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Sample records for bacterial photosynthetic reaction

  1. Electron transfer pathway analysis in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center

    CERN Document Server

    Kitoh-Nishioka, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    A new computational scheme to analyze electron transfer (ET) pathways in large biomolecules is presented with applications to ETs in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. It consists of a linear combination of fragment molecular orbitals and an electron tunneling current analysis, which enables an efficient first-principles analysis of ET pathways in large biomolecules. The scheme has been applied to the ET from menaquinone to ubiquinone via nonheme iron complex in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. It has revealed that not only the central Fe$^{2+}$ ion but also particular histidine ligands are involved in the ET pathways in such a way to mitigate perturbations that can be caused by metal ion substitution and depletion, which elucidates the experimentally observed insensitivity of the ET rate to these perturbations.

  2. Structure-function investigations of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, M M; Fufina, T Yu; Vasilieva, L G; Shuvalov, V A

    2011-12-01

    During photosynthesis light energy is converted into energy of chemical bonds through a series of electron and proton transfer reactions. Over the first ultrafast steps of photosynthesis that take place in the reaction center (RC) the quantum efficiency of the light energy transduction is nearly 100%. Compared to the plant and cyanobacterial photosystems, bacterial RCs are well studied and have relatively simple structure. Therefore they represent a useful model system both for manipulating of the electron transfer parameters to study detailed mechanisms of its separate steps as well as to investigate the common principles of the photosynthetic RC structure, function, and evolution. This review is focused on the research papers devoted to chemical and genetic modifications of the RCs of purple bacteria in order to study principles and mechanisms of their functioning. Investigations of the last two decades show that the maximal rates of the electron transfer reactions in the RC depend on a number of parameters. Chemical structure of the cofactors, distances between them, their relative orientation, and interactions to each other are of great importance for this process. By means of genetic and spectral methods, it was demonstrated that RC protein is also an essential factor affecting the efficiency of the photochemical charge separation. Finally, some of conservative water molecules found in RC not only contribute to stability of the protein structure, but are directly involved in the functioning of the complex. PMID:22339599

  3. Primary Photosynthetic Energy Conversion in Bacterial Reaction Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Wolfgang; Wachtveitl, J.

    The development of human societies is strongly influenced by the available energetic resources. In a period where the limitations of conventional fossil energy carriers become as evident as the often uncontrollable dangers of nuclear energy, one has to reconsider regenerative energy resources. Here photovoltaic or photochemical use of solar energy is an important approach. Since the early days of evolution some two billion years ago, the dominant energetic input into the life system on earth occurs via the conversion of solar energy performed in photosynthetic organisms. The fossil energy carriers that we use and waste today have been produced by photosynthesis over millions of years. In the race for an extended and versatile use of solar energy, semiconductorbased photovoltaic devices have been developed. However, even after decades of intense engineering they cannot serve as a competitive alternative to fossil energy. Under these circumstances new alternatives are required. One line of scientific development may use the operational principles of photosynthesis since photosynthesis is still our main energy source. In this respect, we will present results on the basic concepts of energy conversion in photosynthetic bacteria, which could be used as a guideline to alternative light energy conversion systems.

  4. Ultrafast Electron Transfer Kinetics in the LM Dimer of Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chang; Carey, Anne-Marie; Gao, Bing-Rong; Wraight, Colin A; Woodbury, Neal W; Lin, Su

    2016-06-23

    It has become increasingly clear that dynamics plays a major role in the function of many protein systems. One system that has proven particularly facile for studying the effects of dynamics on protein-mediated chemistry is the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Previous experimental and computational analysis have suggested that the dynamics of the protein matrix surrounding the primary quinone acceptor, QA, may be particularly important in electron transfer involving this cofactor. One can substantially increase the flexibility of this region by removing one of the reaction center subunits, the H-subunit. Even with this large change in structure, photoinduced electron transfer to the quinone still takes place. To evaluate the effect of H-subunit removal on electron transfer to QA, we have compared the kinetics of electron transfer and associated spectral evolution for the LM dimer with that of the intact reaction center complex on picosecond to millisecond time scales. The transient absorption spectra associated with all measured electron transfer reactions are similar, with the exception of a broadening in the QX transition and a blue-shift in the QY transition bands of the special pair of bacteriochlorophylls (P) in the LM dimer. The kinetics of the electron transfer reactions not involving quinones are unaffected. There is, however, a 4-fold decrease in the electron transfer rate from the reduced bacteriopheophytin to QA in the LM dimer compared to the intact reaction center and a similar decrease in the recombination rate of the resulting charge-separated state (P(+)QA(-)). These results are consistent with the concept that the removal of the H-subunit results in increased flexibility in the region around the quinone and an associated shift in the reorganization energy associated with charge separation and recombination. PMID:27243380

  5. Cu2+ site in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utschig, L M; Poluektov, O; Schlesselman, S L; Thurnauer, M C; Tiede, D M

    2001-05-22

    The interaction of metal ions with isolated photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis has been investigated with transient optical and magnetic resonance techniques. In RCs from all species, the electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytin cofactors associated with Q(A)(-)Q(B) --> Q(A)Q(B)(-) electron transfer is slowed in the presence of Cu(2+). This slowing is similar to the metal ion effect observed for RCs from Rb. sphaeroides where Zn(2+) was bound to a specific site on the surface of the RC [Utschig et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8278]. The coordination environments of the Cu(2+) sites were probed with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, providing the first direct spectroscopic evidence for the existence of a second metal site in RCs from Rb. capsulatus and Rps. viridis. In the dark, RCs with Cu(2+) bound to the surface exhibit axially symmetric EPR spectra. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectral results indicate multiple weakly hyperfine coupled (14)N nuclei in close proximity to Cu(2+). These ESEEM spectra resemble those observed for Cu(2+) RCs from Rb. sphaeroides [Utschig et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 2961] and indicate that two or more histidines ligate the Cu(2+) at the surface site in each RC. Thus, RCs from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis each have a structurally analogous Cu(2+) binding site that is involved in modulating the Q(A)(-)Q(B) --> Q(A)Q(B)(-) electron-transfer process. Inspection of the Rps. viridis crystal structure reveals four potential histidine ligands from three different subunits (M16, H178, H72, and L211) located beneath the Q(B) binding pocket. The location of these histidines is surprisingly similar to the grouping of four histidine residues (H68, H126, H128, and L211) observed in the Rb. sphaeroides RC crystal structure. Further elucidation of these Cu(2+) sites will provide

  6. Deactivation of excitation energy in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, J.; Hara, M.; Goc, J.; Planner, A.; Wróbel, D.

    1997-08-01

    Absorption, photoacoustic and time-resolved in μs time range delayed luminescence spectra have been measured in order to follow the interaction among chromophores when Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis reaction centres are closely packed in a form of Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers. Two types of Langmuir-Blodgett samples have been prepared and investigated: multilayers consist of one type of reaction centre ( Rhodobacter sphaeroides or Rhodopseudomonas viridis) and multilayers composed of mixed reaction centres ( Rhodobacter sphaeroides mixed with Rhodopseudomonas viridis). Using the Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers composed of two types of bacteria reaction centres mixture, we were able to extend the spectral region of the light/solar energy absorbed by the system. It was shown that each form of pigment participates in thermal dissipation but to a different degree. A special pair (bacteriochlorophyll dimer) does not contribute to delayed luminescence. Delayed luminescence in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides differs very significantly from each other. Bacteriopheophytin as well as dihydromesochlorophyll contribute to delayed luminescence but the degree of their participation in this radiative process depends strongly on the type of reaction centre. Delayed luminescence and thermal processes have been indicated as important processes of deactivation of the photoexcited chromophores in reaction centres.

