effort is put into training staff (Western Australia boasts the most advanced training facility in South-East Asia), practically nothing is known about the rates of employee turnover. Based on a postal survey and case studies of high and low turnover piggeries, this paper provides the first objective measures of staff turnover in...

  20. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  1. Bacterial wall products induce downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on endothelial cells via a CD14-dependent mechanism: implications for surgical wound healing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, C

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogenic cytokine which has been identified as the principal polypeptide growth factor influencing endothelial cell (EC) migration and proliferation. Ordered progression of these two processes is an absolute prerequisite for initiating and maintaining the proliferative phase of wound healing. The response of ECs to circulating VEGF is determined by, and directly proportional to, the functional expression of VEGF receptors (KDR\\/Flt-1) on the EC surface membrane. Systemic sepsis and wound contamination due to bacterial infection are associated with significant retardation of the proliferative phase of wound repair. The effects of the Gram-negative bacterial wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) on VEGF receptor function and expression are unknown and may represent an important biological mechanism predisposing to delayed wound healing in the presence of localized or systemic sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a series of in vitro experiments investigating this phenomenon and its potential implications for infective wound repair. VEGF receptor density on ECs in the presence of LPS and BLP was assessed using flow cytometry. These parameters were assessed in hypoxic conditions as well as in normoxia. The contribution of CD14 was evaluated using recombinant human (rh) CD14. EC proliferation in response to VEGF was quantified in the presence and absence of LPS and BLP. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that LPS and BLP have profoundly repressive effects on VEGF receptor density in normoxic and, more pertinently, hypoxic conditions. The observed downregulation of constitutive and inducible VEGF receptor expression on ECs was not due to any directly cytotoxic effect of LPS and BLP on ECs, as measured by cell viability and apoptosis assays. We identified a pivotal role for soluble\\/serum CD14, a highly specific bacterial wall product receptor, in

  2. Metabolic investigation in Gluconacetobacter xylinus and its bacterial cellulose production under a direct current electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a direct current (DC electric field on the growth and metabolism of Gluconacetobacter xylinus were investigated in static culture. When a DC electric field at 10 mA was applied using platinum electrodes to the culture broth, bacterial cellulose (BC production was promoted in 12 hours (h but was inhibited in the last 12 h as compared to the control (without DC electric field. At the cathode, the presence of the hydrogen generated a strong reductive environment that is beneficial to cell growth. As compared to the control, the activities of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as BC productivity were observed to be slightly higher in the first 12 h. However, due to the absence of sufficient oxygen, lactic acid was accumulated from pyruvic acid at 18 h, which was not in favor of BC production. At the anode, DC inhibited cell growth in 6 h when compared to the control. The metabolic activity in G. xylinus was inhibited through the suppression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis. At 18-24 h, cell density was observed to decrease, which might be due to the electrolysis of water that significantly dropped the pH of cultural broth far beyond the optimal range. Meanwhile, metabolites for self-protection were accumulated, for instance proline, glutamic acid, gluconic acid and fatty acids. Notably, the accumulation of gluconic acid and lactic acid made it a really tough acid stress to cells at the anode and finally led to depression of cell growth.

  3. Metabolic Investigation in Gluconacetobacter xylinus and Its Bacterial Cellulose Production under a Direct Current Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Zhong, Cheng; Zhang, Yu Ming; Xu, Ze Ming; Qiao, Chang Sheng; Jia, Shi Ru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a direct current (DC) electric field on the growth and metabolism of Gluconacetobacter xylinus were investigated in static culture. When a DC electric field at 10 mA was applied using platinum electrodes to the culture broth, bacterial cellulose (BC) production was promoted in 12 h but was inhibited in the last 12 h as compared to the control (without DC electric field). At the cathode, the presence of the hydrogen generated a strong reductive environment that is beneficial to cell growth. As compared to the control, the activities of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as BC productivity were observed to be slightly higher in the first 12 h. However, due to the absence of sufficient oxygen, lactic acid was accumulated from pyruvic acid at 18 h, which was not in favor of BC production. At the anode, DC inhibited cell growth in 6 h when compared to the control. The metabolic activity in G. xylinus was inhibited through the suppression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis. At 18-24 h, cell density was observed to decrease, which might be due to the electrolysis of water that significantly dropped the pH of cultural broth far beyond the optimal range. Meanwhile, metabolites for self-protection were accumulated, for instance proline, glutamic acid, gluconic acid, and fatty acids. Notably, the accumulation of gluconic acid and lactic acid made it a really tough acid stress to cells at the anode and finally led to depression of cell growth. PMID:27014248

  4. Volumetric measurements of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substance glycoconjugates in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, C; Horn, H; Hempel, D C; Neu, T R

    2004-12-01

    In this study an enrichment culture developed from activated sludge was used to investigate the architecture of fully hydrated multispecies biofilms. The assessment of biofilm structure and volume was carried out using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Bacterial cell distribution was determined with the nucleic acid-specific stain SYTO 60, whereas glycoconjugates of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were stained with the Alexa-488-labeled lectin of Aleuria aurantia. Digital image analysis was employed for visualization and quantification of three-dimensional CLSM data sets. The specific volumes of the polymeric and cellular biofilm constituents were quantified. In addition, gravimetric measurements were done to determine dry mass and thickness of the biofilms. The data recorded by the CLSM technique and the gravimetric data were then compared. It was shown that the biofilm thicknesses determined with both methods agree well for slow-growing heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic biofilms. In addition, for slow-growing biofilms, the volumes and masses calculated from CLSM and the biomass calculated from gravimetric measurements were also comparable. For fast-growing heterotrophic biofilms cultivated with high glucose concentrations the data sets fit to a lesser degree, but still showed the same common trend. Compared with traditional gravimetric measurements, CLSM allowed differential recording of multiple biofilm parameters with subsequent three-dimensional visualization and quantification. The quantitative three-dimensional results recorded by CLSM are an important basis for understanding, controlling, exploiting, and modeling of biofilms. PMID:15470707

  5. Effect of heavy metals and phenol on bacterial decolourisation and COD reduction of sucrose-aspartic acid Maillard product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangeeta Yadav; Ram Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Melanodins are amino-carbonyl complex,predominantly present in sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater as major source of colourant.The microbial decolourisation of melanoidin is a challenge due to its binding property with other co-pollutants of distillery waste.Results revealed that the presence of Zn2+ (2.00-20.00 mg/L) in melanoidin solution (1200 mg/L) stimulated the bacterial growth and sucrose-aspartic acid Maillard product (SAA) decolourisation as compared to control,while Fe3+ and Mn2+ at the same concentration inhibited the process.However,the presence of phenol (100 mg/L) along with Zn2+,Fe3+ and Mn2+ suppressed the bacterial growth,SAA decolourisation and MnP activity.The shrinkage and reduced number of bacterial cell count at higher concentration of heavy metals in presence of phenol was also observed under scanning electron microscope.

  6. N-acetyl-L-cysteine affects growth, extracellular polysaccharide production, and bacterial biofilm formation on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Ann-Cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

    2003-08-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Using 10 different bacterial strains isolated from a paper mill, we found that the mode of action of NAC is chemical, as well as biological, in the case of bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces. The initial adhesion of bacteria is dependent on the wettability of the substratum. NAC was shown to bind to stainless steel, increasing the wettability of the surface. Moreover, NAC decreased bacterial adhesion and even detached bacteria that were adhering to stainless steel surfaces. Growth of various bacteria, as monocultures or in a multispecies community, was inhibited at different concentrations of NAC. We also found that there was no detectable degradation of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by NAC, indicating that NAC reduced the production of EPS, in most bacteria tested, even at concentrations at which growth was not affected. Altogether, the presence of NAC changes the texture of the biofilm formed and makes NAC an interesting candidate for use as a general inhibitor of formation of bacterial biofilms on stainless steel surfaces. PMID:12902275

  7. In situ synthesis of bacterial cellulose/polycaprolactone blends for hot pressing nanocomposite films production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana R P; Silvestre, Armando J D; Pascoal Neto, Carlos; Freire, Carmen S R

    2015-11-01

    A series of bacterial cellulose (BC)/polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposite films were successfully prepared by supplementation of the BC culture medium with variable amounts of PCL powder followed by hot-pressing of the BC/PCL mixtures obtained after incubation. PCL powder was fully incorporated into the BC network during its production and did not change the BC network morphology. The obtained films showed a homogenous distribution of PCL throughout the BC network, as well as good thermal stability (up to 200 °C) and improved mechanical properties, when compared to pristine PCL. In addition, the intrinsic biodegradability and biocompatibility of the nanocellulose fibers and PCL opens the possibility of using this novel nanocomposite in the biomedical field and food packaging. The BC biosynthetic approach combined with the hot-pressing proved successful for the sustainable development of nanocomposites combining hydrophobic thermoplastic matrices and hydrophilic nanocellulose fibers, without the use of harmful organic solvents commonly used to dissolve this type of polymeric matrices. PMID:26256364

  8. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrey Silvia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum. The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines. Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.

  9. Production and Characterization of a New Bacterial Cellulose/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose (BC is characterized for its high water holding capacity, high crystallinity, an ultrafine fiber network and high tensile strength. This work demonstrates the production of a new interpenetrated polymer network nanocomposite obtained through the incorporation of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA on the BC matrix and evaluates the effect of oven drying on the morphological, mechanical and mass transfer properties of the composite membranes. Both the addition of PVA and oven drying induce the appearance of larger pores (circa 1–3 µm in average diameter in dried BC/PVA membranes. Both types of treatments also affect the permeability of the composite, as assessed by the diffusion coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG molecules (900, 8,000, 35,000 and 100,000 Da across the membranes. Finally, the Young’s modulus of dry pristine BC decreases following PVA incorporation, resulting in a change from 3.5 GPa to 1 GPa and a five-fold loss in tensile strength.

  10. Pesticide Side Effects in an Agricultural Soil Ecosystem as Measured by amoA Expression Quantification and Bacterial Diversity Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Louise; Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Nielsen, Morten Schostag; Jacobsen, Anne Dorthe; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming; Krogh, Paul Henning; Strobel, Bjarne Westergaard; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2015-01-01

    Background and Methods Assessing the effects of pesticide hazards on microbiological processes in the soil is currently based on analyses that provide limited insight into the ongoing processes. This study proposes a more comprehensive approach. The side effects of pesticides may appear as changes in the expression of specific microbial genes or as changes in diversity. To assess the impact of pesticides on gene expression, we focused on the amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation. We prepared soil microcosms and exposed them to dazomet, mancozeb or no pesticide. We hypothesized that the amount of amoA transcript decreases upon pesticide application, and to test this hypothesis, we used reverse-transcription qPCR. We also hypothesized that bacterial diversity is affected by pesticides. This hypothesis was investigated via 454 sequencing and diversity analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA genes, representing the active and total soil bacterial communities, respectively. Results and Conclusion Treatment with dazomet reduced both the bacterial and archaeal amoA transcript numbers by more than two log units and produced long-term effects for more than 28 days. Mancozeb also inhibited the numbers of amoA transcripts, but only transiently. The bacterial and archaeal amoA transcripts were both sensitive bioindicators of pesticide side effects. Additionally, the numbers of bacterial amoA transcripts correlated with nitrate production in N-amended microcosms. Dazomet reduced the total bacterial numbers by one log unit, but the population size was restored after twelve days. The diversity of the active soil bacteria also seemed to be re-established after twelve days. However, the total bacterial diversity as reflected in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences was largely dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria at day twelve, likely reflecting a halt in the growth of early opportunists and the re-establishment of a more diverse population. We observed no

  11. Pesticide Side Effects in an Agricultural Soil Ecosystem as Measured by amoA Expression Quantification and Bacterial Diversity Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Feld

    Full Text Available Assessing the effects of pesticide hazards on microbiological processes in the soil is currently based on analyses that provide limited insight into the ongoing processes. This study proposes a more comprehensive approach. The side effects of pesticides may appear as changes in the expression of specific microbial genes or as changes in diversity. To assess the impact of pesticides on gene expression, we focused on the amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation. We prepared soil microcosms and exposed them to dazomet, mancozeb or no pesticide. We hypothesized that the amount of amoA transcript decreases upon pesticide application, and to test this hypothesis, we used reverse-transcription qPCR. We also hypothesized that bacterial diversity is affected by pesticides. This hypothesis was investigated via 454 sequencing and diversity analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA genes, representing the active and total soil bacterial communities, respectively.Treatment with dazomet reduced both the bacterial and archaeal amoA transcript numbers by more than two log units and produced long-term effects for more than 28 days. Mancozeb also inhibited the numbers of amoA transcripts, but only transiently. The bacterial and archaeal amoA transcripts were both sensitive bioindicators of pesticide side effects. Additionally, the numbers of bacterial amoA transcripts correlated with nitrate production in N-amended microcosms. Dazomet reduced the total bacterial numbers by one log unit, but the population size was restored after twelve days. The diversity of the active soil bacteria also seemed to be re-established after twelve days. However, the total bacterial diversity as reflected in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences was largely dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria at day twelve, likely reflecting a halt in the growth of early opportunists and the re-establishment of a more diverse population. We observed no effects of mancozeb on diversity.

  12. Measurements of open charm production with LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britsch, Markward; Schmelling, Michael; Aquines, Osvaldo; Maciuc, Florin; Popov, Dmitry; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Briggl, Konrad; Schichtel, Peter [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The LHCb experiment covers a unique kinematic range at the LHC. With its excellent vertex resolution and particle identification it has very good capabilities for heavy quark production measurements. In this contribution we report on open charm production in inelastic pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Cross-sections have been determined for D{sup 0}/D{sup 0}, D{sup *{+-}}, D{sup {+-}}, and D{sub s}{sup {+-}} in bins of transverse momentum and rapidity in the region 0

  13. Electroweak Physics (diboson production) measurements with ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachas, K.; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    This paper is intended to give an overview of the ATLAS results on the production cross sections of gauge boson pairs using data from pp collisions at √{{s}} = 7 TeV for W γ, Z γ, W± W±, ZZ, W± Z and WV , where V = W± or Z decaying hadronically and √{{s}} = 8 TeV for ZZ, W± W±, W± Z and W± W± at the LHC at CERN. The cross sections are found to be in agreement with the expectations from the Standard Model within the estimated uncertainties. The production cross section measurements also allow for studies of anomalous triple and quartic gauge couplings for which 95% confidence limits are set.

  14. Bacterioplankton Production in Humic Lake Örträsket in Relation to Input of Bacterial Cells and Input of Allochthonous Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström; Jansson

    2000-02-01

    In order to compare riverine bacteria input with lake water bacterial production and grazing loss with output loss, a bacterial cell budget was constructed for humic Lake Örträsket in northern Sweden. The riverine input of bacterial cells in 1997 represented 29% of the number of bacterial cells produced within the layer of the lake affected by inlet water. A large share of the in situ lake bacterial production was consumed by grazers, mainly flagellates, which stresses the importance of bacteria as energy mobilizers for the pelagic food web in the lake. The bacterial production in Lake Örträsket, which is almost entirely dependent on humic material as an energy source, was clearly stimulated by high flow episodes which brought high amounts of little degraded material into the lake. During base flow condition the bacterial production in the inlet rivers was high, which led to an input of more degraded material to the lake. This material did not stimulate the lake bacterial production. Internal factors that determined the utilization of the allochthonous DOC in the lake were the retention time and the exposure to light and high temperatures. Thus, the potential for in situ production of bacteria in Lake Örträsket was to a large extent a function of how precipitation and runoff conditions affected terrestrial losses and river transport of humic material. PMID:10833223

  15. Development of the Measurement of Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sixta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of economy is a very long issue closely connected with the development of economic theories and the level of knowledge. Origin of modern measurement can be found in 17th century when Francois Quesnay compiled his Economic Table. Lots of successors developed economic concepts that are currently represented by the system of national accounting. Although national accounting has not a long history since it was established in 1950s, it has become known as a general tool for the description of economy. Development of national accounts was in line with development of economic theory and it respected the changes in economy and society. Both western and socialist countries we looking for methods and rules for the measurement of economy. The West relied on the System of National Accounts and the East focused on Material Product System based on Marx theories. After the collapse of communist regimes in the East, there remained only one universal measurement standard – national accounting. National accounts have been developed for more than 60 years and with several milestones. Currently, the new milestone – SNA 2008 / ESA 2010 is going to be put into practice. And the consequences will be very significant for many users.

  16. Production of bacterial leaf blight resistant mulberry through tissue culture and induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon Noi multiple shoots obtained from axillary buds in vitro cultures were induced mutation by irradiating with gamma rays at the optimum dose (LD 50) of 40 Gy. In vitro inoculation technique for bacterial blight disease of mulberry caused by Pseudomonas syringae p v. mori was done by leaf-rub method, using bacterial suspension at 107 cells per milliliter which was the lowest concentration to cause highest disease severity. A total of 8357 Mon Noi gamma irradiated plantlets in 7-11 generations were screened for bacterial blight disease resistance. Eighteen plants survived and free from bacterial contamination. These surviving plants were in vitro rapid multiplication then screened for disease resistance in greenhouse. At present, only 4 lines from 18 plants are selected

  17. A gene from Renibacterium salmoninarum encoding a product which shows homology to bacterial zinc-metalloproteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, T H; Evenden, A J; Gilpin, M L; Martin, K L; Munn, C B

    1995-06-01

    A genomic library constructed from Renibacterium salmoninarum isolate MT444 DNA in the plasmid vector pBR328 was screened using Escherichia coli host strain DH1 for the expression of genes encoding putative virulence factors. A single haemolytic clone was isolated at 22 degrees C and found to contain a 3.1 kb HindIII fragment of inserted DNA. This fragment was present in seven isolates of R. salmoninarum which were examined. Western blots of extracts from clones exhibiting haemolytic activity were performed with antisera raised against either cellular or extracellular components of R. salmoninarum and failed to identify any additional proteins compared to control E. coli containing pBR328. However, minicell analysis revealed that a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 65 kDa was associated with a haemolytic activity distinct from that previously described for R. salmoninarum. The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this product was determined and the amino acid sequence deduced. The product was 548 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 66757 Da and a pl of 5.57. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene possessed strong similarities to those of a range of secreted bacterial zinc-metalloproteases and was tentatively designed hly. Neither protease nor lecithinase activities were detectable in E. coli recombinants expressing gene hly. Haemolytic activity was observed from 6 degrees C to 37 degrees C for erythrocytes from a number of mammalian species and also from fish. Gene hly was expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein consisting of maltose-binding protein at the N-terminus linked to all but the first 24 amino acids, largely constituting the putative signal peptide, of the N-terminus of Hly. The soluble fusion protein was produced and purified by affinity chromatography. Antiserum raised against the purified fusion protein was used to probe Western blots of cell lysates and extracellular products from seven isolates of R. salmoninarum

  18. Effect of Cultivation Time and Medium Condition in Production of Bacterial Cellulose Nanofiber for Urease Immobilization

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pesaran; Gh. Amoabediny; F. Yazdian

    2015-01-01

    A new nanoporous biomatrix originated from bacterial resources has been chosen for urease immobilization. Urease has been immobilized on synthesized bacterial cellulose nanofiber since this enzyme has a key role in nitrogen metabolism. Gluconacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 has been cultivated for synthesis of a nanofiber with the diameter of 30–70 nm. Different cultivation processes in the aspect of time and cultivation medium conditions were chosen to study the performance of immobilized enzy...

  19. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B.; Chen, Wenli

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of -3.0 ± 0.4 nN and -330 ± 43 aJ (10-18 J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions.

  20. Optimization of Culture Parameters for Maximum Polyhydroxybutyrate Production by Selected Bacterial Strains Isolated from Rhizospheric Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathwal, Priyanka; Nehra, Kiran; Singh, Manpreet; Jamdagni, Pragati; Rana, Jogender S

    2015-01-01

    The enormous applications of conventional non-biodegradable plastics have led towards their increased usage and accumulation in the environment. This has become one of the major causes of global environmental concern in the present century. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable plastic is known to have properties similar to conventional plastics, thus exhibiting a potential for replacing conventional non-degradable plastics. In the present study, a total of 303 different bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples collected from the rhizospheric area of three crops, viz., wheat, mustard and sugarcane. All the isolates were screened for PHB (Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid) production using Sudan Black staining method, and 194 isolates were found to be PHB positive. Based upon the amount of PHB produced, the isolates were divided into three categories: high, medium and low producers. Representative isolates from each category were selected for biochemical characterization; and for optimization of various culture parameters (carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, different pH, temperature and incubation time periods) for maximizing PHB accumulation. The highest PHB yield was obtained when the culture medium was supplemented with glucose as the carbon source, ammonium sulphate at a concentration of 1.0 g/l as the nitrogen source, and by maintaining the C/N ratio of the medium as 20:1. The physical growth parameters which supported maximum PHB accumulation included a pH of 7.0, and an incubation temperature of 30 degrees C for a period of 48 h. A few isolates exhibited high PHB accumulation under optimized conditions, thus showing a potential for their industrial exploitation. PMID:26638531

  1. Measurements using three-dimensional product imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sioma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a method of creating a three-dimensional cast model using vision systems and how that model can be used in thequality assessment process carried out directly on the assembly line. The technology of active vision, consisting in illumination of theobject with a laser beam, was used to create the model. Appropriate configuration of camera position geometry and laser light allows thecollection of height profiles and construction of a 3D model of the product on their basis. The article discusses problems connected with the resolution of the vision system, resolution of the laser beam analysis, and resolution connected with the application of the successive height profiles on sample cast planes. On the basis of the model, measurements allowing assessment of dimension parameters and surface defects of a given cast are presented. On the basis of tests and analyses of such a threedimensional cast model, a range of checks which are possible to conduct using 3D vision systems is indicated.Testing casts using that technology allows rapid assessment of selected parameters. Construction of the product’s model and dimensional assessment take a few seconds, which significantly reduces the duration of checks in the technological process. Depending on the product, a few checks may be carried out simultaneously on the product’s model.The possibility of controlling all outgoing products, and creating and modifying the product parameter control program, makes the solutionhighly flexible, which is confirmed by pilot industrial implementations. The technology will be developed in terms of detection andidentification of surface defects. It is important due to the possibility of using such information for the purposes of selecting technologicalprocess parameters and observing the effect of changes in selected parameters on the cast parameter controlled in a vision system.

  2. Radiolabel ratio method for measuring pulmonary clearance of intratracheal bacterial challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of bacterial clearance is a fundamental step in any study of in situ lung antibacterial defenses. A method is described whereby about 85% of a radiolabeled bacterial inoculum was consistently introduced into the bronchopulmonary tree of a mouse by the intratracheal route. Mice were then killed 1 and 4 hours later; their lungs were removed aseptically and homogenized, and viable bacteria and radiolabel counts were determined. Radiolabel counts fell slowly, and more than 80% of the original radiolabel was still present in homogenized lung samples from animals sacrificed 4 hours after challenge. Bacteria/isotope ratios for the bacterial inoculum and homogenized lung samples from animals sacrificed immediately after challenge were very similar. Bacterial clearance values were the same whether computed from bacterial counts alone or according to a radiolabel ratio method whereby the change in the bacteria/isotope ratio in ground lung aliquots was divided by a similar ratio from bacteria used to inoculate animals. Some contamination resulted from oral streptococci being swept into the bronchopulmonary free during the aspiration process. This contamination was not a problem when penicillin was incorporated into the agar and penicillin-resistant strains were used for the bacterial challenges

  3. Inadequate clearance of translocated bacterial products in HIV-infected humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Hofer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial translocation from the gut and subsequent immune activation are hallmarks of HIV infection and are thought to determine disease progression. Intestinal barrier integrity is impaired early in acute retroviral infection, but levels of plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a marker of bacterial translocation, increase only later. We examined humanized mice infected with HIV to determine if disruption of the intestinal barrier alone is responsible for elevated levels of LPS and if bacterial translocation increases immune activation. Treating uninfected mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS induced bacterial translocation, but did not result in elevated plasma LPS levels. DSS-induced translocation provoked LPS elevation only when phagocytic cells were depleted with clodronate liposomes (clodrolip. Macrophages of DSS-treated, HIV-negative mice phagocytosed more LPS ex vivo than those of control mice. In HIV-infected mice, however, LPS phagocytosis was insufficient to clear the translocated LPS. These conditions allowed higher levels of plasma LPS and CD8+ cell activation, which were associated with lower CD4+/CD8+ cell ratios and higher viral loads. LPS levels reflect both intestinal barrier and LPS clearance. Macrophages are essential in controlling systemic bacterial translocation, and this function might be hindered in chronic HIV infection.

  4. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β- - 47Sc, 67Cu - β+ - 44Sc, 64Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, 68Ge/68Ga - and α emitters - 211At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - natCu or natNi - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the natTi(p,X)47Sc and 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  5. Controls on bacterial and archaeal community structure and greenhouse gas production in natural, mined, and restored Canadian peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eBasiliko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Northern peatlands are important global C reservoirs, largely because of their slow rates of microbial C mineralization. Particularly in sites that are heavily influenced by anthropogenic disturbances, there is scant information about microbial ecology and whether or not microbial community structure influences greenhouse gas production. This work characterized communities of bacteria and archaea using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and functional genes across eight natural, mined, or restored peatlands in two locations in eastern Canada. Correlations were explored among chemical properties of peat, bacterial and archaeal community structure, and carbon dioxide and methane production rates under oxic and anoxic conditions. Bacteria and archaea similar to those found in other peat soil environments were detected. In contrast to other reports, methanogen diversity was low in our study, with only 2 groups of known or suspected methanogens. Although mining and restoration affected substrate availability and microbial activity, these land-uses did not consistently affect bacterial or archaeal community composition. In fact, larger differences were observed between the two locations and between oxic and anoxic peat samples than between mined and restored sites, with anoxic samples characterized by less detectable bacterial diversity and stronger dominance by members of the phylum Acidobacteria. There were also no apparent strong linkages between prokaryote community structure and methane or carbon dioxide production, suggesting that different organisms exhibit functional redundancy and/or that the same taxa function at very different rates when exposed to different peat substrates. In contrast to other earlier work focusing on fungal communities across similar mined and restored peatlands, bacterial and archaeal communities appeared to be more resistant or resilient to peat substrate changes brought

  6. Producción endógena de alcohol en pacientes con cirrosis hepática, alteración motora y sobrecrecimiento bacteriano Endogenous ethanol production, alterations in gastrointestinal motility and bacterial overgrowth and cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Madrid S; Carmen Hurtado H; Sara Gatica I; Inelia Chacón B; Ana Toyos D; Carlos Defilippi C

    2002-01-01

    Background: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth generates endogenous ethanol production both in experimental animals and humans. Patients with cirrhosis have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, but endogenous ethanol production has not been studied in them. Aim: To investigate endogenou ethanol production in patients with cirrhosis, altered intestinal motility and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients and methods: Eight patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies and altere...

  7. Single-taxon field measurements of bacterial gene regulation controlling DMSP fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaljay, Vanessa A; Robidart, Julie; Preston, Christina M; Gifford, Scott M; Durham, Bryndan P; Burns, Andrew S; Ryan, John P; Marin, Roman; Kiene, Ronald P; Zehr, Jonathan P; Scholin, Christopher A; Moran, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    The 'bacterial switch' is a proposed regulatory point in the global sulfur cycle that routes dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) to two fundamentally different fates in seawater through genes encoding either the cleavage or demethylation pathway, and affects the flux of volatile sulfur from ocean surface waters to the atmosphere. Yet which ecological or physiological factors might control the bacterial switch remains a topic of considerable debate. Here we report the first field observations of dynamic changes in expression of DMSP pathway genes by a single marine bacterial species in its natural environment. Detection of taxon-specific gene expression in Roseobacter species HTCC2255 during a month-long deployment of an autonomous ocean sensor in Monterey Bay, CA captured in situ regulation of the first gene in each DMSP pathway (dddP and dmdA) that corresponded with shifts in the taxonomy of the phytoplankton community. Expression of the demethylation pathway was relatively greater during a high-DMSP-producing dinoflagellate bloom, and expression of the cleavage pathway was greater in the presence of a mixed diatom and dinoflagellate community [corrected].These field data fit the prevailing hypothesis for bacterial DMSP gene regulation based on bacterial sulfur demand, but also suggest a modification involving oxidative stress response, evidenced as upregulation of catalase via katG, when DMSP is demethylated. PMID:25700338

  8. Establishment of rumen-mimic bacterial consortia: A functional union for bio-hydrogen production from cellulosic bioresource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Lin, Jia-Jen; Ho, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Wei-Chih; Huang, Chieh-Chen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University,Taichung (China)

    2010-12-15

    The study aimed to establish stable rumen-mimic bacterial consortia as a functional union for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from cellulosic bioresource. The consortia was constructed by repeated-batch culture with ruminal microflora and napiergrass at 38 C. The major bacterial composition of batch culture was monitored by 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The result showed that a stable consortia constituted by ruminal microflora was formed, and the consortia includes bacterial strains such as Clostridium xylanolyticum, Clostridium papyrosolvens, Clostridium beijerinckii, Ruminococcus sp., Ethanoligenens harbinense, and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. The Clostridium genus was showed as the dominant population in the system and contributed to the biohydrogen production. During each eight days incubation period, the functional consortia could degrade an average of 27% hemicellulose and 2% cellulose from napiergrass biomass. While the increasing of the reducing sugars and their converting to biohydrogen gas productivity were also observed. The time course profile for cellulytic enzymes showed that the hydrolysis of complex lignocellulosic material may occur through the ordered actions of xylenase and cellulase activities. (author)

  9. Performance Measurement: Does Education Impact Productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Sarpong, Daniel Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of managers' educational levels on productivity in the commercial poultry industry in Ghana. The level of education of 33 production managers of the poultry farms were factored into a Cobb-Douglas production function with other explanatory variables. The computed percentage change in productivity due to higher…

  10. Quantitative estimation of net rates of production of bacterial and protozoal nitrogen and their interconversion in the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described using 35S-labelled bacteria or protozoa by which the rates of production of microbial and protozoal protein N may be calculated. The results indicate an average microbial protein yield of about 13.7gN.d-1 in sheep maintained on a diet consisting largely of cottonseed cake and wheat and rice bran. Evidence is presented that protozoa made little contribution to the microbial protein-N leaving the rumen. Also, the average rate of N flow from the protozoal to the bacterial pool was about 3.5g.d-1, whereas about 1.4g.d-1 of bacterial N was consumed by protozoa. (author)

  11. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector. PMID:27215411

  12. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  13. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Abbott, James; Micklem, Chris N; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  14. Product Stigmaticity: Understanding, Measuring and Managing Product-Related Stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, K.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma-free Product Design. Many of the products intended to relieve us from discomforting or unsafe situations and many medical and assistive devices are experienced as unpleasant and uncomfortable. On top of their discomfort, product users may also experience social unease from the people around t

  15. Bacterial Production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate): An Undergraduate Student Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kristi L.; Oldham, Charlie D.; May, Sheldon W.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary course that is cross-listed between five departments, we developed an undergraduate student laboratory experiment for culturing, isolating, and purifying the biopolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB. This biopolyester accumulates in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells under specific growth conditions, and it has…

  16. Size of bacterial ice-nucleation sites measured in situ by radiation inactivation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, Arepura G.; Lindow, Steven E.

