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Sample records for bacterial plugging final

  1. Polysaccharides and bacterial plugging. Final report, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1995-02-01

    In situ core plugging experiments and transport experiments, using the model bacteria Leuconostoc m., have been conducted. Results demonstrated that cellular polysaccharide production increases cell distribution in porous media and caused an overall decrease in media permeability. Further, a parallel core plugging experiment was conducted and showed the feasibility of this system to divert injection fluid from high permeability zones into low permeability zones within porous media as is needed for profile modification. To implement this type of application, however, controlled placement of cells and rates of polymer production are needed. Therefore, kinetic studies were performed. A kinetic model was subsequently developed for Leuconostoc m. bacteria. This model is based on data generated from batch growth experiments and allows for the prediction of saccharide utilization, cell generation, and dextran production. These predictions can be used to develop injection strategies for field implementation. Transport and in situ growth micromodel experiments have shown how dextran allow cells to remain as clusters after cell division which enhanced cell capture and retention in porous media. Additional Damkohler experiments have been performed to determine the effects of the nutrient injection rate and nutrient concentration on the rate of porous media plugging. As shown experimentally and as predicted by a model for in situ growth, an increase in nutrient concentration and/or its injection rate will result in a faster rate of porous media plugging. Through continuum model simulations, it has been shown that the initial cell profiles play a key role on the core plugging rate. Controlling the location of the inoculating cells is thus another key factor in using bacteria for profile modification.

  2. Borehole plugging by compaction process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; MacGowan, C.; Nolan, E.; Morey, R.; Palty, A.

    1976-08-01

    The requirements of an overall program to preserve the integrity of a repository formation are documented. The repository is intended to be in stable earth stratum used as a safe and permanent storage area for nuclear waste material. These wastes represent an environmental hazard for a period of up to 200,000 years. An engineering analysis, a reliability and quality-assurance program, and a development program for borehole plugging by compaction process, using natural earthen materials, are presented. Part 1 provides the engineering analysis of downhole compaction methods and related instrumentation along with a recommended development plan from concept through a pilot in-situ experiment. Part 2 provides a reliability and quality-assurance program from laboratory testing of materials through an in-situ experiment.

  3. The chemical-in-plug bacterial chemotaxis assay is prone to false positive responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Mandy J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical-in-plug assays are commonly used to study bacterial chemotaxis, sometimes in the absence of stringent controls. Results We report that non-chemotactic and non-motile mutants in two distinct bacterial species (Shewanella oneidensis and Helicobacter pylori show apparent zones of accumulation or clearing around test plugs containing potential attractants or repellents, respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that the chemical-in-plug assay should be used with caution, that non-motile or non-chemotactic mutants should be employed as controls, and that results should be confirmed with other types of assays.

  4. Final design of the generic upper port plug structure for ITER diagnostic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, S.; Feder, R.; Giacomin, T.; Guirao, J.; Iglesias, S.; Josseaume, F.; Kalish, M.; Loesser, D.; Maquet, P.; Ronden, D.; Ordieres, J.; Panizo, M.; Pitcher, S.; M. Portalès,; Proust, M.; Serikov, A.; Suarez, A.; Tanchuk, V.; Udintsev, V.; Vacas, C.; Walsh, M.; Zhai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The generic upper port plug (GUPP) structure in ITER is a 6 m long metal box which deploys diagnostic components into the vacuum vessel. This structure is commonly used for all the diagnostic upper ports. The final design of the GUPP structure, which has successfully passed the final design review i

  5. Polysaccharides and bacterial plugging. [Quarterly report], April 1--June 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1991-12-31

    This research seeks to model bacterial transport in porous media, to determine the importance of polysaccharides bridging as a retentive mechanism, and to identify key parameters that influence porous media plugging. Task 1 of the project is the determination of the grown kinetics of the Leuconostoc bacteria and how they are affected by the nutrient feed and surface effects. Task 2 will quantify the importance of polysaccharide production as a cell retention mechanism; and Task 3 is the elucidation of the rate of polysaccharide production and the combined effect that polysaccharide production and cell growth has upon plugging. Verification of the two parameter model, as presented in the past quarterly reports, was the focus of batch experiments. Three series of batch culture experiments, were conducted with varying yeast extract concentrations and with no saccharides. The specific rate constants for the cells of new inoculum are higher than the rates found from the past experiments using cultured cells as inoculum. This indicates that the cells used in the original experiments have undergone a phenotypic alteration. Thus, the model developed could not be verified and requires additional data. In future experiments, the growth of the inoculum will be controlled by minimizing the number of cell transfers before use in kinetic experiments. Two additional experimental series have been completed to determine the rate of cellular production of dextran. The first set of experiments consisted of two batch reactors containing 5 and 36 g/L of sucrose and 10 g/L of yeast extract in each.

  6. A laboratory assessment of bacterial leakage in MTA apical plugs exposed to phosphate-buffered saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Josiane; Pimenta, Andrea L; Felippe, Wilson T

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the exposure of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) - with and without calcium chloride (CaCl2) -to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) on apical microleakage. Sixty root segments were divided into 4 experimental groups (n=15). Apical cavities were filled with MTA with or without CaCl2, and the root canals dressed with a moistened cotton pellet or PBS: 1) MTA/cotton pellet; 2) MTA/PBS; 3) MTA+ 10%CaCl2/cotton pellet; 4) MTA+10%CaCl2/PBS. After 2 months, E. faecalis penetration was analyzed along the apical plugs. Samples were observed weekly for 70 days, and leakage was detected by turbidity of the medium in contact with the root segment. Teeth in the control groups (n=2) were either made completely impermeable or kept without an apical plug. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival and the Logrank test was used to compare the survival curves (pMTA sealing ability, but cannot prevent bacterial leakage. The addition of CaCl2 to the MTA did not improve MTA sealing ability.

  7. Plug-and-playable fluorescent cell imaging modular toolkits using the bacterial superglue, SpyTag/SpyCatcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyojin; Bae, Yoonji; Kim, Hansol; Kang, Sebyung

    2016-11-29

    Simple plug-and-playable fluorescent cell imaging modular toolkits are established using the bacterial superglue SpyTag/SpyCatcher protein ligation system. A variety of affibody-fluorescent protein conjugates (AFPCs) are post-translationally generated via the isopeptide bond formation, and each AFPC effectively recognizes and binds to its targeting cells, visualizing them with selective colors on demand.

  8. Final design of the generic upper port plug structure for ITER diagnostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Sunil, E-mail: paksunil@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Feder, Russell [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Giacomin, Thibaud; Guirao, Julio; Iglesias, Silvia; Josseaume, Fabien [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kalish, Michael; Loesser, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Maquet, Philippe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ordieres, Javier; Panizo, Marcos [NATEC, Ingenieros, Gijón (Spain); Pitcher, Spencer; Portalès, Mickael [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Proust, Maxime [CEA, Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ronden, Dennis [FOM Institute DIFFER, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Serikov, Arkady [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Suarez, Alejandro [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Tanchuk, Victor [NIIEFA, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Udintsev, Victor; Vacas, Christian [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2016-01-15

    The generic upper port plug (GUPP) structure in ITER is a 6 m long metal box which deploys diagnostic components into the vacuum vessel. This structure is commonly used for all the diagnostic upper ports. The final design of the GUPP structure, which has successfully passed the final design review in 2013, is described here. The diagnostic port plug is cantilevered to the vacuum vessel with a heavy payload at the front, so called the diagnostic first wall (DFW) and the diagnostic shield module (DSM). Most of electromagnetic (EM) load (∼80%) occurs in DFW/DSM. Therefore, the mounting design to transfer the EM load from DFW/DSM to the GUPP structure is challenging, which should also comply with thermal expansion and tolerance for assembly and manufacturing. Another key design parameter to be considered is the gap between the port plug and the vacuum vessel port. The gap should be large enough to accommodate the remote handling of the heavy port plug (max. 25 t), the structural deflection due to external loads and machine assembly tolerance. At the same time, the gap should be minimized to stop the neutron streaming according to the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. With these design constraints, the GUPP structure should also provide space for diagnostic integration as much as possible. This requirement has led to the single wall structure having the gun-drilled water channels inside the structure. Furthermore, intensive efforts have been made on the manufacturing study including material selection, manufacturing codes and French regulation related to nuclear equipment and safety. All these main design and manufacturing aspects are discussed in this paper, including requirements, interfaces, loads and structural assessment and maintenance.

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  10. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and

  11. Final report for the geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells: DOE Pleasant Bayou test site, Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, Ben N.; Seigel, Ben H.

    1994-03-13

    For a variety of reasons, thousands of oil and gas wells have been abandoned in the Gulf Coast Region of the United States. Many of these wells penetrated geopressured zones whose resource potential for power generation was undervalued or ignored. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program was chartered to improve geothermal technology to the point where electricity could be commercially produced from a substantial number of geopressured resource sites. This research program focused on relatively narrow technical issues that are unique to geopressured resources such as the ability to predict reservoir production capacity based on preliminary flow tests. Three well sites were selected for the research program. These are the Willis Hulin and Gladys McCall sites in Louisiana, and the Pleasant Bayou site in Texas. The final phase of this research project consists of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and site restoration.

  12. Final report: Initial ecosystem response of salt marshes to ditch plugging and pool creation: Experiments at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the response of three salt marshes, associated with the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine), to the practice of ditch plugging. Drainage ditches, originally dug to drain the marsh for mosquito control or to facilitate salt hay farming, are plugged with marsh peat in an effort to impound water upstream of the plug, raise water table levels in the marsh, and increase surface water habitat. At two study sites, Moody Marsh and Granite Point Road Marsh, ditch plugs were installed in spring 2000. Monitoring of hydrology, vegetation, nekton and bird utilization, and marsh development processes was conducted in 1999, before ditch plugging, and then in 2000 and 2001 (all parameters except nekton), after ditch plugging. Each study site had a control marsh that was monitored simultaneously with the plugged marsh, and thus, we employed a BACI study design (before, after, control, impact). A third site, Marshall Point Road Marsh, was plugged in 1998. Monitoring of the plugged and control sites was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with limited monitoring in 2001, thus there was no ?before? plug monitoring. With ditch plugging, water table levels increased toward the marsh surface and the areal extent of standing water increased. Responding to a wetter substrate, a vegetation change from high marsh species (e.g., Spartina patens) to those more tolerant of flooded conditions (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) was noted at two of the three ditch plugged sites. Initial response of the nekton community (fishes and decapod crustaceans) was evaluated by monitoring utilization of salt marsh pools using a 1m2 enclosure trap. In general, nekton species richness, density, and community structure remained unchanged following ditch plugging at the Moody and Granite Point sites. At Marshall Point, species richness and density (number of individuals per m2) were significantly greater in the experimental plugged marsh than the control marsh (ditch plugging, bird species

  13. Final Report - Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Mercury Transformation - UCSF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Susan M. [UCSF

    2014-04-24

    The bacterial mercury resistance (mer) operon functions in Hg biogeochemistry and bioremediation by converting reactive inorganic Hg(II) and organic [RHg(II)]1+ mercurials to relatively inert monoatomic mercury vapor, Hg(0). Its genes regulate operon expression (MerR, MerD, MerOP), import Hg(II) (MerT, MerP, and MerC), and demethylate (MerB) and reduce (MerA) mercurials. We focus on how these components interact with each other and with the host cell to allow cells to survive and detoxify Hg compounds. Understanding how this ubiquitous detoxification system fits into the biology and ecology of its bacterial host is essential to guide interventions that support and enhance Hg remediation. In the current overall project we focused on two aspects of this system: (1) investigations of the energetics of Hg(II)-ligand binding interactions, and (2) both experimental and computational approaches to investigating the molecular mechanisms of Hg(II) acquisition by MerA and intramolecular transfer of Hg(II) prior to reduction within the MerA enzyme active site. Computational work was led by Prof. Jeremy Smith and took place at the University of Tennessee, while experimental work on MerA was led by Prof. Susan Miller and took place at the University of California San Francisco.

  14. Coal desulfurization by bacterial treatment and column flotation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A review of the literature showed that bacterial leaching, using the microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, was a very effective technique for removing pyrite from coal, as it could dissolve even the finest pyrite particles without the need for expensive reagents or extreme processing conditions. Unfortunately, bacterial leaching is also rather slow, and so the initial goal of this research was to decrease the leaching time as much as possible. However, this still left the bacteria needing approximately a week to remove half of the pyritic sulfur, and so a faster technique was sought. Since it had been reported in the literature that T. ferrooxidans could be used to depress the flotation of pyrite during froth flotation of coal, this was investigated further. By studying the recovery mechanisms of coal-pyrite in froth flotation, it was found that pyrite was being recovered by entrainment and by locking to coal particles, not by true flotation of hydrophobic pyrite. Therefore, no pyrite depressant could be of any significant benefit for keeping pyrite out of the coal froth product, and it was much more important to prevent entrainment from occurring. Countercurrent flotation columns were invented to essentially eliminate entrainment effects, by washing the froth and reducing mixing of the froth and tailings products. Existing flotation columns tend to be quite simple, and in order to give reasonable product quality they must be very tall (typically 30--45 feet). As a result, they have difficulty in handling the high froth volumes which occur in coal flotation, and are awkward to install in existing plants. The bulk of this project therefore concentrated on developing an improved coal flotation column, and testing it under actual plant conditions.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory’s Analysis of ARRA-Funded Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Infrastructure Projects: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carlson, Richard [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garretson, Thomas [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Gourley, LauraLee [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Karner, Donal [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); McGuire, Patti [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kirkpatrick, Mindy [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Shrik, Matthew [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schey, Stephen [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wishard, Jeffery [Intertek Center for the Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). INL’s conduct of the AVTA resulted in a significant base of knowledge and experience in the area of testing light-duty vehicles that reduced transportation-related petroleum consumption. Due to this experience, INL was tasked by DOE to develop agreements with companies that were the recipients of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) grants, that would allow INL to collect raw data from light-duty vehicles and charging infrastructure. INL developed non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) with several companies and their partners that resulted in INL being able to receive raw data via server-to-server connections from the partner companies. This raw data allowed INL to independently conduct data quality checks, perform analysis, and report publicly to DOE, partners, and stakeholders, how drivers used both new vehicle technologies and the deployed charging infrastructure. The ultimate goal was not the deployment of vehicles and charging infrastructure, cut rather to create real-world laboratories of vehicles, charging infrastructure and drivers that would aid in the design of future electric drive transportation systems. The five projects that INL collected data from and their partners are: • ChargePoint America - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • Chrysler Ram PHEV Pickup - Vehicle Demonstration • General Motors Chevrolet Volt - Vehicle Demonstration • The EV Project - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • EPRI / Via Motors PHEVs – Vehicle Demonstration The document serves to benchmark the performance science involved the execution, analysis and reporting for the five above projects that provided lessons learned based on driver’s use of the

  16. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  17. Playing with Plug-ins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    In today's complex music software packages, many features can remain unexplored and unused. Software plug-ins--available in most every music software package, yet easily overlooked in the software's basic operations--are one such feature. In this article, I introduce readers to plug-ins and offer tips for purchasing plug-ins I have…

  18. Vascular plugs - A key companion to Interventionists - 'Just Plug it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Vascular plugs are ideally suited to close extra-cardiac, high flowing vascular communications. The family of vascular plugs has expanded. Vascular plugs in general have a lower profile and the newer variants can be delivered even through a diagnostic catheter. These features make them versatile and easy to use. The Amplatzer vascular plugs are also used for closing intracardiac defects including coronary arterio-venous fistula and paravalvular leakage in an off-label fashion. In this review, the features of currently available vascular plugs are reviewed along with tips and tricks of using them in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  19. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    on metered electricity consumption for different types of households. We find effects for single men and couples without children, while we find no effect for single women and households with children. We suggest that this could be because of differences in saving potential (e.g. some households do not have...... appliances where using a plug is relevant), differences in the skills relevant for installing the technology and differences in the willingness to spend time and effort on installation. We conclude that targeting interventions at more responsive households, and tailoring interventions to target groups, can...

  20. The Anal Fistula Plug versus the mucosal advancement flap for the treatment of Anorectal Fistula (PLUG trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Lucas WM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low transsphincteric fistulas less than 1/3 of the sphincter complex are easy to treat by fistulotomy with a high success rate. High transsphincteric fistulas remain a surgical challenge. Various surgical procedures are available, but recurrence rates of these techniques are disappointingly high. The mucosal flap advancement is considered the gold standard for the treatment of high perianal fistula of cryptoglandular origin by most colorectal surgeons. In the literature a recurrence rate between 0 and 63% is reported for the mucosal flap advancement. Recently Armstrong and colleagues reported on a new biologic anal fistula plug, a bioabsorbable xenograft made of lyophilized porcine intestinal submucosa. Their prospective series of 15 patients with high perianal fistula treated with the anal fistula plug showed promising results. The anal fistula plug trial is designed to compare the anal fistula plug with the mucosal flap advancement in the treatment of high perianal fistula in terms of success rate, continence, postoperative pain, and quality of life. Methods/design The PLUG trial is a randomized controlled multicenter trial. Sixty patients with high perianal fistulas of cryptoglandular origin will be randomized to either the fistula plug or the mucosal advancement flap. Study parameters will be anorectal fistula closure-rate, continence, post-operative pain, and quality of life. Patients will be followed-up at two weeks, four weeks, and 16 weeks. At the final follow-up closure rate is determined by clinical examination by a surgeon blinded for the intervention. Discussion Before broadly implementing the anal fistula plug results of randomized trials using the plug should be awaited. This randomized controlled trial comparing the anal fistula plug and the mucosal advancement flap should provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of the anal fistula plug in the treatment of high perianal fistulas. Trial registration ISRCTN

  1. Mechanics Model of Plug Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Q. K.; Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed for the mechanics of friction plug welding. The model accounts for coupling of plastic deformation (material flow) and thermal response (plastic heating). The model predictions of the torque, energy, and pull force on the plug were compared to the data of a recent experiment, and the agreements between predictions and data are encouraging.

  2. 49 CFR 230.59 - Fusible plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Fusible Plugs § 230.59 Fusible plugs. If boilers are equipped with fusible plugs, the plugs shall be removed and cleaned of scale each time the boiler is washed but not less frequently than during every...

  3. Structural Studies of Bacterial Enzymes and their Relation to Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Lauren [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    By using protein crystallography and X-ray diffraction, structures of bacterial enzymes were solved to gain a better understanding of how enzymatic modification acts as an antibacterial resistance mechanism. Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) are one of three aminoglycoside modifying enzymes that confer resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics via enzymatic modification, rendering many drugs obsolete. Specifically, the APH(2”) family vary in their substrate specificities and also in their preference for the phosphate donor (ADP versus GDP). By solving the structures of members of the APH(2”) family of enzymes, we can see how domain movements are important to their substrate specificity. Our structure of the ternary complex of APH(2”)-IIIa with GDP and kanamycin, when compared to the known structures of APH(2”)-IVa, reveals that there are real physical differences between these two enzymes, a structural finding that explains why the two enzymes differ in their preferences for certain aminoglycosides. Another important group of bacterial resistance enzymes are the Class D β- lactamases. Oxacillinase carbapenemases (OXAs) are part of this enzyme class and have begun to confer resistance to ‘last resort’ drugs, most notably carbapenems. Our structure of OXA-143 shows that the conformational flexibility of a conserved hydrophobic residue in the active site (Val130) serves to control the entry of a transient water molecule responsible for a key step in the enzyme’s mechanism. Our results provide insight into the structural mechanisms of these two different enzymes

  4. Reduced-dimension model of liquid plug propagation in tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Hideki; Halpern, David; Ryans, Jason; Gaver, Donald P.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the flow resistance caused by the propagation of a liquid plug in a liquid-lined tube and propose a simple semiempirical formula for the flow resistance as a function of the plug length, the capillary number, and the precursor film thickness. These formulas are based on computational investigations of three key contributors to the plug resistance: the front meniscus, the plug core, and the rear meniscus. We show that the nondimensional flow resistance in the front meniscus varies as a function of the capillary number and the precursor film thickness. For a fixed capillary number, the flow resistance increases with decreasing precursor film thickness. The flow in the core region is modeled as Poiseuille flow and the flow resistance is a linear function of the plug length. For the rear meniscus, the flow resistance increases monotonically with decreasing capillary number. We investigate the maximum mechanical stress behavior at the wall, such as the wall pressure gradient, the wall shear stress, and the wall shear stress gradient, and propose empirical formulas for the maximum stresses in each region. These wall mechanical stresses vary as a function of the capillary number: For semi-infinite fingers of air propagating through pulmonary airways, the epithelial cell damage correlates with the pressure gradient. However, for shorter plugs the front meniscus may provide substantial mechanical stresses that could modulate this behavior and provide a major cause of cell injury when liquid plugs propagate in pulmonary airways. Finally, we propose that the reduced-dimension models developed herein may be of importance for the creation of large-scale models of interfacial flows in pulmonary networks, where full computational fluid dynamics calculations are untenable.

  5. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, Mark T.

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  6. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1988 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1989-08-01

    Bacterial kidney disease of salmonids is a very complex disease which appears to exploit a variety of pathogenic mechanisms. An understanding of these mechanisms is essential to the development of efficacious vaccines. It has become well established from the studies published .in this report and those of others that soluble antigens which are secreted by Renibacterium salmoninarum have toxigenic potential. If they are found to be responsible for mortality, the development of toxoid(s) could be paramount to the production of a vaccine. One must, however, be circumspect in producing a vaccine. A thorough knowledge, not only of the pathogen, but also of the immune system of the host is an absolute requirement. This becomes of particular importance when dealing with fish diseases, since the field of fish immunology is still within its infancy. This lack of knowledge is particularly felt when the induction of a prophylactic immune response concomitantly leads to pathological side effects which may be as destructive as the original infection. Indeed, it appears that some aspects of BKD may be due to the induction of hypersensitivity reactions. If such immunopathologies are expressed, it is prudent to thoroughly evaluate the nature of the immunoprophylaxis to insure that these harmful sequelae do not occur. Evaluation of a variety of antigens, adjuvants, immune responses, and survival data leads us to recommend that attempts at prophylaxis against BKD should center upon the elicitation of cellular immunity utilizing preparations of Mycobacterium chelonii. The choice of this species of mycobacteria was made because of its effectiveness, ease of maintenance and production, and the lack of need for its propagation within containment facilities. These assets are important to consider if large scale vaccine production is to be profitable. As can be seen from the data provided, M. chelonii alone is capable of producing prophylaxis to BKD, however, this is likely due to the

  7. The NAHIF* Plug-in-Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    1981-01-01

    * North Area High Intensity Facility of the CERN SPS. The beamlines with target stations and the plug-in magnets - The plug-in magnet to be removed for repair - The lifting bar and tool for the vacuum connector - The control stand - Controls for vacuum connector tool - The plug-in vacuum connector - Liftingbar with the automatic pins for magnets - The gravitational automatic pin - The plug-in kit in action.

  8. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  9. The Status of USITER Diagnostic Port Plug Neutronics Analysis Using Attila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, Russell [1; Youssef, Mahamoud [2; Klabacha, Jonathan [1

    2013-11-01

    USITER is one of seven partner domestic agencies (DA) contributing components to the ITER project. Four diagnostic port plug packages (two equatorial ports and two upper ports) will be engineered and fabricated by Princeton Plasma Physics Lab (PPPL). Diagnostic port plugs as illustrated in Fig. 1 are large primarily stainless steel structures that serve several roles on ITER. The port plugs are the primary vacuum seal and tritium confinement barriers for the vessel. The port plugs also house several plasma diagnostic systems and other machine service equipment. Finally, each port plug must shield high energy neutrons and gamma photons from escaping and creating radiological problems in maintenance areas behind the port plugs. The optimization of the balance between adequate shielding and the need for high performance, high throughput diagnostics systems is the focus of this paper. Neutronics calculations are also needed for assessing nuclear heating and nuclear damage in the port plug and diagnostic components. Attila, the commercially available discrete-ordinates software package, is used for all diagnostic port plug neutronics analysis studies at PPPL.

  10. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  11. Multimeediaetendus : Opera Gets Plugged / Eve Arpo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arpo, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lühiooperite õhtul "Opera Gets Plugged" etendunud lavastustest - Monika Mattieseni "DMeeter" ja Age Hirve "Tuleloitsija": Mõlema lavastaja ja projektijuht Liis Kolle

  12. Arthroscopic meniscal allograft transplantation without bone plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Seijas Vázquez, Roberto; García Balletbó, Montserrat; Álvarez Díaz, Pedro; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Cuscó Segarra, Xavier; Rius Vilarrubia, Marta; Cugat Bertomeu, Ramón

    2011-02-01

    Partial or total meniscectomy are common procedures performed at Orthopedic Surgery departments. Despite providing a great relief of pain, it has been related to early onset knee osteoarthritis. Meniscal allograft transplantation has been proposed as an alternative to meniscectomy. The purposes of this study were to describe an arthroscopic meniscal allograft transplantation without bone plugs technique and to report the preliminary results. All meniscal allograft transplantations performed between 2001 and 2006 were approached for eligibility, and a total of 35 patients (involving 37 menisci) were finally engaged in the study. Patients were excluded if they had ipsilateral knee ligament reconstruction or cartilage repair surgery before meniscal transplantation or other knee surgeries after the meniscal transplantation. Scores on Lysholm, Subjective IKDC Form, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale for pain were obtained at a mean follow-up of 38.6 months and compared to pre-operative data. Data on chondral lesions were obtained during the arthroscopic procedure and through imaging (radiographs and MRI) studies pre-operatively. Two graft failures out of 59 transplants (3.4%) were found. Daily life accidents were responsible for all graft failures. Significant improvements for Lysholm, Subjective IKDC Form, and VAS for pain scores following the meniscal allograft transplantation were found (P lesion, there was no significant interactions for Lysholm (n.s.), Subjective IKDC Form (n.s.), and VAS for pain scores (n.s.). This study demonstrated that an arthroscopic meniscal allograft transplantation without bone plugs improved knee function and symptoms after a total meniscectomy. Improvements were observed independently of the degree of chondral lesion.

  13. Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockelie, Michael J. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This Final Report summarizes research performed to develop a technology to mitigate the plugging and fouling that occurs in the syngas cooler used in many Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. The syngas cooler is a firetube heat exchanger located downstream of the gasifier. It offers high thermal efficiency, but its’ reliability has generally been lower than other process equipment in the gasification island. The buildup of ash deposits that form on the fireside surfaces in the syngas cooler (i.e., fouling) lead to reduced equipment life and increased maintenance costs. Our approach to address this problem is that fouling of the syngas cooler cannot be eliminated, but it can be better managed. The research program was funded by DOE using two budget periods: Budget Period 1 (BP1) and Budget Period 2 (BP2). The project used a combination of laboratory scale experiments, analysis of syngas cooler deposits, modeling and guidance from industry to develop a better understanding of fouling mechanisms and to develop and evaluate strategies to mitigate syngas cooler fouling and thereby improve syngas cooler performance. The work effort in BP 1 and BP 2 focused on developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to syngas cooler plugging and fouling and investigating promising concepts to mitigate syngas cooler plugging and fouling. The work effort focused on the following: • analysis of syngas cooler deposits and fuels provided by an IGCC plant collaborating with this project; • performing Jet cleaning tests in the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor to determine the bond strength between an ash deposit to a metal plate, as well as implementing planned equipment modifications to the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor and the one ton per day, pressurized Pilot Scale Gasifier; • performing Computational Fluid Dynamic modeling of industrially relevant syngas cooler configurations to develop a better

  14. Mastering Eclipse plug-in development

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who is familiar with the Eclipse plug-in environment, this book covers the advanced concepts that you need to know to achieve true expertise. Prior experience in creating Eclipse plug-ins is assumed for this book.

  15. Tension free femoral hernia repair with plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoje Vuković

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The technique of closing the femoral canal with plug a simple. The plug is made from monofilament material and is easily formed. This technique allows the reduction of recurrence and can be used safely, quickly and easily in elective and emergency situations.

  16. Final Scientific Report: Bacterial Nanowires and Extracellular Electron Transfer to Heavy Metals and Radionuclides by Bacterial Isolates from DOE Field Research Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealson, Kenneth [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This proposal involved the study of bacteria capable of transferring electrons from the bacterial cells to electron acceptors located outside the cell. These could be either insoluble minerals that were transformed into soluble products upon the addition of electrons, or they could be soluble salts like uranium or chromium, that become insoluble upon the addition of electrons. This process is called extracellular electron transport or EET, and can be done directly by cellular contact, or via conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires. In this work we examined a number of different bacteria for their ability to perform EET, and also looked at their ability to produce conductive nanowires that can be used for EET at a distance away from the EET-capable cells. In the work, new bacteria were isolated, new abilities of EET were examined, and many new methods were developed, and carefully described in the literature. These studies set the stage for future work dealing with the bioremediation of toxic metals like uranium and chromium. They also point out that EET (and conductive nanowires) are far more common that had been appreciated, and may be involved with energy transfer not only in sediments, but in symbioses between different bacteria, and in symbiosis/pathogenesis between bacteria and higher organisms.

  17. Mapping nanocavities in plugged SBA-15 with confined silver nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lima Oliveira, Rafael; Shakeri, Mozaffar; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; de Jong, Krijn P.; de Jongh, Petra E.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanostructures inside the pores of SBA-15 and plugged SBA-15 were synthesized and imaged, providing for the first time quantitative information about the nanocavity dimensions and plug distributions in plugged SBA-15.

  18. Plug into 'the modernizing machine'!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    before and after this law are productions of those struggles that change what it means to work as an academic subject at a university. This is staged through a host of new social technologies such as development contracts, appraisal interviews, individual performance reviews and so forth. Individual...... bodies and minds simultaneously produce academic subjectivities by plugging into these transformative machinic forces and are produced as they are traversed by them. What is experienced as stressful closures vis-à-vis new opportunities depends to a great extent upon how these producing....../produced individual nodes respond to particular configurations of machinic forces in particular university, faculty and department contexts. Empirically, the article is based ethnographic field work (interviews, observations and written documents) concerning a humanities department and a health and sciences...

  19. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  20. Friction pull plug welding: dual chamfered plate hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Edmond R. (Inventor); Cantrell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid state repair process for defects up to one inch in length, only requiring single sided tooling (OSL) for usage on flight hardware. Early attempts with FPPW followed the matching plug/plate geometry precedence of the successful Friction Push Plug Welding program, however no defect free welds were achieved due to substantial plug necking and plug rotational stalling. The dual chamfered hole has eliminated plug rotational stalling, both upon initial plug/plate contact and during welding. Also, the necking of the heated plug metal under a tensile heating/forging load has been eliminated through the usage of the dual chamfered plate hole.

  1. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO{sub 3}: An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  2. Low-pH concrete plug for sealing the KBS-3V deposition tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malm, Richard (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden))

    2012-01-15

    In SKB's main alternative for final repository of radioactive material, KBS-3V, the backfilled deposition tunnels will be separated from the remaining tunnel system with concrete plugs. These concrete plugs will be designed for a life span of 100 years and their function shall maintain until the transport tunnels outside the plug are backfilled and the natural geohydrological conditions have been restored. The purpose of this report is to document the results and the evaluation from this project and motivate the choice of the most appropriate design for closing the deposition tunnels in the spent fuel repository. The purpose has also been to investigate and present the loads acting on the plug system and determine the load capacity of the concrete plug. This report is the result of a project conducted between 2009-01-01 - 2010-12-31 and the project group has made its assessment based on the conditions and requirements that are present today. The entire design of the plug system is part of this project, where the plug system consists of a filter, a bentonite seal and a cast-in-place concrete plug. Two different conceptual design alternatives for the concrete plug have been studied in this report, one long tapered plug and one dome shaped plug. The results in this report focus on the choice of the conceptual design for the concrete plug and its possibility to assist the entire plug system to satisfy its requirements. It is a complicated task to dispose the radioactive waste and it sets high technical requirements on the design and the production of the backfill and the closing of the deposition tunnels. The aim of this project is to design and develop a plug system suitable for production. This is done by the means of numerical calculations and analyses. The primary function of the concrete plug is to act as a resistance to the external loads originated from the axial expansion of the backfill and the water pressure. However, the entire plug system has a

  3. Modular, Plug and Play, Distributed Avionics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this SBIR effort was to prove the viability of an Ethernet version of the MicroSat Systems, Inc. (MSI) modular, plug and play (PnP) spacecraft...

  4. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  5. PLUGGING AND UNPLUGGING OF WASTE TRANSFER PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This project, which began in FY97, involves both the flow loop research on plugging and unplugging of waste transfer pipelines, and the large-scale industrial equipment test of plugging locating and unplugging technologies. In FY98, the related work was performed under the project name ''Mixing, Settling, and Pipe Unplugging of Waste Transfer Lines.'' The mixing, settling, and pipeline plugging and unplugging are critical to the design and maintenance of a waste transfer pipeline system, especially for the High-Level Waste (HLW) pipeline transfer. The major objective of this work is to recreate pipeline plugging conditions for equipment testing of plug locating and removal and to provide systematic operating data for modification of equipment design and enhancement of performance of waste transfer lines used at DOE sites. As the waste tank clean-out and decommissioning program becomes active at the DOE sites, there is an increasing potential that the waste slurry transfer lines will become plugged and unable to transport waste slurry from one tank to another or from the mixing tank to processing facilities. Transfer systems may potentially become plugged if the solids concentration of the material being transferred increases beyond the capability of the prime mover or if upstream mixing is inadequately performed. Plugging can occur due to the solids' settling in either the mixing tank, the pumping system, or the transfer lines. In order to enhance and optimize the slurry's removal and transfer, refined and reliable data on the mixing, sampling, and pipe unplugging systems must be obtained based on both laboratory-scale and simulated in-situ operating conditions.

  6. Plugging of a model rock system by using starved bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, F A; Lappin-Scott, H M; Costerton, J W

    1988-06-01

    The effects of starvation on bacterial penetration through artificial rock cores were examined. Klebsiella pneumoniae was starved in a simple salts solution for a duration of up to 4 weeks. These cell suspensions were injected into sintered glass bead cores, and the resulting reductions in core permeabilities were recorded. Vegetative cell cultures of K. pneumoniae grown in a sodium citrate medium were injected into other, similar cores, and the reductions in core permeabilities were recorded. The starved cell suspensions did not completely block the core pores, whereas the vegetative cultures reduced core permeability to less than 1%. Scanning electron microscopy of core sections infiltrated with either vegetative or starved cells showed that the former produced shallow "skin" plugs and copious amounts of glycocalyx at the inlet face, whereas the latter produced very little glycocalyx and the cells were distributed evenly throughout the length of the core. The use of a DNA assay to produce a cell distribution profile showed that, compared with the vegetative cells, starved bacteria were able to penetrate deeper into the cores. This was due to the smaller size of the cells and the reduction in biofilm production. This ability of starved bacteria to penetrate further into cores than the normal-size vegetative cells can be usefully applied to selective plugging for enhanced oil recovery. To further test the suitability of starved cells for use in selective plugging, the activities of starved cells present within cores were monitored before and after nutrient stimulation. Our data indicate that with nutrient stimulation, the starved cells lose their metabolic dormancy and produce reductions in core permeability due to cell growth and polymer production.

  7. Underwater connect and disconnect plug and receptacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodier, Paul J.

    1989-06-01

    A plug and receptacle combination is transformer coupled. There are no exposed contacts to the environment at any time, whether the plug and receptacle combination are mated or separated from each other. By encapsulating the primary winding and secondary winding separately in a respective plug and receptacle, mating and unmating can be accomplished while submerged in water. The inventive device is useful in any underwater activity in which a diver must attach a power cable to a power driven tool, light, pump, etc., while submerged. In addition submarines could have the receptacles installed outboard of the pressure hull to be used in the event it became disabled at a depth attainable by a diver. A diver could descend with cables and plug them into the receptacles providing power and communications to the stranded crew awaiting rescue. The inventions could also be used in the home as a safety device where no voltage would be exposed. Either the plug or the receptacle shown could be built into the wall. Whichever items is built into the wall would receive the power source and have the primary winding.

  8. Design, production and initial state of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Lennart; Gunnarsson, David; Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Jonsson, Esther

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the backfill and plug shall be handled and installed. The report presents the design premises and reference designs of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels and verifies their conformity to the design premises. It also describes the production of the backfill from excavation and delivery of backfill material to installation in the deposition tunnel, and gives an outline of the installation of the plug. Finally, the initial states of the backfill and plug and their conformity to the reference designs and design premises are presented

  9. Biologically formed calcium carbonate, a durable plugging agent for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, M. [University of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Voordouw, G. [University of Calgary, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-02-01

    The use of bacterially precipitated inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate and silica have been suggested as an effective method for selective plugging of reservoirs as a means to improve microscopic and volumetric sweep efficiencies within a given geological formation. In this paper controlled enzymatic and bacterial formation of calcium carbonate were studied using a purified urease enzyme and a bacterium isolated from a Canadian oil field. Results showed that the quantity of produced calcium carbonate in the presence of bacteria was dependent on urea concentration. The highest amount achieved was 15 g/L urea. Enzymatically, the maximum concentration of calcium carbonate was 2.6 times higher than that achieved in the presence of bacteria (57.6 g/L vs 21.5 g/L). The production of calcium carbonate appeared to be less sensitive to temperature in the presence of bacteria, whereas production rates were enhanced with the urease enzyme as the temperature was increased from 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C. Plugging studies in unconsolidated porous media and in a core-flooding system with Beria sandstone indicated that in situ formation of calcium carbonate could effectively decrease the permeability of the porous media. Nevertheless, it should be noted that plugging by biomass is not permanent, and permeabilities will increase as degradation of bacterial cells progresses. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. The inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 activity by crude and purified human pregnancy plug mucus and mucins in an inhibition assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeman Leann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female reproductive tract is amongst the main routes for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission. Cervical mucus however is known to protect the female reproductive tract from bacterial invasion and fluid loss and regulates and facilitates sperm transport to the upper reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize pregnancy plug mucins and determine their anti-HIV-1 activity in an HIV inhibition assay. Methods Pregnancy plug mucins were purified by caesium chloride density-gradient ultra-centrifugation and characterized by Western blotting analysis. The anti-HIV-1 activities of the crude pregnancy plug mucus and purified pregnancy plug mucins was determined by incubating them with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells. Results The pregnancy plug mucus had MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that while the purified pregnancy plug mucins inhibit HIV-1 activity by approximately 97.5%, the crude pregnancy plug mucus failed to inhibit HIV-1 activity. Conclusion Although it is not clear why the crude sample did not inhibit HIV-1 activity, it may be that the amount of mucins in the crude pregnancy plug mucus (which contains water, mucins, lipids, nucleic acids, lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins and ions, is insufficient to cause viral inhibition or aggregation.

  11. A plug-and-play approach to automated data interpretation: the data interpretation module (DIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartog, B.K.D.; Elling, J.W.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Project`s automated analysis laboratory provides a ``plug-and-play`` reusable infrastructure for many types of environmental assays. As a sample progresses through sample preparation to sample analysis and finally to data interpretation, increasing expertise and judgment are needed at each step. The Data Interpretation Module (DIM) echoes the automation`s plug-and-play philosophy as a reusable engine and architecture for handling both the uncertainty and knowledge required for interpreting contaminant sample data. This presentation describes the implementation and performance of the DIM in interpreting polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gas chromatogram and shows the DIM architecture`s reusability for other applications.

