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Sample records for bacterial pneumonia

  1. Influenza and bacterial pneumonia - constant companions

    OpenAIRE

    Wunderink, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Sequential or concomitant influenza and bacterial pneumonia are two common syndromes seen in community-acquired pneumonia. Inadequacies of diagnostic testing make separating simple pneumonia with either bacteria or influenza from concomitant or sequential influenza with both microorganisms difficult, although the novel 2009 H1N1 epidemic may improve the availability of molecular testing for viruses. Given the frequency of viral pneumonia and diagnostic limitations, empirical antivirals may be...

  2. Procalcitonin for detecting community-acquired bacterial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Gusmaiyanto; Finny Fitry Yani; Efrida Efrida; Rizanda Machmud

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity andmortality in children under five years of age. Pneumonia can be ofbacterial or viral origin. It is difficult to distinguish between thesetwo agents based on clinical manifestations, as well as radiologicaland laboratory examinations. Furthermore, bacterial cultures taketime to incubate and positive results may only be found in 10-30%of bacterial pneumonia cases. Procalcitonin has been used as amarker to distinguish etiologies, as bacterial...

  3. 75 FR 73107 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability AGENCY... Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of... antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of hospital- acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and...

  4. H1N1 influenza pneumonia and bacterial coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo, Esther; Robles, Alejandro; Sangil, Anna; Benet, Susana; Viladot, Maria Eugenia; Pascual, Vanesa; Barreiro, Bienvenido

    2011-12-01

    The model described by Bewick et al seems to be able to distinguish between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and non-H1N1 community acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on five criteria. However, bacterial infection in the influenza group has not been accurately excluded. Therefore, this model could misidentify these patients and lead to an inappropriate treatment. We conducted a prospective observational study to compare mixed pneumonia vs viral pneumonia. In the mixed pneumonia group patients were older, had higher levels of procalcitonine and higher scores of severity. In our cohort the model proposed by Bewick et al would not identify patients with coinfection. PMID:21994246

  5. Procalcitonin for detecting community-acquired bacterial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gusmaiyanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Pneumonia can be of bacterial or viral origin. It is difficult to distinguish between these two agents based on clinical manifestations, as well as radiological and laboratory examinations. Furthermore, bacterial cultures take time to incubate and positive results may only be found in 10-30% of bacterial pneumonia cases. Procalcitonin has been used as a marker to distinguish etiologies, as bacterial infections tend to increase serum procalcitonin levels. Objective To determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of procalcitonin in community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Pediatric Health Department of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang. Subjects were selected by consecutive sampling. Procalcitonin measurements and PCR screening were performed on blood specimens from 32 pneumonia patients and compared. Results Of the 32 subjects, most were boys (56.25%, under 5 years of age (99%, and had poor nutritional status (68.75%. Using a cut-off point of 0.25 ng/mL, procalcitonin level had a sensitivity of 92%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 88%, and negative predictive value 60% for diagnosing bacterial pneumonia. Using a cut-off point of 0.5 ng/mL, procalcitonin level had a specificity of 46%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value 91%, and negative predictive value 25%. Conclusion A cut-off point of 0.25 ng/mL of procalcitonin level may be more useful to screen for bacterial pneumonia than a cut-off point of 0.5 ng / mL. However, if the 0.25 ng/mL cut-off point is used, careful monitoring will be required for negative results, as up to 40% may actually have bacterial pneumonia. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:65-9.].

  6. Procalcitonin for detecting community-acquired bacterial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gusmaiyanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity andmortality in children under five years of age. Pneumonia can be ofbacterial or viral origin. It is difficult to distinguish between thesetwo agents based on clinical manifestations, as well as radiologicaland laboratory examinations. Furthermore, bacterial cultures taketime to incubate and positive results may only be found in 10-30%of bacterial pneumonia cases. Procalcitonin has been used as amarker to distinguish etiologies, as bacterial infections tend toincrease serum procalcitonin levels.Objective To determine the sensitivity, specificity, positivepredictive value and negative predictive value of procalcitoninin community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in thePediatric Health Department of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang.Subjects were selected by consecutive sampling. Procalcitoninmeasurements and PCR screening were performed on bloodspecimens from 32 pneumonia patients and compared.Results Of the 32 subjects, most were boys (56.25%, under 5years of age (99%, and had poor nutritional status (68.75%.Using a cut-off point of 0.25 ng/mL, procalcitonin level hada sensitivity of 92%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 88%, and negative predictive value 60% for diagnosing bacterial pneumonia. Using a cut-off point of 0.5 ng/mL, procalcitonin level had a specificity of 46%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value 91%, and negative predictive value 25%.Conclusion A cut-off point of 0.25 ng/mL of procalcitonin level may be more useful to screen for bacterial pneumonia than a cutoff point of 0.5 ng / mL. However, if the 0.25 ng/mL cut-off point is used, careful monitoring will be required for negative results, as up to 40% may actually have bacterial pneumonia. [PaediatrIndones. 2015;55:65-9.].

  7. Lung Dendritic Cells Facilitate Extrapulmonary Bacterial Dissemination during Pneumococcal Pneumonia

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    Alva eRosendahl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. Given the critical role of dendritic cells (DCs in regulating and modulating the immune response to pathogens, we investigated here the role of DCs in S. pneumoniae lung infections. Using a well-established transgenic mouse line which allows the conditional transient depletion of DCs, we showed that ablation of DCs resulted in enhanced resistance to intranasal challenge with S. pneumoniae. DC-depleted mice exhibited delayed bacterial systemic dissemination, significantly reduced bacterial loads in the infected organs and lower levels of serum inflammatory mediators than non-depleted animals. The increased resistance of DC-depleted mice to S. pneumoniae was associated with a better capacity to restrict pneumococci extrapulmonary dissemination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that S. pneumoniae disseminated from the lungs into the regional lymph nodes in a cell-independent manner and that this direct way of dissemination was much more efficient in the presence of DCs. We also provide evidence that S. pneumoniae induces expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 in cultured bone marrow-derived DCs. MMP-9 is a protease involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins and is critical for DC trafficking across extracellular matrix and basement membranes during the migration from the periphery to the lymph nodes. MMP-9 was also significantly up-regulated in the lungs of mice after intranasal infection with S. pneumoniae. Notably, the expression levels of MMP-9 in the infected lungs were significantly decreased after depletion of DCs suggesting the involvement of DCs in MMP-9 production during pneumococcal pneumonia. Thus, we propose that S. pneumoniae can exploit the DC-derived proteolysis to open tissue barriers thereby facilitating its own dissemination from the local site of infection.

  8. Bacterial Etiology Associated with Sore Throat and Pneumonia

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    Uzma Malik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to ascertain the bacterial etiology associated with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs among patients visiting the National Institute of Health (NIH and Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS, Islamabad. These patients presented symptoms of sore throat and pneumonia. Clinical samples (throat, pharyngeal swabs and sputum were obtained from a total of 225 patients (125 sore throat, 100 pneumonia and were subjected to a series of microbiological and biochemical tests to identify the bacterial pathogens associated with such infections. Of the 125 sore throat samples, 15% were found to be of bacterial etiology. Among the bacterial isolates, S. aureus was found to be the most common (16.8%, followed by S. pyogenes (7.2%, H. influenzae and other -hemoloytic Streptococci (5%. H. influenzae was found predominantly in children under the age of 5 years (75%, while S. pyogenes was most common pathogen among children of school going age (44.4%. Among the adult patients, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus were the common isolates (38.5 and 83.3%, respectively. As for the 100 pneumonia patients, the study revealed that 47% of the cases were attributable to other than viral pathogens, of which 2% were associated with the fungal pathogen C. albicans and the rest to bacterial sources. K. pneumoniae was reported in 16%, S. pneumoniae in 10%, H. influenzae in 9%, S. aureus in 7% and P. aeruginosa in 3% of the pneumonia patients. H. influenzae was most common among children under the age of 5 years (53.8%, followed by S. �pneumoniae (38.5% within the same age bracket. Among adults, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus were found to be most common, with 100% incidence of K. pneumoniae in the 46-55 year age group and 40% S. aureus among the 36-45 year age bracket. The findings of the study indicate that clinicians and parents alike need to take particular care in identifying the etiological agent responsible for ARIs, to ensure the most

  9. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restroom and before eating. Use lukewarm water and soap for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, using an alcohol- ... at higher risk for pneumonia? Do I have bacterial, viral or fungal pneumonia? What’s the best treatment? ...

  10. Differentiation of bacterial and non-bacterial community-acquired pneumonia by thin-section computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: The management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) depends, in part, on the identification of the causative agents. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of thin-section computed tomography (CT) in differentiating bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonia. Patients and methods: Thin-section CT studies were prospectively examined in hospitalized CAP patients within 2 days of admission, followed by retrospective assessment by two pulmonary radiologists. Thin-section CT findings on the pneumonias caused by each pathogen were examined, and two types of pneumonias were compared. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were produced. Results: Among 183 CAP episodes (181 patients, 125 men and 56 women, mean age ± S.D.: 61.1 ± 19.7) examined by thin-section CT, the etiologies of 125 were confirmed (94 bacterial pneumonia and 31 non-bacterial pneumonia). Centrilobular nodules were specific for non-bacterial pneumonia and airspace nodules were specific for bacterial pneumonia (specificities of 89% and 94%, respectively) when located in the outer lung areas. When centrilobular nodules were the principal finding, they were specific but lacked sensitivity for non-bacterial pneumonia (specificity 98% and sensitivity 23%). To distinguish the two types of pneumonias, centrilobular nodules, airspace nodules and lobular shadows were found to be important by multivariate analyses. ROC curve analysis discriminated bacterial pneumonia from non-bacterial pneumonia among patients without underlying lung diseases, yielding an optimal point with sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 79%, respectively, but was less effective when all patients were analyzed together (70% and 84%, respectively). Conclusion: Thin-section CT examination was applied for the differentiation of bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonias. Though showing some potential, this examination at the present time would not

  11. Bench-to-bedside review: Bacterial pneumonia with influenza - pathogenesis and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sluijs, van der, C.L.; Poll, van de, H.M.; Lutter, R; Juffermans, N.P.; Schultz, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are frequently complicated by bacterial infections, causing additional hospitalization and mortality. Secondary bacterial respiratory infection can be subdivided into combined viral/bacterial pneumonia and post-influenza pneumonia, which differ in their pathogenesis. During combined viral/bacterial infection, the virus, the bacterium and the host interact with each other. Post-influenza pneumonia may, at least in part, be due to resolution of inflammation cause...

  12. Bacterial pneumonias--evaluation of various sputum culture methods.

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    Verenkar M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available With an objective of improving diagnostic value of sputum in bacterial pneumonias, 50 uncomplicated ′community′ acquired cases were studied using Gram staining of sputum along with bedside inoculation with/without dilution of the specimen. Gram staining of sputum samples collected before treatment revealed pneumococcal infection in 46% cases. The results were however inconclusive on samples sent by routine procedure involving logistic delay. Cultural analysis of sputum processed by three different techniques showed that bedside inoculation of sputum after dilution to be the most efficient technique yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae in 34% cases, Gram positive cocci in lesser number (20%, Gram negative rods (GNR in 18% cases. Sputum samples processed bedside without dilution yielded a lower number of pneumococci and other Gram positive cocci (24% & 16% cases respectively. Routine processing of sputum, involving logistic delay yielded a high number of Gram negative rods (62%, indicating their overgrowth. Thus bedside inoculation of sputum after dilution coupled with direct Gram staining serves as a simple and yet valuable laboratory aid in the diagnosis of uncomplicated ′community′ acquired bacterial pneumonias.

  13. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to streptococcus pneumoniae--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litarski, Andrzej; Janczak, Dariusz; Cianciara, Jan; Merenda, Marcin

    2011-05-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is caused by infection of ascitic fluid without any apparent intraabdominal source of infection. The disease most commonly occurs in patients with cirrhosis and 70% of cases of infections are caused by pathogenes from gastrointestinal tract. The article presents the case of 38-year-old patient with spontaneous peritonitis who was treated surgically. The primary nature of the disease was confirmed by laparotomy and bacteriological examination results (Streptoccocus pneumonia) of ascitic fluid. After 54 days of hospitalisation and undergoing re-laparotomy, he was discharged in good condition. PMID:22166482

  14. Chest physiotherapy in children with acute bacterial pneumonia

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    Lieselotte Corten

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is the single leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years of age. Chest physiotherapy is often prescribed as an additional therapy in children with pneumonia. Different chest physiotherapy techniques are available that aim to improve airway clearance, gas exchange and reduce the work of breathing. However, it is unclear if these techniques are effective in this population.Objective: The present review aimed to determine the efficacy of different chest physiotherapy techniques compared with no physiotherapy or other chest physiotherapy treatments in hospitalised children with bacterial pneumonia.Method: Six electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, PEDro, CINAHL and Africa-wide information, clinicaltrials.gov and pactr.org were searched for eligible studies.Results: Two randomised controlled trials and one ongoing study were identified. Neither completed trial reported differences between the control and intervention groups, although one study reported a longer duration of coughing (p = 0.04 and rhonchi (p = 0.03 in the intervention group.Conclusion: Because of the limited number of included articles and different presentations of outcome measures, we could not reject or accept chest physiotherapy as either an effective or harmful treatment option in this population.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia in liver transplantation recipients: report of 33 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yu-kui; YAN Lü-nan; LI Bo; LU Shi-chun; HUANG An-hua; WEN Tian-fu; ZENG Yong; CHENG Nan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Background Bacterial pneumonia in the recipients of liver transplantation (LTX) is a common postoperative complication influencing the prognosis greatly. In this article, the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia in 33 LTX recipients are reported. Methods From February 1999 to January 2003, a total of 103 patients underwent allogeneic LTX at our center; afterwards, a retrospective analysis was made on their postoperative clinical manifestations, including symptoms (expectoration, panting and fever), sign (rale), results of laboratory examinations (white blood cell count and sputum culture of tracheal secretions or pleural fluid culture), and chest X-ray films. The following data of the pneumonia and non-pneumonia groups were collected, and the rank sum test (SPSS 11.0, Wilcoxon's method) was used to analyze the duration of postoperative respirator utilization and the volume of pleural effusion through pleurocentesis or pleural drainage.Results In the 103 patients, 33 experienced 53 episodes of bacterial pneumonia during their hospital stay after transplantation, 14 of them (42.42%) had more than three manifestations of the seven mentioned above. The pathogens causing bacterial pneumonia included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.48%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.53%), Acinetobacter baumannii (10.68%), and Staphylococcus aureus (7.77%). Amilkacin, tienam, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, etc. were the antibiotics of choice against those bacteria. Acute rejection occurred during the treatment of bacterial pneumonia in 16 patients, and 5 of them died. Wilcoxon's rank sum test of the data indicated that the pneumonia group had longer duration of postoperative ventilator treatment and larger volume of pleural effusion than the non-pneumonia group (P<0.05).Conclusions The clinical manifestations of pneumonia after LTX might be atypical,and special attention should be paid to the respiratory symptoms and signs within 2 months after LTX. Whenever the diagnosis of bacterial

  16. [Etiopathogenetic approach to the treatment of viral-bacterial pneumonias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekliudova, L I; Fedorova, Iu B; Pasternak, N A; Shenderovich, V A; Petrushanskaia, G A

    1976-12-01

    The efficacy of aerosols of leukocytal interferon used in complex with antibacterial and other medicamentous agents was studied during influenza epidemic in 1975 due to Port-Chalmers virus of influenza A with increased numbers of viral-bacterial pneumonia. The viral-sta-phylococcal etiology of the infection was confirmed in 80 per cent of the cases under stationary conditions. Various microorganism and most often Staph aureus were isolated in addition to the viruses from the patient's sputum and washings and their antibioticograms were determined. The studies showed that the complex treatment of the patients with virologically and serologically confirmed diagnosis of the disease resulted in decreased duration of the disease, less pronounced intoxication and more rapid resorption of the changes in the lung tissue. PMID:828482

  17. Measurement of complement receptor 1 on neutrophils in bacterial and viral pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoskelainen Jukka; Laitinen Iina; Lilius Esa-Matti; Nuutila Jari; Hohenthal Ulla; Kotilainen Pirkko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A reliable prediction of the causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not possible based on clinical features. Our aim was to test, whether the measurement of the expression of complement receptors or Fcγ receptors on neutrophils and monocytes would be a useful preliminary test to differentiate between bacterial and viral pneumonia. Methods Sixty-eight patients with CAP were studied prospectively. Thirteen patients had pneumococcal pneumonia; 13 patients, i...

  18. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies augment bacterial clearance in a murine pneumonia model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, K; Christophersen, L; Bjarnsholt, T;

    2016-01-01

    -P. aeruginosa IgY antibodies on bacterial eradication in a murine pneumonia model. METHODS: P. aeruginosa pneumonia was established in Balb/c mice and the effects of prophylactic IgY administration on lung bacteriology, clinical parameters and subsequent inflammation were compared to controls. RESULTS...

  19. Biomarkers and bacterial pneumonia risk in patients with treated HIV infection : a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerk, Sonja M.; Baker, Jason V.; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M.; Pett, Sarah L.; Stephan, Christoph; Ken M Kunisaki; Finley, E.; Dietz, D.; Chesson, C.; Vjecha, M; Standridge, B.; Schmetter, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist. Methods We performed a nested, matched, case-control study among participants randomized to continuous combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Patients wh...

  20. Viral and bacterial pathogens identification in children hospitalised for severe pneumonia and parapneumonic empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Telles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is caused by respiratory bacteria and/or viruses. Little is known if co-infections are an aggravating factor in hospitalised children with severe pneumonia. We studied the impact of respiratory pathogens on the severity of pneumonia. Between 2007 and 2009, 52 children hospitalised with a well-documented diagnosis of communityacquired pneumonia (CAP, with or without parapneumonic empyema (PPE, were enrolled in the study. The patients were classified into 2 groups: CAP + PPE (n = 28 and CAP (n = 24. The identification of respiratory viruses and bacteria in nasopharyngeal aspirates and pleural effusion samples were performed using conventional bacterial techniques and molecular assays. Using real-time multiplex PCR and antigen detection, Streptococcus pneumoniae was the main agent identified in 76% of the cases by molecular tests and BinaxNOW® in pleural fluid. A total of 8% of pleural fluid samples remained undiagnosed. In nasopharyngeal aspirates, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were detected in both CAP and CAP + PPE populations; however, the percentage of viral co-detection was significantly higher in nasopharyngeal aspirates from CAP + PPE patients (35% compared with CAP patients (5%. In conclusion, viral co-detection was observed mainly in patients with more severe pneumonia. Molecular biology assays improved the pathogens detection in pneumonia and confirmed the S. pneumoniae detection by BinaxNOW® in pleural effusion samples. Interestingly, the main S. pneumoniae serotypes found in PPE are not the ones targeted by the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

  1. Interleukin-8 and leukotriene B4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from HIV-infected patients with bacterial pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, E; Vestbo, Jørgen; Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at increased risk of contracting bacterial infections, mainly pneumonia. Despite this, little is known about immunopathogenic mechanisms in HIV-related bacterial pneumonia. This paper investigates the presence of the neutrophil chemotactic...... mediators, interleukin-8 (IL_8) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 27 HIV-infected patients with bacterial pneumonia. Significantly elevated levels of IL-8 were found in BAL fluid of patients with bacterial pneumonia [529 pg ml-1 (296-1161 pg ml-1)] compared to matched...... patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) [59 pg ml-1 (42-254 pg ml-1)] and healthy controls [58 pg ml-1 (37-82 pg ml-1)]. Levels of LTB4 were not elevated during bacterial pneumonia when compared to PCP patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between IL-8...

  2. Bacterial Pathogens of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Tertiary Referral Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Su Young; Kim, Tae Ok; Park, Chan Woo; Yu, Jin Yeong; Lee, Boram; Lee, Ho Sung; Kim, Yu Il; Lim, Sung Chul; Kwon, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the bacterial pathogens of Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a tertiary referral hospital. Methods A total of 109 bacterial pathogens from 91 adult patients with VAP, who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit from January 2008 to December 2009, were examined. Clinical characteristics, bacterial pathogens, and resistance profiles were analyzed. Results Staphylococcus aureus (44%) was the most frequently isolated. Acinetobacter baumanii (30%), P...

  3. BILATERAL ENDOGENOUS BACTERIAL ENDOPHTHALMITIS SECONDARY TO PNEUMONIA IN AN AIDS PATIENT : A CASE REPORT

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    Rajendra Ku.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Endogenous or metastatic endophthalmitis is a very rare sever form of ocular disease which is uncommon now - a - days. Prevalence of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis is 2 - 8% of all cases of endophthalmitis 1 . Mostly it is associated with chronic disease like diabetes mellitus, renal failure, liver abscesses, prolong placement of catheter, IV line or central venous line, drug abusers and immunocompromise d patients. Gram +bacteria are the most common causative organism of the endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis . 1 A few cases of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis due to klebsiella pneumonias, a gram - ve organism have been documented and majority of them were in Taiwan . 2, 3,4,5,6, 7 K. pneumonia endophthalmitis is associated with diabetes mellitus and hepatic abscesses can be bilateral and resulted into poor visual outcome . 2,3,4,5,6, 7 K. pneumonia pneumonia has been reported most frequently from patients with alcoholic liver diseases and one of the common cause of acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis . 8,9 In this scenario we report the case of a Malawian in African Continent who developed bilateral endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis after suffering from pneumonia in immunocompromise state. PURPOSE : to report a case bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to pneumonia in an AIDS patient . DESIGN : Observational case report . METHODS : A patient with bilateral pain full red eye with diminution of vision was seen in c onsultation by ophthalmology. RESULT : with clinical characteristic and laboratory diagnosis of sputum and blood conf i rmed the causative agent for pneumonia and endophthalmitis is K.pneumonia. CONCLUSION : it is unusual disease, required early detection and prompt treatment.

  4. [Immunotherapy by polyvalent bacterial antigen (Broncasma Berna) in the prevention of pneumonia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Yamamoto, K; Adachi, S; Yamamoto, T

    1989-03-01

    Pneumonia in the elderly often occurs repeatedly, and the mortality rate from pneumonia continues to remain high today despite the usual use of antibacterial chemotherapy. Therefore, we conducted immunotherapy using a polyvalent bacterial vaccine (broncasma Berna). We treated 54 elderly patients with Broncasma Berna, containing chief bacterial pathogens responsible for pneumonia in the elderly. Clinical results obtained during 2 years were compared with those of 18 subjects not treated with Broncasma Berna. The survival rate was 64.8% for the group treated with Broncasma Berna and 50% for the group not treated. The frequency of contraction of pneumonia decreased significantly in the group treated. Clinical efficacy was obtained in 63% of the group treated to prevent pneumonia. The death rate from pneumonia was 17.6% for the group treated and 44.4% for the group not treated. Immunologically, reinforcement in humoral and cellular immunities was indicated by immunoglobulin values, positive tuberculin skin tests, and an increase in lymphocyte stimulation index values for Broncasma Berna. Significant pathogens in sputum disappeared or decreased in 6 (54.6%) out of 11 patients. Side effects such as pain or redness at the site of injection were observed in 6 patients. From the above results, it may be concluded that Broncasma Berna can be considered to be effective as a long-term immunoprophylactic agent in the prevention of pneumonia in the elderly. PMID:2504831

  5. How Is Pneumonia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pneumonia Treated? Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type ... can go back to their normal routines. Bacterial Pneumonia Bacterial pneumonia is treated with medicines called antibiotics. ...

  6. Tea tree oil nanoemulsions for inhalation therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Lifei; Liu, Boming; Du, Lina; Jia, Xiaodong; Han, Li; Jin, Yiguang

    2016-05-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural essential oil with strong antimicrobial efficacy and little drug resistance. However, the biomedical applications of TTO are limited due to its hydrophobicity and formulation problems. Here, we prepared an inhalable TTO nanoemulsion (nanoTTO) for local therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The optimal formulation of nanoTTOs consisted of TTO/Cremophor EL/water with a mean size of 12.5nm. The nanoTTOs showed strong in vitro antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. After inhalation to the lung, the nanoTTOs had higher anti-fungal effect than fluconazole on the fungal pneumonia rat models with reduced lung injury, highly microbial clearance, blocking of leukocyte recruitment, and decrease of pro-inflammatory mediators. In the case of rat bacterial pneumonia, the nanoTTOs showed slightly lower therapeutic efficacy than penicillin though at a much lower dose. Taken together, our results show that the inhalable nanoTTOs are promising nanomedicines for local therapies of fungal and bacterial pneumonia with no obvious adverse events. PMID:26895502

  7. Vaccination for the control of childhood bacterial pneumonia - Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Otczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia in childhood is endemic in large parts of the world and in particular, in developing countries, as well as in many indigenous communities within developed nations. Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugate vaccines are currently available against the leading bacterial causes of pneumonia.  The use of the vaccines in both industrialised and developing countries have shown a dramatic reduction in the burden of pneumonia and invasive disease in children.  However, the greatest threat facing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness is serotype replacement.  The current vaccines provide serotype-specific, antibody–mediated protection against only a few of the 90+ capsule serotypes.  Therefore, there has been a focus in recent years to rapidly advance technologies that will result in broader disease coverage and more affordable vaccines that can be used in developing countries.  The next generation of pneumococcal vaccines have advanced to clinical trials.

  8. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viruses, such as the influenza virus (flu) and adenovirus . Other viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ... your local health department to see when these vaccines are available. Because pneumonia ... influenza pneumonia, for example, someone may become sick as ...

  9. Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Brundage, John F.; Shanks, G. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Deaths during the 1918–19 influenza pandemic have been attributed to a hypervirulent influenza strain. Hence, preparations for the next pandemic focus almost exclusively on vaccine prevention and antiviral treatment for infections with a novel influenza strain. However, we hypothesize that infections with the pandemic strain generally caused self-limited (rarely fatal) illnesses that enabled colonizing strains of bacteria to produce highly lethal pneumonias. This sequential-infection hypothes...

  10. Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. Identification of bacterial DNA in the arterial wall

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    Coutinho Mário Sérgio Soares de Azeredo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated with atherosclerosis. The presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae has been investigated in fragments of the arterial wall with a technique for DNA identification. METHODS: Arterial fragments obtained from vascular surgical procedures in 58 patients were analyzed. From these patients, 39 were males and the mean age was 65±6 years. The polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the bacterial DNA with a pair of primers that codify the major outer membrane protein (MOMP of Chlamydia pneumoniae. The amplified product was visualized by electrophoresis in the 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide, and it was considered positive when migrating in the band of molecular weight of the positive controls. RESULTS: Seven (12% out of the 58 patients showed positive results for Chlamydia pneumoniae. CONCLUSION: DNA from Chlamydia pneumoniae was identified in the arterial wall of a substantial number of patients with atherosclerosis. This association, which has already been described in other countries, corroborates the evidence favoring a role played by Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherogenesis.

  11. Susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia of animals exposed to sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, R.; Findlay, J.C.; Gardner, D.E.

    1978-03-01

    Susceptibility of mice to respiratory infections caused by exposure to sulfate aerosols was investigated. Inhalation of zinc sulfate or zinc ammonium sulfate followed by a respiratory challenge with airborne Streptococcus pyogenes resulted in excess mortality and reduced survival time. Estimated concentration of ZnSO4 that caused 20% excess mortality was 1.45 mg/cu m, and of Zn(NH4)2(SO4)2 was 2.40 mg/cu m for the 3 h inhalation exposure. Studies were extended to include the effects of various sulfates emitted from mobile and stationary sources to streptococcal pneumonia. (2 graphs, 7 references, 1 table)

  12. Chronic bacterial pneumonia in free-ranging Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R H

    1983-10-01

    Chronic bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed in two free-ranging Eastern box turtles. Mucoid exudation into the upper respiratory tract and bilateral, caseating pneumonia were seen grossly. Microscopically, chronic, active inflammation with pseudomembrane formation occurred in the nasal sinuses and lungs while caseating granuloma-like structures were also observed in alveoli and associated infundibulae. Since viral, protozoal or fungal agents could neither be demonstrated in tissue sections by light or electronmicroscopy, nor could they be isolated in vitro, the gram-negative bacteria, seen in large numbers within the lesions and easily cultured in vitro, were considered the etiologic agents of this disease. PMID:6644935

  13. Inflammatory response in mixed viral-bacterial community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of mixed pneumonia (virus + bacteria) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been described in recent years. However, it is not known whether the systemic inflammatory profile is different compared to monomicrobial CAP. We wanted to investigate this profile of mixed viral-bacterial infection and to compare it to monomicrobial bacterial or viral CAP. Methods We measured baseline serum procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) count in 171 patients with CAP with definite etiology admitted to a tertiary hospital: 59 (34.5%) bacterial, 66 (39.%) viral and 46 (27%) mixed (viral-bacterial). Results Serum PCT levels were higher in mixed and bacterial CAP compared to viral CAP. CRP levels were higher in mixed CAP compared to the other groups. CRP was independently associated with mixed CAP. CRP levels below 26 mg/dL were indicative of an etiology other than mixed in 83% of cases, but the positive predictive value was 45%. PCT levels over 2.10 ng/mL had a positive predictive value for bacterial-involved CAP versus viral CAP of 78%, but the negative predictive value was 48%. Conclusions Mixed CAP has a different inflammatory pattern compared to bacterial or viral CAP. High CRP levels may be useful for clinicians to suspect mixed CAP. PMID:25073709

  14. Bacterial nosocomial pneumonia in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the incidence, risk factors, mortality and organisms causing nosocomial pneumonia (NP in intubated patients in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. MATERIALS & METHODS: All patients with endotracheal (ET tube with or without mechanical ventilation (MV in a PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital were included in this prospective study. Clinical parameters and investigations were evaluated in patients who developed nosocomial pneumonia (NP. Colonisation of the ET tube tip was studied by culture and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients had an ET tube inserted and fifty-nine of these underwent MV. ET tube tip colonisation was seen in 70 out of 88 ET tubes inserted. The incidence of NP in patients with ET tube was 27.54% (7.96/100 days of ET intubation. NP developed only in patients undergoing MV. The main risk factors for developing NP were - duration of MV and duration of stay in the PICU. Age, sex, immunocompromised status and altered sensorium did not increase the risk of NP. The mortality in cases with NP was 47. 37%. E. coli and Klebsiella were the commonest organisms isolated from the ET tube tip cultures with maximum susceptibility to amikacin and cefotaxime. CONCLUSIONS: NP developed only in patients undergoing MV. Duration of MV and duration of stay in the PICU increased the risk of developing NP.

  15. A systematic review on the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial pneumonia: when gold is bronze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lynch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developing countries, pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in children under five years of age and hence timely and accurate diagnosis is critical. In North America, pneumonia is also a common source of childhood morbidity and occasionally mortality. Clinicians traditionally have used the chest radiograph as the gold standard in the diagnosis of pneumonia, but they are becoming increasingly aware that it is not ideal. Numerous studies have shown that chest radiography findings lack precision in defining the etiology of childhood pneumonia. There is no single test that reliably distinguishes bacterial from non-bacterial causes. These factors have resulted in clinicians historically using a combination of physical signs and chest radiographs as a 'gold standard', though this combination of tests has been shown to be imperfect for diagnosis and assigning treatment. The objectives of this systematic review are to: 1 identify and categorize studies that have used single or multiple tests as a gold standard for assessing accuracy of other tests, and 2 given the 'gold standard' used, determine the accuracy of these other tests for diagnosing childhood bacterial pneumonia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Search strategies were developed using a combination of subject headings and keywords adapted for 18 electronic bibliographic databases from inception to May 2008. Published studies were included if they: 1 included children one month to 18 years of age, 2 provided sufficient data regarding diagnostic accuracy to construct a 2x2 table, and 3 assessed the accuracy of one or more index tests as compared with other test(s used as a 'gold standard'. The literature search revealed 5,989 references of which 256 were screened for inclusion, resulting in 25 studies that satisfied all inclusion criteria. The studies examined a range of bacterium types and assessed the accuracy of several combinations of diagnostic tests. Eleven different gold

  16. Role of serum procalcitonin level in early diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia in children, a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohd Saleem

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Serum PCT is an important biomarker for prompt diagnosis of bacterial infection and a sensitive indicator to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial pneumonia. Evaluating serum PCT levels helps in early use of antibiotic therapy and prognosis of underlying disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1518-1521

  17. Importance of Bacterial Replication and Alveolar Macrophage-Independent Clearance Mechanisms during Early Lung Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Camberlein, Emilie; Cohen, Jonathan M.; José, Ricardo; Hyams, Catherine J.; Callard, Robin; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Yuste, Jose; Edwards, Lindsey A.; Marshall, Helina; van Rooijen, Nico; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Brown, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of alveolar macrophages for host immunity during early Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection is well established, the contribution and relative importance of other innate immunity mechanisms and of bacterial factors are less clear. We have used a murine model of S. pneumoniae early lung infection with wild-type, unencapsulated, and para-amino benzoic acid auxotroph mutant TIGR4 strains to assess the effects of inoculum size, bacterial replication, capsule, and alveol...

  18. M-CSF Mediates Host Defense during Bacterial Pneumonia by Promoting the Survival of Lung and Liver Mononuclear Phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettina, Alexandra; Zhang, Zhimin; Michels, Kathryn; Cagnina, R Elaine; Vincent, Isaah S; Burdick, Marie D; Kadl, Alexandra; Mehrad, Borna

    2016-06-15

    Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia is a common and dangerous infection with diminishing treatment options due to increasing antibiotic resistance among causal pathogens. The mononuclear phagocyte system is a heterogeneous group of leukocytes composed of tissue-resident macrophages, dendritic cells, and monocyte-derived cells that are critical in defense against pneumonia, but mechanisms that regulate their maintenance and function during infection are poorly defined. M-CSF has myriad effects on mononuclear phagocytes but its role in pneumonia is unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that M-CSF is required for mononuclear phagocyte-mediated host defenses during bacterial pneumonia in a murine model of infection. Genetic deletion or immunoneutralization of M-CSF resulted in reduced survival, increased bacterial burden, and greater lung injury. M-CSF was necessary for the expansion of lung mononuclear phagocytes during infection but did not affect the number of bone marrow or blood monocytes, proliferation of precursors, or recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs. In contrast, M-CSF was essential to survival and antimicrobial functions of both lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia, and its absence resulted in bacterial dissemination to the liver and hepatic necrosis. We conclude that M-CSF is critical to host defenses against bacterial pneumonia by mediating survival and antimicrobial functions of mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs and liver. PMID:27183631

  19. Looking Beyond Respiratory Cultures: Microbiome-Cytokine Signatures of Bacterial Pneumonia and Tracheobronchitis in Lung Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, J; Nguyen, M H; Crespo, M M; Kwak, E J; Lucas, S K; McHugh, K J; Mounaud, S; Alcorn, J F; Pilewski, J M; Shigemura, N; Kolls, J K; Nierman, W C; Clancy, C J

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial pneumonia and tracheobronchitis are diagnosed frequently following lung transplantation. The diseases share clinical signs of inflammation and are often difficult to differentiate based on culture results. Microbiome and host immune-response signatures that distinguish between pneumonia and tracheobronchitis are undefined. Using a retrospective study design, we selected 49 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 16 lung transplant recipients associated with pneumonia (n = 8), tracheobronchitis (n = 12) or colonization without respiratory infection (n = 29). We ensured an even distribution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus culture-positive samples across the groups. Bayesian regression analysis identified non-culture-based signatures comprising 16S ribosomal RNA microbiome profiles, cytokine levels and clinical variables that characterized the three diagnoses. Relative to samples associated with colonization, those from pneumonia had significantly lower microbial diversity, decreased levels of several bacterial genera and prominent multifunctional cytokine responses. In contrast, tracheobronchitis was characterized by high microbial diversity and multifunctional cytokine responses that differed from those of pneumonia-colonization comparisons. The dissimilar microbiomes and cytokine responses underlying bacterial pneumonia and tracheobronchitis following lung transplantation suggest that the diseases result from different pathogenic processes. Microbiomes and cytokine responses had complementary features, suggesting that they are closely interconnected in the pathogenesis of both diseases. PMID:26693965

  20. Antimicrobial potential of Halophilic actinomycetes against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Sana; Sajid, Imran

    2016-03-01

    A collection of forty halophilic actinomycetes isolated from water and mud samples of the saline lake at Kalar Kahar, salt range, Pakistan, was screened to investigate their antimicrobial potential against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens. The isolates exhibited significant tolerance to alkaline conditions and grew well at pH 9-11. The taxonomic status of the isolated strains was determined by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that majority of the isolates (90%) belong to the genus Streptomyces. Most of the isolates exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity up to 20mm zone of inhibition against MDR ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally the isolates showed moderate to high cytotoxicity in the range of 40 to 80% larval mortality against Artemia salina in a micro well cytotoxicity assay. The chemical screening or the so called metabolic fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of each isolate, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using various staining reagents and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), indicated an impressive diversity of the compounds produced by these strains. The study reveals that these halophilic actinomycetes are a promising source of bioactive compounds. The preparative scale fermentation, isolation, purification and structure elucidation of the compounds produced by them may yield novel antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27087086

  1. Value of rapid aetiological diagnosis in optimization of antimicrobial treatment in bacterial community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareković, Ivana; Plecko, Vanda; Boras, Zagorka; Pavlović, Ladislav; Budimir, Ana; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Puretić, Hrvoje; Zele-Starcević, Lidija; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-06-01

    In 80 adult patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) conventional microbiological methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were performed and the appropriateness of the empirical antimicrobial treatment was evaluated according to bacterial pathogen detected. The aetiology was determined in 42 (52.5%) patients, with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the most common pathogen. PCR applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) provided 2 and PCR on sputum samples 1 additional aetiological diagnosis of CAP The mean CRP values in the S. pneumoniae group were not significantly higher than in the group with other aetiological diagnoses (166.89 mg/L vs. 160.11 mg/L, p = 0.457). In 23.8% (10/42) of patients with determined aetiology, the empirical antimicrobial treatment was inappropriate. PCR tests need further investigation, particularly those for the atypical pathogens, as they are predominant in inappropriately treated patients. Our results do not support the use of CRP as a rapid test to guide the antimicrobial treatment in patients with CAP. PMID:22856222

  2. Immunosuppressant dose reduction and long-term rejection risk in renal transplant recipients with severe bacterial pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chia-Jen; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Yang, Wu-Chang; Yang, Chih-Yu

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Due to lifelong immunosuppression, renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at risk of infectious complications such as pneumonia. Severe pneumonia results in respiratory failure and is life-threatening. We aimed to examine the influence of immunosuppressant dose reduction on RTRs with bacterial pneumonia and respiratory failure. METHODS From January 2001 to January 2011, 33 of 1,146 RTRs at a single centre developed bacterial pneumonia with respiratory failure. All patients were treated using mechanical ventilation and aggressive therapies in the intensive care unit. RESULTS Average time from kidney transplantation to pneumonia with respiratory failure was 6.8 years. In-hospital mortality rate was 45.5% despite intensive care and aggressive therapies. Logistic regression analysis indicated that a high serum creatinine level at the time of admission to the intensive care unit (odds ratio 1.77 per mg/dL, 95% confidence interval 1.01–3.09; p = 0.045) was a mortality determinant. Out of the 33 patients, immunosuppressive agents were reduced in 17 (51.5%). We found that although immunosuppressant dose reduction tended to improve in-hospital mortality, this was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, during a mean follow-up period of two years, none of the survivors (n = 18) developed acute rejection or allograft necrosis. CONCLUSION In RTRs with bacterial pneumonia and respiratory failure, higher serum creatinine levels were a mortality determinant. Although temporary immunosuppressant dose reduction might not reduce mortality, it was associated with a minimal risk of acute rejection during the two-year follow-up. Our results suggest that early immunosuppressant reduction in RTRs with severe pneumonia of indeterminate microbiology may be safe even when pathogens are bacterial in nature. PMID:25091886

  3. Influence of the blood bacterial load on the meningeal inflammatory response in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, C; O´Reilly, T; Brandt, C;

    2006-01-01

    was induced by intracisternal injection of approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU Streptococcus pneumoniae, type 3, and the 26 rabbits were either provided with approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU S. pneumoniae intravenously at 0 hour ("bacteraemic" rabbits, n = 9), immunized with paraformaldehyde-killed S. pneumoniae...

  4. Two Cases of Bacterial Pneumonia in Bottle-nosed Dolphins (Tursiops Gillii) at the Seoul Zoo, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Yeon Eo and Oh-Deog Kwon1*

    2011-01-01

    Two bacterial pneumonia cases of bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops gillii) were found in Seoul Zoo. Firstly, severe fibrous pleuropneumonia was revealed in a 14-year-old male bottle-nosed dolphin on its necropsy. The clinical signs included anorexia, listing posture, and vertical submerging after the initial signs of low activity and avoiding trainers. White blood cell count increased up to 31.80 × 103/µl. Despite aggressive antibiotics therapy of intramuscular injection and nebulization it die...

  5. Trends in prevalence of diarrhoea, Kaposi’s sarcoma, bacterial pneumonia, malaria and geohelminths among HIV positive individuals in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Rubaihayo, John; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Konde-Lule, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Trends in prevalence of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource poor settings have previously not been well documented. The objective of this study was to describe the trends in prevalence of Diarrhoea, Bacterial pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma, Malaria and Geohelminths among HIV positive individuals over a 12 year period in Uganda. Methods Observation data for 5972 HIV positive individuals enrolled with the AIDS support organis...

  6. Surfactant improves lung function and mitigates bacterial growth in immature ventilated rabbits with experimentally induced neonatal group B streptococcal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Herting, E.; Sun, B.; Jarstrand, C; Curstedt, T; Robertson, B.

    1997-01-01

    Aims—To study the influence of surfactant on lung function and bacterial proliferation in immature newborn rabbits with experimental group B streptococcal (GBS) pneumonia.
METHODS—Preterm rabbit fetuses (gest-ational age 28 days) underwent tracheotomy and were mechanically ventilated in a warmed body plethysmograph that permitted measurement of lung-thorax compliance. Fifteen minutes after the onset of ventilation the animals received either GBS or saline intratracheally; at 30 minutes, a bol...

  7. Allergic Airway Inflammation Decreases Lung Bacterial Burden following Acute Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in a Neutrophil- and CCL8-Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Dulek, Daniel E.; Newcomb, Dawn C.; Goleniewska, Kasia; Cephus, Jaqueline; Zhou, Weisong; Reiss, Sara; Toki, Shinji; Ye, Fei; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Sherrill, Taylor P.; Timothy S. Blackwell; Moore, Martin L.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Kolls, Jay K.; Peebles, R. Stokes

    2014-01-01

    The Th17 cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, and IL-22 are critical for the lung immune response to a variety of bacterial pathogens, including Klebsiella pneumoniae. Th2 cytokine expression in the airways is a characteristic feature of asthma and allergic airway inflammation. The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 diminish ex vivo and in vivo IL-17A protein expression by Th17 cells. To determine the effect of IL-4 and IL-13 on IL-17-dependent lung immune responses to acute bacterial infect...

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 deficiency impairs host defense mechanisms against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Tobias; Spreer, Annette; Azeh, Ivo; Nau, Roland; Gerber, Joachim

    2003-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) appears to contribute to blood-brain barrier damage and neuronal injury in bacterial meningitis. To further explore the function of MMP-9 in meningeal inflammation, we injected 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) of a Streptoccocus pneumoniae type 3 strain into the right forebrain of MMP-9 deficient mice (MMP-9(-/-), n=16) and wild-type controls (129 x B6, n=15). The clinical course of the disease, leukocyte recruitment into the subarachnoid space and bacterial titers in the brain did not differ. Yet, clearance of the bacteria from blood (log CFU/ml 4.7 [3.8/5.4] vs. 3.6 [3.0/4.0]; P=0.005) and spleen homogenates (log CFU/ml 5.3 [4.8/5.5] vs. 4.0 [2.8/4.7]; P=0.01) was reduced in MMP-9 deficient mice. A reduced systemic bacterial clearance of MMP-9(-/-) mice was confirmed in experimental S. pneumoniae peritonitis/sepsis. This implies a compromised systemic, but not intracerebral host response against S. pneumoniae in MMP-9 deficiency. PMID:12581831

  9. BACTERIAL SPECTRUM AND PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY AMONG OUTPATIENTS WITH PNEUMONIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To outline the spectrum of bacteria causing pneumonia and the pattern of antimicrobial sensitivity in outpatients with pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Himachal Pradesh. METHODS: Sputum of 108 immuno competent pneumonia patients attending outpatient departments of Medicine and Pulmonary medicine of Dr. R. P. Government Medical College , Kangra at Tanda was sent for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity testing. RESULTS: Commensals were detected in most of the cases (32 , 29.6% followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 17(15.7% and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 16(14.8%. This was followed by three Gram negative organisms namely E Coli (11 , 10.2% , Pseudomonas (10 , 9.2% and Klebsiella (8 , 7.2%. No growth was obtained in 7(6.5% and other organisms were isolated in 7(6.5% specimens. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , cefoxitin , azithromycin and cotrimoxazole. Streptococcus pneumoniae was found to be sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , gentamicin , azithromycin , penicillin , cotrimoxazole , amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Klebsiella was found to be sensitive to imipenem , azithromycin , ciprofloxacin , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. E coli was sensitive to imipenem , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be sensitive to gentamicin , cefta zidime , imipenem , ticarcillin and piperacillin. CONCLUSION: Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the commonest organism causing pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is resistant to many antibiotics. Azithromycin can be the first line therapy for pneumonia.