    1988-01-01

    Four bacterial species are known to catalyze ice formation at temperatures just below 0°C. To better understand the relationship between the molecular structure of bacterial ice-nucleation site(s) and the quantitative and qualitative features of the ice-nucleation-active phenotype, we determined by γ-radiation analysis the in situ size of ice-nucleation sites in strains of Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia herbicola and in Escherichia coli HB101 carrying the plasmid pICE1.1 (containing a 4-kil...

  17. Bacterial carbonatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

  18. Developing new approaches to measuring NHS outputs and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mary OMahony; Philip Stevens; Lucy Stokes; Pete Loveridge

    2005-01-01

    In March 2004 the Department of Health commissioned a research team from the Centre for Health Economics at the University of York and the National Institute for Economic and Social Research to develop new approaches to measuring NHS outputs and productivity. The research objectives were development of: 1)A comprehensive measure of NHS outputs and productivity. 2) Methods to facilitate regular in-year analysis of NHS productivity. 3) Output measures capable of measuring efficiency and product...

  19. The measurement of labour productivity in wholesaling

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dalen, Jan; Koerts, Johan; Thurik, Roy

    1990-01-01

    textabstractLabour productivity is often discussed in economic literature, yet productivity studies in wholesaling are rare. On the whole, wholesaling is a neglected area of research in contrast with its important position in the distribution channel. Our analysis of labour productivity in wholesaling makes use of a labour-cost relationship — originally developed for retailing — to study differences in labour productivity across wholesale business types. For this purpose, averaged data are us...

  20. Productivity measurement in hospital libraries: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, S A

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of productivity measurement and its application in a hospital library. Component steps in development of a typical productivity measurement system are described, including a process for calculation of quantitative workload standards. Problems and potential benefits of participating in productivity measurement programs are discussed, and managerial strategies suggested.

  1. Bacterial Sugar 3,4-Ketoisomerases: Structural Insight into Product Stereochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoden, James B; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Gilbert, Michel; Salinger, Ari J; Holden, Hazel M

    2015-07-28

    3-Acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (Fuc3NAc) and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (Qui3NAc) are unusual sugars found on the lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria and on the S-layers of Gram-positive bacteria. The 3,4-ketoisomerases, referred to as FdtA and QdtA, catalyze the third steps in the respective biosynthetic pathways for these sugars. Whereas both enzymes utilize the same substrate, the stereochemistries of their products are different. Specifically, the hydroxyl groups at the hexose C-4' positions assume the "galactose" and "glucose" configurations in the FdtA and QdtA products, respectively. In 2007 we reported the structure of the apoform of FdtA from Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus, which was followed in 2014 by the X-ray analysis of QdtA from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum as a binary complex. Both of these enzymes belong to the cupin superfamily. Here we report a combined structural and enzymological study to explore the manner in which these enzymes control the stereochemistry of their products. Various site-directed mutant proteins of each enzyme were constructed, and their dTDP-sugar products were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the kinetic parameters for these protein variants were measured, and the structure of one, namely, the QdtA Y17R/R97H double mutant form, was determined to 2.3-Å resolution. Finally, in an attempt to obtain a model of FdtA with a bound dTDP-linked sugar, the 3,4-ketoisomerase domain of a bifunctional enzyme from Shewanella denitrificans was cloned, purified, and crystallized in the presence of a dTDP-linked sugar analogue. Taken together, the results from this investigation demonstrate that it is possible to convert a "galacto" enzyme into a "gluco" enzyme and vice versa. PMID:26125548

  2. Culture-independent bacterial community analysis of the salty-fermented fish paste products of Thailand and Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Junichiro; Boulom, Sayvisene; Panthavee, Wanchai; Momma, Mari; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Saito, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial community analysis, using a culture-independent method (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), detected 17 species of bacteria including species of the genera Tetragenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Weissella Halanaerobium, Clostridium, and Sphingomonas in a traditional salty-fermented fish paste known as pla-ra or pa-daek in Thailand and Laos, which is used as a storage-stable multi-purpose seasoning. The representative genus of lactic acid bacteria seemed to vary in the 10 products collected from Thailand and Laos. Tetragenococci were common in products from central Thailand and Vientiane in Laos which had salinities of not less than 11% and pH values ranging from 5.6 to 6.1. However, lactobacilli were common in products from northern Thailand which had the lowest salinities (8.3-8.6%) and pH values (4.5-4.8) of all the samples examined. Two Lactobacillus and one Tetragenococcus species were detected in one product from northeastern Thailand containing 10% salt. These results suggest that salinity in pla-ra/pa-daek is an important determinant of the representative genus of lactic acid bacteria such as, Tetragenococcus or Lactobacillus. Additionally, differences in the acidity between these two groups seemed to be related to the production of d-/l-lactic acid in the lactic acid bacteria in each product. This is the first study to report a correlation between bacterial community structure and taste components in pla-ra/pa-daek products from various regions. This scientific work on a traditional fermented food will be useful in helping local producers meet differing consumer preferences in various regions. PMID:25918672

  3. Production of putrescine-capped stable silver nanoparticle: its characterization and antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saswati; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gupta, Kamala; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    Integration of biology with nanotechnology is now becoming attention-grabbing area of research. The antimicrobial potency of silver has been eminent from antiquity. Due to the recent desire for the enhancement of antibacterial efficacy of silver, various synthesis methods of silver in their nano dimensions are being practiced using a range of capping material. The present work highlights a facile biomimetic approach for production of silver nanoparticle being capped and stabilized by putrescine, possessing a diameter of 10-25 ± 1.5 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles have been analyzed spectrally and analytically. Morphological studies are carried out by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and crystallinity by selected area electron diffraction patterns. Moreover, the elemental composition of the capped nanoparticles was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. A comparative study (zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration) regarding the interactions and antibacterial potentiality of the capped silver nanoparticles with respect to the bare ones reveal the efficiency of the capped one over the bare one. The bacterial kinetic study was executed to monitor the interference of nanoparticles with bacterial growth rate. The results also highlight the efficacy of putrescine-capped silver nanoparticles as effective growth inhibitors against multi-drug resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains, which may, thus, potentially be applicable as an effective antibacterial control system to fight diseases.

  4. Evaluation of effectiveness of bacterial product which can degrade pesticide-dimethoate on the scale of true practice test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimethoate, an organophosphate pesticide has been widely used in Dalat, Lamdong. It is much toxic to birds, human being and other mammals. Its widespread use has caused environmental concern on the basic of frequent detection of dimethoate in soil and water. Microorganisms are key agents in the degradation of waste, oil and a vast array of organic pesticide in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In previous study, bacteria products which can degrade. Dimethoate were produced. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of bacterial product which can degrade Pesticide-Dimethoate on the scale of true practice test. The results indicated that application bacteria product to soil grown with Cauliflower and Chinese Cabbage sprayed with organic phosphorus pesticides (Dimethoate and Chloropyrifos), the pesticide residues in soil, water and vegetables were as follow: The residues of Dimethoate and Chloropyrifos in soil grown with Cauliflower, Chinese cabbages are different. They concentrated mostly in the surface litter and top soil layers with the depth from 0 to 20 cm. From the depth of 20 cm to 100 cm, the pesticide residues were ignorable. Residue of Chloropyrifos in soil was small as well. Dimethoate residues in soil grown with Cauliflower were higher than that of Chinese cabbages. On the basis of the environmental criteria of Ministry for Science, Technology and Environment (6/95), Dimethoate residues in soil grown with cauliflowers were in excess of the maximum limit. In the case of using bacteria product to soil, pesticide residues in soil were decreased. The results also indicated that Chloropyrifos residues in water (water obtained at the depth of 75 cm and 100 cm by days) were small. Residue of Dimethoate in water small. Residue of Dimethoate in water obtained from the Cauliflower bed were higher than of Chinese cabbages one. Using bacteria product to soil, pesticide residues in water decreased. On the basis of the environmental criteria of

  5. Exploring the Links between Natural Products and Bacterial Assemblages in the Sponge Aplysina aerophoba .

    OpenAIRE

    Sacristan-Soriano, Oriol; Banaigs, Bernard; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Becerro, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    The sponge Aplysina aerophoba produces a large diversity of brominated alkaloids (BAs) and hosts a complex microbial assemblage. Although BAs are located within sponge cells, the enzymes that bind halogen elements to organic compounds have been exclusively described in algae, fungi, and bacteria. Bacterial communities within A. aerophoba could therefore be involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds. This study investigates whether changes in both the concentration of BAs and the bacteria...

  6. Populations of Stored Product Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae Differ in Their Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Tomas; Klimov, Pavel B.; Smrz, Jaroslav; Phillips, Thomas W.; Nesvorna, Marta; Kopecky, Jan; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tyrophagus putrescentiae colonizes different human-related habitats and feeds on various post-harvest foods. The microbiota acquired by these mites can influence the nutritional plasticity in different populations. We compared the bacterial communities of five populations of T. putrescentiae and one mixed population of T. putrescentiae and T. fanetzhangorum collected from different habitats. Material: The bacterial communities of the six mite populations from different habitats and diets were compared by Sanger sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA obtained from amplification with universal eubacterial primers and using bacterial taxon-specific primers on the samples of adults/juveniles or eggs. Microscopic techniques were used to localize bacteria in food boli and mite bodies. The morphological determination of the mite populations was confirmed by analyses of CO1 and ITS fragment genes. Results: The following symbiotic bacteria were found in compared mite populations: Wolbachia (two populations), Cardinium (five populations), Bartonella-like (five populations), Blattabacterium-like symbiont (three populations), and Solitalea-like (six populations). From 35 identified OTUs97, only Solitalea was identified in all populations. The next most frequent and abundant sequences were Bacillus, Moraxella, Staphylococcus, Kocuria, and Microbacterium. We suggest that some bacterial species may occasionally be ingested with food. The bacteriocytes were observed in some individuals in all mite populations. Bacteria were not visualized in food boli by staining, but bacteria were found by histological means in ovaria of Wolbachia-infested populations. Conclusion: The presence of Blattabacterium-like, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Solitalea-like in the eggs of T. putrescentiae indicates mother to offspring (vertical) transmission. Results of this study indicate that diet and habitats influence not only the ingested bacteria but also the symbiotic bacteria of T. putrescentiae. PMID

  7. Interferons and bacterial lipopolysaccharide protect macrophages from productive infection by human immunodeficiency virus in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    To determine the effects of immunomodulatory agents upon HIV replication in macrophages, cultured monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with various substances and then infected with a macrophage- tropic strain of HIV-1. Pretreatment with rIFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and IFN- gamma, or bacterial LPS prevented viral replication in macrophages. In treated cultures, little or no infectious HIV or p24 core antigen was released into the supernatant, no virions were seen by electron microscopy, no vir...

  8. Auto-production of biosurfactants reverses the coffee ring effect in a bacterial system

    OpenAIRE

    Sempels, Wouter; De Dier, Raf; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of material at the edge of evaporating droplets, known as the ‘coffee ring effect’, is caused by a radially outward capillary flow. This phenomenon is common to a wide array of systems including colloidal and bacterial systems. The role of surfactants in counteracting these coffee ring depositions is related to the occurrence of local vortices known as Marangoni eddies. Here we show that these swirling flows are universal, and not only lead to a uniform deposition of colloids b...

  9. Recombinant production of rhesus θ-defensin-1 (RTD-1) using a bacterial expression system

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Andrew; Li, Yilong; Majumder, Subhabrata; Garcia, Angie E.; Carlsson, Patrick; Shekhtman, Alexander; Camarero, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that are important in the innate immune defense of mammals. In contrast to mammalian α- and β-defensins, rhesus theta defensin-1 (RTD-1) comprises only 18 amino acids stabilized by three disulfide bonds and an unusual backbone cyclic topology. In this work we report for the first time the recombinant expression of the fully folded θ-defensin RTD-1 using a bacterial expression system. This was accomplished using an intramolecular native chemical ligation in...

  10. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Ting, Yen-Peng [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan [Sourashtra Coll., Madurai (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Biocorrosion Group; Rahman, Pattanathu K.S.M. [Teesside Univ., Tees Valley (United Kingdom). Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Group

    2010-01-15

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Effect of Cultivation Time and Medium Condition in Production of Bacterial Cellulose Nanofiber for Urease Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pesaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nanoporous biomatrix originated from bacterial resources has been chosen for urease immobilization. Urease has been immobilized on synthesized bacterial cellulose nanofiber since this enzyme has a key role in nitrogen metabolism. Gluconacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 has been cultivated for synthesis of a nanofiber with the diameter of 30–70 nm. Different cultivation processes in the aspect of time and cultivation medium conditions were chosen to study the performance of immobilized enzyme on four types of bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCNs. Urease immobilization into the nanofiber has been done in two steps: enzyme adsorption and glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The results showed that the immobilized enzymes were relatively active and highly stable compared to the control samples of free enzymes. Optimum pH was obtained 6.5 and 7 for different synthesized BCNs, while the optimum temperature for immobilized urease was 50°C. Finding of the current experiment illustrated that the immobilized enzyme in optimum condition lost its initial activity by 41% after 15 weeks.

  12. Measured moisture properties for alternative insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Padfield, Tim

    During the past few years there has been a growing interest in using alternative insulation products in buildings. Among these products are the organic materials cellulose fibre, flax and sheep's wool as well as the inorganic perlite. The organic materials are regarded with some suspicion, because...... of their hygroscopicity. This paper describes two of the moisture-related properties of these materials: the water sorption and the water vapour transmission. For reference, some mineral fibre products are studied as well....

  13. Longitudinal changes in protistan bacterivory and bacterial production in two canyon-shaped reservoirs of different trophic status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezbera, Jan; Nedoma, Jiří; Šimek, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 504, - (2003), s. 115-130. ISSN 0018-8158. [Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /4./. České Budějovice, 12.08.2002-16.08.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/0028; GA ČR GA206/02/0003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : canyon-shaped reservoirs * bacterial production * protistan bacterivory Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2003

  14. Overexpression of bacterial ethylene-forming enzyme gene in Trichoderma reesei enhanced the production of ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen, Yong Liang, Jing Hua, Li Tao, Wensheng Qin, Sanfeng Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to efficiently utilize natural cellulose materials to produce ethylene, three expression vectors containing the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea were constructed. The target gene was respectively controlled by different promoters: cbh I promoter from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases I gene, gpd promoter from Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and pgk I promoter from T. reesei 3-phosphoglycerate kinase I gene. After transforming into T. reesei QM9414, 43 stable transformants were obtained by PCR amplification and ethylene determination. Southern blot analysis of 14 transformants demonstrated that the efe gene was integrated into chromosomal DNA with copy numbers from 1 to 4. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of 6 transformants showed that the heterologous gene was transcribed. By using wheat straw as a carbon source, the ethylene production rates of aforementioned 14 transformants were measured. Transformant C30-3 with pgk I promoter had the highest ethylene production (4,012 nl h-1 l-1. This indicates that agricultural wastes could be used to produce ethylene in recombinant filamentous fungus T. reesei.

  15. Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Culture Conditions for Hydrogen Production by an Anaerobic Bacterial Strain from Soluble Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieu, Hoa Thi Quynh; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Dang, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Binh Thanh

    2016-05-01

    Biohydrogen is a clean source of energy that produces no harmful byproducts during combustion, being a potential sustainable energy carrier for the future. Therefore, biohydrogen produced by anaerobic bacteria via dark fermentation has attracted attention worldwide as a renewable energy source. However, the hydrogen production capability of these bacteria depends on major factors such as substrate, iron-containing hydrogenase, reduction agent, pH, and temperature. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was employed to improve the hydrogen production by an anaerobic bacterial strain isolated from animal waste in Phu Linh, Soc Son, Vietnam (PL strain). The hydrogen production process was investigated as a function of three critical factors: soluble starch concentration (8 g L-1 to 12 g L-1), ferrous iron concentration (100 mg L-1 to 200 mg L-1), and l-cysteine concentration (300 mg L-1 to 500 mg L-1). RSM analysis showed that all three factors significantly influenced hydrogen production. Among them, the ferrous iron concentration presented the greatest influence. The optimum hydrogen concentration of 1030 mL L-1 medium was obtained with 10 g L-1 soluble starch, 150 mg L-1 ferrous iron, and 400 mg L-1 l-cysteine after 48 h of anaerobic fermentation. The hydrogen concentration produced by the PL strain was doubled after using RSM. The obtained results indicate that RSM with CCD can be used as a technique to optimize culture conditions for enhancement of hydrogen production by the selected anaerobic bacterial strain. Hydrogen production from low-cost organic substrates such as soluble starch using anaerobic fermentation methods may be one of the most promising approaches.

  16. Measuring acceptance of new food product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Perrea, Toula; Kügler, Jens

    and convenience, or without cognitive mediation (see figure). Using examples of new pork-based product concepts and data from four countries (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, UK), we elaborate on the role of these two routes towards new product acceptance. We propose that the increased role of storytelling...

  17. Monitoring of Multilayered Bacterial Biofilm Morphology by Cryo-SEM for Raman Spectroscopy Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Šerý, Mojmír; Zemánek, Pavel; Nebesářová, Jana; Růžička, F.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 187-188. ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : multilayered bacterial biofilm * morphology by Cryo-SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  18. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...

  19. Measuring Productivity Growth in the Bahraini Agriculture and Fisheries Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Shebeb, Bassim

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to measure and analyze one of the major components of economic performance, multifactor productivity (MFP) growth rate adjusted for economies of scale, and to measure and analyze the growth rate of partial (input-specific) productivity in the Bahraini Agriculture and Fisheries Sector (primary sector) over the time period 1980-2002. A dual cost measure of multifactor productivity growth was developed to obtain a highly interpretable measure of economic perfo...

  20. Product mixes as objects of choice in nonparametric efficiency measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Laurens Cherchye; Tom Vanpuyenbroeck

    1999-01-01

    Non-radial measures of technical efficiency essentially differ from their radial counterparts in that the product mix of the efficient reference is allowed to be different from the product mix of the evaluated observation. Whereas existing non-radial measures are still based on the product mix of the evaluated, i.e. possibly inefficient observation, we change the perspective and propose a measure based on the mix properties of the efficient reference. The resulting `inverse' measure can be co...

  1. Academic Productivity--Can It Be Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingster, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    A method of faculty evaluation, designed by a union-management team to serve also as a tool for faculty personal growth, is described by one of its authors. The linkage between productivity and motivation is also traced. (LBH)

  2. Multi-parameter flow cytometry as a process analytical technology (PAT) approach for the assessment of bacterial ghost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemann, Timo; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Meitz, Andrea; Lubitz, Werner; Herwig, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a tool for the analysis of single-cell properties in a cell suspension. In this contribution, we present an improved FCM method for the assessment of E-lysis in Enterobacteriaceae. The result of the E-lysis process is empty bacterial envelopes-called bacterial ghosts (BGs)-that constitute potential products in the pharmaceutical field. BGs have reduced light scattering properties when compared with intact cells. In combination with viability information obtained from staining samples with the membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dye bis-(1,3-dibutylarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC4(3)), the presented method allows to differentiate between populations of viable cells, dead cells, and BGs. Using a second fluorescent dye RH414 as a membrane marker, non-cellular background was excluded from the data which greatly improved the quality of the results. Using true volumetric absolute counting, the FCM data correlated well with cell count data obtained from colony-forming units (CFU) for viable populations. Applicability of the method to several Enterobacteriaceae (different Escherichia coli strains, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri 2a) could be shown. The method was validated as a resilient process analytical technology (PAT) tool for the assessment of E-lysis and for particle counting during 20-l batch processes for the production of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 BGs. PMID:26521248

  3. Manipulating the glycosylation pathway in bacterial and lower eukaryotes for production of therapeutic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted prot...... to produce proteins with humanlike glycan structures setting the stage for production of pharmaceutical proteins in bacteria, yeasts and algae.......The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted...... proteins, they are frequently N-glycosylated. This hampers production in microbes as these hosts glycosylate proteins differently. The resulting products may therefore be immunogenic, unstable and show reduced efficacy. Recently, successful glycoengineering of microbes has demonstrated that it is possible...

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection and quantification of bacterial contaminations in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintelas, Cristina; Mesquita, Daniela P; Lopes, João A; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Sousa, Clara

    2015-08-15

    Accurate detection and quantification of microbiological contaminations remains an issue mainly due the lack of rapid and precise analytical techniques. Standard methods are expensive and time-consuming being associated to high economic losses and public health threats. In the context of pharmaceutical industry, the development of fast analytical techniques able to overcome these limitations is crucial and spectroscopic techniques might constitute a reliable alternative. In this work we proved the ability of Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) to detect and quantify bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus epidermidis) from 10 to 10(8) CFUs/mL in sterile saline solutions (NaCl 0.9%). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) models showed that FT-NIRS was able to discriminate between sterile and contaminated solutions for all bacteria as well as to identify the contaminant bacteria. Partial least squares (PLS) models allowed bacterial quantification with limits of detection ranging from 5.1 to 9 CFU/mL for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. This methodology was successfully validated in three pharmaceutical preparations (contact lens solution, cough syrup and topic anti-inflammatory solution) proving that this technique possess a high potential to be routinely used for the detection and quantification of bacterial contaminations. PMID:26151105

  5. Engineering bacterial biopolymers for the biosorption of heavy metals; new products and novel formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution remains a major challenge in environmental biotechnology. One of the approaches considered for application involves biosorption either to biomass or to isolated biopolymers. Many bacterial polysaccharides have been shown to bind heavy metals with varying degrees of specificity and affinity. While various approaches have been adopted to generate polysaccharide variants altered in both structure and activity, metal biosorption has not been examined. Polymer engineering has included structural modification through the introduction of heterologous genes of the biosynthetic pathway into specific mutants, leading either to alterations in polysaccharide backbone or side chains, or to sugar modification. In addition, novel formulations can be designed which enlarge the family of available bacterial biopolymers for metal-binding and subsequent recovery. An example discussed here is the use of amphipathic bioemulsifiers such as emulsan, produced by the oil-degrading Acinetobacter lwoffii RAG-1, that forms stable, concentrated (70%), oil-in-water emulsions (emulsanosols). In this system metal ions bind primarily at the oil/water interface, enabling their recovery and concentration from relatively dilute solutions. In addition to the genetic modifications described above, a new approach to the generation of amphipathic bioemulsifying formulations is based on the interaction of native or recombinant esterase and its derivatives with emulsan and other water-soluble biopolymers. Cation-binding emulsions are generated from a variety of hydrophobic substrates. The features of these and other systems will be discussed, together with a brief consideratiton of possible applications. (orig.)

  6. Issues in Measurement and International Comparison of Productivity - An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ark, Bart

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development in theory and measurement of productivity performance in an international comparative perspective. It emphasises the need for a better link between the theory and practice of measurement, in particular concerning measurement of productivity levels. The paper dea

  7. Measuring mine soil productivity for forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977 requires that mine operators reclaim mined land to achieve crop productivity levels equal to or greater than premined conditions. The standard for evaluating reforestation success is based solely on tree-seedling survival; however, survival is an estimator of stand density and not an indication of site productivity. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for estimating mine soil productivity based on the capability of growing merchantable timber. Seventy-eight fixed-area plots in Virginia and West Virginia were selected to evaluate the effects of mine soil/site properties on tree growth. These plots ranged from 0.02 to 0.04 ha and consisted of 5- to 9-year-old eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). A 1-m deep pit was dug at the base of one representative tree on each plot to determine rooting depth and physical and chemical properties of the subsurface horizons. The properties most correlated with tree growth were rooting volume, defined as the depth to a restrictive layer, slope percent, soil extractable phosphorus and manganese content, and electrical conductivity. A productivity model was developed based on the premise that limiting soil and site characteristics affect a species' optimum root distribution and thus its aboveground productivity. The developed model was verified using a white pine data set ranging in age from 11 to 15 years that was obtained from 14 reclaimed mines in Virginia. The model was significantly correlated with aboveground biomass and site index. Similar results were observed when predicted productivity estimates and site index values were added separately into established biomass equations

  8. Muramic Acid Measurements for Bacterial Investigations in Marine Environments by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Mimura, Toru; Romano, Jean-Claude

    1985-01-01

    Muramic acid, a constituent of procaryotic cell walls, was assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography in samples from several marine environments (water column, surface microlayer, and sediment) and a bacterial culture. It is used as a microbial biomass indicator. The method gave a good separation of muramic acid from interfering compounds with satisfactory reproducibility. A pseudomonad culture had a muramic acid content of 4.7 × 10−10 to 5.3 × 10−10 μg per cell during growth. In natural...

  9. Bacterial indole-3-acetic acid production: a key mediator of plant-microbe interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and the foliar epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 299R

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Tracy Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The phyllosphere epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 299R synthesizes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an important plant hormone. IAA production was previously shown to confer a small but significant fitness advantage to Pa299R cells inoculated onto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, but the mechanism by which bacterial IAA exerts this effect is unknown. In this work, we investigated several hypotheses regarding how bacterial IAA enhances the growth and survival of leaf epiphytic microbes such as Pa299R....

  10. Measuring productivity differences in equilibrium search models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanot, Gauthier; Neumann, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium search models require unobserved heterogeneity in productivity to fit observed wage distribution data, but provide no guidance about the location parameter of the heterogeneity. In this paper we show that the location of the productivity heterogeneity implies a mode in a kernel density...... estimate of the wage distribution. The number of such modes and their location are identified using bump hunting techniques due to Silverman (1981). These techniques are applied to Danish panel data on workers and firms. These estimates are used to assess the importance of employer wage policy....

  11. Nanomaterial-based sensors for detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins as well as pork adulteration in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stephen Inbaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety draws considerable attention in the modern pace of the world owing to rapid-changing food recipes and food habits. Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogens, toxins, and other contaminants pose serious threat to human health. Besides, a large amount of money is spent on both analyses and control measures, which causes significant loss to the food industry. Conventional detection methods for bacterial pathogens and toxins are time consuming and laborious, requiring certain sophisticated instruments and trained personnel. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising field for solving food safety issues in terms of detecting contaminants, enabling controlled release of preservatives to extend the shelf life of foods, and improving food-packaging strategies. Nanomaterials including metal oxide and metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots are gaining a prominent role in the design of sensors and biosensors for food analysis. In this review, various nanomaterial-based sensors reported in the literature for detection of several foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins are summarized highlighting their principles, advantages, and limitations in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, and multiplexing capability. In addition, the application through a noncross-linking method without the need for any surface modification is also presented for detection of pork adulteration in meat products.

  12. Measurement of Charmonium Production Cross Section at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Frosini, M

    2010-01-01

    The great abundance of charmonium states, collected from the start up of LHC, allows to study its production mechanism. In particular the total and differential $J/\\psi$ production cross section are measured in the transverse momentum range [0;10] GeV/$c$ and in the pseudorapidity range $y \\in$ [2.5;4]. The measurements are performed disentagling the prompt (direct production in $pp$ collisions and feed down from excited charmonium states) and delayed ($b$-hadron decays products) component.

  13. Development of the Measurement of Product

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Sixta

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of economy is a very long issue closely connected with the development of economic theories and the level of knowledge. Origin of modern measurement can be found in 17th century when Francois Quesnay compiled his Economic Table. Lots of successors developed economic concepts that are currently represented by the system of national accounting. Although national accounting has not a long history since it was established in 1950s, it has become known as a general tool for the des...

  14. ATLAS measurements of soft particle production and diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Todorova, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has measured a wide range of properties of soft particle production. These include forward-backward and azimuthal correlations, azimuthal ordering of hadron production, underlying event properties and their dependence on aspects of the hard scattering process. The inelastic and diffractive cross sections have also been measured, using particle tags and rapidity gaps. Many of these measurements are used to develop and tune models for soft particle production.

  15. Incomplete aerobic degradation of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and identification of the bacterial dead-end transformation product Guanylurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as personal care products are detected in increasing prevalence in different environmental compartments such as surface water, groundwater and soil. Still little is known about the environmental fate of these substances. The type II antidiabetic drug Metformin has already been detected in different surface waters worldwide, but concentrations were significantly lower than the corresponding predicted environmental concentration (PEC). In human and mammal metabolism so far no metabolites of Metformin have been identified, so the expected environmental concentrations should be very high. To assess the aerobic biodegradability of Metformin and the possible formation of degradation products, three Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test series were performed in the present study. In the Closed Bottle test (OECD 301 D), a screening test that simulates the conditions of an environmental surface water compartment, Metformin was classified as not readily biodegradable (no biodegradation). In the Manometric Respiratory test (OEDC 301 F) working with high bacterial density, Metformin was biodegraded in one of three test bottles to 48.7% and in the toxicity control bottle to 57.5%. In the Zahn-Wellens test (OECD 302 B) using activated sludge, Metformin was biodegraded in both test vessels to an extent of 51.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Analysis of test samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) showed in the tests vessels were biodegradation was observed full elimination of Metformin and revealed Guanylurea (Amidinourea, Dicyandiamidine) as single and stable aerobic bacterial degradation product. In another Manometric Respiratory test Guanylurea showed no more transformation. Photodegradation of Guanylurea was also negative. A first screening in one of the greatest sewage treatment plant in southern Germany found Metformin with high concentrations

  16. Production, characterization and biological features of bacterial cellulose from scum obtained during preparation of sugarcane jaggery (gur).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Khan, Taous; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Khan, Shaukat; Wahid, Fazli; Park, Joong Kon

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been given an ample attention due to its high potential for many industrial applications. However, the high cost of production medium has hindered the commercialization of BC. Several efforts have been made to explore cheep, raw and waste sources for BC production. The current study aims at investigating the BC production from a waste source; the scum obtained during preparation of sugarcane jaggery or gur (JS). JS was five-fold diluted with distilled water and used as culturing medium without any additional nutrients. The production of BC was monitored till 10th days of cultivation both at static and shaking culturing conditions. A maximum of 2.51 g/L and 2.13 g/L BC was produced in shaking and static cultures, respectively, after 10 days. The structure features of BC were confirmed through FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. The chemical structure and physical appearance strongly resembled the BC produced form synthetic media. It was noteworthy that the BC produced from JS showed higher mechanical and thermal properties. The cell adhesion and proliferation capabilities of produced BC were observed that depicted definite animal cell adhesion without any considerable cytotoxicity. Besides providing an economically feasible way for BC production, the high level of physico-mechanical and biological properties insured the importance in medical fields. PMID:26604413

  17. Measurements of diboson production with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertolucci Federico

    2014-04-01

    The measurements of diboson production in ATLAS are presented for different electroweak diboson channels: ZZ, WZ, WW, Wγ and Zγ. Anomalous triple-gauge coupling limits that are obtained from these measurements are also presented.