  12. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A. (AECL, Chalk River (Canada)); Boergesson, L. (Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, D. (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hansen, J. (Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    Regardless of the emplacement geometry selected in a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, there will be a requirement for the access tunnels to remain open while repository operations are ongoing. The period of repository operation will stretch for many years (decades to more than a century depending on disposal concept and number of canisters to be installed). Requirements for extended monitoring of the repository before final closure may further extend the period over which the tunnels must remain open. The intersection of the emplacement rooms/drifts and the access tunnels needs to be physically closed in order to ensure that the canisters remain undisturbed and that no undesirable hydraulic conditions are allowed to develop within the backfilled volume. As a result of these requirements, generic guidelines and design concepts have been developed for 'Plugs' that are intended to provide mechanical restraint, physical security and hydraulic control functions over the short-term (repository operational and pre-closure monitoring periods). This report focuses on the role and requirements of plugs to be installed at emplacement room/ tunnel/drift entrances or in other locations within the repository that may require installation of temporary mechanical or hydraulic control structures. These plugs are not necessarily a permanent feature of the repository and may, if required, be removed for later installation of a permanent seal. Room/Drift plugs are also by their defined function, physically accessible during repository operation so their performance can be monitored and remedial actions taken if necessary (e.g. increased seepage past the plug). A considerable number of sealing demonstrations have been undertaken at several research laboratories that are focussed on development of technologies and materials for use in isolation of spent nuclear fuel and these are briefly reviewed in this report. Additionally, technologies developed for non

  13. Mass transport through defected bentonite plugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oscarson, D.W.; Dixon, D.A.; Hume, H.B

    1996-07-01

    Compacted bentonite-based materials are important barriers in many waste containment strategies. To function as effective barriers, however, these materials must maintain their low water permeability and molecular diffusivity for long periods of time under a variety of environmental conditions. Here we examine the permeability and diffusivity of compacted bentonite plugs that were either slotted, to mimic fractures, parallel to the direction of mass flow or heated at 150 and 250{sup o}C for several weeks at various moisture contents before testing. The dry density of the plugs ranged from about 0.9 to 1.3 Mg/m{sup 3}. The results show that the saturated hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity (for I{sup -} and Cs{sup +}) of the treated or 'defected' bentonite plugs are essentially the same as those of untreated plugs at similar densities. This provides confidence that compacted bentonitic materials can function effectively as barriers for long periods of time under a range of environmental conditions. (author)

  14. Jet noise suppression by porous plug nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A. B.; Kibens, V.; Wlezien, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Jet noise suppression data presented earlier by Maestrello for porous plug nozzles were supplemented by the testing of a family of nozzles having an equivalent throat diameter of 11.77 cm. Two circular reference nozzles and eight plug nozzles having radius ratios of either 0.53 or 0.80 were tested at total pressure ratios of 1.60 to 4.00. Data were taken both with and without a forward motion or coannular flow jet, and some tests were made with a heated jet. Jet thrust was measured. The data were analyzed to show the effects of suppressor geometry on nozzle propulsive efficiency and jet noise. Aerodynamic testing of the nozzles was carried out in order to study the physical features that lead to the noise suppression. The aerodynamic flow phenomena were examined by the use of high speed shadowgraph cinematography, still shadowgraphs, extensive static pressure probe measurements, and two component laser Doppler velocimeter studies. The different measurement techniques correlated well with each other and demonstrated that the porous plug changes the shock cell structure of a standard nozzle into a series of smaller, periodic cell structures without strong shock waves. These structures become smaller in dimension and have reduced pressure variations as either the plug diameter or the porosity is increased, changes that also reduce the jet noise and decrease thrust efficiency.

  15. Feasibility of Upper Port Plug tube handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.F.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Ronden, D.M.S.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Biel, W.; Krasikov, Y.; Walker, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    Central, retractable tubes are proposed in several Upper Port Plugs (UPPs) designs for ITER, to enable fast exchange of specific components of diagnostics housed in these UPPs. This paper investigates into possible designs to enable the efficient handling of tubes. The feasibility of tube handling i

  16. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  17. An optimal design for millimeter-wide facture plugging zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation control in millimeter-wide fractures has been a challenge in well drilling all the time. Low pressure-bearing capacity of a plugging zone will result in excessive consumption of lost circulation materials (LCMs and extra down time. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted on the plugging of millimeter-wide fractures to evaluate the plugging effects of different types of LCM including rigid granules, elastic particles and fiber. Maximum plugging pressure, total loss volume before sealing and plugging time were taken as the evaluation index of the LCM plugging effect. According to the experimental results, the synergistic plugging mechanisms of different LCM combinations were also analyzed. Experimental results showed that the total loss volume of the plugging zone formed by rigid and elastic particle combination was generally greater than 400 mL, and the maximum plugging pressure of the plugging zone formed by elastic particle and fiber combination was generally less than 6 MPa. In contrast, the plugging zone formed by the combination of the three types of LCMs has the maximum plugging pressure of up to 13 MPa and total loss volume before sealing of 75 mL. In the synergistic plugging process, rigid granules form a frame with high pressure-bearing capacity in the narrower parts of the fractures; elastic particles generate elastic force through elastic deformation to increase the friction between a fracture and a plugging zone to make the plugging zone more stable; fibers filling in the pore space between the particles increase the tightness and integrity of the plugging zone. The experimental results can provide guidance for the optimal design of LCMs used in the field.

  18. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Experimental Study of Bacterial Penetration into Chalk Rock: Mechanisms and Effect on Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery, as bacteria can plug the water-swept zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. However, complete understanding of the penetration...

  20. Tension free femoral hernia repair with plug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milivoje Vukovi; Neboja Moljevi; Sinia Crnogorac

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the conventional technique involves treatment of femoral hernia an approximation inguinal ligament to pectineal ligament. In technique which uses mesh closure for femoral canal without tissue tension. Method: A prospective study from January 01. 2007-May 30. 2009. We analyzed 1 042 patients with inguinal hernia, of which there were 83 patients with 86 femoral hernia. Result: Femoral hernias were present in 7.96% of cases. Males were 13 (15.66%) and 70 women (84.34%). The gender distribution of men: women is 1:5.38. Urgent underwent 69 (83%), and the 14 election (17%) patients. Average age was 63 years, the youngest patient was a 24 and the oldest 86 years. Ratio of right: left hernias was 3.4:1. With bilateral femoral hernias was 3.61% of cases. In 7 patients (8.43%) underwent femoral hernia repair with 9 Prolene plug. Conclusions: The technique of closing the femoral canal with plug a simple. The plug is made from monofilament material and is easily formed. This technique allows the reduction of recurrence and can be used safely, quickly and easily in elective and emergency situations.

  1. The 'Swiss cheese' instability of bacterial biofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hongchul; Stocker, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel pattern that results in bacterial biofilms as a result of the competition between hydrodynamic forces and adhesion forces. After the passage of an air plug, the break up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a Swiss cheese pattern of holes is left in the residual biofilm.

  2. SpaceWire Plug and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; McGuirk, Patrick; Kimmery, Clifford; Jaffe, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The ability to rapidly deploy inexpensive satellites to meet tactical goals has become an important goal for military space systems. In fact, Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) has been in the spotlight at the highest levels. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has identified that the critical next step is developing the bus standards and modular interfaces. Historically, satellite components have been constructed based on bus standards and standardized interfaces. However, this has not been done to a degree, which would allow the rapid deployment of a satellite. Advancements in plug-and-play (PnP) technologies for terrestrial applications can serve as a baseline model for a PnP approach for satellite applications. Since SpaceWire (SpW) has become a de facto standard for satellite high-speed (greater than 200Mbp) on-board communications, it has become important for SpW to adapt to this Plug and Play (PnP) environment. Because SpW is simply a bulk transport protocol and lacks built-in PnP features, several changes are required to facilitate PnP with SpW. The first is for Host(s) to figure out what the network looks like, i.e., how pieces of the network, routers and nodes, are connected together; network mapping, and to receive notice of changes to the network. The second is for the components connected to the network to be understood so that they can communicate. The first element, network topology mapping & change of status indication, is being defined (topic of this paper). The second element describing how components are to communicate has been defined by ARFL with the electronic data sheets known as XTEDS. The first element, network mapping, is recent activities performed by Air Force Research Lab (ARFL), Naval Research Lab (NRL), NASA and US industry (Honeywell, Clearwater, FL, and others). This work has resulted in the development of a protocol that will perform the lower level functions of network mapping and Change Of Status (COS) indication

  3. Testing and plugging power plant heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutor, F. [Expando Seal Tools, Inc., Montgomeryville, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Heat Exchanger tubes fail for any number of reasons including but certainly not limited to the cumulative effects of corrosion, erosion, thermal stress and fatigue. This presentation will attempt to identify the most common techniques for determining which tubes are leaking and then introduce the products in use to plug the leaking tubes. For the sake of time I will limit the scope of this presentation to include feedwater heaters and secondary system heat exchangers such as Hydrogen Coolers, Lube Oil Coolers, and nuclear Component Cooling Water, Emergency Cooling Water, Regenerative Heat Recovery heat exchangers.

  4. Plug ‘n’ Play with DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Andreasen, Elisa W.; Korgaard, Jaide V.;

    Synthetic biology has evolved dramatically within the past decade, which calls for a revolution of the Standard Assembly method that makes the foundation of BioBricks. We believe that iGEM should be about fast assembly of BioBricks, where any thinkable part, device or existing BioBrick can be com...... be combined for any type of organism within one day. Therefore, we have designed a new BioBrick Kit based on a novel assembly standard; called “Plug 'n' Play with DNA”....

  5. The trophoblast plug during early pregnancy: a deeper insight

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Gregor; Sundl, Monika; Glasner, Andreas; Huppertz, Berthold; Moser, Gerit

    2016-01-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, foetal endovascular trophoblasts invade into maternal spiral arteries, accumulate and form plugs in the lumen of the vessels. These plugs only allow blood plasma to seep through. Hence, during the first trimester of pregnancy, a first flow of fluids through the placental intervillous space is established, resulting in a physiological oxygen gradient between mother and foetus. The trophoblast plugs block spiral arteries until the beginning of the second...

  6. A plug with infinite order and some exotic 4-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Tange, Motoo

    2012-01-01

    Every exotic pair in 4-dimension is obtained each other by twisting a {\\it cork} or {\\it plug} which are codimension 0 submanifolds embedded in the 4-manifolds. The twist was an involution on the boundary of the submanifold. We define cork (or plug) with order $p\\in {\\Bbb N}\\cup \\{\\infty\\}$ and show there exists a plug with infinite order. Furthermore we show twisting $(P,\\varphi^2)$ gives to enlargements of $P$ compact exotic manifolds with boundary.

  7. Knowledge-Based System to Support Plug Load Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical plug loads comprise an increasingly larger share of building energy consumption as improvements have been made to Heating, Ventilation, and Air...

  8. Deep Space Habitat Wireless Smart Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay; Rojdev, Kristina; Carrejo, Daniel B.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has been interested in technology development for deep space exploration, and one avenue of developing these technologies is via the eXploration Habitat (X-Hab) Academic Innovation Challenge. In 2013, NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project was in need of sensors that could monitor the power consumption of various devices in the habitat with added capability to control the power to these devices for load shedding in emergency situations. Texas A&M University's Electronic Systems Engineering Technology Program (ESET) in conjunction with their Mobile Integrated Solutions Laboratory (MISL) accepted this challenge, and over the course of 2013, several undergraduate students in a Capstone design course developed five wireless DC Smart Plugs for NASA. The wireless DC Smart Plugs developed by Texas A&M in conjunction with NASA's Deep Space Habitat team is a first step in developing wireless instrumentation for future flight hardware. This paper will further discuss the X-Hab challenge and requirements set out by NASA, the detailed design and testing performed by Texas A&M, challenges faced by the team and lessons learned, and potential future work on this design.

  9. Innovative cement plug setting process reduces risk and lowers NPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, T.; Rogers, H.; Lloyd, S.; Quinton, C. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tetrault, N. [Apache Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    With increased drilling in mature fields and unconventional reservoirs, Canadian operators are experiencing a higher rate of lost circulation events. When drilling into lower fracture-gradient zones, operators face the risk of drilling through shallower depleted zones. The unique challenges associated with setting cement plugs in such open hole wells were described. The best solution to address lost circulation events is a properly designed cement slurry where cement can be squeezed into the lost circulation zones to strengthen the wellbore when set. The cement plug is drilled through, leaving the residual cement setting inside the problem zones. Since cement plugs are used for a wide range of reasons, such as healing losses, abandonment, and directional drilling, it is important that a competent cement plug is placed the first time. This paper presented a newly developed tool and a special process designed to meet the challenges associated with setting cement plugs. It is based on a tubing-release tool (TRT) in which a sacrificial tubing is placed into the lost circulation zone to balance the cement plug. The sacrificial tubing is released from the drillstring and remains in the wellbore. The TRT has been used as a plug-setting aid for lost-circulation plugs; shallow-water shut-off; kick-off plug placement; and multizone plugs to abandon. An overview of the TRT features was presented. The tool and process has been used by more than 20 operating companies around the world to successfully place cement plugs downhole on the first attempt. The disconnect has been used successfully in more than 120 wells throughout North and South America, Europe, the Middle East, and Australia. It has proven to lower the risk and non-productive time associated with drilling in mature fields and unconventional reservoirs. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  11. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  12. Plug and Play Process Control of a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbaek, Klaus; Knudsen, Torben; Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The main idea of plug and play process control is to initialise and reconfigure control systems automatically. In this paper these ideas are applied to a scaled laboratory model of a district heating pressure control system.  First of all this serves as a concrete example of plug and play control...

  13. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  14. Experimental plug and play quantum coin flipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Anna; Jouguet, Paul; Lawson, Thomas; Chailloux, André; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni

    2014-04-01

    Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug and play system, developed by significantly enhancing a commercial quantum key distribution device. Moreover, we provide combined quantum coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries. Our results offer a useful toolbox for future secure quantum communications.

  15. Plugging criteria for WWER SG tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L.; Wilam, M. [Vitkovice NPP Services (Switzerland); Herman, M. [Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    At operated Czech and Slovak nuclear power plants the 80 % criteria for crack or other bulk defect depth is used for steam generator heat exchanging tubes plugging. This criteria was accepted as the recommendation of designer of WWER steam generators. Verification of this criteria was the objective of experimental program performed by Vitkovice, J.S.C., UJV Rez, J.S.C. and Vuje Trnava, J.S.C .. Within this program the following factors were studied: (1) Influence of secondary water chemistry on defects initiation and propagation, (2) Statistical evaluation of corrosion defects progression at operated SG, and (3) Determination of critical pressure for tube rupture as a function of eddy current indications. In this presentation items (2) and (3) are considered.

  16. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  17. Plug and Play Robust Distributed Control with Ellipsoidal Parametric Uncertainty System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a continuous linear time invariant system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty structured into subsystems. Since the design of a local controller uses only information on a subsystem and its neighbours, we combine the plug and play idea and robust distributed control to propose one distributed control strategy for linear system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty. Firstly for linear system with ellipsoidal parametric uncertainty, a necessary and sufficient condition for robust state feedback control is proposed by means of linear matrix inequality. If this necessary and sufficient condition is satisfied, this robust state feedback gain matrix can be easily derived to guarantee robust stability and prescribed closed loop performance. Secondly the plug and play idea is introduced in the design process. Finally by one example of aircraft flutter model parameter identification, the efficiency of the proposed control strategy can be easily realized.

  18. Detecting bacteria and Determining Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics by Stochastic Confinement in Nanoliter Droplets using Plug-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedicker, J.; Li, L; Kline, T; Ismagilov, R

    2008-01-01

    This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as stochastic confinement. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.

  19. Detecting bacteria and determining their susceptibility to antibiotics by stochastic confinement in nanoliter droplets using plug-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedicker, James Q; Li, Liang; Kline, Timothy R; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-08-01

    This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as 'stochastic confinement'. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.

  20. W-plug via electromigration in CMOS process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wenbin; Chen Haifeng; Xiao Zhiqiang; Li Leilei; Yu Zongguang

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the failure mechanism of W-plug via electromigration made in a 0.5-μm CMOS SPTM process. Failure occurs at the top or bottom of a W-plug via. We design a series of via chains, whose size ranges from 0.35 to 0.55 μm. The structure for the via electromigration test is a long via chain, and the layer in the via is Ti/TiN/W/TiN. Using a self-heated resistor to raise the temperature of the via chain allows the structure to be stressed at lower current densities, which does not cause significant joule heating in the plugs. This reduces the interaction between the plug and the plug contact resistance and the time-to-failure for the via chain. The lifetime of a W-plug via electromigration is on the order of 3 × 107 s, i.e., far below the lifetime of metal electromigration. The study on W-plug via electromigraion in this paper is beneficial for wafer level reliability monitoring of the ultra-deep submicron CMOS multilayer metal interconnect process.

  1. Mechanical and thermo-mechanical analyses of the tapered plug for plugging of deposition tunnels. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Gatter, Patrik (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-09-15

    This report presents results from a study that was carried out in order to examine the applicability of the tapered plug concept for plugging of deposition tunnels in the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The report presents results from mechanical and thermo-mechanical models of the tapered plug. The models were analyzed with 3DEC. The models included a portion of a deposition tunnel and its intersection with a main tunnel. In the deposition tunnel, a tapered concrete plug was installed. The plug was subjected to the combined load from the swelling backfill material and from pore pressure inside the deposition tunnel. The thermo-mechanical effects due to the heat generation in the spent fuel were also included in the analyses. Generic material parameter values for the concrete were used. The following items were studied: - Stresses and displacements in the plug. - Shear stresses and shear displacements in the rock-concrete interface. - Stress additions in the rock due to the loads. The sensitivity of the results to changes of constitutive models, to changes of the plug geometry and to pore water pressure in the rock-concrete interface was examined. The results indicate that the displacements in the plug will be within reasonable ranges but the stresses may locally be high enough that they exceed acceptable levels. However, they can be reduced by choice of advantageous plug geometry and by having a good rock-concrete bond. The results also show that the stress additions in the rock due to the thermal load may yield stresses that locally exceed the spalling strength of the rock. At most locations, however, the rock stresses will amount at lower levels. It was concluded that, with choice of an appropriate design, the tapered plug seems to be an applicable concept for plugging of deposition tunnels. It was also concluded that further studies of the tapered plug concept should use material properties parameter values for low-pH concrete. Further, they should also

  2. A Genre Classification Plug-in for Data Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Petersen, Kaare Brandt;

    2006-01-01

    This demonstration illustrates how the methods developed in the MIR community can be used to provide real-time feedback to music users. By creating a genre classifier plug-in for a popular media player we present users with relevant information as they play their songs. The plug-in can furthermor...... be used as a data collection platform. After informed consent from a selected set of users the plug-in will report on music consumption behavior back to a central server....

  3. Progress on the ITER TBM port plug design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung-Yoon, E-mail: byoungyoon.kim@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Marconi, Matteo [LTCalcoli, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy); Neviere, Jean-Christophe [Comex Nucléaire, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Merola, Mario; Giancarli, Luciano M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lucca, Flavio [LTCalcoli, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy); Gicquel, Stefan [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER TBM PP design progress with two Dummy TBMs was outlined. • Attachment of Dummy TBMs in TBM Frame was assessed to investigate mechanical and sealing performance. • Implementation of cover plates was described and the preliminary maintenance sequence was developed. • Clearance between TBM Frame and Dummy TBMs were reduced to have better shielding performance. • Cooling layout and castellation design were updated to minimize thermal induced stress. - Abstract: In three of the ITER equatorial ports, tritium breeding blanket concepts will be validated and tested using mock-up breeding blankets called test blanket modules (TBM). In these ports, two TBM-Sets are mechanically attached in a TBM Frame to form a TBM port plug (TBM PP). The ITER Organization is responsible for the design and manufacture of both this TBM Frame and the Dummy TBMs which will fill them. As a part of this development, in 2013, a conceptual design review (CDR) of TBM PP with two dummy TBMs revealed the need for improvement of design performance, interfaces and maintainability. This paper presents the main design improvements after the CDR as well as associated feasibility analysis of the improved design focusing on the attachment. Finally the work plan for the Preliminary Design phase is summarized.

  4. SI Engine with repetitive NS spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheshniy, Sergey; Nikipelov, Andrey; Anokhin, Eugeny; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Laplase Team; Mipt Team; Pu Team

    2013-09-01

    Now de-facto the only technology for fuel-air mixtures ignition in IC engines exists. It is a spark discharge of millisecond duration in a short discharge gap. The reason for such a small variety of methods of ignition initiation is very specific conditions of the engine operation. First, it is very high-pressure of fuel-air mixture - from 5-7 atmospheres in old-type engines and up to 40-50 atmospheres on the operating mode of HCCI. Second, it is a very wide range of variation of the oxidizer/fuel ratio in the mixture - from almost stoichiometric (0.8-0.9) at full load to very lean (φ = 0.3-0.5) mixtures at idle and/or economical cruising mode. Third, the high velocity of the gas in the combustion chamber (up to 30-50 m/s) resulting in a rapid compression of swirling inlet flow. The paper presents the results of tests of distributed spark ignition system powered by repetitive pulse nanosecond discharge. Dynamic pressure measurements show the increased pressure and frequency stability for nanosecond excitation in comparison with the standard spark plug. Excitation by single nanosecond high-voltage pulse and short train of pulses was examined. In all regimes the nanosecond pulsed excitation demonstrate a better performance.

  5. Microstructure Formation and Degradation Mechanism of Cementitious Plugging Agent Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Peiyu; ZHOU Yongxiang; YANG Zhenjie; QIN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The hydration products and microstructure of class G oil well cement and a newly developed plugging agent (YLD) slurries cured in the simulated temperature and pressure environment, which was of similar temperature and pressure with those at the bottom of oil well in a normal depth, were investigated using XRD, TG and SEM. Severe leakage is confirmed at the interface between hardened slurries and steel tube during the dynamically curing process, which induces the quick loss of cementing property of slurries. This should be the dominating cause of degradation of class G oil well cement slurry. A secondary hydration process can take place at the eroded interface of hardened YLD plugging agent slurry. Newly formed C-S-H gel has a self-healing effect to repair the damaged interface, which unceasingly maintains the cementing property of the YLD plugging agent slurry. Therefore, the effective using period of YLD plugging agent can be prolonged.

  6. Rotary plug device for use in LMFBR type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, Kazuhiko; Imayoshi, Sho.

    1988-02-23

    Purpose: To prevent adhesion of sodium in the rotational gap of a rotational plug. Constitution: One of the walls of a cylindrical gap formed between the outer circumference of a small rotary plug and a large rotary plug that constitute a double rotary plug is cooled to lower than the sodium coagulation temperature, while a stater of a linear motor in a cylindrical shape and wound with linear coils around the iron core is attached to the inside of the other of the walls. Then, one of the walls of the gap to which sodium adheres is cooled to less than sodium coagulation temperature, so that sodium is or tends to be deposited to the wall. Then, eddy currents are resulted to sodium by the current supplied to the stater of the linear motor attached to the other of the walls, to produce thrusting force. Sodium on the wall surface is scraped off by this. (Yoshihara, H.).

  7. Frictional Fluid Dynamics and Plug Formation in Multiphase Millifluidic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumazer, Guillaume; Sandnes, Bjørnar; Ayaz, Monem; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude

    2016-07-01

    We study experimentally the flow and patterning of a granular suspension displaced by air inside a narrow tube. The invading air-liquid interface accumulates a plug of granular material that clogs the tube due to friction with the confining walls. The gas percolates through the static plug once the gas pressure exceeds the pore capillary entry pressure of the packed grains, and a moving accumulation front is reestablished at the far side of the plug. The process repeats, such that the advancing interface leaves a trail of plugs in its wake. Further, we show that the system undergoes a fluidization transition—and complete evacuation of the granular suspension—when the liquid withdrawal rate increases beyond a critical value. An analytical model of the stability condition for the granular accumulation predicts the flow regime.

  8. Application of Inductive Monitoring System to Plug Load Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base is a new 50,000 sq. ft. LEED Platinum office building. Plug loads are expected to account for a significant portion...

  9. Engaging Tenants in Reducing Plug Load Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schantz, Marta; Langner, Rois

    2016-08-26

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) account for an increasingly large percentage of commercial building energy use in the U.S. due to the rising number of energy intensive plug-in devices. In addition, buildings are becoming more and more efficient and plug load energy use has become an increasingly pertinent component to achieving aggressive energy targets and netzero energy status. For multi-tenant buildings, controlling plug loads in tenant spaces can be a significant challenge. Luckily, there are a number of PPL reduction strategies, best practices, and lessons learned from numerous commercial real estate and higher education leaders who have successfully engaged building occupants and tenants in reducing PPL energy use. This paper provides actionable PPL reduction strategies and best practices that building owners and managers can immediately apply to their own buildings.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Plug Welds after Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadryś D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve mechanical properties of plug welds. The main purpose of that paper was analyzing of mechanical properties of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling. The main way for it was comparison of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling and plug welds made by ordinary MIG welding method. It is interesting for steel because higher amount of acicular ferrite (AF in weld metal deposit (WMD is obtained in MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling in relation to ordinary MIG welding method. This article presents the influence of the cooling medium and the number of micro-jet streams on mechanical properties of the welded joint. Mechanical properties were described by force which is necessary to destroy weld joint.

  11. High quality new type spark plug pressure sensor; Koseino plug gata shiatsu sensor ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakawa, H.; Yanagihara, S.; Kawa, T. [Tsukasa Sokken Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Enomoto, Y. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T. [Dai Ichi Institute of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan); Gotthard, E.

    1998-05-01

    Investigations were made on a spark plug type pressure sensor using GaPO4 piezoelectric material developed recently by AVL Corporation. This sensor has the ignition electrode installed decentered to assure the installing position for the pressure sensor, where the small pressure sensor with a diameter of 4.4 mm, model GU12P is installed on the side. Experiments were performed on this sensor, a water cooled sensor for comparison, and a cooling-free type sensor for reference. The engine was operated at an outlet cooling water temperature maintained constant at 80 degC, and experimented in a normal combustion condition with full load at 2000 rpm and 4000 rpm, in a knocking condition with full load at 2000 rpm, and in a transient condition from full load at 4000 rpm to no load at 1300 rpm. As a result, it was made clear that the spark plug type pressure sensor showed an output of the same level as that with the water cooled sensor in the normal combustion pressure. Load change drift under the transient condition was found as good as 2.5% FS at maximum. No effect of columnar vibration was discovered, and a knocking waveform of 14 kHz was observed. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Biologically formed calcium carbonate : a durable plugging agent for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, M.; Voordouw, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Waterflooding is a common enhanced oil recovery method in which water is injected into an oil reservoir. The flow is diverted into high permeability zones from which oil has already been recovered during primary production. The increased permeability variation decreases volumetric sweep efficiency of injected water. Cross flow complicates this problem by allowing flow between contrasting layers. This results in a ratio of produced water to oil that is much too high. The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) and silica may be an effective method for selective plugging of reservoirs. The controlled biological formation of CaCO{sub 3} depends on the decomposition of urea to carbonate and ammonium ions by the catalytic action of urease enzyme. This study shows that biological formation of CaCO{sub 3} could be induced successfully using a bacterium with urease producing activity or urease enzyme. It is shown that the yield of enzymatically produced CaCO{sub 3} is substantially higher than when bacterially produced because the tolerable level of urea for bacteria is lower than the concentration of urea that participates in the enzymatic reaction. Plugging studies in unconsolidated porous media have shown that in situ formation of CaCO{sub 3} may decrease the permeability of porous media. The extent of plugging depends on the enzyme and reactant concentration. The extent of enzymatically produced CaCO{sub 3} increases with higher enzyme concentrations as well as with higher temperature. In situ formation of CaCO{sub 3} could result in a major decrease in permeability. 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  13. Methodology for physical modeling of melter electrode power plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, W.O.

    1984-09-01

    A method is presented for building and testing a one-third scale model of an electrode power plug used to supply up to 3000 amperes to a liquid fed ceramic melter. The method describes how a one-third scale model can be used to verify the ampacity of the power plug, the effectiveness of the power plug cooling system and the effect of the high amperage current on eddy current heating of rebar in the cell wall. Scale-up of the test data, including cooling air flow rate and pressure drop, temperature profiles, melter water jacket heat duty and electrical resistance is covered. The materials required to build the scale model are specified as well as scale surface finish and dimensions. The method for designing and testing a model power plug involves developing a way to recreate the thermal conditions including heat sources, sinks and boundary temperatures on a scale basis. The major heat sources are the molten glass in contact with the electrode, joule heat generation within the power plug, and eddy current heating of the wall rebar. The melting cavity heat source is modelled using a plate heater to provide radiant heat transfer to a geometrically similar, one-third scale electrode housed in a scale model of a melting cavity having a thermally and geometrically similar wall and floor. The joule heat generation within the power plug is simulated by passing electricity through the model power plug with geometrically similar rebar positioned to simulate the eddy heating phenomenon. The proposed model also features two forced air cooling circuits similar to those on the full design. The interaction of convective, natural and radiant heat transfer in the wall cooling circuit are considered. The cell environment and a melter water jacket, along with the air cooling circuits, constitute the heat sinks and are also simulated.

  14. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues > Conditions > Sexually Transmitted > Bacterial Vaginosis Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Bacterial Vaginosis Page Content Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in sexually active teenaged girls . It appears to be caused by ...

  15. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett David

    development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. H2FCVs are described as one possible extension of this Me- product platform for the supply of clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature. Finally, the major findings of this study are summarized and directions for future work discussed. Together, the parts of this Me- innovation assessment reveal an initially expensive and limited but compelling (and possibly necessary) set of opportunities to help drive H2FCV and other electric-drive-vehicle commercialization.

  16. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  17. Damage Tolerance Assessment of Friction Pull Plug Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Burkholder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process developed and patented by The Welding Institute in Cambridge, England. Friction stir welding has been implemented in the aerospace industry in the fabrication of longitudinal welds in pressurized cryogenic propellant tanks. As the industry looks to implement friction stir welding in circumferential welds in pressurized cryogenic propellant tanks, techniques to close out the termination hole associated with retracting the pin tool are being evaluated. Friction pull plug welding is under development as a one means of closing out the termination hole. A friction pull plug weld placed in a friction stir weld results in a non-homogenous weld joint where the initial weld, plug weld, their respective heat affected zones and the base metal all interact. The welded joint is a composite, plastically deformed material system with a complex residual stress field. In order to address damage tolerance concerns associated with friction plug welds in safety critical structures, such as propellant tanks, nondestructive inspection and proof testing may be required to screen hardware for mission critical defects. The efficacy of the nondestructive evaluation or the proof test is based on an assessment of the critical flaw size in the test or service environments. Test data relating residual strength capability to flaw size in two aluminum alloy friction plug weld configurations is presented.

  18. Plug-in electric vehicles integrating fluctuating renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallinger, David

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines a method to model plug-in electric vehicles as part of the power system and presents results for the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources. The scientific contribution includes: - A novel approach to characterizing fluctuating generation. This allows the detailed comparison of results from energy analysis and is the basis to describe the effect of electricity from renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles on the power system. - The characterization of mobile storage, which includes the description of mobility behavior using probabilities and battery discharging costs. - The introduction of an agent-based simulation approach, coupling energy markets and distributed grids using a price-based mechanism design. - The description of an agent with specific driving behavior, battery discharging costs and optimization algorithm suitable for real plug-in vehicles and simulation models. - A case study for a 2030 scenario describing the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance generation from renewable energy sources in California and Germany.

  19. Interaction of clay and concrete plugs - Plugging of 5 m deep hole KA1621G01 at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Lund (Sweden); Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [Eltekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Sealing of deep boreholes in repository rock is planned to be made by installing dense smectite clay plugs where the rock is low-permeable and casting concrete where the holes intersect water-bearing fracture zones. Such zones have to be stabilized before sealing starts because fragments of rock can otherwise fall off and make it difficult to bring equipment for concrete casting and clay plug units down. These parts of the holes are filled with concrete and clay plugs are then inserted up to the nearest fracture zone where concrete is filled to the required level etc. The role of the concrete in the hole and in the closest part of the surrounding fracture zone is to provide stable parts that are sufficiently fine-porous to prevent clay particles from contacting clay plugs to migrate into the fractures and be lost by erosion. While the larger parts of long clay plugs are believed to stay largely intact chemically for hundreds of thousands of years, the parts adjacent to concrete plugs may undergo changes and so can the concrete plugs themselves. The objective of the presently reported project was to identify the detailed processes and quantify associated changes in physical properties by investigating samples of clay and concrete from a 2.5 m long plug of clay over which an equally long concrete plug had been cast and left to rest for 3 years. The outcome of the investigations was that significant chemically induced changes in mineralogy and physical performance had occurred within a few centimetres distance from the clay/concrete contact but that virtually no changes had taken place at larger distance. A comprehensive laboratory study including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) on the sample material was performed including also dual beam (combined ion and electron) microscopy. It was found that the clay had infiltrated the contacting concrete plug after filling of the borehole since clay was detected both

  20. Susceptibility-matched plugs for microcoil NMR probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Ravi; Gowda, Yashas N; Djukovic, Danijel; Henry, Ian D; Park, Gregory H J; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    For mass-limited samples, the residual sample volume outside the detection coil is an important concern, as is good base line resolution. Here, we present the construction and evaluation of magnetic susceptibility-matched plugs for microcoil NMR sample cells which address these issues. Mixed-epoxy glue and ultem tube plugs that have susceptibility values close to those of perfluorocarbon FC-43 (fluorinert) and copper were used in small volume (0.5-2 microL) and larger volume (15-20 microL) thin glass capillary sample cells. Using these plugs, the sample volume efficiency (i.e. ratio of active volume to total sample volume in the microcoil NMR cell) was improved by 6-12-fold without sensitivity and resolution trade-offs. Comparison with laser etched or heat etched microcoil sample cells is provided. The approaches described are potentially useful in metabolomics for biomarkers detection in mass limited biological samples.

  1. Reliability assessment of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available Water disposal constructions are one of the most responsible constructions of reservoir hydrosystem, that’s why the a lot of attention was always paid to the problems of estimating and providing their reliability and safety. The most important function of such objects is providing reliability and safety of other hydraulic constructions and economic assets in afterbay and water head. The authors offer estimation method for reliability and faultless performance of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug on low-head water development. In order to estimate the reliability of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug the Bayesian treatment was used. The calculation of diagnoses (states of reserved water disposal isoffered in case of diagnostic properties k 1 and k 2. One of the main demands placed onreserved water disposals is erosion of soil plug in case of flood discharge exeedance over the estimated frequency with the full opening of the waste sluice.

  2. A Rigorous Methodology for Analyzing and Designing Plug-Ins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasie, Marieta V.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kiniry, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Today, GUI plug-ins development is typically done in a very ad-hoc way, where developers dive directly into implementation. Without any prior analysis and design, plug-ins are often flaky, unreliable, difficult to maintain and extend with new functionality, and have inconsistent user interfaces. ...... behavioral semantics, and validation. The methodology is illustrated via a case study whose focus is an Eclipse environment for the RAISE formal method's tool suite........ This paper addresses these problems by describing a rigorous methodology for analyzing and designing plug-ins. The methodology is grounded in the Extended Business Object Notation (EBON) and covers informal analysis and design of features, GUI, actions, and scenarios, formal architecture design, including...

  3. Susceptibility-matched plugs for microcoil NMR probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Ravi; Gowda, Yashas N.; Djukovic, Danijel; Henry, Ian D.; Park, Gregory H. J.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    For mass-limited samples, the residual sample volume outside the detection coil is an important concern, as is good base line resolution. Here, we present the construction and evaluation of magnetic susceptibility-matched plugs for microcoil NMR sample cells which address these issues. Mixed-epoxy glue and ultem tube plugs that have susceptibility values close to those of perfluorocarbon FC-43 (fluorinert) and copper were used in small volume (0.5-2 μL) and larger volume (15-20 μL) thin glass capillary sample cells. Using these plugs, the sample volume efficiency (i.e. ratio of active volume to total sample volume in the microcoil NMR cell) was improved by 6-12-fold without sensitivity and resolution trade-offs. Comparison with laser etched or heat etched microcoil sample cells is provided. The approaches described are potentially useful in metabolomics for biomarkers detection in mass limited biological samples.

  4. Plug and Play PV Systems for American Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, Christian [Fraunhofer USA, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    The core objectives of the Plug & Play PV Systems Project were to develop a PV system that can be installed on a residential rooftop for less than $1.50/W in 2020, and in less than 10 hours (from point of purchase to commissioning). The Fraunhofer CSE team’s approach to this challenge involved a holistic approach to system design – hardware and software – that make Plug & Play PV systems: • Quick, easy, and safe to install • Easy to demonstrate as code compliant • Permitted, inspected, and interconnected via an electronic process Throughout the three years of work during this Department of Energy SunShot funded project, the team engaged in a substantive way with inspectional services departments and utilities, manufacturers, installers, and distributors. We received iterative feedback on the system design and on ideas for how such systems can be commercialized. This ultimately led us to conceiving of Plug & Play PV Systems as a framework, with a variety of components compatible with the Plug & Play PV approach, including string or microinverters, conventional modules or emerging lightweight modules. The framework enables a broad group of manufacturers to participate in taking Plug & Play PV Systems to market, and increases the market size for such systems. Key aspects of the development effort centered on the system hardware and associated engineering work, the development of a Plug & Play PV Server to enable the electronic permitting, inspection and interconnection process, understanding the details of code compliance and, on occasion, supporting applications for modifications to the code to allow lightweight modules, for example. We have published a number of papers on our testing and assessment of novel technologies (e.g., adhered lightweight modules) and on the electronic architecture.

  5. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  6. Varying nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length during capillary electrophoresis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Varuni; Griffith, Lindsay; Haes, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis based separations of the hypothesized Parkinson’s disease biomarkers dopamine, epinephrine, pyrocatechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), glutathione, and uric acid are performed in the presence of a 1 nM 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid functionalized gold (Au@MUA) nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug. Au@MUA nanoparticles are monitored in the capillary and remain stable in the presence of electrically-driven flow. Migration times, peak areas, and relative velocity changes (vs. no pseudostationary) are monitored upon varying (1) the Au@MUA nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length at a fixed separation voltage and (2) the separation voltage for a fixed Au@MUA nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length. For instance, the migration times of positively charged dopamine and epinephrine increase slightly as the nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length increases with concomitant decreases in peak areas and relative velocities as a result of attractive forces between the positively charged analytes and the negatively charged nanoparticles. Migration times for neutral pyrocatechol and slightly negative L-DOPA did not exhibit significant changes with increasing nanoparticle pseudostationary plug length; however, reduction in peak areas for these two molecules were evident and attributed to non-specific interactions (i.e. hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions) between the biomarkers and nanoparticles. Moreover, negatively charged uric acid and glutathione displayed progressively decreasing migration times and peak areas and as a result, increased relative velocities with increasing nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length. These trends are attributed to partitioning and exchanging with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid on nanoparticle surfaces for uric acid and glutathione, respectively. Similar trends are observed when the separation voltage decreased thereby suggesting that nanoparticle-biomarker interaction

  7. Transient analysis with high percentages steam generator tube plugging of Angra 1 nuclear power plant; Analise de transientes com altos percentuais de tamponamento dos tubos dos geradores de vapor de Angra 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marcio Poubel; Martins Junior, Laercio Lucena; Vanni, Enio Antonio; Machado, Marcio Dornellas; Moreira, Francisco Jose [ELETRONUCLEAR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alvim, Antonio Carlos M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    The present work is part of several analyses under development in ELETRONUCLEAR/ COPPE-UFRJ to evaluate impacts on licensing bases and operating conditions of an increase in steam generator tube plugging for Angra 1 NPP. Total loss of reactor coolant flow uncontrolled boron dilution transients were initially analysed. The final results indicated that were no impacts on FSAR established margins, in case of 24% steam generator tube plugging. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Eddy Current Minimizing Flow Plug for Use in Flow Conditioning and Flow Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An eddy-current-minimizing flow plug has open flow channels formed between the plug's inlet and outlet. Each open flow channel includes (i) a first portion that originates at the inlet face and converges to a location within the plug that is downstream of the inlet, and (ii) a second portion that originates within the plug and diverges to the outlet. The diverging second portion is approximately twice the length of the converging first portion. The plug is devoid of planar surface regions at its inlet and outlet, and in fluid flow planes of the plug that are perpendicular to the given direction of a fluid flowing therethrough.