  10. Focus on JNJ-Q2, a novel fluoroquinolone, for the management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Travis M; Johnson, Steven W; DiMondi, V Paul; Wilson, Dustin T

    2016-01-01

    JNJ-Q2 is a novel, fifth-generation fluoroquinolone that has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In vitro studies indicate that JNJ-Q2 has potent activity against pathogens responsible for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. JNJ-Q2 also has been shown to have a higher barrier to resistance compared to other agents in the class and it remains highly active against drug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and drug-resistant S. pneumoniae. In two Phase II studies, the efficacy of JNJ-Q2 was comparable to linezolid for ABSSSI and moxifloxacin for CABP. Furthermore, JNJ-Q2 was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to or less than other fluoroquinolones. With an expanded spectrum of activity and low potential for resistance, JNJ-Q2 shows promise as an effective treatment option for ABSSSI and CABP. Considering its early stage of development, the definitive role of JNJ-Q2 against these infections and its safety profile will be determined in future Phase III studies. PMID:27354817

  11. Viral pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    More serious infections can result in respiratory failure, liver failure, and heart failure. Sometimes, bacterial infections occur during or just after viral pneumonia, which may lead to more serious forms ...

  12. Age-related presence of selected viral and bacterial pathogens in paraffin-embedded lung samples of dogs with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrer, Daniela; Spergser, Joachim; Bagrinovschi, Gabriela; Möstl, Karin; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to detect selected pathogens in pneumonic lung tissue of dogs of different age groups by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridisation (ISH) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to get information about their involvement in pneumonia formation. In archived formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded lung samples from 68 cases with the clinical and histologic diagnosis of pneumonia the histological pattern of pneumonia was re-evaluated and the samples were further investigated for the following infectious agents: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica, Pasteurella (P.) multocida, Mycoplasma spp., and Pneumocystis spp. In 47.1% of the samples at least one of the featured respiratory pathogens was detected. In 31.3% of these positive samples more than one pathogen could be found. The correct detection of CDV had been achieved in ten out of eleven positive cases (90.9%) upon initial investigation, but the presence of bacterial pathogens, like B. bronchiseptica (10 cases) and P. multocida (17 cases) had been missed in all but one case. While CDV and CRCoV infections were exclusively found in dogs younger than one year, the vast majority of infections with P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica were both common either in dogs younger than 4 months or older than one year. Thus, this retrospective approach yielded valuable data on the presence, absence and prevalence of certain respiratory pathogens in dogs with pneumonia. PMID:26919147

  13. Pneumonia in slaughtered sheep in south-western Iran: pathological characteristics and aerobic bacterial aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the lungs of 1,000 sheep carcasses were subjected to gross examination and those suspected to be infected with pneumonia were studied at histopathological level as well as examined for presence of bacteria. Pneumonia was detected in 42 (4.2% carcasses. Based on histopathological lesions, 45.24% were affected with suppurative bronchopneumonia, 20.93% with interstitial pneumonia, 11.9% bronchointerstitial pneumonia, 7.14% with fibrinous bronchopneumonia and 2.38% with embolic pneumonia. In addition, 11.9% of the lungs showed lung abscesses and 2.33% were affected with pleuritis without involving pulmonary parenchyma. Bacteriological examination revealed presence of ovine pathogens, such as Pasteurella multocida (24.53%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.75%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.09%, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (7.55% and Actinomyces pyogenes (1.89%. The most common form of pneumonia was suppurative bronchopneumonia with moderate amounts of fibrin deposits on the pleural surface and inside the bronchioles and alveoli.

  14. [Treatment of bacterial pneumonias with cefuroxime-axetil. Predictive value of measurement of the in vitro susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluzel, R; Portier, H; Modaï, J

    1996-03-01

    Cefuroxime axetil is an oral cephalosporin with proven efficacy in adult lower respiratory tract infections. Indeed, it has a broad spectrum of activity in vitro, covering most pathogens isolated in this setting and showing good stability in the presence of betalactamases. In vitro susceptibility data are a major element in the choice of antimicrobial agent. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of the cefuroxime minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) on the clinical outcome of infections treated with cefuroxime axetil. One hundred-and-seventeen (117) patients with radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia of presumed bacterial origin were enrolled in a prospective multicenter trial of cefuroxime axetil therapy (500 mg twice daily). The pathogen was identified in 44 patients who were treated for a mean of 8.8 days. Most isolates were S. pneumoniae (65.9%) and H. influenzae (15.9%). The MIC was known for 35 isolates and was < or = 4 micrograms/ml in 30 cases (85.7%). The MIC value was a good predictor of clinical efficacy with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 83% and a positive predictive value of 97%; the latter value indicates that therapeutic success is virtually certain when the bacterium causing pneumonia is susceptible to cefuroxime. PMID:8761613

  15. Comparative in-vitro efficacy of fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from bacterial keratitis as determined by E-test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The advent of new fluoroquinolones has drawn the attention for reliable methods on the in-vitro susceptibility testing of Streptococccus pneumoniae. This study attempts to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of second-generation (ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, third-generation (levofloxacin and the fourth-generation (moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae recovered from bacterial keratitis. Materials and Methods: In retrospect, the MICs of 50 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from the corneal scrapes of patients with bacterial keratitis were determined against ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin using E-tests. The National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS susceptibility patterns and the potencies of the MICs were statistically compared. Results: The median MIC of ciprofloxacin (0.25μg/ml was found to be lower than the median MICs of ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml (P < 0.449 and levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml (P < 0.001. The median MICs of gatifloxacin (0.1μg/ml was lower than the median MICs of ciprofloxacin (0.25μg/ml (P < 0.001, ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml (P < 0.001 and levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml (P < 0.001. Moxifloxacin (0.06μg/ml had showed lower median MICs than gatifloxacin (0.1μg/ml (P < 0.001 levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml (P < 0.001, ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml (P < 0.001 and ciprofloxacin (0.25μg/ml (P < 0.001. Moxifloxacin (0.06μg/ml had a lower MIC50 (μg/ml than gatifloxacin (0.1μg/ml, levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml, ciprofloxacin (0.25μg/ml and ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml. MIC90 (μg/ml of moxifloxacin (0.06μg/ml was found to be lower than the MIC90 (μg/ml of gatifloxacin (0.5μg/ml, levofloxacin (1.0μg/ml, ofloxacin (0.5μg/ml and ciprofloxacin (0.5μg/ml. Conclusion: Based on in-vitro testing, the five portrayed fluoroquinolones 100% sensitivity to S. pneumoniae. However, the fourth-generation fluoroquinolone, moxifloxacin appeared to be more

  16. Focus on JNJ-Q2, a novel fluoroquinolone, for the management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones TM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Travis M Jones,1,2 Steven W Johnson,1,3 V Paul DiMondi,1,4 Dustin T Wilson,1,2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, 2Department of Pharmacy, Duke University Hospital, Durham, 3Department of Pharmacy, Forsyth Medical Center, Novant Health, Winston-Salem, 4Department of Pharmacy, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: JNJ-Q2 is a novel, fifth-generation fluoroquinolone that has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In vitro studies indicate that JNJ-Q2 has potent activity against pathogens responsible for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. JNJ-Q2 also has been shown to have a higher barrier to resistance compared to other agents in the class and it remains highly active against drug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and drug-resistant S. pneumoniae. In two Phase II studies, the efficacy of JNJ-Q2 was comparable to linezolid for ABSSSI and moxifloxacin for CABP. Furthermore, JNJ-Q2 was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to or less than other fluoroquinolones. With an expanded spectrum of activity and low potential for resistance, JNJ-Q2 shows promise as an effective treatment option for ABSSSI and CABP. Considering its early stage of development, the definitive role of JNJ-Q2 against these infections and its safety profile will be determined in future Phase III studies. Keywords: JNJ-Q2, fluoroquinolone, ABSSSI, CABP, MRSA

  17. Clinical evaluation of the role of ceftaroline in the management of community acquired bacterial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maselli DJ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diego J Maselli1, Juan F Fernandez1, Christine Y Whong2, Kelly Echevarria1,3, Anoop M Nambiar1,3, Antonio Anzueto1,3, Marcos I Restrepo1,3,41University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, 2Memorial Hermann – Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, 3South Texas Veterans Health Care System Audie l Murphy Division, San Antonio, TX, 4Veterans Evidence Research Dissemination and Implementation Center (VERDICT, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: Ceftaroline fosamil (ceftaroline was recently approved for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and complicated skin infections. This newly developed cephalosporin possesses a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Most importantly, ceftaroline demonstrates potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. In two Phase III, double-blinded, randomized, prospective trials (FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2, ceftaroline was shown to be non-inferior to ceftriaxone for the treatment of CAP in hospitalized patients. Ceftaroline exhibits low resistance rates and a safety profile similar to that of other cephalosporins. In this review, we will evaluate the pharmacological characteristics, safety, antimicrobial properties, and efficacy of ceftaroline and its applications in the treatment of CAP.Keywords: s. pneumoniae, s. aureus, cephalosporins, pneumonia, ceftaroline, community acquired pneumonia

  18. Cooperative Interactions between TLR4 and TLR9 Regulate Interleukin 23 and 17 Production in a Murine Model of Gram Negative Bacterial Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhan, Urvashi; Ballinger, Megan N.; Zeng, Xianying; Newstead, Michael J.; Cornicelli, Matthew D.; Standiford, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    Toll like receptors play an important role in lung host defense against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated independent and cooperative functions of TLR4 and TLR9 in microbial clearance and systemic dissemination during Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia. To access these responses, wildtype Balb/c mice, mice with defective TLR4 signaling (TLR4lps-d), mice deficient in TLR9 (TLR9−/−) and TLR4/9 double mutant mice (TLR4lps-d/TLR9−/−) were challenged with K. pneumoniae, then time-...

  19. The clinical utility of induced sputum for the diagnosis of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: a prospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Maurici da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonias have been overcoming pneumocytosis in frequency. Controversy still remains about how to manage immunocompromised patients and those with lung diseases. Sputum analysis is a noninvasive and simple method, and when interpreted according to specific criteria it may help with diagnosis. We conducted a study to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted values, and the accuracy of induced sputum (IS for bacterial community-acquired pneumonia diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross sectional study evaluated a diagnostic procedure in a reference hospital for HIV patients in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. From January 1, 2001 to September 30, 2002, 547 HIV-positive patients were analyzed and 54 inpatients with pulmonary infection were selected. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB were considered the gold standards. Gram stains and quantitative cultures of IS and BAL were obtained. The cut-offs for quantitative cultures were 10(6 CFU/mL for IS and 10(4 CFU/mL for BAL. RESULTS: The mean age was 35.7 years, 79.6% were males and 85.2% were caucasians. The mean lymphocyte count was 124.8/mm³. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed in 20 patients. The most prevalent bacteria was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Considering IS for the diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia, sensitivity was 60%, specificity 40%, the positive predictive value was 80%, negative predictive value 20% and accuracy 56%. CONCLUSION: IS with quantitative culture can be helpful for the diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia in HIV-positive patients.

  20. Pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica: impacto da multirresistência bacteriana na morbidade e mortalidade Ventilator-associated pneumonia: impact of bacterial multidrug-resistance on morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira

    2004-12-01

    : Retrospective cohort study. Over 40 consecutive months, 91 patients on mechanical ventilation developed pneumonia. Cases were grouped into those caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms and those caused by drug-sensitive microorganisms. RESULTS: Multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated in 75 cases (82.4% and drug-sensitive bacteria in 16 (17.6%. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were not statistically different between the groups. Staphylococcus aureus was responsible for 27.5% of ventilator-associated pneumonia episodes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 17.6%. Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia occurred in 33 patients (36.3% and late-onset in 58 (63.7%. Time on mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and overall length of hospital stay were not statistically different between groups. Empirical treatment was considered inadequate in 42 patients with pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms (56% and in 4 with pneumonia caused by drug-sensitive microorganisms (25% (p = 0.02. Death occurred in 46 patients with pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms (61.3% and in 4 with pneumonia caused by drug-sensitive microorganisms (25% (p = 0.008. CONCLUSION: Bacterial multidrug-resistance had no impact on morbidity but was associated with higher mortality.

  1. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V;

    1997-01-01

    The predominant pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which results in a chronic lung infection associated with progressive pulmonary insufficiency. In a rat model of chronic P. aeruginosa pneumonia mimicking that in patients with CF, we studied whether the...... inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... against P. aeruginosa sonicate and a shift from an acute type to a chronic type of lung inflammation compared to those in the control and cortisone-treated groups were observed. These findings indicate that ginseng treatment of an experimental P. aeruginosa pneumonia in rats promotes a cellular response...

  2. Clinical evaluation of the role of ceftaroline in the management of community acquired bacterial pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Diego J; Fernandez, Juan F; Whong, Christine Y; Echevarria, Kelly; Nambiar, Anoop M; Anzueto, Antonio; Restrepo, Marcos I

    2012-01-01

    Ceftaroline fosamil (ceftaroline) was recently approved for the treatment of community- acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin infections. This newly developed cephalosporin possesses a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Most importantly, ceftaroline demonstrates potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. In two Phase III, double-blinded, randomized, prospective trials (FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2), ceftaroline was shown to be non-inferior to ceftriaxone for the treatment of CAP in hospitalized patients. Ceftaroline exhibits low resistance rates and a safety profile similar to that of other cephalosporins. In this review, we will evaluate the pharmacological characteristics, safety, antimicrobial properties, and efficacy of ceftaroline and its applications in the treatment of CAP. PMID:22355258

  3. IL-22 mediates mucosal host defense against Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Aujla, Shean J.; Chan, Yvonne R.; Zheng, Mingquan; Fei, Mingjian; Askew, David J; Pociask, Derek A.; Reinhart, Todd A.; McAllister, Florencia; Edeal, Jennifer; Gaus, Kristi; Husain, Shahid; Kreindler, James L.; Dubin, Patricia J.; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Myerburg, Mike M.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports the concept that T helper type 17 (TH17) cells, in addition to mediating autoimmunity, have key roles in mucosal immunity against extracellular pathogens. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17A are both effector cytokines produced by the TH17 lineage, and both were crucial for maintaining local control of the Gram-negative pulmonary pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although both cytokines regulated CXC chemokines and granulocyte colony–stimulating factor production in th...

  4. Genome-wide identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae genes essential for bacterial replication during experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molzen, T E; Burghout, P; Bootsma, H J;

    2010-01-01

    of invasive pneumococcal disease is required in order to enable the development of new or adjunctive treatments and/or pneumococcal vaccines that are efficient across serotypes. We applied genomic array footprinting (GAF) in the search for S. pneumoniae genes that are essential during experimental...... relevant as targets for future therapy and prevention of pneumococcal meningitis, since their mutants were attenuated in both models of infection as well as in competitive growth in human cerebrospinal fluid in vitro....

  5. Antimicrobial and Biophysical Properties of Surfactant Supplemented with an Antimicrobial Peptide for Treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaschewski, Brandon J H; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Keating, Eleonora; Haagsman, Henk P; Zuo, Yi Y; Yamashita, Cory M; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections represent an emerging health concern in clinical settings, and a lack of novel developments in the pharmaceutical pipeline is creating a "perfect storm" for multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been sugges

  6. Detection of respiratory viral and bacterial pathogens causing pediatric community-acquired pneumonia in Beijing using real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Gang Zhang; Ai-Hua Li; Min Lyu; Meng Chen; Fang Huang; Jiang Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the etiology and prevalence of pediatric CAP in Beijing using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Methods: Between February 15, 2011 and January 18, 2012, 371 pediatric patients with CAP were enrolled at Beijing Children's Hospital. Sixteen respiratory viruses and two bacteria were detected from tracheal aspirate specimens using commercially available multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) kits. Results: A single viral pathogen was detected in 35.3%of enrolled patients, multiple viruses in 11.6%, and virus/bacteria co-infection in 17.8%. In contrast, only 6.5%of patients had a single bacterial pathogen and 2.2%were infected with multiple bacteria. The etiological agent was unknown for 26.7% of patients. The most common viruses were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (43.9%), rhinovirus (14.8%), parainfluenza virus (9.4%), and adenovirus (8.6%). In patients under three years of age, RSV (44.6%), rhinovirus (12.8%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.9%) were the most frequent pathogens. In children aged 3e7 years, S. pneumoniae (38.9%), RSV (30.6%), Haemophilus influenzae (19.4%), and adenovirus (19.4%) were most prevalent. Finally in children over seven years, RSV (47.3%), S. pneumoniae (41.9%), and rhinovirus (21.5%) infections were most frequent. Conclusions: Viral pathogens, specifically RSV, were responsible for the majority of CAP in pediatric patients. However, both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae contributed as major causes of disease. Commercially available multiplexing real-time PCR allowed for rapid detection of the etiological agent. Copyright © 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  7. Bacterial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation: HRCT findings Achados de TCAR nas pneumonias bacterianas após transplante de medula óssea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Otávio de Mattos Coelho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe HRCT findings in patients with bacterial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation (BMT. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving 30 patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia in whom HRCT of the chest was performed within 24 h after the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis was confirmed, based on a positive culture of sputum or bronchial aspirate, together with a positive pleural fluid or blood culture, within one week after symptom onset. There were 20 male patients and 10 female patients. The median age was 21 years (range, 1-41 years. The BMT had been performed for the treatment of the following: chronic myeloid leukemia, in 14 cases; severe aplastic anemia, in 6; acute myeloid leukemia, in 4; Fanconi's anemia, in 3; and acute lymphocytic leukemia, in 3. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT scans and reached their final decisions by consensus. RESULTS: The most common HRCT findings were air-space consolidation (in 60%, small centrilobular nodules (in 50%, ground-glass opacities (in 40%, bronchial wall thickening (in 20%, large nodules (in 20%, pleural lesions (in 16.7% and tree-in-bud opacities (in 10%. The pulmonary lesions were distributed in the central and peripheral areas in 15 patients, whereas they were exclusively peripheral in 11. Lesions were located in the lower and middle lobes of the lung in 22 and 20 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The most common HRCT findings in our patient sample were air-space consolidation, small centrilobular nodules and ground-glass opacities, most often in the central and peripheral regions of the middle and lower lung zones.OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados de TCAR em pacientes com pneumonia bacteriana após transplante de medula óssea (TMO. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com 30 pacientes diagnosticados com pneumonia bacteriana, documentada com TCAR do tórax realizada em até 24 h do início dos sintomas, e com diagnóstico comprovado com base em cultura positiva

  8. Rapid Ertapenem Susceptibility Testing and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase Phenotype Detection in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates by Use of Automated Microscopy of Immobilized Live Bacterial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Frobel, Rachel A.; Herrera, Monica L.; Wickes, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated detection of ertapenem (ETP) resistance and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) in 47 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates using a novel automated microscopy system. Automated microscopy correctly classified 22/23 isolates as ETP resistant and 24/24 as ETP susceptible and correctly classified 21/21 isolates as KPC positive and 26/26 as KPC negative.

  9. Host Defense and the Airway Epithelium: Frontline Responses That Protect against Bacterial Invasion and Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas A. Eisele; Anderson, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the first line of defense against invading microbes, and they protect themselves through the production of carbohydrate and protein matrices concentrated with antimicrobial products. In addition, they act as sentinels, expressing pattern recognition receptors that become activated upon sensing bacterial products and stimulate downstream recruitment and activation of immune cells which clear invading microbes. Bacterial pathogens that successfully colonize the lungs...

  10. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ facilitates bacterial dissemination during pneumococcal pneumonia in a platelet-activating factor receptor-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Duitman, JanWillem; Schouten, Marcel; Groot, Angelique P.; Borensztajn, Keren S.; Daalhuisen, Joost B.; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom; Spek, C Arnold

    2012-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (C/EBPδ) recently emerged as an essential player in the inflammatory response to bacterial infections. C/EBPδ levels increase rapidly after a proinflammatory stimulus, and increasing C/EBPδ levels seem to be indispensable for amplification of the inflammatory response. Here we aimed to elucidate the role of C/EBPδ in host defense in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia. We show that C/EBPδ−/− mice are relatively resistant to pneumococcal pneumonia, as ind...

  11. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  12. Understanding Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Learn About Pneumonia 5 Facts You Should Know about Pneumonia Pneumonia ... vaccinated and practicing good health habits What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection in one or both ...

  13. CT manifestations of adult mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the conventional CT and HRCT manifestations of adult mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Methods: Conventional CT and HRCT were performed in 16 adult patients with mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia proven by serology. The CT images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Areas of ground-glass opacity (GGO) were found in 12 cases. GGO showed lobular or patchy distribution in 9 cases. Air-space consolidation was observed in 8 cases, 'tree in bud' sign in 9, thickening of the interlobular septa in 3, and thickening of bronchovascular bundle in 1. 15 cases had two or more findings simultaneously. Conclusion: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia has some characteristic CT findings, which can help to distinguish it from bacterial pneumonia

  14. Two Cases of Bacterial Pneumonia in Bottle-nosed Dolphins (Tursiops Gillii at the Seoul Zoo, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yeon Eo and Oh-Deog Kwon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two bacterial pneumonia cases of bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops gillii were found in Seoul Zoo. Firstly, severe fibrous pleuropneumonia was revealed in a 14-year-old male bottle-nosed dolphin on its necropsy. The clinical signs included anorexia, listing posture, and vertical submerging after the initial signs of low activity and avoiding trainers. White blood cell count increased up to 31.80 × 103/µl. Despite aggressive antibiotics therapy of intramuscular injection and nebulization it died two months later. At early time of illness Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis were isolated. Lately Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the exhaled air culture and direct sample of lung parenchyma on necropsy. Secondly, a 6-year-old male bottle-nosed dolphin with anorexia and tendency to avoid trainers was completely recovered after prompt treatment with antibiotics and NSAIDs for six days prior to diagnosis. The diagnosis was based on history, clinical signs, blood cell count, and mucous culture from blowhole. The count of white blood cell dramatically decreased from 25.36 × 103/µl to 7.28 × 103/ µl after four days of antibiotics therapy. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the culture.

  15. Influence of the blood bacterial load on the meningeal inflammatory response in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, C; O´Reilly, T; Brandt, C;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite bacteraemia is present in the majority of patients with pneumococcal, little is known about the influence of the systemic infection on the meningeal inflammatory response. METHODS: To explore the role of systemic infection on the meningeal inflammation, experimental meningitis...... blood WBC levels in 153 pneumococcal meningitis patients with and without presence of bacteraemia. RESULTS: As designed, blood bacterial concentrations were significantly different among three experimental groups during the 16 hours study period (Kruskal Wallis test, P < 0.05), whereas no differences in...... compared to the two other groups between 12-16 hours from time of infection (P < 0.017), despite accelerated CSF IL-8 levels in bacteraemic rabbits. In patients with pneumococcal meningitis, no significant difference in CSF WBC was observed between patients with or without bacteraemia at admission (n = 103...

  16. DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF HUMAN SP-B GENETIC VARIANTS ON LUNG INJURY CAUSED BY BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA AND THE EFFECT OF A CHEMICALLY MODIFIED CURCUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongan; Ge, Lin; Abdel-Razek, Osama; Jain, Sumeet; Liu, Zhiyong; Hong, Yucai; Nieman, Gary; Johnson, Francis; Golub, Lorne M; Cooney, Robert N; Wang, Guirong

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia frequently resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Surfactant protein B (SP-B) gene expresses two proteins involved in lowering surface tension and host defense. Genotyping studies demonstrate a significant association between human SP-B genetic variants and ARDS. Curcumins have been shown to attenuate host inflammation in many sepsis models. Our hypothesis is that functional differences of SP-B variants and treatment with curcumin (CMC2.24) modulate lung injury in bacterial pneumonia. Humanized transgenic mice, expressing either SP-B T or C allele without mouse SP-B gene, were used. Bioluminescent labeled S. aureus Xen 36 (50 μL) was injected intratracheally to cause pneumonia. Infected mice received daily CMC2.24 (40 mg/kg) or vehicle alone by oral gavage. Dynamic changes of bacteria were monitored using in vivo imaging system. Histological, cellular, and molecular indices of lung injury were studied in infected mice 48 h after infection. In vivo imaging analysis revealed total flux (bacterial number) was higher in the lung of infected SP-B-C mice compared with infected SP-B-T mice (P < 0.05). Infected SP-B-C mice demonstrated increased mortality, lung injury, apoptosis, and NF-κB expression compared with infected SP-B-T mice. Compared with controls, CMC2.24 treatment significantly reduced the following: mortality, total bacterial flux and lung tissue apoptosis, inflammatory cells, NF-κB expression (P < 0.05), and MMPs-2, -9, -12 activities (P < 0.05). We conclude that mice with SP-B-C allele are more susceptible to S. aureus pneumonia than mice with SP-B-T allele, and that CMC2.24 attenuates lung injury thus reducing mortality. PMID:26863117

  17. MicroRNA expression in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Wendt, Karin Tarp; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    immune responses. Still, little is known about the impact of miRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of lung infections. Expression of miRNA, known to be induced by bacterial (i.e., LPS) ligands and thus supposed to play a role in the regulation of antimicrobial defence, were studied in lung tissue...... all miRNAs for human, mouse and rat. The miRCURY™ LNA array microarray slides were scanned, and image analysis was carried out using the ImaGene 8.0 software (BioDiscovery, Inc., USA). A two-tailed T-test calculated between infected and control identified 10 of 1263 miRNA to be differentially...... from pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and 6. Circulating miRNAs were studied in blood from pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 using real time-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Expression profiles of miRNA in blood of seven animals before and after infection...

  18. Mycoplasma pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) . This type of pneumonia is ... Mycoplasma pneumonia usually affects people younger than 40. People who live or work in crowded areas such ...

  19. Aspirin inhibits Chlamydia pneumoniae : Induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation, cytokine expression, and bacterial development in human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiran, A; Gruber, HJ; Graier, WF; Wagner, AH; van Leeuwen, EBM; Tiran, B

    2002-01-01

    Objective-Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated with atherosclerosis. Infection of vascular endothelial cells with C pneumoniae increases the expression of proatherogenic cytokines mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, a transcription factor. The present study was designed to test the effect of

  20. Aspiration pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the bacterial capsule assembly-regulating tyrosine phosphatases Wzb of Escherichia coli and Cps4B of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization is reported of two bacterial tyrosine phosphatases which belong to different enzyme families despite their ability to catalyse identical reactions. Bacterial tyrosine kinases and their cognate phosphatases are key players in the regulation of capsule assembly and thus are important virulence determinants of these bacteria. Examples of the kinase/phosphatase pairing are found in Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (Wzc and Wzb) and in Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (CpsCD and CpsB). Although Wzb and Cps4B are both predicted to dephosphorylate the C-terminal tyrosine cluster of their cognate tyrosine kinase, they appear on the basis of protein sequence to belong to quite different enzyme classes. Recombinant purified proteins Cps4B of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 and Wzb of E. coli K-30 have been crystallized. Wzb crystals belonged to space-group family P3x21 and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution. Crystal form I of Cps4B belonged to space-group family P4x212 and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution; crystal form II belonged to space group P212121 and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution

  2. Pneumonia Atipik

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Dian Dwi Wahyuni

    2009-01-01

    Abstrak : Pneumonia atipik adalah pneumonia yang memberikan gambaran klinis dan radiologis yang berbeda dengan bentuk pneumonia tipikal. gambaran klinis dan radiologis yang khas dari pneumonia tipikal adalah berupa munculnya demam tiba-tiba disertai menggigil, nyeri pleura dan batuk berdahak berwarna seperti karat (rust colored sputum) dan disertai gambaran radiologis berupa konsolidasi segmental ataupun lobular. Penyebab paling sering pneumonia atipik ini adalah Mycoplasma pneumoniae,...

  3. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia – a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, JS; Dohn, G;

    2002-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To investigate the clinical importance of a positive P...

  4. Surveillance of bacterial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae%肺炎链球菌的耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泓

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae has been increased significantly, understanding the characteristic of resistant strains and applying surveillance for them are helpful to guide clinical therapy and control the prevalence of resistant strains. This review describes Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance, resistance mechanism and their clinical surveillance.%肺炎链球菌耐药率不断上升,监测其耐药性并掌握耐药特征,有助于指导临床合理选药及控制肺炎链球菌耐药株流行.本文综述肺炎链球菌的耐药现状、相关机制及监测方法.

  5. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immunocompromised host." Related conditions include: Hospital-acquired pneumonia Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously called Pneumocystis carinii) pneumonia Pneumonia - cytomegalovirus Pneumonia ...

  6. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  7. Radiographic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: differential diagnosis and performance timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines propose a differential diagnosis for atypical pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia using a scoring system for the selection of appropriate antibiotic. In order to improve this scoring system, the guidelines are seeking new specific parameter. The purpose of this study was to clarify the pattern of abnormalities with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia on chest computed tomography (CT) and whether the radiographic findings could distinguish M. pneumoniae pneumonia from Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. A retrospective review was performed of the CT findings of 64 cases and 68 cases where M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae, respectively, were the only pathogen identified by the panel of diagnostic tests used. Of the 64 patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia, bronchial wall thickening was observed most frequently (81%), followed by centrilobular nodules (78%), ground-glass attenuation (78%), and consolidation (61%). Bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules were observed more often in M. pneumoniae patients than in S. pneumoniae patients (p < 0.0001). The presence of bilateral bronchial wall thickening or centrilobular nodules was only seen in patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Using the scoring system of the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines and chest CT findings, 97% of M. pneumoniae patients were suspected to be M. pneumoniae pneumonia without serology. When comparing the CT findings between early stage and progressed stage in the same patients with severe pneumonia, the radiographic features of early stage M. pneumoniae pneumonia were not observed clearly in the progressed stage. The present results indicate that the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia would appear to be reliable when found with a combination of bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules in the CT findings. However, these CT findings are not observed in progressed severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia patients

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age ≥18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  9. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age {>=}18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  10. A Compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Gretchen L; Kinjo, Takeshi; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, "walking" pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review. PMID:27148202

  11. A Compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Gretchen L.; Kinjo, Takeshi; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, “walking” pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review. PMID:27148202

  12. 血清降钙素原对细菌性肺炎与肺结核鉴别的临床意义分析%Clinical significance analysis of serum procalcitonin for identification of bacterial pneumonia and ;pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of serum procalcitonin (PCT) for identifica-tion of bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods Serum samples of 21 patients with bacterial pneumonia (pneumonia group) and 22 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (tuberculosis group) in the same pe-riod were collected. Their serum procalcitonin levels were detected by immumofluorescence method within 24 h after hospitalization for analysis and comparison. Results The pneumonia group had remarkably higher level of serum procalcitonin than the tuberculosis group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Detection of serum procalcitonin has important significance for identification of bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis.%目的:探讨血清降钙素原(PCT)测定对鉴别诊断细菌性肺炎与肺结核的临床意义。方法收集同期入院诊断为细菌性肺炎患者(肺炎组)21例及肺结核患者(结核组)22例的血清标本,入院24 h内采用免疫荧光法分别测定两组患者的血清降钙素原水平,进行分析比较。结果肺炎组血清降钙素原水平显著高于结核组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论血清降钙素原测定对鉴别诊断细菌性肺炎和肺结核具有重要的临床意义。

  13. Pneumonia in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tural Önür

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is an immune system disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The purpose of this review is to investigate the correlation between an immune system destroyed by HIV and the frequency of pneumonia. Observational studies show that respiratory diseases are among the most common infections observed in HIV-infected patients. In addition, pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. According to articles in literature, in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the use of prophylaxis provides favorable results for the treatment of pneumonia. Here we conduct a systematic literature review to determine the pathogenesis and causative agents of bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB, nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, fungal pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, viral pneumonia and parasitic infections and the prophylaxis in addition to ART and HAART for treatment. Pneumococcus-based polysaccharide vaccine is recommended to avoid some type of specific bacterial pneumonia.

  14. Role of serum procalcitonin level in early diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia in children, a hospital based study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh Mohd Saleem; S. M. Salim Khan; Shah Sumaya Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a precursor of hormone calcitonin. It is composed of 116 amino acids and is produced by para follicular C cells of the thyroid and by neuroendocrine cells of lungs and intestine. The level of Procalcitonin in healthy individuals is below the limit of detection (0.01 and micro;g/L).These levels may rise from extra thyroid tissues especially in response to inflammatory stimulus of bacterial origin. PCT has the greatest sensitivity and Specificity for different...

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae Flocculation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bortz, D. M.; Jackson, T L; Taylor, K. A.; Thompson, A. P.; Younger, J. G.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is a cause of community- and hospital-acquired lung, urinary tract, and blood stream infections. A common contaminant of indwelling catheters, it is theorized that a common infection pathway for this organism is via shedding of aggregates off of biofilm colonies.

  16. Mycoplasma pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000082.htm Mycoplasma pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mycoplasma pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by ...

  17. Pneumonia (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of ...

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae arginine synthesis genes promote growth and virulence in pneumococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Piet; M. Geldhoff; B.D.C. van Schaik; M.C. Brouwer; M. Valls Seron; M.E. Jakobs; K. Schipper; Y. Pannekoek; A.H. Zwinderman; T. van der Poll; A.H.C. van Kampen; F. Baas; A van der Ende; D. van de Beek

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and bacterial meningitis. Using a clinical phenotype based approach with bacterial whole-genome sequencing we identified pneumococcal arginine biosynthesis genes to be associated with outcome in patients with

  19. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Eric W.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Chelius, Marisa K.

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  20. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korppi, M.; Kiekara, O.; Kosma, T.H.; Soimakallio, S. (Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland))

    1993-04-01

    61 children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar or interstitial pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral, mixed viral-bacterial or bacterial infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7, mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 and bacterial infection alone in 12 of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13, 13 and 8 for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l in 15 of the patients with alveolar and in 11 of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. The results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. It is concluded that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    61 children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar or interstitial pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral, mixed viral-bacterial or bacterial infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7, mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 and bacterial infection alone in 12 of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13, 13 and 8 for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l in 15 of the patients with alveolar and in 11 of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. The results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. It is concluded that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  2. 血清降钙素原检测在新生儿细菌性肺炎中的临床意义%The Clinical Signiifcance of Serum Level of Procalcitonin in Diagnosis of Neonatal Bacterial Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭长英; 崔亚利

    2016-01-01

    目的探究血清降钙素原(Procalcitonin,PCT)检测在新生儿细菌性肺炎早期诊断中的临床应用。方法回顾性分析2015年5~7月,华西第二医院新生儿科确诊的新生儿肺炎细菌感染组49例,非细菌感染38例,检测血清降钙素原,观察阳性率及其在新生儿细菌性肺炎早期诊断中的应用价值。结果新生儿肺炎细菌感染组及非细菌感染组降钙素原阳性率差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),在新生儿细菌性肺炎早期诊断中具有临床应用价值。结论降钙素原检测能鉴别细菌性炎症与非细菌性炎症反应,在新生儿细菌性肺炎早期诊断中具有指导意义,能够判断细菌感染的严重程度及预后,以便指导临床抗生的合理应用。%Objective To explore the clinical signiifcance of serum level of procalcitonin in the diagnosis of neonatal bacterial pneumonia. Methods Select 49 cases as newborn pneumonia bacterial infection group, and 38 cases as non-bacterial infection group, which used as control group, all the serum procalcitonin data were got from department of laboratory medicine, west china second university hospital, sichuan university, from May to July in 2015. Results Neonatal pneumonia bacteria infection and the non-bacterial infection group procalcitonin original positive rate were signiifcant (P<0.05). Conclusion Procalcitonin can be used to identify bacterial inlfammation and non-bacterial inlfammatory reaction, and to determine the severity and prognosis of bacterial infection in order to guide the rational use of antibiotics.

  3. Granzyme A impairs host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Vernooy, Juanita H; Medema, Jan P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Endeman, Henrik; Biesma, Douwe H; Boon, Louis; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Granzyme A (GzmA) is a serine protease produced by a variety of cell types involved in the immune response. We sought to determine the role of GzmA on the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. GzmA was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from CAP patients from the infected and contralateral uninfected side and in lung tissue slides from CAP patients and controls. In CAP patients, GzmA levels were increased in BALF obtained from the infected lung. Human lungs showed constitutive GzmA expression by both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. In an experimental setting, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and GzmA-deficient (GzmA(-/-)) mice by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae In separate experiments, WT and GzmA(-/-) mice were treated with natural killer (NK) cell depleting antibodies. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, GzmA(-/-) mice showed a better survival and lower bacterial counts in BALF and distant body sites compared with WT mice. Although NK cells showed strong GzmA expression, NK cell depletion did not influence bacterial loads in either WT or GzmA(-/-) mice. These results implicate that GzmA plays an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism that does not depend on NK cells. PMID:27343190

  4. Viral pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off infection. Vaccines may help prevent pneumonia in children, the elderly, and people with diabetes, asthma, emphysema , HIV, cancer, or other chronic conditions. A drug called palivizumab ( ...

  5. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    OpenAIRE

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi; Valeria Barbosa Moreira; Angela Santos Ferreira; Selma M. De A. Sias; Rodrigues, Cristovão C.; Graça Helena M. do C. Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to pr...

  6. Bacterial Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Köhle, Ülkü; Kükner, Şahap

    2003-01-01

    Conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva, generally characterized by irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing and discharge. Bacterial conjunctivitis may be distinguished from other types of conjunctivitis by the presence of yellow–white mucopurulent discharge. It is the most common form of ocular infection all around the world. Staphylococcus species are the most common bacterial pathogenes, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus i...

  7. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Ventilation Associated Pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Diosdado Iraola Ferrer; Belkys Rodríguez Llerena.; Héctor Cruz de los Santos.; Eddy Pereira Valdés

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Ventilation Associated Pneumonia. Conceptualized as the bacterial pneumonia that develops in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours, which is not present at the beginning of the ventilation. We review the concept, prevention and treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  8. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Respiratory Isolate IA565

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeremiah G.; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Sandhu, Sukhinder K.; Matson, Jyl S

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a clinically significant opportunistic bacterial pathogen as well as a normal member of the human microbiota. K. pneumoniae strain IA565 was isolated from a tracheal aspirate at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Here, we present the genome sequence of K. pneumoniae IA565.

  9. [Lipoid pneumonia - an underestimated syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiblmair, M; Berghaus, T; Haeckel, T; Wagner, T; Scheidt, W von

    2010-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia, first described by Laughlen 1925 may be classified as endogenous or exogenous. The endogenous form is seen when fat is deposited into the lung tissue. It is usually associated with proximal obstructive lesions, necrotic tissue after radio- or chemotherapy, with lipid storage disease or hyperlipidemia . Exogenous lipoid pneumonia results from inhaling or aspirating animal, vegetable or mineral oil. There are usually some underlying neurological defects or esophageal abnormalities. Patients may present with cough, sputum, hemoptysis and chest pain or may be asymptomatic. There is no classic chest film appearance: it may appear as diffuse airspace infiltration or localized consolidation simulating tumour. Computed tomography is diagnostically helpful and shows hypodense areas measuring from -100 to - 30 Hounsfield units. Bronchoscopic biopsies are mandatory for histological confirmation of the diagnosis. Treatment of exogenous lipoid pneumonia has always been conservative by discontinuing the use of oil, correction of underlying defects that may favor aspiration and treatment of intercurrent pneumonia. Other measures, for example corticosteroid therapy, are of uncertain benefit. Complications of lipoid pneumonia that worsen prognosis are recurrent bacterial pneumonias including nontuberculous mycobacteria or aspergillus, or lung cancer that has developed in areas of pre-existing exogenous lipoid pneumonia. PMID:20024881

  10. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  11. Efficiency of vanilla, patchouli and ylang ylang essential oils stabilized by iron oxide@C14 nanostructures against bacterial adherence and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilcu, Maxim; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Popescu, Roxana Cristina; Mogoșanu, George Dan; Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, George A; Mihailescu, Dan Florin; Lazar, Veronica; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14) in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h) and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties. PMID:25375335

  12. Efficiency of Vanilla, Patchouli and Ylang Ylang Essential Oils Stabilized by Iron Oxide@C14 Nanostructures against Bacterial Adherence and Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Bilcu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14 in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties.

  13. Repertoire of intensive care unit pneumonia microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Bousbia

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs. During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls. Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥ 98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77 ± 2.93. Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented.

  14. Value research of procalcitonin in the identification between bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis%降钙素原在细菌性肺炎及肺结核中的鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹义平; 胡苏萍; 杨澄清; 李雪英

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过测定细菌性肺炎及肺结核患者血清降钙素原水平进一步探讨降钙素原对这两种疾病的鉴别诊断价值.方法 收集细菌性肺炎患者(20例)及肺结核患者(21例)血清标本,两组患者病情严重程度达到系统性炎症反应综合征(SIRS)水平,采用免疫荧光法分别检测两组患者血清降钙素原水平,并进行比较,绘制ROC曲线,根据曲线下面积评价降钙素原对上述两种疾病的鉴别诊断价值.结果 细菌性肺炎患者血清降钙素原水平明显高于肺结核患者(P<0.05),绘制ROC曲线后,曲线下面积(AUC)为0.923,95%可信区间为(0.844,1.000),在临界值为0.20 ng/ml时,其灵敏度为85%,特异度为86%.结论 降钙素原在临界值为0.20 ng/ml时,对达到SIRS水平的细菌性肺炎及肺结核患者具有良好的鉴别诊断价值.%Objective To explore the differential value of procalcitonin between bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods The serum procalcitonin of patients with bacterial pneumonia ( 20 cases ) and pulmonary tuberculosis (21 cases ) was detected by immunofluorescence and then compared. All patients were suffering from systemic inflammatory response syndrome ( SIRS ). HOC curves were described and the differential value of procalcitonin was evaluated according to AUG. Results The level of serum procalcitonin was significantly higher in patients with bacterial pneumonia than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis ( P < 0. 05 ). The AUC of ROC curve was 0.923, 95% Cl ( 0. 844, 1.000 ). At the cut-off value of 0.20 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 85% , and the specificity was 86 % . Conclusion When the level of procalcitonin reaches the cut-off value of 0. 20 ng/ml, procalcitonin can be used as a valuable clinical inflammatory marker to differentiate bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis with SIRS.

  15. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  16. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-udløst autoimmun hæmolyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anne Lisbeth; Aagaard, Thomas Granum; Birgens, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is naturally resistant to betalactamase antibiotics but is sensitive to macrolides. Occasionally, infections with M. pneumoniae can lead to severe anaemia due to its ability to cause haemolysis when cold agglutination occurs. Increasing bacterial resistance to macrolid...

  17. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korppi, M; Kiekara, O; Heiskanen-Kosma, T; Soimakallio, S

    1993-04-01

    Sixty-one children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar (n = 27) or interstitial (n = 34) pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral (n = 20), mixed viral-bacterial (n = 21) or bacterial (n = 20) infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7 (26%), mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 (30%) and bacterial infection alone in 12 (44%) of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13 (38%), 13 (38%) and 8 (24%) for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l (a screening limit for viral and bacterial infections) in 15 (56%) of the patients with alveolar and in 11 (32%) of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. Our results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. We conclude that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. PMID:8318803

  18. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  19. Atypical pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis . 2007;44:S27-S72. PMID: 17278083 ... by: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Perelman ...

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibits Activated Human T Lymphocyte Proliferation by the Induction of Apoptotic and Pyroptotic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares-Zavaleta, Norma; Carmody, Aaron; Messer, Ronald; Whitmire, William M.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an omnipresent obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects numerous host species. C. pneumoniae infections of humans are a common cause of community acquired pneumonia but have also been linked to chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and asthma. Persistent infection and immune avoidance are believed to play important roles in the pathophysiology of C. pneumoniae disease. We found that C. pneumoniae organisms inhibited activated but ...