  18. Single-step production of a recyclable nanobiocatalyst for organophosphate pesticides biodegradation using functionalized bacterial magnetosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ginet

    Full Text Available Enzymes are versatile catalysts in laboratories and on an industrial scale; improving their immobilization would be beneficial to broadening their applicability and ensuring their (reuse. Lipid-coated nano-magnets produced by magnetotactic bacteria are suitable for a universally applicable single-step method of enzyme immobilization. By genetically functionalizing the membrane surrounding these magnetite particles with a phosphohydrolase, we engineered an easy-to-purify, robust and recyclable biocatalyst to degrade ethyl-paraoxon, a commonly used pesticide. For this, we genetically fused the opd gene from Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 encoding a paraoxonase to mamC, an abundant protein of the magnetosome membrane in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. The MamC protein acts as an anchor for the paraoxonase to the magnetosome surface, thus producing magnetic nanoparticles displaying phosphohydrolase activity. Magnetosomes functionalized with Opd were easily recovered from genetically modified AMB-1 cells: after cellular disruption with a French press, the magnetic nanoparticles are purified using a commercially available magnetic separation system. The catalytic properties of the immobilized Opd were measured on ethyl-paraoxon hydrolysis: they are comparable with the purified enzyme, with K(m (and k(cat values of 58 µM (and 178 s(-1 and 43 µM (and 314 s(-1 for the immobilized and purified enzyme respectively. The Opd, a metalloenzyme requiring a zinc cofactor, is thus properly matured in AMB-1. The recycling of the functionalized magnetosomes was investigated and their catalytic activity proved to be stable over repeated use for pesticide degradation. In this study, we demonstrate the easy production of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with suitably genetically modified magnetotactic bacteria that are efficient as a reusable nanobiocatalyst for pesticides bioremediation in contaminated effluents.

  19. Issues in Measurement and International Comparison of Productivity - An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ark, Bart van

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development in theory and measurement of productivity performance in an international comparative perspective. It emphasises the need for a better link between the theory and practice of measurement, in particular concerning measurement of productivity levels. The paper deals with concepts of output, labour inputs and capital inputs, the issue of quality differences, the use of purchasing power parities versus unit value ratios and measurement problems related to ser...

  20. Interim indoor radon and radon decay-product measurement protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides EPA's procedures for measuring radon concentrations in houses with continuous radon monitors, charcoal canisters, alpha-track detectors, and grab radon techniques. It also provides procedures for measuring radon decay-product concentrations with a continuous-working-level monitor, a radon-progeny integrating sampling unit (RPISU), and grab radon decay-product methods. Specifications for the location of the measurement, the house conditions during the measurement, and minimum requirements for quality control are included in each procedure

  1. Dimethyl Sulfide Production from Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Coastal Seawater Samples and Bacterial Cultures †

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was produced immediately after the addition of 0.1 to 2 μM β-dimethylsulfonio-propionate (DMSP) to coastal seawater samples. Azide had little effect on the initial rate of DMS production from 0.5 μM added DMSP, but decreased the rate of production after 6 h. Filtration of water samples through membrane filters (pore size, 0.2 μm) greatly reduced DMS production for approximately 10 h, after which time DMS production resumed at a high rate. Autoclaving completely eliminat...

  2. Application of bacterial cytological profiling to crude natural product extracts reveals the antibacterial arsenal of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonejuie, Poochit; Trial, Rachelle M; Newton, Gerald L; Lamsa, Anne; Ranmali Perera, Varahenage; Aguilar, Julieta; Liu, Wei-Ting; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit

    2016-05-01

    Although most clinically used antibiotics are derived from natural products, identifying new antibacterial molecules from natural product extracts is difficult due to the complexity of these extracts and the limited tools to correlate biological activity with specific molecules. Here, we show that bacterial cytological profiling (BCP) provides a rapid method for mechanism of action determination on plates and in complex natural product extracts and for activity-guided purification. We prepared an extract from Bacillus subtilis 3610 that killed the Escherichia coli lptD mutant and used BCP to observe two types of bioactivities in the unfractionated extract: inhibition of translation and permeablization of the cytoplasmic membrane. We used BCP to guide purification of the molecules responsible for each activity, identifying the translation inhibitors bacillaene and bacillaene B (glycosylated bacillaene) and demonstrating that two molecules contribute to cell permeabilitization, the bacteriocin subtilosin and the cyclic peptide sporulation killing factor. Our results suggest that bacillaene mediates translational arrest, and show that bacillaene B has a minimum inhibitory concentration 10 × higher than unmodified bacillaene. Finally, we show that BCP can be used to screen strains on an agar plate without the need for extract preparation, greatly saving time and improving throughput. Thus, BCP simplifies the isolation of novel natural products, by identifying strains, crude extracts and fractions with interesting bioactivities even when multiple activities are present, allowing investigators to focus labor-intensive steps on those with desired activities. PMID:26648120

  3. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial and fungal biomass and carbon dioxide production in Louisiana coastal swamp forest sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal and bacterial carbon dioxide (CO2) production/emission was determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, + 100, + 250 and + 400 mV) covering the anaerobic range found in wetland soil and sediment. Carbon dioxide production was determined by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition method. Cycloheximide (C15H23NO4) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C21H39N7O12) as the bacterial inhibitor. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > + 250 mV), fungi contributed more than bacteria to the CO2 production. Under highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), bacteria contributed more than fungi to the total CO2 production. The fungi/bacteria (F/B) ratios varied between 0.71-1.16 for microbial biomass C, and 0.54-0.94 for microbial biomass N. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the F/B ratios for microbial biomass C and N were higher than that for highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV). In moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 13.54-14.26) was slightly higher than for bacteria (C/N: 9.61-12.07). Under highly reducing redox conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 10.79-12.41) was higher than for bacteria (C/N: 8.21-9.14). For bacteria and fungi, the C/N microbial biomass ratios under moderately reducing conditions were higher than that in highly reducing conditions. Fungal CO2 production from swamp forest could be of greater ecological significance under moderately reducing sediment conditions contributing to the greenhouse effect (GHE) and the global warming potential (GWP). However, increases in coastal submergence associated with global sea level rise and resultant decrease in sediment redox potential from increased flooding would likely shift CO2 production to bacteria rather than fungi.

  4. Introduction of a bacterial acetyl-CoA synthesis pathway improves lactic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Yoon; Park, Joon-Song; Kang, Chang Duk; Cho, Hwa-Young; Yang, Dongsik; Lee, Seunghyun; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2016-05-01

    Acid-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to produce lactic acid by expressing heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) genes, while attenuating several key pathway genes, including glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 (GPD1) and cytochrome-c oxidoreductase2 (CYB2). In order to increase the yield of lactic acid further, the ethanol production pathway was attenuated by disrupting the pyruvate decarboxylase1 (PDC1) and alcohol dehydrogenase1 (ADH1) genes. Despite an increase in lactic acid yield, severe reduction of the growth rate and glucose consumption rate owing to the absence of ADH1 caused a considerable decrease in the overall productivity. In Δadh1 cells, the levels of acetyl-CoA, a key precursor for biologically applicable components, could be insufficient for normal cell growth. To increase the cellular supply of acetyl-CoA, we introduced bacterial acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (A-ALD) enzyme (EC 1.2.1.10) genes into the lactic acid-producing S. cerevisiae. Escherichia coli-derived A-ALD genes, mhpF and eutE, were expressed and effectively complemented the attenuated acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD)/acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) pathway in the yeast. The engineered strain, possessing a heterologous acetyl-CoA synthetic pathway, showed an increased glucose consumption rate and higher productivity of lactic acid fermentation. The production of lactic acid was reached at 142g/L with production yield of 0.89g/g and productivity of 3.55gL(-1)h(-1) under fed-batch fermentation in bioreactor. This study demonstrates a novel approach that improves productivity of lactic acid by metabolic engineering of the acetyl-CoA biosynthetic pathway in yeast. PMID:26384570

  5. Integrated Productivity Accounts: Contributions to the Measurement of Capital

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Ryan; Gu, Wulong; Baldwin, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Measures of productivity are derived by comparing outputs and inputs. The System of National Accounts (SNA) in Canada provides a useful framework for organizing the information required for comparisons of this type. Integrated systems of economic accounts provide coherent, consistent alternate estimates of the various concepts that can be used to measure productivity.

  6. A Survey of the Measurements of Morphological Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lifang; Zhang, Xuezhong

    2010-01-01

    Morphological productivity is one of the key issues in the study of derivational morphology. This paper makes a survey of the quantitative measurements of morphological productivity so far proposed by different scholars, and tentatively attempts to point out the pros and cons and also feasibility of each measurement, with a view to provide some…

  7. Measurement of inelastic charmonium production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents measurements of inelastic photoproduction and electroproduction of J/Ψ mesons in ep scattering at HERA. The data was collected by the H1 detector during the HERA II running and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of L ∼ 166 pb-1 in the photoproduction analysis and L ∼ 315 pb-1 in the electroproduction analysis. In both analyses the elasticity of the J/Ψ meson is restricted to a medium range of 0.3 ≤ z ≤ 0.9. The kinematic range of the photoproduction analysis is defined by Q2 ∼ 0 GeV2, 60 ≤Wγp≤ 240 GeV and PΤ,Ψ≥ 1 GeV2, whereas the electroproduction analysis is restricted to 3.6 ≤ Q2 ≤ 100 GeV2, 50 ≤Wγp≤ 225 GeV, and P*Τ,Ψ ≥ 1 GeV. Here P*Τ,Ψ denotes the transverse momentum of the J/Ψ in the γp center of mass frame. In both kinematic ranges, single differential and double differential cross sections are measured with increased precision with respect to previous analyses. The polarisation of the J/Ψ mesons is studied in fits to the decay angular distributions cos(Θ*) and φ*. The measured cross sections are compared to different theoretical predictions. The most successful calculation in describing the data accounts for higher order corrections by using a kΤ factorisation ansatz in the color singlet model (CSM). In addition, this thesis reviews the description of the data by calculations at leading and next to leading order in the CSM. The polarisation variables are compared to calculations in the factorisation ansatz in NRQCD, in addition to the leading order CSM predictions. (orig.)

  8. Production and characterization of nanospheres of bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum from processed rice bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), biosynthesized by Acetobacter xylinum, was produced in a medium consisting of rice bark pre-treated with an enzymatic pool. Rice bark was evaluated as a carbon source by complete enzymatic hydrolysis and monosaccharide composition (GC-MS of derived alditol acetates). It was treated enzymatically and then enriched with glucose up to 4% (w/v). The BC produced by static and aerated processes was purified by immersion in 0.1 M NaOH, was characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and the biosynthetic nanostructures were evaluated by Scanning Electronic (SEM), Transmission Electronic (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The BC films arising from static fermentation with rice bark/glucose and glucose are tightly intertwined, partially crystalline, being type II cellulose produced with rice bark/glucose, and type I to the produced in a glucose medium. The nanostructurated biopolymer obtained from the rice bark/glucose medium, produced in a reactor with air flux had micro- and nanospheres linked to nanofibers of cellulose. These results indicate that the bark components, namely lignins, hemicelluloses or mineral contents, interact with the cellulose forming micro- and nanostructures with potential use to incorporate drugs

  9. Production and characterization of nanospheres of bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum from processed rice bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goelzer, F.D.E. [Group of Industrial Microbiology, UNIVALI-Universidade do Vale do Itajai, R. Uruguai, 458, 88302-202, Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Faria-Tischer, P.C.S. [Group of Industrial Microbiology, UNIVALI-Universidade do Vale do Itajai, R. Uruguai, 458, 88302-202, Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Biopolymers, UFPR-Universidade Federal do Parana, CxP 19081, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Vitorino, J.C. [Group of Industrial Microbiology, UNIVALI-Universidade do Vale do Itajai, R. Uruguai, 458, 88302-202, Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sierakowski, Maria-R. [Laboratory of Biopolymers, UFPR-Universidade Federal do Parana, CxP 19081, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Tischer, C.A. [Group of Industrial Microbiology, UNIVALI-Universidade do Vale do Itajai, R. Uruguai, 458, 88302-202, Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil)], E-mail: cesarat@uol.com.br

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), biosynthesized by Acetobacter xylinum, was produced in a medium consisting of rice bark pre-treated with an enzymatic pool. Rice bark was evaluated as a carbon source by complete enzymatic hydrolysis and monosaccharide composition (GC-MS of derived alditol acetates). It was treated enzymatically and then enriched with glucose up to 4% (w/v). The BC produced by static and aerated processes was purified by immersion in 0.1 M NaOH, was characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and the biosynthetic nanostructures were evaluated by Scanning Electronic (SEM), Transmission Electronic (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The BC films arising from static fermentation with rice bark/glucose and glucose are tightly intertwined, partially crystalline, being type II cellulose produced with rice bark/glucose, and type I to the produced in a glucose medium. The nanostructurated biopolymer obtained from the rice bark/glucose medium, produced in a reactor with air flux had micro- and nanospheres linked to nanofibers of cellulose. These results indicate that the bark components, namely lignins, hemicelluloses or mineral contents, interact with the cellulose forming micro- and nanostructures with potential use to incorporate drugs.

  10. Magnesium improves hydrogen production by a novel fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-jing; REN Nan-qi; XIANG Wen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of magnesium on glucose metabolism, including growth and hydrogen-producing capacity of fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49. These abilities were enhanced with an increase in magnesium concentration. At the end of fermentation from 10 g/L ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) was 1.1, and the accumulated hydrogen volume hydrogen volume was increased to 2 360. 5 mL H2/L culture, the ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) was increased to 1.3 and polysaccharide was decreased to 2. 5 mg/L. Moreover, the magnesium solution addition to the medium at different fermentation times affected hydrogen-producing ability. However,the later the addition time was postponed, the less the effect was on hydrogen evolution. Further experiments confirmed the enhancement was dependent on magnesium ions and not on the other inorganic ions such as SO42- or Cl-, which constituted the magnesium salts.

  11. Exposure to bacterial signals does not alter pea aphids' survival upon a second challenge or investment in production of winged offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ter Braak

    Full Text Available Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections.

  12. Single-Top Quark Production Measurements Using the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Oliver Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production in proton-proton collisions are presented at a centre-of-mass energy of 8$\\,$TeV and 13$\\,$TeV. A measurement of the cross-section where a W boson is exchanged in the $t$-channel is discussed and the results for the inclusive production cross-section are presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Evidence for single-top production in the $s$-channel with the 8$\\,$TeV ATLAS dataset is discussed. Finally, measurements of the properties of the Wtb vertex allows to set limits on anomalous couplings. All measurements are compared to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations.

  13. Jet production and measurements of αs at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britzger Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results on the measurements of the hadronic final state in e± p collisions by the H1 and ZEUS experiments at HERA are presented. These are measurements on the production of prompt photons in photoproduction, inclusive jet, dijet and trijet production in deep-inelatic scattering and on the search for QCD instantons. The jet production data is employed for the extraction of the strong coupling constant αs(MZ.

  14. Bacterial ecology of PDO Coppa and Pancetta Piacentina at the end of ripening and after MAP storage of sliced product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busconi, Matteo; Zacconi, Carla; Scolari, Gianluigi

    2014-02-17

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of two typical Italian PDO delicatessens Coppa and Pancetta Piacentina, produced in Piacenza area (Italy). Classical and molecular approaches were employed, in order to acquire knowledge on their bacterial ecology and its evolution after slicing and MAP storing; thus, the biodiversity of characteristic bacterial community, already present or introduced during such procedures, was studied in both full ripened and sliced samples from two producers (A and B) of the PDO district, packaged under MAP and stored at 2 and 8 °C for 30 days. The microbiota of the two kinds of Italian delicatessen demonstrated peculiar differences, particularly regarding the staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ratio. Moreover, some species within these two groups appeared to be linked to the kind of product: Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus versmoldensis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were found only in Pancetta while Lactobacillus pentosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus sciuri and Macrococcus caseolyticus occurred only in Coppa. Also, both delicatessens from producer A were richer in LAB compared to those of producer B and the opposite applied for staphylococci. Interestingly, Tetragenococcus halophilus was detectable in all the samples and its presence in the sausage environment has been reported only for Capocollo. Storage did not substantially modify the microbiota composition, the only changes being the relative abundance of same sequences; S. xylosus was prevalent before slicing process and S. equorum at the end of MAP storage at both 2 °C and 8 °C. Concerning microbial contamination during the slicing process, our results suggest that the adopted procedures assure high hygienic quality standard of these typical products, with exception of a contamination by Psychrobacter psychrophilus in Coppa B. The possible origin of species rarely or never reported in the sausage environment and

  15. Production of macroaggregates from dissolved exopolymeric substances (EPS) of bacterial and diatom origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhaskar, P.V.; Grossart, H.P.; Bhosle, N.B.; Simon, M.

    that production of macroaggregates was influenced by polymer chemistry and surface properties of colliding particles whereas TEP and CSP concentrations were influenced by molecular weight of EPS and the presence of growing cells. Interestingly, macroaggregates...

  16. Measurement of inelastic charmonium production at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steder, Michael

    2008-09-15

    This thesis presents measurements of inelastic photoproduction and electroproduction of J/{psi} mesons in ep scattering at HERA. The data was collected by the H1 detector during the HERA II running and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of L {approx} 166 pb{sup -1} in the photoproduction analysis and L {approx} 315 pb{sup -1} in the electroproduction analysis. In both analyses the elasticity of the J/{psi} meson is restricted to a medium range of 0.3 {<=} z {<=} 0.9. The kinematic range of the photoproduction analysis is defined by Q{sup 2} {approx} 0 GeV{sup 2}, 60 {<=}W{sub {gamma}}{sub p}{<=} 240 GeV and P{sub {tau}}{sub ,{psi}}{>=} 1 GeV{sup 2}, whereas the electroproduction analysis is restricted to 3.6 {<=} Q{sup 2} {<=} 100 GeV{sup 2}, 50 {<=}W{sub {gamma}}{sub p}{<=} 225 GeV, and P{sup *}{sub {tau}}{sub ,} {sub {psi}} {>=} 1 GeV. Here P{sup *}{sub {tau}}{sub ,} {sub {psi}} denotes the transverse momentum of the J/{psi} in the {gamma}p center of mass frame. In both kinematic ranges, single differential and double differential cross sections are measured with increased precision with respect to previous analyses. The polarisation of the J/{psi} mesons is studied in fits to the decay angular distributions cos({theta}{sup *}) and {phi}{sup *}. The measured cross sections are compared to different theoretical predictions. The most successful calculation in describing the data accounts for higher order corrections by using a k{sub {tau}} factorisation ansatz in the color singlet model (CSM). In addition, this thesis reviews the description of the data by calculations at leading and next to leading order in the CSM. The polarisation variables are compared to calculations in the factorisation ansatz in NRQCD, in addition to the leading order CSM predictions. (orig.)

  17. Top production measurements using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Marino; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential top quark pair and singletop production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of the top quark production are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top pair production in the TeV regime. The results, unfolded to particle and parton level, are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations.

  18. Production of Cold-Active Bacterial Lipases through Semisolid State Fermentation Using Oil Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Babu Joseph; Supriya Upadhyaya; Pramod Ramteke

    2011-01-01

    Production of cold active lipase by semisolid state fermentation involves the use of agroindustrial residues. In the present study, semisolid state fermentation was carried out for the production of cold active lipase using Micrococcus roseus, isolated from soil samples of Gangotri glaciers, Western Himalayas. Among various substrate tested, groundnut oil cake (GOC) favored maximal yield of lipases at 15 ± 1°C within 48 h. Supplementation of glucose 1% (w/v) as additional carbon source and am...

  19. Measures to reduce ammonia emissions in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Botermans, Jos; Gustafsson, Gösta; Jeppsson, Knut-Håkan; Brown, Nils; Rodhe, Lena

    2010-01-01

    In this literature review, measures of reducing the ammonia (NH3) emissions from pig production are described, with focus on systems that can be used under Swedish conditions. The entire production chain with feed, housing, manure storage and application on the field is described and taken into consideration. However, in order to limit the study, the production of crops for feed is not included. As compared to many other countries, emissions of NH3 in Swedish pig production are already low, d...

  20. Valorization of lubricant-based wastewater for bacterial neutral lipids production: Growth-linked biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Pedro D M P; Lima, Filipa; Alves, Maria Madalena; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-09-15

    Lipids produced by microorganisms are currently of great interest as raw material for either biofuels or oleochemicals production. Significant biosynthesis of neutral lipids, such as triacylglycerol (TAG) and wax esters (WE) are thought to be limited to a few strains. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), key players in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ecosystems, are among this group of strains. Hydrocarbon rich wastewaters have been overlooked concerning their potential as raw material for microbial lipids production. In this study, lubricant-based wastewater was fed, as sole carbon source, to two HCB representative wild strains: Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, and Rhodococcus opacus PD630. Neutral lipid production was observed with both strains cultivated under uncontrolled conditions of pH and dissolved oxygen. A. borkumensis SK2 was further investigated in a pH- and OD-controlled fermenter. Different phases were assessed separately in terms of lipids production and alkanes removal. The maximum TAG production rate occurred during stationary phase (4 mg-TAG/L h). The maximum production rate of WE-like compounds was 15 mg/L h, and was observed during exponential growth phase. Hydrocarbons removal was 97% of the gas chromatography (GC) resolved straight-chain alkanes. The maximum removal rate was observed during exponential growth phase (6 mg-alkanes/L h). This investigation proposes a novel approach for the management of lubricant waste oil, aiming at its conversion into valuable lipids. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated under low salt (0.3%) and saline (3.3%) conditions, and presents clues for its technological development, since growth associated oil production opens the possibility for establishing continuous fermentation processes. PMID:27244293

  1. Hydrogen production and anaerobic decolorization of wastewater containing Reactive Blue 4 by a bacterial consortium of Salmonella subterranea and Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanapokasin, Ramida Yuwadee; Boonyakamol, Anantabhathra; Sukseree, Supawadee; Krajarng, Aungkana; Sophonnithiprasert, Thanet; Kanso, Sungwan; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability of wastewater (3,000 mg CODcr/l) containing 300 mg/l Reactive Blue 4, with different co-substrates, glucose, butyrate and propionate by a bacterial consortium of Salmonella subterranea and Paenibacillus polymyxa, concomitantly with hydrogen production was investigated at 35 degrees C. The accumulative hydrogen production at 3,067 mg CODcr/l was obtained after 7 days of incubation with glucose, sludge, the bacterial consortium. The volatile fatty acids, residual glucose and the total organic carbon were correlated to hydrogen obtained. Interestingly, the bacterial consortium possess decolorization ability showing approximately 24% dye removal after 24 h incubation using glucose as a co-substrate, which was about two and eight times those of butyrate (10%), propionate (12%) and control (3%), respectively. RB4 decolorization occurred through acidogenesis, as high volatile fatty acids but low methane was detected. The bacterial consortium will be the bacterial strains of interest for further decolorization and hydrogen production of industrial waste water. PMID:19002762

  2. Structural insights into inhibition of lipid I production in bacterial cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ben C; Mashalidis, Ellene H; Tanino, Tetsuya; Kim, Mijung; Matsuda, Akira; Hong, Jiyong; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2016-05-26

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is a serious threat to public health. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis is a well-established target for antibiotic development. MraY (phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase) catalyses the first and an essential membrane step of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. It is considered a very promising target for the development of new antibiotics, as many naturally occurring nucleoside inhibitors with antibacterial activity target this enzyme. However, antibiotics targeting MraY have not been developed for clinical use, mainly owing to a lack of structural insight into inhibition of this enzyme. Here we present the crystal structure of MraY from Aquifex aeolicus (MraYAA) in complex with its naturally occurring inhibitor, muraymycin D2 (MD2). We show that after binding MD2, MraYAA undergoes remarkably large conformational rearrangements near the active site, which lead to the formation of a nucleoside-binding pocket and a peptide-binding site. MD2 binds the nucleoside-binding pocket like a two-pronged plug inserting into a socket. Further interactions it makes in the adjacent peptide-binding site anchor MD2 to and enhance its affinity for MraYAA. Surprisingly, MD2 does not interact with three acidic residues or the Mg(2+) cofactor required for catalysis, suggesting that MD2 binds to MraYAA in a manner that overlaps with, but is distinct from, its natural substrate, UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. We have determined the principles of MD2 binding to MraYAA, including how it avoids the need for pyrophosphate and sugar moieties, which are essential features for substrate binding. The conformational plasticity of MraY could be the reason that it is the target of many structurally distinct inhibitors. These findings can inform the design of new inhibitors targeting MraY as well as its paralogues, WecA and TarO. PMID:27088606

  3. Product formation from thiophene by a mixed bacterial culture. Influence of benzene as growth substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Isabelle Marie; Mosbæk, Hans; Arvin, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The influence of benzene as a growth substrate on the cometabolic conversion of thiophene was investigated in batch systems with microorganisms originating from an creosote contaminated site. Benzene was shown to stimulate the conversion of thiophene with a first-order rate, during the initial...... phase of transformation. The microorganisms were able to transform thiophene in the absence of benzene at a zero-order rate. Thiophene was converted to five oxidation products, regardless of the presence of benzene. Benzene had no influence on the distribution of these oxidation products. The main...

  4. Combining Overall equipment Efficiency (OEE) and productivity measures as drivers for production improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Carin; Bellgran, Monica

    2011-01-01

    To compete on a globalized market companies need to constantly improve the performance in their manufacturing systems. Production performance measures can be used for different purposes, by practitioners they are commonly used for follow-up and reporting purposes. Two of the most commonly used performance measures are Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) and productivity. Between these two productivity exhibits the far most variety in definition. Even if OEE and productivity are strongly affect...

  5. Measurements of photon and jet production properties with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christopher; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Summary of recent ATLAS measurements of jet and photon production using proton--proton ($pp$) collisions from the Large Hadron Collider. The charged-particle multiplicity in jets, and jet charge measurements, are presented using 8~TeV $pp$ collisions. Differential measurements of jet and photon cross-sections are shown for 7, 8 and 13~TeV $pp$ collisions.

  6. Methods of production and measurement of standard sources and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the collection of papers having presented at the symposium, results are stated of the work performed in the CMEA member - states in the field of development and application of new methods of production of standard sources and solutions as well as of measuring their activity. Some installations used for measurements have been described. Results of measurements have been stated

  7. Associated J/$\\psi$ Production Measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Weinert, Benjamin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The associated production of quarkonium with a vector boson or an additional quarkonium state are rare processes that provide new insight into QCD models of quarkonium production, but also provide new opportunities to study double parton scattering. We present new measurements of J/psi production in association with a vector boson or another J/psi, in pp collisions at the ATLAS experiment. Differential production cross-sections of these processes are measured, and a data-driven approach is used to estimate the single parton scattering and double parton scattering contributions to these rates

  8. Optimization of biohydrogen yield produced by bacterial consortia using residual glycerin from biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mariana de Oliveira; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to simplify the fermentation medium and to optimize the conditions of dark fermentation of residual glycerin to produce biohydrogen. It was possible to remove all micronutrients of fermentation medium and improve biohydrogen production by applying residual glycerin as feedstock. After statistical analysis of the following parameters pH, glycerin concentration and volatile suspended solids, the values of 5.5; 0.5g.L(-1) and 8.7g.L(-1), respectively, were defined as optimum condition for this process. It generated 2.44molH2/molglycerin, an expressive result when compared to previous results reported in literature and considering that theoretical yield of H2 from glycerol in dark fermentation process is 3molH2/molglycerol. This study allowed the improvement of yield and productivity by 68% and 67%, respectively. PMID:27501033

  9. Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater

    OpenAIRE

    L. Jørgensen; Lechtenfeld, O.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by ...

  10. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin; Berthelsen, Jens; Weigelt, Johan; Gräslund, Susanne; Sundström, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To improve the usefulness of the E. coli expression platform we have investigated combinations of promoters and selected N-terminal fusion tags for the extracellular expression of human target proteins. A co...

  11. Identification of the Bacterial Microflora in Dairy Products by Temporal Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Ogier, Jean-Claude; Son, Olivier; Gruss, Alexandra; Tailliez, Patrick; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnes

    2002-01-01

    Numerous microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, and molds, are present in cheeses, forming a complex ecosystem. Among these organisms, bacteria are responsible for most of the physicochemical and aromatic transformations that are intrinsic to the cheesemaking process. Identification of the bacteria that constitute the cheese ecosystem is essential for understanding their individual contributions to cheese production. We used temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) to ide...

  12. Recombinant production of bacterial toxins and their derivatives in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkan Cemal; Ellar David J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is a popular heterologous expression host for the recombinant production of a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins. The rapid emergence of P. pastoris as a robust heterologous expression host was facilitated by the ease with which it can be manipulated and propagated, which is comparable to that of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. P. pastoris offers further advantages such as the tightly-regulated alcohol oxidase promot...

  13. Biopolymer Production by Bacterial Enrichment Cultures Using Non-Fermented Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Moralejo Gárate, H.

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs) are naturally occurring polymers synthesized by a wide range of microorganisms. Their physiological role is to act as carbon and energy reserves, and their mechanical and physical properties are similar to those of petrochemical plastics. PHAs can be synthesized from renewable materials and they are biodegradable. Considering these properties, PHAs are commonly known as bioplastics. Commercial processes for the production of PHA are based on the use of pure culture...

  14. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Imbalance between tolerance and immunity (e.g. intestinal homeostasis) contributes to the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and food allergies. The first part...