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    technologies included in the demonstrator is presented in this report. The project was completed in July 2015 with a final demonstration of the concept vehicle on a simulated drayage route around Volvo’s North American headquarters in Greensboro, NC. The route included all traffic conditions typical of drayage operation in Southern California as well as geofences defined to showcase the zero emission capabilities of the truck. The demonstrator successfully completed four consecutive trips with a gross combined vehicle weight of 44,000 lb., covering approximately 2 miles out of a total distance of 9 miles per trip in the Zero Emission (ZE) geofence. This vehicle is expected to use approximately 30% less fuel than a typical drayage truck in daily operation, and it is designed to allow full electric operation whenever operating in a marine terminal in the ports of Los Angeles / Long Beach. A paper study on the feasibility of expanding the capabilities of the plug-in hybrid concept developed as part of this project was also delivered as an addendum to the regular progress reports.

  10. Warning: safety risk with some Apple AC Wall Plug Adapters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN IT department

    2016-01-01

    Dear Mac and iOS Users, Apple has determined that some of its two prong Apple AC wall plug adapters may break and create a risk of electrical shock.   CERN users can now exchange their affected Apple wall plug adapters at the Service Desk. To find out if your adapter is affected and for any further information concerning the procedure to follow to exchange it, please check the following URL: https://cern.service-now.com/service-portal/view-outage.do?n=OTG0028639.

  11. PLUG: A FORTRAN program for the analysis of PLUG flow reactors with gas-phase and surface chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    This manual describes the structure and usage of the computer program PLUG, which simulates the behavior of plug flow chemical reactors. More specifically, the code is designed to model the non-dispersive one-dimensional flow of a chemically reacting ideal gas mixture in a conduit of essentially arbitrary geometry. The code makes use of the CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN software packages to handle gas-phase and heterogeneous kinetics as well as thermodynamic properties. In addition, the standard implicit code DASSL is used to solve the set of differential/algebraic equations describing the reactor. These equations are briefly discussed here, after which the procedures for running PLUG are described in some detail. Input and output files for a sample problem involving chemical vapor deposition are given.

  12. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on smart grids; Management der Trendwatching Group. Einfluss von Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles auf intelligente Verteilnetze (Smart Grids) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R. [ENCO Energie Consulting AG, Bubendorf (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of plug-in hybrid vehicles on intelligent electricity distribution grids. The work of a trend-watching group which examined the regulatory services at the interface between such 'smart' grids and electrically powered vehicles is reported on. The trend-watching group includes research institutes, energy suppliers, NGOs, the automobile industry and technology companies. Vehicle-to-grid concepts and innovative developments in the Swiss market are commented on and the group's own activities (research, business models, technological development and politics) are discussed. The group will accompany relevant research programs and the implementation of measures as well as accompanying feasibility evaluations concerning current market developments. The Swiss federal strategy is to be discussed and international co-operation (with the IEA) is to be further strengthened.

  13. Development of methods for measuring microbiological and corrosive activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria: Final report. Mise au point de methodes de mesure de l'activite microbiologique et corrosive des bacteries sulfato-reductrices: Final rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Two groups of methods for studying microbiological and corrosive events have been followed in this study. They are based on the fact that metal corrosion, in particular of iron, is an electrochemical phenomena even if biological processes can intervene. The first group of methods consisted of classical measurements of the following parameters: (1) corrosion potential; (2) polarization resistance; (3) slope of the anodic and cathodic TAFEL lines; (4) velocity of the general corrosion; and (5) pitting index. The second group of methods is more original, and concerns the potential measurements in ''biological electrical batteries.'' Such a battery consists of two half elements (electrodes immerged in an electrolyte) that are identical at the onset of the experiment except for the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in one cell whereas the other one is sterile. The influence of temperature and bacteric population on the corrosion activity has been studied. The temperatures varied between 25 and 45/sup 0/C and the bacteric concentration between 0 and 20,000 bacteria/ml. Bacterial corrosion can already be detected a few days after the start of an experiment. This fast response indicates the potential of this method relative to classical microbiological methods. 29 figs.

  14. Occlusion of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations by use of vascular plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are commonly treated by embolization with coils or balloons to prevent cerebral complications and to raise the oxygenation of the blood. The Amplatzer vascular plug is a new occlusive device made of a self-expanding cylindrical nitinol mesh. It is fast and safe...

  15. A Rotating Plug Model of Friction Stir Welding Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghulapadu J. K.; Peddieson, J.; Buchanan, G. R.; Nunes, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    A simplified rotating plug model is employed to study the heat transfer phenomena associated with the fiction stir welding process. An approximate analytical solution is obtained based on this idealized model and used both to demonstrate the qualitative influence of process parameters on predictions and to estimate temperatures produced in typical fiction stir welding situations.

  16. Nuclear determination of saturation profiles in core plugs. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sletsgaard, J. [DTU, Inst. for Automation (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A method to determine liquid saturations in core plugs during flooding is of importance when the relative permeability and capillary pressure function are to be determined. This part of the EFP-93 project uses transmission of {gamma}-radiation to determine these saturations. In {gamma}-transmission measurements, the electron density of the given substance is measured. This is an advantage as compared to methods that use electric conductivity, since neither oil nor gas conducts electricity. At the moment a single {sup 137}Cs-source is used, but a theoretical investigation of whether it is possible to determine three saturations, using two radioactive sources with different {gamma}-energies, has been performed. Measurements were made on three core plugs. To make sure that the measurements could be reproduced, all the plugs had a point of reference, i.e. a mark so that it was possible to place the plug same way every time. Two computer programs for calculation of saturation and porosity and the experimental setup are listed. (EG).

  17. PIXASTIC: STEGANOGRAPHY BASED ANTI-PHISHING BROWSER PLUG-IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of existence of many standard security mechanisms for ensuring secure e- Commerce business, users still fall prey for onlin e attacks. One such simple but powerful attack is ‘Phishing’. Phishing is the most alarming threat in the e-Commerce world and effective anti-phishing technique is the need of the hour. This paper focuses on a novel anti-phishing browser plug-in which uses information hiding technique - Steganography. A Robust Message based Image Steganography (RMIS algorithm has been proposed. The same has been incorporated in the form of a browser plug-in (safari called Pixastic. Pixastic is tested in an online banking scenario and it is compared with other well-known anti-phishing plug-in methods in practice. Various parameters such as robustness, usability and its behavior on various attacks have been analysed. From experimental results, it is ev ident that our method Pixastic performs well compared to other anti-phishing plug-ins.

  18. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  19. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  20. Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Eidler

    2011-09-30

    Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

  1. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  2. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  3. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B. [Tecnatom, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  4. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for plugging and... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator must prepare a written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of plugging the injection well...

  5. Strangulated bowel obstruction resulting from mesh plug migration after open inguinal hernioplasty:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiao; CAI Xiu-jun; YU Hong; WANG Yi-fan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The use of mesh plug in hernioplasty was introduced by Shulman et al 1 in 1990 as a"rolled plug"fixed with two stitches to close the internal inguinal ring.Robbins and Rutkow 2 described their mesh plug technique in 1993.

  6. 30 CFR 250.1715 - How must I permanently plug a well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effective back-pressure control set 50 to 100 feet above the casing shoe, and a cement plug that extends at...-pressure control set 50 to 100 feet above the top of the perforated interval, and a cement plug that.... (7) A subsea well with unsealed annulus A cutter to sever the casing, and you must set a stub plug...

  7. Test Confessions: A Study of Testing Practices for Plug-in Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiler, M.; Van Deursen, A.; Storey, M-A.

    2011-01-01

    Testing plug-in-based systems is challenging due to complex interactions among many different plug-ins, and variations in version and configuration. The objective of this paper is to increase our understanding of what testers and developers think and do when it comes to testing plug-inbased systems.

  8. A Case of Randall's Plugs Associated to Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of a patient who developed multiple calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi, some of them connected to intratubular calcifications (Randall's plugs, is presented. Randall's plugs were isolated and studied. The mechanism of Randall's plug development is also suggested.

  9. The Effect of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Harmonic Analysis of Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarian, T.; Joorabian, M.; Reza, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of plug-in electric vehicles is studied on the smart distribution system with a standard IEEE 30-bus network. At first, harmonic power flow analysis is performed by Newton-Raphson method and by considering distorted substation voltage. Afterward, proper sizes of capacitors is selected by cuckoo optimization algorithm to reduce the power losses and cost and by imposing acceptable limit for total harmonic distortion and RMS voltages. It is proposed that the impact of generated current harmonics by electric vehicle battery chargers should be factored into overall load control strategies of smart appliances. This study is generalized to the different hours of a day by using daily load curve, and then optimum time for charging of electric vehicles batteries in the parking lots are determined by cuckoo optimization algorithm. The results show that injecting harmonic currents of plug-in electric vehicles causes a drop in the voltage profile and increases power loss. Moreover, charging the vehicle batteries has more impact on increasing the power losses rather than the harmonic currents effect. Also, the findings showed that the current harmonics has a great influence on increasing of THD. Finally, optimum working times of all parking lots was obtained for the utilization cost reduction.

  10. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  11. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial gastroenteritis is present when bacteria cause an infection of the stomach and intestines ... has not been treated Many different types of bacteria can cause ... Campylobacter jejuni E coli Salmonella Shigella Staphylococcus ...

  12. Processing of nanolitre liquid plugs for microfluidic cell-based assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Fukuda, Shintaro Takahashi, Tatsuya Osaki, Naoto Mochizuki and Hiroaki Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plugs, i.e. droplets formed in a microchannel, may revolutionize microfluidic cell-based assays. This study describes a microdevice that handles nanolitre-scale liquid plugs for the preparation of various culture setups and subsequent cellular assays. An important feature of this mode of liquid operation is that the recirculation flow generated inside the plug promotes the rapid mixing of different solutions after plugs are merged, and it keeps cell suspensions homogeneous. Thus, serial dilutions of reagents and cell suspensions with different cell densities and cell types were rapidly performed using nanolitres of solution. Cells seeded through the plug processing grew well in the microdevice, and subsequent plug processing was used to detect the glucose consumption of cells and cellular responses to anticancer agents. The plug-based microdevice may provide a useful platform for cell-based assay systems in various fields, including fundamental cell biology and drug screening applications.

  13. Flow induced vibration studies on PFBR control plug components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, V., E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Kumar, P. Anup; Anandaraj, M.; Thirumalai, M.; Anandbabu, C.; Rajan, K.K. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flow induced vibration studies on Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor control plug model carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Velocity similitude was followed for the study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Frequencies and amplitude of vibrations of various control plug components measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall values of vibration are well within permissible limits. - Abstract: The construction of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a 500 MWe liquid sodium cooled reactor, is in progress at Kalpakkam in India. Control plug (CP) is located right above the core subassemblies in the hot pool. Control plug is an important component as many of the critical reactor parameters are sensed and controlled by the components housed in the control plug assembly. In PFBR primary circuit, components are basically thin walled, slender shells with diameter to thickness ratio ranging from 100 to 650. These components are prone to flow induced vibrations. The existence of free liquid (sodium) surfaces, which is the source of sloshing phenomenon and the operation of primary sodium pump in the primary pool are other potential sources of vibration of reactor components. Control plug is a hollow cylindrical shell structure and provides passages and support for 12 absorber rod drive mechanisms (ARDM) which consists of 9 control and safety rods and 3 diverse safety rods, 210 thermo wells to measure the sodium temperature at the exit of various fuel subassemblies, three failed fuel localization modules (FFLM) and acoustic detectors. It consists of a core cover plate (CCP), which forms the bottom end, two intermediate supports plate, i.e. lower stay plate (LSP) and upper stay plate (USP) and an outer shell. The CCP is located at a distance of 1.3 m from the core top. With such a gap, there will be long free hanging length of the thermocouple sleeves, Delayed neutron detector (DND) sampling tubes and ARDM shroud tubes and hence they are

  14. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  15. Strength and stability of microbial plugs in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.K. [NIPER/BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Mobility reduction induced by the growth and metabolism of bacteria in high-permeability layers of heterogeneous reservoirs is an economically attractive technique to improve sweep efficiency. This paper describes an experimental study conducted in sandpacks using an injected bacterium to investigate the strength and stability of microbial plugs in porous media. Successful convective transport of bacteria is important for achieving sufficient initial bacteria distribution. The chemotactic and diffusive fluxes are probably not significant even under static conditions. Mobility reduction depends upon the initial cell concentrations and increase in cell mass. For single or multiple static or dynamic growth techniques, permeability reduction was approximately 70% of the original permeability. The stability of these microbial plugs to increases in pressure gradient and changes in cell physiology in a nutrient-depleted environment needs to be improved.

  16. Polymer grouts for plugging lost circulation in geothermal wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbreath, D. (Green Mountain International, Waynesvile, NC); Mansure, Arthur James; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-12-01

    We have concluded a laboratory study to evaluate the survival potential of polymeric materials used for lost circulation plugs in geothermal wells. We learned early in the study that these materials were susceptible to hydrolysis. Through a systematic program in which many potential chemical combinations were evaluated, polymers were developed which tolerated hydrolysis for eight weeks at 500 F. The polymers also met material, handling, cost, and emplacement criteria. This screening process identified the most promising materials. A benefit of this work is that the components of the polymers developed can be mixed at the surface and pumped downhole through a single hose. Further strength testing is required to determine precisely the maximum temperature at which extrusion through fractures or voids causes failure of the lost circulation plug.

  17. Migrated Mesh Plug Masquerading as a Bladder Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajani, Daoud; Aron, Monish

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this case presentation is to demonstrate how erosion of mesh into the bladder can initially present with the same symptoms as bladder malignancy. Case Presentation: A 62-year-old Hispanic male presented with 2 years of hematuria along with imaging concerning for a bladder tumor. The patient underwent cystoscopy with biopsy of a lesion at the anterior bladder. It was ultimately determined that a mesh plug from a prior hernia repair had migrated into the bladder. The mesh plug was excised using the Da Vinci Si robot, which allowed for efficient mobilization of the bladder and other anatomic structures, as well as rapid recovery. Conclusion: Our case demonstrates the need to consider mesh erosion as a cause of hematuria and, furthermore, shows how the robotic approach can help facilitate excision of migrated mesh into the bladder. PMID:28164159

  18. Maturity Assessment of Space Plug-and-Play Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    EPC ) to convert the standard bus voltage to the necessary component voltages. In light of these voltage requirements, SPA introduced a standard...to the developers to decide how to implement those functions. Assessing software maturity for contractor -developed software will be difficult at...Comtech AA) and Seakr are two of the Advanced Plug-and-Play Technology (APT) contractors . Comtech AA demonstrated a full system utilizing SPA

  19. Mesh Plug Repair of Inguinal Hernia; Single Surgeon Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Serdar Karaca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mesh repair of inguinal hernia repairs are shown to be an effective and reliable method. In this study, a single surgeon%u2019s experience with plug-mesh method performs inguinal hernia repair have been reported. Material and Method: 587 patients with plug-mesh repair of inguinal hernia, preoperative age, body / mass index, comorbid disease were recorded in terms of form. All of the patients during the preoperative and postoperative hernia classification of information, duration of operation, antibiotics, perioperative complications, and later, the early and late postoperative complications, infection, recurrence rates and return to normal daily activity, verbal pain scales in terms of time and postoperative pain were evaluated. Added to this form of long-term pain ones. The presence of wound infection was assessed by the presence of purulent discharge from the incision. Visual analog scale pain status of the patients was measured. Results: 587 patients underwent repair of primary inguinal hernia mesh plug. One of the patients, 439 (74% of them have adapted follow-ups. Patients%u2019 ages ranged from 18-86. Was calculated as the mean of 47±18:07. Follow-up period of the patients was found to be a minimum of 3 months, maximum 55 months. Found an average of 28.2±13.4 months. Mean duration of surgery was 35.07±4.00 min (min:22mn-max:52mn, respectively. When complication rates of patients with recurrence in 2 patients (0.5%, hematoma development (1.4% in 6 patients, the development of infection in 11 patients (2.5% and long-term groin pain in 4 patients (0.9% appeared. Discussion: In our experience, the plug-mesh repair of primary inguinal hernia repair safe, effective low recurrence and complication rates can be used.

  20. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

  1. PIXASTIC: STEGANOGRAPHY BASED ANTI-PHISHING BROWSER PLUG-IN

    OpenAIRE

    P.Thiyagarajan; G.Aghila; V. Prasanna Venkatesan

    2012-01-01

    In spite of existence of many standard security mechanisms for ensuring secure e- Commerce business, users still fall prey for onlin e attacks. One such simple but powerful attack is ‘Phishing’. Phishing is the most alarming threat in the e-Commerce world and effective anti-phishing technique is the need of the hour. This paper focuses on a novel anti-phishing browser plug-in which uses information hiding technique - Steganography. A Robust Message based Im...

  2. Pixastic: Steganography based Anti-Phihsing Browser Plug-in

    OpenAIRE

    P.Thiyagarajan; G.Aghila; Venkatesan, V. Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    In spite of existence of many standard security mechanisms for ensuring secure e-Commerce business, users still fall prey for online attacks. One such simple but powerful attack is 'Phishing'. Phishing is the most alarming threat in the e-Commerce world and effective anti-phishing technique is the need of the hour. This paper focuses on a novel anti-phishing browser plug-in which uses information hiding technique - Steganography. A Robust Message based Image Steganography (RMIS) algorithm has...

  3. Nuclear analysis of ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villari, Rosaria, E-mail: rosaria.villari@enea.it [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Kim, Byoung Yoon; Barabash, Vladimir; Giancarli, Luciano; Levesy, Bruno; Loughlin, Michael; Merola, Mario [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pascal, Romain [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Petrizzi, Luigino [European Commission, DG Research & Innovation G5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Polunovsky, Eduard; Van Der Laan, Jaap G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 3D nuclear analysis of the ITER TBM Port Plug (PP). • Calculations of neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, damage and He-production in TBM PP components. • Shutdown dose rate assessment with Advanced D1S method considering different configurations. • Potential design improvements to reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace. - Abstract: Nuclear analyses have been performed for the ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug (TBM PP) using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo Code. A detailed 3D model of the TBM Port Plug with dummy TBM has been integrated into the ITER MCNP model (B-lite v.3). Neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, helium production and neutron damage have been calculated in all the TBM PP components. Global shutdown dose rate calculations have also been performed with Advanced D1S method for different configurations of the TBM PP system. This paper presents the results of these analyses and discusses potential design improvements aiming to further reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace.

  4. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  5. An Approach of Web-based Point Cloud Visualization without Plug-in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mengxuan; Wei, Shuangfeng; Zhang, Dongmei

    2016-11-01

    With the advances in three-dimensional laser scanning technology, the demand for visualization of massive point cloud is increasingly urgent, but a few years ago point cloud visualization was limited to desktop-based solutions until the introduction of WebGL, several web renderers are available. This paper addressed the current issues in web-based point cloud visualization, and proposed a method of web-based point cloud visualization without plug-in. The method combines ASP.NET and WebGL technologies, using the spatial database PostgreSQL to store data and the open web technologies HTML5 and CSS3 to implement the user interface, a visualization system online for 3D point cloud is developed by Javascript with the web interactions. Finally, the method is applied to the real case. Experiment proves that the new model is of great practical value which avoids the shortcoming of the existing WebGIS solutions.

  6. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribioli, L., E-mail: laura.tribioli@unicusano.it; Cozzolino, R. [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Niccolo’ Cusano (Italy); Barbieri, M. [Engineering Dept., University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale-Isola C4, 80143 Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.

  7. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" technologies and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H 2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H 2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. This study integrates and extends previous analyses of H 2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. Further, it uses a new electric-drive-vehicle and vehicular-distributed-generation model to estimate zero-emission-power versus zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. By framing market development in terms of new consumer value flowing from Me-, this study suggests a way to move beyond the battery versus fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. As one possible extension of this Me- product platform, H 2FCVs might supply clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature.

  8. Integration of plug-in hybrid cars in the promotion of intelligent distribution networks; Integration von Plug-in-Hybrid Cars zur Foerderung intelligenter Verteilnetzstrukturen (Vorstudie) - Schlussbericht / 2 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R.; Rigassi, R.

    2008-08-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done as part of a preliminary study concerning the use of plug-in hybrid cars as part of a system for the regulation of energy in electricity supply grids. The 'Vehicle to Grid' concept is discussed. This involves hybrid vehicles with higher accumulator capacities, reversible charger units as well as appropriate connector technologies and communication systems. This 'smart grid' concept is looked at and the players involved are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of such a system are discussed.

  9. Money from the balcony. Plug-in systems provide solar power directly into the socket; Geld vom Balkon. Plug-in-Systeme liefern den Solarstrom direkt in die Steckdose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorsatz, William

    2013-10-01

    It should be particularly warned against models that deliver electricity from micro solar systems, which are installed on the balcony or outside wall of the apartment, and can be plugged into the outlet of the final circuit in the house, because they involve accident and liability risks. [German] Es wird vor Modellen gewarnt, die Strom von Solar-Kleinstanlagen, die auf dem eigenen Balkon oder der Aussenwand der Mietwohnung installiert sind, liefern und einfach so in die Steckdose des Endstromkreises in der Wohnung gesteckt werden koennen, weil sie Unfall- und Haftungsrisiken berge.

  10. Investigation of spore forming bacterial flooding for enhanced oil recovery in a North Sea chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    saturation state, was able to produce additionally 1.0-2.3% original oil in place (OOIP) in homogeneous cores and 6.9-8.8% OOIP in heterogeneous cores. In addition, the pressure gradient was much higher in the heterogeneous cores, which confirms that bacterial selective plugging plays an important role...

  11. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters......, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...

  12. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  13. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  14. Erosion on spark plug electrodes; Funkenerosion an Zuendkerzenelektroden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rager, J.

    2006-07-01

    Durability of spark plugs is mainly determined by spark gap widening, caused by electrode wear. Knowledge about the erosion mechanisms of spark plug materials is of fundamental interest for the development of materials with a high resistance against electrode erosion. It is therefore crucial to identify those parameters which significantly influence the erosion behaviour of a material. In this work, a reliable and reproducible testing method is presented which produces and characterizes electrode wear under well-defined conditions and which is capable of altering parameters specifically. Endurance tests were carried out to study the dependence of the wear behaviour of pure nickel and platinum on the electrode temperature, gas, electrode gap, electrode diameter, atmospheric pressure, and partial pressure of oxygen. It was shown that erosion under nitrogen is negligible, irrespective of the material. This disproves all common mechanism discussed in the literature explaining material loss of spark plug electrodes. Based on this observation and the variation of the mentioned parameters a new erosion model was deduced. This relies on an oxidation of the electrode material and describes the erosion of nickel and platinum separately. For nickel, electrode wear is caused by the removal of an oxide layer by the spark. In the case of platinum, material loss occurs due to the plasma-assisted formation and subsequent evaporation of volatile oxides in the cathode spot. On the basis of this mechanism a new composite material was developed whose erosion resistance is superior to pure platinum. Oxidation resistant metal oxide particles were added to a platinum matrix, thus leading to a higher erosion resistance of the composite. However, this can be decreased by a side reaction, the separation of oxygen from the metal oxides, which effectively assists the oxidation of the matrix. This reaction can be suppressed by using highly stable oxides, characterized by a large negative Gibbs

  15. Research of Plug-In Technology Based on Ice%Ice插件技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 王铮

    2012-01-01

    Ice( International Communication Engine) is a cross -plantrom and cross-language lightweight distributed computing platform. As a new network communication middleware,should be able to adapt to ever-changing internet technology. The build-in plug-in models of Ice provides a scalable interface to support specific communication protocols and systems integration to third parties. From the core source code to start,deeply investigated the Ice plug-in creation, initialization process (technology and operational mechanism, and finally extended Ice protocol based on serial communication without modifying its source code. The result shows the scalability of Ice transport layer protocol and the feasibility of Ice plug-in mechanism .which lay a foundation for reducing the coupling between different modules and the study of Ice expansion technology.%Ice( International Communication Engine)是一种跨平台跨语言的轻量级分布式计算平台.作为新兴的网络通信中间件,是否能够适应各种日新月异的互联网技术值得考究,Ice内建的插件模式对外提供了可扩展接口以支持特定通信协议及向第三方系统的集成.文中从核心源代码入手,深入分析了Ice插件创建、初始化过程,运行机制与实现技术,并在不修改Ice源代码的情况下以插件方式为其扩展了基于串口的通信协议.实验结果验证了Ice传输层协议的可扩展性和Ice插件机制的可行性,为进一步降低开发模块间的耦合度及Ice扩展技术的研究奠定了基础.

  16. Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O' Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

    2006-11-01

    NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

  17. A study on thimble plug removal for PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Lee, Jae Yong; Jun, Hwang Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The thermal-hydraulic effects of removing the RCC guide thimble plugs are evaluated for 8 Westinghouse type PWR plants in Korea as a part of feasibility study: core outlet loss coefficient, thimble bypass flow, and best estimate flow. It is resulted that the best estimate thimble bypass flow increases about by 2% and the best estimate flow increases approximately by 1.2%. The resulting DNBR penalties can be covered with the current DNBR margin. Accident analyses are also investigated that the dropped rod transient is shown to be limiting and relatively sensitive to bypass flow variation. 8 refs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  18. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids integration techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the state of the art in worldwide research on applying optimization approaches to intelligently control charging and discharging of batteries of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) in smart grids. Network constraints, cost considerations, the number and penetration level of PEVs, utilization of PEVs by their owners, ancillary services, load forecasting, risk analysis, etc. are all different criteria considered by the researchers in developing mathematical based equations which represent the presence of PEVs in electric networks. Different objective functions can be defined an

  19. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids energy management

    CERN Document Server

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights the cutting-edge research on energy management within smart grids with significant deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV). These vehicles not only can be a significant electrical power consumer during Grid to Vehicle (G2V) charging mode, they can also be smartly utilized as a controlled source of electrical power when they are used in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operating mode. Electricity Price, Time of Use Tariffs, Quality of Service, Social Welfare as well as electrical parameters of the network are all different criteria considered by the researchers when developing

  20. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids charging strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the recent research advancements in the area of charging strategies that can be employed to accommodate the anticipated high deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) in smart grids. Recent literature has focused on various potential issues of uncoordinated charging of PEVs and methods of overcoming such challenges. After an introduction to charging coordination paradigms of PEVs, this book will present various ways the coordinated control can be accomplished. These innovative approaches include hierarchical coordinated control, model predictive control, optimal control

  1. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with mucous plugs: case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), a rare eosinophilic lung disease of unknown etiology, is characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia, chest radiograph infiltrates, and prompt response to corticosteroid therapy.1 The first detailed description of CEP was described by Carrington et al 2 in 1969. The usual symptoms are cough, dyspnea, fever, and weight loss. It is most often seen in middle aged woman and has a subacute onset.1 We report a case of CEP presenting with right lower lung infiltrates and mucus plugging that causing bronchus obstruction.

  2. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara K.; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer;

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. DesignExperimental research. SettingDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Population/SampleSpontaneously shed CMPs from 18 healthy women in active...... labor. MethodsViscoelastic properties of CMPs were investigated with a dynamic oscillatory rheometer using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Main outcome measuresThe rheological variables obtained were as follows: elastic modulus (G), viscous modulus (G...

  3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  4. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  5. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  6. A Plug and Produce Framework for Industrial Collaborative Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Casper; Madsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative robots are today ever more interesting in response to the increasing need for agile manufacturing equipment. Contrary to traditional industrial robots, collaborative robots are intended for working in dynamic environments alongside the production staff. To cope with the dynamic...... environment and workflow, new configuration and control methods are needed compared to those of traditional industrial robots. The new methods should enable shop floor operators to reconfigure the robot. This paper presents a plug and produce framework for industrial collaborative robots. The paper focuses...... of the framework through a series of reconfigurations performed on a modular collaborative robot....

  7. Treating anal fistula with the anal fistula plug: case series report of 12 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saba, Reza Bagherzadeh; Tizmaghz, Adnan; Ajeka, Somar; Karami, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent and complex high fistulas remain a surgical challenge. This paper reports our experience with the anal fistula plug in patients with complex fistulas. Methods Data were collected prospectively and analyzed from consecutive patients undergoing insertion of a fistula plug from January 2011 through April 2014 at Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. We ensured that sepsis had been eradicated in all patients prior to placement of the plug. During surgery, a conical shaped col...

  8. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herndon, J.; Smith, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging. (JSR)

  9. Relationship of nutritional factors to the cause, dissolution, and prevention of feline uroliths and urethral plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, C A; Polzin, D J; Kruger, J M; Lulich, J P; Johnston, G R; O'Brien, T D

    1989-05-01

    Feline lower urinary tract disease is often associated with uroliths and urethral plugs. Uroliths and urethral plugs are composed of variable quantities of matrix and a variety of minerals (including struvite, calcium oxalate, ammonium urate, calcium phosphate, and cystine). Knowledge of nutritional factors associated with the pathophysiology of uroliths and urethral plugs facilitates the modification of diets for the dissolution of several minerals contained within them.

  10. A new plug-in software architecture applied for a portable molecular structure browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Y; Asai, K

    1997-01-01

    A new software configuration method using plug-in style components was established for the tool with the incremental development of software used in protein structural study. Our memory database provides the interface of data and functions among plug-in modules and its host program. A molecular structure browser program was developed together with several plug-in modules on our programming library that maintains graphics portability and user interfaces. This plug-in software architecture is generally useful for large-scale software development and for prototyping parts of the system.

  11. Transport of Wetting and Nonwetting Liquid Plugs in a T-shaped Microchannel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YONG Yumei; LI Sha; YANG Chao; YIN Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    The transport of liquid plugs in microchannels is very important for many applications such as in medical treatments in airways and in extraction of oil from porous rocks.A plug of wetting and non-wetting liquids driven by a constant pressure difference through a T-shaped microchannel is studied numerically with lattice Boltzmann (LB) method.A two-phase flow LB model based on field mediators is built.Three typical flow patterns (blocking,rupture and splitting flow) of plug flow are obtained with different driving pressures.It is found that it becomes difficult for a plug with short initial plug length to leave the microchannel; the flow pattern of plug transport varies with the contact angle,especially from wetting to nonwetting; with the increase of interracial tension,the front interface of plug moves faster; the front and rear interfaces of the plug with small viscosity ratio move faster in the microchannel than those of the plug with large viscosity ratio.The study is helpful to provide theoretical data for the design and scale-up of liquid-liquid reactors and separators.

  12. Borehole plugging of man-made accesses to a basalt repository: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O' Rourke, J.E.; Niccum, M.R.

    1979-09-01

    This report describes the status of work currently in progress for the Basalt Borehole Plugging Program (BBPP). The primary objectives of the BBPP outlined in this report have been met during this first phase of work. These objectives included: (1) the preparation of a preliminary list of candidate plug materials; (2) a description of available machinery capable of placing candidate plug materials; and (3) the development of physical and geochemical testing programs to help evaluate the chemical stability and physical properties of candidate plug materials. The most significant finding from work to date is that given reasonable regulatory criteria, nothing has been identified which would prevent design of a plug system to seal manmade openings leading to a nuclear waste repository in Columbia River basalt for significantly long periods of time (on the order of thousands of years). Work accomplished to date indicates that this plug system can be designed using both natural and manufactured materials and can be emplaced with existing placement machinery and modifications of that machinery. The objectives of Task II are to conduct laboratory tests to evaluate the suitability of preferred candidate materials for plugging boreholes in the proposed repository, select plug system(s), initiate preconceptual machinery design for the placement of materials in plug system(s), and prepare a preliminary Task II report. As with Task I project organization, Task II is divided into subtasks that are identified by written subtask work summaries.

  13. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  14. A Novel Dual-Electrode Plug to Achieve Intensive Electric Field for High Performance Ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough analysis of electric field is carried out so as to verify that a novel dual-electrode plug can build intensive electric field and can improve the main drawbacks of feeble electric field and low ignition efficiency of the traditional plug. With intensive electric field, the proposed novel plug can achieve high performance ignition, resulting in fuel saving and exhaust reduction. Gauss law is applied for electric field analysis to show that intensive electric field can be built by the novel plug. Then, according to Faraday law a lower-voltage ignition feature accomplished by the plug is discussed. Compared with traditional plug, the novel dual-electrode plug has the following advantages. (1 Much higher energy density is built between the plug electrodes, lowering ignition voltage requirement. (2 Electromagnetic interference (EMI problem caused by high ignition voltage is readily resolved. (3 Ignition time delay can be improved. (4 The feature to save fuel consuming is achieved. (5 The exhaust of CO and HC is reduced significantly. Practical measurements are fulfilled to validate the electric field analysis and to demonstrate the features of the proposed dual-electrode plug.

  15. Blind use of the double-lumen plugged catheter for diagnosis of respiratory tract infections in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, A; Pollack, M; Katz, R

    1984-10-01

    Transtracheal aspiration, percutaneous lung biopsy, and tracheal aspiration can be dangerous and/or unreliable methods for obtaining specimens of pulmonary secretions for culture. Using a blind technique, we evaluated the efficacy of a double-lumen catheter (DLC) with a polyethylene glycol plug in obtaining specimens of respiratory tract secretions for culture, and compared these results with simultaneously obtained cultures of tracheal aspirates. Twenty-seven intubated children already receiving antibiotic therapy were studied. Sixteen (59%) DLC specimens were sterile, as opposed to only 6 (22%) tracheal aspirates. Only 2 (8%) of the DLC specimens were contaminated. Two DLC specimens yielded significant bacterial growth (at least 10(5) colony-forming units/ml). Using DLC culture data, there was an 81% success rate in making decisions concerning antibiotic selection. We conclude that blind use of the DLC is a safe and reliable method of obtaining pulmonary secretion specimens for culture.

  16. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists.

  17. "Plug-and-go" strategy to manipulate streptavidin valencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Montiel, Daniel; Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2014-08-20

    The streptavidin-biotin set is one of the most widely utilized conjugation pairs in biotechnological applications. The tetravalent nature of streptavidin and its homologues, however, tends to result in such undesirable complications as cross-linking or ill-defined stoichiometry. Here, we describe a mutagenesis-free strategy to manipulate the valencies of wild-type streptavidin that only requires commercially available reagents. The basic idea is simple: one obtains the desired streptavidin valency by blocking off unwanted binding sites using ancillary biotin ("plug"); this way, the extraordinary fM-biotin-binding affinity is fully retained for the remaining sites in streptavidin. In the present implementation, the ancillary biotin is attached to an auxiliary separation handle, negatively charged DNA or His-tagged protein, via a photochemically or enzymatically cleavable linker. Mixing streptavidin with the ancillary biotin construct produces a distribution of streptavidin valencies. The subsequent chromatographic separation readily isolates the construct of desired streptavidin valency, and the auxiliary handles are easily removed afterward ("go"). We demonstrate how this "plug-and-go" strategy allows a precise control for the compositions of streptavidin-biotin conjugates at the single-molecule level. This low-entry-barrier protocol could further expand the application scope of the streptavidin technology.

  18. Development and application of microbial selective plugging processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, G.E. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Gevertz, D.; Davey, M.E. [Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Phillips Petroleum Company recently completed a microbial selective plugging (MSP) pilot at the North Burbank Unit (NBU), Shidler, Oklahoma. Nutrients were selected for the pilot that could stimulate indigenous microflora in the reservoir brine to grow and produce exopolymer. It was found that soluble corn starch polymers (e.g., maltodextrins) stimulated the indigenous bacteria to produce exopolymer, whereas simple sugars (e.g., glucose and sucrose), as well as complex media (e.g., molasses and Nutrient Broth), did not. Injection of maltodextrin into rock cores in the presence of indigenous NBU bacteria resulted in stable permeability reductions (> 90%) across the entire length, while injection of glucose resulted only in face plugging. In addition, it was found that organic phosphate esters (OPE) served as a preferable source of phosphorus for the indigenous bacteria, since orthophosphates and condensed phosphates precipitated in NBU brine at reservoir temperature (45{degrees}C). Injection of maltodextrin and ethyl acid phosphate into a producing well stimulated an increase in maltodextrin utilizing bacteria (MUB) in the back-flowed, produced fluid. Additional screens of indigenous and nonindigenous bacteria yielded several nonindigenous isolates that could synthesize polymer when growing in brine containing 6% NaCl at 45{degrees}C.

  19. Effects of the introduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids on sources of energy and the electricity grid; Auswirkungen der Markteinfuehrung von Elektrofahrzeugen und Plug-In-Hybrids auf die Energietraeger und das Elektrizitaetsnetz. Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigassi, R.; Huber, S. [Enco AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub - nachhaltig wirkt, Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the effects of the introduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids on sources of energy and the electricity grid. According to the authors, the introduction of electric drives in the automobile sector will cause no important additional consumption of electricity by 2035 for an expected percentage of around 25% of all vehicles being wholly or partly electrically powered; fossil fuel consumption can, however, be reduced by almost a quarter. The energy storage function of the batteries in electric vehicles can additionally be used to help integrate the high proportion of stochastically generated wind and solar power in the power grid. Energy and CO{sub 2} balances for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids are discussed, as is the use of vehicle batteries as part of a 'vehicle-to-grid' system that can help regulate the electricity mains. The potential for using vehicles for the supply of regulating energy is looked at. Charge optimisation and mains feed-in are discussed. The ecological effects of this regulating function are examined in the European context. Relationships to other energy scenarios are presented and discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made. Questions still to be examined are listed.

  20. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour.

  1. Computational modeling of unsteady surfactant-laden liquid plug propagation in neonatal airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgac, Ufuk; Muradoglu, Metin

    2013-07-01

    Surfactant-free and surfactant-laden liquid plug propagation in neonatal airways in various generations representing the upper and lower airways are investigated computationally using a finite-difference/front-tracking method. Emphasis is placed on the unsteady surfactant-laden plug propagation as a model for Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) and airway reopening. The numerical method is designed to solve the evolution equations of the interfacial and bulk surfactant concentrations coupled with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Available experimental data for surfactant Survanta are used to relate surface tension coefficient to surfactant concentration at the interface. It is found that, for the surfactant-free case, the trailing film thickness is in good agreement with Taylor's law for plugs with plug length greater than the airway width. Mechanical stresses that could be injurious to epithelial cells such as pressure and shear stress and their gradients are maximized on the front and rear menisci with increasing magnitudes in the lower generations. These mechanical stresses, especially pressure and pressure gradient, are diminished with the introduction of surfactants. Surfactant is absorbed onto the trailing film and thickens it, eventually leading to either plug rupture or, if totally consumed prior to rupture, to steadily propagating plug. In the upper airways, initially small plugs rupture rapidly and plugs with comparable initial plug length with the airway width persist and propagate steadily. For a more effective SRT treatment, we recommend utilization of plugs with initial plug length greater than the airway width. Increasing surfactant strength or increasing the initially instilled surfactant concentration is found to be ineffective.