  1. 不同分期的慢性肾病并发细菌性肺炎的患者降钙素原的表达差异分析%The Analysis of Difference Expression of Procalcitonin in Patients with Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease Complicating with Bacterial Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐革

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较慢性肾病( chronic kidney disease,CKD)并发细菌性肺炎患者( bacterial pneumonia,BP)﹑BP患者以及CKD患者的降钙素( procalcitonin,PCT)表达差异,探讨CKD患者的PCT的基础水平及CKD病程对PCT表达水平的影响。方法回顾性分析并比较CKD、BP、CKD并发BP患者PCT的表达水平,不同慢性肾衰竭分期合并细菌性肺炎患者PCT的表达差异。结果 CKD并发BP组与BP组感染细菌类型差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。 CKD并发BP患者﹑CKD﹑BP患者血清PCT表达差异明显,且明显高于PCT对于细菌感染的阳性临界值0.1ng/mL。 CKD并发BP组与CKD组中的组内PCT表达差异有统计学意义(P0. 05 ); patients with chronic nephropathy complicating bacterial pneumonia, chronic kidney disease, bacterial pneumonia patients serum PCT expression is obviously different,and significantly higher than that of PCT for positive critical value of 0. 1ng/ml bacteriainfection. The expression of PCT 3 CDK compliacting with bacterial pneumonia in patients with chronic ne-phropathy group within the groupdifferences are significant ( P<0. 01 ) . Chronic nephropathy group bacterial pneumonia group, there are differences in the expression level of PCT CKD2period,and the highest expression level in the CKD5 period,chronicne-phropathy group have the same performance. Conclusion Chronic kidney disease on the expression of PCT had a certain influ-ence;chronic kidney disease in patients with bacterial pneumonia,previousPCT diagnosis of bacterial infection of the critical value of the need for appropriate consider raising,avoid excessive use of antibiotics.

  2. Pneumonia in pre-school children : Terveysnetti

    OpenAIRE

    Mbugua, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is an illness, usually caused by bacterial, viral or more rarely fungal organisms. Common symptoms in children and infants include difficult breathing, cough, and wheezing. Diagnosis involves confirmatory chest radiography and laboratory tests. Antibiotics are the preferred choice for treatment and management. Risks factors include low paternal education, low birth weight, lack of breastfeeding. Key strategies for the prevention of childhood pneumonia are community –based case manag...

  3. Female resistance to pneumonia identifies lung macrophage nitric oxide synthase-3 as a therapeutic target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiping; Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Koziel, Henry;

    2014-01-01

    ). Epidemiologic data show decreased hospitalization for pneumonia in women receiving estrogen or statins (known to activate NOS3). Pharmacologic targeting of NOS3 with statins or another small-molecule compound (AVE3085) enhanced macrophage bacterial killing, improved bacterial clearance, and increased host...... survival in both primary and secondary (post-influenza) pneumonia. The data identify a novel mechanism for host defense via NOS3 and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza....

  4. Influence of Klebsiella pneumoniae CRP protein on bacterial adhesion and virulence in vitro%肺炎克雷伯菌转录调控子CRP对菌株粘附能力及细胞活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭斌; 白群华; 罗美; 杨世亚; 薛健; 周锡鹏; 李迎丽; 邱景富

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the adhesion and cell virulence of Klebsiella pneumonia wild type (WT) strain,complemented strain c-Δcrp (cAMP receptor protein) and mutant strain Δcrp,in order to investigate crp gene on the adhesion and cell toxicity of Klebsiella pneumonia.Methods After infection of A549 cells by Klebsiella pneumonia WT strain,c-Δcrp strain and Δcrp strain,the cells were lysed and the bacteria were quantified by plating appropriate dilutions on Luria-Bertani agar plates.LDH release was detected to estimate cell activity.Infection time and MOI were optimized.Results The adhesion ability of Klebsiella pneumonia WT (logCFU =5.145) and c-Δcrp strain (logCFU =4.915) was higher than that of Δcrp strain (logCFU =4.122) (P =0.004).The optimal conditions to determinate the LDH release included infected cells incubation for 8 h at 37 ℃,the developing time for 10 min in dark,and 1:10 dilution of the supernatant for test.The virulence of WT strain (70.69%) was significantly higher than that of Δcrp strain (19.54%) (P=0.001).Conclusion Knocking-out of crp gene causes obvious decrease of cellular toxicity and adhesion,comparing with the WT strain and c-Δcrp strain.Klebsiella pneumonia CRP protein positively regulates bacterial virulence and adhesion.%目的 分析肺炎克雷伯菌临床分离株WT(wild type)、回补株(c-Δcrp)和突变株(Δcrp)对人肺癌上皮细胞A549细胞的粘附能力及细胞活性的影响.方法 肺炎克雷伯菌WT株、c-Δcrp株和Δcrp株感染人肺癌上皮细胞A549,经裂解液裂解后平板计数计算粘附的菌量.LDH释放法检测细菌对细胞的毒性,优化感染时间和感染指数.结果 WT株及c-Δcrp株粘附的菌量分别为logCFU=5.145和logCFU=4.915,均高于Δcrp株(logCFU=4.122),差异有统计学意义(F=8.366,P=0.004).以MOI=1 000(细菌∶细胞=1000)的菌量感染靶细胞,37℃孵育8h,加底物液避光显色10 min,离心所得上清稀释10倍进行测定为最佳反应条件.WT

  5. Global Dissemination of blaKPC into Bacterial Species beyond Klebsiella pneumoniae and In Vitro Susceptibility to Ceftazidime-Avibactam and Aztreonam-Avibactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hackel, Meredith; Rabine, Sharon; de Jonge, Boudewijn L M; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Sahm, Daniel F; Bradford, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), first described in the United States in 1996, is now a widespread global problem in several Gram-negative species. A worldwide surveillance study collected Gram-negative pathogens from 202 global sites in 40 countries during 2012 to 2014 and determined susceptibility to β-lactams and other class agents by broth microdilution testing. Molecular mechanisms of β-lactam resistance among carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined using PCR and sequencing. Genes encoding KPC enzymes were found in 586 isolates from 22 countries (76 medical centers), including countries in the Asia-Pacific region (32 isolates), Europe (264 isolates), Latin America (210 isolates), and the Middle East (19 isolates, Israel only) and the United States (61 isolates). The majority of isolates were K. pneumoniae (83.4%); however, KPC was detected in 13 additional species. KPC-2 (69.6%) was more common than KPC-3 (29.5%), with regional variation observed. A novel KPC variant, KPC-18 (KPC-3[V8I]), was identified during the study. Few antimicrobial agents tested remained effective in vitro against KPC-producing isolates, with ceftazidime-avibactam (MIC90, 4 μg/ml), aztreonam-avibactam (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), and tigecycline (MIC90, 2 μg/ml) retaining the greatest activity against Enterobacteriaceae cocarrying KPC and other β-lactamases, whereas colistin (MIC90, 2 μg/ml) demonstrated the greatest in vitro activity against KPC-positive P. aeruginosa This analysis of surveillance data demonstrated that KPC is widely disseminated. KPC was found in multiple species of Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa and has now become a global problem. PMID:27161636

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body Some lung ... walking pneumonia), are caused by an organism called Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is spread from person to person ...

  7. FastStats: Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Pneumonia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Mortality data Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Pneumonia American Lung Association : Pneumonia Get Email Updates To ...

  8. What Is Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia (nu-MO-ne-ah) is an infection in ... such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi—can cause pneumonia. The infection inflames your lungs' air sacs, which ...

  9. Miliary pattern in neonatal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have seen 10 newborn babies who developed respiratory distress and whose chest radiographs showed a miliary nodular pattern of disease. Of these infants only 3 had blood cultures that were positive for staphylococcus aureus. Of the remaining 7, 2 had conjunctivitis from which staphylococcus aureus was cultured, 4 had negative cultures and 1 did not have a blood culture done. All patients were diagnosed as having bacterial pneumonia and appeared to respond favourably to antibiotic therapy. The pulmonary abnormalities resolved. The children were clinically well in less than 3 weeks. The author suggests that the miliary pattern is one of the radiological patterns of neonatal pneumonia possibly produced by hematogenous bacterial dissemination. (orig.)

  10. Pneumonia in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Maccato

    1995-01-01

    Pneumonia complicating pregnancy requires a prompt diagnosis and the institution of adequate supportive and antimicrobial therapy. In a patient with a classic presentation of pneumonia, the most likely pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. In a patient with an atypical presentation of pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are frequently encountered. In a patient suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Pneumocystis carinii is t...

  11. Attenuation of the bacterial load in blood by pretreatment with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor protects rats from fatal outcome and brain damage during Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian T; Lundgren, Jens D; Lund, Søren Peter;

    2004-01-01

    to the infection compared to that for untreated rats (P = 0.039 by the log rank test). The improved outcome was associated with reduced signs of cerebral cortical damage (P = 0.008). Furthermore, the beneficial effects of G-CSF were associated with reduced bacterial loads in the cerebrospinal fluid...... meningitis result in reduced risks of death and brain damage. This beneficial effect is most likely achieved through improved control of the systemic disease....

  12. Association of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and childhood asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YADAV Shakti Nrisingh; GAUTAM Mahesh Kumar; JIANG Li

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in both children and adults.It can cause pharyngitis, otitis, tracheobronchitis, or community-acquired pneumonia, but may also remain totally asymptomatic.Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an organism that reportedly has a strong relationship to asthma.The role of atypical bacterial infection in the pathogenesis of asthma is a subject of continuing debate. There is an increasing body of literature concerning the association between Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( M. pneumoniae) and asthma pathogenesis.Moreover, many studies investigating such a link have been uncontrolled and have provided conflicting evidence, in part due to the difficulty in accurately diagnosing infection with these atypical pathogens. Large, general population-based prospective studies are necessary to investigate the development of asthma induced by M. pneumoniae infection in humans. This manuscript will review the relationship between M.pneumoniae infection and childhood asthma.

  13. Pneumonia due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus and Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotype K16 in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Pei-Lin; Tan, Che-Kim; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Kao, Chiang-Lian; Wang, Jin-Town; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptoccocus, but no Klebsiella pneumoniae were responsible for bacterial coinfections during the 2009 and previous influenza pandemics. We hereby report a case with concurrent bacteremic pneumonia due to an unusual capsular serotype K16 K. pneumoniae and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer. Such a coinfection has not previously been described. PMID:22153762

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain A026, a Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Isolate Carrying Tn2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Zhihai; Zhou, Wenqing; Yao, Kaihu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Gang; Yang, Yonghong; Feng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a primary cause of bacterial infection in humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. pneumoniae strain A026, which is a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from cerebrospinal fluid.

  15. Drop Analysis in Infants with Bacterial Pneumonia in the Diagnosis of Procalcitonin Detection and Blood Culture%降钙素原检测与血培养在婴幼儿细菌性肺炎诊断中的作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the procalcitonin and blood culture results in the diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia in infants.Methods Choose 36 cases of infants with bacterial pneumonia,fasting blood,for procalcitonin detection,blood culture,the comparison results.Results Procalcitonin blood culture positive rate was 52.78%;the total positive rate was 25%.Conclusion In the diagnosis of infantile bacterial pneumonia,procalcitonin has more advantage.%目的对比降钙素原与血培养在婴幼儿细菌性肺炎诊断中效果。方法选取婴幼儿细菌性肺炎患儿36例,抽取空腹静脉血,行降钙素原、血培养检测,对比结果。结果降钙素原阳性率为52.78%;血培养总阳性率为25.00%。结论在婴幼儿细菌性肺炎诊断中,降钙素原检测具有更大的优势。

  16. Complete genome sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from a known cotton insect boll vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (associated with bacterial pneumonia) was previously isolated from Nezara viridula, a significant vector of cotton boll-rot pathogens. We provide the first annotated genome sequence of the cotton opportunistic strain K. pneumoniae 5-1. This data provides guidance to study the...

  17. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Achouiti

    Full Text Available Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/- and normal wild-type (Wt mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated-if any-cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS.

  18. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouiti, Ahmed; de Vos, Alex F; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Tanck, Michael W; Nawroth, Peter P; Bierhaus, Angelika; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A D

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/-) and normal wild-type (Wt) mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated-if any-cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous) RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS. PMID:26824892

  19. The radiological diagnosis of pneumonia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry-Ann F O'Grady

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of paediatric pneumonia as a cause of short and long-term morbidity and mortality worldwide, a reliable gold standard for its diagnosis remains elusive. The utility of clinical, microbiological and radiological diagnostic approaches varies widely within and between populations and is heavily dependent on the expertise and resources available in various settings. Here we review the role of radiology in the diagnosis of paediatric pneumonia. Chest radiographs (CXRs are the most widely employed test, however, they are not indicated in ambulatory settings, cannot distinguish between viral and bacterial infections and have a limited role in the ongoing management of disease. A standardised definition of alveolar pneumonia on a CXR exists for epidemiological studies targeting bacterial pneumonias but it should not be extrapolated to clinical settings. Radiography, computed tomography and to a lesser extent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in complicated pneumonias but there are limitations that preclude their use as routine diagnostic tools. Large population-based studies are needed in different populations to address many of the knowledge gaps in the radiological diagnosis of pneumonia in children, however, the feasibility of such studies is an important barrier.

  20. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae caused different microbial structure and correlation network in lung microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heping; Dai, Wenkui; Qiu, Chuangzhao; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Wenjian; Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhichuan; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Yuzheng; Yang, Zhenyu; Feng, Xin; Zhou, Qian; Han, Lijuan; Li, Yinhu; Zheng, Yuejie

    2016-06-01

    Pneumonia is one of the most serious diseases for children, with which lung microbiota are proved to be associated. We performed 16S rDNA analysis on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for 32 children with tracheomalacia (C group), pneumonia infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) (D1 group) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) (D2 group). Children with tracheomalacia held lower microbial diversity and accumulated Lactococcus (mean ± SD, 45.21%±5.07%, P value Mycoplasma (0.67%±1.25%, P value <0.01) respectively. Bacterial correlation in C group was mainly intermediated by Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. Whilst, D1 group harbored simplest microbial correlation in three groups, and D2 group held the most complicated network, involving enriched Staphylococcus (0.26%±0.71%), Massilia (0.81%±2.42%). This will be of significance for understanding pneumonia incidence and progression more comprehensively, and discerning between bacterial infection and carriage. PMID:27293852

  1. Lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampara Guarachi, Gladis Isabel; Barbosa Moreira, Valeria; Santos Ferreira, Angela; Sias, Selma M De A; Rodrigues, Cristovão C; Teixeira, Graça Helena M do C

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O) evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement. PMID:25374742

  2. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement.

  3. Complement resistance mechanisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorduijn, Dennis J; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; van Schaik, Willem; Bardoel, Bart W

    2016-10-01

    The current emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causes major problems in hospitals worldwide. To survive within the host, bacterial pathogens exploit several escape mechanisms to prevent detection and killing by the immune system. As a major player in immune defense, the complement system recognizes and destroys bacteria via different effector mechanisms. The complement system can label bacteria for phagocytosis or directly kill Gram-negative bacteria via insertion of a pore-forming complex in the bacterial membrane. The multi-drug resistant pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae exploits several mechanisms to resist complement. In this review, we present an overview of strategies used by K. pneumoniae to prevent recognition and killing by the complement system. Understanding these complement evasion strategies is crucial for the development of innovative strategies to combat K. pneumoniae. PMID:27364766

  4. R-roscovitine Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Lipoteichoic Acid and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Duitman, JanWillem; van Lieshout, Miriam H. P.; Blok, Dana C; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. The gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important proinflammatory component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall. R-roscovitine, a purine analog, is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, −2, −5 and −7 inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis. We ...

  5. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia associated with radiation: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    NOGI, SACHIKA; NAKAYAMA, HIDETSUGU; TAJIMA, YU; Okubo, Mitsuru; MIKAMI, RYUJI; Sugahara, Shinji; Akata, Soichi; TOKUUYE, KOICHI

    2013-01-01

    Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) following radiotherapy is occasionally diagnosed as radiation pneumonitis or bacterial pneumonia. The current study presents two cases of COP following radiotherapy: A 48-year-old premenopausal female with breast cancer and an 84-year-old male with non-small cell lung cancer. In the cases of breast cancer and lung cancer, patients were first diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia and radiation pneumonitis, respectively. In the two cases, computed tomography ...

  6. Alcohol abuse and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections: Consideration of Virulence Factors and Impaired Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatty, Minny; Pruett, Stephen B.; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance in the world. Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption have diverse and well documented effects on the human immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections like bacterial pneumonia. S. pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of community acquired pneumonia world-wide. The frequency and severity of pneumococcal infections in individuals with a history of alcohol abuse is much higher than the general population. Despit...

  7. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  8. Neonatal herpes simplex pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lissauer, T J; Shaw, P. J.; Underhill, G

    1984-01-01

    A neonate with herpes simplex pneumonia is described. Herpes simplex infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pneumonia in newborn infants, even in the absence of clinically apparent herpes in the mother.

  9. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/000093.htm Pneumonia - weakened immune system To use the sharing features on this page, ... off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in ...

  10. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In the hospital, your doctors and nurses helped you breathe better. ... body get rid of the germs that cause pneumonia. They also made sure you got enough liquids ...

  11. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 515 Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP) WHAT IS PCP? HOW IS PCP TREATED? ... BEST? THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS PCP? Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP or pneumocystis) is the most common opportunistic ...

  12. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumocystis Pneumonia Print A A A Text Size What's in ... article? About PCP Diagnosing PCP Treating PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci , ...

  13. Epidemiology and Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Steven; Murphy, Caitlin N

    2016-02-01

    Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae are frequently opportunistic pathogens implicated in urinary tract and catheter-associated urinary-tract infections of hospitalized patients and compromised individuals. Infections are particularly difficult to treat since most clinical isolates exhibit resistance to several antibiotics leading to treatment failure and the possibility of systemic dissemination. Infections of medical devices such as urinary catheters is a major site of K. pneumoniae infections and has been suggested to involve the formation of biofilms on these surfaces. Over the last decade there has been an increase in research activity designed to investigate the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae in the urinary tract. These investigations have begun to define the bacterial factors that contribute to growth and biofilm formation. Several virulence factors have been demonstrated to mediate K. pneumoniae infectivity and include, but are most likely not limited to, adherence factors, capsule production, lipopolysaccharide presence, and siderophore activity. The development of both in vitro and in vivo models of infection will lead to further elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae. As for most opportunistic infections, the role of host factors as well as bacterial traits are crucial in determining the outcome of infections. In addition, multidrug-resistant strains of these bacteria have become a serious problem in the treatment of Klebsiella infections and novel strategies to prevent and inhibit bacterial growth need to be developed. Overall, the frequency, significance, and morbidity associated with K. pneumoniae urinary tract infections have increased over many years. The emergence of these bacteria as sources of antibiotic resistance and pathogens of the urinary tract present a challenging problem for the clinician in terms of management and treatment of individuals. PMID:26999397

  14. Radiological diagnosis of pneumonia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekara, O; Korppi, M; Tanska, S; Soimakallio, S

    1996-02-01

    During 12 months in 1981-82, 201 children were hospitalized due to radiologically verified definite or probable pneumonia. In 1985, 194 chest radiographs (anteroposterior views) were re-evaluated jointly by two radiologists, and classified into three categories: alveolar, interstitial and probable pneumonia. In 127 cases definite pneumonia was diagnosed on both occasions, alveolar in 48 cases and interstitial in 79 cases. Variation between the two evaluations 3 years apart was observed in 46 (24%) of the 194 cases; the adjusted kappa (0.47) was in the modest region. Factors contributing to this variation were young age, less than 12 months, and the presence of interstitial infiltration, bronchial obstruction and low C-reactive protein. Factors associated with less marked variation were the presence of alveolar infiltration, auscultatory fine rates and elevated C-reactive protein. The microbial aetiology of infection, assessed by viral and bacterial antigen and antibody assays, showed no association with diagnostic variation. A lateral view of the chest radiograph was obtained from 158 patients; it was positive in 99 (91%) of the 109 cases with definite pneumonia. In only three cases the diagnosis was based on the lateral view alone. Our results show that the radiological diagnosis of pneumonia is difficult in children, especially in young children with interstitial pneumonia. PMID:8932509

  15. Role of Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-Containing (NOD 2 in Host Defense during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijmen J Hommes

    Full Text Available Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing (NOD 2 is a pattern recognition receptor located in the cytosol of myeloid cells that is able to detect peptidoglycan fragments of S. pneumoniae. We here aimed to investigate the role of NOD2 in the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. Phagocytosis of S. pneumoniae was studied in NOD2 deficient (Nod2-/- and wild-type (Wt alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in vitro. In subsequent in vivo experiments Nod2-/- and Wt mice were inoculated with serotype 2 S. pneumoniae (D39, an isogenic capsule locus deletion mutant (D39Δcps or serotype 3 S. pneumoniae (6303 via the airways, and bacterial growth and dissemination and the lung inflammatory response were evaluated. Nod2-/- alveolar macrophages and blood neutrophils displayed a reduced capacity to internalize pneumococci in vitro. During pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae D39 Nod2-/- mice were indistinguishable from Wt mice with regard to bacterial loads in lungs and distant organs, lung pathology and neutrophil recruitment. While Nod2-/- and Wt mice also had similar bacterial loads after infection with the more virulent S. pneumoniae 6303 strain, Nod2-/- mice displayed a reduced bacterial clearance of the normally avirulent unencapsulated D39Δcps strain. These results suggest that NOD2 does not contribute to host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia and that the pneumococcal capsule impairs recognition of S. pneumoniae by NOD2.

  16. Identification of putative plant pathogenic determinants from a draft genome sequence of an opportunistic klebsiella pneumoniae strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has been known historically as a causal agent of bacterial pneumonia. More recently, K. pneumoniaerepresentatives have been shown to have a broad ecological distribution and are recognized nitrogen-fixers. Previously, we demonstrated the capacity of K. pneumoniae strain Kp 5-1R...

  17. Respiratory Review of 2012: Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Young-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, despite advances in diagnosis and antibacterial treatment. Pneumonia is often misdiagnosed and mistreated up until recently. Recent classification of pneumonia consists of community-acquired pneumonia, health care-associated pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The etiology, risk factors, and treatment are different among them. This article briefly introduces new concepts and ideas in biomar...

  18. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth Donald R; Bagaitkar Juhi; Scott David A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacteri...

  19. Pneumonia in HIV-infected persons: increased risk with cigarette smoking and treatment interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordin, Fred M; Roediger, Mollie P; Girard, Pierre-Marie;

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity for HIV-infected persons and contributes to excess mortality in this population. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors for occurrence of bacterial pneumonia in the present era of potent antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We...... evaluated data from a randomized trial of episodic antiretroviral therapy. The study, Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy, enrolled 5,472 participants at 318 sites in 33 countries. Study patients had more than 350 CD4 cells at baseline. Diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was confirmed by a...... blinded clinical-events committee. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 16 months, 116 participants (2.2%) developed at least one episode of bacterial pneumonia. Patients randomized to receive episodic antiretroviral therapy were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia than...

  20. Binding and entry of DNA in bacterial transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    Bacterial transformation in relation to DNA transport and competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called Diplococcus pneumoniae) is discussed. This species will serve as a model with which to compare transformation in other bacterial species, particularly Bacillus subtilis and Haemophilus influenzae, with emphasis on the many similarities as well as differences.

  1. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  2. Risk factors for cefotaxime resistance in children with pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Made Sucipta; Ida Bagus Subanada; Samik Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a health problem in developing countries, often caused by bacterial agents. The widespread use of cefotaxime, a third-generation of cephalosporin to increased incidence of resistance to this antibiotic. Several studies have reported on risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime. Objective To oidentify risk factors for cefoxime resistence in children with pneumonia. Methods We performed a case-control study at Sanglah Hospital between January 2006-Dec...

  3. STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE KERATITIS FOLLOWING LASER IN SITU KERATOMILEUSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A 22-year-old man underwent bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis and developed Streptococcus pneumoniae keratitis after surgery.This complication occurred one day after the procedure in both eyes.Topical and systemic antibiotics were promptly administered.Bacterial culture was performed following corneal flap lift and scraping of the lesions.Afterwards,the therapeutic regimen was readjusted according to the culture results.Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified from the culture.Three months after the sur...

  4. The History of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    In the United States in the 1930s, although the pathogen was not known, atypical pneumonia was clinically distinguished from pneumococcal pneumonia by its resistance to sulfonamides. Reimann (1938) reported seven patients with an unusual form of tracheo bronchopneumonia and severe constitutional symptoms. He believed the clinical picture of this disease differed from that of the disease caused by influenza viruses or known bacteria and instead suspected "primary atypical pneumonia." For many years, the responsible infectious agent was tentatively classified as a filterable virus that could pass through a Seitz filter to remove bacteria and was reported to be a psittacosis-like or new virus. After that, Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) identified an agent that was the principal cause of primary atypical pneumonia using cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos. Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) did not perform an inoculation study in human volunteers. During the 1940s, there were three groups engaged in discovering the etiology of the primary atypical pneumonia. (1) Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases Diseases directed by John Dingle, (2) Dr. Monroe Eaton's group, the Virus Research Laboratory of the California State Public Health Department, (3) The Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research directed by Horsfall. During 1940s, the members of the Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases concluded that the bacteria-free filtrates obtained from the patients, presumably containing a virus, could induce primary atypical pneumonia in human volunteers via Pinehurst trials. During 1950s, serological approaches for identification of the Eaton agent developed such as Fluorescent-Stainable Antibody, and at the beginning of the1960s, the Eaton agent successfully grew in media, and finally accepted as a cause of primary atypical pneumonia. Thus, technical difficulties with visualizing the agent and failure to recognize the full significance of the Pinehurst

  5. [Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Current data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguet, C; Bocquel, N; Mallet, E

    1998-01-01

    Viruses, particularly syncitial respiratory virus, are the main aetiology of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in infants, while bacterial agents are more frequently responsible in children older than 3 years. Antimicrobial therapy must take into account the development of reduced susceptibility of penicillin to strains of Streptoccocus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae with beta-lactamase, and high frequency of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. Although the mortality rate has remained low in France, the morbidity appeared to increase in recent years. PMID:10223154

  6. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, Pbacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with disease status remains a question for future research. PMID:26151645

  7. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...

  8. [Therapy-resistant pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, Andreas; Schäfer, Stephan Christian; Geiser, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    We report the case of a 72 year old patient with B-symptoms and a persistent pulmonary infiltrate despite an antibiotic therapy. Buds of granulation tissue were found by transbronchial biopsy proving an organizing pneumonia. B-Symptoms and pulmonary infiltrate were improved immediately by a therapy with steroids. Even though there were reasons for a secondary organizing pneumonia due to a known chronic lymphocytic leukemia and a pneumonia treated four months before, we consider a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia as most probable. PMID:25305119

  9. Update on interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Lascola, Kara M

    2015-04-01

    Interstitial pneumonias encompass a wide variety of acute and chronic respiratory diseases and include the specific diseases equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis and acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress. These diseases have been diagnosed in all age groups of horses, and numerous agents have been identified as potential causes of interstitial pneumonia. Despite the varied causes, interstitial pneumonia is uniformly recognized by the severity of respiratory disease and often poor clinical outcome. This article reviews the causal agents that have been associated with the development of interstitial pneumonia in horses. Pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and treatment options are discussed. PMID:25770067

  10. Mycobacterium fortuitum lipoid pneumonia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissinger, M K; Garber, J B; Fowlkes, N; Grooters, A M; Royal, A B; Gaunt, S D

    2015-03-01

    A 1-year old female spayed German Shepherd dog was evaluated for acute onset of dyspnea. Pyogranulomatous inflammation and green globoid structures were present on aspirates of the affected lung. Impression smears and histopathology confirmed pyogranulomatous pneumonia, with large amounts of lipid corresponding to the green structures noted cytologically, and identified poorly staining bacterial rods within lipid vacuoles. Special stains confirmed the presence of acid-fast bacterial rods, and polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing identified the organism as Mycobacterium fortuitum. M. fortuitum pneumonia is well described in humans and has previously been reported in 4 dogs and 1 cat. Lipid was a prominent cytologic and histologic feature, as is often described in humans and in the single feline case report. Additionally, this case highlights the variable cytologic appearance of lipid, as well as Mycobacterium spp, which are classically nonstaining with Wright-Giemsa. PMID:24788402

  11. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Pneumonia Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors Anyone can get ... risk for pneumonia. What Are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Pneumonia symptoms can vary from mild to severe, ...

  12. 培养与聚合酶链反应联合进行住院患儿肺炎细菌病原学检测%Bacterial etiology of pneumonia in hospitalized children:combined detection with culture and polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑跃杰; 邓继岿; 赵瑞珍

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨细菌培养与病原特异性DNA联合检测住院患儿肺炎细菌病原的应用价值.方法对187例肺炎患儿的深部呼吸道吸引物进行肺炎链球菌、流感嗜血杆菌选择性培养和普通培养,并且对同一标本采用靶序列富集多重PCR(Tem-PCB)扩增结合Luminex液态芯片检测平台进行定量测定,检测肺炎链球菌、流感嗜血杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎克雷伯杆菌、大肠杆菌、嗜肺军团菌、绿脓杆菌、鲍曼不动杆菌等14种病原菌的特异性DNA.结果细菌培养的总检出率为40.1%(75/187,含3例检出2种病原菌),病原菌依次为流感嗜血杆菌17.1%、大肠杆菌8.6%、肺炎克雷伯杆菌6.4%、金黄色葡萄球菌4.8%、肺炎链球菌3.7%、绿脓杆菌1.6%、鲍曼不动杆菌1.1%和阴沟肠杆菌1.1%.以细菌培养或Tem-PCR任一阳性为标准,联合检测的总检出率为78.6%(147/187),病原菌依次为流感嗜血杆菌28.9%、肺炎链球菌19.3%、大肠杆菌8.6%、肺炎克雷伯杆菌6.4%、金黄色葡萄球菌5.9%、鲍曼不动杆菌5.9%、绿脓杆菌2.7%和阴沟肠杆菌1.1%.结论 Tem-PCR能提高流感嗜血杆菌、肺炎链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、绿脓杆菌和鲍曼不动杆菌的检出例数.细菌培养与病原特异性DNA联合检测应用能显著提高肺炎病原的检出率,可能更真实地反映肺炎的细菌病原学情况.%Objective Bacterial cultures from respiratory aspirate or sputum have been the conventional diagnostic method for neumonia,but the results of culture was often affected by early extensive rise of antibiotics,sample collection and delivery.The objective of this stuay was to explore application of the combined detection of culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in hospitalized children with pneumonia.Methods Totally 187 hospitalized children with pneumonia were enrolled.The age of the patients ranged from 1 month to 10 years,124 were male,63 female;175 of the patients receired

  13. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Schuijt, T. J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Scicluna, B.P.; Melo, E; Roelofs, J.J.; Boer, de, J.W.; Hoogendijk, A.J.; Beer, de, VHJ Vincent; De Vos; Belzer, C.; Poll, van der, T.; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. DESIGN: We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice ...

  14. A genomic approach to understand interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Leprohon, Philippe; Gingras, Hélène; Ouennane, Siham; Moineau, Sylvain; Ouellette, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacteriophage replication depends on bacterial proteins and inactivation of genes coding for such host factors should interfere with phage infection. To gain further insights into the interactions between S. pneumoniae and its pneumophages, we characterized S. pneumoniae mutants selected for resistance to the virulent phages SOCP or Dp-1. Results S. pneumoniae R6-SOCPR and R6-DP1R were highly resistant to the phage used for their selection and no cross-resistance between the two ph...

  15. Influenza Virus Infection Decreases Tracheal Mucociliary Velocity and Clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, Lynnelle A.; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Harmsen, Allen G.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza virus infections increase susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, such as pneumococcal pneumonia, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Influenza-induced tissue damage is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by increasing adherence to the respiratory epithelium. Using a mouse model of influenza infection followed by S. pneumoniae infection, we found that an influenza infection does not increase the number of pneumococci in...

  16. Bronchitis and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the difference between bronchitis and pneumonia? Bronchitis is most often a bacte- rial or viral infection that causes swelling of the tubes (bronchioles) leading to the lungs. Pneumonia is an acute or chronic disease marked by inflammation of the ...

  17. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Kaijalainen, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcus, is an importanthuman pathogen that causes both serious invasive infections, suchas septicaemia, meningitis and pneumonia, as well as mild upper respiratoryinfections. It also belongs to the normal nasopharyngeal microbialflora. The purpose of this study was to compare bacteriologicalphenotypic methods with genetechnological methods in the identificationof pneumococci, especially among suspect pneumococcal isolateslacking one or more typical ...

  18. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type of pneumonia is found in persons who have not recently been in the hospital or another health care facility such as a ...

  19. Osteopontin promotes host defense during Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.W. van der Windt; J.J. Hoogerwerf; A.F. de Vos; S. Florquin; T. van der Poll

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia. Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein involved in inflammatory processes, some of which is mediated by CD44. The aim of this study was to determine the role of OPN during K. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. Wild-type (WT) and

  20. Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression is necessary for colonization of large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre-Bonte, S.; Licht, Tine Rask; Forestier, C.; Krogfelt, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (K antigen) during colonization of the mouse large intestine was assessed with mild-type K. pneumoniae LM21 and its isogenic capsule-defective mutant. When bacterial strains were fed alone to mice, the capsulated bacteria persisted in...

  1. The Clinical Observation of Levofloxacin Injection Combined with Cough Syrup Oral Liquid in the Treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia%左氧氟沙星注射液联合咳露口服液治疗细菌性肺炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史广超; 邢亚恒; 李景钊

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察左氧氟沙星注射液联合咳露口服液治疗细菌性肺炎的临床疗效。方法:对140例细菌性肺炎患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组各70例。两组均给予同种抗生素左氧氟沙星注射液,治疗组加用咳露口服液,疗程均为10 d。结果:治疗组总有效率为100%,对照组总有效率为87%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:左氧氟沙星注射液联合咳露口服液治疗细菌性肺炎临床效果明显,且安全性高,无明显不良反应。%Objective:To observe clinical curative effect of levofloxacin injection combined with cough syrup oral liquid in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia.Method:140 bacterial pneumonia patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,70 patients in each group.The two groups were given levofloxacin injection,the treatment group was added with cough syrup oral liquid,both groups were treated for 10 days. Result:The total effective rate of treatment group 100%,control group in the total efficiency of 87%,the total effective rate of two groups had significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion:Levofloxacin injection combined with cough syrup oral liquid in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia have good clinical effect,and high safety,and no obvious adverse reaction.

  2. Pneumonia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Öncel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is inflammation of lung tissue caused by the invasion of pathogenic organisms when defense mechanisms are insufficient. In economically-developing countries, it is the leading fatal infection of childhood.In those aged less than five years, the causative organism is usually a virus. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most prominent agent in older children. Infection takes place by droplets. The assertion of failure of the immune system to prevent infections, such as pneumonia, because of having been exposed to cold has no scientific basis.Tachypnea is the most sensitive and specific finding especially in children under five years of age.The decision to resort to laboratory tests depends on the course of the illness, the child’s age, incidence of the disease in the community, risk of complications, and the need to hospitalize the child. Radiologic examination is not vital to diagnosis.Infants in their first two or three months should be hospitalized. The most common pathogens after age five years are M. pneumoniae and, to a lesser extent, Chlamydophila pneumoniae; therefore macrolides are the drugs of choice for ambulatory management for this age group. Wide-spectrum, anti-staphylococcal antibiotics should be avoided for childhood pneumonia unless there is significant clinical suspicion of Staphylococcus aureus as the etiologic agent.Education of caregivers and vaccination are very important among other efforts to decrease the overall incidence of pneumonia in the society.

  3. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  4. Caveolin-1 plays a critical role in host immunity against Klebsiella pneumoniae by regulating STAT5 and Akt activity

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qiang; Shen, Nan; Yuan, Kefei; Li, Jiaxin; Wu, Hong; Zeng, Yong; Fox, John; Bansal, Arvind K.; Singh, Brij B; Gao, Hongwei; Wu, Min

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a structural protein of caveolae. Although Cav1 is associated with certain bacterial infections, it is unknown whether Cav1 is involved in host immunity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, the third most commonly isolated microorganism from bacterial sepsis patients. Here, we showed that cav1 knockout mice succumbed to K. pneumoniae infection with markedly decreased survival rates, increased bacterial burdens, intensified tissue injury, hyperactive proinflammatory cytokines, a...

  5. Mechanisms of dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of Toll-like receptor signaling induced by Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Trine; Berg, Randi S; Paludan, Søren R;

    2008-01-01

    significantly reduces mortality and morbidity from bacterial meningitis. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone upon the inflammatory responses evoked by Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, two of the major causes of bacterial meningitis. The...... and S. pneumoniae, which may contribute to our understanding of the clinical effect and the importance of timing with respect to corticosteroid treatment during bacterial meningitis. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan...

  6. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena Luis; Garrido Jose; Rodríguez-Lera María; Peralta Galo; Roiz María

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP) has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detec...

  7. Adult bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia acquired in the community: A prospective study on 101 patients Neumonía neumocóccica bacteriémica de la comunidad: Un estudio prospectivo en 101 pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Gentile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to describe incidence, clinical, radiographic and microbiological features of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP in our environment. A total of 101 patients (7 were treated as outpatients, older than 18 years of age suffering BPP were prospectively evaluated. The incidence was 2.8 cases per 1000 admissions, 50 were males, mean age was 59.9 years (19-97, mortality was 11.8%. Eighty three percent of fatalities occurred within 3 days of admission. Mortality rate increased with advancing age. Fever, cough and chest pain were the commonest presenting symptoms and 44% of patients had extrapulmonary manifestations. Cigarette smoking, chronic obstructive lung disease, alcoholism and congestive heart failure (CHF were the commonest underlying conditions. CHF was more frequent in non-survivors (p = 0.002. A lobar pattern at chest radiograph predominated in survivors and a diffuse pattern in non-survivors (p = 0.007. Pleural effusion (20.7%, empyema (7.9% and respiratory failure (7.9% were the main complications. Underlying diseases were present in 100% of non-survivors (p = 0.03. Ninety four percent of patients were treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from sputum in 6 cases. Three out of 101 S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from blood samples (one from each patient presented organisms resistant to penicillin. We observed an incidence of BPP that is similar to the observed in other countries. There are clinical and radiographic differences between survivors and non-survivors. Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae is still an unusual problem in our area.Se evaluaron en forma prospectiva 101 pacientes > 18 años admitidos al hospital con diagnóstico de NNB. El objetivo fue conocer la incidencia y describir las características de la enfermedad, así como la susceptibilidad antibiótica de cepas invasivas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Se halló una incidencia de 2.8 casos/1000 admisiones; 50 fueron

  8. Signs and symptoms indicative of community-acquired pneumonia in infants under six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Bazhuni Pombo March

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the clinical signs and symptoms predicting bacterial and viral pneumonia, in accordance with the Brazilian National Control Program for Acute Respiratory (ARI. METHODS: Observational prospective study. Seventy-six children from birth to six months of age who had pneumonia were studied in the emergency room. The patients were subdivided into two groups, based on radiological findings (gold-standard: 47 had bacterial pneumonia, and 29 had viral pneumonia. The frequencies, sensitivities, and specificities of the signs and symptoms were evaluated. RESULTS: The sensibilities and sensitivities of general findings in bacterial pneumonia were, respectively: fever 53.2%/40.0%; hypoactivity 68.4%/55.6% and prostration detected by the doctor 72.7%/55.0%. The same findings in viral pneumonias showed, respectively: 37.9%/40.0%, 66.7%/55.6% and 66.7%/55.6%. The sensibilities and sensitivities of respiratory findings in bacterial pneumonia were, respectively: coughing 66.0/38.1%, Respiratory rate = 50 ripm 76.6%/38.1%, altered respiratory auscultation 91.3%/10.5%, and chest indrawing 46.7%/80.0%. The same findings in viral pneumonias were, respectively: 69.0%/38.1%, 86.2%/38.1%, 85.7%/10.5% and 44.8%/80.0%. CONCLUSION: Analysis of signs and symptoms in each group did not distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia. Our findings reinforce the adequacy of the ARI program in Brazil, which gives an early diagnosis of pneumonia, independent of its etiology.

  9. Adult bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia acquired in the community: A prospective study on 101 patients Neumonía neumocóccica bacteriémica de la comunidad: Un estudio prospectivo en 101 pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Gentile; M. D. Sparo; M. E. Mercapide; C. M. Luna

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to describe incidence, clinical, radiographic and microbiological features of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) in our environment. A total of 101 patients (7 were treated as outpatients), older than 18 years of age suffering BPP were prospectively evaluated. The incidence was 2.8 cases per 1000 admissions, 50 were males, mean age was 59.9 years (19-97), mortality was 11.8%. Eighty three percent of fatalities occurred within 3 days of admission. Mortality rate increase...

  10. Polyamine transporter in Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for evading early innate immune responses in pneumococcal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aswathy N; Thornton, Justin A; Stokes, John; Sunesara, Imran; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults worldwide. Genomic plasticity, antibiotic resistance and extreme capsular antigenic variation complicates the design of effective therapeutic strategies. Polyamines are ubiquitous small cationic molecules necessary for full expression of pneumococcal virulence. Polyamine transport system is an attractive therapeutic target as it is highly conserved across pneumococcal serotypes. In this study, we compared an isogenic deletion strain of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 in polyamine transport operon (ΔpotABCD) with the wild type in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Our results show that the wild type persists in mouse lung 24 h post infection while the mutant strain is cleared by host defense mechanisms. We show that intact potABCD is required for survival in the host by providing resistance to neutrophil killing. Comparative proteomics analysis of murine lungs infected with wild type and ΔpotABCD pneumococci identified expression of proteins that could confer protection to wild type strain and help establish infection. We identified ERM complex, PGLYRP1, PTPRC/CD45 and POSTN as new players in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia. Additionally, we found that deficiency of polyamine transport leads to up regulation of the polyamine synthesis genes speE and cad in vitro. PMID:27247105

  11. Case Report of Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is an extremely rare and life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection. We report a case of early necrotizing fasciitis associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in a 26-year-old man who was immunocompromised with mixed connective tissue disease. The patient presented with acute, painful, erythematous, and edematous skin lesions of his right lower back, which rapidly progressed to the right knee. The patient underwent surgical exploration, and a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was confirmed by pathological evidence of necrosis of the fascia and neutrophil infiltration in tissue biopsies. Cultures of fascial tissue biopsies and blood samples were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of necrotizing fasciitis resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae diagnosed at early phase; the patient recovered well without surgical debridement.

  12. BACTERIAL INHIBITORS IN LAKE WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The populations of six bacterial genera fell rapidly after their addition to sterile lake water but not after their addition to buffer. The decline in numbers of two species that were studied further, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Micrococcus flavus, occurred even when the buffer was...

  13. Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medicine to treat your child's cough because cough suppressants stop the lungs from clearing mucus, which isn't helpful in some types of pneumonia. Over-the-counter cough and cold medications are not recommended for any ...

  14. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... going to the bathroom After changing a baby's diaper After coming in contact with people who are ... pneumoniae. Vaccines are even more important for older adults and people with diabetes, asthma, emphysema, HIV, cancer, ...

  15. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  16. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a complication of influenza A (H1N1) pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Jose Maria; Marcos, Pedro J; Pombo, Francisco; Otero-Gonzalez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease characterized by its acute onset and a clinical presentation simulating a bacterial pneumonia. Although it can be idiopathic, it has been described related to drugs, toxic agents and infections, mostly parasitic. We describe the case of influenza A (H1N1) severe pneumonia complicated by an acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Patient presented with respiratory failure and diffuse ground-glass opacities at chest-computed tomography. Clinical suspicion for this complication and bronchoalveolar lavage with cellular count analysis is crucial. PMID:27055842

  17. Bronchoscopy in lipoid pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kameswaran, M.; Annobil, S H; Benjamin, B.; Salim, M.

    1992-01-01

    Forcible administration of rendered animal fat to infants is a tradition in south western Saudi Arabia. Accidental inhalation may result in a resistant form of lipoid pneumonia. A series of 24 cases of lipoid pneumonia, 22 of which were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with bronchial lavage and microscopic examination of the aspirate, are reported. The technique is described briefly and the results analysed. A high index of suspicion together with bronchoscopy and bronchial lavage of all cases of re...