  15. Marine Fungal and Bacterial Isolates for Lipase Production: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnala, H S; Kabilan, U; Gopalakrishnan, L; Rao, R M D; Kumar, D S

    2016-01-01

    Lipases, belonging to the class of enzymes called hydrolases, can catalyze triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol. They are produced by microbes of plant and animal origin, and also by marine organisms. As marine microorganisms thrive in extreme conditions, lipases isolated from their origin possess characteristics of extremozymes, retain its activity in extreme conditions and can catalyze few chemical reactions which are impossible otherwise relative to the lipase produced from terrestrial microorganisms. Lipases are useful in many industries like detergent, food, leather, pharmaceutical, diary, etc. Few commercial enzymes have been developed and the use of them in certain industries like dairy, soaps are proved to be beneficial. There are few research papers reporting the production of lipase from marine bacteria and fungi. Lipase production involves two types of fermentation processes-solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Although SmF process is used conventionally, SSF process produces lipase in higher amounts. The production is also influenced by the composition of the medium, physiochemical parameters like temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources. PMID:27452166

  16. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices. PMID:24715203

  17. Production of Bacterial Cellulose by Kombucha%红茶菌制备细菌纤维素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐水佳; 杨雪霞; 洪枫

    2012-01-01

    To find an efficient manufacturing strain and fermentation technology as well as a cost-effective medium are important strategies to solve the bottleneck problems that the industrialization of bacterial cellulose (BC) is facing, such as high production cost and low productivity. This paper investigated the effects of various carbon and nitrogen sources as well as concentration of tea water on the BC production by Kombucha (black tea fimgus) and Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The results showed that no big difference was found in the BC produced by the two types of microorganism. Kombucha had higher productivity of BC than Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The yield from Kombucha fermentation could be 3 times higher or more than G. xylinus.%寻找高效的生产菌和发酵工艺以及廉价高效的培养基是解决当前细菌纤维素产业化面临的高生产成本和低产率等瓶颈问题的重要手段。以红茶菌和木葡糖酸醋杆菌作为生产菌株,比较研究了不同碳源、氮源以及茶叶浓度对两种菌合成细菌纤维素的影响。结果表明,以红茶菌制备的细菌纤维素与木葡糖酸醋杆菌无本质区别;红茶菌生产细菌纤维素的效率显著高于木葡糖酸醋杆菌,产量可提高3倍以上。

  18. The utilization of sugar cane molasses with/without the presence of lignosulfonate for the production of bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshk, Sherif; Sameshima, Kazuhiko

    2006-09-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose (BC) using sugar cane molasses (MO) with/without the presence of lignosulfonate (MOL) as a sole carbon source in a Hestrin-Schramm medium (HS) was investigated. Six strains of Acetobacter xylinum [American Type Culture Collection 10245 and Institute of Fermentation in Osaka (IFO) 13693, 13772, 13773, 14815, and 15237] were screened for their BC production. The yield of the BC among all the strains from both the MO and MOL media was much higher than that from the HS medium. Acetobacter xylinum IFO 13772 was the best BC producer for all media. Furthermore, physical properties of these BC from the HS, MO, and MOL media were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, and cross polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. There are no significant differences in the crystallinity and the recorded Ialpha fraction among the BC produced from the different media. A remarkable difference was only recorded in terms of viscosity. These results indicate that MO is a better carbon source than glucose for most of the strains investigated. PMID:16450110

  19. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from beverage industrial waste of citrus peel and pomace using Komagataeibacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Gao, Yue; He, Wanying; Hu, Hao; Tian, Ming; Wang, Kexing; Pan, Siyi

    2016-10-20

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a high-purity and robust cellulose that is utilised in medicine, consumer goods, and industrial practices. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of beverage industrial waste for the production of BC by Komagataeibacter xylinus CICC No. 10529 and to study the structural properties of BC films in both citrus peel and pomace enzymolysis (CPPE) and Hestrin-Schramm (HS, Hestrin & Schramm, 1954) media. Under similar experimental conditions, the yield of BC from CPPE medium was 5.7±0.7g/L, which was higher than from HS medium (3.9±0.6g/L). To evaluate the structure of BC, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and colour evaluation using a chroma meter were utilised. The average diameters of BC, obtained from CPPE and HS mediums, were 50nm and 60nm, respectively. The crystallinity index of BC from the CPPE medium was approximately 63%, which was lower than BC produced from the HS medium (65%). The two varieties of BC showed no significant differences in relation to their colour parameters. Therefore, BC production from CPPE medium had similar properties to BC from HS medium, but it is more environmentally friendly and cheaper to produce. PMID:27474656

  20. Measuring productivity of customer knowledge management in projects

    OpenAIRE

    Tanika D. Sofianti; Kadarsah Suryadi; Rajesri Govindaraju; Budhi Prihartono

    2013-01-01

    Projects is one of the dominating modes of international business today. Companies interact with their customers in projects for a certain period. To explore the impact of customer knowledge management in such interactions, this paper promotes a measurement framework that can be used to measure the productivity of customer knowledge management. The measures are developed based on previous studies on customer knowledge management and project management. To verify the measures, this study condu...

  1. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    OpenAIRE

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Abbott, James; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a remarkable material that is malleable, biocompatible, and over 10-times stronger than plant-based cellulose. It is currently used to create materials for tissue engineering, medicine, defense, electronics, acoustics, and fabrics. We describe here a bacterial strain that is readily amenable to genetic engineering and produces high quantities of bacterial cellulose in low-cost media. To reprogram this organism for biotechnology applications, we created a set of genetic ...

  2. Enhanced production of murine interferon gamma by T cells generated in response to bacterial infection

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Spleen cell cultures derived from animals infected 6 d earlier with Listeria monocytogenes produced 10-20-fold more murine interferon gamma (MuIFN gamma) than spleen cells from nonimmune mice in response to stimulation with T cell mitogens. A striking temporal association was found between the enhanced synthesis of MuIFN gamma and the development of anti-Listeria immunity in that both the potential for increased MuIFN gamma production and the generation of Listeria-protective T cells develope...

  3. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) has been developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement

  4. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Shields, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Arnold, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Blakeley, R. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hecht, A.A.; Heffern, L.E. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mader, D. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); O' Donnell, J.M.; Sierk, A.; White, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) has been developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using {sup 229}Th and {sup 252}Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Mass yield results measured from {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  5. Integral measurements of neutron production in spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of neutron production for thick iron, tungsten and lead targets of different diameter prototypic for spallation systems have been made at SATURNE in an incident proton energy range from 400 MeV to 2 GeV. TIERCE code system calculations are in good agreement with experiment for iron and large diameter tungsten and lead targets. They overestimate the measured neutron production for tungsten and lead targets for diameter ≤20 cm. (author)

  6. Measurement of exclusive eta' production in γγ reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observe γγ->eta' production in the reaction e+e- -> e+e-π+π-γ. We measure the product GAMMAsub(γγ)(eta')B(eta' -> rho0γ) to be 1.14+-0.08+-0.11 keV. A first measurement of the γγ->eta' transition form factor is made for Q2 up to 1 GeV2. (orig.)

  7. Characterization and crop production efficiency of diazotrophic bacterial isolates from coastal saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shilajit; Tripathi, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Ashis; Ghosh, Sagarmoy; Chakrabarti, Kalyan

    2012-01-20

    Use of eco-friendly area specific salt tolerant bioinoculants is better alternatives to chemical fertilizer for sustainable agriculture in coastal saline soils. We isolated diverse groups of diazotrophic bacteria from coastal saline soils of different forest and agricultural lands in the Sundarbans, West Bengal, India, to study their effect on crop productivity in saline soils. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular identifications of the isolates were performed. The isolates produced indole acetic acid, phosphatase, and solubilized insoluble phosphates. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA identified the SUND_BDU1 strain as Agrobacterium and the strains SUND_LM2, Can4 and Can6 belonging to the genus Bacillus. The ARA activity, dinitrogen fixation and presence of nifH genes indicated they were diazotrophs. Field trials with these strains as bioinoculants were carried out during 2007-2009, with rice during August-December followed by Lady's finger during April-June. Microplots, amended with FYM inoculated with four bioinoculants individually were compared against sole FYM (5 t ha(-1)) and a sole chemical fertilizer (60:30:30 kg ha(-1) NPK) treated plot. The strain Can6 was by far the best performer in respect of yield attributes and productivity of studied crops. PMID:21596539

  8. Productivity measurement and growth in Nigeria: challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze C. IKEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity (growth measurements (describing the assessment of an economy’s rate of change in the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input use and related analysis are regular undertakings by staff of economic development of most nations and development institutions such as the OECD. Although they strive to accomplish objectives related to studying efficiency or the achievement of maximum output physically achievable under the use of current technology and given inputs, accounting for the contribution of real costs savings; introduction of benchmarks for production processes and to highlight living standards obtaining at points in time, its emphasis has been at the expense of examination of issues related to society (institutions, history, innovation and productivity change, which are concerned with promoting growth beyond mere productivity accounting. This paper has attempted to address all these issues as they pertain to Nigeria’s rather stagnant or declining economy. This slight modification was prompted by changes from philosophers concerned with the wider area of productivity measurement and change. The literature agrees that productivity measurement (growth accounting only “identified the significance of different proximate sources of growth” but fails to employ institutional, historical case studies to investigate the underlying causes of the growth, innovation and productivity change. Details of deficiencies related to the foregoing issues are examined and policy recommendations drafted and presented to assist practitioners, policy and decision makers and other stakeholders.

  9. Allais Measure of Production Sector Waste Due to Quotas, An

    OpenAIRE

    Lilyan E. Fulginiti; Richard K. Perrin

    1996-01-01

    Agricultural production quotas are policy instruments that many countries have adopted as a means of transferring income from consumers to producers. Here the partial equilibrium approach of Allais and Diewert is adapted to measure the efficiency loss in the production sector due to quotas. Published in American Journal of Agricultural Economics 77(November 1995):865-74. 1995.

  10. Measurements of dilepton production in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present experimental results on the pd/pp ratio for e+e-production and the invariant e+e- mass distribution measured in the process p+p→e+e-+X at energies between 1.03 and 4.9 GeV. From the mass spectra production cross sections for η, ρ, ω, and Δare derived. (HSI)

  11. Patterns of hydrogen peroxide among lakes of the Mackenzie Delta and potential effects on bacterial production

    OpenAIRE

    Febria, Catherine Maria

    2005-01-01

    Lakes in the Mackenzie Delta have complex patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranging from low levels of coloured DOC in lakes frequently flooded with riverwater to high levels of non-coloured DOC in infrequently flooded lakes. Hydrogen peroxide (H202) levels measured in 40 lakes at three times, ranging from summer solstice to late summer were highest around the solstice and in lakes of intermediate flood-frequency. Diurnal dynamics of H202, tracked for 40 hours during 24-hour sunlight...

  12. Proteomics as a quality control tool of pharmaceutical probiotic bacterial lysate products

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Klein; Schanstra, Joost P.; Janosch Hoffmann; Harald Mischak; Justyna Siwy; Kurt Zimmermann

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have a wide range of applications in veterinary and human therapeutics. Inactivated probiotics are complex samples and quality control (QC) should measure as many molecular features as possible. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE/MS) has been used as a multidimensional and high throughput method for the identification and validation of biomarkers of disease in complex biological samples such as biofluids. In this study we evaluate the suitability of ...

  13. Isolation of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterial strains efficient in hydrogen production at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were isolated from root zone associations of aquatic plants like Azolla, Salvinia and Eichhornia, as well as the deep-water rice. Based on the gross cell morphology and pigmentation, the isolates resembled Rhodopseudomonas sp. and have been designated as BHU strains 1 to 4, respectively. When subjected to elevated temperature (from 33-45{sup o}C), substantial growth/hydrogen production could be observed only in strains 1 and 4. Strains 2 and 3 on the other hand, showed diminished growth and negligible hydrogen photoproduction. The BHU strains 1 and 4 have been selected as the most active (thermostable) hydrogen producing strains of local origin as far as the Indian tropical climate is concerned. (author).

  14. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To...... improve the usefulness of the E. coli expression platform we have investigated combinations of promoters and selected N-terminal fusion tags for the extracellular expression of human target proteins. A comparative study was conducted on 24 target proteins fused to outer membrane protein A (OmpA), outer...... membrane protein F (OmpF) and osmotically inducible protein Y (OsmY). Based on the results of this initial study, we carried out an extended expression screen employing the OsmY fusion and multiple constructs of a more diverse set of human proteins. Using this high-throughput compatible system, we clearly...

  15. Biological role of pigment production for the bacterial phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M Caroline

    2012-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, produces a yellow carotenoid pigment. A nonpigmented mutant was selected from a bank of mutants generated by random transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertion site was mapped to the crtB gene, encoding a putative phytoene synthase, an enzyme involved in the early steps of carotenoid biosynthesis. We demonstrate here that the carotenoid pigment imparts protection against UV radiation and also contributes to the complete antioxidant pathway of P. stewartii. Moreover, production of this pigment is regulated by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing system and significantly contributes to the virulence of the pathogen in planta. PMID:22820327

  16. Comparison of some indigenous bacterial strains of pseudomonas ssp. for production of biosurfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some indigenous pseudomonas spp. were found to have the ability of emulsification, lowering the surface and interfacial tensions, and formation of high reciprocal CMCs. Six strains of Pseudomonas spp were compared for biosurfactant production grown on hexadecane. Supernatant from whole culture broth of these strains could lower surface tension from 65 mN/m to 28-32 nM/m, interfacial tension from 40 nM/m to 1-3 mN/m and had high reciprocal CMCs. When compared for emulsification ability by the culture broth of these strains, the emulsification index (E24) was found to range between 60-65. Biosurfactant containing culture broth of some strains could retain the property up to 80 C, pH of 13 and sodium chloride concentration for 17% which indicates their possible role in some depleted oil well. (author)

  17. Engineered bacterial polyester hydrolases efficiently degrade polyethylene terephthalate due to relieved product inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Schmidt, Juliane; Meier, René; Barth, Markus; Then, Johannes; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies on the enzymatic degradation of synthetic polyesters have shown the potential of polyester hydrolases from thermophilic actinomycetes for modifying or degrading polyethylene terephthalate (PET). TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 and LC-cutinase (LCC) isolated from a compost metagenome are remarkably active polyester hydrolases with high sequence and structural similarity. Both enzymes exhibit an exposed active site in a substrate binding groove located at the protein surface. By exchanging selected amino acid residues of TfCut2 involved in substrate binding with those present in LCC, enzyme variants with increased PET hydrolytic activity at 65°C were obtained. The highest activity in hydrolyzing PET films and fibers were detected with the single variant G62A and the double variant G62A/I213S. Both variants caused a weight loss of PET films of more than 42% after 50 h of hydrolysis, corresponding to a 2.7-fold increase compared to the wild type enzyme. Kinetic analysis based on the released PET hydrolysis products confirmed the superior hydrolytic activity of G62A with a fourfold higher hydrolysis rate constant and a 1.5-fold lower substrate binding constant than those of the wild type enzyme. Mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate is a strong inhibitor of TfCut2. A determination of the Rosetta binding energy suggested a reduced interaction of G62A with 2PET, a dimer of the PET monomer ethylene terephthalate. Indeed, G62A revealed a 5.5-fold lower binding constant to the inhibitor than the wild type enzyme indicating that its increased PET hydrolysis activity is the result of a relieved product inhibition by mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1658-1665. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804057

  18. Measurements of strangeness production in the STAR experiment at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.K. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1995-07-15

    Simulations of the ability of the STAR (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) detector to measure strangeness production in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC are presented. Emphasis is placed on the reconstruction of short lived particles using a high resolution inner tracker. The prospects for performing neutral kaon interferometry are discussed. Simulation results for measurements of strange and multi-strange baryons are presented.

  19. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.;

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...

  20. Measurement of the copy number of the master quorum-sensing regulator of a bacterial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shu-Wen; Wang, Yufang; Tu, Kimberly C; Long, Tao; Mehta, Pankaj; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L; Ong, N P

    2010-05-19

    Quorum-sensing is the mechanism by which bacteria communicate and synchronize group behaviors. Quantitative information on parameters such as the copy number of particular quorum-sensing proteins should contribute strongly to understanding how the quorum-sensing network functions. Here, we show that the copy number of the master regulator protein LuxR in Vibrio harveyi can be determined in vivo by exploiting small-number fluctuations of the protein distribution when cells undergo division. When a cell divides, both its volume and LuxR protein copy number, N, are partitioned with slight asymmetries. We measured the distribution functions describing the partitioning of the protein fluorescence and the cell volume. The fluorescence distribution is found to narrow systematically as the LuxR population increases, whereas the volume partitioning is unchanged. Analyzing these changes statistically, we determined that N = 80-135 dimers at low cell density and 575 dimers at high cell density. In addition, we measured the static distribution of LuxR over a large (3000) clonal population. Combining the static and time-lapse experiments, we determine the magnitude of the Fano factor of the distribution. This technique has broad applicability as a general in vivo technique for measuring protein copy number and burst size. PMID:20441767

  1. Measurement of bacterial growth rates in subsurface sediments using the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, P M; Ventullo, R M

    1988-07-01

    Microbial growth rates in subsurface sediment from three sites were measured using incorporation of tritiated thymidine into DNA. Sampling sites included Lula, Oklahoma, Traverse City, Michigan, and Summit Lake, Wisconsin. Application of the thymidine method to subsurface sediments required (1) thymidine concentrations greater than 125 nM, (2) incubation periods of less than 4 hours, (3) addition of SDS and EDTA for optimum macromolecular extraction, and (4) DNA purification, in order to accurately measure the rate of thymidine incorporation into DNA. Macromolecule extraction recoveries, as well as the percentage of tritium label incorporated into the DNA fraction, were variable and largely dependent upon sediment composition. In general, sandy sediments yielded higher extraction recoveries and demonstrated a larger percentage of label incorporated into DNA than sediments that contained a high silt-clay component. Reported results also indicate that the acid-base hydrolysis procedure routinely used for macromolecular fractionation in water samples may not be routinely applicable to the modified sediment procedure where addition of SDS and EDTA are required for macromolecule extraction. Growth rates exhibited by subsurface communities are relatively slow, ranging from 5.1 to 10.2×10(5) cells g(-1) day(-1). These rates are 2-1,000-fold lower than growth rates measured in surface sediments. These data lend support to the supposition that subsurface microbial communities are nutritionally stressed. PMID:24201529

  2. Bioelectricity production from microbial fuel cell using mixed bacterial culture isolated from distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudeen, N; Radhakrishnan, T K; Matheswaran, Manickam

    2015-11-01

    The effect of various system parameters such as wastewater Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration, pH, conductivity, membrane size and thickness on efficient energy production using mixed isolated culture from the distillery wastewater in the MFC was studied. The power density increased with increase in the anolyte pH from 6 to 8. The peak power density and COD removal efficiency was observed as 63.8±0.65 mW/m(2) and 63.5±1.5% at pH 8, respectively. The MFC performance increased with increasing COD concentration (800-3200 mg/l), conductivity (1.1-9.7 mS/cm) and membrane area (8-24 cm(2)). The MFC operating with wastewater COD concentration of 3200 mg/l and its conductivity of 9.7 mS/cm produced the highest power density of 202±6 mW/m(2) with a corresponding current density of 412±12 mA/m(2). The results showed that the efficient electricity generation and simultaneous treatment of distillery wastewater can be attained in the MFC. PMID:26212679

  3. Improvement of vitamin B-6 production by gamma radiation in bacterial isolates from soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vitamin B-6 producing bacterium, Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 was isolated from soil and produced vitamin B-6 (mainly pyridoxamine) 0.27 mg per liter. Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 is mesophile bacterium which was not able to grow at over 40C. The objective of this study was to improve vitamin B-6 production in high temperature by gamma radiation. The result showed that 677 mutant isolates which were obtained from irradiation dose 0.8 and 1 kGy, were able to grow at 50C. Only 4 isolates (08-361, 10-3, 10-94 and 10-98) showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed that isolate 08-361 showed higher amount of vitamin b-6 than wild type. However, this value of vitamin B-6 from this mutant was lower than that when screening. Forms of produced vitamin B-6 from mutant were identified by HPLC. The result showed produced vitamin B-6 were PM and PMP, similar with wild type. Effect of gamma radiation stability of mutant is further study.

  4. Measurement of the ZZ production cross section with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinghaus, Frank; Schmitz, Simon; Tapprogge, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The study of the ZZ production has an excellent potential to test the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, where Z boson pairs can be produced via non-resonant processes or via Higgs decays. A deviation from the Standard Model expectation for the ZZ production cross section would be an indication for new physics. This could manifest itself in so called triple gauge couplings via ZZZ or ZZγ, which the Standard Model forbids at tree level. The measurement of the ZZ production cross section is based on an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collision data at √(s) = 8 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector in 2012. Measurements of differential cross sections as well as searches for triple gauge couplings have been performed. This talk presents the measurement and analysis details of the ZZ production in the ZZ → 4l channel.

  5. Total volatile fatty acids and bacterial production rates as affected by rations containing untreated or ammonia (urea) treated rice straw in croos-bred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding ammoniated rice straw on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and bacterial production rates. Twelve karan swiss, male, rumen fistulated calves (2-2.5 yrs) were divided in three equal groups. Animals were offered rice straw either untreated (A) or 4 per cent urea+40 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (B) or 5 per cent urea+30 per cent moisture treated and ensiled for 30 days (C). Protein requirements were met through concentrate mixture. Levels of NH3-N and TCA-precipitable-N in strained rumen liquor (SRL) were significantly higher (20.34±0.022, 63.26±0.81 (B), 20.78±0.41, 64.98±0.87 (C) (mg/100 ml SRL) in groups fed ammoniated ±0.31, 45.94±1.91 mg/100 ml S RL), respectively. The bacterial production rates in the rumen (g/day) were significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. TVFA concentrations (mmole/100 ml SRL ) and TVFA production rates (mmole/d) were also significantly higher in groups B and C as compared to group A. The bacterial production rates were significantly co-related with TVFA, NH3-N, TCA precipitable-N concentration in the rumen and ATP production. Multiple regression equations relating bacterial production rates with (i)NH3-N and TVFA concentration in the rumen, (ii)NH3-N and TVFA production rates and (iii)NH3-N and ATP produced were also developed. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Characterization of certain bacterial strains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo-Mera, A; Caro, I; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Rúa, J; Ferrero, M A; García-Armesto, M R

    2011-08-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to obtain improved potential starter or probiotic cultures that could be used for making dairy products from ewe's milk and cow's milk. Eight strains with antimicrobial properties, isolated from ewe's milk and from cheese made from ewe's and/or cow's milk, were studied. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (five strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (one strain of each species). Additionally, four strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection: Lactobacillus casei 393 (isolated from cheese), L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454 (origin nonspecified and a producer of nisin), and two strains isolated from human feces (L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 27092 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 53103, antibacterial agent producer). All E. faecalis strains showed at least one virulence factor (either hemolysin or gelatinase), which emphasizes the importance of these studies in this species. Both L. lactis strains and most Lactobacillus spp. were good acidifiers in ewe's milk and cow's milk at 30°C. High β-galactosidase activity, as well as aminopeptidase activities that favor the development of desirable flavors in cheese, were detected in all Lactobacillus spp. strains. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 showed α-fucosidase activity (thought to help colonization of the intestine) and lack of α-glucosidase activity (a trait considered positive for diabetic and obese humans). This last enzymatic activity was also lacking in L. lactis ATCC 11454. L. mesenteroides was the only strain D(2)-lactic acid producer. The selection of any particular strain for probiotic or dairy cultures should be performed according to the technological and/or functional abilities needed. PMID:21819671

  7. Long-term organic-inorganic fertilization ensures great soil productivity and bacterial diversity after natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Weibing; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Wei; Ren, Yi; Huang, Ting; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Natural ecosystems comprise the planet's wild plant and animal resources, but large tracts of land have been converted to agroecosystems to support the demand for agricultural products. This conversion limits the number of plant species and decreases the soil biological diversity. Here we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to evaluate the responses of soil bacterial communities in long-term converted and fertilized red soils (a type of Ferralic Cambisol). We observed that soil bacterial diversity was strongly affected by different types of fertilization management. Oligotrophic bacterial taxa demonstrated large relative abundances in chemically fertilized soil, whereas copiotrophic bacterial taxa were found in large relative abundances in organically fertilized and fallow management soils. Only organic-inorganic fertilization exhibited the same local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as that of a natural ecosystem. However, the independent use of organic or inorganic fertilizer reduced local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and caused biotic homogenization. This study demonstrated that the homogenization of bacterial communities caused by natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion can be mitigated by employing rational organic-inorganic fertilization management. PMID:27572510

  8. Measurement of beauty production from dimuon events at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Nicholass, D; Repond, J; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cindolo, F; Corradi, M; Iacobucci, G; Margotti, A; Nania, R; Polini, A; Antonelli, S; Basile, M; Bindi, M; Cifarelli, L; Contin, A; DePasquale, S; Sartorelli, G; Zichichi, A; Bartsch, D; Brock, I; Hartmann, H; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Jüngst, M; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Paul, E; Samson, U; Schonberg, V; Shehzadi, R; Wlasenko, M; Brook, N H; Heath, G P; Morris, J D; Kaur, M; Kaur, P; Singh, I; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Tassi, E; Kim, J Y; Ibrahim, Z A; Kamaluddin, B; WanAbdullah, W A T; Ning, Y; Ren, Z; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, A; Figiel, J; Galas, A; Olkiewicz, K; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bold, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Kisielewska, D; Lukasik, J; Przybycien, M; Suszycki, L; Kotanski, A; Slominski, W; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bloch, I; Blohm, C; Bonato, A; Borras, K; Bot, D; Ciesielski, R; Coppola, N; Fang, S; Fourletova, J; Geiser, A; Göttlicher, P; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Gutsche, O; Haas, T; Hain, W; Huttmann, A; Januschek, F; Kahle, B; Katkov, I; Klein, U; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Miglioranzi, S; Montanari, A; Namsoo, T; Notz, D; Parenti, A; Rinaldi, L; Roloff, P; Rubinsky, I; Schneekloth, U; Spiridonov, A; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Theedt, T; Ukleja, J; Wolf, G; Wrona, K; YaguesMolina, A G; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Drugakov, V; Lohmann, W; Schlenstedt, S; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Bamberger, A; Dobur, D; Karstens, F; Vlasov, N N; Bussey, P J; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Forrest, M; Rosin, M; Saxon, D H; Skillicorn, I O; Gialas, I; Papageorgiu, K; Holm, U; Klanner, R; Lohrmann, E; Perrey, H; Schleper, P; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sztuk, J; Stadie, H; Turcato, M; Foudas, C; Fry, C; Long, K R; Tapper, A D; Matsumoto, T; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Barakbaev, A N; Boos, E G; Pokrovskiy, N S; Zhautykov, B O; Aushev, V; Bachynska, O; Borodin, M; Kadenko, I; Kozulia, A; Libov, V; Lontkovskyi, D; Makarenko, I; Sorokin, Iu; Verbytskyi, A; Volynets, O; Son, D; deFavereau, J; Piotrzkowski, K; Barreiro, F; Glasman, C; Jiménez, M; Labarga, L; delPeso, J; Ron, E; Soares, M; Terron, J; Zambrana, M; Corriveau, F; Liu, C; Schwartz, J; Walsh, R; Zhou, C; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Dolgoshein, B A; Gladkov, D; Sosnovtsev, V; Stifutkin, A; Suchkov, S; Dementiev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Golubkov, Yu A; Khein, L A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Levchenko, B B; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Zotkin, D S; Abt, I; Caldwell, A; Kollar, D; Reisert, B; Schmidke, W B; Grigorescu, G; Keramidas, A; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Pellegrino, A; Tiecke, H; Vázquez, M; Wiggers, L; Brümmer, N; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Lee, A; Ling, T Y; Allfrey, P D; Bell, M A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Ferrando, J; Foster, B; Gwenlan, C; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Oliver, K; Robertson, A; Uribe-Estrada, C; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Longhin, A; Stanco, L; Bellan, P; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Garfagnini, A; Limentani, S; Oh, B Y; Raval, A; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, G; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cole, J E; Hart, J C; Abramowicz, H; Ingbir, R; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Stern, A; Kuze, M; Maeda, J; Hori, R; Kagawa, S; Okazaki, N; Shimizu, S; Tawara, T; Hamatsu, R; Kaji, H; Kitamura, S; Ota, O; Ri, Y D; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Monaco, V; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Arneodo, M; Ruspa, M; Fourletov, S; Martin, J F; Stewart, T P; Boutle, S K; Butterworth, J M; Jones, T W; Loizides, J H; Wing, M; Brzozowska, B; Ciborowski, J; Grzelak, G; Kulinski, P; Luzniak, P; Malka, J; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Perlanski, W; Tymieniecka, T; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Plucinsky, P P; Ukleja, A; Eisenberg, Y; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Brownson, E; Reeder, D D; Savin, A A; Smith, W H; Wolfe, H; Bhadra, S; Catterall, C D; Cui, Y; Hartner, G; Menary, S; Noor, U; Standage, J; Whyte, J

    2009-01-01

    Beauty production in events containing two muons in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb-1. A low transverse-momentum threshold for muon identification, in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon system, gives access to almost the full phase space for beauty production. The total cross section for beauty production in ep collisions at sqrt(s)= 318 GeV has been measured to be sigma_tot(ep -> bbbar X) = 13.9 +- 1.5(stat.) +4.0 -4.3(syst.) nb. Differential cross sections and a measurement of bbbar correlations are also obtained, and compared to other beauty cross-section measurements, Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions.

  9. Measurements of inclusive vector boson production from ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnevskiy Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of single W, Z boson production in association with jets probes QCD in a multi-scale environment. In this paper, we summarize the latest measurements of W+jet and Z+jet production and their ratio, extending to high jet multiplicities over a large set of kinematic distributions for proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV data at the LHC. The results are compared to the latest theoretical predictions of modern Monte Carlo generators. In addition, the measurement of production of vector bosons in association with heavy flavours allows to study c and b-quark parton distribution functions (PDFs and gluon splitting effects. Also the corresponding measurements of W + c and Z + b(b are reported and compared to predictions based on various PDFs in four and five-flavour schemes.

  10. Measurement of beauty production from dimuon events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Beauty production in events containing two muons in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb{sup -1}. A low transverse-momentum threshold for muon identification, in combination with the large rapidity coverage of the ZEUS muon system, gives access to almost the full phase space for beauty production. The total cross section for beauty production in ep collisions at {radical}(s) = 318 GeV has been measured to be {sigma}{sub tot}(ep {yields} b anti bX) = 13.9 {+-} 1.5(stat.){sub -4.3}{sup +4.0}(syst.) nb. Differential cross sections and a measurement of b anti b correlations are also obtained, and compared to other beauty cross-section measurements, Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions. (orig.)

  11. Quantifying talk: developing reliable measures of verbal productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wardle, Margaret; Cederbaum, Katherine; de Wit, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Measuring talkativeness is of interest to several areas of research. However, there are few brief, validated measures available. We examined test-retest reliability, inter-relationships and convergent/divergent validity for five brief measures of verbal productivity. Nineteen men and 32 women participated in four sessions, completing five speech tasks that varied in demand, purpose of speech and sociability. Several potential metrics (word count, duration and rate) were examined. All tasks ex...