  2. Low pH self compacting concrete for deposition tunnel plugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Carsten; Lagerblad, Bjoern; Wallin, Kjell; Baldy, Franziska (Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Jonasson, Jan-Erik (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    crushed coarse aggregate. Two mix designs were tested, one mix design with 200 kg of binder (cement and silica fume) per cubic meter concrete (B200) and one with 300 kg of binder (B300). The low-pH SCC has high flowability, combined with good stability. Due to the low amount of cement in the low-pH SCC, the heat development due to hydration was low. The strength development was slow at early age but after 28 days, the compressive strength was 53 MPa (B200) and 71 MPa (B300). After 3 months, B200 has a compressive strength of about 75 MPa and B300 of about 100 MPa. The tensile strength of mature low-pH SCC is similar to mature conventional concrete. The properties of mature low-pH SCC do not differ significantly from conventional concrete other than a higher ultimate strength development. The established models for Young's modulus, compressive strength, tensile strength, stress-strain and creep are valid. The creep ratio is low when the concrete is mature. There is no large difference between the two mix designs; however, the mix B300 has a higher final compressive strength, Young's modulus and tensile strength. The higher early volume changes of B300 lead to higher stresses at young age when fully restrained. Evaluation of the obtained results using mathematical models, established for traditional concrete, was possible. A setup of input data for finite element calculations was established. To what extent the differences between the two mix designs influence the development of stresses and consequently the risk of crack development in the plugs needs to be evaluated by further numerical modelling

  3. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  4. Unified theory on the pathogenesis of Randall's plaques and plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R; Canales, Benjamin K

    2015-01-01

    Kidney stones develop attached to sub-epithelial plaques of calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals (termed Randall's plaque) and/or form as a result of occlusion of the openings of the Ducts of Bellini by stone-forming crystals (Randall's plugs). These plaques and plugs eventually extrude into the urinary space, acting as a nidus for crystal overgrowth and stone formation. To better understand these regulatory mechanisms and the pathophysiology of idiopathic calcium stone disease, this review provides in-depth descriptions of the morphology and potential origins of these plaques and plugs, summarizes existing animal models of renal papillary interstitial deposits, and describes factors that are believed to regulate plaque formation and calcium overgrowth. Based on evidence provided within this review and from the vascular calcification literature, we propose a "unified" theory of plaque formation-one similar to pathological biomineralization observed elsewhere in the body. Abnormal urinary conditions (hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, and hypocitraturia), renal stress or trauma, and perhaps even the normal aging process lead to transformation of renal epithelial cells into an osteoblastic phenotype. With this de-differentiation comes an increased production of bone-specific proteins (i.e., osteopontin), a reduction in crystallization inhibitors (such as fetuin and matrix Gla protein), and creation of matrix vesicles, which support nucleation of CaP crystals. These small deposits promote aggregation and calcification of surrounding collagen. Mineralization continues by calcification of membranous cellular degradation products and other fibers until the plaque reaches the papillary epithelium. Through the activity of matrix metalloproteinases or perhaps by brute physical force produced by the large sub-epithelial crystalline mass, the surface is breached and further stone growth occurs by organic matrix-associated nucleation of CaOx or by the transformation of the outer layer

  5. Chinese Standards on Refractories Purging Plugs and Well Blocks for Refining Ladle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation,storage and quality certificate of purging plugs and well blocks for refining ladle. This standard is applicable to the directional slit purging plugs and well blocks for refining ladle.

  6. Control and assessment of plugging of mesopores in SBA-15 materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakeri, M; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Plugged SBA-15 materials consist of mesoporous channels constricted along the central axis by windows. Tailoring and measurement of physical properties, particularly the window sizes, of plugged SBA-15 materials are crucial for potential host–guest applications. In this paper we report a synthesis p

  7. 40 CFR 147.3108 - Plugging Class I, II, and III wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging Class I, II, and III wells... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3108 Plugging Class I, II, and III wells. In addition to the... well: (a) For Class I and III wells: (1) The well shall be filled with mud from the bottom of the...

  8. Plug and Play Process Control Applied to a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Trangbæk, Klaus; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose

    2008-01-01

    The general ideas within plug and play process control (PTC) are to initialize and reconfigure control systems just by plug and play. In this paper these ideas are applied to a district heating pressure control problem. First of all this serves as a concrete example of PTC, secondly some of the f...

  9. Conceptual design of the ITER upper port plug for charge exchange diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakov, S.; Baross, T.; Biel, W.; Borsuk, V.; Hawkes, N.; Hellermann, M. von; Gille, P.; Kiss, G.; Koning, J.; Knaup, M.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Krasikov, Yu.; Litnovsky, A.; Neubauer, O.; Panin, A.

    2009-01-01

    A plug for the ITER core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (core CXRS) is located in the upper port 3. It transfers the light emitted by interaction of plasma ions with the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB). The plug consists of a main shell, a shielding cassette and a retractable tube. The tub

  10. Bacterial chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possoz, Christophe; Junier, Ivan; Espeli, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Dividing cells have mechanisms to ensure that their genomes are faithfully segregated into daughter cells. In bacteria, the description of these mechanisms has been considerably improved in the recent years. This review focuses on the different aspects of bacterial chromosome segregation that can be understood thanks to the studies performed with model organisms: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus and Vibrio cholerae. We describe the global positionning of the nucleoid in the cell and the specific localization and dynamics of different chromosomal loci, kinetic and biophysic aspects of chromosome segregation are presented. Finally, a presentation of the key proteins involved in the chromosome segregation is made.

  11. Evaluation of A Novel Split-Feeding Anaerobic/Oxic Baffled Reactor (A/OBR) For Foodwaste Anaerobic Digestate: Performance, Modeling and Bacterial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie; Peng, Liyu; Jiang, Yixin; Gikas, Petros; Zhu, Baoning; Su, Haijia

    2016-10-01

    To enhance the treatment efficiency from an anaerobic digester, a novel six-compartment anaerobic/oxic baffled reactor (A/OBR) was employed. Two kinds of split-feeding A/OBRs R2 and R3, with influent fed in the 1st, 3rd and 5th compartment of the reactor simultaneously at the respective ratios of 6:3:1 and 6:2:2, were compared with the regular-feeding reactor R1 when all influent was fed in the 1st compartment (control). Three aspects, the COD removal, the hydraulic characteristics and the bacterial community, were systematically investigated, compared and evaluated. The results indicated that R2 and R3 had similar tolerance to loading shock, but the R2 had the highest COD removal of 91.6% with a final effluent of 345 mg/L. The mixing patterns in both split-feeding reactors were intermediate between plug-flow and completely-mixed, with dead spaces between 8.17% and 8.35% compared with a 31.9% dead space in R1. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis revealed that the split-feeding strategy provided a higher bacterial diversity and more stable bacterial community than that in the regular-feeding strategy. Further analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria, among which Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes might be responsible for organic matter degradation and Proteobacteria for nitrification and denitrification.

  12. Preparation and Performance of an Adsorption Type Gel Plugging Agent as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel adsorption type gel plugging agent (ATGPA was prepared using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS, formaldehyde (HCHO, resorcinol (C6H6O2, and thiocarbamide (CH4N2S as raw materials under mild conditions. ATGPA was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was found that ATGPA exhibited higher elastic modulus (G′ and viscous modulus (G′′ than AM/AA gel plugging agent (AAGPA under the same scanning frequency. It was also found that ATGPA had moderate temperature resistance and salt tolerance. Core plugging tests results indicated that ATGPA could achieve up to higher plugging rate (PR than AAGPA (97.2% versus 95.7% at 65°C. In addition, ATGPA possessed stronger antiscouring ability by core plugging experiments at 65°C.

  13. Amplatzer vascular plug for rapid vessel occlusion in interventional neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Jillian C; Shankar, Jai Jai Shiva

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report different uses of endovascular Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) treatment for rapid vessel occlusion in the field of interventional neuroradiology. We retrospectively reviewed our interventional neuroradiology database from November 2010 to July 2015 and found nine patients who were treated with endovascular AVP. AVP was used for rapid vessel occlusion of common carotid artery (1 patient), internal carotid artery (5 patients), vertebral artery (2 patients), and internal jugular vein (1 patient). A median of three AVPs were used with almost immediate occlusion and no thromboembolic complications. Use of AVP is feasible, safe, rapid, and potentially cost-effective method for rapid occlusion of larger size vessels in the head and neck region for different indications.

  14. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  15. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  16. Hafnia-plugged microcavities for thermal stability of selective emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Ju; Smyth, Katherine; Bathurst, Stephen; Chou, Jeffrey; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John; Saka, Nannaji; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2013-06-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of micro-cavities effectively control photon motion and selectively emit radiation tailored to the preferred bandgap of photovoltaic (PV) cells, thus enhancing the efficiency of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. At the high operating temperatures, however, the micro- and nano-patterned structures of the selective emitters quickly lose their integrity--obliterating the tight tolerances required for precise spectral control. Even if oxidation, recrystallization, and grain growth could be avoided with single-crystal tungsten (W) selective emitters with vacuum packaging, surface diffusion, evaporation, and re-condensation are not avoidable in long-term operation at high temperatures. The concept of a planar array of plugged micro-cavities to suppress the curvature-dependent thermal degradation modes is proposed and tested. Based on scale-accelerated failure tests of silicon devices, the lifetime of W selective emitters operating at 1100 K is estimated to be at least 30 yr.

  17. Plug-and-Play Control – Modifying Control Systems Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Often, when new sensor or actuator hardware be- comes available for use in a control system, it is desirable to retain the existing control system and apply the new control capabilities in a gradual fashion rather than decommissioning the entire existing system and replacing it with an altogether...... new control system. However, this requires that the existing controller remains in action, and the new control law component is added to the existing system. This paper formally introduces the concept of Plug-and-Play control and proposes two different methods of introducing new control components...... in a smooth manner, providing stability guarantees during the transition phase as well as retaining the original control structure. The applicability of the methods is illustrated on two different practical example systems, a livestock stable climate control system and a laboratory-scale model of a district...

  18. Gastrotomy closure using bioabsorbable plugs in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cios, Theodore J; Reavis, Kevin M; Renton, David R; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Mikami, Dean J; Narula, Vimal K; Allemang, Matthew T; Davis, S Scott; Melvin, W Scott

    2008-04-01

    The repair of gastric perforation commonly involves simple suture closure using an open or laparoscopic approach. An endolumenal approach using prosthetic materials may be beneficial. The role of bioprosthetics in this instance has not been thoroughly investigated, thus the authors evaluated the feasibility of gastric perforation repair using a bioabsorbable device and quantified gross and histological changes at the injury site. Twelve canines were anesthetized and underwent open gastrotomy. A 1-cm-diameter perforation was created in the anterior wall of the stomach and plugged with a bioabsorbable device. Intralumenal pH was recorded. Canines were sacrificed at one, four, six, eight, and 12 weeks. The stomach was explanted followed by gross and histological examination. The injury site was examined. The relative ability of the device to seal the perforation was recorded, as were postoperative changes. Tissue samples were analyzed for gross and microscopic tissue growth and compared to normal gastric tissue in the same animal as an internal control. A scoring system of -2 to +2 was used to measure injury site healing (-2= leak, -1= no leak and minimal ingrowth, 0= physiologic healing, +1= mild hypertrophic tissue, +2= severe hypertrophic tissue). In all canines, the bioprosthesis successfully sealed the perforation without leak under ex vivo insufflation. At one week, the device maintained its integrity but there was no tissue ingrowth. Histological healing score was -1. At 4-12 weeks, gross examination revealed a healed injury site in all animals. The lumenal portion of the plug was completely absorbed. The gross and histological healing score ranged from -1 to +1. The application of a bioabsorbable device results in durable closure of gastric perforation with physiologic healing of the injury site. This method of gastrotomy closure may aid in the evolution of advanced endoscopic approaches to perforation closure of hollow viscera.

  19. Mechanistic Understanding of Microbial Plugging for Improved Sweep Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Bryant; Larry Britton

    2008-09-30

    Microbial plugging has been proposed as an effective low cost method of permeability reduction. Yet there is a dearth of information on the fundamental processes of microbial growth in porous media, and there are no suitable data to model the process of microbial plugging as it relates to sweep efficiency. To optimize the field implementation, better mechanistic and volumetric understanding of biofilm growth within a porous medium is needed. In particular, the engineering design hinges upon a quantitative relationship between amount of nutrient consumption, amount of growth, and degree of permeability reduction. In this project experiments were conducted to obtain new data to elucidate this relationship. Experiments in heterogeneous (layered) beadpacks showed that microbes could grow preferentially in the high permeability layer. Ultimately this caused flow to be equally divided between high and low permeability layers, precisely the behavior needed for MEOR. Remarkably, classical models of microbial nutrient uptake in batch experiments do not explain the nutrient consumption by the same microbes in flow experiments. We propose a simple extension of classical kinetics to account for the self-limiting consumption of nutrient observed in our experiments, and we outline a modeling approach based on architecture and behavior of biofilms. Such a model would account for the changing trend of nutrient consumption by bacteria with the increasing biomass and the onset of biofilm formation. However no existing model can explain the microbial preference for growth in high permeability regions, nor is there any obvious extension of the model for this observation. An attractive conjecture is that quorum sensing is involved in the heterogeneous bead packs.

  20. Hydrotransport plugging study. FY 1980-1981 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyler, L.L.; Lombardo, NJ.; Barnhart, J.S.

    1982-09-01

    Large-particle hydrotransport flow phenomena are analyzed. These include particle suspension mechanisms, relative in situ slip between phases, and shear between separated solid/liquid flow regions. These phenomena are related to the mechanistic force balance modeling approach to predicting nominal and minimum horizontal pipeline transport conditions. Results of four series of tests in a 35 m-long, 0.165 m-diameter plexiglass pipeline are presented. These tests were designed to investigate isolated flow phenomena related to lower limits of operation of large-particle transport. They included measurements of the particle size dependence and flow geometry dependence on interfacial friction factors, initiation of plug flow motion, and plugging tendencies of flow through upward-turning elbows. Numerous flow phenomena and parameter dependencies are included in analysis of predictions made using the force balance modeling approach. Comparisons with data are made where possible and a step-by-step solution procedure is presented. Results show agreement with some data sets and disagreement with others. Most available data, however, are neither extensive enough nor accurate enough to form complete conclusions as to the minimum operating conditions predicted with the force balance modeling approach. Additional data from a systematic experimental program in a once-through pipeline system are necessary to further verify the modeling approach. A limited qualitative analysis of methods proposed to unplug large particle pipelines is presented. Methods assessed include pulsed air injection, vibration augmentation, friction reducing surfactant injection, and mechanical or hydraulic boring machinery. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are assessed qualitatively. Laboratory and field testing are required to determine applications.

  1. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pests).

  2. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David E.; Biggins, Dean E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis).

  3. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  4. Fuel-electricity mix and efficiency in Dutch plug-in and range-extender vehicles on the road

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Bolech, M.

    2013-01-01

    For the Dutch Ministry for Infrastructure and the Environment data of plug-in vehicles was collected. Data concerning fueling and charging of plug-in vehicles is collected from lease companies, a fuel-pass company, and the charging infrastruture organisation. More than 10% of the total Dutch plug-in

  5. Sexual behavior, cannibalism, and mating plugs as sticky traps in the orb weaver spider Leucauge argyra (Tetragnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Barrantes, Gilbert

    2011-07-01

    Unpublished field observations in Leucauge argyra, a tropical orb weaver spider, suggest the occurrence of conspicuous mating plugs that could reduce or prevent remating attempts. Otherwise, the sexual behavior of this species remains unknown. The aims of this study were to describe the courtship behavior and copulation in L. argyra and investigate mating plug formation in this species. Fourteen virgin females and 12 plugged females were exposed to up to three males and checked for mating plug formation. Of the 12 virgins that copulated, nine produced plugs (five immediately after copulation), and the five plugged females that copulated produced another mating plug immediately after copulation. We did not detect the transfer of any male substance during copulation but observed a whitish liquid emerging from female genital ducts. Plug formation was positively associated with male twanging during courtship. One virgin and four plugged females cannibalized males. In seven trials with virgins and in three trials with plugged females, the male's palp adhered to a substance that emerged from female genital ducts and spread on her genital plate. The male had to struggle energetically to free his glued palp; two of these males were cannibalized while trying to release their palps. Females seem to determine copulation duration by altering the timing of mating plug formation and through sexual cannibalism. This is the first case reported of a mating plug as a sticky trap for males.

  6. Preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.L.; O' Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.; O' Connor, K.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents results of a study leading to preconceptual designs for plugging boreholes, shafts, and tunnels to a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Beginning design criteria include a list of preferred plug materials and plugging machines that were selected to suit the environmental conditions, and depths, diameters, and orientations of the accesses to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia River basalts located in eastern Washington State. The environmental conditions are described. The fiscal year 1979-1980 Task II work is presented in two parts: preliminary testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in a separate report); and preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in this report). To fulfill the scope of the Task II work, Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) was requested to: provide preconceptual systems for plugging boreholes, tunnels, and shafts in basalt; describe preconceptual borehole plugging equipment for placing the selected materials in man-made accesses; utilize the quality assurance program, program plan and schedule, and work plans previously developed for Task II; and prepare a preliminary report.

  7. New "all-in-one" device for mesh plug hernioplasty: the Trabucco repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossetti, Francesco; Massa, Salvatore; Abbonante, Francesco; Calabria, Michele; Ceci, Francesca; Viarengo, Maria Antonietta; Manzi, Emy; D'Amore, Linda; Negro, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Sebbene la tecnica Mesh Plug rappresenti una procedura di indubbia efficacia nel trattamento dell’ernia inguinale, tuttora permangono dubbi in relazione alla storia naturale del plug. In particolare, il plug può andare incontro a coartazione (shrinkage) con formazione di un “meshoma” responsabile di una sintomatologia dolorosa cronica. Più raramente, il plug può migrare e provocare erosione delle strutture anatomiche circostanti. Nel passato sono stati proposti alcuni devices per cercare di risolvere il problema della migrazione; nessuno di questi, tuttavia, ha raggiunto la popolarità dei plug conici o a forma di fiore. Il presente lavoro riporta i risultati di uno studio pilota condotto con l’impiego di un nuovo device tridimensionale, il NeT Plug & Patch. I risultati dopo 12 mesi di follow-up, hanno dimostrato una ridotta incidenza di dolore postoperatorio e cronico, senza rischio di migrazione. Inoltre è stata registrata una compliance soddisfacente sia dei pazienti che degli operatori. La protesi NeT Plug & Patch ha dimostrato di poter realizzare un’ernioplastica semplice ed efficace per la riparazione dell’ernia inguinale.

  8. Analysis of Spark Plug Gap on Flame Development using Schlieren Technique and Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii Shu-Yi, Paul; Khalid, Amir; Mohamad, Anuar; Manshoor, Bukhari; Sapit, Azwan; Zaman, Izzuddin; Hashim, Akasha

    2016-11-01

    Gasoline spark ignition system in cars remains one of the main consumption of fuel in the world nowadays. During combustion process, spark plug is one important key features in a gasoline engine. The incompatibility of spark plug gap width and the fuel used causing backfire and knocking in the combustion engine. Thus, the spark plug gap was studied with focussing in controlling the combustion process to improve the performance of the engine. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of spark plug air gap on flame development. The parameters studied in this research include spark plug air gap width (1.0 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.4 mm, 1.6 mm and 1.8 mm), injection pressure (0.3 MPa, 0.4 MPa, 0.5 MPa and 0.6 MPa) and flame characteristics such as flame front area and the flame intensity. The flame front area of different spark plug gap and injection pressure were investigated through Schlieren photography method. The Schlieren images taken were analysed with the time changes. The experiment results proved that the increase of spark plug gap width will led to better flame development in shorter time while increased the chance of misfire.

  9. Mating plugs in polyandrous giants: which sex produces them, when, how and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Kuntner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Males usually produce mating plugs to reduce sperm competition. However, females can conceivably also produce mating plugs in order to prevent unwanted, superfluous and energetically costly matings. In spiders-appropriate models for testing plugging biology hypotheses-mating plugs may consist of male genital parts and/or of amorphous covers consisting of glandular or sperm secretions. In the giant wood spider Nephila pilipes, a highly sexually dimorphic and polygamous species, males are known to produce ineffective embolic plugs through genital damage, but nothing is known about the origin and function of additional conspicuous amorphous plugs (AP covering female genitals. METHODOLOGY: We tested alternative hypotheses of the nature and function of AP in N. pilipes by staging mating trials with varying degrees of polyandry. No APs were ever formed during mating trials, which rules out the possibility of male AP formation. Instead, those females that oviposited produced the AP from a liquid secreted during egg sac formation. Polyandrous females were more likely to lay eggs and to produce the AP, as were those that mated longer and with more total insertions. Our further tests revealed that, in spite of being a side product of egg sac production, AP, when hardened, prevented any subsequent copulation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in the giant wood spider (Nephila pilipes, the amorphous mating plugs are not produced by the males, that repeated copulations (most likely polyandrous are necessary for egg fertilization and AP formation, and that the AP represents a female adaptation to sexual conflict through prevention of unwanted, excessive copulations. Considering the largely unknown origin of amorphous plugs in spiders, we predict that a similar pattern might be detected in other clades, which would help elucidate the evolutionary interplay of various selection pressures responsible for the origin and maintenance of mating plugs.

  10. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices

  11. Bacterial vaginosis -- aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000687.htm Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... to back after you use the bathroom. Preventing Bacterial Vaginosis You can help prevent bacterial vaginosis by: Not ...

  12. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Bacterial vaginosis (also called BV or vaginitis) is an infection ...

  13. Simulation on friction taper plug welding of AA6063-20Gr metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Nithin, Abeyram M.

    2016-05-01

    Friction taper plug welding a variant of friction welding is useful in welding of similar and dissimilar materials. It could be used for joining of composites to metals in sophisticated aerospace applications. In the present work numerical simulation of friction taper plug welding process is carried out using finite element based software. Graphite reinforced AA6063 is modelled using the software ANSYS 15.0 and temperature distribution is predicted. Effect of friction time on temperature distribution is numerically investigated. When the friction time is increased to 30 seconds, the tapered part of plug gets detached and fills the hole in the AA6063 plate perfectly.

  14. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Policy Effectiveness: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. federal government first introduced incentives for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) through the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, which provided a tax credit of up to $7,500 for a new PEV purchase. Soon after, in December 2010, two mass-market PEVs were introduced, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Chevrolet Volt and the battery electric vehicle (BEV) Nissan LEAF. Since that time, numerous additional types of PEV incentives have been provided by federal and regional (state or city) government agencies and utility companies. These incentives cover vehicle purchases as well as the purchase and installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through purchase rebates, tax credits, or discounted purchase taxes or registration fees. Additional incentives, such as free high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane access and parking benefits, may also be offered to PEV owners. Details about these incentives, such as the extent to which each type is offered by region, can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Fuel Data Center (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/). In addition to these incentives, other policies, such as zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) mandates,1 have also been implemented, and community-scale federal incentives, such as the DOE PEV Readiness Grants, have been awarded throughout the country to improve PEV market penetration. This report reviews 18 studies that analyze the impacts of past or current incentives and policies that were designed to support PEV adoption in the U.S. These studies were selected for review after a comprehensive survey of the literature and discussion with a number of experts in the field. The report summarizes the lessons learned and best practices from the experiences of these incentive programs to date, as well as the challenges they face and barriers that inhibit further market adoption of PEVs. Studies that make projections based on future policy scenarios and those that focus solely

  15. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  16. Plug-and-play, single-chip photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Deepak; Arnetz, Bengt; Levy, Philip; Basu, Amar S

    2012-01-01

    Remote patient monitoring (RPM) relies on low-cost, low-power, wearable sensors for continuous physiological assessment. Photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensors generally require >10 components, occupy an area >300 mm(2), consume >10 mW power, and cost >$20 USD. Although the principle of PPG sensing is straightforward, in practice, a robust implementation requires a careful design including optical alignment, analog circuits, ambient light cancellation, and power management. This paper reports the first use of digital optical proximity sensors (OPS) for "plug-and-play" PPG. OPS have traditionally been used for distance sensing in smartphones and factory automation. Here we show that a digital OPS can perform PPG functions in a single 4×4 mm package which also provides a direct digital interface to a microcontroller. By exploiting its key features, a digital OPS can provide substantial performance advantages over existing state-of-the-art PPGs, including: i) 10X lower power consumption (200 µW) due to pulse operation; ii) high signal to noise ratio (>90), as a result of built-in optical barriers, filters, and ambient light cancellation; iii) 10X lower cost ($2 USD); and iv) 12X smaller area. We show single wavelength PPG measurements in multiple anatomical locations, including fingertips and earlobes. The results suggest that a digital OPS can provide an elegant solution for battery-powered, wearable physiological monitors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the smallest and lowest power PPG sensor reported to date.

  17. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  18. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  19. Engineering estimates of impurity fluxes on the ITER port plugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Vladislav

    2016-10-01

    Predictions of impurity fluxes are required for design analysis of the ITER optical diagnostics. In the present paper a simplified model is proposed for calculation of the neutral impurity fluxes on the recessed surfaces which are not in direct contact with plasma. The method is based on the Monte-Carlo simulation of the neutral particles transport in prescribed and fixed plasma background. The plasma parameters are projected from experimental observations, scalings and ITER modelling results. Blobs are approximated as stationary hot species. Results of 2D simulations with toroidally uniform wall and of the ‘2.5D model’ are presented. In this latter the 3D geometry of ports is implemented, but details of the incident ion flux distribution on the first wall panels are neglected. The calculated worst case gross deposition rate of Be in the middle of the port plug faces reaches almost 0.1 nm s-1. At the same time, the obtained Be erosion to deposition ratio at those locations is always larger than 5, indicating high probability of net erosion conditions there.

  20. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  1. The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2008-06-15

    Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy.

  2. CrusDe: A plug-in based simulation framework for composable CRUStal DEformation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapenthin, R.

    2008-12-01

    Within geoscience, Green's method is an established mathematical tool to analyze the dynamics of the Earth's crust in response to the application of a mass force, e.g. a surface load. Different abstractions from the Earth's interior as well as the particular effects caused by such a force are expressed by means of a Green's function, G, which is a particular solution to an inhomogeneous differential equation with boundary conditions. Surface loads, L, are defined by real data or as analytical expressions. The response of the crust to a surface load is gained by a 2D-convolution (**) of the Green's function with this load. The crustal response can be thought of as an instantaneous displacement which is followed by a gradual transition towards the final relaxed state of displacement. A relaxation function, R, describing such a transition depends on the rheological model for the ductile layer of the crust. The 1D-convolution (*) of the relaxation function with a load history, H, allows to include the temporal evolution of the surface load into a model. The product of the two convolution results expresses the displacement (rate) of the crust, U, at a certain time t: Ut = (R * H)t · (G ** L) Rather than implementing a variety of specific models, approaching crustal deformation problems from the general formulation in equation~1 opens the opportunity to consider reuse of model building blocks within a more flexible simulation framework. Model elements (Green's function, load function, etc.), operators, pre- and postprocessing, and even input and output routines could be part of a framework that enables a user to freely compose software components to resemble equation~1. The simulation framework CrusDe implements equation~1 in the proposed way. CrusDe's architecture defines interfaces for generic communication between the simulation core and the model elements. Thus, exchangeability of the particular model element implementations is possible. In the presented plug

  3. Pilot Study of a Plug Load Management System: Preparing for Sustainability Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base is a new 50,000 sq. ft. high-performance office building targeting a LEED Platinum rating. Plug loads are expected to...

  4. Ongoing Technology and Developing Trend of Ar-blowing Purging Plug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An introduction of the ongoing technology of ar-gon-blowing purging plugs in China was presented in this work.Gel powders were used as starting materials to enhance the high temperature mechanical properties of the purging plugs.Composite purging plug adopting ex-trusion formed gas-purging bar and slit had its surface structural design improved,which enhanced the resist-ances to thermal shock and molten steel penetration,prolonging the service life.In addition,the safety Was greatly improved by upgrading the framework and pro-duction process,enhancing the resistance to breakout.It is indicated that the developing trend is to produce pur-ging plugs of longer service life and better gas purging rate with different starting materials and structure de-signs to meet the requirements of various metallurgical processes.

  5. Plug-Load Control and Behavioral Change Research in GSA Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Sheppy, M.

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) owns and leases over 354 million square feet (ft2) of space in over 9,600 buildings [1]. GSA is a leader among federal agencies in aggressively pursuing energy efficiency (EE) opportunities for its facilities and installing renewable energy (RE) systems to provide heating, cooling, and power to these facilities. According to several energy assessments of GSA's buildings conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), plug-loads account for approximately 21% of the total electricity consumed within a standard GSA Region 3 office building. This study aims to provide insight on how to effectively manage plug-load energy consumption and attain higher energy and cost savings for plug-loads. As GSA improves the efficiency of its building stock, plug-loads will become an even greater portion of its energy footprint.

  6. Plug-and-Play Star Sensor for Rapid Spacecraft Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm, with Space Micro., and HRP Systems will design a plug-and-play (PnP) star sensor for small satellites. All three companies are well experienced in...

  7. Cultural Resource Survey of Proposed Ditch Plugs Near Troublesome Creek in Marion County, Missouri

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A phase I cultural resource survey was conducted for the US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, of three proposed ditch plugs to be constructed...

  8. Comparison of Al electromigration in conventional Al alloy and W-plug contacts to silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, A. S.; Martin, E. P.; Alugbin, D.; Nkansah, F.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the impact of the presence of a W plug on electromigration-induced voiding of the Al alloy layer of contacts to silicon. By comparing conventional Al alloy and W-plug contacts we show that the presence of the plug does not significantly improve the intrinsic susceptibility of contacts to Al voiding despite the elimination of the Al step coverage problem. Both the conventional Al alloy and W-plug contacts degrade by drift of the Al layer with a velocity that is not influenced by the contact structure. The sheet resistance of the underlayer material of multilayer conductors plays an important role in influencing failure times since it determines the rate of resistance increase due to electromigration.

  9. Investigation of Thrust and Drag Characteristics of a Plug-type Exhaust Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearth, Donald P; Gorton, Gerald C

    1954-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel on the external and internal characteristics of a plug-type exhaust nozzle. Two positions of the center plug, one simulating a convergent nozzle and the other a convergent-divergent nozzle, were investigated. Data were obtained at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.1, 0.6, 1.6, and 2.0 over a pressure-ratio range of 1 to 20 and angles of attack of zero and 8 degrees. Results of this investigation indicated that the plug nozzle had thrust-minus-drag performance over the entire pressure-ratio range comparable with equivalent conventional nozzles. The effect of the exhaust jet on the external aerodynamics was similar to results observed for conventional nozzles. In addition, the thrust characteristics were generally insensitive to external flow and good agreement was noted with data obtained on comparable plug nozzles in quiescent air.

  10. CLINICAL TRIALS FOR VAS DEFERENS OCCLUSION BY PERCUTANEOUS INJECTION OF POLYURETHANE ELASTOMER TO FORM PLUGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOSheng-Cai; etal.

    1989-01-01

    A non-incision method of vss occlusion based on the percutaneous injection of polyurethane elastomer solution to form a plug is described. The procedure was conducted under aseptic procedure and local fidocaine anaesthesia. Two different kinds of

  11. Plug-and-Play Star Sensor for Rapid Spacecraft Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm, with partners Space Micro and HRP Systems, will design, build, and test a plug-and play (PnP) star sensor for small satellites, achieving TRL 6 at the...

  12. Flow-to-fracture transition in a volcanic mush plug may govern normal eruptions at Stromboli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckale, J.; Keller, T.; Cashman, K. V.; Persson, P.-O.

    2016-12-01

    Stromboli is a model volcano for studying eruptions driven by degassing. The current paradigm posits that Strombolian eruptions represent the bursting of gas slugs ascending through melt-filled conduits, but petrological observations show that magma at shallow depth is crystalline enough to form a three-phase plug consisting of crystals, bubbles, and melt. We combine a 1-D model of gas flushing a crystalline mush with a 3-D stress model. Our results suggest that localized gas segregation establishes hot conduits of mobile magma within a stagnant plug. The plug is prone to tensile failure controlled by gas overpressure and tectonic stress, with failure most likely beneath the observed vent locations. We hence argue that Strombolian eruptions are related to plug failure rather than flow. Our proposed three-phase model of the shallow plumbing system may provide a promising framework for integrating geophysical, petrological, and morphological observations at Stromboli and in open-system volcanism more generally.

  13. Plug-and-Play Compatibility for CubeSat Attitude Determination and Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of Plug-and-play Compatibility for CubeSat Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADACS) is proposed. Existing Maryland Aerospace (MAI) ADACS...

  14. APPLICATION OF EXOTHERMIC PLUGS AT PRODUCTION OF STEEL CASTING IS THE WAY TO ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gatsuro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that application of exothermic plugs allows to decrease steel intensity of casting mold, labor intensiveness for trim, expenses for melting of 1 ton of good casting, material expenses for burden materials.

  15. Simultaneous bioassays in a microfluidic channel on plugs of different magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzeau, Sandrine; Pamme, Nicole

    2008-02-18

    Magnetic particles coated with specific biomolecules are often used as solid supports for bioassays but conventional test tube based techniques are time consuming and labour intensive. An alternative is to work on magnetic particle plugs immobilised inside microfluidic channels. Most research so far has focussed on immobilising one type of particle to perform one type of assay. Here we demonstrate how several assays can be performed simultaneously by flushing a sample solution over several plugs of magnetic particles with different surface coatings. Within a microchannel, three plugs of magnetic particles were immobilised with external magnets. The particles featured surface coatings of glycine, streptavidin and protein A, respectively. Reagents were then flushed through the three plugs. Molecular binding occurred between matching antigens and antibodies in continuous flow and was detected by fluorescence. This first demonstration opens the door to a quicker and easier technique for simultaneous bioassays using magnetic particles.

  16. Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Annunzio, Julie [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Slezak, Lee [U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Conley, John Jason [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2014-03-26

    This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

  17. [Dampness in an electric plug as a cause of electricity failure in an operation theatre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C; Pold, R; Nielsen, H D

    2000-02-07

    Two cases of electricity failure in an operation theatre during open heart surgery are discussed. The fuse for the patient monitor, ventilator, surgery instruments and heart lung machine was blown. Short-circuit was established because of humidity in the plug of the heater for fluid and blood. We recommend sealed or founded plugs and that anaesthesia equipment should not be used as an electrical supply for other electronic apparatus.

  18. Plug-in de procesado visual (OpenCV) en OpenDomo OS

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Castro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en el diseño y desarrollo de un plug-in que permita usar el sistema de procesado de imagen OpenCV desde el sistema operativo OpenDomo OS. Aquest projecte consisteix en el disseny i desenvolupament d'un plug-in que permeti utilitzar el sistema de processament d'imatge OpenCV des del sistema operatiu OpenDomo OS. Master thesis for the Free Software program.

  19. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  20. [APPLICATION OF FISTULA PLUG WITH THE FIBRIN ADHESIVE IN TREATMENT OF RECTAL FISTULAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinova, P R; Aliyev, E A

    2015-05-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 21 patients, suffering high transsphincteric and extrasphincteric rectal fistulas, were studied. In patients of Group I the fistula passage was closed, using fistula plug obturator; and in patients of Group II--by the same, but preprocessed by fibrin adhesive. The fistula aperture germeticity, prophylaxis of rude cicatrices development in operative wound zone, promotion of better fixation of bioplastic material were guaranteed, using fistula plug obturator with preprocessing, using fibrin adhesive.

  1. Cystine Plug and Other Novel Mechanisms of Large Mechanical Stability in Dimeric Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek

    2012-11-01

    We identify three dimeric proteins whose mechanostability is anisotropic and should exceed 1 nN along some directions. They come with distinct mechanical clamps: either shear-based, or involving a cystine slipknot, or due to dragging of a cystine plug through a cystine ring. The latter two mechanisms are topological in nature; the cystine plug mechanism has not yet been discussed but it turns out to provide the largest resistance to stretching. Its possible applications in elastomers are discussed.

  2. Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

  3. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  4. Bacterial carbonatogenesis; La carbonatogenese bacterienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castanier, S. [Angers Univ., 49 (France). Faculte des Sciences; Le Metayer-Levrel, G.; Perthuisot, J.P. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France). Laboratoire de Biogeologie, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques

    1998-12-31

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The `passive` carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The `active` carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author) 43 refs.

  5. Gripping tool for the ITER upper port plug RH extraction/insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Elena V., E-mail: elena.rosa@ciemat.es; Ríos, Luis, E-mail: luis.rios@ciemat.es

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The gripping tool is based on only one gripping point centred at the plug bottom. •The gripping tool should allow the relative displacement in the gripping point to absorb the misalignment between plug and tractor. •The gripping tool needs to withstand around 100/30 kN during the plug extraction/insertion. •The gripping tool should rely on visual control and it has to avoid force feed-back. •The comparison between the features of several gripping tool concepts is assessed. -- Abstract: The conceptual design of several gripping tools and their mechanical interfaces is being carried out for the ITER ECH UPP within the WP10-GOTRH programme. EFDA finances the GOT RH (Goal Oriented Training Programme for Remote Handling). The purpose of this paper is to introduce new concepts of gripping tools for the plug extraction/insertion in the upper port of ITER. All these gripping tools are designed according to IO input data and geometrical constraints. The gripping tools have to be able to extract/insert the plug in the scenario of maximum misalignment between the plug and the tractor. The paper also defines the functional requirements the gripping tools need to comply with. The requirements and input data are verified and validated through 3D simulation with Catia mock-ups of the gripping tools. The strengths and weaknesses of each gripping tool model are compared.

  6. Study of borehole plugging in bedded salt domes by earth melting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.L.

    1975-06-01

    The intent of this program is to define the most viable Melted In situ Rock salt Plug (MIRP) System options, these options being addressed primarily from the downhole subsystem perspective, with a conventional drill rig as the basis for the surface part of the MIRP System. Preliminary experiments had indicated that it is possible to backfill the open penetrations in the domed salt deposits with a melted in situ rocksalt plug such that in time the melted rock salt plug effectively duplicates the parent virgin salt. The programmatic assumption for the requirement of duplicating the virgin salt with a MIRP provides the basis for this study. A system functional analysis was performed to establish the requirements for the performance of the overall MIRP System. A similar functional analysis was conducted for the salt plug that would be formed by the MIRP System. Based on the analyses of the material, thermal, and structural behavior of the salt plug, the requirements for the formation of an acceptable salt plug were determined. From the functional analysis a determination was made of the operation of the hardware for the downhole portion of the MIRP System. From that perspective several design concepts were formulated. For these design concepts a technology roadmap was developed. The pertinent aspects, results, conclusions and recommendations of the above are summarized in the sections that follow.

  7. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program.

  8. Quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) with selectively regrown N-GaAs plugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Yusuke; Nishino, Hironori; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Fujii, Toshio

    2001-10-01

    We fabricated the GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array with selectively re-grown N- GaAs interconnection plugs and demonstrated its device operation, in order to establish the technology to obtain both complex device functions and device manufacturability. MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) grown QWIP MQW wafers were covered with SiON and SiNx mask films to obtain selectivity of the re-growth process. N-GaAs plugs were re-grown selectively with low-pressure MOCVD (Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) with AsH3 and Dimethylgalliumchloride as precursors, only on the bottom surfaces of the holes for the interconnection to extract the electrodes from the underlying epilayer. Cross- sectional SEM observation revealed that the feature of the re- grown N-GaAs plugs was triangular, rather than rectangular as expected. The reason for this discrepancy is not yet clear. The electrical contact between the epilayer and re-grown N- GaAs plug was 'ohmic-like,' without any trace of interfacial barrier. The Current-Voltage characteristics of the fabricated QWIP device showed no tangible leakage current between the N- GaAs plug and device structure, indicating that electrical insulation between the N-GaAs plugs and device structure was sufficient. Fabricated devices were successfully operated as a hybrid focal plane array, indicating the selective re-growth was a promising technique to realize complex QWIP based devices.

  9. Real-Time Occupant Based Plug-in Device Control Using ICT in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Bin Bae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reduce the unnecessary plug loads used by computers, monitors, and computer peripheral devices, all of which account for more than 95% of the entire plug loads of an office building. To this end, an occupant-based plug-in device control (OBC-P software was developed. The OBC-P software collects real-time information about the presence or absence of occupants who are connected to the access point through the Wifi and controls the power of monitors or computers, while a standby power off device controls computer peripheral devices. To measure the plug load saving of the occupant-based plug-in device control, an experiment was conducted, targeting 10 occupants of three research labs of the graduate school, for two weeks. The experiment results showed that it could save the plug loads of monitors and computer peripheral devices by 15% in the Awake mode, and by 26% in the Sleep mode.