  18. K. pneumoniae: ¿The new “superbacteria”? Pathogenicity, epidemiology and resistance mechanisms K. pneumoniae: ¿la nueva

    OpenAIRE

    Lina María Echeverri Toro; Jaime Alberto López Vargas

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem of public health. Klebsiella pneumoniae has become one of the most important pathogens because it is a frequent cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections and it has pathogenicity mechanisms like capsules, adhesive properties mediated by specialized estructures (pillis) and siderophores that are capable of taking up iron, an essential factor in bacterial growth. The increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics has evolved wit...

  19. Deletion of a Cation Transporter Promotes Lysis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, Jolanda; Andisi, Vahid Farshchi; Kim, Kwang S.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Weiser, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen which causes respiratory and serious invasive diseases. Mg(2+) is essential for life, and its concentration varies throughout the human body. Magnesium uptake plays an important role in the virulence of many bacterial pathogens. To study the M

  20. Understanding, preventing and eradicating Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzana Meira; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2016-04-01

    The ability of pathogenic bacteria to aggregate and form biofilm represents a great problem for public health, since they present extracellular components that encase these micro-organisms, making them more resistant to antibiotics and host immune attack. This may become worse when antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains form biofilms. However, antibiofilm screens with different compounds may reveal potential therapies to prevent/treat biofilm infections. Here, we focused on Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic bacterium that causes different types of infections, including in the bloodstream, meninges, lungs, urinary system and at surgical sites. We also highlight aspects involved in the formation and maintenance of K. pneumoniae biofilms, as well as resistance and the emergence of new trends to combat this health challenge. PMID:27064296

  1. Pneumonia Can Be Prevented -- Vaccines Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pneumonia Can Be Prevented—Vaccines Can Help Language: English ... of an adult patient with pneumonia. What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that ...

  2. The volatile metabolome of Klebsiella pneumoniae in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Christiaan A; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Hill, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of bloodstream infections in critically-ill patients, with mortality exceeding 50% for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains. Despite its importance as a bacteremia-causing agent, there is little known about the metabolism of K. pneumoniae during growth in pure human blood. Here, we comprehensively profile the volatile metabolites produced by K. pneumoniae during growth in human blood to approximately mid-exponential (7 h) and early stationary (12 h) phases using 2D gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). We identified 33 volatile molecules that were significantly more abundant in K. pneumoniae cultures relative to sterile blood, of which 22 were detected in cultures only. We identified nine molecules that have not previously been reported as K. pneumoniae-associated headspace volatiles, four of which we believe to be novel bacterial-associated volatiles. We also identified a set of 17 volatile molecules that discriminate between 7 h and 12 h K. pneumoniae cultures, indicating either growth phase or cell density-associated changes in the composition of headspace volatiles. Our analysis of the volatile molecules produced by K. pneumoniae during growth in human blood using GC×GC-TOFMS has doubled the number of volatiles reported for this organism in blood-containing media, and increased the total number of K. pneumoniae-associated volatiles by 20%. The volatile molecules produced by K. pneumoniae in blood may represent novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. PMID:27163334

  3. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J H; McDonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-12-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Streptoccocus pneumoniae. In adults, pneumonia can be broadly classified, on the basis of chest radiographic appearance, into lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and pneumonia producing an interstitial pattern. Lobar pneumonia is most commonly associated with community acquired pneumonia, bronchopneumonia with hospital acquired infection and an interstitial pattern with the so called atypical pneumonias, which can be caused by viruses or organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Most cases of pneumonia can be managed with chest radiographs as the only form of imaging, but CT can detect pneumonia not visible on the chest radiograph and may be of value, particularly in the hospital setting. Complications of pneumonia include pleural effusion, empyema and lung abscess. The chest radiograph may initially indicate an effusion but ultrasound is more sensitive, allows characterisation in some cases and can guide catheter placement for drainage. CT can also be used to characterise and estimate the extent of pleural disease. Most lung abscesses respond to medical therapy, with surgery and image guided catheter drainage serving as options for those cases who do not respond. PMID:21088086

  4. Bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Preveden Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by a reduced defensive reaction to bacterial infections and patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing infections, sepsis and death. The most common bacterial infections in these patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infection and bacteremia. The most common causes are Gram negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determi...

  5. Semi-automated method to measure pneumonia severity in mice through computed tomography (CT) scan analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Ansh; Schimel, Daniel; Noguchi, Audrey; Hsu, Lewis L.

    2010-03-01

    Imaging is a crucial clinical tool for diagnosis and assessment of pneumonia, but quantitative methods are lacking. Micro-computed tomography (micro CT), designed for lab animals, provides opportunities for non-invasive radiographic endpoints for pneumonia studies. HYPOTHESIS: In vivo micro CT scans of mice with early bacterial pneumonia can be scored quantitatively by semiautomated imaging methods, with good reproducibility and correlation with bacterial dose inoculated, pneumonia survival outcome, and radiologists' scores. METHODS: Healthy mice had intratracheal inoculation of E. coli bacteria (n=24) or saline control (n=11). In vivo micro CT scans were performed 24 hours later with microCAT II (Siemens). Two independent radiologists scored the extent of airspace abnormality, on a scale of 0 (normal) to 24 (completely abnormal). Using the Amira 5.2 software (Mercury Computer Systems), a histogram distribution of voxel counts between the Hounsfield range of -510 to 0 was created and analyzed, and a segmentation procedure was devised. RESULTS: A t-test was performed to determine whether there was a significant difference in the mean voxel value of each mouse in the three experimental groups: Saline Survivors, Pneumonia Survivors, and Pneumonia Non-survivors. It was found that the voxel count method was able to statistically tell apart the Saline Survivors from the Pneumonia Survivors, the Saline Survivors from the Pneumonia Non-survivors, but not the Pneumonia Survivors vs. Pneumonia Non-survivors. The segmentation method, however, was successfully able to distinguish the two Pneumonia groups. CONCLUSION: We have pilot-tested an evaluation of early pneumonia in mice using micro CT and a semi-automated method for lung segmentation and scoring system. Statistical analysis indicates that the system is reliable and merits further evaluation.

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae as an agent of nosocomial infection: treatment in the era of penicillin-resistant strains

    OpenAIRE

    F. Paradisi; Corti, G.; R. Cinelli

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a well-known agent of community-acquired infections such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. However, the role of S.pneumoniae as a cause of nosocomial infections of respiratory tract, bloodstream, and central nervous system is more and more recognised, primarily in high-risk patients with depression of their immune function. Therapy of pneumococcal infections is made diff...

  7. Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection: A Virulent Cause of Visual Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Cheong Soon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophthalmitis is endogenous in 2-6% of cases and is frequently misdiagnosed initially. Klebsiella pneumoniae is being increasingly recognised as an aggressive causative organism, and it is particularly prevalent in Asian populations. We describe the case of a 71-year-old female of Southeast Asian origin with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented with visual loss secondary to bacterial endophthalmitis and concomitant cerebral abscesses. Imaging revealed the probable primary source of infection to be a liver abscess. She developed retinal detachment and subsequently underwent an evisceration of her right eye. A Klebsiella spp. was identified from the eye tissue by 16S rRNA amplification. Klebsiella pneumoniae endophthalmitis has a characteristic disease phenotype and a particularly aggressive course with poor visual outcomes observed in most cases. This case highlights the risks of metastatic infection including bacterial endophthalmitis in association with Klebsiella infection.

  8. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify and classify the basic CT appearance of interstitial pneumonia, radiologic-pathologic correlative study was performed using inflated and fixed lungs from autopsy and surgery. The patterns of the abnormalities on the CT images of interstitial pneumonia were classified into 7 categories. Important pathological changes which affected the CT images were alveolar collapse and airway dilatation. Based on the result of above study, we analyzed CT of 22 patients with IIP. The lesions which were classified into a hazy density, micronodular densities, confluence of various sized ring like shadows and subpleural bullous changes were frequently recognized together mostly in the periphery of the lung. (author)

  9. PCR improves diagnostic yield from lung aspiration in Malawian children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enitan D Carrol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate data on childhood pneumonia aetiology are essential especially from regions where mortality is high, in order to inform case-management guidelines and the potential of prevention strategies such as bacterial conjugate vaccines. Yield from blood culture is low, but lung aspirate culture provides a higher diagnostic yield. We aimed to determine if diagnostic yield could be increased further by polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae b and viruses in lung aspirate fluid. METHODS: A total of 95 children with radiological focal, lobar or segmental consolidation had lung aspirate performed and sent for bacterial culture and for PCR for detection of bacteria, viruses and Pneumocystis jirovecii. In children with a pneumococcal aetiology, pneumococcal bacterial loads were calculated in blood and lung aspirate fluid. RESULTS: Blood culture identified a bacterial pathogen in only 8 patients (8%. With the addition of PCR on lung aspirate samples, causative pathogens (bacterial, viral, pneumocystis were identified singly or as co-infections in 59 children (62%. The commonest bacterial organism was S.pneumoniae (41%, followed by H. influenzae b (6%, and the commonest virus identified was adenovirus (16%, followed by human bocavirus (HBoV (4%, either as single or co-infection. CONCLUSIONS: In a select group of African children, lung aspirate PCR significantly improves diagnostic yield. Our study confirms a major role of S.pneumoniae and viruses in the aetiology of childhood pneumonia in Africa.

  10. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...

  11. The pavA gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a fibronectin-binding protein that is essential for virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, AR; McNab, R; Millsap, KW; Rohde, M; Hammerschmidt, S; Mawdsley, JL; Jenkinson, HF

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx in up to 40% of healthy subjects, and is a leading cause of middle ear infections (otitis media), meningitis and pneumonia. Pneumococci adhere to glycosidic receptors on epithelial cells and to immobilized fibronectin, but the bacterial adhesins med

  12. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqui, H; Jit, M.; Heymann, DL; Zodpey, S.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution ...

  13. Lung abscess in a child secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ruffini; L. De Petris; P. Candelotti; M. Tulli; M.R. Sabatini; Luciani, L.; Carlucci, A.

    2014-01-01

    Lung abscess is a very rare infectious condition in children and is most commonly encountered as a complication of bacterial pneumonia. We present a case of a lung abscess in a child 6-year-old admitted with a history of right hemithorax pain lasting for 15 days and the onset of mild fever in the last two days. Etiological research showed positivity of IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae after seven days of admission. The child has been successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, withou...

  14. Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae septicemia in normal and leukopenic mice by liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Melissen (Petronella Maria Bernadette); W. van Vianen (Wim); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of free muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamide (MTPPE) and liposome-encapsulated MTPPE (LE-MTPPE) on Klebsiella pneumoniae septicemia resulting from intraperitoneal bacterial inoculation was investigated in mice. When administering a single p

  15. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  16. Lipoid pneumonia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadda, Vijay; Khilnani, Gopi C

    2010-12-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon disease caused by the presence of lipid in the alveoli. It is classified into two major groups, depending on whether the lipid/oil in the respiratory tract is from an exogenous (exogenous lipoid pneumonia) or endogenous/idiopathic (endogenous lipoid pneumonia) source. The usual presentation occurs with insidious onset and nonspecific respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea and/or cough. The main radiological findings include airspace consolidations, ground-glass attenuation, airspace nodules and 'crazy-paving' pattern. However, the radiological appearance of the disorder can mimic many other lung diseases, including carcinoma. Owing to the nonspecific clinical presentation and radiological features, the diagnosis is often missed or delayed. Pathologically, lipoid pneumonia is a chronic foreign body reaction to fat, characterized by lipid-laden macrophages. Diagnosis of this disease requires a high index of suspicion and can be confirmed by demonstration of lipid-laden macrophages in respiratory samples such as sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or fine-needle aspiration cytology/biopsy from lung lesions. Treatment protocols for this illness are poorly defined. PMID:21128754

  17. Pathophysiology of pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcón, Amalia; Fàbregas, Neus; Torres, Antoni

    2005-03-01

    The development of pneumonia requires that a pathogen reach the alveoli and that the host defenses are overwhelmed by microorganism virulence or by the inoculum size. The endogenous sources of microorganisms are nasal carriers, sinusitis, oropharynx, gastric, or tracheal colonization, and hematogenous spread. Other external sources of contamination, such as intensive care unit workers, aerosols, or fibrobronchoscopy, must be considered as accidental. PMID:15802164

  18. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Payal K.; Russo, Thomas A.; Karchmer, Adolf W.

    2014-01-01

    Hypervirulent strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae are associated with abscess formation, commonly hepatic, and metastatic spread, even in healthy patients. We describe a case of this clinical syndrome, genotypic and phenotypic features of the isolate, and briefly review epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathogenesis of this underappreciated syndrome.

  19. The capsular network of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, A; Garaci, E

    1977-06-01

    Attempts at improving chemical fixation for electron-microscopic observation of the capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae were made. The capsule was preserved by using alcian blue - lanthanum and tris-(1-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide (TAPO) - aldehyde - osmium procedures. Despite the different retention of the overall capsular material and minor variations in morphological details, in both cases the interpretation of ultrastructural patterns suggested that the capsule be composed of a meshed network of thin polysaccharide fibrils radiating from the cell wall. This organization is in keeping with all recognized chemical properties of bacterial polysaccharide capsules or, at least, does not contradict them. Moreover, an effective preservation of bacterial structures other than capsule has been obtained, mostly in specimens fixed by the TAPO-aldehyde-osmium method, a fact which gives further reliability to the technical approach used for capsule visualization. PMID:326360

  20. Inhibition activity of wild berry juice fractions against Streptococcus pneumoniae binding to human bronchial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Sanna; Toivanen, Marko; Arkko, Satu; Ruponen, Marika; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial adhesion to the cell surface is a crucial step before infection can take place. Inhibition of bacterial binding offers a novel preventive approach against infections. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) juice has been found to have anti-adhesive activity against different bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen and the most common cause for pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. In this study the inhibitory activity of cranberry (Vacciniu...

  1. Radiographic and HRCT findings of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the radiographic and HRCT findings of Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia. We reviewed the medical records and retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=31) and HRCT scans(n=17) of 31 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia who had been followed up at our institute between, 1993 and March 1998. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was confirmed by cytologic evaluation of sputum stained with methenamine silver(n=25) or on the basis of clinical history(n=6). The study group included 17 men and 14 women aged 28-78(average, 53.6) years. Twenty-eight patients had underlying conditions such as hematologic diseases(n=13), AIDS(n=8), malignancy(n=2), DM(n=2) and malnutrition(n=1), and three were free from underlying diseases. Twenty patients had pure Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and 11 had combined lung diseases, namely pulmonary tuberculosis(n=4), pulmonary metastasis(n=2), bacterial pneumonia(n=2), atypical mycobacterial infection(n=1), pulmonary edema(n=1), and Kaposi' s sarcoma(n=1). Chest radiographic findings of 20 cases of pure Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included consolidation(n=12), linear-reticular opacity(n=8), ill defined haziness(n=7), and nodules(n=6), with bilaterality in is cases and zonal predominance in ten [central(n=5), lower(n=5)]. Ancillary findings included pleural effusion(n=10), cysts(n=5), lymphadenopathy(n=4) and pneumothorax(n=1). In two patients, findings were entirely normal. HRCT findings in ten cases of pure Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included ground-glass opacity(n=6), consolidation(n=6), linear-reticular opacity(n=8), and nodules(n=5), with bilaterallity in seven cases and zonal predominance in five [central(n=5), lower(n=2)]. Ancillary findings among these cases included pleural effusion(n=4), lymphadenopathy(n=2), cysts(n=1), and pneumothorax(n=1). HRCT findings in seven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia combined with other lung diseases included nodules(n=6), ground-glass opacity(n=5), linear-reticular opacity

  2. Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Koike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp sometimes causes immunological complications in children. We present a rare case of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS caused by Mp in a previously healthy 7-year-old Japanese girl. A chest radiograph obtained to evaluate the source of her fever showed infiltration in the lower right lung with mild splenomegaly. We could diagnose the patient with HPS on the basis of the hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis- (HLH 2004 criteria. She met the criteria for fever, splenomegaly, neutrophil count (265 mg/dL, and ferritin level (>500 ng/mL. Furthermore, a peripheral blood smear showed an increased number of monocytes/macrophages with erythrophagocytosis. Treatment with clarithromycin and prednisolone, which was initiated soon after the diagnosis, was successful. Mp infection might partly progress to HPS in certain conditions. Clinicians should be aware of HPS caused by Mp and start appropriate treatment as soon as possible if the disease is suspected.

  3. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Guillermo M; Moeller, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle. PMID:26464912

  4. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Rimoldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle.

  5. BLOOD CONTENTS OF DEFENSINS IN PATIENTS WITH PNEUMONIAS CAUSED BY INFLUENZA А/H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Romanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Defensin amounts in severe forms of influenza-associated pneumonia and acute respiratory distresssyndrome is increased to a lesser degree than in pneumonias with milder clinical course. This difference may be determined by selective accumulation of defensins in areas of infectious lesions. Mean content of α-defensins in non-severe pneumonias with influenza А/H1N1 accompanied by normocytosis or leukopenia, is higher than in bacterial pneumonias with leukocytosis. High levels of defensins, along with substantially increased neutrophil counts, associated with normocytosis or leukopenia, reflect a pronounced systemic inflammatory response caused by influenza А/H1N1.

  6. 2005-2007年山西省儿童医院儿童细菌性肺炎病原菌分布及耐药性变迁分析%Pathogen distribution and antibiotic resistance diversification of children bacterial pneumonia in Shanxi Province Children Hospital from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克战; 张俊艳

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解太原地区儿章细菌性肺炎病原菌的分布情况、抗菌药物的耐药情况以及近三年的变化趋势,为临床经验性治疗提供借鉴.方法 对山西省儿童医院呼吸科2005年1月至2007年12月凶肺炎住院治疗患儿的合格痰标本进行细菌学培养,用TDR200B细菌鉴定及药敏诊断系统进行菌株的鉴定与药物敏感性检测.结果 共分离出致病菌1674株,革兰阳性菌1312株,革兰阴性菌362株.革兰阳性菌居前五位的依次是:草绿色链球菌、肺炎链球菌、C群链球菌、肠球菌属、耐甲氧西林表皮葡萄球菌;革兰阴性菌居前五位的依次是:产ESBLs大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单孢菌、嗜麦芽寡养单孢菌、大肠埃希菌、鲍氏不动杆菌.草绿色链球菌、C群链球菌、铜绿假单孢菌检出率的增长有统计学意义(P<0.001);常见耐药表型ESBLs阳性菌株的检出率的增长有统计学意义(P<0.001).对革兰阳性菌中的草绿色链球菌和肺炎链球菌,哌扎两林、头孢曲松敏感性最好.万古霉素对全部革兰阳性菌均敏感.对革兰阴性菌中产ESBLs大肠埃希菌和不产ESBLs大肠埃希菌.哑胺培南西司他丁全部敏感,其次是头孢哌酮舒巴坦;对铜绿假单饱菌,头孢哌酮舒巴坦敏感性最好.结论 不同地区的儿童细菌性肺炎流行菌株及其药物敏感性可能不同,临床应根据本地区的病原菌流行特点、耐药规律及其动态制定最佳的治疗方案.%Objective To investigate the pathogen distribution and antibiotic resistance diversification of bacterial pneumonia in the local infected children from Taiyuan region.MethodsFrom Jan.2005 to Dee.2007,1835 children patients with bacterial pneumonia were chosen and their sputum samples were obtained and cultured.Totally 1674 strains of pathogenic bacterium were isolated and identified ,their antibiotic susceptibility were detected by TDR200B Automatic Instrument.ResultsIn 1674 eases,1312 strains

  7. Interleukin-10 plays a key role in the modulation of neutrophils recruitment and lung inflammation during infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Hernán F; Nieto, Pamela A; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Torres, Javiera; Parga, María J; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major aetiological agent of pneumonia worldwide, as well as otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis and sepsis. Recent reports have suggested that inflammation of lungs due to S. pneumoniae infection promotes bacterial dissemination and severe disease. However, the contribution of anti-inflammatory molecules to the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae remains unknown. To elucidate whether the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is beneficial or detrimental for the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, we performed S. pneumoniae infections in mice lacking IL-10 (IL-10(-/-) mice). The IL-10(-/-) mice showed increased mortality, higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and an exacerbated recruitment of neutrophils into the lungs after S. pneumoniae infection. However, IL-10(-/-) mice showed significantly lower bacterial loads in lungs, spleen, brain and blood, when compared with mice that produced this cytokine. Our results support the notion that production of IL-10 during S. pneumoniae infection modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs. This feature of IL-10 is important to avoid excessive inflammation of tissues and to improve host survival, even though bacterial dissemination is less efficient in the absence of this cytokine. PMID:26032199

  8. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier Jean-François; Marchand Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than ...

  9. Plasma gelsolin improves lung host defense against pneumonia by enhancing macrophage NOS3 function

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhiping; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Stossel, Thomas P.; Kobzik, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) functions as part of the “extracellular actin-scavenging system,” but its potential to improve host defense against infection has not been studied. In a mouse model of primary pneumococcal pneumonia, recombinant human pGSN (rhu-pGSN) caused enhanced bacterial clearance, reduced acute inflammation, and improved survival. In vitro, rhu-pGSN rapidly improved lung macrophage uptake and killing of bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Francisella tularens...

  10. CXCR1/CXCR2 Antagonism Is Effective in Pulmonary Defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wei; Jing Peng; Bing Wang; Hong Qu; Shiyi Wang; Aziz Faisal; Jia-Wei Cheng; Gordon, John R.; Fang Li

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae-associated pathology is largely mediated by neutrophilic inflammation. In this study, we administered Klebsiella pneumoniae to experimental guinea pig groups and the ELR-CXC chemokine antagonist CXCL8(3–72), ceftazidime, and dexamethasone to different groups, respectively. After 24 h, we assessed the animal's pulmonary inflammatory levels, including gross histopathology, airway neutrophilia, lung myeloperoxidase levels, expressions of CXCL8 and TNF, and airway bacterial ...

  11. Human Monocytes Promote Th1 and Th17 Responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Olliver, Marie; Hiew, Jeffni; Mellroth, Peter; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Bergman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis in children. Human immunity to pneumococcal infections has been assumed to depend on anticapsular antibodies. However, recent findings from murine models suggest that alternative mechanisms, dependent on T helper cells, are also involved. Although the immunological events in which T helper cells contribute to acquired immunity have been studied in mice, little is known about how these responses are gene...

  12. Functions and Regulation of NF-κB RelA during Pneumococcal Pneumonia1

    OpenAIRE

    Quinton, Lee J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Simms, Benjamin T.; Kogan, Mariya S.; Robson, Bryanne E.; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Eradication of bacteria in the lower respiratory tract depends on the coordinated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and consequent neutrophilic inflammation. To determine the roles of the NF-κB subunit RelA in facilitating these events, we infected RelA-deficient mice (generated on a TNFR1-deficient background) with Streptococcus pneumoniae. RelA deficiency decreased cytokine expression, alveolar neutrophil emigration, and lung bacterial killing. S. pneumoniae killing was also diminishe...

  13. Clinicoroentgenological control in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive clinicoroentgenological study was used to examine 494 patients with chronic pneumonia. Morphological and functional changes observed in the pulmonary pare and functional changes observed in the pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree were studied. Types of pneumosclerosis, tigns of exacerbation of chronic pneumonia and abscess formation, morphological and functional disorders of bronchial penetrability in the pneumonic zone were described. Three forms of chronic pneumonia: bronchial, bronchiectatic and abscessing are signled out. The bronchial form is subdivided into chronic pneumonia with chronic bronchitis without deformity and wi.th deforming chronic bronchitis. In the bronchiectatic form pneumonia can be with cylindrical, saccular and cyst-like bronchiectasia. The general diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is established clinically depending on type and variants in 89-94% of cases, by X-ray and sonographic findings in all patients; types and variants of disease are most frequently defined after bronchography

  14. Coxiella burnetii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, T J

    2003-04-01

    This report reviews the pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestation of infections due to Coxiella burnetii. Q fever, a zoonosis, is due to infection with C. burnetii. This spore-forming microorganism is a small gram-negative coccobacillus that is an obligate intracellular parasite. The most common animal reservoirs are goats, cattle, sheep, cats, and occasionally dogs. The organism reaches high concentrations in the placenta of infected animals. Aerosolisation occurs at the time of parturition and infection follows inhalation of this aerosol. There are three distinct clinical syndromes of the acute form of the illness: nonspecific febrile illness, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The chronic form of Q fever is almost always endocarditis, but occasionally it is manifest as hepatitis, osteomyelitis or endovascular infection. The pneumonic form of the illness can range from very mild-to-severe pneumonia requiring assisted ventilation. Multiple round opacities are a common finding on chest radiography. Treatment with doxycycline or a fluoroquinolone is preferred. Susceptibility to macrolides is variable. In conclusion, Coxiella burnetii pneumonia should be considered when there is a suitable exposure history and when outbreaks of a pneumonic illness are being investigated. PMID:12762362

  15. Pneumonia in patients on the background of blood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertseva T.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Problematic issues of etiologic diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia are being studied actively. At the same time specific features of pneumonia in patients with severe immune defects, against blood cancer including are studied insufficiently. By the result of microbiological examinations of 149 patients with pneumonia on the background of blood cancer, who have undergone treatment in hematological center of CE “Dnipropetrovsk local multi-field clinical hospital №4” in 2010-2012, bacterial causative agents were determined in 59,7% of accidents, among which gram-negative microorganisms made up 69,7%, gram-positive – 30,3%. In 63% of accidents the asso¬ciations of causative agents were determined: the combination of fungal flora made up 58, 4% bacterial associations – 25, 8%. Invasive methods of research have demonstrated a considerably bigger informativeness in determination of possible etiological diagnosis of pneumonia. In determination of causative agent in fluid of brochoalveolar lavage the part of positive results made up 77,4% against 30,3% in examination of sputum.

  16. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Catarina; Sanches, Inês; Ferreira, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) was recently described as an unusual pattern of diffuse lung disease. Particular characteristics make the differential diagnosis with the well recognised clinical patterns of diffuse alveolar damage, cryptogenic organising pneumonia or eosinophilic pneumonia. The lack of hyaline membranes, the presence of intra-alveolar fibrin, absence of noticeable eosinophils and patchy distribution suggests that AFOP define a distinct histological pattern. Th...

  17. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Robilotti, Elizabeth; Deresinski, Stan

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emergence of infections due to multidrug resistant bacteria is a serious public health problem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, which commonly acquires resistance encoded on mobile genetic elements, including ones that encode carbapenemases, is a prime example. K. pneumoniae carrying such genetic material, including both blaKPC and genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases, have spread globally. Many carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae are resistant to multiple antibiotic classes beyond β-l...

  18. Etiología bacteriana de la neumonía nosocomial y resistencia a los antimicrobianos en pacientes con y sin tratamiento antimicrobiano previo Bacterial etiology of nosocomial pneumonia and antimicrobial resistance in patients with and without antimicrobial treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Weyland

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La neumonía nosocomial (NN se asocia a una elevada morbimortalidad y es la segunda causa de infección intrahospitalaria después de la infección urinaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la etiología de la NN en adultos y evaluar el perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobianos de los microorganismos aislados teniendo en cuenta si los pacientes recibieron o no tratamiento antimicrobiano previo. Desde el año 2000 hasta el 2005 se analizaron 430 lavados broncoalveolares provenientes de 430 pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de neumonía internados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital de Clínicas "José de San Martín". El 74% (199/ 269 de los pacientes con tratamiento previo tuvieron cultivos positivos, mientras que en el grupo sin tratamiento previo esta proporción fue del 83% (134/161 (p = 0,03. Los microorganismos prevalentes fueron Acinetobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37,9% ; 21,3% y 20,9% vs. 36,1%; 26,6% y 17,7% en los pacientes con tratamiento previo o sin él, respectivamente; p > 0,05. La resistencia a los antimicrobianos de los citados microorganismos cuando los aislamientos provinieron de pacientes que recibieron antes tratamiento antibiótico fue superior a la encontrada en el grupo de pacientes que no recibió tratamiento previo (p Nosocomial pneumonia (NP is associated with high morbimortality, representing the second cause of nosocomial infection after urinary tract infection. The objective of this work was to become acquainted with the etiology of NP and to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated microorganisms from adult patients with and without previous antimicrobial treatment admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU. From 2000 to 2005, 430 bronchoalveolar lavages from 430 adult patients diagnosed with pneumonia admitted in the ICU were analyzed. Seventy-four percent (199/ 269 of the patients with previous treatment had positive cultures, whereas in

  19. Recommendations for treatment of childhood non-severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gavin B; Campbell, Harry; Dowell, Scott F; Graham, Stephen M; Klugman, Keith P; Mulholland, E Kim; Steinhoff, Mark; Weber, Martin W; Qazi, Shamim

    2009-03-01

    WHO recommendations for early antimicrobial treatment of childhood pneumonia have been effective in reducing childhood mortality, but the last major revision was over 10 years ago. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, new pneumonia pathogens, and new drugs have prompted WHO to assemble an international panel to review the literature on childhood pneumonia and to develop evidence-based recommendations for the empirical treatment of non-severe pneumonia among children managed by first-level health providers. Treatment should target the bacterial causes most likely to lead to severe disease, including Streptoccocus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The best first-line agent is amoxicillin, given twice daily for 3-5 days, although co-trimoxazole may be an alternative in some settings. Treatment failure should be defined in a child who develops signs warranting immediate referral or who does not have a decrease in respiratory rate after 48-72 h of therapy. If failure occurs, and no indication for immediate referral exists, possible explanations for failure should be systematically determined, including non-adherence to therapy and alternative diagnoses. If failure of the first-line agent remains a possible explanation, suitable second-line agents include high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with or without an affordable macrolide for children over 3 years of age. PMID:19246022

  20. Plasma gelsolin improves lung host defense against pneumonia by enhancing macrophage NOS3 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiping; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Stossel, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) functions as part of the “extracellular actin-scavenging system,” but its potential to improve host defense against infection has not been studied. In a mouse model of primary pneumococcal pneumonia, recombinant human pGSN (rhu-pGSN) caused enhanced bacterial clearance, reduced acute inflammation, and improved survival. In vitro, rhu-pGSN rapidly improved lung macrophage uptake and killing of bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Francisella tularensis). pGSN triggers activating phosphorylation (Ser1177) of macrophage nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS3), an enzyme with important bactericidal functions in lung macrophages. rhu-pGSN failed to enhance bacterial killing by NOS3−/− macrophages in vitro or bacterial clearance in NOS3−/− mice in vivo. Prophylaxis with immunomodulators may be especially relevant for patients at risk for secondary bacterial pneumonia, e.g., after influenza. Treatment of mice with pGSN challenged with pneumococci on postinfluenza day 7 (the peak of enhanced susceptibility to secondary infection) caused a ∼15-fold improvement in bacterial clearance, reduced acute neutrophilic inflammation, and markedly improved survival, even without antibiotic therapy. pGSN is a potential immunomodulator for improving lung host defense against primary and secondary bacterial pneumonia. PMID:25957291

  1. Plasma gelsolin improves lung host defense against pneumonia by enhancing macrophage NOS3 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiping; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Stossel, Thomas P; Kobzik, Lester

    2015-07-01

    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) functions as part of the "extracellular actin-scavenging system," but its potential to improve host defense against infection has not been studied. In a mouse model of primary pneumococcal pneumonia, recombinant human pGSN (rhu-pGSN) caused enhanced bacterial clearance, reduced acute inflammation, and improved survival. In vitro, rhu-pGSN rapidly improved lung macrophage uptake and killing of bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Francisella tularensis). pGSN triggers activating phosphorylation (Ser(1177)) of macrophage nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS3), an enzyme with important bactericidal functions in lung macrophages. rhu-pGSN failed to enhance bacterial killing by NOS3(-/-) macrophages in vitro or bacterial clearance in NOS3(-/-) mice in vivo. Prophylaxis with immunomodulators may be especially relevant for patients at risk for secondary bacterial pneumonia, e.g., after influenza. Treatment of mice with pGSN challenged with pneumococci on postinfluenza day 7 (the peak of enhanced susceptibility to secondary infection) caused a ∼15-fold improvement in bacterial clearance, reduced acute neutrophilic inflammation, and markedly improved survival, even without antibiotic therapy. pGSN is a potential immunomodulator for improving lung host defense against primary and secondary bacterial pneumonia. PMID:25957291

  2. Mapping phosphoproteins in Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison Clyde A; Su Hsun-Cheng; Giddings Morgan C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known regarding the extent or targets of phosphorylation in mycoplasmas, yet in many other bacterial species phosphorylation is known to play an important role in signaling and regulation of cellular processes. To determine the prevalence of phosphorylation in mycoplasmas, we examined the CHAPS-soluble protein fractions of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), using a combination of Pro-Q Diamond phosphopro...

  3. Organizing pneumonia due to actinomycosis: an undescribed association

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro, TM; J. Bernardo; Garcia, H.; Alves, F.; Carvalho, L; Caseiro-Alves, F; Robalo-Cordeiro, C

    2011-01-01

    Organizing pneumonia is a pathologic entity characterized by intra-alveolar buds of granulation tissue that can extend to the bronchiolar lumen. It is a non-specific finding reflecting a pattern of pulmonary response to aggression that can be cryptogenic or associated with several causes. Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, of bacterial aetiology, and of difficult diagnosis. This disease usually causes non-specific respiratory symptoms and radiological findings, and the trea...

  4. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: A Multidisciplinary Consensus Review

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Donald E.; Kellner, James D; Allen, Upton; Boucher, Francois D; Kovesi, Thomas; Riesman, John; Davidson, Ross; Joanne M Langley

    2003-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is common among children and may have viral, bacterial or, occasionally, other causes. The etiology is complex, with age-related trends, and differs from that in adult CAP, necessitating different management guidelines. There is an absence of current guidelines for the management of pediatric CAP (PCAP) that take into account changing etiologies, antimicrobial-resistance issues and the use of newly licensed antimicrobials. The present review does not provide...

  5. DNA vaccines and bacterial DNA in immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Bandholtz, Lisa Charlotta

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes DNA-based vaccination and the importance of bacterial DNA in different immunological perspectives. Intranasal (i.n.) DNA vaccination utilizing a plasmid encoding the chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (p-hsp-60) generated lower bacterial burden and reduced pathology in the lungs of mice after subsequent infection with C. pneumoniae. This DNA vaccine- induced protection was dependent on T cells and induction of IFN-gamma. Co-administration of a plasmid...

  6. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type B by real-time PCR from dried blood spot samples among children with pneumonia: a useful approach for developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selva

    Full Text Available Dried blood spot (DBS is a reliable blood collection method for storing samples at room temperature and easily transporting them. We have previously validated a Real-Time PCR for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in DBS. The objective of this study was to apply this methodology for the diagnosis of S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib in DBS samples of children with pneumonia admitted to two hospitals in Mozambique and Morocco.Ply and wzg genes of S. pneumoniae and bexA gene of Hib, were used as targets of Real-Time PCR. 329 DBS samples of children hospitalized with clinical diagnosis of pneumonia were tested.Real-Time PCR in DBS allowed for a significant increase in microbiological diagnosis of S. pneumoniae and Hib. When performing blood bacterial culture, only ten isolates of S. pneumoniae and none of Hib were detected (3·0% positivity rate, IC95% 1·4-5·5%. Real-Time PCR from DBS samples increased the detection yield by 4x fold, as 30 S. pneumoniae and 11 Hib cases were detected (12·4% positivity rate, IC95% 9·0-16·5%; P<0·001.Real-Time PCR applied in DBS may be a valuable tool for improving diagnosis and surveillance of pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae or Hib in developing countries.

  7. Silica desiccant packets for storage and transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other clinically relevant species.

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    Casey L Pell

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates are often transported between laboratories for research and diagnostic purposes. Silica desiccant packets (SDPs, which are inexpensive and do not require freezing, were evaluated for storage and recovery of bacterial isolates. Conditions such as inoculum size, swab type and temperature of storage were investigated using ten Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. The optimized protocol was then tested using 49 additional S. pneumoniae isolates representing 40 serogroups. Overall, S. pneumoniae growth was considered satisfactory (>100 colony forming units for 98/109 (89.9% and 20/20 (100% swabs after 14 days at room temperature or 28 days at 4° C, respectively. Storage in SDPs did not impact on the ability of S. pneumoniae isolates to be subsequently serotyped. When the survival of nine other clinically relevant bacterial species was tested, seven were viable after 28 days at room temperature, the exceptions being Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae. SDPs are suitable for transport and short-term storage of bacterial species including S. pneumoniae.

  8. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

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    Kei Yamasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. METHODS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. RESULTS: In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%, Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6% and oral bacteria (15.6% than previous reports. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  9. Management of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals

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    Johns I

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Imogen Johns Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, UK Abstract: Rhodococcus equi, a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the most important cause of pneumonia in foals aged 3 weeks to 5 months. The disease occurs worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality on endemically affected farms. Foals appear to become infected early in life, but clinical signs are typically delayed until 1–3 months of age because of the insidious nature of the disease. Although pneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation, up to 74% of foals may concurrently have extrapulmonary disorders, including both extrapulmonary infections (abdominal abscessation, colitis, osteomyelitis and immune-mediated disorders (nonseptic synovitis, uveitis. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical signs and abnormalities on hematologic screening and thoracic imaging in an appropriately aged foal and is confirmed by bacteriologic culture of the organism. Management of R. equi infections, in particular on farms with endemic disease, combines appropriate treatment of affected foals with preventative measures targeted at preventing infection and identifying foals before the development of severe disease. The combination of rifampin and a macrolide antimicrobial is recommended for treatment, as the combination is synergistic, reaches high intracellular concentrations, and should minimize the development of antimicrobial resistance. The prognosis for survival for foals with R. equi pneumonia is good, especially in foals mildly or subclinically affected, as is the prognosis for future athletic performance. Screening for early identification before the development of clinical signs has been advocated on endemically affected farms, although the most appropriate method, the timing of screening, and the selection of foals requiring treatment have yet to be determined. Recent evidence suggests that

  10. Effect of radiation processing in elimination of Klebsiella pneumoniae from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has been considered as an important foodborne pathogen which causes severe infections that include meningitis, bronchitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections in humans and animals. It is well known to most clinicians as a cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Klebsiella is an opportunistic pathogen, that primarily attacks neonates, infants, elderly and immuno-compromised patients and therefore impose a serious, emerging public health hazard globally. Contaminated sprouts, vegetables, seafood and other animal meat products are considered as main sources of Klebsiella infection. In the current study, radiation sensitivity of K. pneumoniae MTCC 109 was determined in different food samples. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of K. pneumoniae MTCC 109 in saline and nutrient broth at 0–4 °C were 0.116±0.009, 0.136±0.005 kGy, respectively. The mixed sprouts, fish and poultry samples were inoculated with K. pneumoniae MTCC 109 and exposed to gamma radiation to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation treatment in the elimination of K. pneumoniae. D10 values of K. pneumoniae in mixed sprouts, poultry and fish samples were found to be 0.142±0.009, 0.125±0.0004 and 0.277±0.012 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in the complete elimination of 3.1±1.8×105 CFU/g of K. pneumoniae from these food samples. No recovery of K. pneumoniae was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 days, even after enrichment and selective plating. This study shows that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could lead to the complete elimination of 3.1±1.8×105 CFU/g of K. pneumoniae from mixed sprouts, poultry and fish samples. - Highlights: • K. pneumoniae MTCC 109 is sensitive to gamma radiation. • D10 values is in the range of 0.116–0.277 kGy. • Dose of 1.5 kGy reduced K. pneumonia from 3.1±1.8×105 CFU/g to undetectable. • No recovery of K. pneumoniae during 12

  11. Pneumococcal pneumonia suppresses allergy development but preserves respiratory tolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Carolin; Behrendt, Ann-Kathrin; Henken, Stefanie; Wölbeling, Florian; Maus, Ulrich A; Hansen, Gesine

    2015-03-01

    Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is associated with an increased risk for recurrent wheeze and asthma. Killed S. pneumoniae showed some potential as an effective immunomodulatory therapy in a murine model of asthma. Murine studies demonstrated protection against allergic asthma by symbiotic bacteria via triggering regulatory T cell response: treatment with killed S. pneumoniae resulted in suppressed levels of allergen-specific Th2 cytokines, while early immunization generated a protective Th1 response. We investigated the impact of lung infection with live S. pneumoniae on both the development and maintenance of allergic airway inflammation and respiratory tolerance in mice. BALB/c mice were infected intratracheally with S. pneumoniae either prior to or after tolerance or allergy were induced, using ovalbumin (OVA) as model allergen. Infection of mice with S. pneumoniae prior to sensitization or after manifestation of allergic airway inflammation suppressed the development of an allergic phenotype as judged by reduced eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased IgE serum levels and Th2 cytokines, relative to non-infected allergic control mice. In contrast, infection of mice with S. pneumoniae after manifestation of allergic airway inflammation combined with late mucosal re-challenge did not affect the allergic response. Moreover, induction and maintenance of respiratory tolerance to OVA challenge were not altered in S. pneumoniae-infected mice, demonstrating that mice remained tolerant to the model allergen and were protected from the development of allergic airway inflammation regardless of the time point of infection. Our results suggest that a bacterial infection may decrease the manifestation of an allergic phenotype not only prior to sensitization but also after manifestation of allergic airway inflammation in mice, whereas both, induction and maintenance of respiratory tolerance are not affected by pneumococcal

  12. Evaluation of silicon oil on bacterial growth

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    Fabio Adams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the antimicrobial properties of silicon oil (Óleo de Silicone®, Ophthalmos, Brazil on in vitro bacterial growth of different microorganisms related to endophthalmitis. METHODS: The following microorganisms were analyzed: (1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27583; (2 Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922; (3 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923; (4 Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228; (5 Candida albicans (ATCC 10231; (6 Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883; and (7 Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619. The plates were incubated at 35 ± 2ºC and its growth examined after 24 hours. An empty disk was placed in the center of each plate as a control. RESULTS: No inhibition halos were verified in any of the plates containing the four different concentrations of the bacterial inocula. CONCLUSIONS: The silicon oil 1000 cps does not have any effect on bacterial growth of any of the studied microrganisms.

  13. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

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    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  14. Discovery of new Mycoplasma pneumoniae antigens by use of a whole-genome lambda display library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Elisa; De Paolis, Francesca; Montagnani, Francesca; Cellesi, Carla; Gargano, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the leading cause of atypical pneumonia in children and young adults. Bacterial colonization can occur in both the upper and the lower respiratory tracts and take place both endemically and epidemically worldwide. Characteristically, the infection is chronic in onset and recovery and both humoral and cell-mediated mechanisms are involved in the response to bacterial colonization. To identify bacterial proteins recognized by host antibody responses, a whole-genome M. pneumoniae library was created and displayed on lambda bacteriophage. The challenge of such a library with sera from individuals hospitalized for mycoplasmal pneumonia allowed the identification of a panel of recombinant bacteriophages carrying B-cell epitopes. Among the already known M. pneumoniae B-cell antigens, our results confirmed the immunogenicity of P1 and P30 adhesins. Also, the data presented in this study localized, within their sequences, the immunodominant epitopes recognized by human immunoglobulins. Furthermore, library screening allowed the identification of four novel immunogenic polypeptides, respectively, encoded by fragments of the MPN152, MPN426, MPN456 and MPN-500 open reading frames, highlighting and further confirming the potential of lambda display technology in antigen and epitope discovery. PMID:18992837

  15. Bacterial respiratory pathogens in children with inherited immune and airway disorders: nasopharyngeal carriage and disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Luesink, M.; Warris, A.; Groot, R. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with primary immunodeficiencies, sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis are at risk to develop invasive bacterial infections caused by respiratory tract pathogens, in particular Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. This review article evaluates the ro

  16. Non-Intensive Care Unit Acquired Pneumonia: A New Clinical Entity?

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    Marta Di Pasquale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP is a frequent cause of nosocomial infections, responsible for great morbidity and mortality worldwide. The majority of studies on HAP have been conducted in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU, as mechanical ventilation represents a major risk factor for nosocomial pneumonia and specifically for ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, epidemiological data seem to be different between patients acquiring HAP in the ICU vs. general wards, suggesting the importance of identifying non ICU-acquired pneumonia (NIAP as a clinical distinct entity in terms of both etiology and management. Early detection of NIAP, along with an individualized management, is needed to reduce antibiotic use and side effects, bacterial resistance and mortality. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of NIAP.