  7. A Cu{sup 2+} site common to photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utschig, L. M.; Poluektov, O.; Schlesselman, S. L.; Thurnauer, M. C.; Tiede, D. M.; Chemistry

    2001-05-22

    The interaction of metal ions with isolated photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis has been investigated with transient optical and magnetic resonance techniques. In RCs from all species, the electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytin cofactors associated with Q{sub A}{sup -}Q{sub B} {yields} Q{sub A}Q{sub B}{sup -} electron transfer is slowed in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}. This slowing is similar to the metal ion effect observed for RCs from Rb. sphaeroides where Zn{sup 2+} was bound to a specific site on the surface of the RC [Utschig et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8278]. The coordination environments of the Cu{sup 2+} sites were probed with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, providing the first direct spectroscopic evidence for the existence of a second metal site in RCs from Rb. capsulatus and Rps. viridis. In the dark, RCs with Cu{sup 2+} bound to the surface exhibit axially symmetric EPR spectra. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectral results indicate multiple weakly hyperfine coupled {sup 14}N nuclei in close proximity to Cu{sup 2+}. These ESEEM spectra resemble those observed for Cu{sup 2+} RCs from Rb. sphaeroides [Utschig et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 2961] and indicate that two or more histidines ligate the Cu{sup 2+} at the surface site in each RC. Thus, RCs from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis each have a structurally analogous Cu{sup 2+} binding site that is involved in modulating the Q{sub A}{sup -}Q{sub B} {yields} Q{sub A}Q{sub B}{sup -} electron-transfer process. Inspection of the Rps. viridis crystal structure reveals four potential histidine ligands from three different subunits (M16, H178, H72, and L211) located beneath the Q{sub B} binding pocket. The location of these histidines is surprisingly similar to the grouping of four histidine residues (H68, H126, H128, and L211) observed in

  8. Correlation of paramagnetic states and molecular structure in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: The symmetry of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The orientation of the principal axes of the primary electron donor triplet state measured in single crystals of photosynthetic reaction centers is compared to the x-ray structures of the bacteria Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides R-26 and Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis. The primary donor of Rps. viridis is significantly different from that of Rb. sphaeroides. The measured directions of the axes indicate that triplet excitation is almost completely localized on the L-subunit half of the dimer in Rps. viridis but is more symmetrically distributed on the dimeric donor in Rb. sphaeroides R-26. The large reduction of the zero field splitting parameters relative to monomeric bacteriochlorophyll triplet in vitro suggests significant participation of asymmetrical charge transfer electronic configurations in the special pair triplet state of both organisms

  9. The surface metal site in Blc. viridis photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers: Cu2+ as a probe of structure, location, and flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ion binding to a surface site on photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) modulates light-induced electron and proton transfer events in the RC. Whereas many studies have elucidated aspects of metal ion modulation events in Rhodobacter sphaeroides RCs, much less is understood about the surface site in Blastochloris viridis (Blc. viridis) RCs. Interestingly, electron paramagnetic resonance studies revealed two spectroscopically distinct Cu2+ surface site environments in Blc. viridis RCs. Herein, Cu2+ has been used to spectroscopically probe the structure of these Cu2+ site(s) in response to freezing conditions, temperature, and charge separation. One Cu2+ environment in Blc. viridis RCs, termed CuA, exhibits temperature-dependent conformational flexibility. Different conformation states of the CuA2+ site are trapped when the RC is frozen in the dark either by fast-freeze or slow-freeze procedure. The second Cu2+ environment, termed CuB, is structurally invariant to different freezing conditions and shows resolved hyperfine coupling to three nitrogen atoms. Cu2+ is most likely binding at the same location on the RC, but in different coordination environments which may reflect two distinct conformational states of the isolated Blc. viridis RC protein.

  10. Bacterial uptake of photosynthetic carbon from freshwater phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microheterotrophic uptake of algal extracellular products was studied in two eutrophic lakes in southern Sweden. Size fractionation was used in H14CO3 uptake experiments to measure 14C fixation in total particulate, small particulate and dissolved organic fractions. Carbon fixed in algal photosynthesis was recovered as dissolved and small particulate 14C, representing excretion and bacterial uptake of algal products. Estimated gross extracellular release was low in these eutrophic systems, 1 to 7% of total 14C uptake per m2 lake surface. From 28 to 80 % of 14C released was recovered in the small particulate fraction after ca. 4h incubation.This percentage was uniform within each depth profile, but varied directly with in situ water temperature. Laboratory time-series incubations indicated steady state for the pool of algal extracellular products on one occasion, while increasing pool size was indicated in the remaining two experiments. Uptake of photosynthetic carbon to small particles in situ was 32 to 95% of estimted heterotrophic bacterial production (as dark 14CO2 uptake) on four occasions. While excretion apparently was not an important loss of cabon for phytoplankton, it may have represented an important carbon source for planktonic bacteria. (author)

  11. Photosynthetic Reaction Centres – from Basic Research to Application Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina NAGY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that studying the photosynthetic conversion of light into chemical energy is extremely important in many points of view: 1 technical-in order to improve the utilization of the solar energy; 2 food production – to improve the photosynthetic production of plants in agriculture; 3 ecology – keeping the primer production in ecosystems in the biosphere balanced, etc. In the photosynthetic reaction centre protein, RC, light energy is converted by a quantum yield of almost unity. There is no such a system designed by human which is able to do that. The RC purified from purple bacteria provides an extremely unique system for studying the requirements for high efficiency conversion of light into electrochemical energy. Thanks to the recent structural (e.g. crystallography (Nobel prize to Michel, Deisenhofer, Huber and functional (Nobel prize to Marcus results together with the works of molecular biology, computer- and electro-techniques, a wealth of information made a relatively clear picture about the kinetics, energetics and stabilization of electron transport within this protein that opens possibilities for new generation practical applications. In this paper we provide a short summary of fields in which the reaction centre protein can be important from practical points of view.

  12. Photosynthetic Reaction Centres-from Basic Research to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László NAGY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that studying the photosynthetic conversion of light into chemical energy is extremely important in many points of view; e.g., 1 technical-in order to improve the utilization of the solar energy; 2 food production-to improve the photosynthetic production of plants in agriculture; 3 ecology-keeping the primer production in ecosystems in the biosphere balanced, etc. In the photosynthetic reaction centre protein, RC, light energy is converted by a quantum yield of almost unity. There is no such a system designed by human which is able to do that. The RC purified from purple bacteria provides an extremely unique system for studying the requirements for high efficiency conversion of light into electrochemical energy. Thanks to the recent structural (e.g. crystallography (Nobel prize to Michel, Deisenhofer, Huber and functional (Nobel prize to Marcus results together with the works of molecular biology, computer- and electro-techniques, a wealth of information made a relatively clear picture about the kinetics, energetics and stabilization of electron transport within this protein that opens possibilities for new generation practical applications. In this paper we provide a short summary of fields in which the reaction centre protein can be important from practical points of view.

  13. Protein structure, electron transfer and evolution of prokaryotic photosynthetic reaction centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers from a variety of organisms have been isolated and characterized. The groups of prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms include the purple bacteria, the filamentous green bacteria, the green sulfur bacteria and the heliobacteria as anoxygenic representatives as well as the cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes as oxygenic representatives. This review focuses on structural and functional comparisons of the various groups of photosynthetic reaction centers and considers possible evolutionary scenarios to explain the diversity of existing photosynthetic organisms.

  14. Artificial photosynthetic reaction centers coupled to light-harvesting antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a theoretical model for energy and electron transfer in an artificial photosynthetic system. The photosystem consists of a molecular triad (i.e., with a donor, a photosensitive unit, and an acceptor) coupled to four accessory light-harvesting antennas pigments. The excitation energy transfer from the antennas to the artificial reaction center (the molecular triad) is here described by the F\\"{o}rster mechanism. We consider two different kinds of arrangements of the accessory light-harvesting pigments around the reaction center. The first arrangement allows direct excitation transfer to the reaction center from all the surrounding pigments. The second configuration transmits energy via a cascade mechanism along a chain of light-harvesting chromophores, where only one chromophore is connected to the reaction center. At first sight, it would appear that the star-shaped configuration, with all the antennas directly coupled to the photosensitive center, would be more efficient. However, we show that the...