  10. Comprehensive Review of the Literature on Existing Punctal Plugs for the Management of Dry Eye Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Jehangir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous designs of punctal and canalicular plugs are available on the market. This variety presents challenges to ophthalmologists when choosing punctal plugs for the management of various ocular conditions. The aim of this literature review is to provide a classification system for lacrimal occlusive devices based on their location and duration of action as well as to identify different characteristics of each one of them. We want to give a comprehensive overview on punctal and canalicular plugs including their manufacturing companies, indications, and complications that have been reported in various articles. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to identify articles written in English as well as few articles written in Japanese, Chinese, Slovak, and Spanish that had abstracts in English. Nine different companies that manufacture punctal and canalicular plugs were identified and their plugs were included in this review. Punctal and canalicular plugs are used in the management of various ocular conditions including dry eye disease and punctal stenosis as well as in ocular drug delivery. Although they are a relatively safe option, associated complications have been reported in the literature such as infection, allergic reaction, extrusion, and migration.

  11. Blood plasma separation in a long two-phase plug flowing through disposable tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Khan, Zeina S; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2012-12-21

    We report a simple technique to separate plasma from blood in a flowing immiscible plug. We investigate the effect of various control parameters such as blood dilution, injection flow rate, observation time and fluid properties on plasma separation. We find that the technique works best for diluted blood samples at low plug velocities and long observation times. We postulate that the main mechanism responsible for efficient separation is the sedimentation of blood cells in the plug and their subsequent collection by the moving plug causing a significant accumulation of cells at the rear of the plug. We discuss the time scales determining the sedimentation, advection and collection of a blood cell in the immiscible plug and propose a phase diagram that is able to predict the operating space for effective plasma separation. We demonstrate that the technique allows for the extraction of more than 60% of the plasma by volume from 1 μL of diluted blood. We show the practical significance of this method by compartmentalizing the separated plasma into discrete microfluidic droplets and detecting cholesterol. This technique features low consumption of blood (nL-scale) and low shear rate (∼1 s(-1)). It is inexpensive, easy to use, and has the potential to be developed as an efficient point-of-care device for blood diagnostics in resource-poor environments. More advanced applications could also be envisioned by integrating our plasma separation method into existing microfluidic drop manipulation techniques.

  12. Anal plugs and retrograde colonic irrigation are helpful in fecal incontinence or constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcel Cazemier; Richelle JF Felt-Bersma; Chris JJ Mulder

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, clinical effect and predicting factors for favorable outcome of treatment with anal plugs in fecal incontinence and retrograde colonic irrigation (RCI) in patients with fecal incontinence or constipation.METHODS: Patients who received treatment with an anal plug or RCI between 1980 and 2005 were investigated with a questionnaire.RESULTS: Of the 201 patients (93 adults, 108 children), 101 (50%) responded. Adults: anal plugs (8), five stopped immediately, one stopped after 20 mo and two used it for 12-15 mo. RCI (40, 28 fecal incontinence, 12 constipation), 63% are still using it (mean 8.5 years), 88% was satisfied. Younger adults (< 40 years) were more satisfied with RCI (94 % vs 65%, P = 0.05). Children: anal plugs (7), 5 used it on demand for an average of 2.5 years with satisfactory results, one stopped immediately and one after 5 years. RCI (26 fecal incontinence, 22 constipation), 90% are still using it (mean time 6.8 years) and felt satisfied. Children tend to be more satisfied (P = 0.001). Besides age, no predictive factors for success were found. There was no difference in the outcome between patients with fecal incontinence or constipation.CONCLUSION: RCI is more often applied than anal plugs and is helpful in patients with fecal incontinence or constipation, especially for younger patients. Anal plugs can be used incidentally for fecal incontinence, especially in children.

  13. Experiences from the design and construction of plug II in the Prototype Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstroem, Lars-Olof (NCC Teknik (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    The intention with this document is to summarise the comprehensive documentation and experience that was gained during the design and construction of the temporary plugs in the Prototype Repository experiment at Aespoe HRL. The Prototype Repository experiment was designed to in full scale test the engineered barriers and their function, including the plug that separate the deposition tunnel from the temporary access- and transportation tunnels that are at atmospheric pressure. This plug is designed and constructed as a concrete plug with a spherical front side and a flat pressurised side. This report presents the processes and operations that were considered when developing the 'plug', design, construction and verification. In the Prototype Repository the demand of leakage control is very high and the maximum length of the plugs is constrained due to available clearance space, experimental set-up and configuration. Therefore a typical 'friction plug' normally used to block waterways in connection with hydropower plants, is not suitable. Instead a plug constructed as an 'arch plug' with abutments was considered. In order to minimize the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) the abutments, in which the plug is inserted, was excavated by seam drilling with coring technique. The steel formwork was pre-assembled at the ground surface before taken down to the tunnel. The steel was bolted and welded together and crossbars and plywood were mounted on top. Before taken down to the tunnel, the formwork was separated into smaller pieces that were easier to transport down the tunnel but easy to assembly at the Prototype Repository experiment. Before assembling the formwork, a retaining wall was installed to resist the earth and compaction pressure developed from the backfill material. The retaining wall consists of pre-fabricated concrete beams that were installed parallel with the installation of the backfill. Reinforcement was cut and bent at the

  14. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative

  15. Transcatheter closure of small ductus arteriosus with amplatzer vascular plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhyun Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to share our experience of transcatheter closure of small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA by using an Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP.&lt;br&gt; Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 20 patients who underwent transcatheter closure at Samsung Medical Center and Sejong General Hospital from January 2008 to August 2012. The size and shape of the PDAs were evaluated by performing angiograms, and the PDA size and the AVP devices size were compared.&lt;br&gt;Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.9±45.7 months old. The PDAs were of type C (n=5, type D (n=12 and type E (n=3. The mean pulmonary end diameter of the PDA was 1.7±0.6 mm, and the aortic end diameter was 3.6±1.4 mm. The mean length was 7.3±1.8 mm. We used 3 types of AVP devices: AVP I (n=5, AVP II (n=7, and AVP IV (n=8. The ratio of AVP size to the pulmonary end diameter was 3.37±1.64, and AVP size/aortic end ratio was 1.72±0.97. The aortic end diameter was significantly larger in those cases repaired with AVP II than in the others (P =0.002. The AVP size did not significantly correlate with the PDA size, but did correlate with smaller ratio of AVP size to aortic end diameter (1.10±0.31, P =0.032. &lt;br&gt;Conclusion: Transcatheter closure of small PDA with AVP devices yielded satisfactory outcome. AVP II was equally effective with smaller size of device, compared to others.

  16. 9 CFR 113.64 - General requirements for live bacterial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacterial vaccines. 113.64 Section 113.64 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.64 General requirements for live bacterial vaccines... bacterial vaccine shall meet the requirements in this section. (a) Purity test. Final container samples...

  17. Botulinum neurotoxin type A versus punctal plug insertion in the management of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A Bukhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the efficacies of punctal plug insertion and Botulinum toxin injection in dry eye disease not responding to topical medications. Materials and Methods: A non-controlled randomized clinical trial of two parallel groups of 60 dry eye patients seen in the clinic not responding to topical medications were divided into two groups. One group received punctal plugs and the other group received Botulinum toxin injections to prevent lacrimal tear drainage. Results: Of a total of 36 patients with a mean age of 44.5 years who received punctal plugs, 50% of them experienced improvements in the clinical manifestations of their disease. 12/36 (33.3% developed plug extrusion, and 6/36 (16.7% patients developed conjunctival erosions with irritation that necessitated plug removal within one week of insertion. A total of 24 patients with a mean age of 47.5 years received injections of Botulinum toxin. Of these, 83.3% had improvement in all of the clinical manifestations of dry eye. 4/24 (16.7% had no improvement in the degrees to which they experienced foreign body sensations, 33.3% reported shampoo entering the eye while showering. All of the patients who received Botulinum toxin injections were satisfied with the results of their treatment, whereas only 72.3% of the patients who received punctal plugs were satisfied with their results. Conclusion: Botulinum neurotoxin A injections can be a very good alternative to punctal plugs in improving the clinical manifestations of dry eye disease They are associated with the development of fewer and milder complications and with higher levels of patient satisfaction.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of microbial community in a mixed plug-flow loop reactor fed with dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Chen, Po-Hsu; Yu, Zhongtang

    2014-07-01

    Mixed plug-flow loop reactor (MPFLR) has been widely adopted by the US dairy farms to convert cattle manure to biogas. However, the microbiome in MPFLR digesters remains unexplored. In this study, the microbiome in a MPFLR digester operated on a mega-dairy farm was examined thrice over a 2 month period. Within 23 days of retention time, 55-70% of total manure solid was digested. Except for a few minor volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total VFA concentration and pH remained similar along the course of the digester and over time. Metagenomic analysis showed that although with some temporal variations, the bacterial community was rather stable spatially in the digester. The methanogenic community was also stable both spatially and temporally in the digester. Among methanogens, genus Methanosaeta dominated in the digester. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis and metagenomic analysis yielded different relative abundance of individual genera of methanogens, especially for Methanobacterium, which was predominant based on qPCR analysis but undetectable by metagenomics. Collectively, the results showed that only small microbial and chemical gradients existed within the digester, and the digestion process occurred similarly throughout the MPFLR digester. The findings of this study may help improve the operation and design of this type of manure digesters.

  19. Development of In-pile Plug Assembly and Primary Shutter for Cold Neutron Guide System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Won; Cho, Yeong Garp; Ryu, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The HANARO, a 30 MW multi-purpose research reactor in Korea, will be equipped with a neutron guide system, in order to transport cold neutrons from the neutron source to the neutron scattering instruments in the neutron guide hall near the reactor building. The neutron guide system of HANARO consists of the in-pile plug assembly with in-pile guides, the primary shutter with in-shutter guides, the neutron guides in the guide shielding room with dedicated secondary shutters, and the neutron guides connected to the instruments in the neutron guide hall. The functions of the in-pile plug assembly are to shield the reactor environment from a nuclear radiation and to support the neutron guides and maintain them precisely oriented. The primary shutter is a mechanical device to be installed just after the in-pile plug assembly, which stops neutron flux on demand. This report describes the mechanical design, fabrication, and installation procedure of the in-pile plug assembly and the primary shutter for the neutron guide system at HANARO. A special tool and procedure for a replacement of in-pile plug and guide cassette is also presented with the interface condition in the reactor hall.

  20. Damage Tolerance Assessment of Friction Pull Plug Welds in an Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Burkholder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process used in the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks. Self-reacting friction stir welding is one variation of the friction stir weld process being developed for manufacturing tanks. Friction pull plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential self-reacting friction stir weld. A friction plug weld placed in a self-reacting friction stir weld results in a non-homogenous weld joint where the initial weld, plug weld, their respective heat affected zones and the base metal all interact. The welded joint is a composite plastically deformed material system with a complex residual stress field. In order to address damage tolerance concerns associated with friction plug welds in safety critical structures, such as propellant tanks, nondestructive inspection and proof testing may be required to screen hardware for mission critical defects. The efficacy of the nondestructive evaluation or the proof test is based on an assessment of the critical flaw size. Test data relating residual strength capability to flaw size in an aluminum alloy friction plug weld will be presented.

  1. Free-jet acoustic investigation of high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, P. R.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Bhutiani, P. K.; Vogt, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental and analytical results of a scale model simulated flight acoustic exploratory investigation of high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles with inverted velocity and temperature profiles are summarized. Six coannular plug nozzle configurations and a baseline convergent conical nozzle were tested for simulated flight acoustic evaluation. The nozzles were tested over a range of test conditions that are typical of a Variable Cycle Engine for application to advanced high speed aircraft. It was found that in simulate flight, the high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles maintain their jet noise and shock noise reduction features previously observed in static testing. The presence of nozzle bypass struts will not significantly affect the acousticn noise reduction features of a General Electric type nozzle design. A unique coannular plug nozzle flight acoustic spectral prediction method was identified and found to predict the measured results quite well. Special laser velocimeter and acoustic measurements were performed which have given new insights into the jet and shock noise reduction mechanisms of coannular plug nozzles with regard to identifying further benificial research efforts.

  2. Performance of direct injection methanol engine using the fuel jet impingement and diffusion. ; Comparison between the spark plug and glow plug ignitions. Nenryo funryu no shototsu kakusan wo riyoshita chokufun methanol kikan no seino. ; Spark plug oyobi glow plug chakka hoshiki no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Onishi, S.

    1993-01-20

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of direct fuel injection methanol engines with the spark plug and glow plug ignition systems. These methanol engines utilize the formation of fuel-air mixture by the fuel jet impingement and diffusion. Engine performance and cylinder pressure for the both ignition systems were analyzed. Piezoelectric pressure indicator was used for the cylinder pressure measurements, and combustion analyzer was used for their analyses. In order to estimate engine performance, effects of load and engine speed were analyzed. Consequently, almost the same brake thermal efficiencies (maximum value of 42%) were obtained for both ignition systems. For the glow plug ignition system, the combustion noise and NOx emission were lower than the spark plug engine. The NOx emission did not excess 500ppm with the glow plug ignition system. In the impingement and diffusion method, both the piston attached type impingement part and cylinder head fixed type one were applicable. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Motion of an isolated liquid plug inside a capillary tube: effect of contact angle hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Vyas; Khandekar, Sameer; Bouamrane, Nathan; Lefevre, Frederic; Bonjour, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of a single, small and isolated partially wetting liquid plug (of known length L and wettability), placed at rest inside a long, dry, circular capillary tube ( D = 1.5 mm), and subsequently quasi-statically pushed from one end by applying air pressure, the other end being kept exposed to atmosphere, are reported. The air pressure first overcomes the `static' friction manifested by the three-phase contact line at the advancing and receding menisci, and then, the plug motion gets initiated, eventually leading to a terminal velocity (Ca ~ 2.8 × 10-5), when pressure force balances net frictional resistance due to viscous and surface forces. It is seen that, under steady motion, the curvature profiles of the advancing and receding menisci of liquid plug, respectively, remain the same, independent of the plug length. Steady-state pressure drop is dominated by the contribution due to contact angle hysteresis, which is also independent of the plug length. Increasing the system wettability drastically decreased the contact angle hysteresis and the associated net pressure drop.

  4. Analysis and Online Diagnosis on Plugging Fault of Servo Valve in Electro-hydraulic Regulating System of Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuanyin; LI Xiaoxiao; LI Fushang

    2009-01-01

    Through the study on the output signals of the electro-hydraulic regulating system in the thermal power plant, a novel method for online diagnosis of the plugging fault in the servo valve is presented. With the use of the AMESIM software, the changes of the piston displacement, the oil pressure, the magnitude attenuation and the phase lag of the system under different plugging states are studied after simulation. Besides, the influences of the symmetrical and unsymmetrical plugging on the system are also compared and the characteristic table is given. The duo-neural network is put forward to achieve an online diagnosis on the plugging fault of the servo valve. The first level of network helps to make the qualitative diagnosis of the plugging position while the second level is for the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of the plugged position. The research results show that plugging at different positions exerts different influences on the performance of the system. The unsymmetrical plugging mainly affects the regulation time while the symmetrical plugging leads to great changes in the magnitude attenuation and the phase lag.

  5. Bacterial utilization of size-fractionated dissolved organic matter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    was 12 %. BA was estimated following the DAPI (4,6 diamidino- 2 phenylindole) staining method (Porter & Feig 1980). Briefly, a known volume of seawater (2 to 5 ml) was stained with DAPI (final concentration 0.01%) for 5 min, and filtered onto 0.22 μm... bacterial cells following the procedure described by Porter & Feig (1980). Bacterial biomass (BB) was calculated from bacterial cell numbers and assuming a bacterial carbon content of 15 fg C cell -1 (Caron et al. 1995). Bacterial production...

  6. Experimental investigation of gas hydrate formation, plugging and transportability in partially dispersed and water continuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayamohan, Prithvi

    As oil/gas subsea fields mature, the amount of water produced increases significantly due to the production methods employed to enhance the recovery of oil. This is true especially in the case of oil reservoirs. This increase in the water hold up increases the risk of hydrate plug formation in the pipelines, thereby resulting in higher inhibition cost strategies. A major industry concern is to reduce the severe safety risks associated with hydrate plug formation, and significantly extending subsea tieback distances by providing a cost effective flow assurance management/safety tool for mature fields. Developing fundamental understanding of the key mechanistic steps towards hydrate plug formation for different multiphase flow conditions is a key challenge to the flow assurance community. Such understanding can ultimately provide new insight and hydrate management guidelines to diminish the safety risks due to hydrate formation and accumulation in deepwater flowlines and facilities. The transportability of hydrates in pipelines is a function of the operating parameters, such as temperature, pressure, fluid mixture velocity, liquid loading, and fluid system characteristics. Specifically, the hydrate formation rate and plugging onset characteristics can be significantly different for water continuous, oil continuous, and partially dispersed systems. The latter is defined as a system containing oil/gas/water, where the water is present both as a free phase and partially dispersed in the oil phase (i.e., entrained water in the oil). Since hydrate formation from oil dispersed in water systems and partially dispersed water systems is an area which is poorly understood, this thesis aims to address some key questions in these systems. Selected experiments have been performed at the University of Tulsa flowloop to study the hydrate formation and plugging characteristics for the partially dispersed water/oil/gas systems as well as systems where the oil is completely dispersed

  7. Mobotware – A Plug-in Based Framework For Mobile Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anders Billesø; Andersen, Nils Axel; Andersen, Jens Christian;

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a plug-in based software framework developed at Automation and Control, DTU Electrical Engineering. The software has been used for education and research in mobile robotics for the last decade. Important design criteria have been real-time performance of the control level, easy...... integration of sensors, fast porting to new robots and core system stability and maintainability in an undisciplined programming environment. Real-time performance is assured by using RTAI-Linux; core stability is obtained by using plug-ins for user developed modules. The plug-in based module structure...... enabled many application i.e. robust navigation in an orchard with an autonomous tractor (Andersen,2010). Furthermore by providing a simple scripting robot control language the system also supports use by non-technicians....

  8. Numerical Analysis of Soil Plug Inside Suction Foundations During Suction Penetration by Discrete Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of the soil plug usually rising inside the suction foundations during suction penetration was quantitatively described and predicted. The formation process of the soil plug was simulated and calculated by DEM (discrete element method) model. The seepage flow, the self-weight of soil, the friction on the chamber wall as well as the suction inside the chamber are considered as the main external forces in the process. The results are compared with a set of laboratory model tests performed by using three soil types (sand, silty clay and clay) in the Bohai Sea area. The heights of soil plug from numerical estimations are lower than those from model test results, mainly because the suction pressure and friction resistance are applied in an ideal way under the numerical simulation.

  9. Establishment and application of a new method for the determination of kinetic parameters by plug-plug kinetic capillary electrophoresis (ppKCE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel plug-plug kinetic capillary electrophoresis method was established, which can be used to si-multaneously determine the kinetic parameters kon and koff in interaction systems. The method is comparatively simple and some restrictions in conventional ppKCE methods can be effectively avoided. The requirements for resolution and detection sensitivity in this method are much lower than those of conventional ppKCE. The successful determination of the kinetic parameters and the binding constant Kb between citalopram and BSA showed availability of this method. The results were confirmed by us-ing the time ratio method. The application field of kinetic capillary electrophoresis can be expanded with this new method.

  10. Establishment and application of a new method for the determination of kinetic parameters by plug-plug kinetic capillary electrophoresis (ppKCE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG CaiQiao; XIA ZhiNing; HUANG Rui; CHEN Hua; XU Pan

    2008-01-01

    A novel plug-plug kinetic capillary electrophoresis method was established, which can be used to si-multaneously determine the kinetic parameters kon and koff in interaction systems. The method is comparatively simple and some restrictions in conventional ppKCE methods can be effectively avoided, The requirements for resolution and detection sensitivity in this method are much lower than those of conventional ppKCE, The successful determination of the kinetic parameters and the binding constant Kb between citalopram and BSA showed availability of this method, The results were confirmed by us-ing the time ratio method. The application field of kinetic capillary electrophoresis can be expanded with this new method,

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  12. Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

  13. Control of Magnetic Bearings for Rotor Unbalance With Plug-In Time-Varying Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Christopher; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Rotor unbalance, common phenomenon of rotational systems, manifests itself as a periodic disturbance synchronized with the rotor's angular velocity. In active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems, feedback control is required to stabilize the open-loop unstable electromagnetic levitation. Further, feedback action can be added to suppress the repeatable runout but maintain closed-loop stability. In this paper, a plug-in time-varying resonator is designed by inverting cascaded notch filters. This formulation allows flexibility in designing the internal model for appropriate disturbance rejection. The plug-in structure ensures that stability can be maintained for varying rotor speeds. Experimental results of an AMB-rotor system are presented.

  14. Danish Visual Speech Synthesis & MPEG-4 Facial Animation plug-in for RealPlayer G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Adam Johan; Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Dyhr, Niels-Jørn

    1999-01-01

    A Danish visual speech synthesis system is presented. Information from a speech synthesis system is used to create realistic lip-synched facial animation using MPEG-4. An MPEG-4 plug-in for RealPlayer G2 is also presented.......A Danish visual speech synthesis system is presented. Information from a speech synthesis system is used to create realistic lip-synched facial animation using MPEG-4. An MPEG-4 plug-in for RealPlayer G2 is also presented....

  15. Observation of the effect of cleaning the smear layer and tubule plugs with SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dan-ni; DONG Ya-li

    2001-01-01

    To clean out the smear layer on teeth surface, and protect the teeth medulla, the experiment applied the study observing the cleanup of six groups of surface smear layer of dental caries and the tubule plugs reserving effect after using of different cavity cleansers with the help of SEM. The result implied that both the acidic preparations and chelator could clean out the smear layer on.teeth surface in some way, but the later one could also reserve partial tubule plugs, which reduce the stimulation to the teeth medulla. So the chelator is better cleansers in clinical use.

  16. Structural Design and Force Analysis for Equatorial Diagnostic Port Plug of ITER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dongman; YAO Damao; XIE Han; BAO Liman; XU Tiejun; LIU Sumei

    2009-01-01

    The structural design of equatorial diagnostic port plug for international thermonuclear experimental reactor(ITER)was discussed in this paper.The induced electromagnetic (EM) loads of port plug and blanket shielding module(BSM)were presented.The finite element analysis (FEA) and numerical calculation of the system were performed under the maximum loads.According to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers(ASME)criteria,the EM stress is far below the admissible failure boundary,which indicates that the system can resist the cooperative action of EM loads and device deadweight.The analysis could provide technical data and references for further analysis and optimized design of the system.

  17. Plug-in to Eclipse environment for VHDL source code editor with advanced formatting of text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes an idea and realization of a smart plug-in to the Eclipse software environment. The plug-in is predicted for editing of the VHDL source code. It extends considerably the capabilities of the VEditor program, which bases on the open license. There are presented the results of the formatting procedures performed on chosen examples of the VHDL source codes. The work is a part of a bigger project of building smart programming environment for design of advanced photonic and electronic systems. The examples of such systems are quoted in references.

  18. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING THE PLUG POWER SU1 FUEL CELL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Plug Power SU1 Fuel Cell System manufactured by Plug Power. The SU1 is a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that requires hydrogen (H2) as fuel. H2 is generally not available, so the ...

  20. Abstraction and Model Checking in the PEPA Plug-in for Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Michael James Andrew

    2010-01-01

    lead to very large Markov chains. One way of analysing such models is to use abstraction - constructing a smaller model that bounds the properties of the original. We present an extension to the PEPA plug-in for Eclipse that enables abstracting and model checking of PEPA models. This implements two new...

  1. Acceptable results using plug for the treatment of complex anal fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, Jakob; Hagen, Kikke; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The management of complex fistula-in-ano remains a surgical challenge. Previously published studies on the treatment of fistula-in-ano with the anal fistula plug (AFP) have reported a success rate reaching 35-87%. The aim of this study was to assess the results of the AFP procedure in a group...

  2. Vascular plug for ICA occlusion in cavernous carotid aneurysms: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, David A.; Keston, Peter; White, Philip; Sellar, Robin [Western General Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Large, symptomatic aneurysms of the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) can be successfully treated by a combination of aneurysm coiling and occlusion of the parent vessel. We describe the use of an Amplatzer (AGA medical corporation, Plymouth, MA, USA) detachable nitinol vascular plug to occlude the ICA in four patients with symptomatic cavernous ICA aneurysms. (orig.)

  3. Closing the medullary canal after retrograde nail removal using a bioabsorbable bone plug: Technical tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a simple technique for closure of the intra-articular opening after the removal of a retrograde femur nail. With the use of a gelatine bioabsorbable bone plug the medullary canal is closed, reducing leakage of blood and cancellous bone particles from the bone into the knee jo

  4. 40 CFR 144.63 - Financial assurance for plugging and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... abandonment. 144.63 Section 144.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... the trustee's most recent annual valuation of the trust fund. If the value of the fund is less than... plugging and abandonment cost estimates; (C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and...

  5. Modular Plug'n'Play Control Architectures for Three-Phase Inverters in UPS Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan C.;

    2016-01-01

    modules. Recovery layer is mainly responsible for guaranteeing synchronization capability with the utility and voltage recovery. With the proposed control, improved voltage transient performance can be achieved and also DC/AC modules can be plugged in and out flexibly while controlling the AC critical bus...

  6. Comparison of CT and MRI artefacts from coils and vascular plugs used for portal vein embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.geisel@charite.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Charité, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Gebauer, Bernhard [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Charité, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Malinowski, Maciej; Stockmann, Martin [Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Charité, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Denecke, Timm [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Charité, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the degree of artefacts in CT and MRI scans caused by coils and vascular plugs used for portal vein embolization (PVE). Materials and methods: All patients who underwent PVE between July 2011 and December 2012 and received either plug or coil embolization additional to particle embolization were retrospectively analyzed. Artefacts causes by embolization materials were measured in CT and MRI scans following PVE. Results: The sum of the artefact diameters caused from coils was significantly higher in CT (188.3 ± 26.1 mm) than in MRI T1 (50.5 ± 6.5 mm) or T2 imaging (39.5 ± 9.7 mm) (P < 0.05). In MRI, the diameter in T1 and T2 sequences did not differ significantly (P = 0.977). The sum of the artefact diameters from vascular plugs in MRI T1 sequences (62.5 ± 8.7 mm) was significantly higher than in CT (46.6 ± 4.8 mm; P < 0.05) and MRI T2 sequences (52.8 ± 3.8 mm; P < 0.05). Conclusion: PVE with particles and vascular plug causes significantly fewer artefacts than PVE with particles and coils on CT scans following embolization, which can be important in the event of vascular complications or in follow-up scans, should the patient become unresectable.

  7. Alternative system design concepts for the ITER core CXRS upper port plug front end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimmer, A.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Biel, W.; Hawkes, N.; Kiss, G.; Koning, J.F.; Krasikov, Y.; Neubauer, O.

    2011-01-01

    The upper port #3 in ITER will be used by the core Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (core CXRS) to channel out light from the inside of the vacuum vessel. Recent research about the lifetime of the first two mirrors and changes in the upper port plug geometry initiated further investigation

  8. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging and abandonment of Class III... abandonment of Class III wells. To meet the requirements of § 146.10(d) of this chapter, owners and operators of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which...

  9. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  10. A novel, intelligent, pressure-sensing colostomy plug for reducing fecal leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Li, Zhi-Chao; Li, Qiang; Liang, Fei-Xue; Guo, Xiong-Bo; Huang, Zong-Hai

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to describe and report the effectiveness of a novel, pressure-sensing colostomy plug for reducing fecal leakage. Nine miniature Tibetan pigs, aged 6-8 months, were given colostomies and divided into three groups (n = 3 each group). A novel pressure-sensing colostomy plug was placed in each pig and set to indicate when intestinal pressures of either 5, 10, or 15 mm Hg, respectively, were reached. When the pressure thresholds were reached, the animals' bowels were examined for the presence of stool and/or stomal leakage, and the data were recorded at weeks 1, 4, and 8 after surgery. The colostomy plug calibrated to 15 mm Hg pressure demonstrated the greatest accuracy in predicting the presence of stool in the bowels of study animals, averaging >90% sensitivity. In general, the sensitivity for predicting the presence of stool did not vary significantly over time, though there was a slight increase in accuracy in the 5 mm Hg group at later time-points. The sensitivity for predicting stool in the bowel did not change significantly over time in any of the three groups. Stomal leakage was found to be inversely proportional to the pressure-sensor setting, in that the 15 mm Hg group exhibited the greatest amount of leakage. This difference, however, was found to be significant only at week 1 postsurgery. The intelligent, pressure-sensing colostomy plug was able to accurately predict the presence of stool in the bowel and maintain continence, allowing negligible leakage.

  11. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  12. Trefoil factor peptide 3 is positively correlated with the viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara Kjær; Samson, Mie Hesselund; Becher, Naja;

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug are considered essential for the occlusion of the cervical canal and thereby for protection against ascending infections during pregnancy. Factors controlling this property are virtually unknown. This study explores a possible role of trefoil...

  13. The Quiet Plug Crisis: A Digital Generation Scours the Library for Electrical Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the only person in a library looking for an electrical outlet was a blue-smocked cleaning person who had to plug in a vacuum cleaner with a very long cord. Now, hordes of patrons outfitted with amp-devouring laptops and cell phones expect and need the library to offer an endless supply of electricity. The overall demand for…

  14. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using on

  15. Plugging Braking of Two-PMSM Drive in Subway Applications with Fault-Tolerant Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. obed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM is commonly used as traction motors in the electric traction applications such as in subway train. The subway train is better transport vehicle due to its advantages of security, economic, health and friendly with nature. Braking is defined as removal of the kinetic energy stored in moving parts of machine. The plugging braking is the best braking offered and has the shortest time to stop. The subway train is a heavy machine and has a very high moment of inertia requiring a high braking torque to stop. The plugging braking is an effective method to provide a fast stop to the train. In this paper plugging braking system of the PMSM used in the subway train in normal and fault-tolerant operation is made. The model of the PMSM, three-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI controlled using Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation technique (SVPWM, Field Oriented Control method (FOC for independent control of two identical PMSMs and fault-tolerant operation is presented. Simulink model of the plugging braking system of PMSM in normal and fault tolerant operation is proposed using Matlab/Simulink software. Simulation results for different cases are given.

  16. Plain film diagnosis in meconium plug syndrome, meconium ileus and neonatal Hirschsprung's disease - A scoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hussain (Shahid); M. Meradji (Morteza); S.G.F. Robben (Simon); W.C.J. Hop (Wim)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAbdominal plain films of 133 neonates, with 82 cases of meconium plug syndrome (MPS), 27 cases of meconium ileus (MI) and 24 cases of neonatal Hirschsprung's disease (HD), were reviewed to assess the value of such radiographs for diagnosis. The radiographs were examined according to a li

  17. GIS-Based Target Tree Management Supporting System Based on Plug-In Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiang Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional forest management models based on stand or landscape level should be transformed to concluding an individual tree level at the same time. Target tree management individual operation method based on close-to-nature sivlculture need to develop to implement such transformation. Aiming to complicated analysis, large computing and the status of lack of effective analysis tool for the operation method, we tried to develop GIS-based plug-in Target Tree Management system Supporting System (TTMSS to meet this requirement combing plug-in technology of .Net framework, C# and ArcGIS Engine 9.3 components kit. A target tree management individual operation method was established by designing target trees and interference trees decision processes and methods based on Geographic Information System (GIS. The results showed that the operation method improved the feasibility and reduced the difficulty of the target tree management with GIS technology to help improve the operations on the individual tree level. It was proved that TTMSS was an effective tool for target tree management. Under this plug-in mode, the users merely need to do is add or replace plug-ins if one wants to expand or upgrade the system, extremely improve TTMSS’s portability and expandability.

  18. Effect of shear-thinning behaviour on liquid-liquid plug flow in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumpea, Evangelia; Chinaud, Maxime; Weheliye, Weheliye Hashi; Angeli, Panagiota; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar K.

    2016-11-01

    The present work investigates the dynamics of plug formation of shear-thinning solutions in a 200 μm microchannel using a two-colour micro-PIV system. Measurements, including phase-averaged velocity fields, have been conducted both at the T-junction inlet and the main channel to enhance understanding of non-Newtonian liquid-liquid flows. Two aqueous glycerol solutions containing xanthan gum are used as the non-Newtonian fluids while 5 cSt silicone oil is the Newtonian phase. The current experimental results revealed a pronounced impact of the xanthan gum (shear-thinning behaviour) on the flow pattern transition boundaries, and enhance the fluid flowrates where plug flow occurred. The addition of polymer resulted also in different hydrodynamic characteristics such as a bullet-shaped plug and an increased film thickness between the plug and the wall. In the present work, the technique allows to capture the velocity field of both phases simultaneously. Experimental results are compared with the numerical simulations provided by the code BLUE. Project funded under the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Programme Grant MEMPHIS.

  19. NaK Plugging Meter Design for the Feasibility Test Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Reid, Robert S.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2008-01-01

    The design and predicted performance of a plugging meter for use in the measurement of NaK impurity levels are presented. The plugging meter is incorporated into a Feasibility Test Loop (FTL), which is a small pumped-NaK loop designed to enable the rapid, small-scale evaluation of techniques such as in situ purification methods and to permit the measurement of bulk material transport effects (not mechanisms) under flow conditions that are representative of a fission surface power reactor. The FTL operates at temperatures similar to those found in a reactor, with a maximum hot side temperature of 900 K and a corresponding cold side temperature of 860 K. In the plugging meter a low flow rate bypass loop is cooled until various impurities (primarily oxides) precipitate out of solution. The temperatures at which these impurities precipitate are indicative of the level of impurities in the NaK. The precipitates incrementally plug a small orifice in the bypass loop, which is detected by monitoring changes in the liquid metal flow rate.

  20. Hemostasis Plug for an Electromagnetic Thermotherapy and Its Application for Liver Laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Hsien; Huang, Sheng-Chieh; Chao, Ying-Jui; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Accident-induced liver trauma is a significant human health concern, as this organ is readily injured during periods at which the abdominal region is compromised. In this work, electromagnetic thermotherapy was successfully developed and employed in vitro and in vivo to treat livers that had been lacerated. Briefly, a new hemostasis plug was integrated with an electromagnetic thermotherapy system (ETS) to perform surgery on lacerated livers. The high-frequency, alternating electromagnetic field (EMF) was generated by the ETS and was shown to induce a pre-set temperature increase within the hemostasis plug embedded in the target tissue. In order to prevent overheating and maintain a constant hemostasis temperature, a temperature feedback control system was utilized. The effect of the intensity of the EMF on the heating capacity of the ETS-hemostasis system was first explored. Furthermore, the relationship between the coagulation zone and operating temperature were investigated in vitro. By utilizing the temperature feedback control system, the hemostasis plug could be heated to a specific temperature for efficient hemostasis. With this approach, the optimal treatment temperature and time were investigated for liver laceration. Lacerated livers from New Zealand white rabbits were successfully treated with the hemostasis plug and ETS within a short period of time. When compared with the traditional perihepatic packing approach, the volume of blood loss from liver laceration surgeries treated by ETS has been dramatically reduced by 83%, suggesting a high therapeutic potential for this system.

  1. 78 FR 68714 - Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Scleral Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... the Federal Register of January 25, 2013 (78 FR 5327), FDA proposed to classify scleral plug devices..., before proposing ``any rule that includes any Federal mandate that may result in the expenditure by State, local, and tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100,000,000 or...

  2. Effect of flow and active mixing on bacterial growth in a colon-like geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Jonas; Segota, Igor; Arnoldini, Markus; Groisman, Alex; Hwa, Terence

    The large intestine harbors bacteria from hundreds of species, with bacterial densities reaching up to 1012 cells per gram. Many different factors influence bacterial growth dynamics and thus bacterial density and microbiota composition. One dominant force is flow which can in principle lead to a washout of bacteria from the proximal colon. Active mixing by Contractions of the colonic wall together with bacterial growth might counteract such flow-forces and allow high bacterial densities to occur. As a step towards understanding bacterial growth in the presence of mixing and flow, we constructed an in-vitro setup where controlled wall-deformations of a channel emulate Contractions. We investigate growth along the channel under a steady nutrient inflow. In the limits of no or very frequent Contractions, the device behaves like a plug-flow reactor and a chemostat respectively. Depending on mixing and flow, we observe varying spatial gradients in bacterial density along the channel. Active mixing by deformations of the channel wall is shown to be crucial in maintaining a steady-state bacterial population in the presence of flow. The growth-dynamics is quantitatively captured by a simple mathematical model, with the effect of mixing described by an effective diffusion term.

  3. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Jeremy J; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B

    2011-10-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO(2) emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent.

  4. Long-Term Results of Punctal Plug Applied to Dry Eye Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ismet Doğru

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The evaluation of long-term results of punctal plugs applied to dry eye patients and the potential problems they may bring about. Material and Method: In this study, we retrospectively assessed 30 eyes of 15 patients with moderate to advanced dry eyes who were applied punctal plug (5 mm for treatment purpose and were observed for 12 months. The patients’ Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI scoring, Schimer-1 test (without topical anesthesia, tear film break-up time (TBUT and ocular surface staining with fluorescein results were evaluated and compared before and after 6- and 12-month use of punctal plug. The patients were started on topical antiinflammatory treatment and artificial tears two months before the application of the punctum plug. Results: The patients’ average age was 56.4±2.3 (range: 36-70 years, and the average follow-up period was 15 (12-30 months. The average OSDI score was statistically significantly decreased at 6 and 12 months when compared to the initial value (p<0.05. The average Schirmer-1 test values measured at 6 and 12 months were also statistically significantly increased compared with the initial value (p<0.05. The average Schirmer-1 test value at 12 months was considerably increased when compared with the 6th month’s value (p<0.05. The average TBUT was statistically significantly increased when compared to the values at 6 and 12 months (p<0.05. When the outcomes of ocular surface staining with fluorescein were evaluated, a significant decrease was seen at 6 and 12 months when compared to the initial value (p<0.05. Discussion: The punctal plug treatment associated with topical anti-inflammatory treatment for moderate and advanced dry eye patients is a reliable method. It decreases the dry eye symptoms and findings in the long term. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 225-9

  5. Novel mouse hemostasis model for real-time determination of bleeding time and hemostatic plug composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    GETZ, T. M.; PIATT, R.; PETRICH, B. G.; MONROE, D.; MACKMAN, N.; BERGMEIER, W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction Hemostasis is a rapid response by the body to stop bleeding at sites of vessel injury. Both platelets and fibrin are important for the formation of a hemostatic plug. Mice have been used to uncover the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activation of platelets and coagulation under physiologic conditions. However, measurements of hemostasis in mice are quite variable, and current methods do not quantify platelet adhesion or fibrin formation at the site of injury. Methods We describe a novel hemostasis model that uses intravital fluorescence microscopy to quantify platelet adhesion, fibrin formation and time to hemostatic plug formation in real time. Repeated vessel injuries of ~ 50–100 μm in diameter were induced with laser ablation technology in the saphenous vein of mice. Results Hemostasis in this model was strongly impaired in mice deficient in glycoprotein Ibα or talin-1, which are important regulators of platelet adhesiveness. In contrast, the time to hemostatic plug formation was only minimally affected in mice deficient in the extrinsic tissue factor (TFlow) or the intrinsic factor IX coagulation pathways, even though platelet adhesion was significantly reduced. A partial reduction in platelet adhesiveness obtained with clopidogrel led to instability within the hemostatic plug, especially when combined with impaired coagulation in TFlow mice. Conclusions In summary, we present a novel, highly sensitive method to quantify hemostatic plug formation in mice. On the basis of its sensitivity to platelet adhesion defects and its real-time imaging capability, we propose this model as an ideal tool with which to study the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet agents. PMID:25442192

  6. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  7. Preparation of high molecular weight gDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, Siddanagouda S; Nie, Xiaojun; Feng, Kewei; Weining, Song

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable large-insert DNA libraries for physical mapping, positional cloning, comparative genomic analysis, complete genome sequencing, and evolutionary studies. Due to their stability and relative simplicity BAC libraries are most preferred over other approaches for cloning large genomic DNA fragments for large-insert libraries. Isolation of intact high molecular weight (HMW) DNA is a critical step underlying the success of large-insert genomic DNA library construction. It requires the isolation of purified nuclei, embedding them into LMP agarose plugs, restriction digestion of the plugs, and quite often size selection using PFGE and electro-elution of insert DNA. The construction of BAC libraries is complex and challenging for most molecular laboratories. To facilitate the construction of BAC libraries, we present a step-by-step protocol for isolation of HMW DNA and construction of plant BAC libraries.