  17. Aetiology and prediction of pneumonia in lower respiratory tract infection in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anette; Nexoe, Joergen; Bistrup, Lene A;

    2007-01-01

    Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. METHOD: A total of 364 adults diagnosed with community-acquired LRTI by their GP were studied with chest radiography, vital signs, biochemical markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and leukocyte count), and microbiological examinations......%, P<0.05). Hospitalisation was more common in patients with pneumonia compared to non-pneumonic patients (19 versus 3%, P<0.001); and in patients with pneumococcal infection compared with patients without pneumococcal infection (26 versus 4%, P = 0.001). The positive predictive value of GPs' diagnosis...... of pneumonia was low (0.23), but the vital signs, CRP, and leukocyte count had comparably low positive predictive values (0.23-0.30). CONCLUSION: Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacterial pathogen. The risk of hospitalisation was highest among patients with pneumonia or pneumococcal...

  18. Non-Intensive Care Unit Acquired Pneumonia: A New Clinical Entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Marta; Aliberti, Stefano; Mantero, Marco; Bianchini, Sonia; Blasi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a frequent cause of nosocomial infections, responsible for great morbidity and mortality worldwide. The majority of studies on HAP have been conducted in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU), as mechanical ventilation represents a major risk factor for nosocomial pneumonia and specifically for ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, epidemiological data seem to be different between patients acquiring HAP in the ICU vs. general wards, suggesting the importance of identifying non ICU-acquired pneumonia (NIAP) as a clinical distinct entity in terms of both etiology and management. Early detection of NIAP, along with an individualized management, is needed to reduce antibiotic use and side effects, bacterial resistance and mortality. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of NIAP. PMID:26927074

  19. CNS Complications of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute central nervous system disease occurring subsequent to infection with M pneumoniae are reported from University College, Institute of Child Health, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  20. Acquired pneumonia in the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pneumonia is an inflammatory process unchained by a pathogen that affects bronchioles, alveoli and interstice causing exudative consolidation and alteration in the gassy exchange. The paper includes epidemiology, physiopathology, etiology and factors of risk among other topics

  1. Structure and Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Target from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh,V.; Shi, W.; Almo, S.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; Tyler, P.; Painter, G.; Lenz, D.; Mee, S.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (MTAN) catalyzes the hydrolytic deadenylation of its substrates to form adenine and 5-methylthioribose or S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH). MTAN is not found in mammals but is involved in bacterial quorum sensing. MTAN gene disruption affects the growth and pathogenicity of bacteria, making it a target for antibiotic design. Kinetic isotope effects and computational studies have established a dissociative S{sub N}1 transition state for Escherichia coli MTAN, and transition state analogues resembling the transition state are powerful inhibitors of the enzyme [Singh, V., Lee, J. L., Nunez, S., Howell, P. L., and Schramm, V. L. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 11647-11659]. The sequence of MTAN from S. pneumoniae is 40% identical to that of E. coli MTAN, but S. pneumoniae MTAN exhibits remarkably distinct kinetic and inhibitory properties. 5'-Methylthio-Immucillin-A (MT-ImmA) is a transition state analogue resembling an early S{sub N}1 transition state. It is a weak inhibitor of S. pneumoniae MTAN with a K{sub i} of 1.0 {mu}M. The X-ray structure of S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT-ImmA indicates a dimer with the methylthio group in a flexible hydrophobic pocket. Replacing the methyl group with phenyl (PhT-ImmA), tolyl (p-TolT-ImmA), or ethyl (EtT-ImmA) groups increases the affinity to give K{sub i} values of 335, 60, and 40 nM, respectively. DADMe-Immucillins are geometric and electrostatic mimics of a fully dissociated transition state and bind more tightly than Immucillins. MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A inhibits with a K{sub i} value of 24 nM, and replacing the 5'-methyl group with p-Cl-phenyl (p-Cl-PhT-DADMe-ImmA) gave a K{sub i}* value of 0.36 nM. The inhibitory potential of DADMe-Immucillins relative to the Immucillins supports a fully dissociated transition state structure for S. pneumoniae MTAN. Comparison of active site contacts in the X-ray crystal structures of E. coli and S. pneumoniae

  2. Identification of Pneumococcal Surface Protein A as a Lactoferrin-Binding Protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerschmidt, Sven; Bethe, Gesina; H. Remane, Petra; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    1999-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-sequestering glycoprotein, predominates in mucosal secretions, where the level of free extracellular iron (10−18 M) is not sufficient for bacterial growth. This represents a mechanism of resistance to bacterial infections by prevention of colonization of the host by pathogens. In this study we were able to show that Streptococcus pneumoniae specifically recognizes and binds the iron carrier protein human Lf (hLf). Pretreatment of pneumococci with proteases reduced hL...

  3. Lipoid pneumonia: An uncommon entity

    OpenAIRE

    Khilnani G; Hadda V

    2009-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances like petroleum jelly, mineral oils, certain laxatives, etc. It usually presents as an insidious onset, chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, especially when the exposure to fatty substance(s) is massive. Radiological findings are diverse and can mimic many other diseases including carcinoma, acute or c...

  4. Genotoxic Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan.

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    Yi-Chyi Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide-polyketide synthesized by multi-enzyme complexes encoded by the pks gene cluster. Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli have been demonstrated to induce host DNA damage and promote colorectal cancer (CRC development. In Taiwan, the occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA has been suggested to correlate with an increasing risk of CRC, and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant PLA pathogen in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the asn tRNA loci of the newly sequenced K. pneumoniae 1084 genome, we identified a 208-kb genomic island, KPHPI208, of which a module identical to the E. coli pks colibactin gene cluster was recognized. KPHPI208 consists of eight modules, including the colibactin module and the modules predicted to be involved in integration, conjugation, yersiniabactin production, microcin production, and unknown functions. Transient infection of BALB/c normal liver cells with K. pneumoniae 1084 increased the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, indicating the induction of host DNA damage. Colibactin was required for the genotoxicity of K. pneumoniae 1084, as it was diminished by deletion of clbA gene and restored to the wild type level by trans-complementation with a clbA coding plasmid. Besides, BALB/c mice infected with K. pneumoniae 1084 exhibited enhanced DNA damage in the liver parenchymal cells when compared to the isogenic clbA deletion mutant. By PCR detection, the prevalence of pks-positive K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is 25.6%, which is higher than that reported in Europe (3.5%, and is significantly correlated with K1 type, which predominantly accounted for PLA in Taiwan. CONCLUSIONS: Our knowledge regarding how bacteria contribute to carcinogenesis has just begun. The identification of genotoxic K. pneumoniae and its genetic components will facilitate future studies to elucidate the molecular basis underlying the link between K. pneumoniae, PLA, and CRC.

  5. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J. H.; McDonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Strepto...

  6. Differential activation of inflammatory pathways in A549 type II pneumocytes by Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with different adherence properties

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    Horvat Rebecca T

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria to lung cells is a first step in the progression from asymptomatic carriage to pneumonia. Adherence abilities vary widely among S. pneumoniae patient isolates. In this study, the binding properties of S. pneumoniae isolates and the effects of binding on activation of the Nuclear Factor-Kappa-B (NFκB pathway and cytokine secretion by type II pneumocytes were measured. Methods Mechanisms of high- and low-binding S. pneumoniae adherence to A549 cells were investigated by blocking putative receptors on bacteria and host cells with antibody and by eluting choline-binding proteins off of bacterial surfaces. NFκB activation was measured by western blot and immunocytochemistry and cytokine secretion was detected by a protein array. Results This study shows that S. pneumoniae isolates from pneumonia patients (n = 298 can vary by as much as 1000-fold in their ability to bind to human lung epithelial cells. This difference resulted in differential activation of the NFκB pathway. High-, but not low-binding S. pneumoniae used Choline-binding protein A (CbpA to bind to complement component C3 on epithelial cell surfaces. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 was the only cytokine secreted by cells treated with either low- or high-binding S. pneumoniae. Conclusion These results indicate that S. pneumoniae clinical isolates are not homogeneous in their interaction with host epithelial cells. The differential activation of host cells by high- and low-binding S. pneumoniae strains could have implications for the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia and for vaccine development.

  7. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  8. Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campañas exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los ni

  9. Aetiology and resistance patterns of community-acquired pneumonia in León, Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matute, A J; Brouwer, W P; Hak, E; Delgado, E; Alonso, E; Hoepelman, I M

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a prevalence study to gain greater insight into the aetiology, bacterial resistance and risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the region of León, Nicaragua. During the period from July 2002 to January 2005, all consecutive patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of

  10. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) serum levels in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Nordenbaek, Claudia; Tornoe, Ida;

    2003-01-01

    blood samples from 61 patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia of suspected bacterial origin. On the day of admission to the hospital the serum SP-D concentration was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects. On day 5, the SP-D concentration had increased on average three times...

  11. THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

  12. Increase in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in England, December 2010 to January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhany, K; Degail, M A; Lamagni, T; Waight, P; Guy, R; Zhao, H; Efstratiou, A; Pebody, R; George, R; Ramsay, M

    2011-01-01

    Increases in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae above the seasonally expected levels are currently being seen in England. Preliminary analyses suggest that the high level of influenza activity seen this winter may be contributing to an increased risk of concurrent invasive bacterial and influenza infections in children and young adults. PMID:21315057

  13. Causes of pneumonia epizootics among bighorn sheep, western United States, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, a...

  14. Difference of clinical features in childhood Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

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    Kang Jin-Han

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MP has been reported in 10-40% of community-acquired pneumonia cases. We aimed to evaluate the difference of clinical features in children with MP, according to their age and chest radiographic patterns. Methods The diagnosis of MP was made by examinations at both admission and discharge and by two serologic tests: the indirect microparticle agglutinin assay (≥1:40 and the cold agglutinins titer (≥1:32. A total of 191 children with MP were grouped by age: ≤2 years of age (29 patients, 3-5 years of age (81 patients, and ≥6 years of age (81 patients. They were also grouped by pneumonia pattern: bronchopneumonia group (96 patients and segmental/lobar pneumonia group (95 patients. Results Eighty-six patients (45% were seroconverters, and the others showed increased antibody titers during hospitalization. Among the three age groups, the oldest children showed the longest duration of fever, highest C-reactive protein (CRP values, and the most severe pneumonia pattern. The patients with segmental/lobar pneumonia were older and had longer fever duration and lower white blood cell (WBC and lymphocyte counts, compared with those with bronchopneumonia. The patient group with the most severe pulmonary lesions had the most prolonged fever, highest CRP, highest rate of seroconverters, and lowest lymphocyte counts. Thrombocytosis was observed in 8% of patients at admission, but in 33% of patients at discharge. Conclusions In MP, older children had more prolonged fever and more severe pulmonary lesions. The severity of pulmonary lesions was associated with the absence of diagnostic IgM antibodies at presentation and lymphocyte count. Short-term paired IgM serologic test may be mandatory for early and definitive diagnosis of MP.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Imipenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Susceptible Klebsiella variicola Isolates Obtained from the Same Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Moreno-Dominguez, Stephania; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Silva-Sanchez, Jesús; Barrios, Humberto; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Sanchez-Perez, Alejandro; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Sanchez-León, María Carmen; Moncada-Barron, David

    2016-04-01

    Klebsiella variicola, a bacterium closely genetically related to Klebsiella pneumoniae, is commonly misidentified as K. pneumoniae by biochemical tests. To distinguish between the two bacteria, phylogenetic analysis of the rpoB gene and the identification of unique genes in both bacterial species by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provide the means to reliably identify and genotype K. variicola. In recent years, K. variicola has been described both as the cause of an intrahospital outbreak in a pediatric hospital, which resulted in sepsis in inpatients, and as a frequent cause of bloodstream infections. In the present study, K. pneumoniae and K. variicola were isolated from a unique patient displaying different antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes and different genotypes of virulence determinants. Eight clinical isolates were obtained at different time intervals; all during a 5-month period. The isolates were identified as K. pneumoniae by an automated identification system. The clinical (biochemical test) and molecular (multiplex-PCR and rpoB gene) characterization identified imipenem resistance in the first six K. pneumoniae ST258 isolates, which encode the SHV-12 cephalosporinase and KPC-3 carbapenemase genes. The two last remaining isolates corresponded to susceptible K. variicola. The bacterial species showed a specific profile of virulence-associated determinants, specifically the fimA, fimH, and ecpRAB fimbrial-encoding genes identified only in K. pneumoniae isolates. However, the entb (enterobactin), mrkD (fimbrial adhesin), uge (epimerase), ureA (urease), and wabG (transferase) genes were shared between both bacterial species. Recent studies attribute a higher mortality rate to K. variicola than to K. pneumonia. This work highlights the identification of K. pneumoniae and the closely related K. variicola isolated from the same patient. The value of distinguishing between these two bacterial species is in their clinical significance, their

  16. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko

    2015-11-01

    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated. PMID:26304914

  17. Toll-Like Receptor Signalling Is Not Involved in Platelet Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro or In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Marianne C. L.; Hou, Baidong; van der Poll, Tom; Nieuwland, Rienk; van ‘t Veer, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae strains vary considerably in their ability to cause invasive disease in humans, which is at least in part determined by the capsular serotype. Platelets have been implicated as sentinel cells in the circulation for host defence. One of their utensils for this function is the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We here aimed to investigate platelet response to S. pneumoniae and a role for TLRs herein. Platelets were stimulated using four serotypes of S. pneumonia including an unencapsulated mutant strain. In vitro aggregation and flow cytometry assays were performed using blood of healthy volunteers, or blood of TLR knock out and WT mice. For in vivo pneumonia experiments, platelet specific Myd88 knockout (Plt-Myd88-/-) mice were used. We found that platelet aggregation was induced by unencapsulated S. pneumoniae only. Whole blood incubation with all S. pneumoniae serotypes tested resulted in platelet degranulation and platelet-leukocyte complex formation. Platelet activation was TLR independent, as responses were not inhibited by TLR blocking antibodies, not induced by TLR agonists and were equally induced in wild-type and Tlr2-/-, Tlr4-/-, Tlr2/4-/-, Tlr9-/- and Myd88-/- blood. Plt-Myd88-/- and control mice displayed no differences in bacterial clearance or immune response to pneumonia by unencapsulated S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, S. pneumoniae activates platelets through a TLR-independent mechanism that is impeded by the bacterial capsule. Additionally, platelet MyD88-dependent TLR signalling is not involved in host defence to unencapsulated S. pneumoniae in vivo. PMID:27253707

  18. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia? The signs and symptoms of pneumonia vary from ... have sudden changes in mental awareness. Complications of Pneumonia Often, people who have pneumonia can be successfully ...

  19. Clinical case review: A method to improve identification of true clinical and radiographic pneumonia in children meeting the World Health Organization definition for pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruutu Petri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization's (WHO case definition for childhood pneumonia, composed of simple clinical signs of cough, difficult breathing and fast breathing, is widely used in resource poor settings to guide management of acute respiratory infections. The definition is also commonly used as an entry criteria or endpoint in different intervention and disease burden studies. Methods A group of paediatricians conducted a retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data including C-reactive protein concentration and chest radiograph findings among Filipino children hospitalised in the Bohol Regional Hospital who were enrolled in a pneumococcal vaccine efficacy study and had an episode of respiratory disease fulfilling the WHO case definition for clinical pneumonia. Our aim was to evaluate which disease entities the WHO definition actually captures and what is the probable aetiology of respiratory infections among these episodes diagnosed in this population. Results Among the 12,194 children enrolled to the vaccine study we recorded 1,195 disease episodes leading to hospitalisation which fulfilled the WHO criteria for pneumonia. In total, 34% of these episodes showed radiographic evidence of pneumonia and 11% were classified as definitive or probable bacterial pneumonia. Over 95% of episodes of WHO-defined severe pneumonia (with chest indrawing had an acute lower respiratory infection as final diagnosis whereas 34% of those with non-severe clinical pneumonia had gastroenteritis or other non-respiratory infection as main cause of hospitalisation. Conclusion The WHO definition for severe pneumonia shows high specificity for acute lower respiratory infection and provides a tool to compare the total burden of lower respiratory infections in different settings. Trial registration ISRCTN62323832

  20. Double-Blind, Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (2,000/125 Milligrams) versus Those of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (875/125 Milligrams), Both Given Twice Daily for 7 Days, in Treatment of Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    File, T M; Lode, H; Kurz, H.; Kozak, R; H. Xie; Berkowitz, E

    2004-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial was designed to demonstrate that pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 mg) was at least as effective clinically as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg, both given twice daily for 7 days, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. In total, 633 clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia patients (intent-to-treat population) were randomized to receive either oral amoxicillin-c...

  1. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordier Jean-François

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than lymphocyte counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage. ICEP is a rare disorder of unknown cause. Its exact prevalence remains unknown. ICEP may affect every age group but is rare in childhood. It is twice as frequent in women as in men. One third to one half of the ICEP patients have a history of asthma. The mainstay of treatment of ICEP is systemic corticosteroids. Response to oral corticosteroid therapy is dramatic and has led to the consideration of corticosteroid challenge as a diagnostic test for ICEP. Nevertheless, relapses or development of severe asthma are frequent when tapering or withdrawing treatment. Long-term oral corticosteroid therapy is necessary in up to half of the patients.

  2. PcpA Promotes Higher Levels of Infection and Modulates Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa M; Novak, Lea; Widener, Rebecca; Grubbs, James Aaron; King, Janice; Hale, Joanetha Y; Ochs, Martina M; Myers, Lisa E; Briles, David E; Deshane, Jessy

    2016-03-01

    We used two different infection models to investigate the kinetics of the PcpA-dependent pneumococcal disease in mice. In a bacteremic pneumonia model, we observed a PcpA-dependent increase in bacterial burden in the lungs, blood, liver, bronchoalveolar lavage, and spleens of mice at 24 h postinfection. This PcpA-dependent effect on bacterial burden appeared earlier (within 12 h) in the focal pneumonia model, which lacks bacteremia or sepsis. Histological changes show that the ability of pneumococci to make PcpA was associated with unresolved inflammation in both models of infection. Using our bacteremic pneumonia model we further investigated the effects of PcpA on recruitment of innate immune regulatory cells. The presence of PcpA was associated with increased IL-6 levels, suppressed production of TRAIL, and reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pneumococci to make PcpA negatively modulated both the infiltration and apoptosis of macrophages and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor-like cells. The latter have been shown to facilitate the clearance and control of bacterial pneumonia. Taken together, the ability to make PcpA was strongly associated with increased bacterial burden, inflammation, and negative regulation of innate immune cell recruitment to the lung tissue during bacteremic pneumonia. PMID:26829988

  3. The clinical characteristics,treatment and outcome of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the drug resistance of My-coplasma pneumoniae among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) ,and to explore the clinical and radiological characteristics of and the role of azithromycin in the treatment of of macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.Methods Cases of CAP in children (n=179) were prospectively enrolled in

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia Associated With Methemoglobinemia and Anemia: An Overlooked Association?

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Tawfik; Abu Rmeileh, Ayman; Kornspan, Jonathan David; Abel, Roy; Mizrahi, Meir; Nir-Paz, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute methemoglobinemia and anemia in a patient with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We suggest that M. pneumoniae secretes a putative protein that can induce methemoglobin in red blood cells. Thus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae may induce methemoglobinemia in patients who have low oxygen saturation and anemia.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Myophage Miro

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalis, Eleni M.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen frequently associated with antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections. Bacteriophage therapy against K. pneumoniae may be possible to combat these infections. The following describes the complete genome sequence and key features of the pseudo-T-even K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae myophage Miro.

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced hydrocephalus in hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, D F; Chinookoswong, N; Wang, J

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocephalus was induced in neonatal hamsters after intracerebral inoculation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Examination of the ependyma from affected animals by electron microscopy did not reveal mycoplasma. However, in an ependymal organ culture system, M. pneumoniae cytadsorbed to ependymal cells.

  7. Increased lethality and defective pulmonary clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Jennifer M; Weinberg, Jason B; O'Brien, Edmund; Abashian, Anya; Procario, Megan C; Aronoff, David M; Crofford, Leslie J; Peters-Golden, Marc; Ward, Lindsay; Mancuso, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases dramatically during pneumococcal pneumonia, and this lipid mediator impairs alveolar macrophage (AM)-mediated innate immune responses. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of PGE2, and its expression is enhanced during bacterial infections. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 in mice results in diminished PGE2 production and elevated levels of other prostaglandins after infection. Since PGE2 plays an important immunoregulatory role during bacterial pneumonia we assessed the impact of mPGES-1 deletion in the host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia in vivo and in AMs in vitro. Wild-type (WT) and mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae via the intratracheal route. Compared with WT animals, we observed reduced survival and increased lung and spleen bacterial burdens in mPGES-1 KO mice 24 and 48 h after S. pneumoniae infection. While we found modest differences between WT and mPGES-1 KO mice in pulmonary cytokines, AMs from mPGES-1 KO mice exhibited defective killing of ingested bacteria in vitro that was associated with diminished inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Treatment of AMs from mPGES-1 KO mice with an NO donor restored bacterial killing in vitro. These results suggest that mPGES-1 plays a critical role in bacterial pneumonia and that genetic ablation of this enzyme results in diminished pulmonary host defense in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that specific inhibition of PGE2 synthesis by targeting mPGES-1 may weaken host defense against bacterial infections. PMID:27059285

  8. Development of a new trend conjugate vaccine for the prevention of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of nosocomial pneumonia, septicemia and urinary tract infections, especially in newborns, blood cancer patients, and other immunocompromised candidates. The control of K. pneumoniae is a complicated issue due to its tight pathogenesis. Immuno-prophylactic preparations, especially those directed toward the bacterium O-antigen, showed to be the most successful way to prevent the infection incidence. However, all previously proposed preparations were either of limited spectrum or non-maternal, and hence not targeting the main Klebsiella patients. Moreover, all preparations were directed only to prevent the respiratory diseases due to that pathogen. This article addresses the development of a method originally used to purify the non-capsular bacterial- endotoxins, as a new and easy method for vaccine production against K. pneumoniae. The application of this method was preceded by a biotechnological control of capsular polysaccharide production in K. pneumoniae. The new produced natural conjugate between the bacterial O-antigen and its outer membrane proteins was evaluated by physicochemical and immunological methods to investigate its purity, integrity, safety and immunogenicity. It showed to be pure, stable, safe for use, and able to elicit a protective immunoglobulin titer against different Klebsiella infections. This immune-response proved to be transferable to the offspring of the vaccinated experimental rabbits via placenta.

  9. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  10. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  11. Imaging of pneumocystic carinii pneumonia in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the X-ray and CT findings of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. Methods: Five AIDS patients who had chest abnormalities were analyzed. Results: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia appeared as diffuse infiltrative and interstitial fine nodules. Conclusion: If the diffuse and infiltrative interstitial fine nodule are the appearances in patients with AIDS, the pneumocystic carinii pneumonia should be considered

  12. Cilia-associated bacteria in fatal Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Bassel, Laura L; Harness, Melanie L; Clark, Mary Ellen; Register, Karen B; Caswell, Jeff L

    2016-07-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less recognized. Our study evaluated histologic identification of cilia-associated bacteria as a method for diagnosis of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. Cases of fatal bronchopneumonia were studied retrospectively, excluding neonates and cases of aspiration pneumonia, minor lung lesions, or autolysis. The study population comprised 36 canine and 31 feline cases of bronchopneumonia. B. bronchiseptica was identified in 8 of 36 canine and 14 of 31 feline cases based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) using serum from a rabbit hyperimmunized with pertactin, PCR testing (Fla2/Fla12), and/or bacterial culture data when available. Of these, IHC was positive in 4 canine and 7 feline cases, PCR was positive in 8 canine and 14 feline cases, and B. bronchiseptica was isolated in 2 of 5 canine and 3 of 9 feline cases tested. Examination of histologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin revealed bronchial cilia-associated bacteria in 4 of 36 canine and 5 of 31 feline cases; these were all positive by IHC and PCR. The presence of cilia-associated bacteria had been noted in the pathology report for only 2 of these 9 cases. Thus, the presence of cilia-associated bacteria seems frequently overlooked by pathologists, but is a diagnostically significant feature of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. A specific diagnosis of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia is important because it suggests primary or opportunistic bacterial pneumonia rather than aspiration pneumonia, and because of the risk of animal-to-animal transmission of B. bronchiseptica, the availability of vaccines for disease prevention, and the potential zoonotic risk to immunocompromised pet owners. PMID:27178716

  13. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  14. Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Joshi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available No large data based, or randomized controlled studies are available in reference to pneumonia in ICU especially in adult population, in India. Moreover the types of ICU infrastructure, sterilization& disinfection protocols, empirical antibiotics and antibiotics policy are standardized in the country. Hence this review article has mainly utilized available literature from developed countries. This review article briefly discusses the definition of various pneumonia, epidemiology, causative organism, patho-genesis, risk factors, diagnostic strategies and management modalities. By this article, authors hope that a certain guidelines or standardization of protocols in India will be formulated.

  15. Diversity of genotypes in CTX-M-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in different hospitals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pavoni Gomes Chagas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to characterize CTX-M ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from hospitals in different cities of Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-five K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in six different hospitals of three cities of Brazil were analyzed. ESBL production was confirmed by the standard double-disk synergy test and the Etest®. The MIC50 and MIC90 for ESBL-producing isolates were determined by the Etest® method. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates were determined using the agar diffusion method according to the CLSI. Screening for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes and class 1 integron was performed by PCR amplification. To determine the genomic diversity of CTX-M-producers, isolates were analyzed by macrorestriction profile analysis following PFGE. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Seventy-one K. pneumoniae isolates were ESBL-producing. PCR and sequencing experiments detected 38 CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae belonged to groups CTX-M 1, CTX-M 2, CTX-M 8 and CTX-M 9. The association of different types ESBL (CTX-M, SHV and TEM was frequent. All K. pneumoniae isolates carried class 1 integron. PFGE analysis revealed thirty-one clonal types among CTX-M-producing isolates. The data presented herein illustrate the diversity of genotypes of CTX-M producing K. pneumoniae among Brazilians hospitals.

  16. Transthoracic lung aspiration for the aetiological diagnosis of pneumonia: 25 years of experience from The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideh, R C; Howie, S R C; Ebruke, B; Secka, O; Greenwood, B M; Adegbola, R A; Corrah, T

    2011-06-01

    Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in young children worldwide. Global pneumonia control depends on a good understanding of the aetiology of pneumonia. Percutaneous transthoracic aspiration culture is much more sensitive than blood culture in identifying the aetiological agents of pneumonia. However, the procedure is not widely practised because of lack of familiarity with it and concerns about potential adverse events. We review the diagnostic usefulness and safety of this procedure over 25 years of its use in research and routine practice at the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), The Gambia, and give a detailed description of the procedure itself. Published materials were identified from the MRC's publication database and systematic searches using the PubMed/Medline and Google search engines. Data from a current pneumonia aetiology study in the unit are included together with clinical experience of staff practising at the unit over the period covered in this review. A minimum of 500 lung aspirates were performed over the period of review. Lung aspiration produces a greater yield of diagnostic bacterial isolates than blood culture. It is especially valuable clinically when pathogens not covered by standard empirical antibiotic treatment, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, are identified. There have been no deaths following the procedure in our setting and a low rate of other complications, all transient. Lung aspiration is currently the most sensitive method for diagnosing pneumonia in children. With appropriate training and precautions it can be safely used for routine diagnosis in suitable referral hospitals. PMID:21477423

  17. PEGylated liposomal vancomycin: a glimmer of hope for improving treatment outcomes in MRSA pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumerantz, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) plays a significant role in the pandemic of multidrug resistant bacterial infections and is a major cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia. MRSA pneumonia carries a high morbidity and mortality rate especially in elderly diabetics with chronic kidney disease. S. aureus is highly virulent and successful respiratory pathogen. Vancomycin and linezolid are the only two antimicrobial agents FDA-approved to treat MRSA pneumonia. Standard vancomycin dosing is associated with high clinical failure rates and higher dosages are associated with increased nephrotoxicity. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic limitations are major contributors to poor outcomes with vancomycin. New agents are needed to improve treatment outcomes with MRSA pneumonia. Recently released antimicrobials with in vitro activity are not FDA-approved for treating MRSA pneumonia. Other novel agents are being investigated though none are in late-stage development. Pharmaceutical industry perception of low returns on investment, a Sisyphean regulatory environment, and obstacles to patentability have contributed to declining interest in both the development of novel antibiotics and the improvement of existing generic formulations. Despite decades of investigation into liposomal encapsulation as a drug delivery system that would increase efficacy and decrease toxicity, only liposomal amphotericin B and doxorubicin are commercially available. In this article, the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a novel PEGylated liposomal vancomycin formulation along with passive targeting and the enhanced permeability and retention effect of liposomal drug delivery; the pathogenesis of MRSA pneumonia; and recent patents of novel anti-MRSA agents, including inhalational liposomal vancomycin, are reviewed. PMID:22742394

  18. Use of recombinant chimeric antigens for the serodiagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnani, F; De Paolis, F; Beghetto, E; Gargano, N

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we have evaluated the diagnostic utility of three antigenic regions of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1, P30, and MPN456 gene products in order to replace the soluble, whole-cell bacterial extract in serological assays. Antigenic regions, being previously identified as B-cell epitopes, were used individually or assembled in a recombinant chimeric antigen by genetic engineering. Paired serum samples from 47 patients with M. pneumoniae infection and from 39 subjects with a clinical picture of atypical pneumonia but without a defined diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection were included. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against epitopes carried by recombinant antigens were measured by performing recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Rec-ELISAs). Rec-ELISA results were compared to those obtained by a commercial assay using the whole-cell Mycoplasma antigen. Our study demonstrates that all IgG Rec-ELISAs using recombinant antigens have better sensitivity with respect to the commercial assay. Furthermore, we show that the use of chimeric antigens improve the performance of the assays. The use of recombinant antigens is effective in distinguishing M. pneumoniae-infected patients from uninfected individuals and shows that immunoassays based on recombinant antigens could provide the basis for standardized commercial tests for the serodiagnosis of M. pneumoniae diseases. PMID:20632053

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae enhances the Th2 profile of stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Chotikanatis, Kobkul; Erstein, David P; Perlman, Jason; Norowitz, Yitzchok M; Joks, Rauno; Durkin, Helen G; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Kohlhoff, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a cause of respiratory infection in adults and children. There is evidence for an association between atypical bacterial respiratory pathogens and the pathogenesis of asthma. We compared T helper (Th) responses in C. pneumoniae - infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with or without asthma. PBMC (1×10(6)/mL) from asthmatic patients (N=11) and non-asthmatic controls (N=12) were infected or mock-infected for 1h +/- C. pneumoniae TW-183 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI)=1 and MOI=0.1, or cultured for 24h +/- Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12, Interferon (IFN)-gamma and total IgE levels were measured in supernatants (ELISA). C. pneumoniae infection led to an increase (>50%) of IgE levels in PBMC from asthmatics, compared with mock-infected on day 10; IgE wasn't detected in non-asthmatics. C. pneumoniae - infected PBMC from asthmatics increased levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma after 24h, compared with PBMC alone; levels of IL-10 and IL-12 were low. When uninfected-PBMC from asthmatics were LGG-stimulated, after 24h, IL-4 was undetectable, but IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-gamma increased, compared with PBMC alone. Thus, C. pneumoniae infection has the ability to induce allergic responses in PBMC of asthmatics, as evidenced by production of Th2 responses and IgE. PMID:26924667

  20. Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase-4 during Pneumococcal Pneumonia Reduces Inflammation and Lung Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luciana P; Garcia, Cristiana C; Vago, Juliana P; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Galvão, Izabela; David, Bruna A; Rachid, Milene A; Silva, Patrícia M R; Russo, Remo C; Teixeira, Mauro M; Sousa, Lirlândia P

    2016-07-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The inflammatory response to bacteria is necessary to control infection, but it may also contribute to tissue damage. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, such as rolipram (ROL), effectively reduce inflammation. Here, we examined the impact of ROL in a pneumococcal pneumonia murine model. Mice were infected intranasally with 10(5)-10(6) CFU of Streptococcus pneumoniae, treated with ROL in a prophylactic or therapeutic schedule in combination, or not, with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Inflammation and bacteria counts were assessed, and ex vivo phagocytosis assays were performed. ROL treatment during S. pneumoniae infection decreased neutrophil recruitment into lungs and airways and reduced lung injury. Prophylactic ROL treatment also decreased cytokine levels in the airways. Although modulation of inflammation by ROL ameliorated pneumonia, bacteria burden was not reduced. On the other hand, antibiotic therapy reduced bacteria without reducing neutrophil infiltration, cytokine level, or lung injury. Combined ROL and ceftriaxone treatment decreased lethality rates and was more efficient in reducing inflammation, by increasing proresolving protein annexin A1 (AnxA1) expression, and bacterial burden by enhancing phagocytosis. Lack of AnxA1 increased inflammation and lethality induced by pneumococcal infection. These data show that immunomodulatory effects of phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors are useful during severe pneumococcal pneumonia and suggest their potential benefit as adjunctive therapy during infectious diseases. PMID:26677751

  1. Host cell Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Eveliina; Hulkkonen, Jaakko; Penttilä, Tuula; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae protein CPn0809 is a type three secretion system substrate, the exact function of which in infection pathogenesis has remained unknown. In this study, we identified by yeast two-hybrid screening a potential host cell interaction partner of CPn0809, Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP), a conserved protein found in eukaryotic cells. GAAP gene is expressed at relatively constant levels and its expression remained stable also after C. pneumoniae infection. The interaction between GAAP and C. pneumoniae was suggested by transfection studies. GAAP knock-down by siRNA in infected A549 cells resulted in an increased number of C. pneumoniae genomes and growth of the bacteria as judged by quantitative PCR and inclusion counts, respectively. Silencing of GAAP did not make the A549 cells more susceptible to apoptosis per se, and infection with C. pneumoniae prevented staurosporin-induced apoptosis also in transfected cultures. Taken together, the proposed interaction between C. pneumoniae and GAAP modulates bacterial growth in A549 cells. PMID:23000903

  2. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bacterial Meningoencephalitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Belkys Rodríguez Llerena.; Luciano Núñez Almoguea.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bacterial Meningoencephalitis. It has been defined as an acute inflammatory process caused by bacteria, often purulent, which involves the meninges, subarachnoid space around the brain, spinal cord and usually includes the ventricles. It is caused in the 80% of the patients by three bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumonia. Concepts, classification, diagnosis and treatment were reviewed. It includes assessment guidel...

  3. The clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia, sum the experience and the basis of the radiation pneumonia for its prevention and treatment. Method: Twenty three cases with radiation pneumonia from 1991 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed. Its clinical manifestation, chest X-ray, thoracic CT and blood routine were evaluated. Result: The acute manifestation was fever, cough, dyspnea, and the chronic manifestation was cough and insufficiency of pulmonary function. Conclusion: The prevention of radiation pneumonia is more important, high dose cortical steroids and antibiotics were prescribed during the acute stage and the chronic radiation pneumonia is irreversible

  4. Organizing pneumonia: the many morphological faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, Anastasia; Hansell, David M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-01

    Organizing pneumonia is a non-specific response to various forms of lung injury and is the pathological hallmark of the distinct clinical entity termed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The typical imaging features of this syndrome have been widely documented and consist of patchy air-space consolidation, often subpleural, with or without ground-glass opacities. The purpose of this article is to highlight the less familiar imaging patterns of organizing pneumonia which include focal organizing pneumonia, a variety of nodular patterns, a bronchocentric distribution, band-like opacities, a perilobular pattern and a progressive fibrotic form of organizing pneumonia. (orig.)

  5. Organizing pneumonia: the many morphological faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organizing pneumonia is a non-specific response to various forms of lung injury and is the pathological hallmark of the distinct clinical entity termed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The typical imaging features of this syndrome have been widely documented and consist of patchy air-space consolidation, often subpleural, with or without ground-glass opacities. The purpose of this article is to highlight the less familiar imaging patterns of organizing pneumonia which include focal organizing pneumonia, a variety of nodular patterns, a bronchocentric distribution, band-like opacities, a perilobular pattern and a progressive fibrotic form of organizing pneumonia. (orig.)

  6. Risk factors for KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: watch out for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Kesia Esther; Maciel, Wirlaine Glauce; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Carvalhaes, Cecilia Godoy; Rodrigues-Costa, Fernanda; da Silva, Ana Carolina Ramos; Croda, Mariana Garcia; Negrão, Fábio Juliano; Croda, Julio; Gales, Ana Cristina; Simionatto, Simone

    2016-06-01

    This study describes the molecular characteristics and risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Risk factors associated with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were investigated in this case-control study from May 2011 to May 2013. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Carbapenemase production was assessed by both modified Hodge test (MHT) and ertapenem hydrolysis using MALDI-TOF MS. The presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes was evaluated by PCR and DNA sequencing. Alterations in genes encoding K. pneumoniae outer membrane proteins were analysed by PCR and DNA sequencing as well as SDS-PAGE. Genetic relatedness among strains was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This study included 94 patients. Longer hospitalisation, mechanical ventilation, catheters, and previous surgery were associated with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. Sixty-eight strains showed resistance to carbapenems. Carbapenemase production was detected by MHT in 67 K. pneumoniae strains and by MALDI-TOF MS in 57. The presence of the blaKPC-2 gene was identified in 57 strains. The blaKPC-2 gene was not found in 11 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae; instead, the blaCTX-M-1-like, blaCTX-M-2-like, blaCTX-M-8 like, blaCTX-M-14-like and blaSHV- like genes associated with OmpK35 and OmpK36 alterations were observed. Thirty-three KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were clonally related, and patients infected with these strains had a higher mortality rate (78.78 %). Our results show that KPC-producing K. pneumoniae was associated with several healthcare-related risk factors, including recent surgery. PMID:27002853

  7. Epimorphin expression in interstitial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suga Moritaka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epimorphin modulates epithelial morphogenesis in embryonic mouse organs. We previously suggested that epimorphin contributes to repair of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. To clarify the role of epimorphin in human lungs, we evaluated epimorphin expression and localization in normal lungs, lungs with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, and lungs with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP; we also studied the effect of recombinant epimorphin on cultured human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Northern and Western blotting analyses revealed that epimorphin expression in NSIP samples were significantly higher than those in control lungs and lungs with UIP. Immunohistochemistry showed strong epimorphin expression in mesenchymal cells of early fibrotic lesions and localization of epimorphin protein on mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix of early fibrotic lesions in the nonspecific interstitial pneumonia group. Double-labeled fluorescent images revealed expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in re-epithelialized cells overlying epimorphin-positive early fibrotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry and metalloproteinase activity assay demonstrated augmented expression of metalloproteinase induced by recombinant epimorphin in human alveolar epithelial cells. These findings suggest that epimorphin contributes to repair of pulmonary fibrosis in nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, perhaps partly by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, which is an important proteolytic factor in lung remodeling.

  8. Lipoid pneumonia: a challenging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kassem; Chalhoub, Michel; Maroun, Rabih; Abi-Fadel, Francois; Zhao, Fan

    2011-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is a rare medical condition, and is usually classified into two groups, ie, exogenous or endogenous, depending on the source of lipids found in the lungs. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia may result from the aspiration of food and lipids. Although most cases are asymptomatic, common symptoms include cough, dyspnea, chest pain, pleural effusions, fever, and hemoptysis. Radiologically, lipoid pneumonia can manifest as consolidations, pulmonary nodules, or soft-tissue densities. These presentations involve a wide differential diagnosis, including lung cancer. Other rare causes of fatty pulmonary lesions include hamartomas, lipomas, and liposarcomas. The avoidance of further exposures and the use of corticosteroids, antibiotics, and lavage comprise the mainstays of treatment. The exclusion of mycobacterial infections is important during diagnosis, in view of their known association. Generally, acute presentations run a benign course, if promptly treated. Chronic cases are more persistent and difficult to treat. Although the radiologic and pathologic diagnosis is fairly reliable, more research is needed to clarify the optimal treatment and expected outcomes. We report on a 54-year-old man presenting with progressively worsening cough, hemoptysis, and dyspnea over a few weeks. The patient underwent multiple computed tomographies of the chest and bronchoscopies. All failed to diagnose lipoid pneumonia. The diagnosis was finally established using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Most of the paraffinoma was resected during this surgery. He was treated with antibiotics and steroids, and discharged from the hospital in stable condition. PMID:21349583

  9. Lipoid pneumonia: An uncommon entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani G

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances like petroleum jelly, mineral oils, certain laxatives, etc. It usually presents as an insidious onset, chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, especially when the exposure to fatty substance(s is massive. Radiological findings are diverse and can mimic many other diseases including carcinoma, acute or chronic pneumonia, ARDS, or a localized granuloma. Pathologically it is a chronic foreign body reaction characterized by lipid-laden macrophages. Diagnosis of this disease is often missed as it is usually not considered in the differential diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia; it requires a high degree of suspicion. In suspected cases, diagnosis may be confirmed by demonstrating the presence of lipid-laden macrophages in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy from the lung lesion. Treatment of this illness is poorly defined and constitutes supportive therapy, repeated bronchoalveolar lavage, and corticosteroids.

  10. Lipoid pneumonia: an uncommon entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, G C; Hadda, V

    2009-10-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances like petroleum jelly, mineral oils, certain laxatives, etc. It usually presents as an insidious onset, chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, especially when the exposure to fatty substance(s) is massive. Radiological findings are diverse and can mimic many other diseases including carcinoma, acute or chronic pneumonia, ARDS, or a localized granuloma. Pathologically it is a chronic foreign body reaction characterized by lipid-laden macrophages. Diagnosis of this disease is often missed as it is usually not considered in the differential diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia; it requires a high degree of suspicion. In suspected cases, diagnosis may be confirmed by demonstrating the presence of lipid-laden macrophages in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy from the lung lesion. Treatment of this illness is poorly defined and constitutes supportive therapy, repeated bronchoalveolar lavage, and corticosteroids. PMID:19901490

  11. Childhood Pneumonia Screener: a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Räsänen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia continues to be the number one cause of death in children under five years of age in developing countries. In addition to mortality, pneumonia constitutes an enormous economic and social burden because late diagnosis is associated with high cost of treatment and often leads to chronic health problems. There are several bottlenecks in developing countries in the case flow of a child with lung infection: 1 recognising the symptoms as a reason to seek care, 2 getting the patient to a first-tier health facility, 3 scarcity of trained healthcare personnel who can diagnose the condition and its severity, 4 access to a second-tier facility in severe cases. These factors are commonly present in rural areas but even in more urban settings, access to a physician is often delayed. The Childhood Pneumonia Screener project aims at bridging the diagnostic gap using emerging technology. Mobile “smart” phone communication with several inexpensive dedicated sensors is proposed as a rapid data-collection and transmission unit that is connected to a central location where trained personnel assisted by sophisticated signal processing algorithms, evaluate the data and determine if the child is likely to have pneumonia and what the level and urgency of care should be.

  12. Hubungan Procalcitonin dengan Skor Pneumonia Severity Indeks (PSI) Untuk Menilai Tingkat Keparahan Penyakit Pneumonia Komuniti di RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Ahmad Aswar

    2016-01-01

    Background: procalcitonin as a biomarker for acute bacterial infection which is commonly used recently. Objective: This study is trying to find the relationship between Procalcitonin and PSI scores to asses the severity of CAP. Methods: This study used longitudinal data collection approach without a control group. Patients with a diagnosis of Community Acquired Pneumonia were checked the Procalcitonin levels and measured the PSI scores on the first and third day of hospitalization. ...

  13. Time and dose-dependent risk of pneumococcal pneumonia following influenza: a model for within-host interaction between influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Sourya; Foxman, Betsy; Dawid, Suzanne; Aiello, Allison E.; Davis, Brian M.; Berus, Joshua; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-01-01

    A significant fraction of seasonal and in particular pandemic influenza deaths are attributed to secondary bacterial infections. In animal models, influenza virus predisposes hosts to severe infection with both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Despite its importance, the mechanistic nature of the interaction between influenza and pneumococci, its dependence on the timing and sequence of infections as well as the clinical and epidemiological consequences remain unclear. We e...