  12. Production and characterization of chimeric transferrins for the determination of the binding domains for bacterial transferrin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzer, M D; Kabani, A; Button, L L; Yu, R H; Schryvers, A B

    1996-01-12

    Pathogenic bacteria in the Neisseriaceae and Pasteurellaceae possess outer membrane proteins that specifically bind transferrin from the host as the first step in the iron acquisition process. As a logical progression from prior studies of the ligand-receptor interaction using biochemical approaches, we have initiated an approach involving the production of recombinant chimeric transferrins to further identify the regions of transferrin involved in receptor binding. In order to prepare bovine/human hybrids, the bovine transferrin gene was cloned, sequenced, and compared with the existing human transferrin gene sequence. After identification of potential splice sites, hybrid transferrin genes were constructed using the polymerase chain reaction-based approach of splicing by overlap extension. Five hybrid genes containing sequences from both bovine and human transferrin were constructed. Recombinant transferrins were produced in a baculovirus expression vector system and affinity-purified using concanavalin A-Sepharose. The recombinant proteins were analyzed for reactivity against polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and assessed for binding to Neisseria meningitidis transferrin receptor proteins in solid-phase binding assays and affinity isolation experiments. These experiments enabled us to localize the regions of human transferrin predominantly involved in binding to the N. meningitidis receptor to amino acid residues 346-588. The construction of these chimeras provides unique tools for the investigation of transferrin binding to receptors from both human and bovine bacterial pathogens. PMID:8557646

  13. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations and Molecular Conductance Measurements of the Bacterial Decaheme Cytochrome MtrF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, H. S.; Pirbadian, S.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shi, Liang; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-09-05

    Microorganisms overcome the considerable hurdle of respiring extracellular solid substrates by deploying large multiheme cytochrome complexes that form 20 nanometer conduits to traffic electrons through the periplasm and across the cellular outer membrane. Here we report the first kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and single-molecule scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements of the Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 outer membrane decaheme cytochrome MtrF, which can perform the final electron transfer step from cells to minerals and microbial fuel cell anodes. We find that the calculated electron transport rate through MtrF is consistent with previously reported in vitro measurements of the Shewanella Mtr complex, as well as in vivo respiration rates on electrode surfaces assuming a reasonable (experimentally verified) coverage of cytochromes on the cell surface. The simulations also reveal a rich phase diagram in the overall electron occupation density of the hemes as a function of electron injection and ejection rates. Single molecule tunneling spectroscopy confirms MtrF's ability to mediate electron transport between an STM tip and an underlying Au(111) surface, but at rates higher than expected from previously calculated heme-heme electron transfer rates for solvated molecules.

  14. Fluorescence lifetime imaging to quantify sub-cellular oxygen measurements in live macrophage during bacterial invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragavon, Joe; Amiri, Megdouda; Marteyn, Benoit; Sansonetti, Philipe; Shorte, Spencer

    2011-03-01

    Fluorophore concentration, the surrounding microenvironment, and photobleaching greatly influence the fluorescence intensity of a fluorophore, increasing the difficulty to directly observe micro-environmental factors such as pH and oxygen. However, the fluorescence lifetime of a fluorophore is essentially independent of both the fluorophore concentration and photobleaching, providing a viable alternative to intensity measurements. The development of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) allows for the direct measurement of the microenvironment surrounding a fluorophore. Pt-porphyrin is a fluorophore whose optical properties include a very stable triplet excited state. This energy level overlaps strongly with the ground triplet state of oxygen, making the phosphorescent lifetime directly proportional to the surrounding oxygen concentration. Initial experiments using this fluorophore involved the use of individual microwells coated with the porphyrin. Cells were allowed to enter the micro-wells before being sealed to create a diffusionally isolated volume. The decrease in the extracellular oxygen concentration was observed using FLI. However, this isolation technique provides only the consumption rate but cannot indicate the subcellular oxygen distribution. To improve upon this, live macrophages are loaded with the porphyrin and the fluorescence lifetime determined using a Lambert Instruments Lifa-X FLI system. Initial results indicate that an increase in subcellular oxygen is observed upon initial exposure to invasive bacteria. A substantial decrease in oxygen is observed after about 1 hour of exposure. The cells remain in this deoxygenated state until the bacteria are removed or cell death occurs.

  15. Production of glycolipidic bio surfactants by environment bacteria: diversity and physiological part; Production de biosurfactants glycolipidiques par les bacteries de l`environnement: diversite et role physiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arino, S.

    1996-10-09

    About a hundred bacterial strains, isolated from soils, polluted or not by hydrocarbons, were tested for their capacity to excrete glycosides. The biggest productions were obtained for a soluble carbon source (glycerol) in a culture medium limited in the nitrogen source. In these conditions, 18 g/l of rhamnose lipids were produced by train Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1 in a 200 h culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1, Cellulomonas celulans SA43 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 43060 were studied in detail. The bio-surfactants produced were identified respectively as rhamnose lipids, oligosaccharide lipids and trehalose lipids, using various original analytical methods. Sugars and fatty acids composing these glycolipids had been shown to be usual components of the outer part of the cell wall in these microbial species. Moreover, cell hydrophobicity of the producing bacteria varied in time during culture. These results showed that both the cell wall and the extracellular glycolipids take part in the process of hydrocarbon uptake in the polluted environments. As other bacteria of the same species from different origins present the same characteristics, it may be concluded that glycolipid excretion does not constitute a specific response for hydrocarbon assimilation. In fact, a more general physiological role of glycolipids, concerning modifications of hydrophobic interfaces between the producing bacteria and their surrounding environment, could explain the production of glycolipids, and could also be utilized in hydrocarbon uptake. (author)

  16. Photosynthetic bacterial growth and productivity under continuous illumination or diurnal cycles with olive mill wastewater as feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroglu, Ela [Middle East Technical University, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); University of California, Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102 (United States); Gunduz, Ufuk; Yucel, Meral [Middle East Technical University, Dept. of Biology, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Eroglu, Inci [Middle East Technical University, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    Photofermentative hydrogen production from olive mill wastewater by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 was investigated under different regimes of illumination. The analysis included measurements of biomass accumulation, H{sub 2}-production, high-value bio-product accumulation (polyhydroxybutyrate and carotenoid) and measurements of the medium pH as a function of growth and productivity. Batch cultures were grown under continuous light (CL) or 12 h light/12 h dark (12L/12D) diurnal cycles. Growth under CL or 12L/12D cycles yielded about the same amount of biomass (0.5 g dry cell weight per L culture) and volume of H{sub 2} gas (50 ml H{sub 2} per L culture). On the other hand, 12L/12D cultures showed a pronounced lag in biomass and H{sub 2} accumulation. Advances described in the work would find application in lowering operational costs for hydrogen production by better management of the energy source and cheap feedstock utilization. Compare to CL, equivalent amount of hydrogen gas accumulation within shorter time interval denoted to have two times higher hydrogen production rate and light conversion efficiencies via diurnal cycles, which can yield 50% savings on consumed energy source. (author)

  17. Natural Killer Cells and Helicobacter pylori Infection: Bacterial Antigens and Interleukin-12 Act Synergistically To Induce Gamma Interferon Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Cheol H.; Lundgren, Anna; Azem, Josef; Sjöling, Åsa; Holmgren, Jan; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Lundin, B. Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is known to induce a local immune response, which is characterized by activation of lymphocytes and the production of IFN-γ in the stomach mucosa. Since not only T cells, but also natural killer (NK) cells, are potent producers of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), we investigated whether NK cells play a role in the immune response to H. pylori infection. Our results showed that NK cells were present in both the gastric and duodenal mucosae but that H. pylori infection did not affect the infiltration of NK cells into the gastrointestinal area. Furthermore, we could show that NK cells could be activated directly by H. pylori antigens, as H. pylori bacteria, as well as lysate from H. pylori, induced the secretion of IFN-γ by NK cells. NK cells were also activated without direct contact when separated from the bacteria by an epithelial cell layer, indicating that the activation of NK cells by H. pylori can also occur in vivo, in the infected stomach mucosa. Moreover, the production of IFN-γ by NK cells was greatly enhanced when a small amount of interleukin-12 (IL-12) was added, and this synergistic effect was associated with increased expression of the IL-12 receptor β2. It was further evident that bacterial lysate alone was sufficient to induce the activation of cytotoxicity-related molecules. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NK cells are present in the gastroduodenal mucosa of humans and that NK cells produce high levels of IFN-γ when stimulated with a combination of H. pylori antigen and IL-12. We propose that NK cells play an active role in the local immune response to H. pylori infection. PMID:15731046

  18. Bacterial production of sunscreen pigments increase arid land soil surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couradeau, Estelle; Karaoz, Ulas; Lim, HsiaoChien; Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; Northern, Trent; Brodie, Eoin; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2015-04-01

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are desert top soils formations built by complex microbial communities and dominated by the filamentous cyanobacterium Microcoleus sp. BSCs cover extensive desert areas where they correspond to millimeters size mantles responsible of soil stability and fertility. Despite their ecological importance, little is known about how these communities will endure climate change. It has been shown in North America that different species of Microcoleus showed distinct temperature preferences and that their continental biogeography may be susceptible to small changes in temperature with unknown consequences for the ecosystem function. Using a combination of physical, biochemical and microbiological analyses to characterize a successional gradient of crust maturity from light to dark BSCs (Moab, Utah) we found that the concentration of scytonemin (a cyanobacterial sunscreen pigment) increased with crust maturity. We also confirmed that scytonemin was by far the major pigment responsible of light absorption in the visible spectrum in BSCs, and is then responsible of the darkening of the BSCs (i.e decrease of albedo) with maturity. We measured the surface temperature and albedo and found, as predicted, a negative linear relationship between these two parameters. The decrease in albedo across the gradient of crust maturity corresponded to an increase in surface temperature up to 10° C. Upon investigation of microbial community composition using SSU rRNA gene analysis, we demonstrate that warmer crust surface temperatures (decreased albedo) are associated with a replacement of the dominant cyanobacterium; the thermosensitive Microcoleus sp. being replaced by a thermotolerant Microcoleus sp. in darker BSCs. This study supports at the local scale a finding previously made at the continental scale, but also sheds light on the importance of scytonemin as a significant warmer of soils with important consequences for BSC composition and function. Based on

  19. Hospitals Productivity Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Torabipour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA technique and Malmquist indices.This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software.Six hospitals (50% had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05 (except in 2009 years.Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.

  20. Bacterial Cellulose Production by Fruit Juice Fermentation%果汁发酵生产细菌纤维素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊娜; 甘峰; 李志西; 林德慧; 潘凯旋

    2012-01-01

    为提高果汁发酵生产细菌纤维素的产量,开发特色纤维素功能性食品,以葡糖醋杆菌CGMCC 3917为实验菌种,以苹果汁和梨汁为发酵培养基生产细菌纤维素(BC),研究果汁用量和酵母膏添加量对细菌纤维素产量的影响,比较分析两种果汁生产的细菌纤维素在产量、结构和性质方面的差别。结果表明:梨汁发酵生产的细菌纤维素产量明显高于苹果汁,可达46.343g/100mL;其BC干膜复水率显著高于苹果汁,BC干膜的总糖含量稍高于苹果汁。两种果汁发酵生产的细菌纤维素在湿膜持水量及干膜的纤维素含量、蛋白质含量、脂肪含量以及微观结构上没有明显差异。%To improve bacterial cellulose (BC) production and to develop specific cellulose functional food products, BC was prepared from the fermentation of apple juice or pear juice by Gluconoacetobacter hanseni CGMCC 3917. The influence of fruit juice dilution and amount of added yeast extract on BC yield was evaluated. Meanwhile, further studies were done to investigate the influence of fruit juice type on BC production, structure and properties. The results showed that pear juice provided more production of BC than apple juice, reaching 46.343 g/100 mL. Moreover, dried BC membranes from pear juice showed a significantly higher rehydration rate, and a slightly higher total sugar content than those from apple juice. There were no pronounced differences in water content of wet BC membranes and cellulose, protein and fat contents and microstructure of dry BC membranes between both fruit juices.

  1. Atomic Force Microscopy Measurements of the Mechanical Properties of Cell Walls on Living Bacterial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard; Mullin, Nic; Turner, Robert; Foster, Simon; Hobbs, Jamie

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infection in humans, including the Methicillin resistant strain, MRSA. However, very little is known about the mechanical properties of these cells. Our investigations use AFM to examine live S. aureus cells to quantify mechanical properties. These were explored using force spectroscopy with different trigger forces, allowing the properties to be extracted at different indentation depths. A value for the cell wall stiffness has been extracted, along with a second, higher value which is found upon indenting at higher forces. This higher value drops as the cells are exposed to high salt, sugar and detergent concentrations, implying that this measurement contains a contribution from the internal turgor pressure. We have monitored these properties as the cells progress through the cell cycle. Force maps were taken over the cells at different stages of the growth process to identify changes in the mechanics throughout the progression of growth and division. The effect of Oxacillin has also been studied, to better understand its mechanism of action. Finally mutant strains of S. aureus and a second species Bacillus subtilis have been used to link the mechanical properties of the cell walls with the chain lengths and substructures involved.

  2. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    . Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...... and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model...... and compare different parametric, semiparametric, and nonparametric model specifications. Our results generally support our hypothesis. Especially, large trading networks and dense household networks have a positive influence on a farm’s productivity. Furthermore, our results indicate that transaction costs...

  3. Productivity Measurement in Manufacturing and the Expenditure Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Bertel; Sørensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies conversion factors based on the expenditure approach and evaluates the appropriateness for international comparisons of output levels in manufacturing. We apply a consistency check based on the insight that relative productivity levels should be invariant to the choice of base...... conclusion is insensitive to the applied method for developing conversion factors. The implication is that we cannot measure relative productivity levels in manufacturing across countries using the expenditure approach....

  4. Measurement of heat generation from simulated bituminized product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire and explosion incident occurred at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works on March 11, 1997. In order to ascertain the cause of incident, the investigation has been pushed forward. For the investigation, we prepared simulated bituminized product of measurement of heat generation in low temperature region less than 200degC. We used calvet Calorimeter MS80 for the heat generation measurement. Result of measurement, we were able to catch the feeble heat generation from bituminized product. The maximum calorific value that was able to detect it in isothermal measurement was approximately 1 mW/g in 160degC. It was approximately 2 mW/g in 200degC. And, as the another measurement, the measurement condition went heat rate by 0.01degC/minute, the highest temperature 190degC. As a result, the maximum generation of heat value that was able to detect it was approximately 0.5 mW/g. I changed simulated bituminized products and measured these. A difference of condition is salt particle size, salt content rate (45%, 60%), addition of the simulated precipitate. But there was not a difference in the generation of heat characteristic detected. (author)

  5. Di-boson production measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Laurent; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements diboson production cross sections in proton-proton interactions at 7 and 8 TeV are reported from the ATLAS experiment. The cross section results are measured in phase space regions defined by the decay kinematics and then extrapolated to the full phase spaces. Cross sections for WV (V=W or Z) production in the leptonic or semileptonic channels are compared to (N)NLO predictions of the Standard Model and are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. First LHC Run-2 results will be included if available.

  6. Does Input Quality Drive Measured Differences in Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Jeremy T.; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande

    2011-01-01

    One explanation for productivity dispersion is that the quality of inputs differs across firms. We add labor market history variables such as experience and firm and industry tenure, as well as general human capital measures such as schooling and sex. Adding these variables decreases the ratio of...... the 90th to 10th productivity quantiles from 3.27 to 2.68 across eight Danish manufacturing and service industries. We also use the wage bill and worker fixed effects. We find that the wage bill explains as much dispersion as human capital measures....

  7. The TUS fresnel mirror production and optical parameters measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TUS space experiment is aimed to study energy spectrum, composition, and angular distribution of the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) at E ∼ 1020 eV. The TUS mission is planned for operation at the end of 2012 at the dedicated 'Mikhail Lomonosov' satellite. The TUS detector will measure the fluorescence and Cherenkov light radiated by EAS of the UHECR using the optical system - Fresnel mirror-concentrator of 7 modules of ∼ 2 m2 area in total. Production of the flight model of the optical system is in progress. Status of the Fresnel mirror production, the method, and results of their optical parameters measurement are presented

  8. LHCb: Measurement of $D^{\\pm}$ Production Asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Xing, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Heavy quark production in 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC need not be flavour symmetric. Here the production asymmetry, $A_p$ , between $D_s^+$ and $D_s^-$ mesons is measured using the $\\phi\\pi$ decay mode. The difference between $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ detection efficiencies is measured using the ratio of fully reconstructed to partially reconstructed $D^*$ decays. Using 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the LHCb detector, we find $A_p = (-0.39 \\pm 0.22 \\pm 0.08)$%.

  9. Integral measurement of fission products capture in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the SUPERPHENIX reactor project, it was necessary to know fission products capture with about 10% accuracy in the fast breeder reactor spectra. In this purpose, integral measurements have been carried out on the main separated products by different experimental technics (oscillation, activation and irradiation methods), but particularly on irradiated fuel pins from RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to directly obtain total effect of fission products. Same tendencies have been observed for both enriched uranium fuel and LMFBR characteristic plutonium fuel. All experimental results have been introduced in CARNAVAL cross section set

  10. Measurement of radioactivity in agricultural products (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity levels and concentration of radionuclides in agricultural products like beans, sesame, potato, etc. were measured by using Low Level Beta/Alpha System and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry system. The levels of radioactivity were found to be less than the Derivedc Intervention Level adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1991 (IAEA BSS safety series No. 115-1). No artificial radionuclides such as fission products, activation products were not found whereas radionuclides found in the samples are only natural occurring radionuclide, K-40. (author)

  11. Method s for Measuring Productivity in Libraries and Information Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alaaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available   Within Information centers, productivity is the result of optimal and effective use of information resources, service quality improvement, increased user satisfaction, pleasantness of working environment, increased motivation and enthusiasm of staff to work better. All contribute to the growth and development of information centers. Thus these centers would need to be familiar with methods employed in productivity measurement. Productivity is one of the criteria for evaluating system performance. In the past decades particular emphasis has been placed on measurement and improvement of human resource, creativity, innovation and expert analysis. Contemplation and efforts made towards identification of problems and issues and new means to make more useful and better resource management is the very definition of productivity. Simply put, productivity is the relationship between system output and the elements garnered to produce these outputs. The causality between variables and factors impacting on productivity is very complex. In information centers, given the large volume of elements involved, it seems necessary to increase efficiency and productivity

  12. Resistance Induction and Enhanced Tuber Production by Pre-inoculation with Bacterial Strains in Potato Plants against Phytophthora infestans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2006-01-01

    Efficacy of resistance induction by the bacterial isolates Pseudomonas putida (TRL2-3), Micrococcus luteus (TRK2-2) and Flexibacteraceae bacterium (MRL412), which were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in Jeju Mountain, were tested in a greenhouse. The disease severity caused by Phytophthora infestans was effectively reduced in the potato plants pre-inoculated with bacterial isolates compared with those of the untreated control plants growing in a greenhouse. In order to estimat...

  13. Charged fusion product loss measurements using nuclear activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ITER, α particle loss measurements will be required in order to understand the alpha particle physics. Techniques capable of operating in a fusion reactor environment need further development. Recent experimental studies on JET demonstrated the potential of nuclear activation to measure the flux of escaping MeV ions. New results from MeV ion induced activation of metallic, ceramic, and crystal samples placed near the plasma edge are reported. Activation products were measured as function of orientation with respect to the magnetic field as well as function of the distance to the plasma. Sample activity was measured using ultralow-level gamma-ray spectrometry. Distribution of 14.68 MeV fusion proton induced activation products is strongly anisotropic in agreement with simulations and falls off sharply with increasing distance to the plasma. Prospects for using the technique in ITER are discussed.

  14. Analysis of the Impact of Rosuvastatin on Bacterial Mevalonate Production Using a UPLC-Mass Spectrometry Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, J A; Kinsella, M; Hill, C; Joyce, S A; Gahan, C G M

    2016-07-01

    Statins are widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering medications and act through inhibition of the human enzyme 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-R) which produces mevalonate (MVAL), a key substrate for cholesterol biosynthesis. Some important microbial species also express an isoform of HMG-R; however, the nature of the interaction between statins and bacteria is currently unclear and studies would benefit from protocols to quantify MVAL in complex microbial environments. The objective of this study was to develop a protocol for the analytical quantification of MVAL in bacterial systems and to utilise this approach to analyse the effects of Rosuvastatin (RSV) on bacterial MVAL formation. To determine the effective concentration range of RSV, we examined the dose-dependent inhibition of growth in the HMG-R(+) bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium at various concentrations of pure RSV. Growth inhibition generally correlated with a reduction in bacterial MVAL levels, particularly in culture supernatants at high RSV concentrations, as determined using our ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry protocol. This work therefore outlines a refined protocol for the analysis of MVAL in microbial cultures and provides evidence for statin-mediated inhibition of bacterial HMG-R. Furthermore, we show that MVAL is readily transported and secreted from bacterial cells into the growth media. PMID:26960292

  15. Measurement of prompt photon production in hadronic Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Pacheco, A.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boudreau, J.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lançon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Mattison, T.; Meinhard, H.; Menary, S.; Meyer, T.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschak, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Bencheikh, A. M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarelli, V.; D'Ettorrepiazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnball, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Nash, J.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Qian, Z.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Rotscheidt, H.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlein, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Takashima, T.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Grivas, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Abbaneo, D.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Kozanecki, W.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Like, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R. E.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hatfield, F.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Mirabito, L.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Ganis, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jared, R. C.; Leclaire, B. W.; Lishka, C.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Schmitt, M.; Shi, Z. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    1993-03-01

    The production of isolated photons in hadronic Z decays is measured with the ALEPH detector at LEP using a sample of 450 000 hadronic events. The corrected rate is given for several values of the minimum invariant mass squared cut between the photon and the jets. This measurement of final state radiation from the quarks is compared with the predictions of parton shower models JETSET, ARIADNE and HERWIG as well as with the predictions of QCD matrix element calculations.

  16. Measuring the relative productivity of multitasking to sole-tasking in household production: New experimental evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Gigi; Kalenkoski, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    We present a household production model that incorporates multitasking and results from a customized experiment designed to measure the individual-specific productivity parameters from this model. We observe these productivity parameters under alternative incentive scenarios, designed to mimic changes in the relative utility payoffs to the two tasks. Using information on demographic and other characteristics collected through an on-screen survey taken by our experimental participants, we exam...

  17. Measuring reference price perceptions for new product categories: which measure is best?

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Ben; Alpert, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance within the reference price literature by investigating which is the best measure of reference price for the, as yet, unstudied context of new product categories. The paper also intends to examine another reference price issue for the new product category context: whether greater price uncertainty in this context makes it worthwhile to measure consumer confidence in reference price perceptions. Design/methodology/approach – Th...

  18. Bacterial Levan: tecnological aspects, characteristics and production/
    Levana Bacteriana: aspectos tecnológicos, características e produção

    OpenAIRE

    Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz; Fernanda M. P. G. Ernandes

    2005-01-01

    Levan is an exopolysaccharide, constituted by fructose units, ? (2- 6) linked, obtained by transfructosilation reaction during microorganisms fermentation in a sucrose rich but wi thout glucose, fructose or mixtures in the culture media. Bacterial levan production is a good alternative fructose source, besides having certain functional characteristics in the human body, such as a hypocholesterolemic and an anticarcinogenic agent. In the food industry, levan can be used to fix colors and flavo...

  19. Recent Research on Measuring Receptive and Productive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with research in measuring receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge in second language (L2) learning, including English as a second language (ESL) learning and English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. The paper will begin with a brief introduction to the role of vocabulary in language learning, and then an…

  20. Application of coincidence techniques to fusion product measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of two products of a fusion reaction in coincidence is proposed. Possible detector arrays and sample count rates have been evaluated for reactions in the TFR and TEXT tokamaks and in the TFTR neutral beamlines. The count rates indicate that this method is feasible on existing devices

  1. Measurement of Electroweak Top Quark Production at {D\\O}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yun-Tse [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We present a new model-independent measurement of the electroweak single top-quark production cross section in proton-antiproton (p- $\\bar{p}$) collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV in 9.7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the DØ detector.

  2. 77 FR 31724 - Production Measurement Documents Incorporated by Reference; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: BSEE is correcting a portion of its final rule published March 29, 2012 (77 FR 18916... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1014-AA01 Production Measurement...: May 17, 2012. Ned Farquhar, Deputy Assistant Secretary--Land and Minerals Management. Accordingly,...

  3. Data Interpretation Technology for Continuous Measurement Production Profile Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Up till now, there is no production logging data interpretation module in CIFLog, which is the 3rd generation well-logging software platform in China. So the situation has a strong impact on its promotion and utilization. In this paper, firstly, the authors introduce the characteristics of the existing and mature logging interpretation software, and design the data interpretation module functions for continuous measurement production profile logging based on JAVA-NetBeans. Secondly, the calculation methods of apparent fluid velocity, holdup, superficial velocity and flow rate of each phase are presented. Thirdly, eight module functions including wellbore message, curve value, physical parameters, and parameter settings are described. Finally, the authors has analyzed three-phase flow production profile logging data of X well using this module, which includes seven parameters of continuous measurement, and provided the result chart and table. In a word, the practice has proved that the module application effect is good.

  4. Bacterial carbon cycling in a subarctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Glud, Ronnie N.; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2012-01-01

    In this seasonal study, we examined the environmental controls and quantitative importance of bacterial carbon consumption in the water column and the sediment in the subarctic Kobbefjord, Greenland. Depth-integrated bacterial production in the photic zone varied from 5.0 ± 2.7 mg C m−2 d−1 in...... February to 42 ± 28 mg C m−2 d−1 in May and 34 ± 7 mg C m−2 d−1 in September, corresponding to a bacterial production to primary production ratio of 0.34 ± 0.14, 0.07 ± 0.04, and 0.08 ± 0.06, respectively. Based on measured bacterial growth efficiencies (BGEs) of 0.09–0.10, pelagic bacterial carbon...... consumption was 54 ± 59 mg C m−2 d−1, 1194 ± 329 mg C m−2 d−1, and 689 ± 115 mg C m−2 d−1 in February, May, and September, respectively, which corresponded to 367%, 71%, and 87% of pelagic primary production. The average annual sediment respiration corresponded to 121 mg C m−2 d−1 and accounted for 17% of...

  5. The Measured Temperature and Pressure of EDC37 detonation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, James; Richley, James; Ota, Tom; Sutton, Ben; Price, Ed

    2015-06-01

    We present the experimentally determined temperature and pressure of the detonation products of EDC37; a HMX based conventional high explosive. These measurements were performed on a series of cylinder tests. The temperature measurements were performed at the end of the cylinder with optical fibres observing the bare explosive through a LiF window. The temperature of the products was measured for 2 microseconds using single colour pyrometry, multicolour pyrometry and spectroscopy with the results from all three methods being consistent. The peak temperature was found to be ~ 3600 K dropping to ~ 2400 K at the end of the measurement window. The spectroscopy was time integrated and showed that the emission spectra can be approximated using a grey body curve with no other emission or absorption lines being present. The pressure was obtained using an analytical method which used the velocity of the expanding cylinder wall, measured using heterodyne velocimetry (HetV), and the velocity of detonation, measured with chirped fibre Bragg gratings. The pressure drops from an initial CJ value of ~38 GPa to ~4 GPa at the end of the 2 microsecond temperature measurement window.

  6. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming xF scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments - NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) - are reviewed.

  7. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming xF scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments – NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) – are reviewed

  8. Comparison of bacterial biomass and PRP production between different isolation of Haemophilus influenza type-b (Hib under different culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Heamophilus influenzae type-b (Hib is a gram - negative pleomorphic bacterium that causes meningitis infections in children with the age of less than 5 years particularly in two years old infants. In the present study various isolates of Heamophilus influenzae from infants suspected to meningitis were collected, identified, characterized and were used throughout our experiments. Different culture media namely Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB, Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB and GC medium Base (GCB which this medium was modified and prepared in our own laboratory, were compared to determine the highest bacterial yield. All media were added supplements 10mg/ml hemin & 0.01/ml IsovitaleX containing V factor. The bacterial yield for all Hib strains present in our laboratory were measured with an initial inoculums of 104 cfu per ml. The result showed very closed amount of biomass for all isolates however, GCB had slightly higher yield and ultimately we chose this medium for cultivation and extraction of capsular polysaccharide (CPS-b. In our laboratory we have adapted the PRP production according to our technical and instrumental availabilities which exists in our laboratories replacing ultra centrifugation to phenol chloroform to remove contaminants like endotoxin and proteins to the minimum level and also decreased the number of some chemical treatments while some steps were added in purification process. Our study showed although there were not significant differences between the PRP extract of the three isolates with average amount of 108 mg/lit, however, isolate ATCC10210 (ATF2 showed the highest amount with 192mg/lit and the least PRP was produced by isolate H.inf.1, with 16 mg/lit. It seems that the data can be categorized to a normal distribution with the mean of 106.4 and standard deviation of 6.25. This result was confirmed by one sample kolmogorov-Smirnov test, hence the PRP ≥192 mg/lit is statistically significant at a significant level of α =0

  9. Microbiology and biogeochemistry of sediments and rhizosphere of mangroves: bacterial production, sulphate-reduction and methylation of mercury with methodological focus on incubation-extraction of 14C-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangroves are one of the most important ecosystems when it comes to cycling of various elements, including carbon and mercury. Microbiological processes that occur in sediment are essential for carbon mineralization, its conversion into biomass and for availability of mercury to the food chain. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are one of the main groups responsible for degradation of organic compounds in marine sediments and mercury methylation, especially in the rhizosphere of macrophyte. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial production (BP) over different sedimentary profiles as well as mercury methylation (% MeHg), sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and bacterial production in the rhizosphere of a ubiquitous mangrove tree. Radiochemical approaches were used to access bacterial production (14C-leucine), sulfate reduction (35SO4) and mercury methylation (203Hg). Study area was located at Coroa Grande (Sepetiba bay) and Jequia mangrove (Guanabara bay). Methodological studies using 14C-leucine as a tool to assess bacterial production in mangrove sediment were not found. In this context, we tested two leucine uptake methodologies for measuring bacterial production in mangrove sediments according to Baath et al. (2001) Soil Biol. Biochem., v.33,p. 1571-1574 and Fischer and Pusch (1999) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., v.6, p.4411-4418. Our results suggest that an adaptation of both techniques were suitable to measure BP in mangrove sediment. We also provided underlying parameters of the method such as saturation level and linearity of leucine incorporation that can be used as guidance for future studies in mangrove. Once the methodology was established, we accessed BP along a shallow sedimentary profile in three physiographic mangroves types: basin, fringe and riverine. BP was highly heterogeneous in different physiographic types of mangroves and along the sediment profiles.The mangrove located at Guanabara bay presented BP which was 50 times higher than tho one located at

  10. The particular problem in the measurement of radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Measurement of radon decay products concentration in air has particular problem in two calibration factors: (1) Detection efficiency for a filter sample. It can't be determined by a standard source with a given activity of radon decay products because of the short life of radon decay products. A common α standard source has to be used as a substitute. (2) Flow rate of air sampling. It prevent the radon decay products (aerosol particles) from plate-out in flowmeter before filtering. So, the flowmeter should work in a lower pressure than the ambient air because of the pressure decrease through the filter, and it's readings have to be corrected. In order to accurately determine the calibration factors mentioned above, care has been taken on installation, adjustment, calibration and correction of the sampling and measuring system. A series of tests have also be made to confirm: (1) whether the detection efficiency is independent of the energy of α-particle, (2) the counting loss of the α particle with energy lower than that limited by the instrument threshold is negligible, (3) whether the counting efficiency is equal to the geometry factor. Consequently, the systematic uncertainty of the sampling and measuring system reduced to 2% and the random uncertainty (other than counting statistics) reduced to 1%. This system has been successfully used in our calibration and test facility for radon and radon daughters (RIUM radon chamber)

  11. Measurement of cosmogenic radioactive products in xenon and copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piastra, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Rare events searches, such as direct dark matter detection or neutrinoless double beta decay (0vββ) observation, using liquid xenon as target and detection medium require ultralow background to fully exploit the physics potential. Cosmogenic activation of the detector components, and even more importantly, of the xenon itself might have undesired impact on the background and the final sensitivity of the experiment. Since no measurement of cosmogenic activation of xenon was present in literature so far, we performed such a measurement exposing of a natural xenon sample to the cosmic radiation at the Jungfraujoch research station at an altitude of 3470 m above sea level for 245 days. This study was complemented with a ultra pure copper sample that was activated together with the xenon. We directly observed, with gamma-ray spectrometry, the production of 7Be, 101Rh, 125Sb, 126I and 127Xe in xenon, out of which only 125 Sb could potentially lead to a background relevant for multi-ton scale direct dark matter search. The production rates for five out of eight radioactive isotopes in copper are in good agreement with the only dedicated measurement present in literature. The production rates measured for both samples were compared with the predictions obtained with commonly used software packages. The latter showed a systematic under-estimation, especially for xenon.