  8. Online Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Prolongation of All-Electric Range Based on Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The employed energy management strategy plays an important role in energy saving performance and exhausted emission reduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An application of dynamic programming for optimization of power allocation is implemented in this paper with certain driving cycle and a limited driving range. Considering the DP algorithm can barely be used in real-time control because of its huge computational task and the dependence on a priori driving cycle, several online useful control rules are established based on the offline optimization results of DP. With the above efforts, an online energy management strategy is proposed finally. The presented energy management strategy concerns the prolongation of all-electric driving range as well as the energy saving performance. A simulation study is deployed to evaluate the control performance of the proposed energy management approach. All-electric range of the plug-in HEV can be prolonged by up to 2.86% for a certain driving condition. The energy saving performance is relative to the driving distance. The presented energy management strategy brings a little higher energy cost when driving distance is short, but for a long driving distance, it can reduce the energy consumption by up to 5.77% compared to the traditional CD-CS strategy.

  9. Global Optimal Energy Management Strategy Research for a Plug-In Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus by Using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategy influences the power performance and fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles greatly. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB, this paper searched the global optimal energy management strategy using dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Firstly, the simplified backward model of the PHEB was built which is necessary for DP algorithm. Then the torque and speed of engine and the torque of motor were selected as the control variables, and the battery state of charge (SOC was selected as the state variables. The DP solution procedure was listed, and the way was presented to find all possible control variables at every state of each stage in detail. Finally, the appropriate SOC increment is determined after quantizing the state variables, and then the optimal control of long driving distance of a specific driving cycle is replaced with the optimal control of one driving cycle, which reduces the computational time significantly and keeps the precision at the same time. The simulation results show that the fuel economy of the PEHB with the optimal energy management strategy is improved by 53.7% compared with that of the conventional bus, which can be a benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies.

  10. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...... valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future....

  11. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  12. Role of quorum sensing in bacterial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Juárez, Israel; Maeda, Toshinari; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; Tomás, María; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; Wood, Thomas K; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is cell communication that is widely used by bacterial pathogens to coordinate the expression of several collective traits, including the production of multiple virulence factors, biofilm formation, and swarming motility once a population threshold is reached. Several lines of evidence indicate that QS enhances virulence of bacterial pathogens in animal models as well as in human infections; however, its relative importance for bacterial pathogenesis is still incomplete. In this review, we discuss the present evidence from in vitro and in vivo experiments in animal models, as well as from clinical studies, that link QS systems with human infections. We focus on two major QS bacterial models, the opportunistic Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, which are also two of the main agents responsible of nosocomial and wound infections. In addition, QS communication systems in other bacterial, eukaryotic pathogens, and even immune and cancer cells are also reviewed, and finally, the new approaches proposed to combat bacterial infections by the attenuation of their QS communication systems and virulence are also discussed. PMID:26244150

  13. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  15. Preliminary geochemical and physical testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O' Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on environmental conditions (both natural and man-made) at the Hanford Site are sufficient for preconceptual plug system design. Results of the geochemical testing program indicate that preferred candidate plug materials are chemically nonreactive during laboratory tests that simulated some of the expected environmental conditions. Agitated, crushed-basalt samples and mixtures containing basalt were found to be self-cementing under the hydrothermal conditions. Materials considered most suitable for consideration in future test programs and preconceptual plug design are mixtures of natural materials (basalt, clay, glaciofluvial sand, gravel, and zeolite) and processed natural materials (portland cement Type V and grouts plus additives).

  16. Stochastic control of smart home energy management with plug-in electric vehicle battery energy storage and photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Moura, Scott; Yin, Xiaofeng; Pickert, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Energy management strategies are instrumental in the performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy and energy storage. This article focuses on stochastic energy management of a smart home with PEV (plug-in electric vehicle) energy storage and photovoltaic (PV) array. It is motivated by the challenges associated with sustainable energy supplies and the local energy storage opportunity provided by vehicle electrification. This paper seeks to minimize a consumer's energy charges under a time-of-use tariff, while satisfying home power demand and PEV charging requirements, and accommodating the variability of solar power. First, the random-variable models are developed, including Markov Chain model of PEV mobility, as well as predictive models of home power demand and PV power supply. Second, a stochastic optimal control problem is mathematically formulated for managing the power flow among energy sources in the smart home. Finally, based on time-varying electricity price, we systematically examine the performance of the proposed control strategy. As a result, the electric cost is 493.6% less for a Tesla Model S with optimal stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) control relative to the no optimal control case, and it is by 175.89% for a Nissan Leaf.

  17. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 vehicle utilization report provided results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. Finally, this report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune personnel.

  18. Three-Phase High-Power and Zero-Current-Switching OBC for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Shan Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an interleaved high-power zero-current-switching (ZCS onboard charger (OBC based on the three-phase single-switch buck rectifier is proposed for application to plug-in electric vehicles (EVs. The multi-resonant structure is used to achieve high efficiency and high power density, which are necessary to reduce the volume and weight of the OBC. This study focuses on the border conditions of ZCS converting with a battery load, which means the variation ranges of the output voltage and current are very large. Furthermore, a novel hybrid control method combining pulse frequency modulation (PFM and pulse width modulation (PWM together is presented to ensure a driving frequency higher than 10 kHz, and this will reduce the unexpected inner resonant power flow and decrease the total harmonic distortion (THD of the input current under a light load at the end of the charging process. Finally, a prototype is established, and experiments are carried out. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency is higher than 93.5%, the THD about 4.3% and power factor (PF 0.98 under the maximum power output condition. Besides, a three-stage charging process is also carried out the experimental platform.

  19. Photocatalytic mineralization of glyphosate in a small-scale plug flow simulation reactor by UV/TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Q; Hu, Zhi J; Wang, Nan X

    2012-01-01

    The present work involves the photocatalytic mineralization of glyphosate on a plug flow reactor by UV/TiO(2). The effect of catalyst loading shows an optimal value (0.4 g L(-1)) which is necessary to mineralize glyphosate. The kinetic rate of glyphosate mineralization decreases with the increasing initial concentration of glyphosate, and the data can be described using the first-order model. An alkaline environment is conducive to glyphosate mineralization. The mineralization efficiency increases with elevated flow rate to 114 mL min(-1), which is followed by a decrease with a further increase in flow rate due to the reduction of the residence time. The presence of external oxidants (K(2)S(2)O(8), H(2)O(2) and KBrO(3)) and photosencitizer (humic acid) can significantly enhance glyphosate mineralization. Photocatalysis oxidation ability of the three studied oxidants decrease in the order of: S(2)O(8)(2-) > BrO(3)(-) > H(2)O(2). Finally, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model was used to rationalize the mechanisms of reactions occurring on TiO(2) surfaces and L-H model constants were also determined.

  20. Coupling Clinical Decision Support System with Computerized Prescriber Order Entry and their Dynamic Plugging in the Medical Workflow System

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzguenda, Lotfi

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with coupling Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) with Computerized Prescriber Order Entry (CPOE) and their dynamic plugging in the medical Workflow Management System (WfMS). First, in this paper we argue some existing CDSS representative of the state of the art in order to emphasize their inability to deal with coupling with CPOE and medical WfMS. The multi-agent technology is at the basis of our proposition since (i) it provides natural abstractions to deal with distribution, heterogeneity and autonomy which are inherent to the previous systems (CDSS, CPOE and medical WfMS), and (ii) it introduces powerful concepts such as organizations, goals and roles useful to describe in details the coordination of the different components involved in these systems. In this paper, we also propose a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to support the coupling CDSS with CPOE. Finally, we show how we integrate the proposed MAS in the medical workflow management system which is also based on collaborating agents

  1. Autologous osteochondral plug transplantation for osteochondrosis of the second metatarsal head: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokubu Takeshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Osteochondrosis of the second or third metatarsal head is a rare condition called Freiberg's disease. To relieve foot pain, conservative treatment with a foot orthosis to reduce weight-bearing and immobilize the foot are recommended. In cases in which such treatments have proved to be ineffective, several surgical treatments have been performed. The appropriate surgical treatment for Freiberg's disease remains controversial. Case presentation We describe the case of a 20-year-old Japanese woman with a three-year history of right forefoot pain and no history of trauma. Two years after treatment by autologous osteochondral plug transplantation, she has neither complaints nor symptoms. Conclusion Autologous osteochondral plug transplantation represents a potentially successful surgical arthroplastic option in preserving the metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with Freiberg's disease.

  2. Hydrogel plug for independent sample and buffer handling in continuous microchip capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchberger-Enengl, Dietmar; Bipoun, Mireille; Smolka, Martin; Krutzler, Christian; Keplinger, Franz; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2013-05-01

    In microchip capillary electrophoresis most frequently electrokinetic sample injection is utilized, which does not allow pressure driven sample handling and is sensitive for pressure drops due to different reservoir levels. For efficient field tests a multitude of samples have to be processed with the least amount of external equipment. We present the use of a hydrogel plug to separate the sample from clean buffer to enable independent sample change and buffer refreshment. In-situ polymerization of the gel does away with complex membrane fabrication techniques. The sample is electrokinetically injected through the gel and subsequently separated by a voltage between the second gel inlet and the buffer outlet. By blocking of disturbing flows by the gel barrier a well-defined ion plug is obtained. After each experiment, the sample and the separation channel can be flushed independently, allowing for a continuous operation mode in order to process multiple samples.

  3. SmartBuild-a truly plug-n-play modular microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2008-08-01

    In this Technical Note, for the first time, a truly "plug-n-play" modular microfluidic system (SmartBuild Plug-n-Play Modular Microfluidic System) is presented for designing and building integrated modular microfluidic systems for biological and chemical applications. The modular microfluidic system can be built by connecting multiple microfluidic components together to form a larger integrated system. The SmartBuild System comprises of a motherboard with interconnect channels/grooves, fitting components, microchannel inserts with different configurations and microchips/modules with different functionalities. Also, heaters, micropumps and valving systems can be designed and used in the system. Examples of an integrated mixing system and reaction systems are presented here to demonstrate the versatility of the SmartBuild System.

  4. Performance of the plugged-in 22Na based slow positron beam facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; MA Yan-Yun; QIN Xiu-Bo; ZHANG Zhe; CAO Xing-Zhong; YU Run-Sheng; WANG Bao-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing intense slow positron beam facility is based on the 1.3 GeV linac of Beijing ElectronPositron CoUider (BEPC) aiming to produce mono-energetic intense slow positron beam for material science investigation. The plugged-in 22Na based slow positron beam section has been newly constructed to supply continuous beam time for the debugging of positron annihilation measurement stations and improve the Beijing intense slow positron beam time using efficiency. Performance testing result of the plugged-in 22Na based slow positron beam facility are reviewed in this paper, with the measurement of the beam transport efficiency, the view of beam spot, the adjustment of beam position, the measurement of beam intensity and energy spread etc. included.

  5. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.

    2010-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

  6. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  7. A plug-in to Eclipse for VHDL source codes: functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niton, B.; Poźniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    The paper presents an original application, written by authors, which supports writing and edition of source codes in VHDL language. It is a step towards fully automatic, augmented code writing for photonic and electronic systems, also systems based on FPGA and/or DSP processors. An implementation is described, based on VEditor. VEditor is a free license program. Thus, the work presented in this paper supplements and extends this free license. The introduction characterizes shortly available tools on the market which serve for aiding the design processes of electronic systems in VHDL. Particular attention was put on plug-ins to the Eclipse environment and Emacs program. There are presented detailed properties of the written plug-in such as: programming extension conception, and the results of the activities of formatter, re-factorizer, code hider, and other new additions to the VEditor program.

  8. Completion plug design provides improved operational efficiency and safety while minimizing environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dum, Frank [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pipeline repair standards have been raised with recent improvements for completion plugs when used with a brand new setting tool, resulting in lower environmental risks, improved operational efficiency and safety. The design changes were originally made to serve in an offshore environment in order to minimize the diver's time in the water and simplify steps by the diver to execute pipeline repair operations in cold, dark conditions. Enhancements in the design include fewer number of fittings, plugs, o-rings and gaskets isolating the pipeline product found inside the pipe. The new design is a step toward meeting strict operational and safety standards demanded in the field of pipeline maintenance and repair. (author)

  9. The Development of Expansion Plug Wedge Test for Clad Tubing Structure Mechanical Property Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL

    2016-01-12

    To determine the tensile properties of irradiated fuel cladding in a hot cell, a simple test was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is described fully in US Patent Application 20060070455, “Expanded plug method for developing circumferential mechanical properties of tubular materials.” This method is designed for testing fuel rod cladding ductility in a hot cell using an expandable plug to stretch a small ring of irradiated cladding material. The specimen strain is determined using the measured diametrical expansion of the ring. This method removes many complexities associated with specimen preparation and testing. The advantages are the simplicity of measuring the test component assembly in the hot cell and the direct measurement of the specimen’s strain. It was also found that cladding strength could be determined from the test results.

  10. From catastrophic acceleration to deceleration of liquid plugs in prewetted capillary tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Magniez, J C; Liu, C; Zoueshtiagh, F

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of individual liquid plugs pushed at constant pressure head inside prewetted cylindrical capillary tubes is investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that, depending on the thickness of the prewetting film and the magnitude of the pressure head, the plugs can either experience a continuous acceler ation leading to a catastrophic decrease of their size and eventually their rupture or conversely, a progressive deceleration associated with their growth. These behaviors are quantitatively reproduced with a simple nonlinear model [Baudoin et al., Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci. USA, 2013, 110, 859] adapted here for cylindrical channels. Furthermore, an analytical criterion for the transition between these two regimes is obtained and successfully compared with extensive experimental data. The implications of this work for pulmonary obstructive diseases are discussed.

  11. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  12. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air.

  13. Multi-objective optimization control of plug-in electric vehicles in low voltage distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Villalobos, J.; Zamora, I.; Knezovic, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The massive introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into low voltage (LV) distribution networks will lead to several problems, such as: increase of energy losses, decrease of distribution transformer lifetime, lines and transformer overload issues, voltage drops and unbalances...... tested using real data of a LV distribution network, located in Borup (Denmark). Simulation results show that this approach can reduce both energy losses and charging costs as well as it allows a high PEV penetration rates (PEV-PR)....

  14. An Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessary Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, an integrated onboard battery charger and accessary dc-dc converter for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presented. The idea is to utilize the already available traction drive inverters and motors of a PEV as the frond converter of the charger circuit and the transformer of the 14 V accessary dc-dc converter to provide galvanic isolation. The topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5 kW charger prototype

  15. STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND SIMULATION OF PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marozka; Yu. N. Petrenko

    2013-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) have gained attention, especially in the context of growing concerns about global warming and energy security aspects associated with road transport. The main characteristic of EDVs is that the torque is supplied to the wheels by an electric motor that is powered either solely by a battery or in combination with an internal combustion engine (ICE). This covers hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  16. Mosquitoes Associated with Ditch-Plugged and Control Tidal Salt Marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Leisnham, Paul T.; Sarah Sandoval-Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near the...

  17. Use of amplatzer vascular plug to treat a biliary cutaneous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ierardi, Anna Maria; Fontana, Federico; Mangini, Manica; Piacentino, Filippo; Cocozza, Eugenio; Frankowska, Emila; Floridi, Chaiara; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo [Unisubria, Varese (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Several substances have been used in an attempt to sclerose biliary ducts associated with persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula (BCF). The AMPLATZER Vascular Plug (AVP; AGA Medical, USA) system is a recently developed endovascular occlusion device, introduced as an alternative to permanent embolic materials (metallic coils or acrylic glue), in the occlusion of large and medium-calibre arteries and veins. We report a successful use of the AVP to embolize BCF, developed after the removal of an internal-external biliary drainage.

  18. Plug: Secrets of the Museum": A pervasive game taking place in a museum

    OpenAIRE

    Simatic, M.; Astic, Isabelle; Aunis, C.; Gentes, A.; Guyot-Mbodji, A.; Jutant, C.; Zaza, E.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; "Plug: Secrets of the Museum" (PSM) is a game played with NFC-enabled mobile phones inside a museum containing dedicated passive RFID tags. During a PSM session, 8 teams exchange virtual cards representing objects located in the museum. These exchanges are done either with RFID tags or with other teams. PSM game design results in an educational and entertaining game which is much more attractive than the plain old treasure hunt proposed by several museums. Thus PSM is ...

  19. Acceptable results using plug for the treatment of complex anal fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, Jakob; Hagen, Kikke; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The management of complex fistula-in-ano remains a surgical challenge. Previously published studies on the treatment of fistula-in-ano with the anal fistula plug (AFP) have reported a success rate reaching 35-87%. The aim of this study was to assess the results of the AFP procedure in a group...... of Danish patients with complex fistulas, and to analyse if the results were compatible with previous international findings....

  20. Fair design of plug-in electric vehicles aggregator for V2G regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero-Garzás, J. Joaquín; García-Armada, Ana; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have recently attracted much attention due to their potential to reduce CO2 emissions and transportation costs and can be grouped into entities (aggregators) to provide ancillary services such as frequency regulation. In this paper, the application of aggregators to frequency regulation by making fair use of their energy storage capacity is addressed. When the power grid requires frequency regulation service to the aggregator to adjust the grid frequency, the ...

  1. The laser welding of iridium-platinum tips to spark plug electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewski, Bogdan; Tofil, Szymon

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents selected results of model and technological experiments of welding iridium-platinum tips to spark plug electrodes. Variants of welding technology included different ways of preparing materials and the use of different Nd: YAG lasers (Rofin BLS 720 and Rofin Integral). The results of technological tests were verified by the metallographic evaluation of joints. Performance tests when powered by biogas were conducted for selected variants of welding.

  2. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Hou; Hewu Wang; Minggao Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal b...

  3. Instructions for Installing digiBASE Plug-in on a Terra Harvest Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Battlefield Information Processing Branch of the US Army Research Laboratory developed a Terra Harvest / Open Standards for Unattended Sensors (OSUS...installation and configuration of the plug-in on a Terra Harvest controller. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Terra Harvest controller, open standards for unattended...Sample Terra Harvest Observations 9 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms 13 Distribution List 14 iv List of Figures Fig. 1 System

  4. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria....

  5. Development and utilization of a mechanical barrier for large-calibre cavern necks. The ''Spider Plug''; Entwicklung und Einsatz einer mechanischen Absperrung fuer grosskalibrige Kavernenhaelse. Der ''Spider Plug''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, K.; Maut, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    An hydraulic separation of a well and the cavern can be necessary for different workover applications, e.g. casing milling or underreaming. The separation is needed to ensure a mud circulation during such operations. In that case a barrier is set after flooding the cavern, which will then be used as a mechanical abutment for the cement bridge. If the diameter of the cavern neck has been enlarged due to e.g. unwanted leaching processes or unstabilized underreaming processes, it might get impossible to set a standard plug with the available technologies into those diameters. Therefore UGS GmbH has developed a mechanical plug, which is set hydraulically. The so called 'Spider Plug' is used as basis for a cement bridge and can be removed by drilling after the workover has been done. Depending on the dimension of the setting tool a cavern neck up to 50'' diameter can be plugged by the 'Spider Plug'. Up to now a number of successful operations on different locations has shown, that the 'Spider Plug' is a practicable and cost-efficient solution for a mechanical abutment of large cavern necks. (orig.)

  6. Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In AreCommercial Buildings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret; Roberson, Judy

    2007-02-28

    Evidenceof electric plug loads in commercial buildings isvisible everyday: space heaters, portable fans, and the IT technician'stwo monitors connected to one PC. The Energy Information Administrationestimates that office and miscellaneous equipment together will consume2.18 quads in 2006, nearly 50 percent of U.S. commercial electricity use.Although the importance of commercial plug loads is documented, its verynature (diverse product types, products not installed when buildinginitially constructed, and products often hidden in closets) makes itdifficult to accurately count and categorize the end use.We auditedsixteen buildings in three cities (San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh)including office, medical and education building types. We inventoriedthe number and types of office and miscellaneous electric equipment aswell as estimated total energy consumption due to these product types. Intotal, we audited approximately 4,000 units of office equipment and 6,000units of miscellaneous equipment and covered a diverse range of productsranging from electric pencil sharpeners with a unit energy consumption(UEC) of 1 kWh/yr to a kiln with a UEC of 7,000 kWh/yr. Our paperpresents a summary of the density and type of plug load equipment foundas well as the estimated total energy consumption of the equipment.Additionally, we present equipment trends observed and provide insightsto how policy makers can target energy efficiency for this growing enduse.

  7. Digital Rock Physics: Mechanical Properties of Carbonate Core Plug at Different Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, T. F.; Jouini, M. S.; Islam, A.; Chevalier, S.; Jouiad, M.; Sassi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Digital Rock Physics (DRP) is a novel technology that could be used to generate accurate, fast and cost effective special core analysis (SCAL) properties to support reservoir characterization and simulation tools. For this work, Micro-CT images at different resolutions have been used to run simulations to determine elastic properties like bulk, shear, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio of a dry carbonate core plug from Abu Dhabi reservoirs. Pre processing and segmentation of raw images is performed in FEI 3D visualization and analysis tool Avizo. Carbonates are characterized by a very complex pore-space structure and so a high degree of heterogeneity. Abaqus that is based on Finite Element Method is used to run 2D and 3D elastic simulations. Results will be compared by simulating the same core-plug in an alternative segmentation and FEM modeling environment used previously by Jouini & Vega et al. 2012 [1]. Acoustic wave propagation experiments at different confining pressures are performed in the laboratory Triaxial machine to determine the dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for the same core plug. Expeirmental results are compared with numerical results. [1] Jouini, M.S. and Vega, S. 2012. Simulation of carbonate rocks elastic properties using 3D X-Ray computed tomography images based on Discrete Element Method and Finite Element Method. 46th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, Il, USA, 24-27 June 2012.

  8. Free-jet investigation of mechanically suppressed, high radius ratio coannular plug model nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Knott, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental and analytical acoustic results of a scale-model investigation or unsuppressed and mechanically suppressed high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzles with inverted velocity and temperature profiles are summarized. Nine coannular nozzle configurations along with a reference conical nozzle were evaluated in the Anechoic Free-Jet Facility for a total of 212 acoustic test points. Most of the tests were conducted at variable cycle engine conditions applicable to advanced high speed aircraft. The tested nozzles included coannular plug nozzles with both convergent and convergent-divergent (C-D) terminations in order to evaluate C-D effectiveness in the reduction of shock-cell noise and 20 and 40 shallow-chute mechanical suppressors in the outer stream in order to evaluate their effectiveness in the reduction of jet noise. In addition to the acoustic tests, mean and turbulent velocity measurements were made on selected plumes of the 20 shallow-chute configuration using a laser velocimeter. At a mixed jet velocity of 700 m/sec, the 20 shallow-chute suppressor configuration yielded peak aft quadrant suppression of 11.5 and 9 PNdB and forward quadrant suppression of 7 and 6 PNdB relative to a baseline conical nozzles during static and simulated flight, respectively. The C-D terminations were observed to reduce shock-cell noise. An engineering spectral prediction method was formulated for mechanically suppressed coannular plug nozzles.

  9. Localization of cask and plug remote handling system in ITER using multiple video cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, João, E-mail: jftferreira@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear - Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vale, Alberto [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear - Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, Isabel [Laboratório de Robótica e Sistemas em Engenharia e Ciência - Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Localization of cask and plug remote handling system with video cameras and markers. ► Video cameras already installed on the building for remote operators. ► Fiducial markers glued or painted on cask and plug remote handling system. ► Augmented reality contents on the video streaming as an aid for remote operators. ► Integration with other localization systems for enhanced robustness and precision. -- Abstract: The cask and plug remote handling system (CPRHS) provides the means for the remote transfer of in-vessel components and remote handling equipment between the Hot Cell building and the Tokamak building in ITER. Different CPRHS typologies will be autonomously guided following predefined trajectories. Therefore, the localization of any CPRHS in operation must be continuously known in real time to provide the feedback for the control system and also for the human supervision. This paper proposes a localization system that uses the video streaming captured by the multiple cameras already installed in the ITER scenario to estimate with precision the position and the orientation of any CPRHS. In addition, an augmented reality system can be implemented using the same video streaming and the libraries for the localization system. The proposed localization system was tested in a mock-up scenario with a scale 1:25 of the divertor level of Tokamak building.

  10. A Computable Plug-In Estimator of Minimum Volume Sets for Novelty Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Chiwoo

    2010-10-01

    A minimum volume set of a probability density is a region of minimum size among the regions covering a given probability mass of the density. Effective methods for finding the minimum volume sets are very useful for detecting failures or anomalies in commercial and security applications-a problem known as novelty detection. One theoretical approach of estimating the minimum volume set is to use a density level set where a kernel density estimator is plugged into the optimization problem that yields the appropriate level. Such a plug-in estimator is not of practical use because solving the corresponding minimization problem is usually intractable. A modified plug-in estimator was proposed by Hyndman in 1996 to overcome the computation difficulty of the theoretical approach but is not well studied in the literature. In this paper, we provide theoretical support to this estimator by showing its asymptotic consistency. We also show that this estimator is very competitive to other existing novelty detection methods through an extensive empirical study. ©2010 INFORMS.

  11. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to understanding how homes use energy. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, NREL researchers investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. This report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to 10 end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. NREL concludes that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  12. Study of a Liquid Plug-Flow Thermal Cycling Technique Using a Temperature Gradient-Based Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Fuchiwaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Easy-to-use thermal cycling for performing rapid and small-volume DNA amplification on a single chip has attracted great interest in the area of rapid field detection of biological agents. For this purpose, as a more practical alternative to conventional continuous flow thermal cycling, liquid plug-flow thermal cycling utilizes a thermal gradient generated in a serpentine rectangular flow microchannel as an actuator. The transit time and flow speed of the plug flow varied drastically in each temperature zone due to the difference in the tension at the interface between temperature gradients. According to thermal distribution analyses in microfluidics, the plug flow allowed for a slow heating process, but a fast cooling process. The thermal cycle of the microfluid was consistent with the recommended temperature gradient for PCR. Indeed, amplification efficiency of the plug flow was superior to continuous flow PCR, and provided an impressive improvement over previously-reported flow microchannel thermal cycling techniques.

  13. Screening fungicides for use in fish culture: Evaluation of the agar plug transfer, cellophane transfer, and agar dilution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom A.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

  14. ModuLand plug-in for Cytoscape: extensively overlapping modules, community centrality and their use in biological networks

    CERN Document Server

    Szalay-Beko, Mate; Szappanos, Balazs; Kovacs, Istvan A; Papp, Balazs; Csermely, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The extensively overlapping structure of network modules is an increasingly recognized feature of biological networks. Here we introduce a user-friendly implementation of our previous network module determination method, ModuLand, as a plug-in of the widely used Cytoscape program. We show the utility of this approach a.) to identify an extensively overlapping modular structure; b.) to define a modular core and hierarchy allowing an easier functional annotation; c.) to identify key nodes of high community centrality, modular overlap or bridgeness in protein structure, protein-protein interaction and metabolic networks. Availability and implementation: The ModuLand Cytoscape plug-in was written in C++, has a JAVA-based graphical interface, can be installed as a single plug-in and can run on Windows, Linux, or Mac OS. The plug-in and its user guide can be downloaded from: http://www.linkgroup.hu/modules_bioinfo_download.php

  15. High-attenuation mucus plugs on MDCT in a child with cystic fibrosis: potential cause and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Andrey; Brown, Shanaree [Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Applegate, Kimberly E. [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Howenstine, Michelle [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Pulmonology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2007-06-15

    High-attenuation mucus plugging is a rare finding in both adults and children. When it occurs, the field of differential diagnoses is typically quite small and includes acute hemorrhage, aspiration of radiodense material, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The last of these three diagnoses is the most difficult to make, although ABPA is more commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) or asthma. ABPA is radiographically characterized by recurrent mucus plugging, atelectasis, and central bronchiectasis. Thus far, high-attenuation mucus plugs have only been reported in adults. We report a rare case of a child with CF who had high-attenuation mucus plugs and atelectasis that raised the possibility of ABPA. We discuss the differential diagnoses of this finding and the role of multidetector CT in these children. (orig.)

  16. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE HOT END PLUGS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE RANQUE-HILSCH VORTEX TUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZIAR ARJOMANDI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of temperature distribution in confined steady rotating gas flows is called Ranque-Hilsch effect. The simple counter-flow vortex tube consists of a long hollow cylinder with tangential nozzle at one end for injecting compressed air. The flow inside the vortex tube can be described as rotating air, which moves in a spring-shaped vortex track. The peripheral flow moves toward the hot end where a hot end plug is placed and the axial flow, which is forced back by the plug, moves in the opposite direction toward the cold end. This paper focuses on the effect of the size of hot nozzle on the performance of the Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. Series of plugs were used in the experiment in order to find the relationship between the diameter of hot end plug and the performance of the vortex tube.

  17. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security Phase-II (SPIDERS-II) • Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) and V2G Power services 2. Tactical...Charging Stations: Coritech, Princeton Power , Eaton, and Aerovironment LAAFB* (34 vehicles)  13 Nissan LEAFs sedans (California Energy Commission...advanced vehicle systems such as e- armor, e-weapons, and advanced C4: Utilizing mixed power generation system such as solar arrays, Plug in electric

  18. Controlling Nonspecific Protein Adsorption in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System by Controlling Interfacial Chemistry Using Fluorous-Phase Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, L. Spencer; Song, Helen; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2005-01-01

    Control of surface chemistry and protein adsorption is important for using microfluidic devices for biochemical analysis and high-throughput screening assays. This paper describes the control of protein adsorption at the liquid-liquid interface in a plug-based microfluidic system. The microfluidic system uses multiphase flows of immiscible fluorous and aqueous fluids to form plugs, which are aqueous droplets that are completely surrounded by fluorocarbon oil and do not come into direct contac...

  19. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  20. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  1. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  2. Bacterial Meningitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.

  3. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  4. Bacterial proteases and virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing....... These extracellular proteases are activated in complex cascades involving auto-processing and proteolytic maturation. Thus, proteolysis has been adopted by bacterial pathogens at multiple levels to ensure the success of the pathogen in contact with the human host....

  5. A novel hydrogel plug of Sterculia urens for pulsatile delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrutkar, Jitendra R; Gattani, Surendra G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a novel hydrogel plug using isolated root mucilage of Sterculia urens to obtain a desired lag time for an oral chronotherapeutic colon-specific pulsatile drug delivery of indomethacin. Pulsatile drug delivery was developed using chemically treated hard gelatin capsule bodies filled with eudragit multiparticulates of indomethacin, and sealed with different hydrogel plugs (root mucilage of S. urens, xanthan gum, guar gum, HPMC K4M and combination of maltodextrin with guar gum). Indomethacin multiparticulates were prepared using extrusion spheronization, spray drying and solvent evaporation techniques with Eudragit® L-100 and S-100 (1:2) by varying drug-to-polymer ratio. After oral administration, the water-soluble cap of capsule dissolved in the intestinal fluid and the hydrogel plug swells. After a controlled time, the swollen plug subsequently ejected from the dosage form, releases the contents of the capsule. The formulation factors affecting the drug release were concentration and types of hydrogel plug used. In vivo gamma scintigraphy study in healthy rabbits proved the capability of the system to release drug in lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract after a programmed lag time. This study demonstrates that the indomethacin multiparticulates could be successfully colon-targeted by the design of time and pH-dependent modified chronopharmaceutical formulation. In conclusion, the investigated novel hydrogel plug could be a valuable tool for achieving desired lag time.

  6. Treatment of fistula-in-ano with fistula plug – A Review under special consideration of the technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand eKöckerling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroducationIn a recent Cochrane review the authors concluded that there is an urgent need for well-powered, well-conducted randomized controlled trials comparing various modes of treatment of fistula-in-ano. Ten randomized controlled trials were available for analyses: There were no significant differences in recurrence rates or incontinuence rates in any of the studied comparisons. The following article reviews all studies available for treatment of fistula-in-ano with a fistula plug.Material and MethodsPubMed, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane medical database were searched up to December 2014. 47 articles were relevant for this review.ResultsHealing rates of 50 – 60 % can be expected for treatment of complex anal fistula with a fistula plug, with a plug-extrusion rate of 10 – 20 %. Such results can be achieved not only with plugs made of porcine intestinal submucosa, but also those made of other biological mesh materials, such as acellular dermal matrix. Important technical steps in the performance of a complex anal fistula plug repair need to be followed.SummaryTreatment of a complex fistula-in-ano with a fistula plug is an option with a success rate of 50 – 60 % with low complication rate. Further improvements in technique and better studies

  7. [Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Ćirković, Ivana; Arsić, Biljana; Garalejić, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  8. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  9. Integration of plug-in hybrid cars for the encouragement of intelligent power distribution structures; Integration von Plug-in-Hybrid Cars zur Foerderung intelligenter Verteilnetzstrukturen. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R.; Rigassi, R.

    2007-11-15

    This preliminary study for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how plug-in hybrid cars could be used to support the electricity supply in Switzerland. This study explains to what extent hybrid cars would be in a position to provide the services needed to regulate the Swiss electricity mains. Core elements of the concept known as 'Vehicle to Grid' (V2G) are presented. The requirements placed on the cars' equipment, including reversible battery chargers and communication equipment, are reviewed. Mains regulation systems are discussed, as are battery storage and the potential advantages offered by such a system. Challenges and hindrances to implementation are examined and initial feasibility studies are analysed. Questions still to be addressed are noted. A comprehensive appendix rounds off the report.

  10. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  11. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    invertebrate associates. Finally, the results did not support the contention that a single bacterial pathogen may be the causative agent of WS Acroporids on the GBR.

  12. Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Alvarado Guevara

    2006-03-01

    causales son virales lo cual conlleva a las diferentes sub-clasificaciones. También en ciertos casos puede ser ocasionada por hongos, bacterias atípicas, micobacterias y parásitos.In Costa Rica the bacterial meningitis had turn into a high-priority subject in which to monitoring epidemiologist. It had been talked about in the last months, to dice an increase in the attention is published of this subject, due to this phenomenon it becomes necessary to make a revision of topic. Meningitis is an inflammation of leptomeninges and colonization of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (LCR due to different agents, which produces meningeal symptoms (ex. migraine, neck rigidity, and photophobia and pleocytosis in LCR. De pending on the variables to take into account is possible to group it in different classifications, taking into account the time of evolution are possible to be divided in acute or chronic, to first with few hours or days of beginning of the symptoms, whereas the chronicle also presents a silence course but of the disease of approximately 4 weeks of instauration. There is a difference according to its etiologic agent; they can be infectious and non-infectious. Examples of common non-infectious causes include medications (ex, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics and carcinomatosis. A classification exists as well according to the causal agent. The acute bacterial meningitis remarks a bacterial origin of the syndrome, which characterizes by the by an acute onset of meningeal symptoms and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Each one of the bacteriological agents, parasitic or fungus finishes by characterizing the different presentations of the clinical features (ex, meningocóccica meningitis, Cryptococcus meningitis. Finally, there is also the aseptic meningitis, denominated in this form because it’s nonpyogenic cellular response caused by many types of agents. The patients show an acute beginning of symptoms, fever and lymphocytic pleocytosis. After

  13. The bacterial lipocalins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R E

    2000-10-18

    The lipocalins were once regarded as a eukaryotic protein family, but new members have been recently discovered in bacteria. The first bacterial lipocalin (Blc) was identified in Escherichia coli as an outer membrane lipoprotein expressed under conditions of environmental stress. Blc is distinguished from most lipocalins by the absence of intramolecular disulfide bonds, but the presence of a membrane anchor is shared with two of its closest homologues, apolipoprotein D and lazarillo. Several common features of the membrane-anchored lipocalins suggest that each may play an important role in membrane biogenesis and repair. Additionally, Blc proteins are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and in the activation of immunity. Recent genome sequencing efforts reveal the existence of at least 20 bacterial lipocalins. The lipocalins appear to have originated in Gram-negative bacteria and were probably transferred horizontally to eukaryotes from the endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacterial ancestor of the mitochondrion. The genome sequences also reveal that some bacterial lipocalins exhibit disulfide bonds and alternative modes of subcellular localization, which include targeting to the periplasmic space, the cytoplasmic membrane, and the cytosol. The relationships between bacterial lipocalin structure and function further illuminate the common biochemistry of bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

  14. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TIbased electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  15. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomashevskiy, L.P.; Boldin, V.M.; Borovikov, P.A.; Fedorova, G.G.; Koshelova, I.F.; Krivoshchekova, N.P.; Prokhorevich, L.D.; Prudnikova, N.N.; Vin, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    This solution is designed to quickly harden in a cool environment. Phenoformaldyhyde tar is used as a hardening agent along with a modified diethyleneglycol in the amounts of (part by weight): phenoformaldyhyde tar and diethyleneglycol=1oo; acidic hardener=8-16; water=2-4.

  16. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Accorsi Orosco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30, which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4. The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05.

  17. Sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock borehole plugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, S.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering

    1992-07-01

    This study includes a systematic investigation of the sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock plugs. American Colloid C/S granular bentonite and crushed Apache Leap tuff have been mixed to prepare samples for laboratory flow testing. Bentonite weight percent and crushed tuff gradation are the major variables studied. The sealing performance assessments include high injection pressure flow tests, polyaxial flow tests, high temperature flow tests, and piping tests. The results indicate that a composition to yield a permeability lower than 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm/s would have at least 25% bentonite by weight mixed with well-graded crushed rock. Hydraulic properties of the mixture plugs may be highly anisotropic if significant particle segregation occurs during sample installation and compaction. Temperature has no significant effect on the sealing performance within the test range from room temperature to 600{degree}C. Piping damage to the sealing performance is small if the maximum hydraulic gradient does not exceed 120 and 280 for samples with a bentonite content of 25 and 35%, respectively. The hydraulic gradients above which flow of bentonite may take place are deemed critical. Analytical work includes the introduction of bentonite occupancy percentage and water content at saturation as two major parameters for plug design. A permeability model is developed for the prediction of permeability in clays, especially in view of the difficulties in obtaining this property experimentally. A piping model is derived based on plastic flow theory. This piping model permits the estimation of critical hydraulic gradients at which flow of bentonite takes place. The model can also be used to define the maximum allowable pore diameter of a protective filter layer.

  18. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Fernando Accorsi; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bernadineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA Angelus sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30), which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA Angelus, CPM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4). The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05).