  15. A Photovoltaic Device Using an Electrolyte Containing Photosynthetic Reaction Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takshi, Arash [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of South Florida (USF), Tampa, FL (United States); Madden, John D.W. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Lab., and Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Univ. of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver BC (Canada); Mahmoudzadeh, Ali [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Lab., and Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Univ. of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver BC (Canada); Saer, Rafael [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Lab., and Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Univ. of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver BC (Canada); Beatty, J. Thomas [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Univ. of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver BC (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    The performance of bio-photovoltaic devices with a monolayer of the immobilized photosynthetic reaction center (RC) is generally low because of weak light absorption and poor charge transfer between the RC and the electrode. In this paper, a new bio-photovoltaic device is described in which the RC is dissolved in the electrolyte of an electrochemical cell. The charges generated by the illuminated RC are transferred to electrodes via mediators. The difference between the reaction rates of two types of mediator at the electrode surfaces determines the direction of the photocurrent in the device. Experimental results show that the magnitude of the photocurrent is proportional to the incident light intensity, and the current increases nonlinearly with an increase in the RC concentration in the electrolyte. With further optimization this approach should lead to devices with improved light absorption.

  16. Quantum delocalization directs antenna absorption to photosynthetic reaction centers

    CERN Document Server

    Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Autenrieth, Caroline; Ghosh, Robin; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis -- the conversion of sunlight to chemical energy -- is fundamental for supporting life on our planet. Despite its importance, the physical principles that underpin the primary steps of photosynthesis, from photon absorption to electronic charge separation, remain to be understood in full. Previously, electronic coherence within tightly-packed light-harvesting (LH) units or within individual reaction centers (RCs) has been recognized as an important ingredient for a complete understanding of the excitation energy transfer dynamics. However, the electronic coherence across RC and LH units has been consistently neglected as it does not play a significant role during these relatively slow transfer processes. Here, we turn our attention to the absorption process, which occurs on much shorter timescales. We demonstrate that the - often overlooked - spatially extended but short-lived excitonic delocalization across RC and LH units plays a relevant role in general photosynthetic systems, as it causes a...

  17. A multi-pathway model for Photosynthetic reaction center

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, M; Yi, X X

    2015-01-01

    Charge separation in light-harvesting complexes occurs in a pair of tightly coupled chlorophylls at the heart of photosynthetic reaction centers of both plants and bacteria. Recently it has been shown that quantum coherence can, in principle, enhance the efficiency of a solar cell, working like a quantum heat engine (QHE). Here, we propose a biological quantum heat engine (BQHE) motivated by Photosystem {\\rm II} reaction center (PS{\\rm II} RC) to describe the charge separation. Our model mainly considers two charge-separation pathways more than that in the published literature. The two pathways can interfere via cross-couplings and work together to enhance the charge-separation yields. We explore how these cross-couplings increase the current and voltage of the charge separation and discuss the advantages of multiple pathways in terms of current and power. The robustness of the BQHE against the charge recombination in natural PS{\\rm II} RC and dephasing induced by environments is also explored, and extension ...

  18. A multi-pathway model for photosynthetic reaction center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M.; Shen, H. Z.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-03-01

    Charge separation occurs in a pair of tightly coupled chlorophylls at the heart of photosynthetic reaction centers of both plants and bacteria. Recently it has been shown that quantum coherence can, in principle, enhance the efficiency of a solar cell, working like a quantum heat engine. Here, we propose a biological quantum heat engine (BQHE) motivated by Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) to describe the charge separation. Our model mainly considers two charge-separation pathways which is more than that typically considered in the published literature. We explore how these cross-couplings increase the current and power of the charge separation and discuss the effects of multiple pathways in terms of current and power. The robustness of the BQHE against the charge recombination in natural PSII RC and dephasing induced by environments is also explored, and extension from two pathways to multiple pathways is made. These results suggest that noise-induced quantum coherence helps to suppress the influence of acceptor-to-donor charge recombination, and besides, nature-mimicking architectures with engineered multiple pathways for charge separations might be better for artificial solar energy devices considering the influence of environments.

  19. Theoretical study on primary reaction of photosynthetic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯喜; 樊红军; 李良璧; 匡廷云

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical calculation was carried out on the primary electron donor P870 of photosynthetic bacteria. The results show that: (ⅰ) the bimolecular structure of the primary electron donor is more advantageous in energy than monomolecular structure; (ⅱ) the initial configuration of primary electron donor is no longer stable and changes to the configuration with lower energy and chemical reactivity after the charge separation. In the P870, such structural change is completed through the rotation of C3 acetyl, so the oxygen atom of acetyl interacts with the magnesium atom of another bacterio-chlorophyll molecule, and the total energy and chemical reactivity are reduced evidently. It is suggested that the structural change of the primary electron donor is important in preventing the occurrence of charge recombination during the primary reaction and maintaining the high efficiency of the conversion of sun-light to chemical energy. A new mechanism of primary reaction has been proposed, which can give r

  20. How to harvest solar energy with the photosynthetic reaction center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaeff, Alexander; Reyes, Justin

    Photosynthetic reaction center (PRC) is a protein complex that performs a key step in photosynthesis: the electron-hole separation driven by photon absorbtion. The PRC has a great promise for applications in solar energy harvesting and photosensing. Such applications, however, are hampered by the difficulty in extracting the photogenerated electric charge from the PRC. To that end, it was proposed to attach the PRC to a molecular wire through which the charge could be collected. In order to find the attachment point for the wire that would maximize the rate of charge outflow from the PRC, we performed a computational study of the PRC from the R. virdis bacterium. An ensemble of PRC structures generated by a molecular dynamics simulation was used to calculate the rate of charge transport from the site of initial charge separation to several trial sites on the protein surface. The Pathways model was used to calculate the charge transfer rate in each step of the network of heme co-factors through which the charge transport was presumed to proceed. A simple kinetic model was then used to determine the overall rate of the multistep charge transport. The calculations revealed several candidate sites for the molecular wire attachment, recommended for experimental verification.

  1. Diffusion model for charge transfer from a photosynthetic reaction center to an electrode in a photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takshi, Arash [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Lab, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)], E-mail: arasht@ece.ubc.ca; Madden, John D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Materials and Process Engineering Lab, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Beatty, J. Thomas [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2009-05-30

    In spite of a high quantum efficiency in the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) the overall efficiency in a RC-based photovoltaic device is very poor partly because of an inefficient collection of charges by electrodes. To explain charge transport between the RC and an electrode a diffusion model is proposed. The numerical solution of the diffusion process describes the measured photocurrent well. An approximation of the initial condition is also made to obtain analytical expressions for the photocurrent. The model suggests that the slow transient response of the photocurrent is due to the diffusion in a biological photovoltaic device.

  2. Diffusion model for charge transfer from a photosynthetic reaction center to an electrode in a photovoltaic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of a high quantum efficiency in the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) the overall efficiency in a RC-based photovoltaic device is very poor partly because of an inefficient collection of charges by electrodes. To explain charge transport between the RC and an electrode a diffusion model is proposed. The numerical solution of the diffusion process describes the measured photocurrent well. An approximation of the initial condition is also made to obtain analytical expressions for the photocurrent. The model suggests that the slow transient response of the photocurrent is due to the diffusion in a biological photovoltaic device.

  3. Photosynthetic reaction center mimicry: low reorganization energy driven charge stabilization in self-assembled cofacial zinc phthalocyanine dimer-fullerene conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Francis; Maligaspe, Eranda; Ohkubo, Kei; Zandler, Melvin E; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2009-07-01

    By employing well-defined self-assembly methods, a biomimetic bacterial photosynthetic reaction center complex has been constructed, and photoinduced electron transfer originating in this supramolecular donor-acceptor conjugate has been investigated. The biomimetic model of the bacterial "special pair" donor, a cofacial zinc phthalocyanine dimer, was formed via potassium ion induced dimerization of 4,5,4',5',4'', 5'',4''',5'''-zinc tetrakis(1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxatridecamethylene)phthalocyanine. The dimer was subsequently self-assembled with functionalized fullerenes via "two-point" binding involving axial coordination and crown ether-alkyl ammonium cation complexation to form the donor-acceptor pair, mimicking the noncovalently bound entities of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. The adopted self-assembly methodology yielded a supramolecular complex of higher stability with defined geometry and orientation as revealed by the binding constant and computational optimized structure. Unlike the previously reported porphyrin analog, the present phthalocyanine macrocycle based model system exhibited superior electron-transfer properties including formation of a long-lived charge-separated state, a key step of the photosynthetic light energy conversion process. Detailed analysis of the kinetic data in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer revealed that small reorganization energy of the relatively rigid phthalocyanine is primarily responsible for slower charge-recombination process. The importance of the cofacial dimer in stabilizing the charge-separated state is borne out in the present all-supramolecular "reaction center" donor-acceptor mimic. PMID:19505071