  12. Measuring individual research productivity: A review and development of the integrated research productivity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D; Martin, Helena M; Bryan, Nicole A; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate methods of measuring individual research productivity for counseling psychologists. Using the 60 members of the Journal of Counseling Psychology editorial board, the authors computed a comparison of 6 popular indices of productivity, revealing considerable levels of positive skewness, kurtosis, and overlap with each other. Combining the strengths of the 6 indices, the authors developed a new productivity index entitled the Integrated Research Productivity Index (IRPI). The IRPI measures individual productivity by statistically combining an individual's author-weighted publications, average times cited by other publications, and years since first publication into a comprehensive score. Productivity values and IRPI scores for 3 groups of counseling psychologists (Tyler Award recipients, Kuder Award recipients, and Division 17 Presidents) were computed to provide evidence of discriminant validity among the indices. In contrast to the other measures examined, the IRPI accounts for productivity per year and years in the field and assesses mean citation count per article as opposed to total citation count, thus yielding similar scores for Tyler (lifetime) and Kuder (early career) research award recipients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22017558

  13. Statistical analysis of long- and short-range forces involved in bacterial adhesion to substratum surfaces as measured using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Norde, Willem

    2011-08-01

    Surface thermodynamic analyses of microbial adhesion using measured contact angles on solid substrata and microbial cell surfaces are widely employed to determine the nature of the adhesion forces, i.e., the interplay between Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base forces. While surface thermodynamic analyses are often viewed critically, atomic force microscopy (AFM) can also provide information on the nature of the adhesion forces by means of Poisson analysis of the measured forces. This review first presents a description of Poisson analysis and its underlying assumptions. The data available from the literature for different combinations of bacterial strains and substrata are then summarized, leading to the conclusion that bacterial adhesion to surfaces is generally dominated by short-range, attractive acid-base interactions, in combination with long-range, weaker Lifshitz-van der Waals forces. This is in line with the findings of surface thermodynamic analyses of bacterial adhesion. Comparison with single-molecule ligand-receptor forces from the literature suggests that the short-range-force contribution from Poisson analysis involves a discrete adhesive bacterial cell surface site rather than a single molecular force. The adhesion force arising from these cell surface sites and the number of sites available may differ from strain to strain. Force spectroscopy, however, involves the tedious task of identifying the minor peaks in the AFM retraction force-distance curve. This step can be avoided by carrying out Poisson analysis on the work of adhesion, which can also be derived from retraction force-distance curves. This newly proposed way of performing Poisson analysis confirms that multiple molecular bonds, rather than a single molecular bond, contribute to a discrete adhesive bacterial cell surface site. PMID:21642399

  14. An Inner Membrane Protein (Imp) of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Functions in Carbon Acquisition, EPS Production, Bacterial Motility and Virulence in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gong-you

    2014-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) causes bacterial leaf streak, a devastating disease in rice-growing regions worldwide. A Tn5-insertion mutant in Xoc_3248, encoding an inner membrane protein (Imp), showed reduced virulence in rice. To explore the potential function of this gene in virulence, a deletion mutant R∆imp was constructed in the wild-type RS105. The R∆imp mutant was signiifcantly impaired for bacterial virulence and growth in planta. The mutation in imp made the pathogen insufifciently utilize glucose, fructose, mannose or pyruvate as a sole carbon source, leading to less extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and reduced motility. The deifciencies noted for the mutant were restored to wild-type levels when imp was introduced in trans. Transcription of imp was signiifcantly declined when hrpG and hrpX was mutated and the expression of hrpG and hrpX was also signiifcantly declined when imp was deleted. Cell sublocalization in planta showed Imp membrane-binding feature. These results suggest that Imp is a virulence factor with roles in the catabolism of sugars, EPS production, and bacterial motility.

  15. Nanomaterial-based sensors for detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens and toxins as well as pork adulteration in meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Inbaraj, B; Chen, B H

    2016-01-01

    Food safety draws considerable attention in the modern pace of the world owing to rapid-changing food recipes and food habits. Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogens, toxins, and other contaminants pose serious threat to human health. Besides, a large amount of money is spent on both analyses and control measures, which causes significant loss to the food industry. Conventional detection methods for bacterial pathogens and toxins are time consuming and laborious, requiring certain soph...

  16. Latest LHCb measurements of Electroweak Boson Production in Run-1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest LHCb measurements of forward Electroweak Boson Production using proton-proton collisions recorded in LHC Run-1. The seminar shall discuss measurements of the 8 TeV W & Z boson production cross-sections. These results make use of LHCb's excellent integrated luminosity determination to provide constraints on the parton distribution functions which describe the inner structure of the proton. These LHCb measurements probe a region of phase space at low Bjorken-x where the other LHC experiments have limited sensitivity. We also present measurements of cross-section ratios, and ratios of results in 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. These results provide precision tests of the Standard Model. The seminar shall also present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry (A_FB) in Z boson decays to two muons. This result allows for precision tests of the coupling of the Z boson to left and right handed particles, providing sensitivity to the effective weak mixing angle (...

  17. Measurement of Charmed Particle Production in Hadronic Reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure the production cross-section for charmed particles in hadronic reactions, study their production mechanism, and search for excited charmed hadrons.\\\\ \\\\ Charmed Mesons and Baryons will be measured in @p and p interactions on Beryllium between 100 and 200 GeV/c. The trigger will be on an electron from the leptonic decay of one charmed particle by signals from the Cerenkov counter (Ce), the electron trigger calorimeter (eCal), scintillation counters, and proportional wire chambers. The accompanying charmed particle will be measured via its hadronic decay in a two-stage magnetic spectrometer with drift chambers (arms 2, 3a, 3b, 3c), two large-area multicell Cerenkov counters (C2, C3) and a large-area shower counter (@g-CAL). The particles which can be measured and identified include @g, e, @p@+, @p|0, K@+, p, @* so that a large number of hadronic decay modes of charmed particles can be studied. \\\\ \\\\ A silicon counter telescope with 5 @mm spatial resolution will measure se...

  18. Precision measurements of top quark production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stolte, Philipp; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This talk will focus on a few recent precision top quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration: fiducial top pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented and compared with QCD predictions. The results include the first top quark measurements at 13 TeV using data from LHC run 2.

  19. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values depending...... on the value of the uncertain parameters. In this case, a problem reformulation is needed to properly define the optimization problem. In this paper we describe the concept of risk and we explore how to handle the risk by using appropriate risk measures. We provide a review on various risk measures...

  20. Responses of soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure to closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures): A case study of Dongting Lake wetland, middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Guo, Shenglian; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Lu; Lu, Lunhui; Yuan, Yujie

    2016-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure, which are critical to global ecosystem and fundamental ecological processes, are sensitive to anthropogenic activities and environmental conditions. In this study, we examined the possible effects of closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures, ban on anthropogenic activity, widely employed for many important wetlands) on SMB, soil bacterial community structure and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling in Dongting Lake wetland. Soil samples were collected from management area (MA) and contrast area (CA: human activities, such as hunting, fishing and draining, are permitted) in November 2013 and April 2014. Soil properties, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and bacterial community structure were investigated. Comparison of the values of MA and CA showed that SMB and bacterial community diversity of the MA had a significant increase after 7 years closed-off management. The mean value of Shannon-Weiner diversity index of MA and CA respectively were 2.85 and 2.07. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nosZ of MA were significant higher than those of CA. the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nirK of MA were significant lower than those of CA. However, there was no significant change in the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirS. PMID:27036597

  1. Measurement of photon production cross sections with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Terron, Juan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the gluon density function of the proton. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons in 20.3 /fb of data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 8TeV and in 6.4 /pb of data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13TeV, differential in both rapidity and the photon transverse momentum. The measurements are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators.

  2. LEP measurements on production, mass, lifetime of beauty particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present knowledge about the individual properties of the different beauty particles is discussed using the results of the LEP experiments. Individual lifetimes for Bd0 and B+ are found to be equal within 10% whilst a 15% precision is reached for Bs0 and Λb. The Λb lifetime is found to be smaller than τB+ with a 2.7 σ significance. The production rate of each of these particles is measured at the 20% level. Preliminary evidence for Ξb production has been reported. Finally, the Bs0 meson mass has been measured to be 5373 ± 4 MeV/c2. (author) 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Measurements of $\\Upsilon$ Production and Nuclear Modification Factor at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Kesich, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Thermal suppression of quarkonium production in heavy-ion collisions, due to Debye screening of the quark-antiquark potential, has been proposed as a clear signature of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) formation. At RHIC energies, the $\\Upsilon$ meson is a clean probe of the early system due to negligible levels of enhancement from \\bbbar recombination and non-thermal suppression from co-mover absorption. We report on our measurement of the $\\Upsilon \\to e^+ e^-$ cross section in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV. We compute the Nuclear Modification Factor by comparing these results to new p+p measurements from 2009 (21 pb$^{-1}$ in 2009 compared to 7.9 pb$^{-1}$ in 2006). In order to have a complete assessment of both hot and cold nuclear matter effects on Upsilon production we also report on results from d+Au collisions.

  4. Measurement of beauty production in DIS and extraction at ZEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A. [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W.B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Gach, G.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Cracow (Poland); Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T. [Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Aggarwal, R.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A. [University Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A. [INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy); Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Borodin, M.; Gogota, O.; Kadenko, I.; Korol, I.; Kuprash, O.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Salii, A.; Tomalak, O.; Viazlo, V.; Volynets, O.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhmak, N.; Zolko, M. [National Academy of Sciences, and Kiev National University, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine); Bachynska, O.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Bot, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fang, S.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I.I.; Klein, U.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Libov, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E. [and others

    2010-10-15

    Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb{sup -1}. The fraction of events with beauty quarks in the data was determined using the distribution of the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the jet. The cross section for beauty production was measured in the kinematic range of photon virtuality, Q{sup 2}>2 GeV{sup 2}, and inelasticity, 0.05

  5. Sampling the Fermi statistics and other conditional product measures

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudilliere, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Through a Metropolis-like algorithm with single step computational cost of order one, we build a Markov chain that relaxes to the canonical Fermi statistics for k non-interacting particles among m energy levels. Uniformly over the temperature as well as the energy values and degeneracies of the energy levels we give an explicit upper bound with leading term km(ln k) for the mixing time of the dynamics. We obtain such construction and upper bound as a special case of a general result on (non-homogeneous) products of ultra log-concave measures (like binomial or Poisson laws) with a global constraint. As a consequence of this general result we also obtain a disorder-independent upper bound on the mixing time of a simple exclusion process on the complete graph with site disorder. This general result is based on an elementary coupling argument and extended to (non-homogeneous) products of log-concave measures.

  6. Di-boson production measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This talk covers the results of the measurements of diboson production cross sections in proton- proton interactions at 7 TeV in 2011 and at 8 TeV in 2012, performed by the ATLAS experiment. The cross sections are measured in phase space regions defined by the decay kinematics, the detector acceptance and then extrapolated to the full phase space. Cross sections for VV (V=W, Z, γ) production in the leptonic or semileptonic channels are compared to (N)NLO predictions of the Standard Model. Kinematic spectra are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. All cross sections are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. No experimental evidence is found of anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. PACS: 14.70.-e Gauge bosons.

  7. NOx from cement production - reduction by primary measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Skaarup

    1999-01-01

    This thesis comprises an investigation of the mechanisms involved in forming and reducing NOx in kiln systems for cement production. Particularly the mechanisms forming and reducing NOx in calciners are dealt with in detail, as altered calciner design and operation are most applicable to...... controlling NOx emission by primary measures. The main focus has been on elucidating NOx formation and reduction mechanisms involving reactions of char, and on determining their relative importance in calciners.The first three chapters give an introduction to cement production, combustion and NOx. In modern...... the most energy demanding process, takes place at lower temperature in the calciner. When dealing with NOx from solid fuel combustion it is important to consider reactions of volatile contents and char separately.Chapter 4 presents an overview of NOx from cement production. Thermal NOx dominates from...

  8. ATLAS reach for Quarkonium production and polarization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC is preparing to take data from the first proton-proton collisions expected in the next few months. We report on the analysis of simulated data samples for production of heavy Quarkonium states J/ψ and Y, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 10pb-1 with center of mass energy of 14 TeV expected at the early ATLAS data. We review various aspects of prompt Quarkonium production at LHC: the accessible ranges in transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, spin alignment of vector states, separation of color octet and color singlet production mechanism and feasibility of observing radiative decays χc and χb decays. Strategies of various measurements are outlined and methods of separating promptly produced J/ψ and Y mesons from various backgrounds are discussed.

  9. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  10. A contribution for the understanding and measurement of production sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Lago, David Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia e Gestão Industrial Sustainability is an imperative of present and future production activity. Sustainability is concerned with the environment protection, safety and welfare of present and future generations. Business success, both in manufacturing and services, must be measured against results contributing to sustainability. This means that business practices must be based on strategies that assertively address not only economic...

  11. Measurements of Single-Top Quark Production at the Tevatron

    OpenAIRE

    Junk, Thomas R.; CDF, for the; Collaborations, D0

    2008-01-01

    The latest measurements of the cross sections for singly-produced top quarks at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented. The small expected signals and the large, uncertain backgrounds require careful event selection, sophisticated methods for separating signal events from background events, and data-based background predictions and fits. Both the CDF and D0 collaborations have solid evidence of single top production, using 2.7 fb-1 and 0.9 fb-1 of data, respectively. Both collaborations perform ...

  12. MEASURING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CAPITAL IN UNITED STATES AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Cole R.

    1986-01-01

    The agricultural sector has operated in a period of high real interest rates for over half a decade. Some are concerned that this has limited capital availability and stagnated the historic capital for labor substitution occurring in the sector. This study proposes new procedures for estimating the aggregate production function of United States agriculture. Improvements include incorporation of total returns and revised measures of both durable and nondurable capital inputs. Results indicate ...

  13. Farm production diversity and dietary quality: Linkages and measurement issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sibhatu, Kibrom T.; Qaim, Matin

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has analyzed whether higher levels of farm production diversity contribute to improved dietary quality in smallholder households. We add to this literature by using different indicators, thus testing the robustness of previous findings and helping to better understand the underlying linkages. The analysis builds on data from Indonesia, Kenya, and Uganda. Farm diversity measured through a simple species count has a small positive effect on dietary quality, either expressed in t...

  14. Bacterial carbon utilization in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Alexandra; Langergraber, Günter; Watzinger, Andrea; Haberl, Raimund; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2008-03-01

    Subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands with intermittent loading are considered as state of the art and can comply with stringent effluent requirements. It is usually assumed that microbial activity in the filter body of constructed wetlands, responsible for the removal of carbon and nitrogen, relies mainly on bacterially mediated transformations. However, little quantitative information is available on the distribution of bacterial biomass and production in the "black-box" constructed wetland. The spatial distribution of bacterial carbon utilization, based on bacterial (14)C-leucine incorporation measurements, was investigated for the filter body of planted and unplanted indoor pilot-scale constructed wetlands, as well as for a planted outdoor constructed wetland. A simple mass-balance approach was applied to explain the bacterially catalysed organic matter degradation in this system by comparing estimated bacterial carbon utilization rates with simultaneously measured carbon reduction values. The pilot-scale constructed wetlands proved to be a suitable model system for investigating microbial carbon utilization in constructed wetlands. Under an ideal operating mode, the bulk of bacterial productivity occurred within the first 10cm of the filter body. Plants seemed to have no significant influence on productivity and biomass of bacteria, as well as on wastewater total organic carbon removal. PMID:17991505

  15. A hybrid DNA extraction method for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities from poultry production samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of DNA extraction protocols can be highly dependent upon both the type of sample being investigated and the types of downstream analyses performed. Considering that the use of new bacterial community analysis techniques (e.g., microbiomics, metagenomics) is becoming more prevalent in th...

  16. Effects of condensed tannins on hydrogen sulfide production and the sulfate-reducing bacterial population of swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condensed tannins are natural plant compounds that have antibacterial properties and have been used in studies to reduce methane emissions and frothy bloat in cattle. The objective of this study was to test the effects of condensed tannins on swine manure to target bacterial groups responsible for ...

  17. Influence of Oxynitrided Surface in the Production of a Less Susceptible Titanium Surface to Skin-Borne Bacterial Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Michelle de Medeiros; Treter, Janine; Braz, Danilo Cavalcante; Krug, Cristiano; Macedo, Alexandre José; Alves Júnior, Clodomiro

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing quest for an ideal biomaterial that shows appropriate cellular response and is not susceptible to microbial adhesion. In this study, commercial grade II titanium was submitted to RF/DC plasma surface modification at 2.2 mbar, using gas mixtures of argon, nitrogen, and oxygen at proportions 4:1:2 and 4:1:3. The surfaces were physically and chemically characterized. In order to evaluate bacterial response, the surfaces were exposed to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Oxynitrided samples, although having a higher roughness as compared with untreated samples, exhibited lower bacterial growth. This observation is probably due to the formation of different crystalline phases of nitrides and oxides caused by plasma treatment. The surface with highest contact angle and highest surface tension showed lower bacterial adhesion. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The role of nitrogen in reducing bacterial adhesion is clear when this material is compared with untreated titanium, on which only an oxide film is present. PMID:26611366

  18. The mean value for infinite volume measures, infinite products and heuristic infinite dimensional Lebesgue measures

    OpenAIRE

    Magnot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of this article is to define a an unified setting adapted to the description of means (normalized integrals or invariant means) on an infinite product of measured spaces with infinite measure. We first remark that some known examples coming from the theory of metric measured spaces and also from oscillatory integrals are obtained as limits of means with respect to finite measures. Then, we explore in a systematic way the limit of means of the type $$ \\lim \\frac{1}{\\mu(U_n)} \\...

  19. Airborne measurements of fission product fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1993 the Danish Emergency Management Agency will install an airborne γ-ray detector system for area survey of contamination with radioactive nuclides - primarily fission products that may be released during a heavy accident at a nuclear power plant or from accidents during transport of radioactive material. The equipment is based on 16 liter NaI(TI) crystals and multichannel analysers from Exploranium (Canada). A preliminary investigation of the possibilities for detection of low and high level contamination - and the problems that may be expected during use of the equipment, and during interpretation of the measured data, is described. Several days after reactor shut-down some of the nuclides can be identified directly from the measured spectrum, and contamination levels may be determined within a factor two. After several weeks, most fission products have decayed. Concentrations and exposure rates can be determined with increasing accuracy as time passes. Approximate calibration of the equipment for measurements of surface contamination and natural radioactivity can be performed in the laboratory. Further checks of equipment should include accurate measurements of the spectrum resolution. Detectors should be checked individually, and all together. Further control of dead time and pulse pile-up should be performed. Energy calibration, electronics performance and data equipment should be tested against results from the original calibration. (AB)

  20. Real-time measurement of UV-inactivated Escherichia coli bacterial particles by electrospray-assisted UVAPS spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun; Bae, Gwi Nam

    2011-08-01

    The ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) is a novel commercially available aerosol spectrometer for real-time continuous monitoring of viable bioaerosols, based on fluorescence from living microorganisms. In a previous study, we developed an electrospray-assisted UVAPS using biological electrospray techniques, which have the advantage of generating non-agglomerated single particles by the repulsive electrical forces. With this electrospraying of suspensions containing microorganisms, the analytical system can supply more accurate and quantitative information about living microorganisms than with conventional aerosolization. Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS, we investigated the characteristics of bacterial particles with various viabilities in real-time. Escherichia coli was used as the test microorganism, and its initial viability was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. In the stable cone-jet domain, the particle size distributions of test bacterial particles remained almost uniform regardless of the degree of UV inactivation. However, the fluorescence spectra of the bacterial particles changed with the degree of UV inactivation. The fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability, determined by the sampling and culture method, although the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability. PMID:21621246

  1. Transmutation program: preliminary measurements about the production of spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme to measure the double differential cross-sections for the production of neutrons induced by protons and deuterons on various targets is presented. Two different experimental techniques are used for these measurements: for the low energy part of the neutron spectrum, time-of-flight is employed between the incident tagged proton and a NE213-scintillator detecting the neutron. At high energies, the neutron energy spectrum is obtained through the detection of recoil protons in a magnetic spectrometer, after scattering in a liquid hydrogen convector. The first results are discussed. The Phase 2 in which the experimental set-up will be modified to allow for the measurement of complete angular distributions and the study of neutron energy spectra from thick targets is also presented. (authors)

  2. Real-time measurement of UV-inactivated Escherichia coli bacterial particles by electrospray-assisted UVAPS spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) is a novel commercially available aerosol spectrometer for real-time continuous monitoring of viable bioaerosols, based on fluorescence from living microorganisms. In a previous study, we developed an electrospray-assisted UVAPS using biological electrospray techniques, which have the advantage of generating non-agglomerated single particles by the repulsive electrical forces. With this electrospraying of suspensions containing microorganisms, the analytical system can supply more accurate and quantitative information about living microorganisms than with conventional aerosolization. Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS, we investigated the characteristics of bacterial particles with various viabilities in real-time. Escherichia coli was used as the test microorganism, and its initial viability was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. In the stable cone-jet domain, the particle size distributions of test bacterial particles remained almost uniform regardless of the degree of UV inactivation. However, the fluorescence spectra of the bacterial particles changed with the degree of UV inactivation. The fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability, determined by the sampling and culture method, although the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability. - Research Highlights: → Characteristics of E. coli particles with various viabilities in real-time were investigated Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS. → Initial viability of E. coli was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. → Fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability. → However, the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability.

  3. Real-time measurement of UV-inactivated Escherichia coli bacterial particles by electrospray-assisted UVAPS spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun [Public Health Microbiology Laboratory, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gwi Nam, E-mail: gnbae@kist.re.kr [Environment Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    The ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) is a novel commercially available aerosol spectrometer for real-time continuous monitoring of viable bioaerosols, based on fluorescence from living microorganisms. In a previous study, we developed an electrospray-assisted UVAPS using biological electrospray techniques, which have the advantage of generating non-agglomerated single particles by the repulsive electrical forces. With this electrospraying of suspensions containing microorganisms, the analytical system can supply more accurate and quantitative information about living microorganisms than with conventional aerosolization. Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS, we investigated the characteristics of bacterial particles with various viabilities in real-time. Escherichia coli was used as the test microorganism, and its initial viability was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. In the stable cone-jet domain, the particle size distributions of test bacterial particles remained almost uniform regardless of the degree of UV inactivation. However, the fluorescence spectra of the bacterial particles changed with the degree of UV inactivation. The fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability, determined by the sampling and culture method, although the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability. - Research Highlights: {yields} Characteristics of E. coli particles with various viabilities in real-time were investigated Using electrospray-assisted UVAPS. {yields} Initial viability of E. coli was controlled by the degree of exposure to UV irradiation. {yields} Fluorescence characteristics of UV-inactivated bacterial particles tended to show a similar decline with viability. {yields} However, the percentage showing fluorescence was higher than that showing viability.

  4. Measurement of Heavy Flavor and Quarkonia Production by PHENIX

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, M L

    2008-01-01

    Heavy quarks (charm and bottom) are good probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions since they are mainly generated at the beginning of collisions and interact with the media in all collision stages. In addition, heavy flavor quarkonia production is thought to be uniquely sensitive to the deconfined medium of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) through color screening. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward-rapidity. Large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons have been observed in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s) = 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of the heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/psi production up to sqrt(s) = 200 GeV in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions, both at mid (|y|<0.35) and forward (1.2<|y|<2...

  5. The mean value for infinite volume measures, infinite products and heuristic infinite dimensional Lebesgue measures

    CERN Document Server

    magnot, jean-pierre

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to define the mean value of a function defined on an infinite product of measured spaces with infinite measure. As a preliminary approach, the mean value of a map defined on a $\\sigma-$finite Radon measure $\\mu$ with respect to a sequence of measurable sets called renormalization sequence. If $\\mu$ is a probability measure, we recover the expectation value of a random variable. We also show that in many standard cases, if the measure is not finite, we get a linear extension of the limit at infinity. We investigate basic properties, especially invariance properties and formulas for changing the measure. Then, the mean value on an infinite product is defined, first for cylindrical functions and secondly taking the uniform limit. Finally, the mean value for the heuristic Lebesgue measure on a separable infinite dimensional topological vector space (but principally on a Hilbert space) is defined. Even if the renormalization procedure is fixed, it depends on a chosen orthogonal sequence...

  6. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. PMID:26541243

  7. A Hybrid Fuzzy Model for Lean Product Development Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osezua Aikhuele, Daniel; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    In the effort for manufacturing companies to meet up with the emerging consumer demands for mass customized products, many are turning to the application of lean in their product development process, and this is gradually moving from being a competitive advantage to a necessity. However, due to lack of clear understanding of the lean performance measurements, many of these companies are unable to implement and fully integrated the lean principle into their product development process. Extensive literature shows that only few studies have focus systematically on the lean product development performance (LPDP) evaluation. In order to fill this gap, the study therefore proposed a novel hybrid model based on Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and the extension of Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-TOPSIS methods for the assessment of the LPDP. Unlike the existing methods, the model considers the importance weight of each of the decision makers (Experts) since the performance criteria/attributes are required to be rated, and these experts have different level of expertise. The rating is done using a new fuzzy Likert rating scale (membership-scale) which is designed such that it can address problems resulting from information lost/distortion due to closed-form scaling and the ordinal nature of the existing Likert scale.

  8. Measurement of D*+ production in charged-current neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1994-1997, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wide-band neutrino beam of the CERN SPS of 27 GeV average neutrino energy. In total about 100-bar 000 charged-current neutrino interactions were located in the nuclear emulsion target and fully reconstructed. A high-statistics sample of neutrino interactions with a D0 in the final state was collected. Using the decay mode D*+->D0π+ a production cross-section measurement of the D*+ in neutrino-nucleon charged-current interactions was performed. The low Q-value of the decay was used to isolate a sample of candidate events containing a positive hadron with a small pT with respect to the D0 direction. A signal of 22.1+/-5.5D*+ events was obtained. The D*+ production cross-section relative to the D0 production cross-section, σ(D*+)/σ(D0), was estimated to be 0.38+/-0.09(stat)+/-0.05(syst). From this result, the fraction of D0's produced via the decay of a D* was deduced to be 0.63+/-0.17. The D*+ production cross-section relative to the νμ charged-current interaction, σ(D*+)/σ(CC), was estimated to be [1.02+/-0.25(stat)+/-0.15(syst)]%

  9. Isolating the effects of storm events on arctic aquatic bacteria: temperature, nutrients, and community composition as controls on bacterial productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Heather E.; Crump, Byron C; Kling, George W

    2015-01-01

    Storm events can pulse nutrients and carbon from soils and provide an important subsidy to food webs in oligotrophic streams and lakes. Bacterial nutrient limitation and the potential response of stream aquatic bacteria to storm events was investigated in arctic tundra environments by manipulating both water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations in short (up to 4 days) and long duration (up to 2 weeks) laboratory mesocosm experiments. Inorganic N and P additions increased bacteria...

  10. New challenge in the speciation of selenium. Measurement and production on nano selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. We have found that several species of probiotic bacteria also used in food industry for making yogurts is capable of producing spherical elemental selenium nanospheres having an average diameter in the range of 50-500 nm when 1-1000 mg/L selenium was added to the medium in the form of selenite ions. Elemental selenium produced thereby has a high degree of purity, is spherical, and its size and crystalline form depends on the bacterium species applied. We have found that some species of the probiotic yogurt bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium bifidum or Bifidobacterium longum) are capable of producing the grey crystalline form of elemental selenium which is so far unprecedented in the art for any bacteria capable of producing elemental selenium nanoparticles. Our finding, therefore, enables the first time the development of economical industrial bacterial fermentation based processes for the production of a high quality elemental selenium material comprising uniformly sized grey or red nanospheres having an average diameter in the range of 50-500 nm. The size and the crystalline form of the produced nanosized (50-500 nm) spherical particles is defined by the selected microorganism. This genetic pre-determination result in reproducible production of a material having individual characteristics which can be used in numerous fields of industry and research. The produced nano selenium could be a good raw material for a production of certified reference materials. The measurement of the produced elemental nanoselenium is a new challenge for the speciation analysis. A sample preparation and measurement method was developed and investigated for the analysis of different selenium forms by HPLC-AFS system. The atomic fluorescence (AFS) was a reliable and simple detection method for the elemental nano selenium. The elemental selenium can produce hydride in the system or can be converted to selenite with HCl/H2O2 digestion.