  19. Multi-plug insole design to reduce peak plantar pressure on the diabetic foot during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Ricardo L; Ventura, Liliana B; Lott, Donovan J; Smith, Kirk E; Commean, Paul K; Hastings, Mary K; Mueller, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    There is evidence that appropriate footwear is an important factor in the prevention of foot pain in otherwise healthy people or foot ulcers in people with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. A standard care for reducing forefoot plantar pressure is the utilization of orthotic devices such as total contact inserts (TCI) with therapeutic footwear. Most neuropathic ulcers occur under the metatarsal heads, and foot deformity combined with high localized plantar pressure, appear to be the most significant factors contributing to these ulcers. In this study, patient-specific finite element models of the second ray of the foot were developed to study the influence of TCI design on peak plantar pressure (PPP) under the metatarsal heads. A typical full contact insert was modified based on the results of finite element analyses, by inserting 4 mm diameter cylindrical plugs of softer material in the regions of high pressure. Validation of the numerical model was addressed by comparing the numerical results obtained by the finite element method with measured pressure distribution in the region of the metatarsal heads for a shoe and TCI condition. Two subjects, one with a history of forefoot pain and one with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, were tested in the laboratory while wearing therapeutic shoes and customized inserts. The study showed that customized inserts with softer plugs distributed throughout the regions of high plantar pressure reduced the PPP over that of the TCI alone. This supports the outcome as predicted by the numerical model, without causing edge effects as reported by other investigators using different plug designs, and provides a greater degree of flexibility for customizing orthotic devices than current practice allows.

  20. Sonography-guided gastrografin enema for meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Rhan Ellen Ai; Pi, Soo Young; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of sonography-guided Gastrografin enema for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome in premature newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Fifteen premature newborns underwent 23 sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas on the 8th day of life on average (range: 3 days-21 days). The gestational age and birth weight (mean{+-}standard deviation) of the patients were 29{+-}2 weeks and 999{+-}148 g, respectively. The diagnosis of meconium plug syndrome was based on relevant clinical and radiological findings. Diluted Gastrografin (1:3, 17-45 ml) was administered through a rectal tube under the guidance of sonography until it reached to the cecum. Thereafter, immediate post-procedure and delayed portable abdominal radiographs were taken. All the procedures were done within the NICU. We reviewed the dates of meconium evacuation and the first feeding after the last enema from the clinical data. Radiologically, the timing of the radiographic improvement after the last enema was checked. In cases of distended distal ileum with meconium on preenema sonography, follow-up sonography was performed to determine the interval change after gastrografin enema. None of the sonography-guided Gastrografin enemas performed within the NICU caused procedure-related complications. Meconium was evacuated within one day in all patients. In 14 patients, on average, feeding was started on the 7th day and radiographic improvement was observed on the 3rd day. Four of the five patients showing a distended distal ileum with meconium revealed a decrease in ileal distension on follow-up sonography. On the other hand, the other patient, who did not show such a decrease on follow-up sonography, was found to have ileal stenosis during subsequent surgery. Sonography-guided Gastrografin enema is a safe and effective bedside procedure, when performed in the NICU for the diagnosis and treatment of meconium plug syndrome.

  1. Maintenance implications of critical components in ITER CXRS upper port plug design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, Jarich [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.koning@fz-juelich.de; Jaspers, Roger [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Doornink, Jan; Ouwehand, Bernard [Dutch Space B.V., PO Box 32070, 2303 DB Leiden (Netherlands); Klinkhamer, Friso; Snijders, Bart [TNO Science and Industry, Partner in ITER-NL, PO Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Sadakov, Sergey [Institute for Energy Research IEF-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Heemskerk, Cock [HIT B.V., Merelhof 2, 2172 HZ Sassenheim (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    Already in the early phase of a design for ITER, the maintenance aspects should be taken into account, since they might have serious implications. This paper presents the arguments in support of the case for the maintainability of the design, notably if this maintenance is to be performed by advanced remote methods. This structure is compliant to the evolving maintenance strategy of ITER. Initial results of a Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and a development risk analysis for the ITER upper port plug no. 3, housing the Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic, are employed for the definition of the maintenance strategy. The CXRS upper port plug is essentially an optical system which transfers visible light from the plasma into a fiber bundle. The most critical component in this path is the first mirror (M1) whose reflectivity degrades during operation due to deposition and/or erosion dominated effects. Amongst other measures to mitigate these effects, the strategy is to allow for a replacement of this mirror. Therefore it is mounted on a retractable central tube. The main purpose of this tube is to make frequent replacements possible without hindering operation. The maintenance method in terms of time, geometry and spare part policy has a large impact on cost of the system and time usage in the hot cell. Replacement of the tube under vacuum and magnetic field seems infeasible due to the operational risk involved. The preferred solution is to have a spare tube available which is replaced in parallel with other maintenance operations on the vessel, as to avoid any interference in the hot cell with the shutdown scheduling. This avoids having to refurbish a full port plug and also allows for a more frequent replacement of M1, as we can replace the mirror anytime the vacuum vessel is vented, estimated to be once a year.

  2. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B.; Cautley, D.; Ahl, D.; Earle, L.; Jin, X.

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to our understanding of how homes use energy, and we cannot control what we do not understand. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, we have investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. The scope of this report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to ten end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. We conclude that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  3. Probing bacterial adhesion at the single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Müller, Torsten; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    . Staphylococci adhere stronger on fresh glass than on hydrophilic glass, while the weaker adhesion by P. fluorescens was similar on both types of glass. These results confirmed the importance of surface hydrophobicity in bacterial adhesion. This study has demonstrated that single-cell force spectroscopy allows...... be considered. We have developed a simple and versatile method to make single-cell bacterial probes for measuring single cell adhesion by force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A single-cell probe was readily made by picking up a bacterial cell from a glass surface by approaching a tipless AFM...... on the adhesion force, we explored the bond formation and adhesive strength of four different bacterial strains towards three abiotic substrates with variable hydrophobicity and surface roughness. The adhesion force and final rupture length were dependent on bacterial strains, surfaces properties, and time...

  4. Bacterial glycosyltransferase toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Mono-glycosylation of host proteins is a common mechanism by which bacterial protein toxins manipulate cellular functions of eukaryotic target host cells. Prototypic for this group of glycosyltransferase toxins are Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, which modify guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of the Rho family. However, toxin-induced glycosylation is not restricted to the Clostridia. Various types of bacterial pathogens including Escherichia coli, Yersinia, Photorhabdus and Legionella species produce glycosyltransferase toxins. Recent studies discovered novel unexpected variations in host protein targets and amino acid acceptors of toxin-catalysed glycosylation. These findings open new perspectives in toxin as well as in carbohydrate research.

  5. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  6. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  7. 开发Eclipse插件%Develop the plug-in of Eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    还继民

    2005-01-01

    本文主要讲述了如何使用Plug-inDevelopmentEnvironment的代码生成向导来创建Eclipse插件.阐述了在运行时的工作台中运行和调试插件,以及在Eclipse中安装完成的插件.分析了运用开发Eclipse插件的工作原理,并结合两个实例,详细讨论了开发Eclipse插件的主要步骤.

  8. Integration models in health information systems: experiences from the PlugIT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, Juha; Porrasmaa, Jari; Korpela, Mikko; Häkkinen, Heidi; Toivanen, Marika; Tuomainen, Mika; Häyrinen, Kristiina; Rannanheimo, Juha

    2004-01-01

    Different approaches are available for the integration of existing health information systems (HIS) in integration projects. Within the PlugIT project in Finland, we have found it necessary to design and implement integration in a collaborative, multidisciplinary and open way. In this paper, we use some generic integration models and relate them to the methods, solutions and experiences of the project. We summarize the results from nine integration teams, methods development and supporting surveys and studies, and discuss these experiences to provide some guidelines for the HIS integration projects in general.

  9. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  10. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Pourmousavi, Seyyed Ali; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow...... (PF) from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (QoS). The method uses genetic algorithm (GA) to increase photovoltaic (PV) penetration without...

  11. Advanced Test Method of Solid Oxide Cells in a Plug-Flow Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Hauch, Anne; Hendriksen, Peter Vang;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of two electrolysis tests of solid oxide cells [Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-YSZ-lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/YSZ] tested in a plug-flow setup. An extensively instrumented cell test setup was used, and the tests involved measurements of the cell...... electrolysis conditions. From measurements of the in-plane voltages in the electrodes and impedance spectra obtained during the electrolysis operation, we derive information about the resistance distributions in the Ni electrodes and describe how these distributions evolve over time. Impedance spectra at open...

  12. Getting Started with VIBE as a DICE Plug-in Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Lefebvre, Robert A [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The use of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation) tool VIBE (Validation, Interpretation and Bias Estimation) as a plug-in module to DICE (Database for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project) to access and interpret sensitivity data is described. In this initial release of VIBE within DICE, VIBE can identify sensitivity data and group collapse the data into a table, where the values can be sorted and filtered to identify experiments that are the most similar to a targeted application system in terms of sensitivity data. VIBE can then retrieve information about the selected experiments from the DICE database to provide the physical characteristics of the benchmarks.

  13. Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: Successful Embolization Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ju; Shin, Byung Seok; Lee, In Ho; Ohm, Joon Young; Lee, Byung Seok; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A 67-year-old woman presented with memory impairment and behavioral changes. Brain MRI indicated hepatic encephalopathy. Abdominal CT scans revealed an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt that consisted of two shunt tracts to the aneurysmal sac that communicated directly with the right hepatic vein. The large tract was successfully occluded by embolization using the newly available AMPLATZERTM Vascular Plug II and the small tract was occluded by using coils. The patient's symptoms disappeared after shunt closure and she remained free of recurrence at the 3-month follow-up evaluation.

  14. The effect of providing free autopoweroff plugs to households on electricity consumption - a field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    on metered electricity consumption for different types of households. We find effects for single men and couples without children, while we find no effect for single women and households with children. We suggest that this could be because of differences in saving potential (e.g. some households do not have...... appliances where using a plug is relevant), differences in the skills relevant for installing the technology and differences in the willingness to spend time and effort on installation. We conclude that targeting interventions at more responsive households, and tailoring interventions to target groups, can...

  15. Plug shear failure in nailed timber connections:avoiding brittle and promoting ductile failures

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Helena

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical timber connections can fail both in a brittle and a ductile manner depending on the joint layout. Plug shear failure in nailed timber connections is a brittle failure mode, which shall be avoided in timber structures. This failure mode occurs in nailed connections loaded in tension parallel to the grain, for instance in the lower chord of a timber truss. The failure mode is not described in the Swedish building code of today, but there is an informative annex in the upcoming Euroco...

  16. Convective heat flow in space cryogenics plugs - Critical and moderate He II heat flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1990-01-01

    Plug flow rates of entropy, heat and normal fluid in phase separators and in zero net mass flow systems are, to some extent, quite similar. A simplified analysis of critical conditions is presented in agreement with data trends. A critical temperature gradient arises on the basis of the He II two-fluid model at the stability limit constraining the thermohydrodynamics of the system. Thus, the question of critical thermodynamic fluctuations associated with nucleation versus the possibility of critical gradients in externally imposed parameters is answered in favor of the latter route toward turbulence. Furthermore, a similarity equation is presented which incorporates size dependent rates for moderate heat flow densities observed in experiments.

  17. Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles -- National Benchmark Report (Second Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the version published in January 2016, details findings from a study in February 2015 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

  18. Office Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

  19. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

  20. Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-08-01

    Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

  1. Regulatory framework and business models for charging plug-in electric vehicles: Infrastructure, agents, and commercial relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez San Roman, Tomas [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Momber, Ilan, E-mail: ilan.momber@iit.upcomillas.es [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Rivier Abbad, Michel; Sanchez Miralles, Alvaro [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Electric vehicles (EVs) present efficiency and environmental advantages over conventional transportation. It is expected that in the next decade this technology will progressively penetrate the market. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles in electric power systems poses new challenges in terms of regulation and business models. This paper proposes a conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs. Two new electricity market agents, the EV charging manager and the EV aggregator, in charge of developing charging infrastructure and providing charging services are introduced. According to that, several charging modes such as EV home charging, public charging on streets, and dedicated charging stations are formulated. Involved market agents and their commercial relationships are analysed in detail. The paper elaborates the opportunities to formulate more sophisticated business models for vehicle-to-grid applications under which the storage capability of EV batteries is used for providing peak power or frequency regulation to support the power system operation. Finally penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given concerning time-of-use pricing, smart meter deployment, stable and simple regulation for reselling energy on private property, roll-out of public charging infrastructure as well as reviewing of grid codes and operational system procedures for interactions between network operators and vehicle aggregators. - Highlights: > A conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs is proposed. > 2 new agents, EV charging point manager, EV aggregator and their functions are introduced. > Depending on private or public access of charging points, contractual relations change. > A classification of charging scenarios alludes implications on regulatory topics. > EV penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given.

  2. 管内高压智能封堵机器人%The In-tube Pressurized Intelligent Plugging Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华洁; 张策; 张仕民; 朱吉祥

    2013-01-01

    为满足国内管道快速维修的需要,开展了管道智能封堵技术研究.在介绍管内智能封堵机器人的封堵作业流程后,描述了封堵机器人的结构组成,包括双向清管式封堵单元、远程控制系统和地面控制中心,给出了主要技术参数.随后简要介绍和分析了封堵机器人的性能试验情况,包括通过性能试验、双向通信和压力试验以及解封试验.试验证明封堵机器人可在一段管道内实现多次封堵和解堵作业,大大缩短管道停输时间,且操作简单,封堵性能良好,能够封堵20MPa的高压,无渗漏.该智能封堵机器人的研制成功为国内管道维抢修技术提供了补充.%To meet the domestic needs of fast maintenance ot pipeline,research on the plugging technology ofpipeline was conducted.The paper first introduces the plugging process of in-tube intelligent plugging robot,describes the structural composition of the robot,including two-way pigging plugging unit,remote control system and ground control center,and offers the main technological parameters.Then,it briefly introduces and analyzes the performance test of the robot,including passage capacity test,two-way communication,pressure test and plug re-moval test.The tests have proved that the robot can achieve multiple plugging and plug removal operations in a sec-tion of pipeline.This remarkably shortens the pipeline shutdown time.The operation is simple and the plugging per-formance is desirable.The robot can plug as high as 20 MPa pressure with no leakage.The successful developmentof the robot serves as a supplementation for domestic pipeline maintenance technology.

  3. Satistical Graphical User Interface Plug-In for Survival Analysis in R Statistical and Graphics Language and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. LEUCUŢA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: R is a statistical and graphics language and environment. Although it is extensively used in command line, graphical user interfaces exist to ease the accommodation with it for new users. Rcmdr is an R package providing a basic-statistics graphical user interface to R. Survival analysis interface is not provided by Rcmdr. The AIM of this paper was to create a plug-in for Rcmdr to provide survival analysis user interface for some basic R survival analysis functions.Materials and Methods: The Rcmdr plug-in code was written in Tinn-R. The plug-in package was tested and built with Rtools. The plug-in was installed and tested in R with Rcmdr package on a Windows XP workstation with the "aml" and "kidney" data sets from survival R package.Results: The Rcmdr survival analysis plug-in was successfully built and it provides the functionality it was designed to offer: interface for Kaplan Meier and log log survival graph, interface for the log-rank test, interface to create a Cox proportional hazard regression model, interface commands to test and assess graphically the proportional hazard assumption, and influence observations. Conclusion: Rcmdr and R though their flexible and well planed structure, offer an easy way to expand their functionality that was used here to make the statistical environment more user friendly in respect with survival analysis.

  4. Cold metal transfer spot plug welding of AA6061-T6-to-galvanized steel for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, R., E-mail: caorui@lut.cn; Huang, Q.; Chen, J.H., E-mail: zchen@lut.cn; Wang, Pei-Chung

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Two Al-to-galvanized steel spot plug welding joints were studied by CMT method. • The optimum process variables for the two joints were gotten by orthogonal test. • Connection mechanism of the two joints were discussed. -- Abstract: In this study, cold metal transfer (CMT) spot plug joining of 1 mm thick Al AA6061-T6 to 1 mm thick galvanized steel (i.e., Q235) was studied. Welding variables were optimized for a plug weld in the center of a 25 mm overlap region with aluminum 4043 wire and 100% argon shielding gas. Microstructures and elemental distributions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Mechanical testing of CMT spot plug welded joints was conducted. It was found that it is feasible to join Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized steel by CMT spot plug welding method. The process variables for two joints with Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized mild steel and galvanized mild steel-to-Al AA6061T6 are optimized. The strength of CMT spot welded Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized mild steel is determined primarily by the strength and area of the brazed interface. While, the strength of the galvanized mild steel-to-Al AA6061T6 joint is mainly dependent upon the area of the weld metal.

  5. Soil Plug Effect Prediction and Pile Driveability Analysis for Large-Diameter Steel Piles in Ocean Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Run; YAN Shu-wang; LI Zhi-hua

    2009-01-01

    Long steel piles with large diameters have been more widely used in the field of ocean engineering.Owing to the pile with a large diameter,soil plug development during pile driving has great influences on pile driveability and beating capacity.The response of soil plug developed inside the open-ended pipe pile during the dynamic condition of pile-driving is different from the response under the static condition of loading during service.This paper addresses the former aspect.A numerical procedure for soil plng effect prediction and pile driveability analysis is proposed and described.By taking into consideration of the pile dimension effect on side and tip resistance,this approach introduces a dimensional coefficient to the conventional static equilibrium equations for the plug differential unit and proposes an improved static equity method for the plug effect prediction.At the same time,this approach introduces a simplified model by use of one-dimensional stress wave equation to simulate the interaction between soft ping and pile inner wall.The proposed approach has been applied in practical engineering analyses.Results show that the calculated plug effect and pile driveability based on the proposed approach agree well with the observed data.

  6. In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

    2011-10-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO₂, NO(x), SO₂, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption.

  7. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Mazyck; Angela Lindner; CY Wu, Rick Sheahan, Ashok Jain

    2007-06-30

    Nuchar granular activated carbon, perlite, Osmocote slow release ammonium nitrate pellets, and Agrasoke water crystals in a 4:2:1:1 ratio by volume. The biofilter was inoculated with a bacterial culture collected from a Florida pulp and paperboard plant. A non-inoculated biofilter column was also tested. Use of a biological inoculum enriched from biofilm in the pulp and paper process has the potential to enhance the performance of a GAC biofilter. During testing, packing material was removed from the inlet and oulet of the biofilters and analyzed for genetic diversity using molecular techniques. The biofilter inoculated with specifically-enhanced inoculum showed higher bacterial diversity for methylotrophs and all bacteria, as compared to a non-inoculated biofilter. Mixed methylotrophic cultures, selected as potential biofilter inocula, showed increased methanol removal with highest concentrations of nitrogen provided as nitrate.

  9. Seizures Complicating Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 116 patients, 1 month to <5 years of age, admitted for bacterial meningitis, and grouped according to those with and without seizures during hospitalization, were compared in a study at Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and other centers in Taiwan.

  10. Effect of the duty cycle on the spark-plug plasma synthetic jet actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising novel actuator called Spark-Plug Plasma Synthetic Jet (SPSJ has been developed in Atmospheric Plasma Research Laboratory at Niğde University. It generates electrothermally high synthetic jet velocity by using high voltage. SPSJ actuator can be utilized to be an active flow control device having some advantages such as no moving parts, low energy consumption and easy to integrate the system. This actuator consists of two main components: semi-surface spark plug (NGK BUHW as an anode electrode and a cap having an orifice as a cathode electrode. The cap, having a jet exit orifice diameter of 2 mm, has diameter of 4.4 mm and height of 4.65 mm. This study presents the characteristics of SPSJ actuator by using the hot wire anemometer in order to approximately determine jet velocity in quiescent air. Peak velocity as high as 180 m/s was obtained for fe= 100 and duty cycle 50%. The flow visualization indicated that the actuator’s jet velocity is enough to penetrate the developed boundary layer.

  11. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  12. Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kosowski, Mark [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding. The purpose of the program is to develop a path to migrate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating vehicles in diverse applications. The program also provided three production-ready PHEV systems—Odyne Systems, Inc. (Odyne) Class 6 to 8 trucks, VIA Motors, Inc. (VIA) half-ton pickup trucks, and VIA three-quarter-ton vans. The vehicles were designed, developed, validated, produced, and deployed. Data were gathered and tests were run to understand the performance improvements, allow cost reductions, and provide future design changes. A smart charging system was developed and produced during the program. The partnerships for funding included the DOE; the California Energy Commission (CEC); the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD); the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Odyne; VIA; Southern California Edison; and utility and municipal industry participants. The reference project numbers are DOE FOA-28 award number EE0002549 and SCAQMD contract number 10659.

  13. Endoscopic procurement of allograft tympano-ossicular systems: valuable to replace the Schuknecht bone plug technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Recently, our group demonstrated the technical feasibility of allograft tympano-ossicular systems (ATOS) procurement directly through the external auditory canal by using a rigid endoscope. This novel technique has several advantages compared to the traditional transcranial Schuknecht bone plug technique: it avoids contact with the dura mater, it is less time-consuming and it doesn't require a thorough reconstruction of the donor. In our tissue bank, we are currently transitioning from the transcranial procurement technique to the endoscopic procurement technique. The learning curve to master the endoscopic technique is steep but our preliminary results suggest that the percentage of good quality endoscopically procured ATOS is at least similar to the percentage of good quality transcranially procured ATOS dissected from the temporal bone plug. Additionally, the number of donations has increased significantly. By avoiding contact with the dura mater and therefore eliminating the risk of potential prion disease transmission, this technical evolution in procurement technique might allow dedicated tissue banks to (re-)introduce ATOS procurement and implantation.

  14. Study on the key technologies of the Transfer Equipment Cask for Tokamak Equator Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Buyun, E-mail: ayun@iim.ac.cn [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Gao, Lifu [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cao, Huibin; Sun, Jian [Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Yuxiang; Song, Quanjun; Ma, Chengxue; Chang, Li; Shuang, Feng [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Design on Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) for Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA). • A rhombic-like parallel robot for docking with minimum misalignment. • Design on electro-hydraulic servo system of the TECA for Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) manipulation. • A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA for Remote Handling (RH). - Abstract: The Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA) is a key solution for Remote Handling (RH) in Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) operations. From the perspectives of both engineering and technical designs of effective experiments on the TEPP, key technologies on these topics covering the TECA are required. According to conditions in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and features of the TEPP, this paper introduces the design of an Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) with an adaptive attitude and high precision positioning that transports a cask system of more than 30 tons from the Tokamak Building (TB) to the Hot Cell Building (HCB). Additionally, different actuators are discussed, and the hydraulic power drive is eventually selected and designed. A rhombic-like parallel robot is capable of being used for docking with minimum misalignment. Practical mechanisms of the cask system are presented for hostile environments. A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA. These designs yield realistic and extended applications for the RH of ITER.

  15. Single-Phase PFC Converter for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Ahamed Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a front end ac–dc power factor correction topology is proposed for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging. The topology can achieve improved power quality, in terms of power factor correction, reduced total harmonic distortion at input ac mains, and precisely regulated dc output. Within this context, this paper introduces a boost converter topology for implementing digital power factor correction based on low cost digital signal controller that operates the converter in continuous conduction mode, thereby significantly reducing input current harmonics. The theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is then developed, while an experimental digital control system is used to implement the new control strategy. A detailed converter operation, analysis and control strategy are presented along with simulation and experimental results for universal ac input voltage (100–240V to 380V dc output at up to 3.0 kW load and a power factor greater than 0.98. Experimental results show the advantages and flexibilities of the new control method for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging application.

  16. Game-Theoretic Energy Management for Residential Users with Dischargeable Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV has attracted more and more attention because of the energy crisis and environmental pollution, which is also the main shiftable load of the residential users’ demand side management (DSM system in the future smart grid (SG. In this paper, we employ game theory to provide an autonomous energy management system among residential users considering selling energy back to the utility company by discharging the PEV’s battery. By assuming all users are equipped with smart meters to execute automatic energy consumption scheduling (ECS and the energy company can adopt adequate pricing tariffs relating to time and level of energy usage, we formulate an energy management game, where the players are the residential users and the strategies are their daily schedules of household appliance use. We will show that the Nash equilibrium of the formulated energy management game can guarantee the global optimization in terms of minimizing the energy costs, where the depreciation cost of PEV’s battery because of discharging and selling energy back is also considered. Simulation results verify that the proposed game-theoretic approach can reduce the total energy cost and individual daily electricity payment. Moreover, since plug-in electric bicycles (PEBs are currently widely used in China, simulation results of residential users owing household appliances and bidirectional energy trading of PEBs are also provided and discussed.

  17. Thermo-sensitive polymer nanospheres as a smart plugging agent for shale gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ji; Qiu, Zheng-Song; Zhong, Han-Yi; Huang, Wei-An; Dai, Wen-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Emulsifier-free poly(methyl methacrylate-styrene) [P(MMA-St)] nanospheres with an average particle size of 100 nm were synthesized in an isopropyl alcohol-water medium by a solvothermal method. Then, through radical graft copolymerization of thermo-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and hydrophilic monomer acrylic acid (AA) onto the surface of P(MMA-St) nanospheres at 80 °C, a series of thermo-sensitive polymer nanospheres, named SD-SEAL with different lower critical solution temperatures (LCST), were prepared by adjusting the mole ratio of NIPAm to AA. The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size distribution, and specific surface area analysis. The temperature-sensitive behavior was studied by light transmittance tests, while the sealing performance was investigated by pressure transmission tests with Lungmachi Formation shales. The experimental results showed that the synthesized nanoparticles are sensitive to temperature and had apparent LCST values which increased with an increase in hydrophilic monomer AA. When the temperature was higher than its LCST value, SD-SEAL played a dual role of physical plugging and chemical inhibition, slowed down pressure transmission, and reduced shale permeability remarkably. The plugged layer of shale was changed to being hydrophobic, which greatly improved the shale stability.

  18. Neutronics shielding analysis for the end plug of a tandem mirror fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, Magdi M. H.; Maynard, Charles W.

    1981-10-01

    A neutronics analysis using the Monte Carlo method is carried out for the end-plug penetration and magnet system of a tandem mirror fusion reactor. Detailed penetration and the magnets' three-dimensional configurations are modeled. A method of position dependent angular source biasing is developed to adequately sample the DT fusion source in the central cell region and obtain flux contributions at the penetration components. To assure cryogenic stability, the barrier cylindrical solenoid is identified as needing substantial shielding of about 1 m of a steel-lead-boron-carbide-water mixture. Heating rates there would require a thermal-hydraulic design similar to that in the central cell blanket region. The transition coils, however, need a minimal 0.2 m thickness shield. The leakage neutron flux at the direct converters is estimated at 1.3×1015 n/(m2·s), two orders of magnitude lower than that reported at the neutral beam injectors for tokamaks around 1017 n/(m2·s) for a 1 MW/m2 14 MeV neutron wall loading. This result is obtained through a coupling between the nuclear and plasma physics designs in which hydrogen ions rather than deuterium atoms are used for energy injection at the end plug, to avoid creating a neutron source there. This lower and controllable radiation leakage problem is perceived as a potential major advantage of tandem mirrors compared to tokamaks and laser reactor systems.

  19. Biannular Airbreathing Nozzle Rig (BANR) facility checkout and plug nozzle performance test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Chase B.

    2010-09-01

    The motivation for development of a supersonic business jet (SSBJ) platform lies in its ability to create a paradigm shift in the speed and reach of commercial, private, and government travel. A full understanding of the performance capabilities of exhaust nozzle configurations intended for use in potential SSBJ propulsion systems is critical to the design of an aircraft of this type. Purdue University's newly operational Biannular Airbreathing Nozzle Rig (BANR) is a highly capable facility devoted to the testing of subscale nozzles of this type. The high accuracy, six-axis force measurement system and complementary mass flowrate measurement capabilities of the BANR facility make it rather ideally suited for exhaust nozzle performance appraisal. Detailed accounts pertaining to methods utilized in the proper checkout of these diagnostic capabilities are contained herein. Efforts to quantify uncertainties associated with critical BANR test measurements are recounted, as well. Results of a second hot-fire test campaign of a subscale Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) axisymmetric, shrouded plug nozzle are presented. Determined test article performance parameters (nozzle thrust efficiencies and discharge coefficients) are compared to those of a previous test campaign and numerical simulations of the experimental set-up. Recently acquired data is compared to published findings pertaining to plug nozzle experiments of similar scale and operating range. Suggestions relating to the future advancement and improvement of the BANR facility are provided. Lessons learned with regards to test operations and calibration procedures are divulged in an attempt to aid future facility users, as well.

  20. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  1. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  2. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  3. Bacterial community reconstruction using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Amnon; Zuk, Or

    2011-11-01

    Bacteria are the unseen majority on our planet, with millions of species and comprising most of the living protoplasm. We propose a novel approach for reconstruction of the composition of an unknown mixture of bacteria using a single Sanger-sequencing reaction of the mixture. Our method is based on compressive sensing theory, which deals with reconstruction of a sparse signal using a small number of measurements. Utilizing the fact that in many cases each bacterial community is comprised of a small subset of all known bacterial species, we show the feasibility of this approach for determining the composition of a bacterial mixture. Using simulations, we show that sequencing a few hundred base-pairs of the 16S rRNA gene sequence may provide enough information for reconstruction of mixtures containing tens of species, out of tens of thousands, even in the presence of realistic measurement noise. Finally, we show initial promising results when applying our method for the reconstruction of a toy experimental mixture with five species. Our approach may have a potential for a simple and efficient way for identifying bacterial species compositions in biological samples. All supplementary data and the MATLAB code are available at www.broadinstitute.org/?orzuk/publications/BCS/.

  4. A comparison of avian communities and habitat characteristics in floodplain forests associated with valley plugs and unchannelized streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.R.; King, Sammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Channelization of streams associated with floodplain forested wetlands has occurred extensively throughout the world and specifically in the southeastern United States. Channelization of fluvial systems alters the hydrologic and sedimentation processes that sustain these systems. In western Tennessee, channelization and past land-use practices have caused drastic geomorphic and hydrologic changes, resulting in altered habitat conditions that may affect avian communities. The objective of this study was to determine if there were differences in avian communities utilizing floodplain forests along unchannelized streams compared to channelized streams with valley plugs, areas where sediment has completely filled the channel. During point count surveys, 58 bird species were observed at unchannelized sites and 60 species were observed at valley plug sites. Species associated with baldcypress-tupelo (Taxodium-Nyssa) swamps (e.g. Great Egret (Ardea albus) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)) and mature hardwood forests with open midstories (e.g. Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens), Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons), Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) and Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)) were either only found at unchannelized sites or were more abundant at unchannelized sites. Conversely, species associated with open and early successional habitats (e.g. Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) and Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)) were either only found at valley plug sites or were more abundant at valley plug sites. Results of habitat modelling suggest that the habitat characteristics of floodplain forests at unchannelized sites are more suitable for Neotropical migrant bird species of conservation concern in the region than at valley plug sites. This study, in combination with previous research, demonstrates the ecological impacts of valley plugs span across abiotic and biotic processes and tropic

  5. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE HOT END PLUGS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE RANQUE-HILSCH VORTEX TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    MAZIAR ARJOMANDI; YUNPENG XUE

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of temperature distribution in confined steady rotating gas flows is called Ranque-Hilsch effect. The simple counter-flow vortex tube consists of a long hollow cylinder with tangential nozzle at one end for injecting compressed air. The flow inside the vortex tube can be described as rotating air, which moves in a spring-shaped vortex track. The peripheral flow moves toward the hot end where a hot end plug is placed and the axial flow, which is forced back by the plug, moves in...

  6. The Amplatzer™ Cardiac Plug 2 for left atrial appendage occlusion: novel features and first-in-man experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixa, Xavier; Chan, Jason L K; Tzikas, Apostolos; Garceau, Patrick; Basmadjian, Arsène; Ibrahim, Réda

    2013-01-22

    Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is becoming a frequently performed procedure for patients with atrial fibrillation and high haemorrhagic risk. The Amplatzer™ Cardiac Plug (ACP) is one of the most commonly used devices for this purpose. Despite high success rate and low procedure risk associated with the ACP, a second generation of the device is now available. The new ACP has been designed to facilitate the implantation process, improve sealing performance and further reduce the risk of complications. The present report focuses on the novel features of the second generation of the Amplatzer™ Cardiac Plug (ACP 2 or Amulet™) and describes the first-in-man experience.

  7. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  8. Bacterial Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviors at different developmental stages in Escherichia coli (E. coli lifecycle and developing a new biologically inspired optimization algorithm named bacterial colony optimization (BCO. BCO is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. A newly created chemotaxis strategy combined with communication mechanism is developed to simplify the bacterial optimization, which is spread over the whole optimization process. However, the other behaviors such as elimination, reproduction, and migration are implemented only when the given conditions are satisfied. Two types of interactive communication schemas: individuals exchange schema and group exchange schema are designed to improve the optimization efficiency. In the simulation studies, a set of 12 benchmark functions belonging to three classes (unimodal, multimodal, and rotated problems are performed, and the performances of the proposed algorithms are compared with five recent evolutionary algorithms to demonstrate the superiority of BCO.

  9. Bacterial assays for recombinagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, G R

    1992-12-01

    Two principal strategies have been used for studying recombinagenic effects of chemicals and radiation in bacteria: (1) measurement of homologous recombination involving defined alleles in a partially diploid strain, and (2) measurement of the formation and loss of genetic duplications in the bacterial chromosome. In the former category, most methods involve one allele in the bacterial chromosome and another in a plasmid, but it is also possible to detect recombination between two chromosomal alleles or between two extrachromosomal alleles. This review summarizes methods that use each of these approaches for detecting recombination and tabulates data on agents that have been found to be recombinagenic in bacteria. The assays are discussed with respect to their effectiveness in testing for recombinagens and their potential for elucidating mechanisms underlying recombinagenic effects.

  10. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

    2014-04-01

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

  11. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Al Amri Saleh

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is an infection of the ascitic fluid without obvious intra-abdominal source of sepsis; usually complicates advanced liver disease. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial: low ascitic protein-content, which reflects defi-cient ascitic fluid complement and hence, reduced opsonic activity is thought to be the most important pathogenic factor. Frequent and prolonged bacteremia has been considered as another pertinent cause of SBP. This disease is...

  12. Modelling bacterial speciation

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A central problem in understanding bacterial speciation is how clusters of closely related strains emerge and persist in the face of recombination. We use a neutral Fisher–Wright model in which genotypes, defined by the alleles at 140 house-keeping loci, change in each generation by mutation or recombination, and examine conditions in which an initially uniform population gives rise to resolved clusters. Where recombination occurs at equal frequency between all members of the population, we o...

  13. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  14. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control.

  15. Bacterial alginates: from biosynthesis to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remminghorst, Uwe; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2006-11-01

    Alginate is a polysaccharide belonging to the family of linear (unbranched), non-repeating copolymers, consisting of variable amounts of beta-D-mannuronic acid and its C5-epimer alpha- L-guluronic acid linked via beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Like DNA, alginate is a negatively charged polymer, imparting material properties ranging from viscous solutions to gel-like structures in the presence of divalent cations. Bacterial alginates are synthesized by only two bacterial genera, Pseudomonas and Azotobacter, and have been extensively studied over the last 40 years. While primarily synthesized in form of polymannuronic acid, alginate undergoes chemical modifications comprising acetylation and epimerization, which occurs during periplasmic transfer and before final export through the outer membrane. Alginate with its unique material properties and characteristics has been increasingly considered as biomaterial for medical applications. The genetic modification of alginate producing microorganisms could enable biotechnological production of new alginates with unique, tailor-made properties, suitable for medical and industrial applications.

  16. Formaldehyde stress responses in bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Houqian Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is the simplest of all aldehydes and is highly cytotoxic. Its use and associated dangers from environmental exposure have been well documented. Detoxification systems for formaldehyde are found throughout the biological world and they are especially important in methylotrophic bacteria, which generate this compound as part of their metabolism of methanol. Formaldehyde metabolizing systems can be divided into those dependent upon pterin cofactors, sugar phosphates and those dependent upon glutathione. The more prevalent thiol-dependent formaldehyde detoxification system is found in many bacterial pathogens, almost all of which do not metabolize methane or methanol. This review describes the endogenous and exogenous sources of formaldehyde, its toxic effects and mechanisms of detoxification. The methods of formaldehyde sensing are also described with a focus on the formaldehyde responsive transcription factors HxlR, FrmR and NmlR. Finally, the physiological relevance of detoxification systems for formaldehyde in bacterial pathogens is discussed.

  17. Monte Carlo radiation shielding and activation analyses for the Diagnostic Equatorial Port Plug in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serikov, A., E-mail: arkady.serikov@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Fischer, U.; Leichtle, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pitcher, C.S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115, St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematic neutronics analyses were conducted to assess the ITER Equatorial Port Plug radiation shielding performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shielding optimization was achieved by parametric analyses of several design variants using the MCNP5, FISPACT-2007, and R2Smesh codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dominant effect of radiation streaming along the port plug gaps was recognized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of the gap labyrinths and streaming stoppers or rails reduces shutdown doses by 2 orders of magnitude. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using the proposed shielding, the shutdown dose in the ITER port interspace is less than the personnel access limit of 100 {mu}Sv/h. - Abstract: This paper addresses neutronics aspects of the design development of the Diagnostic Generic Equatorial Port Plug (EPP) in ITER. To secure the personnel access at the EPP back-end interspace, parametric neutronics analyses of the EPP radiation environment have been performed and practical shielding solutions have been found. Radiation transport was performed with the Monte Carlo MCNP5 code. Activation calculations were conducted with the FISPACT-2007 inventory code. The R2Smesh approach was applied to couple transport and activation calculations. Newly created EPP local MCNP5 model was devised by extracting the EPP and adjacent blanket modules from the ITER Alite-4.1 model with proper modification of the EPP geometry in accordance with recent 3D CAD CATIA model. The EPP local model reproduces the EPP neutronically important features and allows investigation of the EPP neutronics effects in isolation from all other ITER components. Thorough EPP parametric analyses revealed dominant effect of gaps around EPP and several EPP design improvements were implemented as the outcomes of the analyses. Gap labyrinths and streaming stoppers inserted into the gaps were shown are capable to reduce the shutdown dose rate which is below the 100

  18. Mosquitoes Associated with Ditch-Plugged and Control Tidal Salt Marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Leisnham

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November ditches were plugged near their outlets in two (‘experimental’ marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557 of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4–5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt, and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of

  19. Mosquitoes associated with ditch-plugged and control tidal salt marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisnham, Paul T; Sandoval-Mohapatra, Sarah

    2011-08-01

    A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near their outlets in two ('experimental') marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557) of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4-5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt) than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt), and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of this study suggest

  20. Computer Graphic Design Using Auto-CAD and Plug Nozzle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rayna C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of creating computer generated images varies widely. They can be use for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), or as a blueprint for designing parts. The schematic that I will be working on the summer will be used to create nozzles that are a part of a larger system. At this phase in the project, the nozzles needed for the systems have been fabricated. One part of my mission is to create both three dimensional and two dimensional models on Auto-CAD 2002 of the nozzles. The research on plug nozzles will allow me to have a better understanding of how they assist in the thrust need for a missile to take off. NASA and the United States military are working together to develop a new design concept. On most missiles a convergent-divergent nozzle is used to create thrust. However, the two are looking into different concepts for the nozzle. The standard convergent-divergent nozzle forces a mixture of combustible fluids and air through a smaller area in comparison to where the combination was mixed. Once it passes through the smaller area known as A8 it comes out the end of the nozzle which is larger the first or area A9. This creates enough thrust for the mechanism whether it is an F-18 fighter jet or a missile. The A9 section of the convergent-divergent nozzle has a mechanism that controls how large A9 can be. This is needed because the pressure of the air coming out nozzle must be equal to that of the ambient pressure other wise there will be a loss of performance in the machine. The plug nozzle however does not need to have an A9 that can vary. When the air flow comes out it can automatically sense what the ambient pressure is and will adjust accordingly. The objective of this design is to create a plug nozzle that is not as complicated mechanically as it counterpart the convergent-divergent nozzle.

  1. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, C.; Pless, S.; Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2011-02-01

    This paper documents the design and operational plug and process load energy efficiency measures needed to allow a large scale office building to reach ultra high efficiency building goals. The appendices of this document contain a wealth of documentation pertaining to plug and process load design in the RSF, including a list of equipment was selected for use.

  2. Hydrates plugs dissociation in pipelines; Dissociation des bouchons d'hydrates de gaz dans les conduites petrolieres sous-marines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Hong, D.