  4. Kinetic characterization of the photosynthetic reaction centres in microalgae by means of fluorescence methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Immacolata; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Spasiano, Danilo; Andreozzi, Roberto; Pollio, Antonino; Marotta, Raffaele; D'Ambrosio, Nicola; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2015-10-20

    The kinetic characterization of the photosynthetic activity in autotrophic microalgae plays a key role in the design of optimized photobioreactors. This paper presents a procedure to assess kinetic parameters of a three-state photosynthetic reaction centres model. Four kinetic parameters of the model were assessed by processing the time-series measurements of pulse-amplitude modulation fluorimetry. The kinetic parameters were assessed for several microalgal strains (Stichococcus bacillaris, Scenedesmus vacuolatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris) growth in vertical and inclined bubble columns and irradiated by white-light or red/blue light. The procedure was successfully applied to the investigated strains. The assessed parameters allow identifying the irradiance range under which: the photochemical process is controlled by the photons capture; the photoinhibition competes with the photochemical quenching. The analysis of the time-scale of the photosynthetic reaction centres as a function of the irradiance allows interpreting the performances of photobioreactors characterized by non-homogeneous irradiance. PMID:26216180

  5. Photosynthetic electron sinks: the significance of the Mehler reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) with an antisense gene directed against the mRNA of the small subunit of Rubisco were used to investigate the role of O2 as electron acceptor during photosynthesis. The reduction in Rubisco has reduced the capacity for CO2 fixation in these plants with out a similar reduction in electron transport capacity. Concurrent measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 assimilation rates at different CO2 and O2 partial pressures showed close linear relationships between chloroplast electron transport rates calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence and those calculated from CO2 fixation rates. These relationships were similar for wild type and transgenic plants, indicating that the reduced capacity for CO2 fixation in the transgenic plants did not result in extra electron transport not associated with the photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) or photorespiratory carbon oxidation (PCO) cycle. This was further investigated with mass spectrometric measurements of 16O2 and 18O2 exchange made concurrently with measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence. In all tobacco lines the dark rates of 18O2 uptake were similar to the 18O2 uptake rates at very high CO2 partial pressures in the light. Rates of oxygenase activity calculated from 18O2 uptake at the compensation point were linearly related to the Rubisco content of leaves. We conclude that although there may be some electron transport to O2 to balance conflicting demands of NADPH to ATP requirements, this flux must decrease in proportion with the reduced demand for ATP and NADPH consumption in the transgenic lines. The altered balance between electron transport and Rubisco capacity however does not result in rampant electron transport to O2 or other electron transport acceptors in the absence of PCR and PCO cycle activity

  6. Quantum delocalization directs antenna absorption to photosynthetic reaction centers

    OpenAIRE

    Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Schroeder, Chris A.; Autenrieth, Caroline; Ghosh, Robin; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis -- the conversion of sunlight to chemical energy -- is fundamental for supporting life on our planet. Despite its importance, the physical principles that underpin the primary steps of photosynthesis, from photon absorption to electronic charge separation, remain to be understood in full. Previously, electronic coherence within tightly-packed light-harvesting (LH) units or within individual reaction centers (RCs) has been recognized as an important ingredient for a complete und...

  7. Photosynthetic antennas and reaction centers: Current understanding and prospects for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, R.E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A brief introduction to the principles, structures and kinetic processes that take place in natural photosynthetic reaction center complexes is presented. Energy is first collected by an antenna system, and is transferred to a reaction center complex where primary electron transfer takes place. Secondary reactions lead to oxidation of water and reduction of CO{sub 2} in some classes of organisms. Antenna systems are highly regulated to maximize energy collection efficiency while avoiding photodamage. Some areas that are presently not well understood are listed.

  8. Introduction of new carotenoids into the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus by combining the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways of Erwinia herbicola and Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, C N; Hundle, B S; Hearst, J E; Lang, H.P.; Gardiner, A.T.; Takaichi, S; Cogdell, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Carotenoids have two major functions in bacterial photosynthesis, photoprotection and accessory light harvesting. The genes encoding many carotenoid biosynthetic pathways have now been mapped and cloned in several different species, and the availability of cloned genes which encode the biosynthesis of carotenoids not found in the photosynthetic genus Rhodobacter opens up the possibility of introducing a wider range of foreign carotenoids into the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus than would ...

  9. Diurnal variation in situ of photosynthetic capacity in ulva is caused by a dark reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkind, M; Mauzerall, D; Beale, S I

    1979-11-01

    Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) undergoes large diurnal oscillations of light-saturated photosynthetic O(2) evolution in situ. Freshly collected samples from Great Harbor, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, had a maximum white light-saturated rate at noon that was 2.5-fold higher than the rate of matched samples collected at midnight. When kept under constant low level illumination, the cycle persisted for at least 36 hours, and after 2 weeks damped out to a constant level that was halfway between the minimum and maximum rates. The cyclic oscillations were apparent whether expressed on a weight or chlorophyll content basis, occurred in both lightly and heavily pigmented samples, and were not attributable to changes in chloroplast shading due to variations in chloroplast orientation within the frond cells. There were no cyclic variations in the initial slopes of the light saturation curves, in photosynthetic unit size, or in relative quantum efficiency. Measurement of the "fast" turnover time of photosynthesis by the delayed dual flash technique revealed no diurnal variations of this parameter. These results indicate that the cyclic variations in photosynthetic activity are modulated by a dark reaction at a step occurring after reduction of plastoquinone by electrons from photosystem II. PMID:16661078

  10. Photosynthetic electron transfer from reaction center pigment-protein complex in silica nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ippei; Iwaki, Masayo; Fujita, Daiju; Tsutsui, Yasutaka; Ishizaka, Souji; Dewa, Makiko; Nango, Mamoru; Kajino, Tsutomu; Fukushima, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Shigeru

    2010-08-17

    A photosynthetic reaction center (RC) pigment-protein complex purified from a thermophilic purple photosynthetic bacterium, Thermochromatium tepidum, was adsorbed to a folded-sheet silica mesoporous material (FSM). The RC has a molecular structure with a 7.0 x 5.0 x 13 nm diameter. The amount of RC adsorbed to the FSM compound with an average internal pore diameter of 7.9 nm (FSM(7.9)) was high at 0.29 gRC/gFSM, while that to the FSM(2.7) (2.7 nm diameter) was low at 0.02 gRC/gFSM, suggesting the specific binding of the RC into the 7.9 nm pores of FSM(7.9). An N(2)-adsorption isotherm study indicated the incorporation of the RC into the 7.9 nm pores. The RC inside FSM(7.9) showed absorption spectra in the visible and infrared regions similar to those of the RC in solution, indicating almost no structural changes induced by the adsorption. The RC-FSM(7.9) conjugate showed the high photochemical activity with the increased thermal stability up to 50 degrees C in the measurements by laser spectroscopy. The conjugates rapidly provided electrons to a dye in the outer medium or showed electric current on the ITO electrode upon the illumination. The RC-FSM conjugate will be useful for the construction of artificial photosynthetic systems and new photodevices. PMID:20695584

  11. The mechanism of electronic excitation in the bacterial bioluminescent reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of the problem of formation of the electron-excited product in the chemiluminescent reaction that underlies the bacterial luminescence is analysed. Various schemes of chemical transformations capable of producing a bacterial bioluminescence emitter are presented. The problem of excitation of secondary emitters is considered; two possible mechanisms of their excitation are analysed.

  12. A theoretical study of electronic excited states of photosynthetic reaction center in Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The electronic singlet vertical excited states of photosynthetic reaction center (PSRC) in Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis were investigated by ZINDO and INDO/S methods. The effects of the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein on the electronic excitations were examined. The calculation results showed that the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein play an important role in reasonably assigning the experimental absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of PSRC in Rps. virids. By comparing the theoretically computed excited states with the experimental absorption and CD spectra, satisfactory assignments of the experimental spectroscopic peaks were achieved.