  14. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-hua Hou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Selective pressure, the extensive use of antibiotics, and the conjugational transmission of antibiotic resistance genes across bacterial species and genera facilitate the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR K. pneumoniae. Here, we examined the occurrence, phenotypes and genetic features of MDR K. pneumoniae isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University in Xiamen, China, from January to December 2011. Thirty-eight MDR K. pneumoniae strains were collected. These MDR K. pneumoniae isolates possessed at least seven antibiotic resistance determinants, which contribute to the high-level resistance of these bacteria to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones and β-lactams. Among these isolates, 24 strains were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producers, 2 strains were AmpC producers, and 12 strains were both ESBL and AmpC producers. The 38 MDR isolates also contained class I (28/38 and class II integrons (10/38. All 28 class I-positive isolates contained aacC1, aacC4, orfX, orfX’ and aadA1 genes. β-lactam resistance was conferred through blaSHV (22/38, blaTEM (10/38, and blaCTX-M (7/38. The highly conserved blaKPC-2 (37/38 and blaOXA-23(1/38 alleles were responsible for carbapenem resistance, and a gyrAsite mutation (27/38 and the plasmid-mediated qnrB gene (13/38 were responsible for quinolone resistance. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR fingerprinting of these MDR strains revealed the presence of five groups and sixteen patterns. The MDR strains from unrelated groups showed different drug resistance patterns; however, some homologous strains also showed different drug resistance profiles. Therefore, REP-PCR-based analyses can provide information to evaluate the epidemic status of nosocomial infection caused by MDR K. pneumoniae; however, this test lacks the power to discriminate some

  15. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang-hua; Song, Xiu-yu; Ma, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Shi-yang; Zhang, Jia-qin

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Selective pressure, the extensive use of antibiotics, and the conjugational transmission of antibiotic resistance genes across bacterial species and genera facilitate the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae. Here, we examined the occurrence, phenotypes and genetic features of MDR K. pneumoniae isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University in Xiamen, China, from January to December 2011. Thirty-eight MDR K. pneumoniae strains were collected. These MDR K. pneumoniae isolates possessed at least seven antibiotic resistance determinants, which contribute to the high-level resistance of these bacteria to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones and β-lactams. Among these isolates, 24 strains were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, 2 strains were AmpC producers, and 12 strains were both ESBL and AmpC producers. The 38 MDR isolates also contained class I (28/38) and class II integrons (10/38). All 28 class I-positive isolates contained aacC1, aacC4, orfX, orfX' and aadA1 genes. β-lactam resistance was conferred through bla SHV (22/38), bla TEM (10/38), and bla CTX-M (7/38). The highly conserved bla KPC-2 (37/38) and bla OXA-23(1/38) alleles were responsible for carbapenem resistance, and a gyrAsite mutation (27/38) and the plasmid-mediated qnrB gene (13/38) were responsible for quinolone resistance. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) fingerprinting of these MDR strains revealed the presence of five groups and sixteen patterns. The MDR strains from unrelated groups showed different drug resistance patterns; however, some homologous strains also showed different drug resistance profiles. Therefore, REP-PCR-based analyses can provide information to evaluate the epidemic status of nosocomial infection caused by MDR K. pneumoniae; however, this test lacks the power to discriminate some

  16. Effect of radiation processing in elimination of Klebsiella pneumoniae from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Raj Kamal; Nagar, Vandan; Shashidhar, Ravindranath

    2015-10-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has been considered as an important foodborne pathogen which causes severe infections that include meningitis, bronchitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections in humans and animals. It is well known to most clinicians as a cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Klebsiella is an opportunistic pathogen, that primarily attacks neonates, infants, elderly and immuno-compromised patients and therefore impose a serious, emerging public health hazard globally. Contaminated sprouts, vegetables, seafood and other animal meat products are considered as main sources of Klebsiella infection. In the current study, radiation sensitivity of K. pneumoniae MTCC 109 was determined in different food samples. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of K. pneumoniae MTCC 109 in saline and nutrient broth at 0-4 °C were 0.116±0.009, 0.136±0.005 kGy, respectively. The mixed sprouts, fish and poultry samples were inoculated with K. pneumoniae MTCC 109 and exposed to gamma radiation to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation treatment in the elimination of K. pneumoniae. D10 values of K. pneumoniae in mixed sprouts, poultry and fish samples were found to be 0.142±0.009, 0.125±0.0004 and 0.277±0.012 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in the complete elimination of 3.1±1.8×105 CFU/g of K. pneumoniae from these food samples. No recovery of K. pneumoniae was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 days, even after enrichment and selective plating. This study shows that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could lead to the complete elimination of 3.1±1.8×105 CFU/g of K. pneumoniae from mixed sprouts, poultry and fish samples.

  17. Identification of antigenic proteins of the nosocomial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hoppe

    Full Text Available The continuous expansion of nosocomial infections around the globe has become a precarious situation. Key challenges include mounting dissemination of multiple resistances to antibiotics, the easy transmission and the growing mortality rates of hospital-acquired bacterial diseases. Thus, new ways to rapidly detect these infections are vital. Consequently, researchers around the globe pursue innovative approaches for point-of-care devices. In many cases the specific interaction of an antigen and a corresponding antibody is pivotal. However, the knowledge about suitable antigens is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify novel antigens as specific diagnostic markers. Additionally, these proteins might be aptly used for the generation of vaccines to improve current treatment options. Hence, a cDNA-based expression library was constructed and screened via microarrays to detect novel antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a prominent agent of nosocomial infections well-known for its extensive antibiotics resistance, especially by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL. After screening 1536 clones, 14 previously unknown immunogenic proteins were identified. Subsequently, each protein was expressed in full-length and its immunodominant character examined by ELISA and microarray analyses. Consequently, six proteins were selected for epitope mapping and three thereof possessed linear epitopes. After specificity analysis, homology survey and 3d structural modelling, one epitope sequence GAVVALSTTFA of KPN_00363, an ion channel protein, was identified harboring specificity for K. pneumoniae. The remaining epitopes showed ambiguous results regarding the specificity for K. pneumoniae. The approach adopted herein has been successfully utilized to discover novel antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica antigens before. Now, we have transferred this knowledge to the key nosocomial agent, K. pneumoniae. By identifying several novel antigens

  18. Infection Route Analysis of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Guo; Jie; Zhang; Jing-yun; Li; Yue; Ma; Sheng-hui; Cui

    2012-01-01

    Objective A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care center to identify the risk factors of ventilator associated pneumonia(VAP) through phenotypic and molecular biological methods. Methods The patients who were mechanically ventilated in the respiratory intensive care unit(RICU) and the neurological internal intensive care unit(NICU) were enrolled in our study, and samples were collected from the lower respiratory tract, oropharynx and stomach. Other samples, including the environmental air, swabs of nurses’ hands, subglottic secretion and ventilator circuit, were also collected. Microorganisms in the collected samples were recovered and identified at species level by biochemical detection. Genetic relationship of dominant species was further characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis(PFGE). Results Out of 48 enrolled patients, 22 cases developed VAP and bacterial cultures were recovered from the lower respiratory tract samples of 14 cases. The average hospitalization time with VAP was significantly longer than that of patients without VAP(P < 0.05). Among the recovered bacteria cultures, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were dominant. It was more likely that subglottic secretion and gastric juice samples contained the same isolates as recovered in the lower respiratory tract by PFGE analysis. Conclusions Mechanical ventilation in RICU and NICU was a high risk factor for VAP development. Special emphasis of VAP prophylaxis should be paid on subglottic secretion and gastric juice reflux.

  19. Localizzazione e valutazione dell’espressione di Chlamydophila pneumoniae mediante RT-PCR in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cazzavillan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular gram negative bacterium, is involved in a wide spectrum of symptomatic respiratory tract diseases. However more recently it has been reported to be a pathogenic agent in the mechanism leading to atherosclerosis. In the present study the presence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae was assessed, using nested PCR and in situ PCR, while the viability of the microorganism was investigated using RT in situ PCR.The results obtained demonstrated that Chlamydophila pneumoniae was present and alive in the tissues examined.The global concordance of results in the three techniques used was 100%. RT in situ PCR can be considered a precious tool to detect bacterial mRNA in formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples provided an optimal standardization of the key variables is achieved.

  20. A type IV pilus mediates DNA binding during natural transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Laurenceau

    Full Text Available Natural genetic transformation is widely distributed in bacteria and generally occurs during a genetically programmed differentiated state called competence. This process promotes genome plasticity and adaptability in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Transformation requires the binding and internalization of exogenous DNA, the mechanisms of which are unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a transformation pilus at the surface of competent Streptococcus pneumoniae cells. This Type IV-like pilus, which is primarily composed of the ComGC pilin, is required for transformation. We provide evidence that it directly binds DNA and propose that the transformation pilus is the primary DNA receptor on the bacterial cell during transformation in S. pneumoniae. Being a central component of the transformation apparatus, the transformation pilus enables S. pneumoniae, a major Gram-positive human pathogen, to acquire resistance to antibiotics and to escape vaccines through the binding and incorporation of new genetic material.

  1. How recent advances in molecular tests could impact the diagnosis of pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, David R

    2016-05-01

    Molecular diagnostic tests have been the single major development in pneumonia diagnostics over recent years. Nucleic acid detection tests (NATs) have greatly improved the ability to detect respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens that do not normally colonize the respiratory tract. In contrast, NATs do not yet have an established role for diagnosing pneumonia caused by bacteria that commonly colonize the nasopharynx due to difficulties discriminating between pathogens and coincidental carriage strains. New approaches are needed to distinguish infection from colonization, such as through use of quantitative methods and identification of discriminating cut-off levels. The recent realization that the lung microbiome exists has provided new insights into the pathogenesis of pneumonia involving the interaction between multiple microorganisms. New developments in molecular diagnostics must account for this new paradigm. PMID:26891612

  2. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia - Idiopathic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Bekić, Anto; Mehulić, Muharem; Krmpotić, Diana; Kukulj, Suzana; Gorečan, Marijan; Križanac, Šimun

    2004-01-01

    Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a rare pulmonary disease with characteristic clinical, radiologic and histologic features. The radiologic presentation, and ventilatory and respiratory lung functions reflect the presence of intra-alveolar buds of granulation tissue occurring within the alveoli and alveolar ducts but rarely occupying the bronchiolar lumen. Therefore, it has been accepted that the diagnosis of these characteristic but not specific presentations of cryptogenic organizing pneu...

  3. Not Your Typical Pneumonia: A Case of Exogenous Lipoid Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Ashley; Rouf, Emran; Whittle, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The constellation of chronic cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis can include a broad range of differential diagnoses. Although uncommon, exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) should be considered when patients present with this symptom complex. We report a case of a 72-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, cough, and dyspnea. The admission computed tomography scan of the chest revealed progressive interstitial infiltrates. Bronchoscopy revealed diffuse erythema without bleeding. Culture and cy...

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection of Host Epithelial Cells via Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor Transiently Induces Calcium Release from Intracellular Stores*

    OpenAIRE

    Asmat, T. M.; Agarwal, V; Rath, S.; Hildebrandt, J.-P.; Hammerschmidt, S.

    2011-01-01

    The pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is a major adhesin of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) that interacts in a human-specific manner with the ectodomain of the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) produced by respiratory epithelial cells. This interaction promotes bacterial colonization and bacterial internalization by initiating host signal transduction cascades. Here, we examined alterations of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels in epithelial cells during host cell...

  5. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  6. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...

  7. Prostatitis - bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Infections spread through sexual contact can cause prostatitis. These include chlamydia and gonorrhea . Sexually transmitted ...

  8. Gestational Hypothyroidism Improves the Ability of the Female Offspring to Clear Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection and to Recover From Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Pamela A; Peñaloza, Hernán F; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Castellanos, Raquel M; Opazo, Maria Cecilia; Venegas, Luis; Padilla, Oslando; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A; Bueno, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Maternal thyroid hormones are essential for proper fetal development. A deficit of these hormones during gestation has enduring consequences in the central nervous system of the offspring, including detrimental learning and impaired memory. Few studies have shown that thyroid hormone deficiency has a transient effect in the number of T and B cells in the offspring gestated under hypothyroidism; however, there are no studies showing whether maternal hypothyroidism during gestation impacts the response of the offspring to infections. In this study, we have evaluated whether adult mice gestated in hypothyroid mothers have an altered response to pneumococcal pneumonia. We observed that female mice gestated in hypothyroidism have increased survival rate and less bacterial dissemination to blood and brain after an intranasal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Further, these mice had higher amounts of inflammatory cells in the lungs and reduced production of cytokines characteristic of sepsis in spleen, blood, and brain at 48 hours after infection. Interestingly, mice gestated in hypothyroid mothers had basally increased vascular permeability in the lungs. These observations suggest that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune response and the physiology of lungs in the offspring, increasing the resistance to respiratory bacterial infections. PMID:27035652

  9. Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tsolaki, A G; Miller, Raymonde;

    1998-01-01

    Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence...... types of P. carinii sp. f. hominis were identified in the samples from the patients with haematological malignancies, suggesting that this cluster of cases of P. carinii pneumonia was unlikely to have resulted from nosocomial transmission. A common ITS sequence type was observed in two of the patients...... with haematological malignancies who shared a hospital room, and also in two of the patients with HIV infection who had prolonged close contact on the ward. In contrast, different ITS sequence types were detected in samples from an HIV-infected homosexual couple who shared the same household. These...

  10. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Heidarian; Tahereh Ansarinezhad

    2014-01-01

    One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI). ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The...

  11. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    2002-01-01

    Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hype...

  12. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinović-Đukanović Nataša; Đoković Jelena; Torbica Nikola; Popević Martin

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a particular form of inflammatory and fibroproliferative lung disease. The disease onset is subacute with cough, dyspnoea, fever, weight loss, and elevation of biological inflammatory markers. Chest imaging usually shows multifocal alveolar opacities predominating in the subpleural regions. Lung biopsy reveals budding connective tissue filling the distal airspaces. Case outline. A 57-year-old electrician complaining of cough, dyspnoea, and fat...

  13. Chest physiotherapy in primary pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, S.; Bejstedt, M; Vedin, L

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and seventy one patients with primary pneumonia entered a single blind, placebo controlled trial of physiotherapy. Treatment was allocated at random, physiotherapy consisting of postural drainage, external help with breathing, percussion, and vibration and the controls receiving advice on expectoration, deep breathing, and how to exercise to avoid thrombosis. Principles of pharmaceutical management were the same in the two groups. There was no objective evidence that daily physiot...

  14. Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hraiech S; Papazian L.; Rolain JM; Bregeon F

    2015-01-01

    Sami Hraiech,1,2 Laurent Papazian,1,2 Jean-Marc Rolain,1 Fabienne Bregeon1,3IHU Méditerranée Infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France; 2Réanimation – Détresses respiratoires et Infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France; 3Service d’Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, FranceAbstract: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasion...

  15. The Combination of Colistin and Doripenem Is Synergistic against Klebsiella pneumoniae at Multiple Inocula and Suppresses Colistin Resistance in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Deris, Zakuan Z.; Yu, Heidi H.; Davis, Kathryn; Soon, Rachel L; Jacob, Jovan; Ku, Caron K.; Poudyal, Anima; Bergen, Phillip J.; Tsuji, Brian T.; Bulitta, Jurgen B.; Forrest, Alan; Paterson, David L.; Velkov, Tony; Jian LI; Nation, Roger L

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae may require combination therapy. We systematically investigated bacterial killing with colistin and doripenem mono- and combination therapy against MDR K. pneumoniae and emergence of colistin resistance. A one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was employed over a 72-h period with two inocula (∼106 and ∼108 CFU/ml); a colistin-heteroresistant reference strain (ATCC 13883) and three clinical isolates (colistin-susceptible ...

  16. Two Pharmacodynamic Models for Assessing the Efficacy of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Experimental Respiratory Tract Infections Caused by Strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Woodnutt, Gary; Berry, Valerie

    1999-01-01

    Two models of respiratory tract infection were used to investigate the pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin-clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Eight strains of S. pneumoniae were used in a mouse model in which the animals were infected intranasally and were then treated with a range of doses and dose intervals. The time that the plasma amoxicillin concentration remained above the MIC (T>MIC) correlated well with bacterial killing, such that if T>MIC was below 20% there was no effect on ...

  17. High prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adenoids and nasopharynx in preschool children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections in Poland – distribution of serotypes and drug resistance patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Niedzielski, Artur; Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Malm, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major bacterial pathogens colonizing nasopharynx, and often causes upper respiratory tract infections in children. We investigated the prevalence of S. pneumoniae in nasopharynx and adenoid core in 57 children aged 2–5 years who underwent adenoidectomy for recurrent pharyngotonsillitis, and we determined serotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of the isolated pneumococci. Material/Methods The nasopharyngeal specimens obtained before adeno...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the N2-Fixing Broad Host Range Endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and Virulence Predictions Verified in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick E Fouts; Tyler, Heather L.; DeBoy, Robert T.; Daugherty, Sean; Ren, Qinghu; Jonathan H Badger; Durkin, Anthony S.; Huot, Heather; Shrivastava, Susmita; Kothari, Sagar; Robert J Dodson; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Khouri, Hoda; Roesch, Luiz F. W.; Karen A Krogfelt

    2008-01-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world), while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Geno...

  19. Tuberculous pneumonia and bacteriaI pneumonia in diabetic patients: comparison of CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the CT findings of tuberculous pneumonia (TBPN) with those of bacterial pneumonia (BAPN) in diabetic patients and to evaluate the usefulness of CT in the differential diagnosis of these two diseases. The chest CT scans of 23 diabetic patients with TBPN (M:F=21:2; mean age, 59 yrs.) and of 37 diabetic patients with BAPN (M:F=21:16; mean age, 63 yrs.) were evaluated by two radiologists with regard to low attenuation areas in regions of consolidation, cavities, air bronchogram, volume changes, ground-glass attenuation, findings of bronchogenic spread, and other associated findings. The involvement of each segment was recorded in all patients. The frequencies of multiple small low-attenuation areas in regions of consolidation (52%, 0%), multiple cavities (35%, 3%), loss of volume (70%, 30%) and findings of bronchogenic spread (96%, 30%) were significantly higher in TBPN than in BAPN (p< .05). Low-attenuation masses and bizarre-shaped cavities were noted only in TBPN. Large areas of ground-glass attenuation (4%, 38%) and bilateral pleural effusions (0%, 19%) were more common in BAPN, while air-bronchogram was common in both groups (96%, 86%). The involvement of the superior segment was significantly more common in TBPN (p< .05). In the diabetic patients with pulmonary consolidation, CT findings of multiple small low-attenuation areas, multiple cavities, bizarre-shaped cavities, low attenuation masses in cavities, volume loss, and findings of bronchogenic spread are more suggestive of TBPN, while large areas of ground-glass attenuation and bilateral pleural effusions are more suggestive of BAPN. CT may be useful in the differential diagnosis between TBPN and BAPN

  20. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author)

  1. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović-Đukanović Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a particular form of inflammatory and fibroproliferative lung disease. The disease onset is subacute with cough, dyspnoea, fever, weight loss, and elevation of biological inflammatory markers. Chest imaging usually shows multifocal alveolar opacities predominating in the subpleural regions. Lung biopsy reveals budding connective tissue filling the distal airspaces. Case outline. A 57-year-old electrician complaining of cough, dyspnoea, and fatigue was diagnosed with pneumonia and treated with antibiotics and antihistaminics. After clinical and radiographic progression of the disease, open lung biopsy was performed, some 15 months after the disease onset. The diagnosis of cryptogenic organising pneumonia was made. The patient was treated with oral and inhalatory corticosteroids and finally with cytostatics, which led to a partial improvement of his condition. However, work capacity was lost and the quality of life seriously deteriorated. Conclusion. The diagnosis is established by combining clinical, radiological and histological criteria. Similarities with other disease processes can lead to a delayed or erroneous diagnosis. Most patients respond well to corticosteroid therapy (prednisone or methyl-prednisolone. Relapses are frequent but can generally be controlled.

  2. Severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in young female patient

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    Milancic Nena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is common agent causing community acquired pneumonia in younger population. However, the course of illness is usually benign and is rarely associated with pulmonary complications. We report a 27 years old female patient with unilateral pneumonia followed by pleural effusion and adhesions on the same side. This potential source of infection should be considered in young patients where resolution of symptoms from pneumonia is delayed.

  3. Comparative radiographic features of community acquired Legionnaires' disease, pneumococcal pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, and psittacosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, J T; Miller, A C; Roderick Smith, W H; Morris, A. H.; Rose, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The features of the chest radiographs of 49 adults with legionnaires' disease were compared with those of 91 adults with pneumococcal pneumonia (31 of whom had bacteraemia or antigenaemia), 46 with mycoplasma pneumonia, and 10 with psittacosis pneumonia. No distinctive pattern was seen for any group. Homogeneous shadowing was more frequent in legionnaires' disease (40/49 cases) (p less than 0.005), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (25/31) (p less than 0.01) and non-bacteraemic pneumococcal ...

  4. Lipoid Pneumonia Akibat Aspirasi Cairan Insektisida (Baygon)

    OpenAIRE

    Soeroso, Noni Novisari

    2010-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia (LP) is a condition of aspiration of oily/fatty liquid material into lung. This oily material might be derived from animal, plant, or mineral. This case takes place when someone drinks insecticide in an attempt to commit suicide. While the stomach is being washed out, stomach liquid containing insecticide is aspirated into lung. Insecticide contains lipoid material therefore creates disorder of lipoid pneumonia in lung. Diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia is conducted with bronchos...

  5. Phenotypic Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Development

    OpenAIRE

    Allegrucci, Magee; Hu, F.Z.; Shen, K.; J. Hayes; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Post, J Christopher; Sauer, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common pathogens associated with chronic otitis media with effusion, which has been hypothesized to be a biofilm disease. S. pneumoniae has been shown to form biofilms, however, little is known about the developmental process, the architecture, and the changes that occur upon biofilm development. In the current study we made use of a continuous-culture biofilm system to characterize biofilm development of 14 different S. pneumoniae strains representi...

  6. Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess and Metastatic Endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Jason T.; Lewis, Catherine R.; Danner, Omar K.; Wilson, Kenneth L; Matthews, L Ray

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known cause of liver abscess. Higher rates of liver abscess associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae are seen in Taiwan. Metastatic endophthalmitis is a common complication associated with a poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. Case Report. We report a case of a 67-year-old Korean female with Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess. The patient developed metastatic endophthalmitis and ultimately succumbed to her disease despite aggressive medical a...

  7. Sinergismo in vitro tra rokitamicina e cotrimossazolo in S. pyogenes e S. pneumoniae

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    Simona Roveta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synergism between cotrimoxazole (SXT and rokitamycin (ROK was observed carrying out antimicrobial susceptibility tests on S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae with the disk diffusion method (CLSI, 2005. The aim of this study was to confirm this phenomenon on a large number of isolates displaying different macrolide resistance phenotypes. Methods: Synergism between SXT and ROK on 104 S. pyogenes and 102 S. pneumoniae recently isolated was detected by a double-disk screening test.Time kill experiments were also performed on representative strains adopting standard procedures (CLSI 2005. Results: The combination of SXT plus ROK was synergistic against 93% S. pyogenes strains and 51% S. pneumoniae strains. On pneumococci SXT-S this percentage arise to 64%, while, on SXT-R it was 29%. In no instances antagonism was demonstrated. Synergism was not observed against S. pyogenes strains showing cMLSB phenotype. In S. pneumoniae no relationship between different mechanisms of macrolide resistance and the results of interactions was found. Results of time-kill experiments confirmed those obtained with double-disk assay in all the strains tested. Conclusion: Synergism between SXT and ROK was more frequently encountered among S. pyogenes than S. pneumoniae strains.This drug association may be synergistic or not when acting on different strains of the same bacterial species. Different macrolide-resistance mechanisms (reduced binding due to modification of the 50S subunit or efflux pump among the various bacteria may eplain the observed differences.

  8. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil

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    Camila Arguelo Biberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2% K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2% were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the blaKPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009.

  9. Therapeutic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YH30 on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jingmin; Li, Xinwei; Yang, Mei; Du, Chongtao; Cui, Ziyin; Gong, Pengjuan; Xia, Feifei; Song, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Juecheng; Yu, Chuang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu

    2016-07-15

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most costly infectious diseases among farmed mink and commonly leads to large economic losses during mink production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. A broad-host-range phage from the Podoviridae family, YH30, was isolated using the mink-originating P. aeruginosa (serotype G) D7 strain as a host. The genome of YH30 was 72,192bp (54.92% G+C), contained 86 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. These characteristics make YH30 eligible for use in phage therapy. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of YH30 was sufficient to cure hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. The mean colony count of P. aeruginosa in the blood and lung of YH30-protected mink was less than 10(3) CFU/mL (g) within 24h of bacterial challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas that in unprotected mink reached more than 10(8) CFU/mL (g). Additionally, YH30 dramatically improved the pathological manifestations of lung injury in mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrates the potential of phages to treat P. aeruginosa-caused hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. PMID:27283850

  10. [Caseous pneumonia: diagnosis, clinical aspects and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, V Iu

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with caseous pneumonia (CP) (whose age ranged from 18 to 60 years) admitted to a specialized tuberculosis facility of the general health care system were followed up. On admission, all the patients had marked intoxication and bronchopulmonary manifestations of the disease. X-study revealed lesions to one lobe in 19.2%, to 2 lobes in 32.7%, to 3 lobes or more in 48.1% of the patients. At the same time, all the patients had destructive changes with large and giants caverns in 57.7% of cases. The sputa of all 52 patients exhibited Mycobacteria tuberculosis (MBT), whose primary drug resistance being established. The nonspecific microflora composed of gram-positive cocci, gram-negative bacilli, fungi of the genus Candida in over 60% of patients was found in the sputa in two thirds of cases. A retrospective analysis indicated that CP had been correctly diagnosed only in 11.5% of patients within the first fortnight, in 65.4% by the end of the first month and by the beginning of the second, and in 23.1% following 2 months. The main reason for untimely diagnosis of CP was no sputum test for MBT. An algorithm of early CP diagnosis at general hospitals was developed, which includes a compulsory test of 3 sputum smears by the Ziehl-Nielsen method in all patients with pneumonia on admission and 2 weeks after treatment with wide-spectrum antibiotics. Chemotherapy in CP patients was long-term and combined 4-5 essential drugs within the first 4 months with obligatory correction after there was evidence for drug resistance. A course of nonspecific antibiotic therapy and a developed complex of symptomatic and pathogenetic treatments were compulsory. By the cessation of bacterial isolation, the efficiency of combined treatment was 82.7%, but a question as to a surgical intervention that is a compulsory component of CP therapy always arose at the final stage. PMID:11508227

  11. Factors Contributing to Hydrogen Peroxide Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae Include Pyruvate Oxidase (SpxB) and Avoidance of the Toxic Effects of the Fenton Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pericone, Christopher D.; Park, Sunny; Imlay, James A.; Weiser, Jeffrey N.

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae results in production of amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that may exceed 1 mM in the surrounding media. H2O2 production by S. pneumoniae has been shown to kill or inhibit the growth of other respiratory tract flora, as well as to have cytotoxic effects on host cells and tissue. The mechanisms allowing S. pneumoniae, a catalase-deficient species, to survive endogenously generated concentrations of H2O2 that are sufficient to kill other bacterial s...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Siphophage Sushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat T; Lessor, Lauren E; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is associated with numerous nosocomial infections, including respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans. The following reports the complete genome sequence of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae T1-like siphophage Sushi and describes its major features. PMID:26337889

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae DSM 30104T

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Je Hee; Cheon, In Su; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Suhng Wook; Chun, Jongsik; Song, Manki

    2012-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, and opportunistic pathogenic species with clinical importance. It is a part of natural flora of humans and animals. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (DSM 30104T) to provide taxonomic and functional insights into the species.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Siphophage Sushi

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dat T.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is associated with numerous nosocomial infections, including respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans. The following reports the complete genome sequence of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae T1-like siphophage Sushi and describes its major features.

  15. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group

  16. Hospital acquired pneumonia with high-risk bacteria is associated with increased pulmonary matrix metalloproteinase activity

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    Droemann Daniel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil products like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP, involved in bacterial defence mechanisms, possibly induce lung damage and are elevated locally during hospital- acquired pneumonia (HAP. In HAP the virulence of bacterial species is known to be different. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-risk bacteria like S. aureus and pseudomonas species on pulmonary MMPconcentration in human pneumonia. Methods In 37 patients with HAP and 16 controls, MMP-8, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP were analysed by ELISA and MMP-9 activity using zymography in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Results MMP-9 activity in mini-BAL was increased in HAP patients versus controls (149 ± 41 vs. 34 ± 11, p Conclusion Pulmonary MMP concentrations and MMP activity are elevated in patients with HAP. This effect is most pronounced in patients with high-risk bacteria. Artificial ventilation may play an additional role in protease activation.

  17. Granulomatous pneumonia and hepatitis associated with Providencia rettgeri infection in a crocodile monitor lizard (Varanus salvadorii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kycko, Anna; Kozaczyński, Wojciech; Jasik, Agnieszka; Kędrak-Jabłońska, Agnieszka; Borkowska-Opacka, Bogna; Reichert, Michał

    2013-03-01

    The present report describes a case of granulomatous pneumonia and hepatitis in a male crocodile monitor lizard (Varanus salvadorii). During the necropsy of the monitor lizard, multifocal to coalescing pale yellow lesions were observed in both lung lobes, as well as similar, though milder, changes in the liver, and an ulcerative lesion on the food pad of the right hindlimb. Histopathologically, the presence of multiple necrotising, chronic granulomas containing bacterial clumps were observed in the parenchyma of the lung and the liver. By microbiological examination of the pathologically altered lung tissues, Providencia rettgeri was identified. Altogether, our findings indicate that the bacterial infection resulting in extensive chronic necrotising granulomatous inflammation was the primary cause of the reptile's death. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Providencia rettgeri-associated granulomatous pneumonia and hepatitis in the monitor lizard. PMID:23439291

  18. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae as primary causes of acute otitis media in colombian children: a prospective study

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    Castrejon Maria M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute otitis media (AOM is one of the most frequently encountered bacterial infections in children aged Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi are historically identified as primary AOM causes. Nevertheless, recent data on bacterial pathogens causing AOM in Latin America are limited. This prospective study aimed to identify and characterize bacterial etiology and serotypes of AOM cases including antimicrobial susceptibility in Methods From February 2008 to January 2009, children ≥3 months and Results Of the 106 enrolled children, 99 were included in the analysis. Bacteria were cultured from 62/99 (63% of samples with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or S. pyogenes. The most commonly isolated bacteria were H. influenzae in 31/99 (31% and S. pneumoniae in 30/99 (30% of samples. The majority of H. influenzae episodes were NTHi (27/31; 87%. 19F was the most frequently isolated pneumococcal serotype (10/30; 33%. Of the 30 S. pneumoniae positive samples, 8/30 (27% were resistant to tetracycline, 5/30 (17% to erythromycin and 8/30 (27% had intermediate resistance to penicillin. All H. influenzae isolates tested were negative to beta-lactamase. Conclusions NTHi and S. pneumoniae are the leading causes of AOM in Colombian children. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that prevents both pathogens could be useful in maximizing protection against AOM.

  19. Effect of Chlamydia pneumoniae on Cellular ATP Content in Mouse Macrophages: Role of Toll-Like Receptor 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraei, Kambiz; Campbell, Lee Ann; Zhu, Xiaodong; Liles, W. Conrad; Kuo, Cho-chou; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria and are dependent on the host cell for ATP. Thus, chlamydial infection may alter the intracellular levels of ATP and affect all energy-dependent processes within the cell. We have shown that both live C. pneumoniae and inactivated C. pneumoniae induce markers of cell death prior to completion of the bacterial growth cycle. As depletion of ATP could account for the observed increase in cell death, the effects of C. pneumoniae on ATP concentrations within mouse macrophages were investigated. Live, heat-killed, and UV-inactivated C. pneumoniae cultures (at multiplicities of infection [MOIs] of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0) were incubated with mouse bone marrow macrophages isolated from C57BL/6J mice and mice deficient in Toll-like receptors. Treatment of the macrophages with both live and inactivated C. pneumoniae increased the ATP content of the cells. In cells infected with live C. pneumoniae, the increase was inversely proportional to the MOI. In cells treated with inactivated C. pneumoniae, the increase in ATP content was smaller than that induced by infection with live organisms and was proportional to the MOI. The increase in ATP content early in the developmental cycle was independent of the growth of C. pneumoniae, while sustained induction required live organisms. The capacity of C. pneumoniae to increase the ATP content was ablated in macrophages deficient in expression of either Toll-like receptor 2 or the Toll-like receptor accessory protein MyD88. In contrast, no effect was observed in macrophages lacking expression of Toll-like receptor 4. PMID:15972526

  20. Bacterial carbonatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

  1. Mapping phosphoproteins in Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchison Clyde A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the extent or targets of phosphorylation in mycoplasmas, yet in many other bacterial species phosphorylation is known to play an important role in signaling and regulation of cellular processes. To determine the prevalence of phosphorylation in mycoplasmas, we examined the CHAPS-soluble protein fractions of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, using a combination of Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein stain and 33P labeling. Protein spots that were positive for phosphorylation were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results We identified a total of 24 distinct phosphoproteins, about 3% and 5% of the total protein complement in M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium, respectively, indicating that phosphorylation occurs with prevalence similar to many other bacterial species. Identified phosphoproteins include pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha and beta subunits, enolase, heat shock proteins DnaK and GroEL, elongation factor Tu, cytadherence accessory protein HMW3, P65, and several hypothetical proteins. These proteins are involved in energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, translation/transcription and cytadherence. Interestingly, fourteen of the 24 phosphoproteins we identified (58% were previously reported as putatively associated with a cytoskeleton-like structure that is present in the mycoplasmas, indicating a potential regulatory role for phosphorylation in this structure. Conclusion This study has shown that phosphorylation in mycoplasmas is comparable to that of other bacterial species. Our evidence supports a link between phosphorylation and cytadherence and/or a cytoskeleton-like structure, since over half of the proteins identified as phosphorylated have been previously associated with these functions. This opens the door to further research into the purposes and mechanisms of phosphorylation for

  2. Corynebacterium macginleyi: A cause of ventilator associated pneumonia in an immunocompromised patient

    OpenAIRE

    Jad Kebbe; Jeffery Mador, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Importance: Corynebacterium macginleyi, a lipophilic diphtheroid from the genus Corynebacteria, is a known cause of conjunctivitis. It was recently reported as a cause of serious infections in immunocompromised individuals. It has never been reported as a cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia, that which carries a high burden and risk of mortality. Our report intends to increase awareness of a potentially lethal nosocomial bacterial infection. Observations: This case reports...

  3. Effects of PM2 5 exposure on Klebsiella pneumoniae clearance in the lungs of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段争

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of PM2.5 exposure on susceptibility to Klebsiella infection and bacterial clearance,and to discuss its possible mechanisms.Methods Eighty-six healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:a control group,a Klebsiella pneumoniae infection group(infection group),a PM2.5 group and a PM2.5

  4. Proteomic Study of Peptide Deformylase Inhibition in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wen; White, Richard; Yuan, Zhengyu

    2006-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is an essential enzyme in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It hydrolyzes formylated N-terminal peptides to generate free N-terminal peptides during the process of protein maturation. Inhibition of this enzyme results in cessation of bacterial growth. We have examined the effect of a potent PDF inhibitor, LBM-415 (also known as VIC-104959), on the proteomes of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Both ...

  5. Coinfection with Mycoplasma Pneumoniae and Chlamydia Pneumoniae in ruptured plaques associated with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuchi Maria de Lourdes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study atheromas, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae. METHODS: C. pneumoniae was studied with immunohistochemistry and M. pneumoniae with in situ hybridization (ISH, in segments of coronary arteries (SCA as follows: group A - thrombosed ruptured plaques (TRP of 23 patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI; group B - 23 nonruptured plaques (NRP of group A patients; group C - NRP of 11 coronary patients who did not die due to AMI; and group D - 11 SCA from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy or Chagas' disease without atherosclerosis. RESULTS: The mean number of C. pneumoniae+ cells/400x in groups A, B, C, and D was, respectively, 3.3±3.6; 1.0±1.3; 1.2±2.4; and 0.4±0.3; and the percentage of M. pneumoniae area was, respectively, 3.9±3.5; 1.5± 1.6; 0.9±0.9; and 0.4±0.2. More M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were found in of group A than in group B (P<0.01. Good correlation was seen between the area of the vessel and the M. pneumoniae area in the plaque (r = 0.46; P=0.001 and between C. pneumoniae+ cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes (r = 0.42; P<0.01. The number of C. pneumoniae+ cells correlated with CD20+ B cells (r=0.48; P<0.01. CONCLUSION: M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae are more frequently found in TRP correlate with the intensity of the inflammation and diameter of the vessel (positive remodeling.

  6. Evolution of Bacterial Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  7. Enhanced inflammation in aged mice following infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with decreased IL-10 and augmented chemokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew E; José, Ricardo J; Brown, Jeremy S; Chambers, Rachel C

    2015-03-15

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of severe pneumonia in the elderly. However, the impact of aging on the innate inflammatory response to pneumococci is poorly defined. We compared the innate immune response in old vs. young adult mice following infection with S. pneumoniae. The accumulation of neutrophils recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates was increased in aged compared with young adult mice, although bacterial outgrowth was similar in both age groups, as were markers of microvascular leak. Aged mice had similar levels of IL-1β, TNF, IFN-γ, IL-17, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor following S. pneumoniae infection, compared with young mice, but increased levels of the chemokines CXCL9, CXCL12, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, and CCL17. Moreover, levels of IL-10 were significantly lower in aged animals. Neutralization of IL-10 in infected young mice was associated with increased neutrophil recruitment but no decrease in bacterial outgrowth. Furthermore, IL-10 neutralization resulted in increased levels of CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL10. We conclude that aging is associated with enhanced inflammatory responses following S. pneumoniae infection as a result of a compromised immunomodulatory cytokine response. PMID:25595646

  8. Some points of the X-ray pattern of acute viral primary pneumonia caused by acute respiratory disease viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the results of the X-ray studies as well as of the virological and serological tests in 225 out-patients consulted in the first days of their complaints. A predominance of the viral (70.2%) over the viral-bacterial primary pneumonia is established. The acute viral primary pneumonia are caused mostly by single influenza viruses and more rarely - by single respiratory viruses; in the cases of combined influenza viruses influenza-influenza viruses prevail over the influenza-respiratory ones. The morphological changes in pneumonia due to isolated single influenza viruses involve mostly the interstitium and are projected on X-ray as patchy and stripped densities. The inflamatory changes in pneumonia caused by combined influenza viruses affect both ihe interstitium and the broncho-alveolar substrate of the lungs; they are manifested in two roentgenologic forms: creeping (migrating) and fusing (confluent). In viral-bacterial pneumonia the changes affect mostly the lobe. The right lung and the lower parts of the both lungs are affected in most cases. 5 figs., 21 refs

  9. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental...

  10. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  11. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  12. Pramipexole use and the risk of pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Parkinson's disease have an elevated risk of pneumonia and randomized trials suggest that this risk may be increased with the dopamine agonist pramipexole. It is uncertain whether pramipexole or other dopamine agonists increase the risk of pneumonia. Methods We used the United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database (GPRD to identify users of anti-parkinsonian drugs, 40–89 years of age, between 1997 and 2009. Using a nested case–control approach, all incident cases hospitalised for pneumonia were matched with up to ten controls selected among the cohort members. Rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of pneumonia associated with current use of dopamine agonists were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for covariates. Results The cohort included 13,183 users of anti-parkinsonian drugs, with 1,835 newly diagnosed with pneumonia during follow-up (rate 40.9 per 1,000 per year. The rate of pneumonia was not increased with the current use of pramipexole (RR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.57-1.02, compared with no use. The use of pramipexole was not associated with an increased rate of pneumonia when compared with all other dopamine agonists collectively (RR 0.85; 95% CI: 0.62-1.17. Conclusions The use of pramipexole does not appear to increase the risk of pneumonia.

  13. Ekstrapulmonale komplikationer ved mycoplasma pneumoniae-infektioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anne-Mette Bay; Lebech, Anne-Mette K

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical pneumonia in children and young adults. The infection is generally mild and only a very few patients are admitted to hospital. However, extrapulmonary complications are well recognised--mostly as manifestations from the central nervous system (CNS)....

  14. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius kills Streptococcus pneumoniae planktonic cells and pneumococcal biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila J Talekar

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC's, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms.

  15. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius kills Streptococcus pneumoniae planktonic cells and pneumococcal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talekar, Sharmila J; Chochua, Sopio; Nelson, Katie; Klugman, Keith P; Quave, Cassandra L; Vidal, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC's, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC)50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:24823499

  16. Proteomics in the Study of Bacterial Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachida Bouhenni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial keratitis is a serious ocular infection that can cause severe visual loss if treatment is not initiated at an early stage. It is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Serratia species. Depending on the invading organism, bacterial keratitis can progress rapidly, leading to corneal destruction and potential blindness. Common risk factors for bacterial keratitis include contact lens wear, ocular trauma, ocular surface disease, ocular surgery, lid deformity, chronic use of topical steroids, contaminated ocular medications or solutions, and systemic immunosuppression. The pathogenesis of bacterial keratitis, which depends on the bacterium-host interaction and the virulence of the invading bacterium, is complicated and not completely understood. This review highlights some of the proteomic technologies that have been used to identify virulence factors and the host response to infections of bacterial keratitis in order to understand the disease process and develop improved methods of diagnosis and treatment. Although work in this field is not abundant, proteomic technologies have provided valuable information toward our current knowledge of bacterial keratitis. More studies using global proteomic approaches are warranted because it is an important tool to identify novel targets for intervention and prevention of corneal damage caused by these virulent microorganisms.

  17. Comparison of high-resolution computed tomography findings between Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia to HRCT findings in patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. We studied 124 patients (77 men, 47 women; age range, 20-89 years; mean age, 65.4 years) with P. aeruginosa pneumonia and 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range, 36-86 years; mean age, 63.2 years) with CMV pneumonia. CT findings of consolidation (p < 0.005), bronchial wall thickening (p < 0.001), cavity (p < 0.05), and pleural effusion (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia than in those with CMV pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, a crazy-paving appearance, and nodules were significantly more frequent in patients with CMV pneumonia than in those with P. aeruginosa pneumonia (all p < 0.001). Pulmonary HRCT findings, such as bronchial wall thickening, crazy-paving appearance, and nodules may be useful in distinguishing between P. aeruginosa pneumonia and CMV pneumonia. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of high-resolution computed tomography findings between Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Okada, Fumito; Takata, Shoko; Ono, Asami; Sato, Haruka; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yufu, Oita (Japan); Nakayama, Tomoko [Oita Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Ando, Yumiko [Oita Nishibeppu National Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kazufumi [Oita University Hospital, Hospital Infection Control Center, Oita (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To compare pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia to HRCT findings in patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. We studied 124 patients (77 men, 47 women; age range, 20-89 years; mean age, 65.4 years) with P. aeruginosa pneumonia and 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range, 36-86 years; mean age, 63.2 years) with CMV pneumonia. CT findings of consolidation (p < 0.005), bronchial wall thickening (p < 0.001), cavity (p < 0.05), and pleural effusion (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia than in those with CMV pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, a crazy-paving appearance, and nodules were significantly more frequent in patients with CMV pneumonia than in those with P. aeruginosa pneumonia (all p < 0.001). Pulmonary HRCT findings, such as bronchial wall thickening, crazy-paving appearance, and nodules may be useful in distinguishing between P. aeruginosa pneumonia and CMV pneumonia. (orig.)

  19. Correlations between computed tomography findings and clinical manifestations of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to characterize the imaging features and compare computed tomography (CT) findings with clinical features of patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed 75 patients (44 men, 31 women; mean age 67 years) diagnosed with S. pneumoniae pneumonia who underwent chest CT scanning at our institution between January 2007 and August 2008. Diagnoses were based on detection of the S. pneumoniae antigen in urine. Chest CT scans revealed abnormalities in all patients. The predominant opacity patterns were an airspace pneumonia pattern (48%) and a bronchopneumonia pattern (48%), followed by an interstitial pneumonia pattern (4%). Consolidation was observed most frequently (84%) followed by ground glass opacity (82.7%), bronchial wall thickening (61.3%), and centrilobular nodules (49.3%). Airway dilatation (21.6%), pleural effusion (33.3%), lymphadenopathy (34.8%), and pulmonary emphysema (21.3%) were also observed. Pulmonary emphysema was significantly less frequent in patients with the bronchopneumonia pattern than in those without (p=0.007). The clinical features and CT findings did not differ significantly. CT image analysis showed that patients with S. pneumoniae pneumonia exhibited the bronchopneumonia and airspace pneumonia patterns with equal frequency. Bronchopneumonia pattern was less common in patients with preexisting emphysema. (author)

  20. AdcAII of Streptococcus pneumoniae Affects Pneumococcal Invasiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey R Brown

    Full Text Available Across bacterial species, metal binding proteins can serve functions in pathogenesis in addition to regulating metal homeostasis. We have compared and contrasted the activities of zinc (Zn2+-binding lipoproteins AdcA and AdcAII in the Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 background. Exposure to Zn2+-limiting conditions resulted in delayed growth in a strain lacking AdcAII (ΔAdcAII when compared to wild type bacteria or a mutant lacking AdcA (ΔAdcA. AdcAII failed to interact with the extracellular matrix protein laminin despite homology to laminin-binding proteins of related streptococci. Deletion of AdcA or AdcAII led to significantly increased invasion of A549 human lung epithelial cells and a trend toward increased invasion in vivo. Loss of AdcAII, but not AdcA, was shown to negatively impact early colonization of the nasopharynx. Our findings suggest that expression of AdcAII affects invasiveness of S. pneumoniae in response to available Zn2+ concentrations.