  11. The influence of bacterial-humus preparations on the biological activity of soils polluted with oil products and heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, E. N.; Stepanov, A. L.; Lysak, L. V.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of bacterial-humus preparations based on Gumigel ( Agrosintez Company) on the biological activity of soddy-podzolic soil polluted with Pb(CH3COO)2 and gasoline was studied in a model experiment. Some indicators of biological activity are shown to depend on soil pollution to different extents. The process of nitrogen fixation and the activity of dehydrogenase and phosphatase were mostly inhibited by Pb(CH3COO)2 and gasoline. Gasoline compared to Pb(CH3COO)2 inhibited the soil biological activity to a greater extent. The bacterial-humus preparations exerted a significant positive effect on the biological activity of the polluted soils manifested in the increase of the total number of bacteria and of the enzyme activity (1.5-5.0 times), in the intensification of nitrogen fixation and denitrification (3-8 times), as well as in the increase in the biomass of the plants grown (1.5-2.0 times). The application of bacterial suspensions of pure cultures or the microbial complex without the preparations of humic acids did not always give a positive effect.

  12. Measurement of β-Glucan in Mushrooms and Mycelial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V; Draga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A robust and reliable method has been developed for the measurement of β-glucan in mushroom and mycelial products. Total glucan (plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose) was measured using controlled acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 and the glucose released specifically was measured using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. α-Glucan (starch/glycogen) plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose were specifically measured after hydrolysis of starch/glycogen to glucose with glucoamylase and sucrose to glucose plus fructose with invertase and the glucose specifically measured with GOPOD reagent. β-Glucan was determined by the difference. Several acid and enzyme-based methods for the hydrolysis of the β-glucan were compared, and the best option was the method using H2SO4. For most samples, similar β-glucan values were obtained with both the optimized HCl and H2SO4 PROCEDURES: However, in the case of certain samples, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Poria cocus, the H2SO4 procedure resulted in significantly higher values. Hydrolysis with 2 N trifluoroacetic acid at 120°C was found to be much less effective than either of the other two acids evaluated. Assays based totally on enzymatic hydrolysis, in general, yielded much lower values than those obtained with the H2SO4 procedure. PMID:26957216

  13. Measurements of e+e- pair production at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete kinematic description of a lepton pair requires 6 independent variables, in contrast to the case of a real photon, where there are only 3 independent variables. The mass and momentum of the virtual photon may be specified independently, with the remaining variables being the two angles specifying its production direction, and the two angles of the decay in its rest frame. It has become customary to use as kinetics variables: the mass, M; the transverse momentum, Pt; and a longitudinal variable, either the rapidity -- Y, or the scaling variable -- X. Data are almost always presented as a function of only one of these variables. This may be due to the difficulty inherent in presenting multi-dimensional data, to poor statistics, to limited experimental acceptance, or to some combination of these reasons. It should be noted, however, that these one-dimensional projections always represent integrations over the remaining variables -- integrations within which the shape and limits of the acceptance of the experimental apparatus must be taken into account. The effects of the acceptance must be understood in comparing experimental data either to theory or to results from experiments with different coverage of the total phase space. Although we have a strong interest in studying nucleus-nucleus collisions using the tool, most of the discussion presented here will be about our measurements in p+Be collisions. It was necessary for us to make these measurements because, in the relevant range of incident energies, the yield of electron pairs from nucleon-nucleon collisions had not been measured, nor was the hadronic production mechanism understood. A brief discussion of lepton production in hadronic collision will help put out our results in a proper framework. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Prevalence of tabacco product use in Latvia and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco products is a major problem having a serious effect on public health. Deaths from external causes are those that can be prevented by ensuring environmental safety and educating the society about the effect of lifestyle habits and behaviour on health of an individual. Not only research data reveal the prevalence of tobacco use but also the rate of tobacco sales. Tobacco industry marketing includes advertising, sales promotion and sponsorship strategies that are aimed at promotion of tobacco use. Demand for tobacco products is influenced also by changes in legislation relating to ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. Therefore it is necessary to introduce an agreed strategy for reducing tobacco use. The countries that have ratified the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (the Convention should develop and implement an effective tobacco control programme. In Latvia the number of daily smokers gradually decreases thanks to the extensive smoking restrictions though tobacco manufacturers use all the available media, radio and television, newspapers, magazines, advertisements and Internet, to advertise their products. Therefore in order to combat the prevalence of smoking first of all it is necessary to limit cigarette marketing and sales and to carry out monitoring and development of tobacco control measures on the state level. The sales of legal cigarettes have decreased in Latvia starting from 2009. However, the increase in tax rates and prices has contributed to the movement of illegal goods therefore it is necessary to take additional restrictive measures concerning the movement of illegal goods. Though amendments to legislation of Latvia relating to tobacco control comply with the requirements of the WHO Convention it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of control measures and to improve them. Systematic and comprehensive education of the public is required to encourage the change of

  15. Surface-attached and suspended bacterial community structure as affected by C/N ratios: relationship between bacteria and fish production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ermeng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Jinlin; Ako, Harry; Wang, Guangjun; Chen, Zhanghe; Liu, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria play crucial roles in the combined system of substrate addition and C/N control, which has been demonstrated to improve aquaculture production. However, the complexity of surface-attached bacteria on substrates and suspended bacteria in the water column hamper further application of this system. This study firstly applied this combined system into the culture of grass carp, and then explored the relationship between microbial complexes from surface-attached and suspended bacteria in this system and the production of grass carp. In addition, this study investigated bacterial community structures as affected by four C/N ratios using Illumina sequencing technology. The results demonstrated that the weight gain rate and specific growth rate of grass carp in the CN20 group (C/N ratio 20:1) were the highest (P production of grass carp, and Verrucomicrobiae and Rhodobacter in the surface-attached bacterial community were potential probiotic bacteria that contributed to the enhanced growth of grass carp. PMID:27263011

  16. Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on the Production of Reducing Sugars, Extra-cellular Protein and Cellulolytic Enzymes by Two Cellulolytic Bacterial Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Kashem, M. A.; M.A. Manchur; M.S. Rahman; M.N. Anwar

    2004-01-01

    Two thermophilic cellulolytic bacterial isolates were tested to determine the effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of extra-cellular proteins, reducing sugars and cellulolytic enzymes. Lactose was found to be the most potential carbon source for Avicelase (342.52 U mL-1) and ß-glucosidase (256.89 U mL-1) activity where as NH4Cl was found to be the potential nitrogen source for CMCase (144.68 U mL-1) activity.

  17. Measurement and characterization of fission products released from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of commercial LWR fuel have been heated under simulated accident conditions to determine the extent and the chemical forms of fission product release. Of the five tests discussed, the fractional releases of Kr, I, and Cs varied from proportional 2% at 14000C to >50% at 20000C; much smaller fractions of Ru, Ag, Sb, and Te were measured in some tests. The major chemical forms in the effluent appeared to include CsI, CsOH, Sb, Te, and Ag. (orig./HP)

  18. Measuring the coolness of interactive products: the COOL questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    is the COOL questionnaire. We based the creation of the questionnaire on literature suggesting that perceived coolness is decomposed to outer cool (the style of a product) and inner cool (the personality characteristics assigned to it). In this paper, we focused on inner cool, and we identified 11...... inner cool characteristics. These were used to create an initial pool of question items and 2236 participants were asked to assess 16 mobile devices. By performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we identified three factors that can measure the perceived inner coolness of interactive...

  19. Measurement and characterization of fission products released from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of commercial LWR fuel have been heated under simulated accident conditions to determine the extent and the chemical forms of fission product release. This project was sponsored by the USNRC under a broad program of reactor safety studies. Of the five tests discussed, the fractional releases of Kr, I, and Cs varied from approx. 2% at 14000C to >50% at 20000C; much smaller fractions of Ru, Ag, Sb, and Te were measured in some tests. The major chemical forms in the effluent appeared to include CsI, CsOH, Sb, Te, and Ag

  20. Charm and Bottom Production Measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Walkowiak, W

    2008-01-01

    Early data of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC will allow us to measure the cross sections for beauty and heavy quarkonia production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV to a reasonable precision. Different experimental approaches employing single or di-muon triggered events and b-tagging methods are discussed. The potential for extracting the polarization of vector states from the decays J/psi to mu+mu- and Y to mu+mu- is presented.

  1. Charm and Bottom Production Measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Walkowiak, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Early data of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC will allow us to measure the cross sections for beauty and heavy quarkonia production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV to a reasonable precision. Different experimental approaches employing single or di-muon triggered events and b-tagging methods are discussed. The potential for extracting the polarization of vector states from the decays J/psi to mu+ mu- and Y to mu+ mu- is presented.

  2. Pan-proteomics, a concept for unifying quantitative proteome measurements when comparing closely-related bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, James A; Broszczak, Daniel A; Tennakoon, Imalka U K; Huygens, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    The comparison of proteomes between genetically heterogeneous bacterial strains may offer valuable insights into physiological diversity and function, particularly where such variation aids in the survival and virulence of clinically-relevant strains. However, reports of such comparisons frequently fail to account for underlying genetic variance. As a consequence, the current knowledge regarding bacterial physiological diversity at the protein level may be incomplete or inaccurate. To address this, greater consideration must be given to the impact of genetic heterogeneity on proteome comparisons. This may be possible through the use of pan-proteomics, an analytical concept that permits the ability to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the proteomes of genetically heterogeneous organisms. Limited examples of this emerging technology highlight currently unmet analytical challenges. In this article we define pan-proteomics, where its value lies in microbiology, and discuss the technical considerations critical to its successful execution and potential future application. PMID:26889693

  3. Selection of potent bacterial strain for over-production of PHB by using low cost carbon source for eco-friendly bioplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Abdul Rehman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microbial PHB production is a promising tool for the plastic industry for the synthesis of environmental friendly, biodegradable plastic in contrast to the conventional petro-chemical based non-degradable plastics. The selection of potent bacterial strains, inexpensive carbon source, efficient fermentation and recovery processes are important aspects that were taken into account during this study. Methods: Different bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus Spp, P. putida and P. fluorescens were screened for maximum PHB production. Under media optimization, various carbon and nitrogen sources (alone or in combination were used to achieve the maximum PHB production. Finally the degradation tests of the PHB sheet were also performed to test its biodegradability potential. Results: Shake flask studies have shown the PHB concentrations upto 7.02, 4.50 and 34.4 mg/g of dry cell mass of P. putida, P. fluorescens and Bacillus Spp. respectively. Almost same results were observed at laboratory scale production of PHB in 10 L fermenter i.e. 6.28, 6.23 and 39.5 mg/g of dry cell mass by P. putida, P. fluorescens and Bacillus Spp. respectively. On the basis of these observations, Bacillus Spp. was chosen for laboratory scale PHB production. Corn steep liquor (4% was chosen as the best medium to achieve the highest PHB contents. Isolated PHB has shown biodegradation in soil up to 86.7% at 37oC. Conclusion: The Bacillus Spp. Proved to be the best strain for PHB production on only 4% CSL which is cheapest and easily available.

  4. Measurement of AFB in B± meson production at D0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoganon, J.; D0 Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in the production of B± mesons, AFB( B±) , using B± → J/ ψ K± decays in 10.4 fb-1 of p bar{{p}} collisions at √{{s}} = 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 experiment during Run II of the Tevatron collider. A nonzero asymmetry would indicate a preference for a particular flavor, i.e., b quark or bar{{b}} antiquark, to be produced in the direction of the proton beam. We extract AFB( B±) from a maximum-likelihood fit to the difference between the numbers of forward- and backward-produced B± mesons. We measure an asymmetry consistent with zero: AFB( B±) = [- 0.24±0.41(stat)±0.19(syst)]%.

  5. Isolation of a Siderophore-Producting Bacterial Strain and Mica-bacterial Interactions%一株产铁载体细菌的筛选及其与云母的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳燕; 张垠; 盛下放; 黄智

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the interactions between siderophore-producting bacteria and mica minerals will help us understand the mechanism of bio-weathering, the formation of soil, global cycle of several elements, and local environmental contamination. A siderophore(pyoverdins)-producting bacterial strain Z6 was isolated from rhizosphere soil of advantage wild plants sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) growing in Longshan potassium mine tailings in Nanjing, which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. By checking the individual morphology, colony characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequencing. Using the test cultures containing biotite or muscovite inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Z6, we found that a strong increase in the amount of siderophore in the fiest 15 days and bacteria could influence silicon and iron mobilization from mica minerals consistently until 75 d of culture. The amounts of iron released from biotite in the presence of Z6 increased by 211 times and the silicon increased by a factor of 27.8, much higher than that in the negative control without minerals. SEM analysis revealed the formation of erosion and bacteria-mineral aggregates on the surface of mica. Cellular growth, siderophere production and pH change by Pseudomonas sp. Z6 cultivated in biotite were directly and quickly influenced, more significantly than that in muscovite experimental setup. The siderophore(pyoverdins)-producting bacterial strain Z6 might play an important role in the process of mica weathering. Production of bacterial siderophore may be related to the presence of different mica minerals.%产铁载体细菌与云母类矿物相互作用的研究有助于了解矿物生物风化和土壤形成的演化规律和机理.采用纯培养法自南京龙山废钾矿区酸模根际土壤分离筛选到一株高产荧光铁载体的细菌Z6,通过16S rDNA序列分析和生理生化反应将其鉴定为假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.);通过室温静置培养试验研究Z6菌株与云母的相互作用结果

  6. Measurement of charm production in neutrino charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wide-band neutrino beam of the CERN SPS of 27 GeV average neutrino energy from 1994 to 1997. In total, about 100 000 charged-current (CC) neutrino interactions with at least one identified muon were located in the emulsion target and fully reconstructed, using newly developed automated scanning systems. Charmed particles were searched for by a program recognizing particle decays. The observation of the decay in nuclear emulsion makes it possible to select a sample with very low background and minimal kinematical bias. In all, 2013 CC interactions with a charmed hadron candidate in the final state were selected and confirmed through visual inspection. The charm production rate induced by neutrinos relative to the CC cross-section is measured to be σ(νμN→μ-CX)/σ(CC)=(5.75 ± 0.32(stat)±0.30(syst))%. The charm production cross-section as a function of neutrino energy is also obtained. The results are in good agreement with previous measurements. The charm-quark hadronization produces the following charmed hadrons with relative fractions (in %): fD0=43.7±4.5, fΛc+=19.2±4.2, fD+=25.3±4.2 and fDs+=11.8±4.7.

  7. What Will SWOT Measurements and Products Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D.; Bates, P.; Lettenmaier, D.; Mognard, N.; Moller, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Participants, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is designed to measure water elevations across the world's rivers, lakes, wetlands, and oceans. The mission is designed to provide global, high- spatial resolution, ~weekly products of river discharge and changes in stored water volumes. Already, some satellite missions such as GRACE, various altimeters, SRTM, and imaging systems, provide a glimpse of what these products might look like. For example, despite GRACE's hundreds of kilometers of spatial resolution, it allows a first-order assessment of Amazon floodplain storage anomalies - measurements that are key for understanding the hydraulic flux and subsequent delivery of sediment and exchange of nutrients. Various altimeters have shown that spot elevations of water surfaces are possible, albeit without a fine resolution on the order of less than 100m. In contrast, repeat-pass interferometric SAR measurements show a high-spatial resolution (~30m) but poor temporal resolution (~monthly) and are restricted to dh/dt mappings (i.e., water elevation changes with time). SRTM is perhaps the most spatially detailed mapping of water surface elevations globally, but is restricted to one temporal map (i.e., February 2000). SWOT is designed to overcome these various limitations by using a Ka-band radar interferometer which is essentially a higher- accuracy and more compact version of SRTM. Its look angle is near-nadir which maximizes the returned radar energy and improves the height accuracy to +/- 0.5m (an order of magnitude better than SRTM). Because SWOT uses this two-antennae SAR system, the smallest spatial resolution theoretically possible is 2m (in azimuth) by 0.75m (in range) whereas, after multi-looking, SWOT will have a nominal resolution of around 30m x 30m. The mission will produce terabytes of data per month, thus ground systems need to be designed to rapidly convert water elevation measurements to products of discharge and storage change. SWOT is in

  8. Measurement of fission product gases in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, W. R.; Tobin, M. J.; Marsan, D. J.; Schell, C. W.; Vives-Batlle, J.; Yoon, S. R.

    1997-01-01

    The ability to quickly detect and assess the magnitude of releases of fission-produced radioactive material is of significant importance for ongoing operations of any conventional nuclear power plant or other activities with a potential for fission product release. In most instances, the control limits for the release of airborne radioactivity are low enough to preclude direct air sampling as a means of detection, especially for fission gases that decay by beta or electron emission. It is, therefore, customary to concentrate the major gaseous fission products (krypton, xenon and iodine) by cryogenic adsorption for subsequent separation and measurement. This study summarizes our initial efforts to develop an automated portable system for on-line separation and concentration with the potential for measuring environmental levels of radioactive gases, including 85Kr, 131,133,135Xe, 14C, 3H, 35S, 125,131I, etc., without using cryogenic fluids. Bench top and prototype models were constructed using the principle of heatless fractionation of the gases in a pressure swing system. This method removes the requirement for cryogenic fluids to concentrate gases and, with suitable electron and gamma ray detectors, provides for remote use under automatic computer control. Early results using 133Xe tracer show that kinetic chromatography, i.e., high pressure adsorption of xenon and low pressure desorption of air, using specific types of molecular sieves, permits the separation and quantification of xenon isotopes from large volume air samples. We are now developing the ability to measure the presence and amounts of fission-produced xenon isotopes that decay by internal conversion electrons and beta radiation with short half-lives, namely 131mXe, 11.8 d, 133mXe, 2.2 d, 133Xe, 5.2 d and 135Xe, 9.1 h. The ratio of the isotopic concentrations measured can be used to determine unequivocally the amount of fission gas and time of release of an air parcel many kilometers downwind from a

  9. Net production and consumption of fluorescent colored dissolved organic matter by natural bacterial assemblages growing on marine phytoplankton exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Sarmento, Hugo; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Gasol, Josep M; Marrasé, Celia

    2011-11-01

    An understanding of the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the oceans and its role in the global carbon cycle requires a better knowledge of the colored materials produced and consumed by marine phytoplankton and bacteria. In this work, we examined the net uptake and release of CDOM by a natural bacterial community growing on DOM derived from four phytoplankton species cultured under axenic conditions. Fluorescent humic-like substances exuded by phytoplankton (excitation/emission [Ex/Em] wavelength, 310 nm/392 nm; Coble's peak M) were utilized by bacteria in different proportions depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Furthermore, bacteria produced humic-like substances that fluoresce at an Ex/Em wavelength of 340 nm/440 nm (Coble's peak C). Differences were also observed in the Ex/Em wavelengths of the protein-like materials (Coble's peak T) produced by phytoplankton and bacteria. The induced fluorescent emission of CDOM produced by prokaryotes was an order of magnitude higher than that of CDOM produced by eukaryotes. We have also examined the final compositions of the bacterial communities growing on the exudates, which differed markedly depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Alteromonas and Roseobacter were dominant during all the incubations on Chaetoceros sp. and Prorocentrum minimum exudates, respectively. Alteromonas was the dominant group growing on Skeletonema costatum exudates during the exponential growth phase, but it was replaced by Roseobacter afterwards. On Micromonas pusilla exudates, Roseobacter was replaced by Bacteroidetes after the exponential growth phase. Our work shows that fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of CDOM can be a helpful tool for the identification of microbial sources of DOM in the marine environment, but further studies are necessary to explore the association of particular bacterial groups with specific fluorophores. PMID:21742918

  10. Bacterial cellulose: the ultimate nano-scalar cellulose morphology for the production of high-strength composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, A. N.; Iwamoto, S.; Yano, H.

    2005-01-01

    High-strength composites were produced using bacterial cellulose (BC) sheets impregnated with phenolic resin and compressed at 100 MPa. By utilizing this unique material synthesized by bacteria, it was possible to improve the mechanical properties over the previously reported high-strength composites based on fibrillated kraft pulp of plant origin. BC-based composites were stronger, and in particular the Young’s modulus was significantly higher, attaining 28 GPa versus 19 GPa of fibrillated pulp composites. The superior modulus value was attributed to the uniform, continuous, and straight nano-scalar network of cellulosic elements oriented in-plane via the compression of BC pellicles.

  11. Synthesis and Anti-Bacterial Activities of a Bis-Chalcone Derived from Thiophene and Its Bis-Cyclized Products

    OpenAIRE

    Asiri, Abdullah M.; Khan, Salman A.

    2011-01-01

    A chalcone was prepared by the reaction of terephthalaldehyde with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. Treatment of this chalcone with thiosemicarbazide/phenyl hydrazine/guanidine hydrochloride/thiourea afforded the corresponding pyrazoline,  pyrazole, and pyrimidine in good yields. All the new compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, GC-MS and elemental analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of these compounds were first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gra...

  12. Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator [ZnS(Ag)] and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current (approx-gt 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model

  13. Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator [ZnS(Ag)] and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current ({approx_gt} 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model.

  14. Measurements of charged fusion product diffusion in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The single particle confinement of charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton, has been studied using a detector located near the outer midplane of TFTR. The detector, which measure the flux of escaping particles, is composed of a scintillator (ZnS(Ag)) and a system of collimating apertures, which permit pitch angle, energy and time resolution. It is mounted on a movable probe which can be inserted 25 cm into the vacuum vessel. Measurements indicate a level of losses higher than expected from a first-orbit loss mechanism alone. The primary candidate for explaining the observed anomalous losses is the toroidal field (TF) stochastic ripple diffusion, theoretically discovered by Goldston, White and Boozer. This loss mechanism is expected to be localized near the outer midplane where, at least at high current ({approx gt} 1.0 MA) it would locally dominate over first-orbit losses. Calculations made with a mapping particle orbit code (MAPLOS) show a semi-quantitative agreement with the measurements. The predominant uncertainties in the numerical simulations were found to originate from the modeling of the first wall geometry and also from the assumed plasma current and source profiles. Direct measurements of the diffusion rate were performed by shadowing the detector with a second movable probe used as an obstacle. The diffusion rate was also measured by moving the detector behind the radius of the RF limiters, located on the outer wall. Comparisons of these experimental results with numerical simulations, which include diffusive mechanisms, indicate a quantitative agreement with the TF stochastic ripple diffusion model.

  15. Effects of hygiene-sanitary measures on microbiological safety of finished product in butter production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Memiši Nurgin; Škrinjar Marija; Vesković-Moračanin Slavica

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the results of investigations of the effects of hygienesanitary measures at critical points in the technological process of butter production on its quality and microbiological safety. With this object in mind, hygiene safety was checked using the swab method at the machine for churning and packing butter (125 g packages and bulk butter), the equipment, hands and clothing (work aprons) of employees directly engaged on the machines. The ev...

  16. Molecular diversity of bacterial communities from subseafloor rock samples in a deep-water production basin in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Weid, Irene; Korenblum, Elisa; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Dino, Rodolfo; Sebastian, Gina Vasquez; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    The deep subseafloor rock in oil reservoirs represents a unique environment in which a high oilcontamination and very low biomass can be observed. Sampling this environment has been a challenge owing to the techniques used for drilling and coring. In this study, the facilities developed by the Brazilian oil company PETROBRAS for accessing deep subsurface oil reservoirs were used to obtain rock samples at 2,822-2,828 m below the ocean floor surface from a virgin field located in the Atlantic Ocean, Rio de Janeiro. To address the bacterial diversity of these rock samples, PCR amplicons were obtained using the DNA from four core sections and universal primers for 16S rRNA and for APS reductase (aps) genes. Clone libraries were generated from these PCR fragments and 87 clones were sequenced. The phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA clone libraries showed a wide distribution of types in the domain bacteria in the four core samples, and the majority of the clones were identified as belonging to Betaproteobacteria. The sulfate-reducing bacteria community could only be amplified by PCR in one sample, and all clones were identified as belonging to Gammaproteobacteria. For the first time, the bacterial community was assessed in such deep subsurface environment. PMID:18239409

  17. Postoperative changes in fecal bacterial communities and fermentation products in obese patients undergoing bilio-intestinal bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania ePatrone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the gut microbial ecology of 11 severely obese patients before and after bilio-intestinal bypass (BIB. Fecal samples were evaluated for microbial communities using 16S rDNA Illumina sequencing, real-time PCR targeting functional genes, and gas chromatography of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs. At 6 months after surgery, subjects exhibited significant improvements in metabolic markers (body weight, glucose, and lipid metabolism compared with baseline. The fecal microbiota of post-surgery individuals was characterized by an overall decrease of bacterial diversity, with a significant reduction in Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae. On the contrary, there were significant increases of genera Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, and Acidaminococcus and the family Enterobacteriaceae. The pH was decreased in fecal samples from patients after BIB and SCFA profiles were altered, with lower percentages of acetate and propionate and higher levels of valerate and hexanoate. Some changes in the bacterial populations were associated with variations in the patients’ metabolic health parameters, namely Gemmiger and glucose, Lactobacillus and glucose, and Faecalibacterium and triglycerides. The results from this study of BIB patients furthers our understanding of the composition of gut microbiota and the functional changes that may be involved in improving obesity-related conditions following weight-loss surgery.

  18. Postoperative Changes in Fecal Bacterial Communities and Fermentation Products in Obese Patients Undergoing Bilio-Intestinal Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Vania; Vajana, Elia; Minuti, Andrea; Callegari, Maria L; Federico, Alessandro; Loguercio, Carmela; Dallio, Marcello; Tolone, Salvatore; Docimo, Ludovico; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the gut microbial ecology of 11 severely obese patients before and after bilio-intestinal bypass (BIB). Fecal samples were evaluated for microbial communities using 16S rDNA Illumina sequencing, real-time PCR targeting functional genes, and gas chromatography of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). At 6 months after surgery, subjects exhibited significant improvements in metabolic markers (body weight, glucose, and lipid metabolism) compared with baseline. The fecal microbiota of post-surgery individuals was characterized by an overall decrease of bacterial diversity, with a significant reduction in Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae. On the contrary, there were significant increases of genera Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, and Acidaminococcus and the family Enterobacteriaceae. The pH was decreased in fecal samples from patients after BIB and SCFA profiles were altered, with lower percentages of acetate and propionate and higher levels of valerate and hexanoate. Some changes in the bacterial populations were associated with variations in the patients' metabolic health parameters, namely Gemmiger and glucose, Lactobacillus and glucose, and Faecalibacterium and triglycerides. The results from this study of BIB patients furthers our understanding of the composition of gut microbiota and the functional changes that may be involved in improving obesity-related conditions following weight-loss surgery. PMID:26941724

  19. Effects of dietary antibiotic growth promoter and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on production, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus female x Oreochromis aureus male).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S; Zhou, Z; Meng, K; Zhao, H; Yao, B; Ringø, E; Yoon, I

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a dietary antibiotic growth promoter (florfenicol) and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (DVAQUA) on growth, G:F, daily feed intake, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂), a 16-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating aquaculture system. Four feeding regimens were evaluated: control, dietary florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 16 wk), dietary DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 16 wk), and sequential use of florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 8 wk), and DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 8 wk). Each regimen had 4 replicate tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m) and each tank contained 12 fish (initial BW: 46.88 ± 0.38 g). Dietary florfenicol improved growth (P = 0.089), G:F (P = 0.036), and serum complement component concentrations (P < 0.001) of hybrid tilapia. However, the compound decreased the estimated intestinal bacterial count estimated by rpoB quantitative PCR (P < 0.001) and bacterial diversity (visual band numbers, Shannon diversity index, and Shannon equitability index based on 16S rDNA V3 denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints) compared with the control. Although sequential use of florfenicol and DVAQUA improved growth and G:F numerically to a similar extent as dietary florfenicol, and increased intestinal bacterial count to normal quantities, the sequential use of florenicol and DVAQUA decreased intestinal bacterial diversity (visual band numbers, Shannon diversity index, and Shannon equitability index) as well as serum complement component concentrations (P < 0.001) compared with their respective use and the control. These findings might be negatively related to disease control and host defense, and the sequential use of florenicol and DVAQUA should be practiced with caution. Feeding DAVQUA to the fish improved nonspecific immunity and increased intestinal bacterial count and bacterial diversity, but further research, including challenge studies, should be conducted

  20. Leaching of zinc sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: bacterial oxidation of the sulfur product layer increases the rate of zinc sulfide dissolution at high concentrations of ferrous ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T A; Crundwell, F K

    1999-12-01

    This paper reports the results of leaching experiments conducted with and without Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at the same conditions in solution. The extent of leaching of ZnS with bacteria is significantly higher than that without bacteria at high concentrations of ferrous ions. A porous layer of elemental sulfur is present on the surfaces of the chemically leached particles, while no sulfur is present on the surfaces of the bacterially leached particles. The analysis of the data using the shrinking-core model shows that the chemical leaching of ZnS is limited by the diffusion of ferrous ions through the sulfur product layer at high concentrations of ferrous ions. The analysis of the data shows that diffusion through the product layer does not limit the rate of dissolution when bacteria are present. This suggests that the action of T. ferrooxidans in oxidizing the sulfur formed on the particle surface is to remove the barrier to diffusion by ferrous ions. PMID:10583978

  1. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  2. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...

  3. Prostatitis - bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Infections spread through sexual contact can cause prostatitis. These include chlamydia and gonorrhea . Sexually transmitted ...

  4. Bacterial Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Köhle, Ülkü; Kükner, Şahap

    2003-01-01

    Conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva, generally characterized by irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing and discharge. Bacterial conjunctivitis may be distinguished from other types of conjunctivitis by the presence of yellow–white mucopurulent discharge. It is the most common form of ocular infection all around the world. Staphylococcus species are the most common bacterial pathogenes, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus i...

  5. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hegnhøj, J;

    1991-01-01

    During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured...... patients with SBP. In contrast to several previous studies, neither ascites pH nor ascites leucocyte counts were any help in obtaining a rapid diagnosis. Survival time of patients with SBP was significantly shorter than of patients without SBP....