  13. Photosynthetic reaction center mimicry of a "special pair" dimer linked to electron acceptors by a supramolecular approach: self-assembled cofacial zinc porphyrin dimer complexed with fullerene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Francis; Chitta, Raghu; Gadde, Suresh; Rogers, Lisa M; Karr, Paul A; Zandler, Melvin E; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Araki, Yasuyaki; Ito, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    Biomimetic bacterial photosynthetic reaction center complexes have been constructed using well-defined self-assembled supramolecular approaches. The "special pair" donor, a cofacial porphyrin dimer, was formed via potassium ion induced dimerization of meso-(benzo-[15]crown-5)porphyrinatozinc. The dimer was subsequently self-assembled with functionalized fullerenes via axial coordination and crown ether-alkyl ammonium cation complexation to form the donor-acceptor pairs, mimicking the noncovalently bound entities of the photosynthetic reaction center. The adopted self-assembly methodology yielded supramolecular complexes of higher stability, with defined geometry and orientation. Efficient forward electron transfer from the singlet excited zinc porphyrin dimer to the fullerene entity and relatively slow reverse electron transfer, important steps in the photosynthetic light energy conversion have been achieved in these novel biomimetic model systems. PMID:17066393

  14. Quantum Coherence as a Witness of Vibronically Hot Energy Transfer in Bacterial Reaction Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Paleček, David; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Zigmantas, Donatas

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic proteins have evolved over billions of years so as to undergo optimal energy transfer to the sites of charge separation. Based on spectroscopically detected quantum coherences, it has been suggested that this energy transfer is partially wavelike. This conclusion critically depends on assignment of the coherences to the evolution of excitonic superpositions. Here we demonstrate for a bacterial reaction centre protein that long-lived coherent spectroscopic oscillations, which bear canonical signatures of excitonic superpositions, are essentially vibrational excited state coherences shifted to the ground state of the chromophores . We show that appearance of these coherences is brought about by release of electronic energy during the energy transfer. Our results establish how energy migrates on vibrationally hot chromophores in the reaction centre and they call for a re-examination of claims of quantum energy transfer in photosynthesis.

  15. Reengineering the optical absorption cross-section of photosynthetic reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Palash K; Lin, Su; Loskutov, Andrey; Levenberg, Symon; Jun, Daniel; Saer, Rafael; Beatty, J Thomas; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao; Woodbury, Neal W

    2014-03-26

    Engineered cysteine residues near the primary electron donor (P) of the reaction center from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides were covalently conjugated to each of several dye molecules in order to explore the geometric design and spectral requirements for energy transfer between an artificial antenna system and the reaction center. An average of 2.5 fluorescent dye molecules were attached at specific locations near P. The enhanced absorbance cross-section afforded by conjugation of Alexa Fluor 660 dyes resulted in a 2.2-fold increase in the formation of reaction center charge-separated state upon intensity-limited excitation at 650 nm. The effective increase in absorbance cross-section resulting from the conjugation of two other dyes, Alexa Fluor 647 and Alexa Fluor 750, was also investigated. The key parameters that dictate the efficiency of dye-to-reaction center energy transfer and subsequent charge separation were examined using both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as well as transient absorbance spectroscopy techniques. An understanding of these parameters is an important first step toward developing more complex model light-harvesting systems integrated with reaction centers. PMID:24568563

  16. Self-assembling photosynthetic reaction centers on electrodes for current generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, C; Hasegawa, M; Yasuda, Y; Miyake, J

    2000-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) made from photosynthetic organisms can be used in solar batteries because their molecules cause light-induced charge separation. We present a simple immobilization system of the intact RCs from Rhodobacter sphaeroides on an electrode that uses nickel ligand binding by the hexameric histidine tag on H subunit (HHisRC). The binding constant of HHisRC to the nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) chip measured with a surface plasmon resonance instrument was 1.6 x 10(8) M-1. HHisRCs were immobilized on an indium tin oxide electrode overlaid with an Ni-NTA gold substrate. The photoinduced displacement current of this electrode was measured to estimate the orientation of HHisRC on the electrode, and the detachability of HHisRC from the electrode was determined by using an imidazole solution wash. The direction of the flash-light-induced displacement current suggested that the H subunit side of the immobilized HHisRC faced the surface of the electrode. The photoinduced current disappeared after the electrode was washed in the imidazole solution. This simple immobilization and detachment of HHisRC to the electrode might be useful for making a reproducible photocurrent device. PMID:10849806

  17. Native Mass Spectrometry Characterizes the Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex from the Purple Bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Harrington, Lucas B.; Lu, Yue; Prado, Mindy; Saer, Rafael; Rempel, Don; Blankenship, Robert E.; Gross, Michael L.

    2016-08-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging approach to study protein complexes in their near-native states and to elucidate their stoichiometry and topology. Here, we report a native MS study of the membrane-embedded reaction center (RC) protein complex from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The membrane-embedded RC protein complex is stabilized by detergent micelles in aqueous solution, directly introduced into a mass spectrometer by nano-electrospray (nESI), and freed of detergents and dissociated in the gas phase by collisional activation. As the collision energy is increased, the chlorophyll pigments are gradually released from the RC complex, suggesting that native MS introduces a near-native structure that continues to bind pigments. Two bacteriochlorophyll a pigments remain tightly bound to the RC protein at the highest collision energy. The order of pigment release and their resistance to release by gas-phase activation indicates the strength of pigment interaction in the RC complex. This investigation sets the stage for future native MS studies of membrane-embedded photosynthetic pigment-protein and related complexes.

  18. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  19. Conserved enzymes mediate the early reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis in nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Hearst, J.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Alberti, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Carotenoids comprise one of the most widespread classes of pigments found in nature. The first reactions of C{sub 40} carotenoid biosynthesis proceed through common intermediates in all organisms, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of early enzymes from this pathway. The authors report here the nucleotide sequence of three genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Erwinia herbicola, a nonphotosynthetic epiphytic bacterium, which encode homologs of the CrtB, CrtE, and CrtI proteins of Rhodobacter capsulatus, a purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium. CrtB (prephytoene pyrophosphate synthase), CrtE (phytoene synthase), and CrtI (phytoene dehydrogenase) are required for the first three reactions specific to the carotenoid branch of general isoprenoid metabolism. All three dehydrogenases possess a hydrophobic N-terminal domain containing a putative ADP-binding {beta}{alpha}{beta} fold characteristic of enzymes known to bind FAD or NAD(P) cofactors. These data indicate the structural conservation of early carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes in evolutionary diverse organisms.

  20. Different effects of identical symmetry-related mutations near the bacteriochlorophyll dimer in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, L G; Fufina, T Y; Gabdulkhakov, A G; Shuvalov, V A

    2015-06-01

    In the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC), asymmetric protein environment of the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) dimer largely determines the photophysical and photochemical properties of the primary electron donor. Previously, we noticed significant differences in properties of Rhodobacter sphaeroides RCs with identical mutations in symmetry-related positions - I(M206)H and I(L177)H. The substitution I(L177)H resulted in covalent binding of BChl PA with the L-subunit, as well as in 6-coordination of BChl BB, whereas in RC I(M206)H no such changes of pigment-protein interactions were found. In addition, the yield of RC I(M206)H after its isolation from membranes was significantly lower than the yield of RC I(L177)H. This study shows that replacement of amino acid residues in the M203-M206 positions near BChls PB and BA by symmetry-related residues from the L-subunit near BChls PA and BB leads to further decrease in RC amount in the membranes associated obviously with poor assembly of the complex. Introduction of a new hydrogen bond between BChl PB and its protein environment by means of the F(M197)H mutation stabilized the mutant RC but did not affect its low yield. We suggest that the mutation I(M206)H and substitution of amino acid residues in M203-M205 positions could disturb glycolipid binding on the RC surface near BChl BA that is important for stable assembly of the complex in the membrane. PMID:26531011