  1. Acute exposure of mice to high-dose ultrafine carbon black decreases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Stephen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that inhalation of carbonaceous particulate matter from biomass combustion increases susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia. In vitro studies report that phagocytosis of carbon black by alveolar macrophages (AM impairs killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have previously reported high levels of black carbon in AM from biomass smoke-exposed children and adults. We therefore aimed to use a mouse model to test the hypothesis that high levels of carbon loading of AM in vivo increases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods Female outbred mice were treated with either intranasal phosphate buffered saline (PBS or ultrafine carbon black (UF-CB in PBS; 500 μg on day 1 and day 4, and then infected with S. pneumoniae strain D39 on day 5. Survival was assessed over 72 h. The effect of UF-CB on AM carbon loading, airway inflammation, and a urinary marker of pulmonary oxidative stress was assessed in uninfected animals. Results Instillation of UF-CB in mice resulted a pattern of AM carbon loading similar to that of biomass-smoke exposed humans. In uninfected animals, UF-CB treated animals had increased urinary 8-oxodG (P = 0.055, and an increased airway neutrophil differential count (P . pneumoniae, whereas morbidity and mortality after infection was reduced in UF-CB treated animals (median survival 48 h vs. 30 h, P . pneumoniae colony forming unit counts, and lower airway levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine/growth-related oncogene (KC/GRO, and interferon gamma. Conclusion Acute high level loading of AM with ultrafine carbon black particles per se does not increase the susceptibility of mice to pneumococcal infection in vivo.

  2. Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia As The Initial Presenting Manifestation of SLE

    OpenAIRE

    Neena Mampilly; Manoj, G.; Paul, Binoy J.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP), also called idiopathic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia( BOOP), is a distinct entity among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias defined histopathologically by intraalveolar buds of granulation tissue. The etiology includes idiopathic, infectious, drug induced radiation induced and connective tissue diseases. Organising pneumonia occurs particularly in patients with dermatomyositis-polymyositis where it may be the presenting manifestat...

  3. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Urinary Tract Isolate Top52

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeremiah G.; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Sandhu, Sukhinder K.; Matson, Jyl S.

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a significant cause of nosocomial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonias and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. K. pneumoniae strain TOP52 #1721 (Top52) was isolated from a woman presenting with acute cystitis and subsequently characterized using various murine models of infection. Here we present the genome sequence of K. pneumoniae Top52.

  4. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. PMID:27474242

  5. Fatal case of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia associated with everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazer, Lama; Alnajjar, Taghreed; Salah, Samer; Khzouz, Jakub; Alfaqeer, Nour; Qandeel, Monther

    2014-01-01

    Noninfectious pneumonitis (NIP) has been reported with everolimus; however, the majority of the reported cases were mild to moderate. We report a fatal case of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) in a 61-year-old man. About 4 weeks after starting everolimus, the patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of a 1-week history of progressive dyspnea with exertion and cough. The chest radiograph showed bilateral multifocal dense opacities, and he was started on antibiotics. However, his respiratory status deteriorated, and he was subsequently intubated and transferred to the intensive care unit. Chest computed tomography showed bronchocentric consolidation associated with widespread bilateral fine reticular opacification. Video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy showed noncaseating granulomatous inflammation and features of COP. All cultures were negative for bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Despite discontinuing everolimus and initiating corticosteroids, the patient died of progressive respiratory failure secondary to COP. PMID:25827702

  6. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansorena Luis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detected between January 1995 and December 2004 using the BacT/Alert automated blood culture system in a teaching community hospital was analyzed. When multiple cultures were positive only the shortest TTP was selected for the analysis. Results in the study period 105 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia were detected. Median TTP was 14.1 hours (range 1.2 h to 127 h. Immunosuppressed patients (n = 5, patients with confusion (n = 19, severe sepsis or shock at the time of blood culture extraction (n = 12, those with a diagnosis of meningitis (n = 7 and those admitted to the ICU (n = 14 had lower TTP. Patients with TTP in the first quartile were more frequently hospitalized, admitted to the ICU, had meningitis, a non-pneumonic origin of the bacteremia, and a higher number of positive blood cultures than patients with TTP in the fourth quartile. None of the patients with TTP in the 90th decile had any of these factors associated with shorter TTP, and eight out of ten patients with TTP in the 10th decile had at least one of these factors. The number of positive blood cultures had an inverse correlation with TTP, suggesting a relationship of TTP with bacterial blood concentration. Conclusion Our data support the relationship of TTP with several clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, and its potential usefulness as a surrogate marker of outcome.

  7. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Laria, A.; Lurati, A; Scarpellini, M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. ...

  8. Kematian Akibat Pneumonia Berat pada Anak Balita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Asri Wulandari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children, mainly in developing countries with a 10–15 times higher mortality rate than developed countries. The aim of the study was to know the mortality rate and its risk factors among under five years old children who were hospitalized due to severe pneumonia. This cross-sectional study was conducted to 1 to 59 months old children with pneumonia at the Department of Pediatric Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung Hospital from November 2007 to January 2009. Three hundred and eighteen children were enrolled in this study. The median age was 11.16 months, and 237 (74.5% were ≤12 months of age. Very severe pneumonia was diagnosed in 93 (29.2% and severe pneumonia in 225 (70.8% children. Twenty three (7.2% children died during hospitalization, 20 were hospitalized with very severe pneumonia (p<0.001, OR 20.274, 95%CI: 5.855─70.197. Congenital heart disease (p=0.002, OR 5.795, 95%CI: 2.115–15.407 and leucocytosis (≥15,500/mm3, p=0.002, OR 3.879, 95%CI: 1.547–9.727 were significantly associated to the mortality. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in 11 of 23 patients. In conclusions, the mortality of severe pneumonia is still high. Very severe pneumonia, congenital heart disease and leucocytosis are factors that increase mortality among under-five years old children with pneumonia.

  9. Nucleotide sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae lac genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinger, W E; Riley, M

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the Klebsiella pneumoniae lacI and lacZ genes and part of the lacY gene were determined, and these genes were located and oriented relative to one another. The K. pneumoniae lac operon is divergent in that the lacI and lacZ genes are oriented head to head, and complementary strands are transcribed. Besides base substitutions, the lacZ genes of K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli have suffered short distance shifts of reading frame caused by additions or deletions or...

  10. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  11. Autopsy findings of fatal cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Autopsy cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) have been rarely reported. A 73-year-old Japanese man consulted to a hospital because of flu-like sickness. He was diagnosed as pneumonia, and treated by antibiotics. He was referred to our hospital for further treatment. Chest X-P showed pneumonia involving the whole lungs. Blood laboratory test showed leukocytosis, increased CRP, and decreased PaO2. Despite of steroid therapy, he showed a downhill course and died one month after the fi...

  12. Mycoplasma pneumonia: Clinical features and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Surender

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is a common respiratory pathogen that produces diseases of varied severity ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe atypical pneumonia. Apart from respiratory tract infections, this organism is also responsible for producing a wide spectrum of non-pulmonary manifestations including neurological, hepatic, cardiac diseases, hemolytic anemia, polyarthritis and erythema multiforme. This review focuses on molecular taxonomy, biological characteristics, epidemiology, clinical presentation, radiology and various laboratory tools in diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mycoplasma pneumonia.

  13. CT characteristics of peripheral organizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic dilemma of persistent mass-forming parenchymal opacity in the lung periphery occurs occasionally in the realm of diagnostic radiology. Until recently, literature on the role of computed tomography in peripheral organizing pneumonia, which is difficult to differentiate from malignancy, has little been published. We experienced one case of pathologically proven organizing pneumonia diagnosed preoperatively by chest CT. When it comes to solitary peripheral mass density in the lung, we think that CT can be proved useful in the diagnosis of benign organizing pneumonia by showing regular and smoothly corrugate margin, peripheral contrast enhancement with inner low density, and air-trapping by intervening normal lung parenchyma.

  14. Many radiologic facies of pneumococcal pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, H.G.

    1981-12-01

    In 1978, 89 patients were treated for (S. pneumoniae) pneumonia at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. Only 40 cases met rather strict diagnostic criteria. Of these, 12 demonstrated the classical consolidative (air space) pattern usually ascribed to this disease. A bronchopneumonic (patch) pattern was demonstrated in an equal number of patients; interstitial (irregular linear) infiltrates were manifest in nine cases and a mixed interstitial and patchy presentation shown in seven cases. Absence of the consolidative pattern does not exclude pneumococcal pneumonia. Bacteriologic investigation is required to determine the proper diagnosis and course of therapy.

  15. Lipoid pneumonia presenting as non resolving community acquired pneumonia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hadda, Vijay; Gopi C Khilnani; Ashu S Bhalla; Mathur, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat containing substances like, petroleum jelly, mineral oils, few laxatives etc. It usually presents as insidious onset chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, specially, when exposure to fatty substance is acute and/or massive. Radiologically, it may mimic carcinoma, acute or chronic pneumonia, ARDS, or a localized...

  16. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae adhesin (P1) in the nonhemadsorbing population of virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahane, I; Tucker, S.; Baseman, J B

    1985-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms possessing a hemadsorbing-negative (HA-) phenotype comprise more than 50% of the population of virulent M. pneumoniae cultures. Monoclonal antibody to P1, the major adhesin of M. pneumoniae reacts with this HA- mycoplasma fraction based upon radioimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Demonstration of P1 in the entire mycoplasma population suggests that topological organization of this adhesin in the membrane or the physiological state of the mycoplasmas may d...

  17. Treatment of experimental pneumonia due to penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in immunocompetent rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaldà, J.; Capdevila, J A; Almirante, B; Otero, J.; Ruiz, I; Laguarda, M; Allende, H.; Crespo, E; Pigrau, C; Pahissa, A

    1997-01-01

    A model of pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin was developed in immunocompetent Wistar rats and was used to evaluate the efficacies of different doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin. Adult Wistar rats were challenged by intratracheal inoculation with 3 x 10(9) CFU of one strain of S. pneumoniae resistant to penicillin (MICs of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) suspended in brain he...

  18. Coccidioidomycosis with diffuse miliary pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotello, David; Rivas, Marcella; Fuller, Audra; Mahmood, Tashfeen; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a well-known infection in the southwestern United States, and its occurrence is becoming more frequent in endemic areas. This disease can have a significant economic and medical impact; therefore, accurate diagnosis is crucial. In conjunction with patient symptoms, residence in or travel to an endemic area is essential for diagnosis. Diagnosis is usually made with serology, culture, or biopsy and confirmed with DNA probe technology. Pulmonary disease is the most common presentation and is seen in almost 95% of all cases. One-half to two-thirds of all Coccidioides infections are asymptomatic or subclinical. Most pulmonary infections are self-limited and do not require treatment except in special populations. When treatment is warranted, itraconazole and fluconazole are frequently used. Diffuse miliary pneumonia is uncommon and is especially rare in immunocompetent patients. Herein we describe a rare presentation of miliary coccidioidomycosis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. PMID:26722164

  19. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  20. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: Classification revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Bouros MD, PhD, FCCP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Thoracic Society (ATS, the European Respiratory Society (ERS and the Japan Respiratory Society (JRS are planning a revision of the 2002 ATS/ERS International Multidisciplinary Classification of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIPs1. In two years’ time it will be 10 years since its publication and with a view to publishing the revision after 10 years (i.e., in 2012, a steering committee has been established, which met in New Orleans during ATS congress in May 2010 and more recently in Barcelona during the ERS congress (Photo. The committee will meet again during the ATS and the ERS congresses that will be held in the next two years, with an additional meeting in Modena, Italy, in Αpril 2011.

  1. Genetics and Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sarah G; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Rosas, Ivan O

    2016-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating the genetics of parenchymal lung diseases, particularly idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). IIPs are a heterogeneous group of diffuse interstitial lung diseases of uncertain etiology, diagnosed only after known causes of interstitial lung disease have been excluded. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common IIP. Through candidate gene approaches and genome wide association studies, much light has been shed on the genetic origins of IIPs, enhancing our understanding of risk factors and pathogenesis. However, significant work remains to be accomplished in identifying novel genetic variants and characterizing the function of validated candidate genes in lung pathobiology, their interplay with environmental factors, and ultimately translating these discoveries to patient care. PMID:27231858

  2. Risk factors for cefotaxime resistance in children with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Made Sucipta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Pneumonia is a health problem in developing countries, often caused by bacterial agents. The widespread use of cefotaxime, a third-generation of cephalosporin to increased incidence of resistance to this antibiotic. Several studies have reported on risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime. Objective To oidentify risk factors for cefoxime resistence in children with pneumonia. Methods We performed a case-control study at Sanglah Hospital between January 2006-December 2010. The case group included children with blood culture-positive pneumonia and resistance to cefoxime by sensitivity test. The control group was selected from the same population as the case group, but the bacteria isolated from these subjects were sensitive to cefotaxime: age <3 years, microorganism species, history of antimicrobial use, and history of hospitalization within the prior 3 months. Chi square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine any associations between the four potential risk factors and resistance to cefoxime. A P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors for resistence to efoxime were history of antimicrobial use in the prior 3 months (OR 2.79; 95%CI 1.40 to 5.55; P=0.001 and history of hospitalization within the prior 3 months (OR 5.57; 95%CI 1.95 to 15.87; P=<0.0001. By multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime were history of antimicrobial use in the prior 3 months((OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.18 to 4.86; P=0.015, history of hospitalization within the prior 3 motnhs (OR 4.7; 95%CI 1.62 to 13.85; P0.004, and history of breastfeeding for less than 2 months (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.0 to 5.4; P=0.042. Conclusion History of antimicrobial use and history of hospitalization within the prior 3 months were significant risk factors for resistance to cefoxime in children with pneumonia.

  3. Prophage spontaneous activation promotes DNA release enhancing biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Carrolo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus is able to form biofilms in vivo and previous studies propose that pneumococcal biofilms play a relevant role both in colonization and infection. Additionally, pneumococci recovered from human infections are characterized by a high prevalence of lysogenic bacteriophages (phages residing quiescently in their host chromosome. We investigated a possible link between lysogeny and biofilm formation. Considering that extracellular DNA (eDNA is a key factor in the biofilm matrix, we reasoned that prophage spontaneous activation with the consequent bacterial host lysis could provide a source of eDNA, enhancing pneumococcal biofilm development. Monitoring biofilm growth of lysogenic and non-lysogenic pneumococcal strains indicated that phage-infected bacteria are more proficient at forming biofilms, that is their biofilms are characterized by a higher biomass and cell viability. The presence of phage particles throughout the lysogenic strains biofilm development implicated prophage spontaneous induction in this effect. Analysis of lysogens deficient for phage lysin and the bacterial major autolysin revealed that the absence of either lytic activity impaired biofilm development and the addition of DNA restored the ability of mutant strains to form robust biofilms. These findings establish that limited phage-mediated host lysis of a fraction of the bacterial population, due to spontaneous phage induction, constitutes an important source of eDNA for the S. pneumoniae biofilm matrix and that this localized release of eDNA favors biofilm formation by the remaining bacterial population.

  4. Lymphatic fluctuation in the parenchymal remodeling stage of acute interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Parra; C.A.L. Araujo; J.G. Lombardi; A.M. Ab’Saber; C.R.R. Carvalho; Kairalla, R A; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2012-01-01

    Because the superficial lymphatics in the lungs are distributed in the subpleural, interlobular and peribroncovascular interstitium, lymphatic impairment may occur in the lungs of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) and increase their severity. We investigated the distribution of lymphatics in different remodeling stages of IIPs by immunohistochemistry using the D2-40 antibody. Pulmonary tissue was obtained from 69 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia/diffuse alveola...

  5. SP-D, KL-6, and HTI-56 levels in children with mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Lin-Hua; Lu, Quan; Han, Li-Ying; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the potential biomarkers from pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D), Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), and 56-kD a human type I protein (HTI-56) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. This retrospective study, self-controlled study enrolled 34 Chinese children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia. The levels of SP-D, KL-6, and HTI-56 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were assessed and compared between pati...

  6. Rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with pneumonia by an immuno-chromatographic antigen assay

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Yujie Liu; Yun Zhao; Ran Tao; Yonggang Li; Shiqiang Shang

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a particularly important pathogen that causes community acquired pneumonia in children. In this study, a rapid test was developed to diagnose M. pneumoniae by using a colloidal gold-based immuno-chromatographic assay which targets a region of the P1 gene. 302 specimens were analyzed by the colloidal gold assay in parallel with real-time PCR. Interestingly, the colloidal gold assay allowed M. pneumoniae identification, with a detection limit of 1 × 103 copies/ml. 76 sa...

  7. Emergency transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus complicated by severe pneumonia in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of emergency transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus associated with severe pneumonia in infants. Methods: During the period from Oct. 2011 to May 2012, 12 infants with patent ductus arteriosus complicated by severe pneumonia were admitted to the hospital. The infants had repeated episodes of pneumonia together with heart failure. Emergency transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus was carried out in all infants. After the treatment the use of anti-bacterial drugs and cardiac stimulants was kept on. Routine examinations of blood and urine were made 24 hours after the management. Two-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography, chest radiograph and electrocardiogram were performed at 24 hours, 1, 3, and 6 months after the surgery. The results were analyzed. Results: After emergency transcatheter closure, all patients recovered fully at the time of discharge. No intervention-related major complications occurred during short-term follow-up period. Conclusion: For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus associated with severe pneumonia in infants, emergency transcatheter occlusion therapy is effective and safe. Optimal surgery time together with proper perioperative management is the key to ensure a successful operation. (authors)

  8. Hyperoxia accelerates Fas-mediated signaling and apoptosis in the lungs of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Yoshinari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxygen supplementation is commonly given to the patients with severe pneumonia including Legionella disease. Recent data suggested that apoptosis may play an important role, not only in the pathogenesis of Legionella pneumonia, but also in oxygen-induced tissue damage. In the present study, the lethal sensitivity to Legionella pneumonia were compared in the setting of hyperoxia between wild-type and Fas-deficient mice. Findings C57BL/6 mice and B6.MRL-Faslpr mice characterized with Fas-deficiency were used in this study. After intratracheal administration of L. pneumophila, mice were kept in hyperoxic conditions (85-90% O2 conc. in an airtight chamber for 3 days. Bone-marrow derived macrophages infected with L. pneumophila were also kept in hyperoxic conditions. Caspase activity and cytokine production were determined by using commercially available kits. Smaller increases of several apoptosis markers, such as caspase-3 and -8, were demonstrated in Fas-deficient mice, even though the bacterial burdens in Fas-deficient and wild type mice were similar. Bone-marrow derived macrophages from Fas-deficient mice were shown to be more resistant to Legionella-induced cytotoxicity than those from wild-type mice under hyperoxia. Conclusions These results demonstrated that Fas-mediated signaling and apoptosis may be a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of Legionella pneumonia in the setting of hyperoxia.

  9. Meningitis caused by Neisseria Meningitidis, Hemophilus Influenzae Type B and Streptococcus Pneumoniae during 2005–2012 in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Gürler, Nezahat; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Keser, Melike; Aycan, Ahmet Emre; Gurbuz, Venhar; Salman, Nuran; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Ozkan, Sengul; Sensoy, Gulnar; Belet, Nursen; Alhan, Emre; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa; Celebi, Solmaz; Uzun, Hakan; Faik Oner, Ahmet; Kurugol, Zafer; Ali Tas, Mehmet; Aygun, Denizmen; Oncel, Eda Karadag; Celik, Melda; Yasa, Olcay; Akin, Fatih; Coşkun, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Successful vaccination policies for protection from bacterial meningitis are dependent on determination of the etiology of bacterial meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained prospectively from children from 1 month to ≤ 18 years of age hospitalized with suspected meningitis, in order to determine the etiology of meningitis in Turkey. DNA evidence of Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), and Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In total, 1452 CSF samples were evaluated and bacterial etiology was determined in 645 (44.4%) cases between 2005 and 2012; N. meningitidis was detected in 333 (51.6%), S. pneumoniae in 195 (30.2%), and Hib in 117 (18.1%) of the PCR positive samples. Of the 333 N. meningitidis positive samples 127 (38.1%) were identified as serogroup W-135, 87 (26.1%) serogroup B, 28 (8.4%) serogroup A and 3 (0.9%) serogroup Y; 88 (26.4%) were non-groupable. As vaccines against the most frequent bacterial isolates in this study are available and licensed, these results highlight the need for broad based protection against meningococcal disease in Turkey. PMID:25483487

  10. Allergic lung inflammation alters neither susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection nor inducibility of innate resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Christopher M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protective host responses to respiratory pathogens are typically characterized by inflammation. However, lung inflammation is not always protective and it may even become deleterious to the host. We have recently reported substantial protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal pneumonia by induction of a robust inflammatory innate immune response to an inhaled bacterial lysate. Conversely, the allergic inflammation associated with asthma has been proposed to promote susceptibility to pneumococcal disease. This study sought to determine whether preexisting allergic lung inflammation influences the progression of pneumococcal pneumonia or reduces the inducibilty of protective innate immunity against bacteria. Methods To compare the effect of different inflammatory and secretory stimuli on defense against pneumonia, intraperitoneally ovalbumin-sensitized mice were challenged with inhaled pneumococci following exposure to various inhaled combinations of ovalbumin, ATP, and/or a bacterial lysate. Thus, allergic inflammation, mucin degranulation and/or stimulated innate resistance were induced prior to the infectious challenge. Pathogen killing was evaluated by assessing bacterial CFUs of lung homogenates immediately after infection, the inflammatory response to the different conditions was evaluated by measurement of cell counts of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 18 hours after challenge, and mouse survival was assessed after seven days. Results We found no differences in survival of mice with and without allergic inflammation, nor did the induction of mucin degranulation alter survival. As we have found previously, mice treated with the bacterial lysate demonstrated substantially increased survival at seven days, and this was not altered by the presence of allergic inflammation or mucin degranulation. Allergic inflammation was associated with predominantly eosinophilic infiltration, whereas the lysate-induced response

  11. Preoperative concentrations of suPAR and MBL proteins are associated with the development of pneumonia after elective surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mads N.; Ytting, Henriette; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans J.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2006-01-01

    both, intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, pneumonia, and blood stream infection. Data on perioperative blood transfusions in addition to clinical baseline characteristics were included as well. RESULTS: The numbers of surgical site infections, intra-abdominal abscesses, anastomotic leakages...... transfusion (p = 0.006; OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1, 2.0) were associated with the development of pneumonia. Significant associations with other bacterial infections could not be demonstrated. Multivariate analysis including disease stage, sex, and age showed that suPAR, MBL, and perioperative blood transfusion were...... significantly and independently associated with postoperative pneumonia. CONCLUSION: Concentrations of suPAR and MBL, in addition to perioperative blood transfusion, were significantly associated with the development of postoperative pneumonia. No other statistically significant relationships could be...

  12. The structure of KPN03535 (gi|152972051), a novel putative lipoprotein from Klebsiella pneumoniae, reveals an OB-fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KPN03535 is a protein unique to K. pneumoniae. The crystal structure reveals that KPN03535 represents a novel variant of the OB-fold and is likely to be a DNA-binding lipoprotein. KPN03535 (gi|152972051) is a putative lipoprotein of unknown function that is secreted by Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578. The crystal structure reveals that despite a lack of any detectable sequence similarity to known structures, it is a novel variant of the OB-fold and structurally similar to the bacterial Cpx-pathway protein NlpE, single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) proteins and toxins. K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 forms part of the normal human skin, mouth and gut flora and is an opportunistic pathogen that is linked to about 8% of all hospital-acquired infections in the USA. This structure provides the foundation for further investigations into this divergent member of the OB-fold family

  13. Proteasome β5i Subunit Deficiency Affects Opsonin Synthesis and Aggravates Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Felicia; Reppe, Katrin; Andresen, Nadine; Witzenrath, Martin; Ebstein, Frédéric; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Immunoproteasomes, harboring the active site subunits β5i/LMP7, β1i/LMP2, and β2i/MECL1 exert protective, regulatory or modulating functions during infection-induced immune responses. Immunoproteasomes are constitutively expressed in hematopoietic derived cells, constituting the first line of defense against invading pathogens. To clarify the impact of immunoproteasomes on the innate immune response against Streptococcus pneumoniae, we characterized the progression of disease and analyzed the systemic immune response in β5i/LMP7-/- mice. Our data show that β5i/LMP7 deficiency, which affected the subunit composition of proteasomes in murine macrophages and liver, was accompanied by reduced transcription of genes encoding immune modulating molecules such as pentraxins, ficolins, and collectins. The diminished opsonin expression suggested an impaired humoral immune response against invading pneumococci resulting in an aggravated systemic dissemination of S. pneumoniae in β5i/LMP7-/- mice. The impaired bacterial elimination in β5i/LMP7-/- mice was accompanied by an aggravated course of pneumonia with early mortality as a consequence of critical illness during the late phase of disease. In summary our results highlight an unsuspected role for immuno-subunits in modulating the innate immune response to extracellular bacterial infections. PMID:27100179

  14. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  15. Transverse myelitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, P I; Miller, V

    1984-01-01

    A case of acute transverse myelitis associated with respiratory infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is described. Circulating antibodies to myelin were detected suggesting that mycoplasma related neurological damage is mediated by producing an immunological myelopathy.

  16. A College Epidemic of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, David; Cochran, Burt

    1979-01-01

    The article reports on an outbreak of mycoplasma pneumoniae at the California Polytechnic State University including a historical background of the disease, clinical features, laboratory findings for treated patients, treatment, and clinical clues for diagnosis. (JMF)

  17. Skeletal changes during pneumonia in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of 35 roentgenograms has revealed that similarity of changes at pneumonia and congenital syphilis in babies requires thorough study of the totality of climico-roentgenological and laboratory data for removal of erroneous interpretation of variations

  18. Imaging findings of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the chest radiography and MSCT findings of measles pneumonia in adults. Methods: One hundred and sixty three measles patients underwent chest radiography, MSCT was performed in 3 of them. Measles pneumonia was confirmed in 10 patients (6.13%). Results: Eight of 10 patients had abnormal appearances in initial chest radiography. The characteristic chest radiographic findings were ground-glass opacities (n=6) and bronchial wall thickening (n=2). MSCT showed bilateral multiple ground-glass opacities in 1 patient, unilateral patchy ground-glass opacities with lobular distribution in the right upper lung in 2 patients. Conclusions: Familiarizing with radiographic and MSCT appearances of measles pneumonia in adults is very important for the differential diagnosis and appropriate management of measles pneumonia. Normal initial chest radiography cannot exclude the involvement of the lungs. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of Gallium Citrate Formulations against a Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Murine Wound Model of Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Mitchell G.; Truong-Le, Vu; Alamneh, Yonas A.; Black, Chad C.; Anderl, Jeff; Honnold, Cary L.; Pavlicek, Rebecca L.; Abu-Taleb, Rania; Wise, Matthew C.; Hall, Eric R.; Wagar, Eric J; Patzer, Eric; Zurawski, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common occurrence in health care facilities with a heightened risk for immunocompromised patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae has been increasingly implicated as the bacterial agent responsible for SSTIs, and treatment can be challenging as more strains become multidrug resistant (MDR). Therefore, new treatments are needed to counter this bacterial pathogen. Gallium complexes exhibit antimicrobial activity and are currently being evaluated as potential...

  20. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrenski Aleksandra; Eri Živka; Tegeltija Dragana; Kašiković-Lečić Svetlana; Panjković Milana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thick...

  1. Cloning of Minor Autolysin of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboobi, R. (MSc); Fallah Mehrabadi, J. (PhD); MR Pourmand; R Mashhadi; Haddadi, A. (MD

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Increased antibiotic resistant strains and inadequacy of current vaccines against pneumococcal infections necessitate the study of novel protein antigens. It seems that minor autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae may have antigenicity. Thus, we aimed at cloning its gene for the first time. Material and Methods: After DNA extraction of Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619), Specific primers were designed for amplifying minor autolysin gene fragment, using PCR. The pur...

  2. Klebsiella pneumoniae KPC: first isolations in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Fontana; Marco Favaro; Loredana Sarmati; Silvia Natoli; Anna Altieri; Maria Cristina Bossa; Silvia Minelli; Cartesio Favalli

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) was detected in two isolates of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in an italian teaching hospital. This is the first report of a KPC-producing isolates in our country. The first strain was isolated from a urine sample collected from a indwelling urinary catheter in a ICU-patient with subdural haematoma, while the second was from the culture of the central venous catheter (CVC) in a patient affected by Crohn’s disease admitted in gastroenterology ward...

  3. Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chaudhry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genus Mycoplasma, belonging to the class Mollicutes, encompasses unique lifeforms comprising of a small genome of 8,00,000 base pairs and the inability to produce a cell wall under any circumstances. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common pathogenic species infecting humans. It is an atypical respiratory bacteria causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP in children and adults of all ages. Although atypical pneumonia caused by M. pneumoniae can be managed in outpatient settings, complications affecting multiple organ systems can lead to hospitalization in vulnerable population. M. pneumoniae infection has also been associated with chronic lung disease and bronchial asthma. With the advent of molecular methods of diagnosis and genetic, immunological and ultrastructural assays that study infectious disease pathogenesis at subcellular level, newer virulence factors of M. pneumoniae have been recognized by researchers. Structure of the attachment organelle of the organism, that mediates the crucial initial step of cytadherence to respiratory tract epithelium through complex interaction between different adhesins and accessory adhesion proteins, has been decoded. Several subsequent virulence mechanisms like intracellular localization, direct cytotoxicity and activation of the inflammatory cascade through toll-like receptors (TLRs leading to inflammatory cytokine mediated tissue injury, have also been demonstrated to play an essential role in pathogenesis. The most significant update in the knowledge of pathogenesis has been the discovery of Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome toxin (CARDS toxin of M. pneumoniae and its ability of adenosine diphosphate (ADP ribosylation and inflammosome activation, thus initiating airway inflammation. Advances have also been made in terms of the different pathways behind the genesis of extrapulmonary complications. This article aims to comprehensively review the recent advances in the knowledge of

  4. Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, R; Ghosh, A; Chandolia, A

    2016-01-01

    Genus Mycoplasma, belonging to the class Mollicutes, encompasses unique lifeforms comprising of a small genome of 8,00,000 base pairs and the inability to produce a cell wall under any circumstances. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common pathogenic species infecting humans. It is an atypical respiratory bacteria causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and adults of all ages. Although atypical pneumonia caused by M. pneumoniae can be managed in outpatient settings, complications affecting multiple organ systems can lead to hospitalization in vulnerable population. M. pneumoniae infection has also been associated with chronic lung disease and bronchial asthma. With the advent of molecular methods of diagnosis and genetic, immunological and ultrastructural assays that study infectious disease pathogenesis at subcellular level, newer virulence factors of M. pneumoniae have been recognized by researchers. Structure of the attachment organelle of the organism, that mediates the crucial initial step of cytadherence to respiratory tract epithelium through complex interaction between different adhesins and accessory adhesion proteins, has been decoded. Several subsequent virulence mechanisms like intracellular localization, direct cytotoxicity and activation of the inflammatory cascade through toll-like receptors (TLRs) leading to inflammatory cytokine mediated tissue injury, have also been demonstrated to play an essential role in pathogenesis. The most significant update in the knowledge of pathogenesis has been the discovery of Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome toxin (CARDS toxin) of M. pneumoniae and its ability of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosylation and inflammosome activation, thus initiating airway inflammation. Advances have also been made in terms of the different pathways behind the genesis of extrapulmonary complications. This article aims to comprehensively review the recent advances in the knowledge of pathogenesis of this

  5. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme in pneumonias.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerttula, Y; Weber, T H

    1986-01-01

    Serum concentrations of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were studied in pneumonias caused by different pathogens and in cases in which the aetiology could not be defined. In all aetiological groups, except in viral pneumonia, there was a significant increase in ACE during recovery (p less than 0.001). In several patients the lowest values during the acute phase of disease and the highest values during recovery were outside the reference limits. In cases with known aetiology the highest AC...

  6. K. pneumoniae: ¿The new “superbacteria”? Pathogenicity, epidemiology and resistance mechanisms K. pneumoniae: ¿la nueva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Echeverri Toro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem of public health. Klebsiella pneumoniae has become one of the most important pathogens because it is a frequent cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections and it has pathogenicity mechanisms like capsules, adhesive properties mediated by specialized estructures (pillis and siderophores that are capable of taking up iron, an essential factor in bacterial growth. The increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics has evolved with the use of these in patients treatments, being increasingly wide the spectrum that they include, happening from the resistance to ampicillin by the production of betalactamase SHV-1 to carbapenems resistance by diverse mechanisms, from the production of extendedspectrum betalactamases (ESBL that are associated with hydrolysis of extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. Microbiology laboratory should follow international recommendations to detect and confirm the presence of this resistance mechanism in bacteria and the clinicians should make a suitable interpretation of the results to make the better choice of the antibiotic therapy. ----- La resistencia de los microorganismos a los antibióticos es un problema cada vez creciente en salud pública. Entre estos, Klebsiella pneumoniae es un representante importante no sólo por su frecuencia como causa de infecciones asociadas al cuidado de la salud y de la comunidad, sino por los mecanismos patogénicos que posee, como la capacidad de producir cápsula, la presencia de estructuras especializadas que le permiten adherirse a las células del hospedero (pilis, y de sideróforos que le permiten obtener el hierro necesario para su desarrollo. La resistencia de Klebsiella pneumoniae a los antimicrobianos ha evolucionado de acuerdo con la aparición y uso de estas moléculas en el tratamiento de los pacientes, siendo cada vez más amplio el espectro que abarcan, el cual va desde la resistencia a la ampicilina

  7. Complete genome sequence of the N2-fixing broad host range endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and virulence predictions verified in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Derrick E; Tyler, Heather L; DeBoy, Robert T; Daugherty, Sean; Ren, Qinghu; Badger, Jonathan H; Durkin, Anthony S; Huot, Heather; Shrivastava, Susmita; Kothari, Sagar; Dodson, Robert J; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Khouri, Hoda; Roesch, Luiz F W; Krogfelt, Karen A; Struve, Carsten; Triplett, Eric W; Methé, Barbara A

    2008-01-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world), while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%), one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578). Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but important category

  8. Complete genome sequence of the N2-fixing broad host range endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and virulence predictions verified in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick E Fouts

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world, while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%, one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578. Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but

  9. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized children diagnosed at acute stage by paired sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ling; WEI Ming; LIU Zhen-ye; WANG Gui-qiang; ZHANG Bo; XU Hua; HU Liang-ping; HE Xiao-feng; WANG Jun-hua; ZHANG Jun-hong; LIU Xiao-yu

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a frequent cause of respiratory tract infections. However,there is deficient knowledge about the clinical manifestations of M. pneumoniae infection. We described the clinical and laboratory findings of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized children who were all diagnosed by a ≥ fourfold increase in antibody titer.Methods M. pneumoniae antibodies were routinely detected in children admitted with acute respiratory infection during a one-year period. The medical history was re-collected from children whose M. pneumoniae antibody titer increased≥fourfold at the bedside by a single person, and their frozen paired serum samples were measured again for the M.pneumoniae antibody titer.Results Of the 635 children whose sera were detected for the M. pneumoniae antibody, paired sera were obtained from 82 and 29.3% (24/82) showed a ≥ fourfold increase in antibody titer. There were 24 cases, nine boys and 15 girls, aged from two to 14 years, whose second serum samples were taken on day 9 at the earliest after symptom onset; the shortest interval was three days. All children presented with a high fever (≥38.5℃) and coughing. Twenty-one had no nasal obstruction or a runny nose, and five had mild headaches which all were associated with the high fever. The disease was comparatively severe if the peak temperature was >39.5℃. All were diagnosed as having pneumonia through chest X-rays. Four had bilateral or multilobar involvement and their peak temperatures were all ≤ 39.5℃. None of the children had difficulty in breathing and all showed no signs of wheezing.Conclusions The second serum sample could be taken on day 9 at the earliest after symptom onset meant that paired sera could be used for the clinical diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children at the acute stage. M. pneumoniae is a lower respiratory tract pathogen. Extrapulmonary complications were rare and minor in our study. High peak temperature (

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Norbert; Riedel, Michael; Blendinger, Christa; Oberle, Karin; Jacobs, Enno; Abele-Horn, Marianne

    2004-12-15

    An association between infection and Tourette's syndrome (TS) has been described repeatedly. A role for streptococcal infection (PANDAS) has been established for several years, but the involvement of other infectious agents such as Borrelia Burgdorferi or Mycoplasma pneumoniae has only been described in single case reports. We examined antibody titers against M. pneumoniae and various types of antibodies by immunoblot in patients and in a sex- and age-matched comparison group. Participants comprised 29 TS patients and 29 controls. Antibody titers against M. pneumoniae were determined by microparticle agglutination (MAG) assay and confirmed by immunoblot. Elevated titers were found in significantly more TS patients than controls (17 vs. 1). Additionally, the number of IgA positive patients was significantly higher in the TS group than in the control group (9 vs. 1). A higher proportion of increased serum titers and especially of IgA antibodies suggests a role for M. pneumoniae in a subgroup of patients with TS and supports the finding of case reports implicating an acute or chronic infection with M. pneumoniae as one etiological agent for tics. An autoimmune reaction, however, has to be taken into account. In predisposed persons, infection with various agents including M. pneumoniae should be considered as at least an aggravating factor in TS. PMID:15590039

  11. Clinical analysis of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Qu Deng; Yong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical analysis associated pneumonia in elderly ventilator. Methods:Through January 2011 to December 2013 in our hospital 165 cases of ventilator therapy in elderly patients with clinical data were retrospectively analyzed, discussed ventilator-associated pneumonia in the elderly risk factors, clinical symptoms, and the distribution of pathogens analysis of drug resistance.Results: The patient's age, sex, APACHE score, the incidence of aspiration, sedation and antacids, ventilator time were higher in patients (P<0.05); pathogens of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the elderly by high to low order of Pseudomonas aerations, Acinetobacter sop, etc.; pathogens commonly used in clinical antimicrobial drug resistance is higher.Conclusion:Take the risk factors associated pneumonia ventilator for elderly corresponding measures to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, which Gram-negative bacteria as cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the elderly is an important pathogen occurs, the clinical course of treatment should be combined with a reasonable choice of antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  12. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia. PMID:27123874

  13. Invasive Bacterial Pathogens Exploit TLR-Mediated Downregulation of Tight Junction Components to Facilitate Translocation across the Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Thomas B.; Francella, Nicholas; Huegel, Alyssa; Weiser, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are members of the normal human nasal microbiota with the ability to cause invasive infections. Bacterial invasion requires translocation across the epithelium; however, mechanistic understanding of this process is limited. Examining the epithelial response to murine colonization by S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, we observed the TLR-dependent downregulation of claudins 7 and 10, tight junction components key to the maintenance of epithelia...

  14. Long-Term Effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Carriage of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, Judith; Prevaes, Sabine M. P. J.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Bruin, Jacob P.; Bogaert, Debby; Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J.; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P. J. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Shifts in pneumococcal serotypes following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) may alter the presence of other bacterial pathogens co-inhabiting the same nasopharyngeal niche. Methodology/Principal Findings: Nasopharyngeal prevalence rates of S. pneumoniae, S.

  15. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Ventilation Associated Pneumonia. Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento de la neumonía asociada al ventilador.

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy Pereira Valdés.; Héctor Cruz de los Santos.; Belkys Rodríguez Llerena; Marcos Diosdado Iraola Ferrer.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Ventilation Associated Pneumonia. Conceptualized as the bacterial pneumonia that develops in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours, which is not present at the beginning of the ventilation. We review the concept, prevention and treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento de la neumonía asociada al ventilador. Conceptualizada como la...

  16. Evaluation of Gallium Citrate Formulations against a Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Murine Wound Model of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mitchell G; Truong-Le, Vu; Alamneh, Yonas A; Black, Chad C; Anderl, Jeff; Honnold, Cary L; Pavlicek, Rebecca L; Abu-Taleb, Rania; Wise, Matthew C; Hall, Eric R; Wagar, Eric J; Patzer, Eric; Zurawski, Daniel V

    2015-10-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common occurrence in health care facilities with a heightened risk for immunocompromised patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae has been increasingly implicated as the bacterial agent responsible for SSTIs, and treatment can be challenging as more strains become multidrug resistant (MDR). Therefore, new treatments are needed to counter this bacterial pathogen. Gallium complexes exhibit antimicrobial activity and are currently being evaluated as potential treatment for bacterial infections. In this study, we tested a topical formulation containing gallium citrate (GaCi) for the treatment of wounds infected with K. pneumoniae. First, the MIC against K. pneumoniae ranged from 0.125 to 2.0 μg/ml GaCi. After this in vitro efficacy was established, two topical formulations with GaCi (0.1% [wt/vol] and 0.3% [wt/vol]) were tested in a murine wound model of MDR K. pneumoniae infection. Gross pathology and histopathology revealed K. pneumoniae-infected wounds appeared to close faster with GaCi treatment and were accompanied by reduced inflammation compared to those of untreated controls. Similarly, quantitative indications of infection remediation, such as reduced weight loss and wound area, suggested that treatment improved outcomes compared to those of untreated controls. Bacterial burdens were measured 1 and 3 days following inoculation, and a 0.5 to 1.5 log reduction of CFU was observed. Lastly, upon scanning electron microscopy analysis, GaCi treatment appeared to prevent biofilm formation on dressings compared to those of untreated controls. These results suggest that with more preclinical testing, a topical application of GaCi may be a promising alternative treatment strategy for K. pneumoniae SSTI. PMID:26239978

  17. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in adenovirus type 4 pneumonia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, R; Bono, P; Zoccoli, A; Orlandi, A; Piconi, S; Grasselli, G; Crotti, S; Girello, A; Piralla, A; Baldanti, F; Lunghi, G

    2016-08-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, depending on species and types, from mild respiratory infections to deadly pneumonia: in particular, severe infections occur in immunocompromised patients. In this report, we describe the case of a 36 years-old woman admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with severe respiratory distress syndrome caused by adenovirus pneumonia, that required invasive respiratory support (mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). Molecular assays detected the virus in respiratory and plasma specimen and sequencing procedure identified HAdV type 4. Patient improved after cidofovir administration. Leukopenia and subsequent bacterial infection occurred, but the patient recovered completely and was discharged from the hospital after 54days. PMID:27354307

  19. Clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in acute Klebsiella Pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated thin-section CT examinations performed between January 1991 and December 2007 from 962 patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Seven hundred and sixty-four cases with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. Thus, our study group comprised 198 patients (118 male, 80 female; age range 18-97 years, mean age 61.5). Underlying diseases and clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated along with the presence of enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation (100%), consolidation (91.4%), and intralobular reticular opacity (85.9%), which were found in the periphery (96%) of both sides of the lungs (72.2%) and were often associated with pleural effusion (53%). The underlying conditions in patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia were alcoholism or smoking habit. (orig.)

  20. Pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax as presenting signs in severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Jose L.; Vazquez, Ignacio; Garcia-Tejedor, Jose L. [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Radiology, Vigo (Spain); Gonzalez, Maria L.; Reparaz, Alfredo [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Pediatrics, Vigo (Spain)

    2007-12-15

    We present a 3-year-old child with severe extensive Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia complicated with pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum have only exceptionally been described in mild cases of the disease. The radiological findings, differential diagnosis and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax as presenting signs in severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a 3-year-old child with severe extensive Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia complicated with pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum have only exceptionally been described in mild cases of the disease. The radiological findings, differential diagnosis and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in acute Klebsiella Pneumoniae pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fumito [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Oita (Japan); Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Ando, Yumiko; Honda, Koichi; Nakayama, Tomoko; Kiyonaga, Maki; Ono, Asami; Tanoue, Shuichi; Maeda, Toru; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Oita (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated thin-section CT examinations performed between January 1991 and December 2007 from 962 patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Seven hundred and sixty-four cases with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. Thus, our study group comprised 198 patients (118 male, 80 female; age range 18-97 years, mean age 61.5). Underlying diseases and clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated along with the presence of enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation (100%), consolidation (91.4%), and intralobular reticular opacity (85.9%), which were found in the periphery (96%) of both sides of the lungs (72.2%) and were often associated with pleural effusion (53%). The underlying conditions in patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia were alcoholism or smoking habit. (orig.)