  6. Measured radionuclide production from copper, gold and lead spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallation target materials are chosen so as to produce large numbers of neutrons while at the same time avoiding the creation of long-lived radioactive wastes. While there has been considerable research to determine the number of neutrons produced per incident particle for various target materials, there has been less effort to precisely quantify the types and amounts of radionuclides produced. Accurate knowledge of the radioactive species produced by spallation reactions is important for specifying waste disposal criteria for targets. In order to verify the production rates calculated by LAHET, a study has been conducted using the Texas A ampersand M University (TAMU) Cyclotron to measure radionuclide yields from copper, gold, and lead targets

  7. On Possibility of Detonation Products Temperature Measurements of Emulsion Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrov V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The new view on the structure of the radiance signal recorded by optical pyrometer and the preliminary results of brightness detonation temperature of the emulsion explosive are presented. The structure of an optical signal observed is typical for the heterogeneous explosives. First, there is the short temperature spike to 2500 ÷ 3300 K connecting with a formation of “hot spots” assembly that fire the matrix capable of exothermal reaction. Then the relaxation of radiance to equilibrium level is observed that corresponds to brightness temperature 1840 ÷ 2260 K of explosion products at detonation pressure 1 ÷ 11 GPa. Experimental results are compared with the calculations of other authors. The detonation temperature of the investigated explosive is measured for the first time.

  8. Dose-area product measurements in panoramic dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, dose-area product (DAP) measurements in panoramic dental radiology have been performed in Germany. The results obtained in this study were proposed as diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). A representative number of dental panoramic units, both with digital and conventional image receptors, have been chosen. Common statistical parameters such as mean, standard deviation and 3. quartile have been calculated. For four different standard programmes, 'large adult', 'adult male', 'adult female' and 'child', the proposed DRLs are 101, 87, 84 and 75 mGy cm2, respectively. No clear tendency to a generalised dose reduction from the transition to digital techniques has been observed. Effective doses have been calculated from E/DAP conversion factors published in literature. Even though these values differ by a factor of ∼3, upper limits of 15.8-21.2 μSv for the four different exposure settings were derived from the data. (authors)

  9. Measurement of the Charge Asymmetry in Top Quark Pair Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böser Christian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a measurement of the charge asymmetry in top quark pair production using an integrated luminosity of 1.09 fb−1 collected with the CMS detector. Top quark pairs with a signature of one electron or muon and four or more jets, at least one of them b tagged, are selected. At the LHC a small charge asymmetry in the rapidity distributions of top and antitop quarks is predicted. Therein slightly broader rapidity distributions for top quarks are expected, while antitop quarks are produced more centrally and possess narrower rapidity distributions. We determine the charge asymmetry based on two different sensitive variables and the results are compared with the most precise standard model theory predictions using a dedicated unfolding technique.

  10. Measurement of Dijet Production at Low $Q^{2}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A; Anthonis, T; Asmone, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Berndt, T; Bizot, J C; Böhme, J; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Broker, H B; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Chekelian, V; Chyla, J; Collard, Caroline; Contreras, J G; Coppens, Y R; Coughlan, J A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Delerue, N; Demirchyan, R A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dingfelder, J; Dodonov, V; Dowell, John D; Dubak, A; Duprel, C; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Formánek, J; Franke, G; Frising, G; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Garvey, J; Gassner, J; Gayler, J; Gerhards, R; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Görlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Grab, C; Grabskii, V; Grässler, Herbert; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grindhammer, G; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Haller, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Heremans, R; Herrera-Corral, G; Herynek, I; Heuer, R D; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hladky, J; Hoting, P; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A V; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, C; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Kant, D; Kapichine, M; Karlsson, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kennedy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Koblitz, B; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Koutouev, R; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kroseberg, J; Kuckens, J; Kuhr, T; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leiner, B; Lemrani, R; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N A; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lüders, H; Lüders, S; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michine, S; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz, I; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morozov, I; Morris, J V; Mozer, M; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nagovizin, V; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, J; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C B; Nikitin, D K; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Ossoskov, G; Ozerov, D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Pöschl, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Raicevic, N; Rauschenberger, J; Reimer, P; Reisert, B; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Scheins, J; Schilling, F P; Schleper, P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schneider, M; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schröder, V; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schwanenberger, C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sirois, Y; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V N; Specka, A E; Spitzer, H; Stamen, R; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tasevsky, M; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Uraev, A; Urban, M; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vasilev, S; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vichnevski, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Waugh, B; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wissing, C; Woerling, E E; Wünsch, E; Yan, W; Zácek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zohrabyan, H G; Zomer, F

    2004-01-01

    Triple differential dijet cross sections in e^\\pm p interactions are presented in the region of photon virtualities 27GeV, E_T2>5GeV, and pseudorapidities -2.5 < eta_1^*, eta_2^* <0. The measurements are made in the gamma^* p centre-of-mass frame, using an integrated luminosity of 57pb^-1. The data are compared with NLO QCD calculations and LO Monte Carlo programs with and without a resolved virtual photon contribution. NLO QCD calculations fail to describe the region of low Q^2 and low jet transverse energies, in contrast to a LO Monte Carlo generator which includes direct and resolved photon interactions with both transversely and longitudinally polarised photons. Initial and final state parton showers are tested as a mechanism for including higher order QCD effects in low E_T jet production.

  11. Measurement of $K^{+}$ production in charged-current $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, C.M.; et al.

    2016-07-14

    Production of K+ mesons in charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is measured using MINERvA exposed to the low-energy NuMI beam at Fermilab. Timing information is used to isolate a sample of 885 charged-current events containing a stopping K+ which decays at rest. The differential cross section in K+ kinetic energy, dσ/dTK, is observed to be relatively flat between 0 and 500 MeV. Its shape is in good agreement with the prediction by the genie neutrino event generator when final-state interactions are included, however the data rate is lower than the prediction by 15%.

  12. The efficacy of immediate versus delayed antibiotic administration on bacterial growth and biofilm production of selected strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Gandee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI with antibiotics is commonly used, but recurrence and antibiotic resistance have been growing and concerning clinicians. We studied whether the rapid onset of a protective biofilm may be responsible for the lack of effectiveness of antibiotics against selected bacteria. Materials and Methods Two established uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, UTI89 and CFT073, and two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, PA01 and Boston-41501, were studied to establish a reliable biofilm formation process. Bacterial growth (BG was determined by optical density at 600 nm (OD 600 using a spectrophotometer, while biofilm formation (BF using crystal violet staining was measured at OD 550. Next, these bacterial strains were treated with clinically relevant antibiotics, ciprofloxacin HCl (200 ng/mL and 2 μg/mL, nitrofurantoin (20 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL and ampicillin (50 μg/mL at time points of 0 (T0 or after 6 hours of culture (T6. All measurements, including controls (bacteria -1% DMSO, were done in triplicates and repeated three times for consistency. Results The tested antibiotics effectively inhibited both BG and BF when administered at T0 for UPEC strains, but not when the antibiotic administration started 6 hours later. For Pseudomonas strains, only Ciprofloxacin was able to significantly inhibit bacterial growth at T0 but only at the higher concentration of 2 μg/mL for T6. Conclusion When established UPEC and Pseudomonas bacteria were allowed to culture for 6 hours before initialization of treatment, the therapeutic effect of selected antibiotics was greatly suppressed when compared to immediate treatment, probably as a result of the protective nature of the biofilm.

  13. Product intelligence: its conceptualization, measurement and impact on consumer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Rijsdijk, Serge; Hultink, Erik Jan; Diamantopoulos, Adamantios

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the last decade, companies have developed a large number of intelligent products. Due to the use of information technology, these products, for example, are able to work autonomously, cooperate with other products, or adapt to changing circumstances. Although intelligent products appear an attractive category of products, they have received little attention in the literature. The present article provides a conceptualization of the new construct of product intelligence and descr...

  14. Synthesis and Anti-Bacterial Activities of a Bis-Chalcone Derived from Thiophene and Its Bis-Cyclized Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chalcone was prepared by the reaction of terephthalaldehyde with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. Treatment of this chalcone with thiosemicarbazide/phenyl hydrazine/guanidine hydrochloride/thiourea afforded the corresponding pyrazoline,  pyrazole, and pyrimidine in good yields. All the new compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, GC-MS and elemental analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of these compounds were first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined with the reference of standard drug chloramphenicol. The results showed that the pyrazoline derivative is better at inhibiting growth of both types of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative compared to chloramphenicol.

  15. Measurement of open beauty production in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Breitweg, J; Derrick, Malcolm; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Pellegrino, A; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Sartorelli, G; Zichichi, A; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Amelung, C; Brock, I; Coboken, K; Goers, S; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Kind, O; Paul, E; Rautenberg, J; Schnurbusch, H; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Weber, A; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Barret, O; Brook, N H; Cole, J E; Foster, B; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Robins, S A; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Jeoung, H Y; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Liu, W; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Paganis, S; Sampson, S; Schmidke, W B; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K H; Olkiewicz, K; Piotrzkowski, K; Przybycien, M B; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bienlein, J K; Borras, K; Chiochia, V; Crittenden, James Arthur; Dannheim, D; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Göbel, F; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hebbel, K; Hillert, S; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labes, H; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Martens, J; Martínez, M; Milite, M; Moritz, M; Notz, D; Petrucci, M C; Polini, A; Rohde, M; Savin, A A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Sievers, M; Stonjek, S; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Coldewey, C; López-Duran-Viani, A; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Straub, P B; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Parenti, A; Pelfer, P G; Bamberger, Andreas; Benen, A; Coppola, N; Eisenhardt, S; Markun, P; Raach, H; Wölfle, S; Bussey, Peter J; Bell, M; Doyle, A T; Glasman, C; Lee, S W; Lupi, A; MacDonald, N; McCance, G J; Saxon, D H; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, Ian O; Waugh, R; Bodmann, B; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Yildirim, A; Carli, T; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gialas, I; Kcira, D; Klanner, Robert; Lohrmann, E; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Tapper, A D; Walker, R; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Boos, E G; Pokrovskiy, N S; Zhautykov, B O; Barakbaev, A N; Ahn, S H; Lee, S B; Park, S K; Lim, H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; García, G; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Redondo, I; Terron, J; Vázquez, M E; Barbi, M S; Corriveau, F; Padhi, S; Stairs, D G; Wing, M; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Bashkirov, V; Danilov, M V; Dolgoshein, B A; Gladkov, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Dementiev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Bokel, C; Botje, M; Brümmer, N; Engelen, J; Grijpink, S; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P M; Schagen, S; Van Sighem, A; Tassi, E; Tiecke, H G; Tuning, N; Velthuis, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Kim, C L; Ling, T Y; Boogert, S; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Matsushita, T; Ruske, O; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Limentani, S; Longhin, A; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Turcato, M; Adamczyk, L; Iannotti, L; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Saull, P R B; Toothacker, W S; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Shah, T P; Epperson, D E; Heusch, C A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Wichmann, R; Williams, D C; Park, I H; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Dagan, S; Gabareen, A; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Kohno, T; Umemori, K; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Matsuzawa, K; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Cartiglia, N; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Maselli, S; Monaco, V; Peroni, C; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Bailey, D C; Fagerstroem, C P; Galea, R; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Mirea, A; Sabetfakhri, A; Butterworth, J M; Gwenlan, C; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Grzelak, G; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Smalska, B; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A

    2001-01-01

    The production and semi-leptonic decay of heavy quarks have been studied in the photoproduction process $e^+p -> e^+ + {dijet} + e^- + X with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 38.5 ${\\rm pb^{-1}}$. Events with photon-proton centre-of-mass energies, $W_{\\gamma p}$, between 134 and 269 GeV and a photon virtuality, Q^2, less than 1 ${\\rm GeV^2}$ were selected requiring at least two jets of transverse energy $E_T^{\\rm jet1(2)} >7(6)$ GeV and an electron in the final state. The electrons were identified by employing the ionisation energy loss measurement. The contribution of beauty quarks was determined using the transverse momentum of the electron relative to the axis of the closest jet, $p_T^{\\rm rel}$. The data, after background subtraction, were fit with a Monte Carlo simulation including beauty and charm decays. The measured beauty cross section was extrapolated to the parton level with the b quark restricted to the region of transverse momentum $p_T^{b} > p_T^{\\rm min} =$ 5 GeV and ...

  16. Measurement of open beauty production in photoproduction at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZEUS Collaboration; Breitweg, J.; et al.

    2001-01-01

    The production and semi-leptonic decay of heavy quarks have been studied in the photoproduction process e+p -> e+ + dijet + e- + X with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 38.5 pb -1. Events with photon-proton centre-of-mass energies, Wγ p, between 134 and 269 GeV and a photon virtuality, Q2, less than 1 GeV 2 were selected requiring at least two jets of transverse energy ET jet1(2) >7(6) GeV and an electron in the final state. The electrons were identified by employing the ionisation energy loss measurement. The contribution of beauty quarks was determined using the transverse momentum of the electron relative to the axis of the closest jet, pT rel. The data, after background subtraction, were fit with a Monte Carlo simulation including beauty and charm decays. The measured beauty cross section was extrapolated to the parton level with the b quark restricted to the region of transverse momentum pT^b > pT^min = 5 GeV and pseudorapidity |η b| < 2. The extrapolated cross section is 1.6 +/- 0.4 (stat.)+0.3-0.5 (syst.) +0.2-0.4 (ext.) nb. The result is compared to a perturbative QCD calculation performed to next-to-leading order.

  17. Product Intelligence: Its Conceptualization, Measurement and Impact on Consumer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Rijsdijk (Serge); E.J. Hultink (Erik Jan); A. Diamantopoulos (Adamantios)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the last decade, companies have developed a large number of intelligent products. Due to the use of information technology, these products, for example, are able to work autonomously, cooperate with other products, or adapt to changing circumstances. Although intelligent products appe

  18. Effects of hygiene-sanitary measures on microbiological safety of finished product in butter production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigations of the effects of hygienesanitary measures at critical points in the technological process of butter production on its quality and microbiological safety. With this object in mind, hygiene safety was checked using the swab method at the machine for churning and packing butter (125 g packages and bulk butter, the equipment, hands and clothing (work aprons of employees directly engaged on the machines. The evaluation of the safety parameters, as well as of the hygiene of the production process itself, was carried out in keeping with the Regulations on general and special conditions of food hygiene at any stage of production, processing and trade (RS Official Gazette, No.72/2010. The results of the hygiene safety of swabs taken from the 125g-butter packing machine, after sanitation, showed an increased number of mesophilic bacteria (up to 90 cfu/cm2, as well as the presence of bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriaceae (4 cfu/cm2. The results of swabs taken from the hands of workers engaged on the line for wrapping the butter following the churning process and on the packing line reveal the presence of aerobic mesophilic sporogenic bacteria (20 cfu/cm2, while the presence of pathogenic microorganisms was not established. Butter samples packed into 125g portions present more risky forms of commercial packaging than bulk butter, which is a consequence of various handling activities and additional outside contamination that takes place during the production process if continuous production in the plant has not been ensured. Moreover, the established presence of certain microorganisms (aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, lipolytic bacteria, as well as fungi in packed butter during its shelf life, is largely a result of outside contamination and the hygienic condition of the equipment. The obatined results of the investigations indicate the need for special attention to be paid during the butter

  19. Co-transcriptomic Analysis by RNA Sequencing to Simultaneously Measure Regulated Gene Expression in Host and Bacterial Pathogen

    KAUST Repository

    Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-24

    Intramacrophage pathogens subvert antimicrobial defence pathways using various mechanisms, including the targeting of host TLR-mediated transcriptional responses. Conversely, TLR-inducible host defence mechanisms subject intramacrophage pathogens to stress, thus altering pathogen gene expression programs. Important biological insights can thus be gained through the analysis of gene expression changes in both the host and the pathogen during an infection. Traditionally, research methods have involved the use of qPCR, microarrays and/or RNA sequencing to identify transcriptional changes in either the host or the pathogen. Here we describe the application of RNA sequencing using samples obtained from in vitro infection assays to simultaneously quantify both host and bacterial pathogen gene expression changes, as well as general approaches that can be undertaken to interpret the RNA sequencing data that is generated. These methods can be used to provide insights into host TLR-regulated transcriptional responses to microbial challenge, as well as pathogen subversion mechanisms against such responses.

  20. Measuring the Rate of Conjugal Plasmid Transfer and Phage Infection in a Bacterial Population Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhenmao; Goddard, Noel

    2012-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer between species is an important mechanism for bacterial genome evolution. In Escherichia coli, conjugation is the transfer from a donor(F^+) to a recipient(F^-) cell through cell-to-cell contact. We demonstrate a novel qPCR method for quantifying the transfer kinetics of the F plasmid in a population by enumerating the relative abundance of genetic loci unique to the plasmid and the chromosome. This approach allows us to query the plasmid transfer rate without the need for selective culturing with unprecedented single locus resolution. It also allows us to investigate the inhibition of conjugation in the presence of filamentous bacteriophages M13. Experimental data is then compared with numerical simulation using a mass action, resource limited model.

  1. A Criteria-based Measure of Similarity between Product Functionalities

    OpenAIRE

    Politze, D. P.; Dierssen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today‘s customers request product functions and not components. A specific, modular description of the product functions and how they are realized becomes widely accepted to track how a product function is realized and to support future development. This will result in an additional, modular product structure from a functional viewpoint that is orthogonal to the physical product structure. Because the extent of each functional module has to be defined according to some kind of sim...

  2. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin. PMID:25186082

  3. Intestinal concentrations of free and encapsulated dietary medium-chain fatty acids and effects on gastric microbial ecology and bacterial metabolic products in the digestive tract of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, Jürgen; Buchheit-Renko, Susanne; Männer, Klaus; Pieper, Robert; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2012-02-01

    The influence of low dietary levels of free and encapsulated medium-chain fatty acids on their concentrations in the digesta, the gastric microbial ecology and bacterial metabolic products in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in weaned piglets was studied. Starting after weaning, 36 piglets were fed a diet without (Control) or with medium-chain fatty acids uncoated (MCFA) or coated with vegetable fat and lecithin (MCFAc). After 4 weeks, the animals were killed, and digesta from the stomach and different sections of the GIT were collected. The concentrations of caprylic (p Lactobacillus johnsonii (p Lactobacillus amylovorus (p = 0.001) in gastric contents. A similar trend was seen with diet MCFA. Relative concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were characterised by lower propionic acid levels (p = 0.045), numerically (p < 0.1) higher acetic, lower n-butyric and i-valeric acid concentrations in the small intestine. Lactic acid concentrations were not significantly changed in the GIT, but ammonia concentrations increased (p < 0.001) in the distal small intestine in the MCFA and MCFAc groups. In conclusion, medium-chain fatty acids affected microbial ecology parameters in the gastric contents and bacterial metabolites in the small intestine. At low dietary levels, medium-chain fatty acids may be regarded as modulators of the gastric microbiota in weaned piglets. PMID:22397093

  4. Evidence for WZ Production and a Measurement of the WZ Production Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, James D.; /Michigan U.

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation describes a test of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics by measuring the probability, or cross section, of simultaneously producing a W boson and a Z boson from proton-antiproton collisions. The SM predicts the cross section of WZ production to be 3.68 {+-} 0.25 pb. The SM and physics of WZ production are described in Chapter 2 of this dissertation. The 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy proton-antiproton collisions are provided by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) Tevatron Collider. The W and Z particles are detected using the D0 detector, which is described in Chapter 3. The data were collected by the detector during 2002-2006 corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions. This data set is described in Chapter 6. The measurement uses the trilepton (e{nu}ee, {mu}{nu}ee, e{nu}{mu}{mu}, and {mu}{nu}{mu}{mu}) decay channels, in which a W decays to a charged lepton plus a neutrino and a Z decays to a pair of charged leptons. The W and Z particle selection criteria, detection efficiency, and background determination are described in Chapter 7. We observe 13 candidate events in 1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions. In this data set we expect to see 4.5 {+-} 0.6 background events, and we expect to see 9.2 {+-} 1.0 signal events. The probability of 4.5 {+-} 0.6 background events to fluctuate to 13 or more events is 1.2 x 10{sup -3} which is a 3.0 {sigma} deviation from the background estimate. A log likelihood method is used to determine the most likely cross section as determined by the measured signal efficiencies, the expected backgrounds, and the observed data. Presented in Chapter 8 is a measurement of the cross section for p{bar p} {yields} WZ + X at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The WZ diboson production cross section is measured to be {sigma}{sub WZ} = 2.7{sub -1.3}{sup +1.7} pb. This is in agreement with the predicted Standard Model cross section.

  5. Microbial production of xylitol from xylose and L-arabinose: conversion of L-arabitol to xylitol using bacterial oxidoreductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial production of xylitol, using hemicellulosic biomass such as agricultural residues, is becoming more attractive for reducing its manufacturing cost. L-arabitol is a particular problem to xylitol production from hemicellulosic hydrolyzates that contain both xylose and L-arabinose because it...

  6. Bacterial production and growth rate estimation from [3H]thymidine incorporation for attached and free-living bacteria in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production and specific growth rates of attached and free-living bacteria were estimated in an oligotrophic marine system, La Salvaje Beach, Vizcaya, Spain, and in a freshwater system having a higher nutrient concentration, Butron River, Vizcaya, Spain. Production was calculated from [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation by estimating specific conversion factors (cells or micrograms of C produced per mole of thymidine incorporated) for attached and free-living bacteria, respectively, in each system. Conversion factors were not statistically different between attached and free-living bacteria: 6.812 x 1011 and 8.678 x 1011 μg of C mol-1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the freshwater system, and 1.276 x 1011 and 1.354 x 1011 μg of C mol-1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the marine system. Therefore, use of a unique conversion factor for the mixed bacterial population is well founded. However, conversion factors were higher in the freshwater system than in the marine system. This could be due to the different tropic conditions of the two systems. Free-living bacteria contributed the most to production in the two systems (85% in the marine system and 67% in the freshwater system) because of their greater contribution to total biomass. Specific growth rates calculated from production data and biomass data were similar for attached and free-living bacteria

  7. A submersible magnetic stirrer for use in measuring photosynthesis in a biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring photosynthesis or primary productivity in biofloc technology production systems is challenging because the biofloc must be maintained in suspension constantly. Photosynthesis can be measured in external incubators designed to keep the biofloc suspended in the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  8. The methodical substantiation of measures to improve the use of basic production assets of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Svetlana Anatolevna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculating the performance measures to improve the use of basic production assets of the enterprise: production cost, production volume, number of additional workers, depreciation and amortization.

  9. Changes in production efficiency in China identification and measuring

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bing; Watada, Junzo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating  Production Efficiency in China examines production from engineering and statistics perspectives rather than from economics and mathematics perspectives. The authors present an observable benchmark as the criterion of the production efficiency to replace the unobservable production frontier surface. This book discusses several different computing technologies, controllable variable as a path of identification, changes in production efficiency by decision making on specific operating conditions, and optimal resource allocation. The book provides a channel to tap inside the success stories of China, exploiting the way of changes in production efficiency during China’s development in the past 30 years. This book examines the concepts and realization of production efficiencies across all areas of the economy. Also the book provides the perspective of foreign direct investment (FDI) absorption to identify how Chinese economy changes in production efficiency.

  10. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible λPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in 35S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro

  11. Measuring Productive Efficiency: An Application to Illinois Strip Mines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Byrnes; R. Färe; S Grosskopf

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply a generalized version of the Farrell measure of technical efficiency to a sample of Illinois strip mines. We disaggregate the original Farrell measure (which was designed to measure lost output or wasted inputs due to underutilization of inputs) into three mutually exclusive and exhaustive components: (1) a measure of purely technical efficiency, (2) a measure of input congestion (overutilization of some input(s)) and (3) a measure of scale efficiency. Th...

  12. [Treatment of bacterial pneumonias with cefuroxime-axetil. Predictive value of measurement of the in vitro susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluzel, R; Portier, H; Modaï, J

    1996-03-01

    Cefuroxime axetil is an oral cephalosporin with proven efficacy in adult lower respiratory tract infections. Indeed, it has a broad spectrum of activity in vitro, covering most pathogens isolated in this setting and showing good stability in the presence of betalactamases. In vitro susceptibility data are a major element in the choice of antimicrobial agent. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of the cefuroxime minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) on the clinical outcome of infections treated with cefuroxime axetil. One hundred-and-seventeen (117) patients with radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia of presumed bacterial origin were enrolled in a prospective multicenter trial of cefuroxime axetil therapy (500 mg twice daily). The pathogen was identified in 44 patients who were treated for a mean of 8.8 days. Most isolates were S. pneumoniae (65.9%) and H. influenzae (15.9%). The MIC was known for 35 isolates and was < or = 4 micrograms/ml in 30 cases (85.7%). The MIC value was a good predictor of clinical efficacy with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 83% and a positive predictive value of 97%; the latter value indicates that therapeutic success is virtually certain when the bacterium causing pneumonia is susceptible to cefuroxime. PMID:8761613

  13. Viral impacts on bacterial communities in Arctic cryoconite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surfaces of glaciers are extreme ecosystems dominated by microbial communities. Viruses are found in abundance here, with a high frequency of bacteria displaying visible virus infection. In this study, viral and bacterial production was measured in Arctic cryoconite holes to address the control that viruses play in these highly truncated ecosystems. Mean bacterial carbon production in the sediments of cryoconite holes was found to be 57.8 ± 12.9 ng C g−1 dry wt. h−1, which predicted a mean of 1.89–5.41 × 106 cells g−1 dry wt. h−1 based on a range of conversion factors. Relative to this, virus production was found to be high, up to 8.98 × 107 virus like particles g−1 dry wt. h−1 were produced, which is comparable to virus production in sediments around the globe. The virus burst size was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and found to be amongst the lowest recorded in the literature (mean 2.4). Hence, to account for the measured virus production, the viral induced bacterial mortality was calculated to be more than capable of accounting for the mortality of all bacterial production. The data presented here, therefore, suggests that viral induced mortality is a dominant process for the release and recycling of carbon and nutrients in supraglacial ecosystems. (letter)

  14. Temperature and Light Effects on Extracellular Superoxide Production by Algal and Bacterial Symbionts in Corals: Implications for Coral Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighi, C.; Diaz, J. M.; Apprill, A.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Increased surface seawater temperature due to global warming is one of the main causes of coral bleaching, a phenomenon in which corals lose their photosynthetic algae. Light and temperature induced production of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) by these symbiotic algae has been implicated in the breakdown of their symbiotic association with the coral host and subsequent coral bleaching. Nevertheless, a direct link between Symbiodinium ROS production and coral bleaching has not been demonstrated. In fact, given the abundance and diversity of microorganisms within the coral holobiont, the concentration and fluxes of ROS within corals may involve several microbial sources and sinks. Here, we explore the role of increased light and temperature on superoxide production by coral-derived cultures of Symbiodinium algae and Oceanospirillales bacteria of the genus Endozoicomonas, which are globally common and abundant associates of corals. Using a high sensitivity chemiluminescent technique, we find that heat stress (exposure to 34°C vs. 23°C for 2hr or 24hr) has no significant effect on extracellular superoxide production by Symbiodinium isolates within clades B and C, regardless of the level of light exposure. Exposure to high light, however, increased superoxide production by these organisms at both 34°C and 23°C. On the other hand, extracellular superoxide production by Endozoicomonas bacteria tested under the same conditions was stimulated by the combined effects of thermal and light stress. The results of this research suggest that the sources and physical triggers for biological superoxide production within corals are more complex than currently assumed. Thus, further investigations into the biological processes controlling ROS dynamics within corals are required to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning coral bleaching and to aid in the development of mitigation strategies.

  15. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental...

  16. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  17. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  18. Impact of bacterial biocontrol agents on aflatoxin biosynthetic genes, aflD and aflR expression, and phenotypic aflatoxin B₁ production by Aspergillus flavus under different environmental and nutritional regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saad, Labeed A; Al-Badran, Adnan I; Al-Jumayli, Sami A; Magan, Naresh; Rodríguez, Alicia

    2016-01-18

    The objectives of this study were to examine the efficacy of four bacterial antagonists against Aspergillus flavus using 50:50 ratio of bacterial cells/conidia for the control of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production on two different nutritional matrices, nutrient and maize-based media at different water availabilities (0.98, 0.94 water activity (aw) on nutrient medium; 0.995, 0.98 aw on maize meal agar medium) at 35°C. The indicators of efficacy used were the relative expression of one structural and regulatory gene in the biosynthetic pathway (aflD and aflR respectively) and the production of AFB1. These studies showed that some of the bacterial species could significantly inhibit the relative expression of the aflD and aflR genes at both 0.98 and 0.94 aw on nutrient agar. On maize-based media some of the bacterial antagonists reduced the activity of both genes at 0.94 aw and some at 0.995 aw. However, the results for AFB1 production were not consistent with the effects on gene expression. Some bacterial species stimulated AFB1 production on both nutrient and maize-based media regardless of aw. However, some bacterial treatments did inhibit AFB1 production significantly when compared to the control. Overall, this study suggests that temporal studies are required on the biosynthetic genes under different environmental and nutritional conditions to evaluate the potential of antagonists to control AFB1. PMID:26513252

  19. Effect of Integrated Use of Inorganic Fertilizer and Organic Manures on Bacterial Wilt Incidence (BWI)and Tuber Yield in Potato Production Systems on Hill Slopes of Central Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linus; M. M. Muriithi; Irungu; J. W

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most damaging diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Kenya and worldwide. In Kenya, potato tuber yield losses due to BW infection are estimated at 50 ~ 100%. Low soil fertility is also one of the most important constraints limiting potato production in central Kenya highlands. Farmers tackle this problem through use of inorganic fertilisers and organic manures, both of which amend the soil environment to influence bacterial wilt development.Undecomposed organic manures can also introduce the pathogen into a clean field. Between short rains 1999 and 2000, 10 on-farm extension-researcherfarmer-designed and farmer-managed trials were done at Kianjuki catchment in Embu District. The objective was to use farmers' participatory research approach and select the most suitable organic and inorganic fertiliser combination(s) with lowest BWI and acceptable usable tuber yields, and also to demonstrate use of some components of integrated disease management methods in reduction of disease incidence and spread. Seven treatments were proposed, presented to the farmers for discussion and the most relevant four were selected for evaluation.during the short rains 1999 and long rains 2000. BWI didn't result in significant differences between treatments but the tuber yields were significantly different in short rains of 1999 and 2000. During short rains 2000, both BWI and tuber yields and unusable tubers differed significantly between treatments. The results confirmed that welldecomposed manures or manures from pathogen-free areas can be used in combination with inorganic fertilisers to improve soil fertility and potato tuber yields in smallholder farms without influencing BWI.Use of certified seed tubers in pathogen free field and following recommended field sanitation measures resulted in apparently bacterial wilt free crop.Considering the high cost of inorganic fertiliser and its negative effects on the

  20. Translocation of bacterial NOD2 agonist and its link with inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Monsel, Antoine; Bertrand, Michèle,; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Coriat, Pierre; Adib-Conquy, Minou

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The gut is often considered as the motor of critical illness through bacterial translocation, which amplifies the inflammatory response and alters the immune status. However, systemic bacterial translocation was rarely proven and endotoxin measurement only reflects translocation of Gram-negative-derived products. The process could be more frequently identified if peptidoglycan, derived from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, was measured. Methods We developed a new to...