  1. PSI Mehler reaction is the main alternative photosynthetic electron pathway in Symbiodinium sp., symbiotic dinoflagellates of cnidarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberty, Stéphane; Bailleul, Benjamin; Berne, Nicolas; Franck, Fabrice; Cardol, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have developed various photoprotective mechanisms to cope with exposure to high light intensities. In photosynthetic dinoflagellates that live in symbiosis with cnidarians, the nature and relative amplitude of these regulatory mechanisms are a matter of debate. In our study, the amplitude of photosynthetic alternative electron flows (AEF) to oxygen (chlororespiration, Mehler reaction), the mitochondrial respiration and the Photosystem I (PSI) cyclic electron flow were investigated in strains belonging to three clades (A1, B1 and F1) of Symbiodinium. Cultured Symbiodinium strains were maintained under identical environmental conditions, and measurements of oxygen evolution, fluorescence emission and absorption changes at specific wavelengths were used to evaluate PSI and PSII electron transfer rates (ETR). A light- and O2 -dependent ETR was observed in all strains. This electron transfer chain involves PSII and PSI and is insensitive to inhibitors of mitochondrial activity and carbon fixation. We demonstrate that in all strains, the Mehler reaction responsible for photoreduction of oxygen by the PSI under high light, is the main AEF at the onset and at the steady state of photosynthesis. This sustained photosynthetic AEF under high light intensities acts as a photoprotective mechanism and leads to an increase of the ATP/NADPH ratio. PMID:24975027

  2. Delayed fluorescence from the photosynthetic reaction center measured by electronic gating of the photomultiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filus, Z; Laczkó, G; Wraight, C A; Maróti, P

    The decay of the delayed fluorescence (920 nm) of reaction centers from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 in the P(+)Q(A)(-) charge-separated state (P and Q(A) are the primary donor and quinone, respectively) has been monitored in a wide (100 ns to 100 ms) time range. The photomultiplier (Hamamatsu R3310-03) was protected from the intense prompt fluorescence by application of gating potential pulses (-280 V) to the first, third, and fifth dynodes during the laser pulse. The gain of the photomultiplier dropped transiently by a factor of 1 x 10(6). The delayed fluorescence showed a smooth but nonexponential decay from 100 ns to 1 ms that was explained by the relaxation of the average free energy between P* and P(+)Q(A)(-) changing from -580 to -910 meV. This relaxation is due to the slow protein response to charge separation and can be described by a Kohlrausch relaxation function with time constant of 65 micros and a stretching exponent of alpha = 0.45. PMID:15137102

  3. Assembly of photosynthetic reaction center with ABA tri-block polymersomes: highlights on the protein localization.

    KAUST Repository

    Tangorra, Roberto Rocco

    2015-07-07

    The reconstitution of the integral membrane protein photosynthetic reaction center (RC) in polymersomes, i. e. artificial closed vesicles, was achieved by the micelle-to-vesicle transition technique, a very mild protocol based on size exclusion chromatography often used to drive the incorporation of proteins contemporarily to liposomes formation. An optimized protocol was used to successfully reconstitute the protein in a fully active state in polymersomes formed by the tri-block copolymers PMOXA22-PDMS61-PMOXA22. The RC is very sensitive to its solubilizing environment and was used to probe the positioning of the protein in the vesicles. According to charge-recombination experiments and to the enzymatic activity assay, the RC is found to accommodate in the PMOXA22 region of the polymersome, facing the water bulk solution, rather than in the PDMS61 transmembrane-like region. Furthermore, polymersomes were found to preserve protein integrity efficiently as the biomimetic lipid bilayers but show a much longer temporal stability than lipid based vesicles.

  4. Induction and anisotropy of fluorescence of reaction center from photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Gábor; Maróti, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Submillisecond dark-light changes of the yield (induction) and anisotropy of fluorescence under laser diode excitation were measured in the photosynthetic reaction center of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Narrow band (1-2 nm) laser diodes emitting at 808 and 865 nm were used to selectively excite the accessory bacteriochlorophyll (B, 800 nm) or the upper excitonic state of the bacteriochlorophyll dimer (P-, 810 nm) and the lower excitonic state of the dimer (P+, 865 nm), respectively. The fluorescence spectrum of the wild type showed two bands centered at 850 nm (B) and 910 nm (P-). While the monotonous decay of the fluorescence yield at 910 nm tracked the light-induced oxidation of the dimer, the kinetics of the fluorescence yield at 850 nm showed an initial rise before a decrease. The anisotropy of the fluorescence excited at 865 nm (P-) was very close to the limiting value (0.4) across the whole spectral range. The excitation of both B and P- at 808 nm resulted in wavelength-dependent depolarization of the fluorescence from 0.35 to 0.24 in the wild type and from 0.30 to 0.24 in the reaction center of triple mutant (L131LH-M160LH-M197FH). The additivity law of the anisotropies of the fluorescence species accounts for the wavelength dependence of the anisotropy. The measured fluorescence yields and anisotropies are interpreted in terms of very fast energy transfer from (1)B* to (1)P- (either directly or indirectly by internal conversion from (1)P+) and to the oxidized dimer. PMID:25698106

  5. Isolation of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterial strains efficient in hydrogen production at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were isolated from root zone associations of aquatic plants like Azolla, Salvinia and Eichhornia, as well as the deep-water rice. Based on the gross cell morphology and pigmentation, the isolates resembled Rhodopseudomonas sp. and have been designated as BHU strains 1 to 4, respectively. When subjected to elevated temperature (from 33-45{sup o}C), substantial growth/hydrogen production could be observed only in strains 1 and 4. Strains 2 and 3 on the other hand, showed diminished growth and negligible hydrogen photoproduction. The BHU strains 1 and 4 have been selected as the most active (thermostable) hydrogen producing strains of local origin as far as the Indian tropical climate is concerned. (author).

  6. Ecological and phylogenetic studies on purple sulfur bacteria based on their pufLM genes of the photosynthetic reaction center

    OpenAIRE

    Tank, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis pufLM genes were tested for their suitability as phylogenetic markers for purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and applied in environmental community studies as well as in polyphasic taxonomy. pufLM genes encode for the light and medium subunit of the photosynthetic reaction center type II proteins exclusively present in the polyphyletic group of anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacteria and Chloroflexaceae. Congruency between 16S rRNA gene and pufLM phylogeny was obtained in this study ...

  7. Design of dinuclear manganese cofactors for bacterial reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Tien L; Espiritu, Eduardo; Edwardraja, Selvakumar; Simmons, Chad R; Williams, JoAnn C; Ghirlanda, Giovanna; Allen, James P

    2016-05-01

    A compelling target for the design of electron transfer proteins with novel cofactors is to create a model for the oxygen-evolving complex, a Mn4Ca cluster, of photosystem II. A mononuclear Mn cofactor can be added to the bacterial reaction center, but the addition of multiple metal centers is constrained by the native protein architecture. Alternatively, metal centers can be incorporated into artificial proteins. Designs for the addition of dinuclear metal centers to four-helix bundles resulted in three artificial proteins with ligands for one, two, or three dinuclear metal centers able to bind Mn. The three-dimensional structure determined by X-ray crystallography of one of the Mn-proteins confirmed the design features and revealed details concerning coordination of the Mn center. Electron transfer between these artificial Mn-proteins and bacterial reaction centers was investigated using optical spectroscopy. After formation of a light-induced, charge-separated state, the experiments showed that the Mn-proteins can donate an electron to the oxidized bacteriochlorophyll dimer of modified reaction centers, with the Mn-proteins having additional metal centers being more effective at this electron transfer reaction. Modeling of the structure of the Mn-protein docked to the reaction center showed that the artificial protein likely binds on the periplasmic surface similarly to cytochrome c2, the natural secondary donor. Combining reaction centers with exogenous artificial proteins provides the opportunity to create ligands and investigate the influence of inhomogeneous protein environments on multinuclear redox-active metal centers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics - the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. PMID:26392146

  8. The functional role of protein dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers investigated by elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short review summarizes our current knowledge about the functional relevance of protein dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers. The essential processes of photosynthetic water splitting take place in a membrane-bound protein assembly denoted as Photosystem II (PS II). In the case of PS II membrane fragments, elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments reveal a dynamical transition at about 240 K corresponding to the activation of picosecond molecular motions. Likewise, a 'freezing' of molecular dynamics is observed upon dehydration. Intriguingly, these effects correlate with the pronounced temperature- and hydration-dependence of specific electron transfer steps in PS II indicating that molecular dynamics is an indispensable prerequisite for its function. Thus, electron transfer in PS II appears to be a prototypical example for a dynamics-function correlation. Finally, the laser-neutron pump-probe technique is shown to permit in-situ monitoring of molecular dynamics in specific functional states of a protein in real time

  9. Genetic probes of structure/function relationships in the Q{sub B} binding site of the photosynthetic reaction center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.K.; Tiede, D.M.; Nance, S.L.; Chang, Chong-Hwan; Schiffer, M.