  3. Pretreatment of epithelial cells with live Streptococcus pneumoniae has no detectable effect on influenza A virus replication in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ouyang

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus are two major upper respiratory tract pathogens responsible for exacerbated disease in coinfected individuals. Despite several studies showing increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections following IAV infection, information on the direct effect of S. pneumoniae on IAV in vitro is unknown. This is an important area of investigation as S. pneumoniae is a common commensal of the human upper respiratory tract, present as an important coinfecting pathogen with IAV infection. A recent study showed that S. pneumoniae enhances human metapneumovirus infection in polarized bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. The aim of the current study was to determine whether treatment of epithelial cells with S. pneumoniae affects IAV replication using a standard immunofluorescence assay (IFA. For this study we used four IAV permissive epithelial cell lines including two human-derived cell lines, 12 pneumococcal strains including recent human clinical isolates which represent different genetic backgrounds and serotypes, and six IAV strains of varying genetic nature and pathogenic potential including the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus. Our results suggested that pretreatment of MDCK cells with 7.5×10(6 colony-forming units (CFUs of live S. pneumoniae resulted in gradual cell-death in a time-dependent manner (0.5 to 4 hr. But, pretreatment of cell lines with 7.5×10(5 and lower CFUs of S. pneumoniae had no detectable effect on either the morphology of cells or on the IAV replication. However, unlike in epithelial cell lines, due to influence of secreted host factors the effect of pneumococci on IAV replication may be different during coinfections in vivo in the human upper respiratory tract, and in vitro with primary human polarized bronchial epithelial cells.

  4. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae causes otitis media during single-species infection and during polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, Kyle A; Pang, Bing; Richardson, Stephen; Perez, Antonia; Reimche, Jennifer; King, Lauren; Wren, John; Swords, W Edward

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking capsular polysaccharide have been increasingly reported in carriage and disease contexts. Since most cases of otitis media involve more than one bacterial species, we aimed to determine the capacity of a nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae clinical isolate to induce disease in the context of a single-species infection and as a polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media, we found that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx following intranasal inoculation, but does not readily ascend into the middle ear. However, when we inoculated nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae directly into the middle ear, the bacteria persisted for two weeks post-inoculation and induced symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media. During coinfection with nontypeable H. influenzae, both species persisted for one week and induced polymicrobial otitis media. We also observed that nontypeable H. influenzae conferred passive protection from killing by amoxicillin upon S. pneumoniae from within polymicrobial biofilms in vitro. Therefore, based on these results, we conclude that nonencapsulated pneumococci are a potential causative agent of chronic/recurrent otitis media, and can also cause mutualistic infection with other opportunists, which could complicate treatment outcomes. PMID:26014114

  5. Microbial fuel cell based on Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lixia [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Zhou, Shungui; Zhuang, Li; Zhang, Jintao; Lu, Na; Deng, Lifang [Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li, Weishan [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-10-15

    In this paper we reported a novel microbial fuel cell (MFC) based on Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strain L17 biofilm, which can utilize directly starch and glucose to generate electricity. The electrochemical activity of K. pneumoniae and the performance of the MFC were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and polarization curve measurement. The results indicated that an established K. pneumoniae biofilm cells were responsible for the direct electron transfer from fuels to electrode during electricity production. The SEM observation proved the ability of K. pneumoniae to colonize on the electrode surface. This MFC generated power from the direct electrocatalysis by the K. pneumoniae strain L17 biofilm. (author)

  6. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid insufficiency. After a few days of hospitalization she was treated with Aciclovir and later with Ganciclovir. An open pulmonary biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, localized in the alveolar walls. Some pulmonary arteries had widened walls and focal hyaline degeneration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the nuclei had herpes simplex virus type 2 in many endothelial cells (including vessels with widened walls, macrophages in the alveolar septa and pneumocytes. There was clinical improvement after treatment for herpes. We concluded that as a consequence of herpes infection, endothelial involvement and interstitial inflammation supervene, with thickening of vascular walls and partial obliteration of the vessel lumen. A direct consequence of these changes in pulmonary vasculature was pulmonary hypertension followed by heart failure.

  7. Severe adenovirus community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults: chest radiographic and CT findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dingyu; Fu, Yangyang; Wang, Zhiwei; Cao, Jian; Walline, Joseph; Zhu, Huadong

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe adenovirus pneumonia and its associated imaging features are well-described in immunocompromised patients but are rare and poorly understood in immunocompetent adults. We sought to describe the radiographic and CT findings of severe adenovirus community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in eight immunocompetent adults. Methods We reviewed systematically chest imaging manifestations of laboratory-confirmed severe adenovirus pneumonia in eight immunocompetent adults from April 2012 to April 2014. Results All patients showed abnormal results on initial chest radiograph and CT, with the exception of one normal initial chest radiograph. The abnormalities of the initial chest radiographs were unilateral (n=4) or bilateral (n=3), including consolidation (n=4), dense patchy opacity (n=3), ground glass opacity (GGO) (n=1), and pleural effusion (n=1). The initial CT findings consisted of unilateral (n=5) and bilateral (n=3) abnormalities, including consolidation (n=8), GGO (n=2), pleural effusion (n=3) and small nodules (n=1). Focal consolidation was the predominant finding in six patients whose initial CT scans were examined within one week after illness onset. Follow-up radiologic findings showed rapid development of bilateral consolidation within ten days after illness onset, usually accompanied by adjacent ground-glass opacity and pleural effusion. The parenchymal abnormalities began to absorb around two weeks after illness onset, with no appearances of fibrosis. Conclusions Severe adenovirus CAP in immunocompetent adults mainly appears as focal consolidation followed by rapid progression to bilateral consolidation, usually accompanied by adjacent GGO and pleural effusion, which may resemble bacterial pneumonia. Adenovirus should be considered in severe pneumonia cases with negative cultures and failure to respond to antibiotics.

  8. Role of Nutrient Limitation and Stationary-Phase Existence in Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilm Resistance to Ampicillin and Ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Anderl, Jeff N.; Zahller, Jeff; Roe, Frank; Stewart, Philip S.

    2003-01-01

    Biofilms formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae resisted killing during prolonged exposure to ampicillin or ciprofloxacin even though these agents have been shown to penetrate bacterial aggregates. Bacteria dispersed from biofilms into medium quickly regained most of their susceptibility. Experiments with free-floating bacteria showed that stationary-phase bacteria were protected from killing by either antibiotic, especially when the test was performed in medium lacking carbon and nitrogen sources. ...

  9. Development of Doxycycline MIC and Disk Diffusion Interpretive Breakpoints and Revision of Tetracycline Breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Dallas, Steven D.; McGee, Lesley; Limbago, Brandi; Patel, Jean B; McElmeel, M. Leticia; Fulcher, Letitia C.; Lonsway, David R.; Jorgensen, James H.

    2013-01-01

    A study was performed to derive susceptibility testing interpretive breakpoints for doxycycline with Streptococcus pneumoniae and to reassess breakpoints for tetracycline using the requirements defined in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) document M23-A3. Tetracycline and doxycycline MICs and disk diffusion zone sizes were determined on 189 isolates selected from the 2009-2010 CDC Active Bacterial Core surveillance strain collection according to the testing methods described ...

  10. TRAIL+ monocytes and monocyte-related cells cause lung damage and thereby increase susceptibility to influenza–Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Gregory T; Davidson, Sophia; Crotta, Stefania; Branzk, Nora; Papayannopoulos, Venizelos; Wack, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection is a major cause of influenza-associated mortality; however, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis or protection remain unclear. Using a clinically relevant mouse model, we identify immune-mediated damage early during coinfection as a new mechanism causing susceptibility. Coinfected CCR2−/− mice lacking monocytes and monocyte-derived cells control bacterial invasion better, show reduced epithelial damage and are overall more resistant than wild-type contr...

  11. Detection and serotyping of pneumococci in community acquired pneumonia patients without culture using blood and urine samples

    OpenAIRE

    Elberse, K. (Karin); Mens, S.; Cremers, A.J.; Meijvis, S.C.A.; Vlaminckx, B.; de Jonge, M. I.; Meis, J. F. G. M.; Blauwendraat, C.; Pol, I. van de; Schouls, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with antibiotics before laboratory-confirmed diagnosis leads to loss of knowledge on the causative bacterial pathogen. Therefore, an increasing number of pneumococcal infections is identified using non-culture based techniques. However, methods for serotyping directly on the clinical specimen remain scarce. Here we present three approaches for detection and serotyping of pneumococci using samples from patients with CAP. Metho...

  12. Acute bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract in children from low-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe pneu

  13. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings

  14. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, H.; Mortensson, W.; Eriksson, M.; Finkel, Y.; Forsgren, M.; Leinonen, M. [Astrid Lindgren' s Children' s Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Depts. of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatrics

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings.

  15. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child-year in developed countries. This translates into about 156 million new episodes each year worldwide, of which 151 million episodes are in the developing world. Most cases occur in India (43 million, China (21 million and Pakistan (10 million, with additional high numbers in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nigeria (6 million each. Of all community cases, 7-13% are severe enough to be life-threatening and require hospitalization. Substantial evidence revealed that the leading risk factors contributing to pneumonia incidence are lack of exclusive breastfeeding, undernutrition, indoor air pollution, low birth weight, crowding and lack of measles immunization. Pneumonia is responsible for about 19% of all deaths in children aged less than 5 years, of which more than 70% take place in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Although based on limited available evidence, recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and respiratory syncytial virus as the main pathogens associated with childhood pneumonia.

  16. A family outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K; Frew, C E; Carrington, D

    1992-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, a newly described Chlamydia species, has been shown to be a cause of acute respiratory tract infection in both adults and children, but its role in human infection is still under investigation. Here we present a family outbreak of C. pneumoniae infection where three members of a family presented with a 'flu-like illness' and acute upper respiratory tract infection which did not improve despite penicillin or septrin therapy. No history of exposure to birds, pets or animals was obtained. As C. pneumoniae isolation from respiratory secretions is not without difficulty, diagnosis usually relies currently on serum-based tests. In this study C. pneumoniae specific IgM determined by the micro-immunofluorescence test was detected in the three clinical cases. All three cases had an elevated complement-fixing antibody titre to Psittacosis-LGV antigen, which may have suggested psittacosis, if type-specific tests had not been performed. In addition, three other members of the family had C. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibody although specific IgM was absent. These three younger members of the family had been symptomatic in the month preceding symptoms in their older sibling and their parents. All the symptomatic members of the family made a complete recovery on tetracycline therapy. PMID:1522345

  17. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  18. Lymphatic fluctuation in the parenchymal remodeling stage of acute interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Parra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the superficial lymphatics in the lungs are distributed in the subpleural, interlobular and peribroncovascular interstitium, lymphatic impairment may occur in the lungs of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs and increase their severity. We investigated the distribution of lymphatics in different remodeling stages of IIPs by immunohistochemistry using the D2-40 antibody. Pulmonary tissue was obtained from 69 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia/diffuse alveolar damage (AIP/DAD, N = 24, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia/organizing pneumonia (COP/OP, N = 6, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP/NSIP, N = 20, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP, N = 19. D2-40+ lymphatic in the lesions was quantitatively determined and associated with remodeling stage score. We observed an increase in the D2-40+ percent from DAD (6.66 ± 1.11 to UIP (23.45 ± 5.24, P = 0.008 with the advanced process of remodeling stage of the lesions. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a better survival for patients with higher lymphatic D2-40+ expression than 9.3%. Lymphatic impairment occurs in the lungs of IIPs and its severity increases according to remodeling stage. The results suggest that disruption of the superficial lymphatics may impair alveolar clearance, delay organ repair and cause severe disease progress mainly in patients with AIP/DAD. Therefore, lymphatic distribution may serve as a surrogate marker for the identification of patients at greatest risk for death due to IIPs.

  19. Effects of the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions on resistance of mice to infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been well documented in several studies that many immunologic parameters are altered in experimental animals and human subjects who have flown in space. However, it is not fully known whether these immunologic changes could result in increased susceptibility to infection. Hindlimb (antiorthostatic) unloading of rodents has been used successfully to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight on physiologic systems. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in mice. METHODS: Hindlimb-unloaded, hindlimb-restrained, and control mice were intraperitoneally infected with one 50% lethal dose of K pneumoniae 2 days after suspension. Mortality and bacterial load in several organs were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Unloaded mice showed significantly increased mortality and reduced mean time to death compared with that seen in the control groups. Kinetics of bacterial growth with smaller infective doses revealed that control mice were able to clear bacteria from the organs after 30 hours. In contrast, unloaded mice had continued bacterial growth at the same time point. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that hindlimb unloading might enhance the dissemination of K pneumoniae, leading to increased mortality. The complex physiologic changes observed during hindlimb unloading, including stress, have a key role in the pathophysiology of this infection.

  20. NON-RESOLVING PNEUMONIA AETIOLOGY AND CLINICAL PROFILE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Binuraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pneumonia is defined as the inflammation and consolidation of the lung tissue due to an infectious agent. In as many as half of cases, the pathogen remains unidentified which greatly hampers the evaluation of slowly resolving or non-resolving pneumonia. OBJECTIVE The main objective is to evaluate the aetiology and clinical profile of non-resolving pneumonia in a tertiary care center and to study the outcome of treatment of non-resolving pneumonia. DESIGN AND SETTING A prospective, observational study was carried out in the department of pulmonary medicine of a 700 bedded tertiary care teaching hospital, Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS The patients who were diagnosed as non-resolving pneumonia were included in the study. Various investigations were done on patients to identify the aetiology and clinical profile of their pneumonia which includes sputum gram stain, culture and sensitivity for bacterial infections, AFB culture, fungal culture, chest X-ray, CT thorax, fibrotic bronchoscopy (For selected patients only and sputum cytology for malignant cells. STATISTICAL METHODS USED Descriptive statistical analysis was done with help of ‘Graph pad prism’. RESULTS With good clinical interpretations and appropriate treatment, about 31.8% of patients had good clinical improvement and complete chest X-ray clearance after 2 months of follow up where as 36.2% of study subjects had good clinical improvement with incomplete chest X-ray clearance. Majority of this group includes patients who were put on anti-tubercular treatment based on careful interpretation of chest X-ray findings of tuberculosis, Mantoux test and sputum AFB culture results. This implies the importance of early diagnosis of treatable diseases like tuberculosis in our population. Out of the total cases 21.2% of patients had poor clinical outcome whereas 4.4% patients were grabbed by death. CONCLUSION Tuberculosis was the commonest cause of non-resolving pneumonia followed by

  1. Serotype distribution in non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2013-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of serotypes that cause non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBP). Here we report serotypes, their associated disease potential and coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in adults with NBP and compare these to bacteremic pneumonia (BP)....

  2. Lung Ultrasound May Be Best to Spot Pneumonia in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Lung Ultrasound May Be Best to Spot Pneumonia in Kids: Study Avoided radiation exposure of standard ... effective, alternative to chest X-rays for diagnosing pneumonia in children, researchers report. "Ultrasound is portable, cost- ...

  3. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Material and Methods: A double helical CT was performed in 6 patients referred to our center because of a chest X-ray with pulmonary infiltrates. Clinical presentation was cough, fever and eosinophilia in peripheral blood. Patients' age ranged from 25 to 55 years; 4 were women and 2 were men, one of the latter had a history of bronchial asthma. All patients received treatment with corticosteroids, with remission of the clinical and radiological parameters. Three patients underwent a control CT. Results: Findings consisted in focal parenchymal alterations, with areas of pulmonary consolidation and areas of 'ground glass' appearance; both patterns coexisted in certain areas. In 3 cases the lesions extended from the apices to the pulmonary bases, with predominance of the upper and middle fields. In 1 patient, there was frank predominance in the left hemi thorax. In another patient, who had a history of asthma, there were signs of pulmonary hyperinflation, with diffuse thickening of the bronchial walls, added to the previously mentioned findings, which involved the entire lung. In the mediastinum, 1 patient had lymph nodes larger than 1 cm, 3 had lymph nodes that were not enlarged but were more numerous than usual, and in the remaining patients no lymph nodes were found. The control CT's showed almost total resolution of the pulmonary infiltrates. Conclusion: The combination of eosinophilia and characteristic pulmonary infiltrates with a likely clinical presentation, associated with an optimal response to treatment with corticosteroids allows to make a reliable diagnosis and avoids the need for a pulmonary biopsy. (author)

  4. Analyze of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

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    Aysel Sunnetcioglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the infection that is an important cause of morbidity and mortality developed in patients whom the invasive mechanical ventilation (MV were performed in intensive care units (ICU. In this study, the factors of VAP developing in patients whom the mechanical ventilation of ICU performed, antibiotic susceptibility to these factors and determining the risk factors were aimed. Material and Method: Between January 2009 and March 2013, 79 cases, followed with the mechanical ventilation for at least for 48 hours and developed VAP, were retrospectively reviewed at Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of Reanimation at Faculty of Medicine at Yuzuncu Yil University, performing endotracheal intubation. The cases were evaluated in terms of microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors. Results: The rate of our VAP speed was calculated to be 19.68 on the day of 1000 ventilator. While a single microorganism could be isolated in 81.1% of the 74 VAP cases whose the active pathogen could be isolated, two or more than two microorganisms were isolated in 18.9% of them.While 83 of the strains (90.2% were gram-negative bacteria, 7 of them (7.6% were gram-positive bacteria. Acinetobacter spp. (40.2% was most commonly isolated as a gram-negative factor, but methicillin-resistant S. aureus (4.3% was isolated as a gram-positive factor. It was determined that the isolated factors in VAP cases were significantly resistant to the broad-spectrum antibiotics. Discussion: As a result, in patients with high-risk factors for the development of VAP, early and appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment should be started according to the results of the sensitivity of the unit and for the multi-drug-resistant microorganisms with common and high mortality.

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae Enhances Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tien Nguyen

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV and Streptococcus pneumoniae are important causative agents of respiratory tract infections. Both pathogens are associated with seasonal disease outbreaks in the pediatric population, and can often be detected simultaneously in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis or pneumonia. It has been described that respiratory virus infections may predispose for bacterial superinfections, resulting in severe disease. However, studies on the influence of bacterial colonization of the upper respiratory tract on the pathogenesis of subsequent respiratory virus infections are scarce. Here, we have investigated whether pneumococcal colonization enhances subsequent HRSV infection. We used a newly generated recombinant subgroup B HRSV strain that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein and pneumococcal isolates obtained from healthy children in disease-relevant in vitro and in vivo model systems. Three pneumococcal strains specifically enhanced in vitro HRSV infection of primary well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface, whereas two other strains did not. Since previous studies reported that bacterial neuraminidase enhanced HRSV infection in vitro, we measured pneumococcal neuraminidase activity in these cultures but found no correlation with the observed infection enhancement in our model. Subsequently, a selection of pneumococcal strains was used to induce nasal colonization of cotton rats, the best available small animal model for HRSV. Intranasal HRSV infection three days later resulted in strain-specific enhancement of HRSV replication in vivo. One S. pneumoniae strain enhanced HRSV both in vitro and in vivo, and was also associated with enhanced syncytium formation in vivo. However, neither pneumococci nor HRSV were found to spread from the upper to the lower respiratory tract, and neither pathogen was transmitted to naive cage mates by direct contact. These

  6. Extracellular Adenosine Protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection by Regulating Pulmonary Neutrophil Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Ghanem, Elsa N; Clark, Stacie; Roggensack, Sara E; McIver, Sally R; Alcaide, Pilar; Haydon, Philip G; Leong, John M

    2015-08-01

    An important determinant of disease following Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) lung infection is pulmonary inflammation mediated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We found that upon intratracheal challenge of mice, recruitment of PMNs into the lungs within the first 3 hours coincided with decreased pulmonary pneumococci, whereas large numbers of pulmonary PMNs beyond 12 hours correlated with a greater bacterial burden. Indeed, mice that survived infection largely resolved inflammation by 72 hours, and PMN depletion at peak infiltration, i.e. 18 hours post-infection, lowered bacterial numbers and enhanced survival. We investigated host signaling pathways that influence both pneumococcus clearance and pulmonary inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition and/or genetic ablation of enzymes that generate extracellular adenosine (EAD) (e.g. the ectoenzyme CD73) or degrade EAD (e.g. adenosine deaminase) revealed that EAD dramatically increases murine resistance to S. pneumoniae lung infection. Moreover, adenosine diminished PMN movement across endothelial monolayers in vitro, and although inhibition or deficiency of CD73 had no discernible impact on PMN recruitment within the first 6 hours after intratracheal inoculation of mice, these measures enhanced PMN numbers in the pulmonary interstitium after 18 hours of infection, culminating in dramatically elevated numbers of pulmonary PMNs at three days post-infection. When assessed at this time point, CD73-/- mice displayed increased levels of cellular factors that promote leukocyte migration, such as CXCL2 chemokine in the murine lung, as well as CXCR2 and β-2 integrin on the surface of pulmonary PMNs. The enhanced pneumococcal susceptibility of CD73-/- mice was significantly reversed by PMN depletion following infection, suggesting that EAD-mediated resistance is largely mediated by its effects on PMNs. Finally, CD73-inhibition diminished the ability of PMNs to kill pneumococci in vitro, suggesting that EAD alters

  7. No Carbapenem Resistance in Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella Species

    OpenAIRE

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Klebsiella species are a common cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic resistance to the class of carbapenem in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species is unusual. New studies report carbapenem resistance in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. This article examines, retrospectively, antibiotic resistance in patients with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. The data of all patients with co...

  8. Endogenous lipoid pneumonia associated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chee-Kin

    2013-03-01

    Endogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition. This is a report of a 29-year-old woman diagnosed with endogenous lipoid pneumonia associated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 infection. The patient's endogenous lipoid pneumonia resolved completely after treatment for Legionella pneumophila infection. This suggests that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of the underlying infection may prevent any long-term sequelae of lipoid pneumonia. PMID:23546039

  9. [Lipoid pneumonia: presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cordovés, M M; Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Rocha-Cabrera, P; Pérez-Monje, A

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of lipoid pneumonia treated in our Health Centre. It is a disease that occurs rarely, but is important in Primary Care. This condition has been known since 1925, when it was first described by Laughlen, who described a case of lipoid pneumonia secondary to an injection of oil in the nasopharyngeal area. Today it is a rarity, and it is most frequently associated with the use of oil-based nasal drops (which are now decreasing in use). Its aetiology may be endogenous or exogenous. Although the pathological diagnosis is generally the most important, sometimes a lesion in the chest X-ray can lead us to suspect it due to the patient's history. This was a case of acute lipoid pneumonia in a young patient, who periodically performed as a "fire eater". PMID:23452539

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Selçuk Bektaş; Fesih Aktar; Mehmet Açıkgöz; Ertan Sal; HüseyinÇaksen

    2013-01-01

    Nervous system is the most affected area inmycoplasma pneumoniaeinfections with exception of respiratory system.It is an important agent of childhood acute encephalitis and respiratory system infections in school-age children and young adults.Routine clinical and laboratory findings to identify spesific diagnosis is limited.Twelve-year-old female patient was admitted with fever, fatigue, sore throat, slipping the right eye, withdrawal of the mouth from the right and right hemiclonic seizures.Test of anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae(M. pneumoniae)IgM was positive andIgG antibodies were found to be4-fold increase in the sera of follow-up.This article was presented with the aim of rememberingM. pneumoniae to be an differential diagnosis in children with acute encephalitis.

  11. Radiographic findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoplasma pneumonia has known to be a not uncommon disease. However, the differential diagnosis of mycoplasm pneumonia with other viral pneumonia is difficult because of its variable clinical symptoms and atypical radiologic findings. A retrospective review was made of plain chest radiologic findings and clinical manifestations of 33 patients, who were admitted at Yonsei University Hospital from January, 1985 to February, 1990. The most prevalent age was 4th decade (33%) and main symptoms were cough (24/33), fever (2/33) and sputum (20/22). The most frequent season was winter (50%). The radiologic patterns were predominently interstitial (15/33), combined (13/33) and predominently alveolar (5/33) lesion. In alveolar infiltration cases (n 18), unilateral single lobe involvement was the most common (17/18) and left lower lobe (8/18) was predominently involved. Associated radiologic findings were hilar lymphadenopathy (4/33), pleural effusion (4/33) and cardiomegaly (7/33)

  12. Mapping the Evolution of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Carsten; Roe, Chandler C; Stegger, Marc;

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Highly invasive, community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infections have recently emerged, resulting in pyogenic liver abscesses. These infections are caused by hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) isolates primarily of capsule serotype K1 or K2. Hypervirulent K1 isolates belong......KP isolates belonged to CC23 and grouped into a distinct monophyletic clade, revealing that CC23 is a unique clonal lineage, clearly distinct from nonhypervirulent strains. Separate phylogenetic analyses of the CC23 isolates indicated that the CC23 lineage evolved recently by clonal expansion from a single...... of this important clonal lineage. IMPORTANCE: During the last 3 decades, hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) isolates have emerged, causing severe community-acquired infections primarily in the form of pyogenic liver abscesses. This syndrome has so far primarily been found in Southeast Asia, but increasing...

  13. HRCT appearance of localized organizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the CT, especially HRCT appearance of localized organizing pneumonia. Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with histologically proved localized organizing pneumonia were studied retrospectively. Results: The size of the lesions in nine cases varied from 2 to 4 cm (average 2.5 cm). Eight lesions were located in the peripheral lung parenchyma near the pleural surface. The lesions were detected as round in four, anomaly in five. The margin of six lesions had inward bow indentation. Infiltrating lesions in surrounding structures were found in four cases. Conclusion: The CT, especially HRCT appearance of localized organizing pneumonia shows some features that can make most of them to be differentiated from other lesions

  14. Clinical Diagnosis, Viral PCR, and Antibiotic Utilization in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zeeshan; Minard, Charles G; Stager, Charles E; Yu, Victor L; Musher, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the intensity of antibiotic therapy in patients in whom the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was determined using newly available diagnostic techniques. For 1 year, we studied all patients admitted for findings consistent with CAP. Sputum and blood cultures, urinary pneumococcal and Legionella antigens, and viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were studied prospectively. Patients were stratified based on the final diagnoses: proven bacterial, presumptive bacterial, viral, fungal, undetermined, and uninfected. We determined the number of antibiotics given, duration of antibiotic therapy, and intensity of antibiotic use determined by antibiotic-days defined as the sum, in each patient, of all antibiotics given for CAP and the number of days given. Median duration and intensity of antibiotics were 12 and 18 days for proven, and 13 and 16.5 days for presumed bacterial CAP (P > 0.9). When positive viral PCR results were not disclosed to primary care physicians, antibiotic use was similar to that in bacterial CAP. However, in 11 cases, when positive viral PCR results were disclosed, duration and intensity of antibiotic use were reduced to 7 and 9 days, respectively (P = 0.05 and 0.08, respectively). Antibiotic use was similar in patients with bacterial pneumonia and those judged on clinical grounds to have likely nonbacterial infection. Despite obvious differences in clinical syndromes and final diagnoses, the intensity of antibiotic therapy was similar in all groups of patients admitted for CAP with the exception of those who were uninfected and whose primary care physicians were informed of a positive viral PCR. PMID:24351801

  15. Epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of bacterial meningitis in Dapaong, northern Togo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simplice D Karou; Abago Balaka; Mitiname Bamok; Damhan Tchelougou; Malki Assih; Kokou Anani; Kodjo Agbonoko; Jacques Simpore; Comlan de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the seasonality of the bacterial meningitis and the antibiotic resistance of incriminated bacteria over the last three years in the northern Togo. Methods: From January 2007 to January 2010, 533 cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) samples were collected from patients suspected of meningitis in the Regional Hospital of Dapaong (northern Togo). After microscopic examination, samples were cultured for bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility. Results:The study included 533 patients (306 male and 227 female) aged from 1 day to 55 years [average age (13.00±2.07) years]. Bacterial isolation and identification were attempted for 254/533 (47.65%) samples. The bacterial species identified were:Neisseria meningitidis A (N. meningitidis A) (58.27%), Neisseria meningitidis W135 (N. meningitidis W135) (7.09%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) (26.77%), Haemophilus influenza B (H. influenza B) (6.30%) and Enterobacteriaceae (1.57%). The results indicated that bacterial meningitis occur from November to May with a peak in February for H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and March for Neisseriaceae. The distribution of positive CSF with regards to the age showed that subjects between 6 and 12 years followed by subjects of 0 to 5 years were most affected with respective frequencies of 67.82% and 56.52% (P20%for both bacterial strains), macrolides (resistance rate> 30%for H. influenzae) quinolones (resistance rate>15%for H. influenzae and N. meningitidis W135). Over three years, the prevalence of S. pneumoniae significantly increased from 8.48%to 73.33%(P<0.001), while the changes in the prevalence of H. influenzae B were not statistically significant: 4.24%, vs. 8.89%, (P= 0.233). Conclusions:Our results indicate that data in African countries differ depending on geographical location in relation to the African meningitis belt. This underlines the importance of epidemiological surveillance of bacterial meningitis.

  16. Pneumonia identification using statistical feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Vanderwende, Lucy; Wurfel, Mark M; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper describes a natural language processing system for the task of pneumonia identification. Based on the information extracted from the narrative reports associated with a patient, the task is to identify whether or not the patient is positive for pneumonia. Design A binary classifier was employed to identify pneumonia from a dataset of multiple types of clinical notes created for 426 patients during their stay in the intensive care unit. For this purpose, three types of features were considered: (1) word n-grams, (2) Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, and (3) assertion values associated with pneumonia expressions. System performance was greatly increased by a feature selection approach which uses statistical significance testing to rank features based on their association with the two categories of pneumonia identification. Results Besides testing our system on the entire cohort of 426 patients (unrestricted dataset), we also used a smaller subset of 236 patients (restricted dataset). The performance of the system was compared with the results of a baseline previously proposed for these two datasets. The best results achieved by the system (85.71 and 81.67 F1-measure) are significantly better than the baseline results (50.70 and 49.10 F1-measure) on the restricted and unrestricted datasets, respectively. Conclusion Using a statistical feature selection approach that allows the feature extractor to consider only the most informative features from the feature space significantly improves the performance over a baseline that uses all the features from the same feature space. Extracting the assertion value for pneumonia expressions further improves the system performance. PMID:22539080

  17. Research of Klebsiella pneumoniae in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Langoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common environmental agent of clinical and subclinical mastitis affecting dairy herds, and may be present in the final product decreasing its quality. Mastitis caused by K. pneumoniae is even more severe due to its poor response to antibiotic therapy, rapid evolution to toxic shock and death of the animal. This paper aimed to study the prevalence of this pathogen among dairy herds in ten farms located in different municipalities of São Paulo State based on size and use of milking technology. All mammary glands of all lactating cows were screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT and a strip cup. A single aseptic milk sample (20mL was collected from all CMT-positive quarters and bulk tanks, whereas swab samples were collected from feces, hind limbs of the animals, bedding and milking parlor. Identification of K. pneumoniae was performed using conventional microbiology culture, biochemical assay and Polimerase Chain Reaction. The primers were designed and tested at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology applied to Zoonoses (FMVZ, Unesp-Botucatu targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This study included 1067 animals. Six cases of intramammary infection by K. pneumoniae were detected in six different cows in two farms. Moreover, K. pneumoniae was isolated in 77 swabs (34 from bedding in 9 farms, 7 from waiting rooms in 5 farms, 6 from milking parlors in 4 farms, 11 from rectums in six farms, and 19 from hindlimbs in 7 farms. Molecular analysis confirmed the agent was K. pneumoniae. At least one strain of the agent was identified in a certain site in all farms, showing the need of maintaining the hygiene in dairy farms.

  18. Acute solitary localized pneumonia: CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT in the differential diagnosis of solitary localized pneumonia. Method: Only plain CT without contrast study was done because of different types of CT scanners weed. There were 25 cases with localized pneumonia with initial diagnosis as suspected peripheral bronchogenic carcinoma. All patients were over forty years of age, 84% 50-80 years, 13(52%) patients were asymptomatic, 5(20%) patients had bloody sputum. Results: The CT features were divided into three patterns: (1) irregular nodule with relatively well-defined margin, ground-glass opacity and a few punctuate high densities. (2) irregular nodule with sharply circumscribed, spiculate border and homogeneous density. (3) regular nodule with relatively well-defined margin, and homogeneous density. The third type was most frequent (60%) with predilection for the dorsal segments of the lower lobes, or the posterior basal segments. Of the 25 patients 3 had operation, the remaining cases were treated as pneumonia, the lesions were resolved in 18(82%) patients in 2-3 weeks. Conclusions: Sometimes it is very difficult to differentiate localized pneumonia from peripheral lung cancer on the basis of clinical presentation and imaging. The spiculate margins of irregular nodule shown on CT could be indeterminate on chest radiography, and as a result chest radiograph is helpful in differential diagnosis of localized pneumonia. Change in size of the lesion as observed at the same cross-section scan, smaller at mediastinal window than at lung window is in favor of localized pneumonia, however, with the exception of alveolar carcinoma, treatment with antibiotic therapy for a period of 2-3 weeks, helps differentiate these diseases

  19. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of a Ureidoglycine Aminotransferase in the Klebsiella pneumoniae Uric Acid Catabolic Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2010-09-03

    Many plants, fungi, and bacteria catabolize allantoin as a mechanism for nitrogen assimilation. Recent reports have shown that in plants and some bacteria the product of hydrolysis of allantoin by allantoinase is the unstable intermediate ureidoglycine. While this molecule can spontaneously decay, genetic analysis of some bacterial genomes indicates that an aminotransferase may be present in the pathway. Here we present evidence that Klebsiella pneumoniae HpxJ is an aminotransferase that preferentially converts ureidoglycine and an {alpha}-keto acid into oxalurate and the corresponding amino acid. We determined the crystal structure of HpxJ, allowing us to present an explanation for substrate specificity.

  20. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Hasan; Tokur, Mahmut; Hamide SAYAR; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Cryptogenic organising pneumonia is not considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. We submitted a patient presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. We suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis, but the patient was diagnosed as cryptogenic organising pneumonia with the histological result. This is the second case report of cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

  1. Pneumatocele formation in a patient with Proteus mirabilis pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lysy, J.; Werczberger, A.; Globus, M.; CHOWERS, I.

    1985-01-01

    A rare case of pulmonary pneumatoceles complicating the course of Proteus pneumonia in an adult is described. The pneumatoceles which appeared early in the course of the pneumonia resolved completely without complications. A brief review of the literature regarding formation of cavities in Proteus pneumonia is given.

  2. Laryngeal Scleroma Associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae

    OpenAIRE

    De Champs, C; Vellin, J. F.; Diancourt, L.; Brisse, S.; Kemeny, J L; Gilain, L.; Mom, T.

    2005-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae was isolated from the pharynx of a woman with laryngeal scleroma. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae is rarely isolated from clinical infections and has never been reported in laryngeal scleroma, which is usually caused by K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate PR04

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, M. H.; L. K. Teh; L. S. Lee; Z. A. Zakaria; Salleh, M. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae PR04 was isolated from a patient hospitalized in Malaysia. The draft genome sequence of K. pneumoniae PR04 shows differences compared to the reference sequences of K. pneumoniae strains MGH 78578 and NTUH-K2044 in terms of their genomic structures.

  4. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    OpenAIRE

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopa...

  5. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Koshy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP is a potentially life-threatening infection, which predominantly occurs in the immuno-compromised host. It has been rarely reported in immunocompetent subjects. In them, the infection presents with fulminant respiratory failure along with fever and dry cough in contrast to an indolent course in the immuno-compromised population. The most significant risk factors for PCP in non-HIV infected hosts are glucocorticoid use and cell mediated immunity defects. We report a rare case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient.

  6. latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Lucy; Cummins, Carolyn; Maischberger, Eva; Katz, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. PMID:21851746

  7. Idiopathic lipoid pneumonia successfully treated with prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Porziella, Venanzio; Mulè, Antonino; Petrone, Gianluigi; Margaritora, Stefano; Granone, Pierluigi

    2012-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia (LP) is a rare type of pneumonia that is radiologically characterized by lung infiltrates, although imaging alone may not be diagnostic. We describe an unusual 61-year-old patient with idiopathic LP presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule mimicking lung cancer because of its rapid growth. After treatment with oral prednisone, a control chest radiogram indicated complete normalization of the radiologic features. This case shows that LP should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of any undefined pulmonary mass, after malignancy has been pathologically excluded. PMID:21419490

  8. Latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalfe Lucy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia.

  9. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  10. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor

  11. Perbedaan Rata-Rata Skor Periodontal Pasien Pneumonia dan Tidak Menderita Pneumonia Di Tiga Rumah Sakit Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Naibaho, Handini

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia merupakan peradangan yang mengenai parenkim paru yang dapat terjadi akibat aspirasi bahan-bahan yang terdapat di nasofaring dan orofaring. Gigi dan jaringan periodontal dapat berperan sebagai tempat bermulanya infeksi pernafasan. Bakteri anaerob penyebab pneumonia banyak ditemukan pada plak dental, khususnya pada pasien dengan penyakit periodontal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui rata-rata skor periodontal pasien pneumonia dan tidak menderita pneumonia dan untuk menget...

  12. CTX-M-15 in combination with aac(6')-Ib-cr is the most prevalent mechanism of resistance both in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, including K. pneumoniae ST258, in an ICU in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, Inés; Gutiérrez, Claudia; García-Fulgueiras, Virginia; Cordeiro, Nicolás F; Araújo Pirez, Lucía; Seija, Verónica; Bazet, Cristina; Rieppi, Gloria; Vignoli, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EcKp) clones circulating in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Uruguay between August 2010 and July 2011, (ii) to characterise the ESBL and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes of the studied isolates and (iii) to determine the virulotype of the clinical isolates. Clinical and gut-colonising ESBL-EcKp from ICU patients were studied. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination were performed using a VITEK(®)2 system. Detection of ESBL, KPC and PMQR genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total, 54 ESBL-EcKp isolates (40 K. pneumoniae and 14 E. coli), with or without PMQR genes, were recovered from 30 of 68 inpatients. Forty-seven isolates were CTX-M-15-producers (36 as a single ESBL and 11 together with CTX-M-14). In addition, four isolates produced CTX-M-14, two produced CTX-M-2 and one produced SHV-5. No carbapenemases were detected either in E. coli or K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, 42 also harboured PMQR genes: 27 aac(6')-Ib-cr; 14 aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB; and a single isolate carrying only qnrB. K. pneumoniae ST258, ST48 and ST16 and E. coli ST10 and ST405 were detected in 46/54 isolates, including 9 clinical isolates. In conclusion, non-KPC-producing K. pneumoniae ST258 harbouring different ESBL and PMQR genes was the main clone disseminated in the ICU. Extensive surveillance measures must be implemented to prevent the emergence of acquired plasmid-encoded blaKPC by ST258 K. pneumoniae. PMID:27530831

  13. The importance of bacterial and viral infections associated with adult asthma exacerbations in clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyasu Iikura

    Full Text Available Viral infection is one of the risk factors for asthma exacerbation. However, which pathogens are related to asthma exacerbation in adults remains unclear.The relation between various infections and adult asthma exacerbations was investigated in clinical practice.The study subjects included 50 adult inpatients due to asthma exacerbations and 20 stable outpatients for comparison. The pathogens from a nasopharyngeal swab were measured by multiplex PCR analysis.Asthma exacerbations occurred after a common cold in 48 inpatients. The numbers of patients with viral, bacterial, or both infections were 16, 9, and 9, respectively. The dominant viruses were rhinoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and metapneumovirus. The major bacteria were S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Compared to pathogen-free patients, the patients with pathogens were older and non-atopic and had later onset of disease, lower FeNO levels, lower IgE titers, and a higher incidence of comorbid sinusitis, COPD, or pneumonia. Compared to stable outpatients, asthma exacerbation inpatients had a higher incidence of smoking and comorbid sinusitis, COPD, or pneumonia. Viruses were detected in 50% of stable outpatients, but a higher incidence of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus infections was observed in asthma exacerbation inpatients. H. influenzae was observed in stable asthmatic patients. Other bacteria, especially S. pneumoniae, were important in asthma exacerbation inpatients.Viral or bacterial infections were observed in 70% of inpatients with an asthma exacerbation in clinical practice. Infection with S. pneumoniae was related to adult asthma exacerbation.

  14. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated to inflammation and rupture of the atherosclerotic coronary plaques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, José Antonio F; Higuchi, Maria de Lourdes

    2002-01-01

    In this review we report recent findings of our lab showing that Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are present in higher amount, associated with adventitial inflammation and positive vessel remodeling, in thrombosed coronary artery segments (CAS) of patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. CD8T cell was the predominant lymphocytes in the plaque and CD24(B) cell in the adventitia. The mean numbers of lymphocytes were significantly higher in adventitia than in the plaque. Vulnerable plaques were usually associated with focal positive vessel remodeling and large lipidic atheromas. Mycoplasma is the only bacterium that needs cholesterol for proliferation. We hypothesized that the association of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae increases virulence of both bacteria, inducing inflammation and rupture of the plaque. The search of CMV and Helicobacter pylori resulted negative. PMID:15626350

  15. CT features of legionella pneumonia, compared with streptococcal pneumonia. A collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legionella pneumophila pneumonia (LPP) is of serious concern for chest physicians for its potential lethality and difficulty of diagnosis. In spite of widespread use of urine antigen detection method, it remains one of the most difficult-to-treat disease among community acquired pneumonia. We investigated CT images of 38 cases of LPP, comparing them with wide spread Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia (SPP). We find that sharply demarcated consolidation scattered in ground-glass opacity is the most striking and pathognomonic feature of LPP, which is rarely found in SPP. Bronchiolitis was not found in LPP, while it is a relatively common finding in SPP, which could be the second clue of differentiation of these two diseases. (author)

  16. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: an update for outpatients management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Noémie; Gehri, Mario; Gervaix, Alain; Guinan, Stéphane; Barazzone-Argiroffo, Constance

    2016-02-17

    Pneumonia should be considered in febrile children with tachypnea and/or chest recession. Virus are the most common cause of pneumonia in children under 5 years old. Streptococcus pneumonia can be found at any age. Mycoplasma pneumonia is more frequent in older children. Systematic chest radiograph is not necessary but must be obtained in patients with hypoventilation and in those with failed initial antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma pneumonia should be tested according to patient age and response to initial antibiotic. First line antibiotherapy is amoxicilline. Antibiotic treatment is frequently not necessary in children under 5 but should be considered depending on clinical presentation and C reactive protein value. PMID:27039458

  17. Is inhaled colistin beneficial in ventilator associated pneumonia or nosocomial pneumonia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii?

    OpenAIRE

    Demirdal, Tuna; Sari, Ummu Sena; Nemli, Salih Atakan

    2016-01-01

    Background In the present study, our objective was to evaluate and compare the clinical and microbiological results in patients receiving systemic and systemic plus inhaled colistin therapy due to nosocomial pneumonia (NP) or ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods A retrospective matched case–control study was performed at the ICUs at Izmir Katip Celebi University Ataturk Training and Research Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014. Eighty patien...

  18. PCR detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in pneumonia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.

    2009-01-01

    PCR is a rapid, reproducible method for nucleic acid detection. However, this technology displays significant deficiencies when applied in clinical microbiology. This work’s aim was to improve current diagnostics and provide sensitive and quantitative real-time PCRs. Paper I describes the development of a sensitive and specific quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, based on the Spn9802 DNA fragment. Applied to nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 pneumonia pat...

  19. Clinical practice guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman Rotstein; Gerald Evans; Abraham Born; Ronald Grossman; R Bruce Light; Sheldon Magder; Barrie McTaggart; Karl Weiss; Zhanel, George G

    2008-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, with mortality rates approaching 62%. HAP and VAP are the second most common cause of nosocomial infection overall, but are the most common cause documented in the intensive care unit setting. In addition, HAP and VAP produce the highest mortality associated with nosocomial infection. As a result, evidence-based guidelines were prepared detailing the epidemiology, micro...

  20. Monoclonal antibody against Klebsiella capsular polysaccharide reduces severity and hematogenic spread of experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Held, T K; Trautmann, M.; Mielke, M E; Neudeck, H; Cryz, S J; Cross, A S

    1992-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important nosocomial pathogen causing severe pulmonary infections. The majority of clinical Klebsiella isolates produce a high-molecular-weight capsular polysaccharide (CPS) which is one of the dominant virulence factors. In the present study, we examined the potency of a murine immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody (MAb) with specificity to Klebsiella type 2 CPS to protect rats against experimental Klebsiella pneumonia. The MAb did not prevent the invasion of virul...