    2005-03-15

    Natural gas hydrates plugs cause problems during drilling, well operations, production, transportation and processing of oil and gas. Especially, it is a very serious problem in off-shore oil transportation where low temperature and high pressure become more and more favourable to gas hydrate formation as the new production wells are more and more deeper. Up to now, although many studies have been developed concerning the possibility of preventing pipe plugging, there is limited information in open literature on hydrate plugs dissociation and all models in literature are numerically complicated. In this study, hydrate plugs are formed from water in n-dodecane mixture with addition of a dispersant E102B in two different experimental apparatus in order to obtain hydrates plugs with different sizes (diameter of 7, 10.75 and 12 cm). Then, the plugs are dissociated by the method of two-sided depressurization. In this paper, we propose a numerical model which describes the dissociation of gas hydrate plugs in pipelines. The numerical model, which is constructed for cylindrical coordinates and for two-sided pressurization, is based on enthalpy method. We present also an approximate analytical model which has an average error 2.7 % in comparison with the numerical model. The excellent agreement between our experimental results, literature data and the two models shows that the models give a good prediction independently of the pipeline diameter, plug porosity and gas. The simplicity of the analytical model will make it easier in industrial applications. (author)

  3. Development of an ex vivo model for investigating the bacterial association to the gut epithelium of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    . coli F4 or F18 was inoculated, and the segment was sealed with Teflon plug. The segment was immersed in DMEM in a 300-mL infusion bottle in a shaking water bath at 37°C. After 1 h the segment was removed, tissue was washed with 50 mL of PBS, weighed, and homogenized in PBS. Final dilution of 10...

  4. Experimental investigation of the performance of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube with regard to a plug located at the hot outlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincer, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Baskaya, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Gazi University, Maltepe, 06570 Ankara (Turkey); Uysal, B.Z. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Gazi University, Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Ucgul, I. [Department of Textile Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, effects of position, diameter (5, 6, 7, 8 mm) and angle (30 -180 ) of a mobile plug, located at the hot outlet side in a Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube (RHVT), were determined experimentally for best performance. In addition to plug parameters, effects of supply pressure (200-420 kPa) and number of nozzles (2, 4, 6) were also studied. The internal diameter (D) of the vortex tube used in the experiments was 9 mm; the ratio of the length of the vortex tube to its diameter (L/D) was 15. Four different plug locations were studied. The maximum difference in the temperatures of hot and cold streams was obtained for the plug diameter of 5 mm, tip angles of 30 and 60 , 4 nozzles and by keeping the plug location at the far extreme end. (author)

  5. Vertical Equilibrium of Sheet Pile Walls with Emphasis on Toe Capacity and Plugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Augustesen, Anders Hust; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    Constructions including retaining walls are normally established in areas where it is impossible to conduct an excavation with inclined sides. Due to large excavation depths and due to restrictions on the deformations of the wall, it is often necessary to anchor the wall. The limited space makes...... at the pile toe to fulfil vertical equilibrium. The paper describes a case study of sheet pile walls in Aalborg Clay, and the amount of loads transferred as point loads at the pile toe for free and anchored walls is estimated. A parametric study is made for the free wall with regards to the height...... and the roughness of the wall. Due to limitations of the calculation method, the study of the anchored wall only includes variation of the roughness. For the case study, it is found that the vertical equilibrium is fulfilled for the considered free wall. An anchored wall needs a plug forming at the pile toe...

  6. A fast alternative to core plug tests for optimising injection water salinity for EOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Andersson, Martin Peter; Hilner, Emelie Kristin Margareta

    2014-01-01

    the relationship between the wettability of pore surfaces and water salinity. We functionalise AFM tips with organic molecules and use them to represent tiny oil droplets of nonpolar or polar molecules and we use sand grains removed from core plugs to represent the pore walls in sandstone. We bring our "oil" close......Core tests have demonstrated that decreasing the salinity of injection water can increase oil recovery. Although recovery is enhanced by simply decreasing salt content, optimising injection water salinty would offer a clear economic advantage for several reasons. Too low salinity risks swelling...... of the clays which would lead to permanent reservoir damage but evidence of effectiveness at moderate salinity would offer the opportunity to dispose of produced water. The goal is to define boundary conditions so injection water salinity is high enough to prevent reservoir damage and low enough to induce...

  7. Advancing Plug-In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Minivan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, Abdullah [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Barnhart, Steven [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed this DOE funding as a historic opportunity to begin the process of achieving required economies of scale on technologies for electric vehicles. The funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies to future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components, and common modules, as well as first-responder training and battery recycling. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also used this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original project proposal was submitted in December 2009 and selected in January 2010. The project ended in December 2014.

  8. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Holland, G.; Hanada, A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.

  9. Endovascular treatment of pulmonary sequestration in adults using Amplatzer® vascular plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoncini, Giacomo; Rossi, Umberto G; Ferro, Carlo; Chessa, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Two adult patients were diagnosed with extralobar and intralobar pulmonary sequestration. One patient presented with haemoptysis. Both patients suffered from recurrent episodes of severe pulmonary infections. Both patients were treated by means of endovascular embolization using Amplatzer(®) vascular plugs (AVPs). They were discharged from hospital after 48 and 24 h and then followed up for 24 and six months, respectively. No recurrence of symptoms was observed. Computed tomography scans were obtained every six months. Persistent occlusion of vascular supply and moderate regression of the sequestered lung tissue are evident after 24 and six months in both patients. Just one case of an adult patient affected by pulmonary sequestration and treated by endovascular embolization has been reported to date. The present report is the first on the use of the AVPs in adults for this condition. The potential advantages and drawbacks of this treatment modality in adults are discussed, as well the specific benefit represented by the AVPs.

  10. Sieve plugs in fenestrae of glomerular capillaries--site of the filtration barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Jørgen; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The exact location of the filtration barrier of the glomerular capillary wall, which consists of an endothelium, a basement membrane and a visceral epithelium, has not yet been determined. Apparent discrepancies between different investigators in the past could be explained if postmortem...... artifactual tissue changes, due to subnormal blood pressure or anoxia, have taken place in the endothelium before the tissue and tracers have been sufficiently fixed and immobilized by the fixative. To test this supposition, a new method of fixation, which includes a technique to maintain a physiological...... perfusion pressure and a fixative composed of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute fluid containing glutaraldehyde, was employed combined with contrast enhancement. New observations of the glomerular capillary wall revealed that filamentous plugs (about 90 nm in height) filled the capillary fenestrae...

  11. A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.

  12. A Queueing Based Scheduling Approach to Plug-In Electric Vehicle Dispatch in Distribution Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qiao; Ilic, Marija D

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) in power systems can cause severe issues to the existing distribution system, such as branch congestions and significant voltage drops. As a consequence, smart charging strategies are crucial for the secure and reliable operation of the power system. This paper tries to achieve high penetration level of PEVs with the existing distribution system infrastructure by proposing a smart charging algorithm that can optimally utilize the distribution system capacity. Specifically, the paper proposes a max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm to control the PEV charging rates, subject to power system physical limits. The proposed max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm is proved to be throughput optimal under very mild assumptions on the stochastic dynamics in the system. This suggests that the costly distribution system infrastructure upgrade can be avoided, or failing that, at least successfully deferred. The proposed PEV dispatch algorithm is particularly attractive in ...

  13. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  14. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  15. Restricted k-space sampling in pure phase encode MRI of rock core plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2013-06-01

    In the study of rock core plugs with multidimensional MRI, the samples are of a regular cylindrical shape that yields well defined intensity distributions in reciprocal space. The high intensity k-space points are concentrated in the central region and in specific peripheral regions. A large proportion of the k-space points have signal intensities that are below the noise level. These points can be zero-filled instead of being collected experimentally. k-space sampling patterns that collect regions of high intensity signal while neglecting low intensity regions can be naturally applied to a wide variety of pure phase encoding measurements, such as T2 mapping SESPI, hybrid-SESPI and SPRITE, since all imaging dimensions can be under-sampled. With a shorter acquisition time, as fewer experimental data points are required, the RF and gradient duty cycles are reduced, while the image SNR is improved.

  16. National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stright, Dana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

  17. Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles -- National Benchmark Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-31

    Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the form of gasoline and diesel. In order to make these technologies most appealing to the marketplace, they must take consumer sentiment into account. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround the advanced vehicle technologies of plug-in electric vehicles and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, provide mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

  18. Plug-and-Play Planar Ion Traps for Scalable Quantum Computation and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Jason; Denison, Douglas; Doret, S. Charles; Faircloth, Daniel; Hayden, Harley; Killian, Tyler; Landgren, David; Martin, Kevin; Merrill, True; Ozakin, Arkadas; Pai, C. S.; Shaikh, Fayaz; Shappert, Chris; Volin, Curtis; Wright, Ken; Harter, Alexa; Slusher, Richart

    2011-05-01

    At the heart of most ion-based quantum information processing and simulation efforts is an RF-Paul trap to confine the ion qubits. Cutting edge experiments are transitioning from a few qubits to a few tens of qubits with many more qubits envisioned for the future. The underlying ion traps need to both grow with the experiments and provide additional features that can simplify and extend these experiments. The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing modeling and fabrication processes for these new generations of ion traps using silicon VLSI technology in surface- electrode geometries. Verified by detailed in-house trap characterization, GTRI has fabricated traps that approach the plug- and-play ideal and demonstrate reliable ion loading and transport, long dark lifetimes, and stable ion chains. Additional features are in development including junctions, integrated GHz range current guides for global qubit rotations, and micromirrors for light collection.

  19. On the Attenuation of Neutrons and Photons in a Duct Filled with a Helical Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, E.; Krell, Aa.

    1966-12-15

    Neutron and gamma ray attenuation has been studied in a cylindrical duct, length/diam. ratio 7, partly (36 vol.%) filled by a helical (screw-like) plug with adjustable number of turns. The total neutron leakage through the duct decreased by a factor of six from zero to 0.5 turn, and by an additional factor of three from 0.5 to 2 turns (saturation value). The leakage with less than 0.5 turn is governed by fast flux and above 0.5 turn by epithermal flux. It is observed that the attenuation calculation in a homogenized, infinite material combined with the predicted attenuation in a duct give the measured saturation attenuation. The length coordinates used must be slightly modified in this case. The attenuation of gamma in the saturation case (3 turns) equals that predicted without the duct attenuation in a homogenized infinite material.

  20. Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, Carrie; Lommele, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public well-being and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

  1. Research on Gas Hydrate Plug Formation under Pipeline-Like Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Stephan Merkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrates of natural gases like methane have become subject of great interest over the last few decades, mainly because of their potential as energy resource. The exploitation of these natural gases from gas hydrates is seen as a promising mean to solve future energetic problems. Furthermore, gas hydrates play an important role in gas transportation and gas storage: in pipelines, particularly in tubes and valves, gas hydrates are formed and obstruct the gas flow. This phenomenon is called “plugging” and causes high operational expenditure as well as precarious safety conditions. In this work, research on the formation of gas hydrates under pipeline-like conditions, with the aim to predict induction times as a mean to evaluate the plugging potential, is described.

  2. Plug-in Based Analysis Framework for LHC Post-Mortem Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbonosov, R; Zerlauth, M; Baggiolini, V

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in based software architectures [1] are extensible, enforce modularity and allow several teams to work in parallel. But they have certain technical and organizational challenges, which we discuss in this paper. We gained our experience when developing the Post-Mortem Analysis (PMA) system, which is a mission critical system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We used a plugin-based architecture with a general-purpose analysis engine, for which physicists and equipment experts code plugins containing the analysis algorithms. We have over 45 analysis plugins developed by a dozen of domain experts. This paper focuses on the design challenges we faced in order to mitigate the risks of executing third-party code: assurance that even a badly written plugin doesn't perturb the work of the overall application; plugin execution control which allows to detect plugin misbehaviour and react; robust communication mechanism between plugins, diagnostics facilitation in case of plugin failure; testing of the plugins be...

  3. Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

  4. Ductile shear failure or plug failure of spot welds modelled by modified Gurson model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2010-01-01

    For resistance spot welded shear-lab specimens, interfacial failure under ductile shearing or ductile plug failure are analyzed numerically, using a shear modified Gurson model. The interfacial shear failure occurs under very low stress triaxiality, where the original Gurson model would predict...... void nucleation and very limited void growth. Void coalescence would therefore be largely postponed. However, using the shear modification of the Gurson model, recently introduced by Nahshon and Hutchinson (2008) [1], failure prediction is possible at zero or even negative mean stress. Since......, this shear modification has too large effect in some cases where the stress triaxiality is rather high, an extension is proposed in the present study to better represent the damage development at moderate to high stress triaxiality, which is known to be well described by the Gurson model. Failure prediction...

  5. Fluidic interconnections for microfluidic systems: A new integrated fluidic interconnection allowing plug 'n' play functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Bundgaard, Frederik; Geschke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    A crucial challenge in packaging of microsystems is microfluidic interconnections. These have to seal the ports of the system, and have to provide the appropriate interface to other devices or the external environment. Integrated fluidic interconnections appear to be a good solution...... for interconnecting polymer microsystems in terms of cost, space and performance. Following this path we propose a new reversible, integrated fluidic interconnection composed of custom-made cylindrical rings integrated in a polymer house next to the fluidic network. This allows plug 'n' play functionality between...... external metal ferrules and the system. Theoretical calculations are made to dimension and model the integrated fluidic interconnection. Leakage tests are performed on the interconnections, in order to experimentally confirm the model, and detect its limits....

  6. Effect of Stagnation Temperature on the Supersonic Two Dimensional Plug Nozzle Conception. Application for Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toufik Zebbiche; ZineEddine Youbi

    2007-01-01

    When the stagnation temperature of a perfect gas increases, the specific heats and their ratio do not remain constant any more and start to vary with this temperature. The gas remains perfect, its state equation remains always valid, except it will name in more calorically imperfect gas or gas at High Temperature. The goal of this research is to trace the profiles of the supersonic plug nozzle when this stagnation temperature is taken into account, lower than the threshold of dissociation of the molecules, by using the new formula of the Prandtl Meyer function, and to have for each exit Mach number, several nozzles shapes by changing the value of this temperature. A study on the error given by the PG (perfect gas) model compared to our model at high temperature is presented. The comparison is made with the case of a calorically perfect gas aiming to give a limit of application of this model. The application is for the air.

  7. Experimental asymmetric plug-and-play measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guang-Zhao; Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu; Chen, Huan; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all security loopholes on detection. Previous experiments on MDI-QKD required spatially separated signal lasers and complicated stabilization systems. In this paper, we perform a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of plug-and-play MDI-QKD over an asymmetric channel setting with a single signal laser in which the whole system is automatically stabilized in spectrum, polarization, arrival time, and phase reference. Both the signal laser and the single-photon detectors are in the possession of a common server. A passive timing-calibration technique is applied to ensure the precise and stable overlap of signal pulses. The results pave the way for the realization of a quantum network in which the users only need the encoding devices.

  8. Rapid endodontic management of type II dens invaginatus using an MTA plug: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayazi, Sara; Bayat-Movahed, Saeed; White, Shane N

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is an anomaly characterized by an infolding of enamel and dentin that can lead to caries and pulpal death while the tooth is still immature, and present difficulties with diagnosis and treatment. Generally such open apices are managed by long term apexifaction procedures. This article demonstrated rapid management of a maxillary lateral incisor having a type 2 dens invaginatus, necrotic pulp, open apex and very large periradicular lesion using calcium hydroxide for one week prior to placement of a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plug. After setting of the MTA, the remaining canal space was obturated using a warm vertical gutta percha technique. At 6 months follow-up the patient was asymptomatic, the lesion had almost entirely resolved, and, the root was already completely surrounded by bone.

  9. A new ImageJ plug-in "ActogramJ" for chronobiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Benjamin; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Yoshii, Taishi

    2011-10-01

    While the rapid development of personal computers and high-throughput recording systems for circadian rhythms allow chronobiologists to produce huge amounts of data, the software to analyze them often lags behind. Here, we announce newly developed chronobiology software that is easy to use, compatible with many different systems, and freely available. Our system can perform the most frequently used analyses: actogram drawing, periodogram analysis, and waveform analysis. The software is distributed as a pure Java plug-in for ImageJ and so works on the 3 main operating systems: Linux, Macintosh, and Windows. We believe that this free software raises the speed of data analyses and makes studying chronobiology accessible to newcomers.

  10. A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

  11. Use of anaerobic plug flow biodigesters in Cuba's Guaniguanico Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, R.; Chao, R.; Perez, A.; Cairo, G.; Garcia, A.; Macias, M. [Swine Research Inst., Habana (Cuba). Dept. of Environmental Protection

    2004-07-01

    This study presented a solution to an environmental pollution problem facing pig farms in Cuba. A new variant of anaerobic plug flow biodigester for producing methane from organic waste was described. The stable biodigester has a width/length relationship of 1:8.8 and is suitable for all animal wastes, including pig manure. Chemical analysis were performed in the digester effluents. Wastewaters from the biodigester were analyzed for total solids, total volatile solids, ashes, total nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Reduction in organic matter in terms of total solids and total volatile solids was 65 per cent and 68 per cent respectively. The waste material was rendered useful as an organic fertilizer due to its high content of ash, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. The quality of the biogas was acceptable with no stench. The methane proportion was higher than 50 per cent. The amount of biogas produced was sufficient for cooking purposes. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. 某污水处理厂生物池结构补强堵漏综合处理技术%Comprehensive Treatment Technology of Structure Strengthening and Plugging for a Sewage Treatment Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏云辉; 王永明; 高翔; 马新正

    2016-01-01

    According to structure strengthening and plugging condition of the biological pond in the large⁃scale sewage treatment plant in Xinjiang, by many times of field survey and repeated optimizing design scheme, the design unit finally design a more perfect structure strengthening and plugging scheme. That is by cleaning up and expanding expansion joints, polishing concrete surface and placing asbestos packing and water expansion strip, chiseling concrete and pasting posted outside the water stop and pasting stainless steel sheet and construction of reinforcement, template and concrete, the original expansion joints are reinforced and plugged which the effect is significant.%针对新疆大型污水处理厂生物池补强堵漏情况,该工程设计单位多次去现场实地考察,经过反复优化设计方案,最终设计出较完善的结构补强堵漏方案:通过清理和扩大伸缩缝、打磨混凝土表面及放置石棉盘根和遇水膨胀止水条、凿毛混凝土及粘贴外贴式止水带和粘贴不锈钢钢板及钢筋、模板、混凝土工程的施工过程,在原有伸缩缝处进行补强堵漏处理,效果显著。

  13. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  14. Timpanoplastia com plugue de cartilagem na infância Plug cartilage tympanoplasty in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arruda Mendes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento das perfurações da membrana timpânica na população pediátrica com seqüelas de Otite Média Crônica representa um desafio ao Otorrinolaringologista. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados clínicos e audiométricos da técnica "inlay" com colocação de plugue de cartilagem do trago. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 23 pacientes (idade 1-15 anos submetidos à timpanoplastia com plugue. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: A taxa de sucesso de fechamento foi de 82,6%, com melhora dos parâmetros audiométricos em 87,5% dos pacientes. As complicações foram mínimas. CONCLUSÃO: Em face dos resultados obtidos, este método de timpanoplastia deve ser considerado uma boa opção para o tratamento das perfurações da membrana timpânica na infância.The treatment of tympanic membrane perforations in the pediatric population with sequelae of chronic otitis media represents a challenge to otolaryngologists. AIM: to assess the clinical and audiometric results of the inlay technique with a tragus cartilage plug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we assessed 23 patients (ages between 1 and 15 years who underwent plug tympanoplasty. Study design: clinical retrospective. RESULTS: repair success rate was of 82.6%, with audiometric parameters improvement in 87.5% of the patients. Complications were minimum. CONCLUSION: considering the results attained, this method of tympanoplasty should be considered a good treatment option for tympanic membrane perforation in children.

  15. Upgrade of Foss Date Plug-In Implementation of a New Radargrammetric Dsm Generation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rita, M.; Nascetti, A.; Fratarcangeli, F.; Crespi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite systems may give important contribution in terms of Digital Surface Models (DSMs) generation considering their complete independence from logistic constraints on the ground and weather conditions. In recent years, the new availability of very high resolution SAR data (up to 20 cm Ground Sample Distance) gave a new impulse to radargrammetry and allowed new applications and developments. Besides, to date, among the software aimed to radargrammetric applications only few show as free and open source. It is in this context that it has been decided to widen DATE (Digital Automatic Terrain Extractor) plug-in capabilities and additionally include the possibility to use SAR imagery for DSM stereo reconstruction (i.e. radargrammetry), besides to the optical workflow already developed. DATE is a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) developed at the Geodesy and Geomatics Division, University of Rome "La Sapienza", and conceived as an OSSIM (Open Source Software Image Map) plug-in. It has been developed starting from May 2014 in the framework of 2014 Google Summer of Code, having as early purpose a fully automatic DSMs generation from high resolution optical satellite imagery acquired by the most common sensors. Here, the results achieved through this new capability applied to two stacks (one ascending and one descending) of three TerraSAR-X images each, acquired over Trento (Northern Italy) testfield, are presented. Global accuracies achieved are around 6 metres. These first results are promising and further analysis are expected for a more complete assessment of DATE application to SAR imagery.

  16. THE STRIPPING OF AMMONIA FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE IN PLUG FLOW REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuza Costa Campos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The leachate is a highly liquid polluting, considering, besides high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen. Treating leachate is a very difficult task once its composition is very complex. A king of treatment that is being developed is the stripping of ammonia where this chemical will be removed from the leachate by mass transfer of the liquid phase to gas. Therefore, this paper addressed to study the ammonia stripping process in leachates liquids using plug-flow reactors in series. In order to accomplish the experimental part four plugflow reactors in series were build, with an average height of 50 centimeters, without forced air supplier and without leachate pH adjustment. The leachate sample used was from the metropolitan landfill of Joao Pessoa city, which was collected and transported to the EXTRABES laboratory and made the physicochemical characterization. The experimental monitoring system consisted of four distinct phases, with applied superficial loads of 450, 500, 600 and 700 kg NH4+ ha-1 day-1, hydraulic detention time equal to 65, 60, 50 and 38 days, and it was obtained an average efficiency of ammonia nitrogen removal around 96.1%, 99.7%, 99.5% and 98.5% respectively. It was found that the removal efficiency of NH3 was satisfactory in all phases, however, the kinetic study showed that the higher the surface charge applied to the reactors, the higher the rate constant for removal of NH3 stripping process. Thus we can conclude that the process of stripping ammonia from landfill leachate may be done in plug-flow reactors in series, with an average depth of 50 cm, due to provide high removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen, with low operating costs.

  17. 插件式智能麻醉系统%Plug-in Type Intelligent Anesthesia System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿灿; 赵逢禹; 王勇

    2014-01-01

    在手术麻醉管理信息系统中增加智能麻醉系统,利用麻醉专家知识库和最优麻醉案例知识库对麻醉方案进行检查和优化。麻醉专家知识库基于专家的经验知识和麻醉规则建成,用于检查麻醉方案;最优麻醉案例知识库基于对大量的成功案例进行挖掘而建成,用于优化麻醉方案。智能麻醉系统以插件形式整合到手术麻醉管理信息系统中,减少开发周期,降低开发成本。%It is meaningful to examine anesthetic program process and optimize anesthetic method in anesthesia system .In this paper , an intelligent system with expert knowledge base and optimal anesthetic case base is provided and plugged into anesthesia system.The anesthetic expert knowledge base is based on expert knowledge , experience and anesthetic rules which are mainly used for examining anesthetic plan given by anesthetists .The anesthetic program is further optimized based on successful anes-thetic case base .The intelligent anesthesia system will be integrated into the existing surgery anesthesia management information system as a plug-in component .

  18. Plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of gastric variceal hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Min Yung; Kim, Man Deuk; Shin, Won Seon; Shin, Min Woo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, National Health Insurance Serivce Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension.

  19. Analysis of Design of Sodium Reception and Secondary Loop Sodium Plugging and Removal System for Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through comparison of sodium reception and secondary loop sodium plugging and removal system on CEFR with BN-800, the main difference of the two designs is as follows: 1) System division is different. BN-800 can be divided into sodium reception system,

  20. Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kammen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the real-world use over the course of one year of a nickel-metal-hydride plug-in hybrid—the Toyota Plug-In HV—by a set of 12 northern California households able to charge at home and work. From vehicle use data, energy and greenhouse-emissions implications are also explored. A total of 1557 trips—most using under 0.5 gallons of gasoline—ranged up to 2.4 hours and 133 miles and averaged 14 minutes and 7 miles. 399 charging events averaged 2.6 hours. The maximum lasted 4.6 hours. Most recharges added less than 1.4 kWh, with a mean charge of 0.92 kWh. The average power drawn was under one-half kilowatt. The greenhouse gas emissions from driving and charging were estimated to be 2.6 metric tons, about half of the emissions expected from a 22.4-mpg vehicle (the MY2009 fleet-wide real-world average. The findings contribute to better understanding of how plug-in hybrids might be used, their potential impact, and how potential benefits and requirements vary for different plug-in-vehicle designs. For example, based on daily driving distances, 20 miles of charge-depleting range would have been fully utilized on 81% of days driven, whereas 40 miles would not have been fully utilized on over half of travel days.

  1. POTENTIAL FOR INVASION OF UNDERGROUND SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER THROUGH MUD-PLUGGED WELLS: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPRAISAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of the feasibility study described here was to test the hypothesis that properly plugged wells are effectively sealed by drilling mud. In The process of testing the hypothesis, evidence about dynamics of building mud cake on the wellbore-face was obtained, as ...

  2. Free-jet acoustic investigation of high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles. Comprehensive data report, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, P. R.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Shutiani, P. K.; Vogt, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Six coannular plug nozzle configurations having inverted velocity and temperature profiles, and a baseline convergent conical nozzle were tested for simulated flight acoustic evaluation in General Electric's Anechoic Free-Jet Acoustic Facility. The nozzles were tested over a range of test conditions that are typical of a Variable Cycle Engine for application to advanced high speed aircraft. The outer stream radius ratio for most of the configurations was 0.853, and the inner-stream-outer-stream area ratio was tested in the range of 0.54. Other variables investigated were the influence of bypass struts, a simple noncontoured convergent-divergent outer stream nozzle for forward quadrant shock noise control, and the effects of varying outer stream radius and inner-stream-to-outer-stream velocity ratios on the flight noise signatures of the nozzles. It was found that in simulated flight, the high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles maintain their jet noise and shock noise reduction features previously observed in static testing. The presence of nozzle bypass structs will not significantly effect the acoustic noise reduction features of a General Electric-type nozzle design. A unique coannular plug nozzle flight acoustic spectral prediction method was identified and found to predict the measured results quite well. Special laser velocimeter and acoustic measurements were performed which have given new insight into the jet and shock noise reduction mechanisms of coannular plug nozzles with regard to identifying further beneficial research efforts.

  3. Estimation of Heights of Soil Plug Inside Bucket Foundations During Suction Penetration by Deformable Discrete Element Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The soil plug phenomenon involving the rising of the surface soil inside the bucket chamber under the suction pressure and seepage forces was simulated and calculated by deformable discrete element method (DDEM) models. The seepage forces, the effective gravity of soil, the friction on the chamber wall and the suction inside the chamber are considered as the main external forces of DDEM specimen. Three typical types of soil (silty clay, silt and sand) in the Bohai Sea are set as the main environmental conditions in the formation process of soil plug. It is found that the heights of soil plug simulated by DDEM models are 161.85 mm in silty clay, 125.22 mm in silt and 167.56 mm in sand, which are close to model test results and higher than those estimated by discrete element method (DEM). DDEM is an effective method to estimate and predict the heights of soil plug before suction penetration of bucket foundations on site.

  4. Randomized trial comparing the Prolene Hernia System, mesh plug repair and Lichtenstein method for open inguinal hernia repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuijs, S.W.; Oort, I.M. van; Keemers-Gels, M.E.; Strobbe, L.J.; Rosman, C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most surgeons favour the use of a mesh for open inguinal hernia repair as it has a low recurrence rate. Procedures used most frequently are the Lichtenstein method, mesh plug repair and the Prolene Hernia System. The choice of technique may be influenced by the effects on postoperative p

  5. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahalik, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for recharging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs.

  6. Effects of gravity on the stability of the steady propagation of a liquid plug in a small conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, D M; Ubal, S; Giavedoni, M D; Saita, F A, E-mail: madelia@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET - UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    In this work we numerically study the stability of the steady state displacement of a liquid plug in a capillary tube when gravity, inertia and surface forces are important. The methodology employed is based on the analysis of steady state solutions and has been presented in previous publications. Gravity is assumed to act only along the axis of the tube.

  7. Relationship between first-order decay coefficients in ponds, for plug flow, CSTR and dispersed flow regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von, Sperling M

    2002-01-01

    Adequate consideration of the hydraulic regime of a pond is essential in the analysis of BOD and coliform removal, and considerable divergence exists in the literature when reporting removal coefficients. This paper aims at integrating the existing approaches, by quantifying the relationship between the first-order removal coefficients K from the three main hydraulic regimes (CSTR, plug flow and dispersed flow) adopted in the design and performance evaluation of ponds. Based on theoretical considerations and statistical regression analyses, the relationship between the K values is investigated, quantified and modelled. Two tables are presented and two equations are proposed, which allow conversion of K values obtained for dispersed flow to (a) K for CSTR and (b) K for plug flow, based on the hydraulic detention time t and the dispersion number d. These coefficients, when applied in the CSTR or plug-flow equations, will give approximately the same prediction of the effluent concentration as that obtained when using the dispersed-flow model with its proper coefficient. With this approach designers can apply, and researchers can report, K values for the two idealised flow patterns (CSTR and plug flow).

  8. Hijacking mitochondria: bacterial toxins that modulate mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Tong, Janette; Gabriel, Kipros

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial infection has enormous global social and economic impacts stemming from effects on human health and agriculture. Although there are still many unanswered questions, decades of research has uncovered many of the pathogenic mechanisms at play. It is now clear that bacterial pathogens produce a plethora of proteins known as "toxins" and "effectors" that target a variety of physiological host processes during the course of infection. One of the targets of host targeted bacterial toxins and effectors are the mitochondria. The mitochondrial organelles are major players in many biological functions, including energy conversion to ATP and cell death pathways, which inherently makes them targets for bacterial proteins. We present a summary of the toxins targeted to mitochondria and for those that have been studied in finer detail, we also summarize what we know about the mechanisms of targeting and finally their action at the organelle.

  9. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  10. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Amri Saleh

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is an infection of the ascitic fluid without obvious intra-abdominal source of sepsis; usually complicates advanced liver disease. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial: low ascitic protein-content, which reflects defi-cient ascitic fluid complement and hence, reduced opsonic activity is thought to be the most important pathogenic factor. Frequent and prolonged bacteremia has been considered as another pertinent cause of SBP. This disease is associated with high mortality and recurrence. Therefore, orompt recognition and institution of therapy and plan of prophylaxis is vital.

  11. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  12. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis; Shivaram Bhat; Athar A Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Since its initial description in 1964, research has transformed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) from a feared disease (with reported mortality of 90%) to a treatable complication of decompensated cirrhosis,albeit with steady prevalence and a high recurrence rate. Bacterial translocation, the key mechanism in the pathogenesis of SBP, is only possible because of the concurrent failure of defensive mechanisms in cirrhosis.Variants of SBP should be treated. Leucocyte esterase reagent strips have managed to shorten the 'tap-toshot' time, while future studies should look into their combined use with ascitic fluid pH. Third generation cephalosporins are the antibiotic of choice because they have a number of advantages. Renal dysfunction has been shown to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with SBP. Albumin is felt to reduce the risk of renal impairment by improving effective intravascular volume, and by helping to bind proinflammatory molecules. Following a single episode of SBP, patients should have long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and be considered for liver transplantation.

  13. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  14. Evaluating the Degradation Mechanism and State of Health of LiFePO4 Lithium-Ion Batteries in Real-World Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Application for Different Ageing Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate determination of the performance and precise prediction of the state of health (SOH of lithium-ion batteries are necessary to ensure reliability and efficiency in real-world application. However, most SOH offline studies were based on dynamic stress tests, which only reflect the universal rule of degradation, but are not necessarily applicable for real-world applications. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of two different operations of real-world plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with LiFePO4 batteries as energy-storage systems. First, the LiFePO4 batteries were subjected to a set of comparative experimental tests that consider the effects of charge depleting (CD and charge sustaining (CS operations. Then, different voltage analysis along with the close-to-equilibrium open circle voltage was utilized to evaluate the performance of the batteries in life cycles. Finally, a qualitative relationship between the external factors (the percentage of time of CD/CS operations during the entire driving range and the degradation mechanism was built with the help of the proposed methods. Results indicated that the external factors affect the degree of the batteries degradation, but not up to the point when the capacity fading stage occurs. This relationship contributes to the foundation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles’ (PHEVs’ energy management strategy or battery management system control strategy.

  15. A Comparative Study of Apical Healing of Open Apices Using MTA and Ca(OH2 Apical Plugs in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Zarrabi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with open apices is a challenge. After ruling out surgery as a treatment scheme and introduction of the multivisit apexification which in turn had its disadvantages, apical plug seems to be a suitable substitute treatment plan for such cases. Apical plug makes the treatment through formation of a barrier against the obturating material in a single visit.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare histologically the periapical healing using MTA and calcium hydroxide apical plugs after intervals of 4 and 12 weeks in cats.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 64 canines of 16 healthy and mature cats were divided into 3 groups after a periapical lesion formation by over instrumentation in the apical area with files up to no.120. The first group included 24 teeth on which MTA apical plug was applied. The second group included 24 teeth on which Ca (OH 2 apical plug was applied. In both groups the canals were filled with gutta percha and sealer. The third group included 16 control teeth whose canals were left empty after instrumentation and debridement. The access cavities of all teeth were sealed with varnish and amalgam and the vital perfusion of cats was performed in 4 and 12 week intervals. Statistical analysis was established by χ2 and independence test.Results: After 4 weeks, periapical healing in the first group was 90%, in the second group 80% and in the third group, it was only 12.5 %. After 12 weeks, periapical healing occurred in 100% of the MTA group, while it was 57.1% in the second and 40%in the third group .Generally, in the study of histological parameters of healing, no statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 experimental groups,although the MTA group results were much better than the Ca (OH 2 group especially at 12 weeks.Conclusion: The use of MTA apical plug is more effective than Ca (OH 2 in treatment of necrotic teeth with open

  16. Epigenetics and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierne, Hélène; Hamon, Mélanie; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulate expression of the genome to generate various cell types during development or orchestrate cellular responses to external stimuli. Recent studies highlight that bacteria can affect the chromatin structure and transcriptional program of host cells by influencing diverse epigenetic factors (i.e., histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin-associated complexes, noncoding RNAs, and RNA splicing factors). In this article, we first review the molecular bases of the epigenetic language and then describe the current state of research regarding how bacteria can alter epigenetic marks and machineries. Bacterial-induced epigenetic deregulations may affect host cell function either to promote host defense or to allow pathogen persistence. Thus, pathogenic bacteria can be considered as potential epimutagens able to reshape the epigenome. Their effects might generate specific, long-lasting imprints on host cells, leading to a memory of infection that influences immunity and might be at the origin of unexplained diseases.

  17. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates: Still fabulous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Możejko-Ciesielska, Justyna; Kiewisz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters accumulated as carbon and energy storage materials under limited growth conditions in the presence of excess carbon sources. They have been developed as biomaterials with unique properties for the past many years being considered as a potential substitute for conventional non-degradable plastics. Due to the increasing concern towards global climate change, depleting petroleum resource and problems with an utilization of a growing number of synthetic plastics, PHAs have gained much more attention from industry and research. These environmentally friendly microbial polymers have great potential in biomedical, agricultural, and industrial applications. However, their production on a large scale is still limited. This paper describes the backgrounds of PHAs and discussed the current state of knowledge on the polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ability of bacteria to convert different carbon sources to PHAs, the opportunities and challenges of their introduction to global market as valuable renewable products have been also discussed.

  18. Hot tapping and plugging in gas pipeline - GASCAB-I and GASDUC-I; Furacao em carga e plugueamento em gasodutos - GASCAB-I e GASDUC-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Jeziel; Ciuffo, Mauro Cunha; Santa Cruz, Sergio de Freitas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    It is difficult to accomplish interventions avoiding the shutdown on of the main lines during the operation of process plants or gas pipelines. It involves unit halt as well supply contract interruption, which can result heavy financial penalties with fines or cost due to profit loss. In such case it is necessary to use special techniques as hot tapping or line plugging. This paper aim to present the technical feasibility of applying line-plugging technique in a gas pipeline submitted to high pressure (82 kg f/cm{sup 2}) in non-straight section. It also presents the technical feasibility of repairing the fastening system of the connection plug. (author)

  19. After-hours Power Status of Office Equipment and Inventory of Miscellaneous Plug-load Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Webber, Carrie A.; McWhinney, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.; Pinckard, Margaret J.; Busch, John F.

    2004-01-22

    This research was conducted in support of two branches of the EPA ENERGY STAR program, whose overall goal is to reduce, through voluntary market-based means, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in the U.S. The primary objective was to collect data for the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program on the after-hours power state of computers, monitors, printers, copiers, scanners, fax machines, and multi-function devices. We also collected data for the ENERGY STAR Commercial Buildings branch on the types and amounts of ''miscellaneous'' plug-load equipment, a significant and growing end use that is not usually accounted for by building energy managers. This data set is the first of its kind that we know of, and is an important first step in characterizing miscellaneous plug loads in commercial buildings. The main purpose of this study is to supplement and update previous data we collected on the extent to which electronic office equipment is turned off or automatically enters a low power state when not in active use. In addition, it provides data on numbers and types of office equipment, and helps identify trends in office equipment usage patterns. These data improve our estimates of typical unit energy consumption and savings for each equipment type, and enables the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program to focus future effort on products with the highest energy savings potential. This study expands our previous sample of office buildings in California and Washington DC to include education and health care facilities, and buildings in other states. We report data from twelve commercial buildings in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania: two health care buildings, two large offices (> 500 employees each), three medium offices (50-500 employees), four education buildings, and one ''small office'' that is actually an aggregate of five small businesses. Two buildings are in the San Francisco Bay area of California, five are in

  20. Experimental investigation of the vibrational and thermal response of a laser spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Gregory S.

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the external thermal and vibrational effects on the operation of a laser ignition system for internal combustion (IC) engine applications. West Virginia University (WVU) in conjunction with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have constructed a prototype laser spark plug which has been designed to mount directly onto the head of a natural gas engine for the purpose of igniting an air/fuel (A/F) mixture in the engine's combustion chamber. To be considered as a viable replacement for the conventional electrode-based ignition system, integrity, durability and reliability must be justified. Thermal and oscillatory perturbations induced upon the ignition system are major influences that affect laser spark plug (LSP) operation and, therefore, quantifying these effects is necessary to further the advancement and development of this technology. The passively q-switched Nd:YAG laser was mounted on Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) Vibration Exciter Type 4808 Shaker in conjunction with at B&K Power Amplifier Type 2719, which was oscillated in 10 Hz intervals from 0 to 60 Hz using a sine wave to mimic natural gas engine operation. The input signal simulated the rotational velocity of the engine operating from 0 to 3600 RPM with the laser mounted in three different axial orientations. The laser assembly was wrapped with medium-temperature heat tape, outfitted with thermocouples and heated from room temperature to 140 ºF to simulate the temperatures that the LSP may experience when installed on an engine. The acceleration of the payload was varied between 50% and 100% of the oscillator's maximum allowable acceleration in each mounting orientation resulting in a total of 294 total setpoints. For each setpoint, pulse width, pulse width variation, q-switch delay, jitter and output energy were measured and recorded. Each of these dependent variables plays a critical role in multi photon ionization and precise control is necessary to limit