    1991-06-25

    In photosynthetic reaction centers, a quinone molecule, Q{sub B}, is the terminal acceptor in light-induced electron transfer. The crystal structure of the reaction center implicates the protonatable amiho acid residues L212Glu and L213Asp in the binding of Q{sub B} to the reaction center and in proton transfer to the anionic forms of Q{sub B} generated by electron transfer from Q{sub A}. Here we report the construction of the double mutant L212Ala-L213Ala by site-specific mutagenesis, and the isolation and preliminary biophysical characterization of revertant and suppressor strains that have regained the ability to grow under photosynthetic conditions. Our results show that neither L212Glu nor L213Asp is essential for efficient light-induced electron or proton transfer in Rhodobacter capsulatus and that second-site mutations, located within the QB binding pocket or at a more distant site, can compensate for mutations at L212 and L213. Acquisition of a single negatively charged residue (at position L213, or on the other side of the binding pocket at position L225) or loss of a positively charged residue (at position M231) is sufficient to restore activity to the complex.

  10. Spin densities from subsystem density-functional theory: Assessment and application to a photosynthetic reaction center complex model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsystem density-functional theory (DFT) is a powerful and efficient alternative to Kohn-Sham DFT for large systems composed of several weakly interacting subunits. Here, we provide a systematic investigation of the spin-density distributions obtained in subsystem DFT calculations for radicals in explicit environments. This includes a small radical in a solvent shell, a π-stacked guanine-thymine radical cation, and a benchmark application to a model for the special pair radical cation, which is a dimer of bacteriochlorophyll pigments, from the photosynthetic reaction center of purple bacteria. We investigate the differences in the spin densities resulting from subsystem DFT and Kohn-Sham DFT calculations. In these comparisons, we focus on the problem of overdelocalization of spin densities due to the self-interaction error in DFT. It is demonstrated that subsystem DFT can reduce this problem, while it still allows to describe spin-polarization effects crossing the boundaries of the subsystems. In practical calculations of spin densities for radicals in a given environment, it may thus be a pragmatic alternative to Kohn-Sham DFT calculations. In our calculation on the special pair radical cation, we show that the coordinating histidine residues reduce the spin-density asymmetry between the two halves of this system, while inclusion of a larger binding pocket model increases this asymmetry. The unidirectional energy transfer in photosynthetic reaction centers is related to the asymmetry introduced by the protein environment.

  11. Spin densities from subsystem density-functional theory: Assessment and application to a photosynthetic reaction center complex model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyeva, Alisa; Pavanello, Michele; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Subsystem density-functional theory (DFT) is a powerful and efficient alternative to Kohn-Sham DFT for large systems composed of several weakly interacting subunits. Here, we provide a systematic investigation of the spin-density distributions obtained in subsystem DFT calculations for radicals in explicit environments. This includes a small radical in a solvent shell, a π-stacked guanine-thymine radical cation, and a benchmark application to a model for the special pair radical cation, which is a dimer of bacteriochlorophyll pigments, from the photosynthetic reaction center of purple bacteria. We investigate the differences in the spin densities resulting from subsystem DFT and Kohn-Sham DFT calculations. In these comparisons, we focus on the problem of overdelocalization of spin densities due to the self-interaction error in DFT. It is demonstrated that subsystem DFT can reduce this problem, while it still allows to describe spin-polarization effects crossing the boundaries of the subsystems. In practical calculations of spin densities for radicals in a given environment, it may thus be a pragmatic alternative to Kohn-Sham DFT calculations. In our calculation on the special pair radical cation, we show that the coordinating histidine residues reduce the spin-density asymmetry between the two halves of this system, while inclusion of a larger binding pocket model increases this asymmetry. The unidirectional energy transfer in photosynthetic reaction centers is related to the asymmetry introduced by the protein environment.

  12. How carotenoids protect bacterial photosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cogdell, R J; Howard, T. D.; Bittl, R.; Schlodder, E; Geisenheimer, I; Lubitz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The essential function of carotenoids in photosynthesis is to act as photoprotective agents, preventing chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls from sensitizing harmful photodestructive reactions in the presence of oxygen. Based upon recent structural studies on reaction centres and antenna complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria, the detailed organization of the carotenoids is described. Then with specific reference to bacterial antenna complexes the details of the photoprotective role, ...

  13. Probing the Energy Transfer Dynamics of Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complexes Through Hole-Burning and Single-Complex Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry Riley

    2008-05-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is used to drive reactions that generate sugars to supply energy for cellular processes. It is one of the most important fundamental biological reactions and occurs in both prokaryotic (e.g. bacteria) and eukaryotic (e.g. plants and algae) organisms. Photosynthesis is also remarkably intricate, requiring the coordination of many different steps and reactions in order to successfully transform absorbed solar energy into a biochemical usable form of energy. However, the net reaction for all photosynthetic organisms can be reduced to the following, deceptively general, equation developed by Van Niel[1] H{sub 2} - D + A {sub {implies}}{sup hv} A - H{sub 2} + D where H{sub 2}-D is the electron donor, e.g. H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}S. A is the electron acceptor, e.g. CO{sub 2}, and A-H{sub 2} is the synthesized sugar. Amazingly, this simple net equation is responsible for creating the oxidizing atmosphere of Earth and the recycling of CO{sub 2}, both of which are necessary for the sustainment of the global ecosystem.

  14. Functional type 2 photosynthetic reaction centers found in the rare bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeng, Y.; Feng, F.; Medová, Hana; Dean, Jason; Koblížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 21 (2014), s. 7795-7800. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR P501/10/0221; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : anoxygenic photosynthesis * pigments * horizontal gene transfer Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014

  15. Synthetic Antenna Functioning As Light Harvester in the Whole Visible Region for Enhanced Hybrid Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Omar, Omar; la Gatta, Simona; Tangorra, Rocco Roberto; Milano, Francesco; Ragni, Roberta; Operamolla, Alessandra; Argazzi, Roberto; Chiorboli, Claudio; Agostiano, Angela; Trotta, Massimo; Farinola, Gianluca M

    2016-07-20

    The photosynthetic reaction center (RC) from the Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacterium has been covalently bioconjugated with a NIR-emitting fluorophore (AE800) whose synthesis was specifically tailored to act as artificial antenna harvesting light in the entire visible region. AE800 has a broad absorption spectrum with peaks centered in the absorption gaps of the RC and its emission overlaps the most intense RC absorption bands, ensuring a consistent increase of the protein optical cross section. The covalent hybrid AE800-RC is stable and fully functional. The energy collected by the artificial antenna is transferred to the protein via FRET mechanism, and the hybrid system outperforms by a noteworthy 30% the overall photochemical activity of the native protein under the entire range of visible light. This improvement in the optical characteristic of the photoenzyme demonstrates the effectiveness of the bioconjugation approach as a suitable route to new biohybrid materials for energy conversion, photocatalysis, and biosensing. PMID:27245093

  16. The functional role of protein dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers investigated by elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieper Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This short review summarizes our current knowledge about the functional relevance of protein dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers. In the case of Photosystem II membrane fragments, elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments reveal a dynamical transition at about 240 K corresponding to the activation of picosecond molecular motions. Likewise, a “freezing” of molecular dynamics is observed upon dehydration. Intriguingly, these effects correlate with the pronounced temperature- and hydration-dependence of specific electron transfer steps in Photosystem II indicating that molecular dynamics is an indispensable prerequisite for its function. Thus, electron transfer in Photosystem II appears to be a prototypical example for a dynamics-function correlation. Finally, the laser-neutron pump-probe technique is shown to permit in-situ monitoring of molecular dynamics in specific functional states of a protein in real time.

  17. Electronic energy harvesting multi BODIPY-zinc porphyrin dyads accommodating fullerene as photosynthetic composite of antenna-reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maligaspe, E; Kumpulainen, T; Subbaiyan, N K; Zandler, M E; Lemmetyinen, H; Tkachenko, N V; D'Souza, F

    2010-07-21

    Efficient electronic energy transfer (EET) in the newly synthesized dyads comprised of zinc porphyrin covalently linked to one, two or four numbers of boron dipyrrin (BDP) entities is investigated. Both steady-state and time-resolved emission as well as transient absorption studies revealed occurrence of efficient singlet-singlet energy transfer from BDP to zinc porphyrin with the time scale ranging between 28 and 48 ps. A decrease in time constants for energy transfer with increasing the number of BDP units is observed revealing better antenna effect of dyads bearing higher number of boron dipyrrin entities. Further, supramolecular triads to mimic the 'antenna-reaction center' functionality of photosynthetic reaction center have been successfully constructed by coordinating fulleropyrrolidine appended with an imidazole ligand to the zinc porphyrin. The structural integrity of the supramolecular triads was arrived by optical, computational and electrochemical studies. Free energy calculations revealed possibility of photoinduced electron transfer from singlet excited zinc porphyrin to fullerene, and the preliminary transient absorption studies involving pump-probe technique are supportive of occurrence of electron transfer from (1)ZnP* to fullerene in the supramolecular triads. PMID:20544099

  18. Time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence in photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godik, V. I.; Blankenship, R. E.; Causgrove, T. P.; Woodbury, N.

    1993-01-01

    Tryptophan fluorescence of reaction centers isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, both stationary and time-resolved, was studied. Fluorescence kinetics were found to fit best a sum of four discrete exponential components. Half of the initial amplitude was due to a component with a lifetime of congruent to 60 ps, belonging to Trp residues, capable of efficient transfer of excitation energy to bacteriochlorophyll molecules of the reaction center. The three other components seem to be emitted by Trp ground-state conformers, unable to participate in such a transfer. Under the influence of intense actinic light, photooxidizing the reaction centers, the yield of stationary fluorescence diminished by congruent to 1.5 times, while the number of the kinetic components and their life times remained practically unchanged. Possible implications of the observed effects for the primary photosynthesis events are considered.

  19. Export or recombination of charges in reaction centers in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Emese; Maróti, Péter

    2009-12-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of forward and reverse electron transfer around the reaction center of purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides were studied in vivo by flash-excited delayed fluorescence, prompt fluorescence (induction) and kinetic difference absorption. By protection of the photomultiplier from intense bacteriochlorophyll prompt fluorescence evoked by laser excitation, the time resolution of the fluorometer was reduced typically 10 micros. Two precursor states of the delayed fluorescence were identified: P(+)Q(A)(-) and cyt c(2)(3+)Q(A)(-) whose enthalpy levels were 340 meV and 1020 meV below A, respectively. The free energy of the P(+)Q(A)(-) state relative to A* was -870 meV in whole cells. Similar values were obtained earlier for isolated reaction center and chromatophore. The free energies of cyt c(2)(3+)Q(A)(-) and P(+)Q(A)(-) states showed no or very weak (-6 meV/pH unit) pH-dependence, respectively, supporting the concept of pH-independent redox midpoint potential of Q(A)/Q(A)(-) in intact cells. In accordance with the multiphasic kinetics of delayed fluorescence, the kinetics of re-opening of the closed reaction center is also complex (it extends up to 1 s) as a consequence of acceptor and donor-side reactions. The control of charge export from the reaction center by light regime, redox agents and inhibitors is investigated. The complex kinetics may arise from the distribution of quinones in different redox states on the acceptor side (Q(B) binding site and pool) and from organization of electron transfer components in supercomplexes. PMID:19555655

  20. Small chloroplast-targeted DnaJ proteins are involved in optimization of photosynthetic reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piippo Mirva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DnaJ proteins participate in many metabolic pathways through dynamic interactions with various components of these processes. The role of three small chloroplast-targeted DnaJ proteins, AtJ8 (At1 g80920, AtJ11 (At4 g36040 and AtJ20 (At4 g13830, was investigated here using knock-out mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Photochemical efficiency, capacity of CO2 assimilation, stabilization of Photosystem (PS II dimers and supercomplexes under high light illumination, energy distribution between PSI and PSII and phosphorylation of PSII-LHCII proteins, global gene expression profiles and oxidative stress responses of these DnaJ mutants were analyzed. Results Knockout of one of these proteins caused a series of events including a decrease in photosynthetic efficiency, destabilization of PSII complexes and loss of control for balancing the redox reactions in chloroplasts. Data obtained with DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that the lack of one of these DnaJ proteins triggers a global stress response and therefore confers the plants greater tolerance to oxidative stress induced by high light or methyl viologen treatments. Expression of a set of genes encoding enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS as well as a number of stress-related transcription factors behaved in the mutants at growth light similarly to that when wild-type (WT plants were transferred to high light. Also a set of genes related to redox regulation were upregulated in the mutants. On the other hand, although the three DnaJ proteins reside in chloroplasts, the expression of most genes encoding thylakoid membrane proteins was not changed in the mutants. Conclusion It is proposed that the tolerance of the DnaJ protein knockout plants to oxidative stress occurs at the expense of the flexibility of photosynthetic reactions. Despite the fact that the effects of the individual protein knockout on the response of plants to high light treatment are quite similar

  1. Conserved enzymes mediate the early reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis in nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic prokaryotes.

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Armstrong; Alberti, M; Hearst, J E

    1990-01-01

    Carotenoids comprise one of the most widespread classes of pigments found in nature. The first reactions of C40 carotenoid biosynthesis proceed through common intermediates in all organisms, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of early enzymes from this pathway. We report here the nucleotide sequence of three genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Erwinia herbicola, a nonphotosynthetic epiphytic bacterium, which encode homologs of the CrtB, CrtE, and CrtI proteins of Rhod...

  2. Calculated coupling of electron and proton transfer in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, C R; Michel, H; Honig, B; Gunner, M R

    1996-06-01

    Based on new Rhodopseudomonas (Rp.) viridis reaction center (RC) coordinates with a reliable structure of the secondary acceptor quinone (QB) site, a continuum dielectric model and finite difference technique have been used to identify clusters of electrostatically interacting ionizable residues. Twenty-three residues within a distance of 25 A from QB (QB cluster) have been shown to be strongly electrostatically coupled to QB, either directly or indirectly. An analogous cluster of 24 residues is found to interact with QA (QA cluster). Both clusters extend to the cytoplasmic surface in at least two directions. However, the QB cluster differs from the QA cluster in that it has a surplus of acidic residues, more strong electrostatic interactions, is less solvated, and experiences a strong positive electrostatic field arising from the polypeptide backbone. Consequently, upon reduction of QA or QB, it is the QB cluster, and not the QA cluster, which is responsible for substoichiometric proton uptake at neutral pH. The bulk of the changes in the QB cluster are calculated to be due to the protonation of a tightly coupled cluster of the three Glu residues (L212, H177, and M234) within the QB cluster. If the lifetime of the doubly reduced state QB2- is long enough, Asp M43 and Ser L223 are predicted to also become protonated. The calculated complex titration behavior of the strongly interacting residues of the QB cluster and the resulting electrostatic response to electron transfer may be a common feature in proton-transferring membrane protein complexes. PMID:8744288

  3. Optimizing multi-step B-side charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faries, Kaitlyn M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kressel, Lucas L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dylla, Nicholas P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wander, Marc J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hanson, Deborah K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Holten, Dewey [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Laible, Philip D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kirmaier, Christine [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Using high-throughput methods for mutagenesis, protein isolation and charge-separation functionality, we have assayed 40 Rhodobacter capsulatus reaction center (RC) mutants for their P+ QB- yield (P is a dimer of bacteriochlorophylls and Q is a ubiquinone) as produced using the normally inactive B-side cofactors BB and HB (where B is a bacteriochlorophyll and H is a bacteriopheophytin). Two sets of mutants explore all possible residues at M131 (M polypeptide, native residue Val near HB) in tandem with either a fixed His or a fixed Asn at L181 (L polypeptide, native residue Phe near BB). A third set of mutants explores all possible residues at L181 with a fixed Glu at M131 that can form a hydrogen bond to HB. For each set of mutants, the results of a rapid millisecond screening assay that probes the yield of P+ QB- are compared among that set and to the other mutants reported here or previously. For a subset of eight mutants, the rate constants and yields of the individual B-side electron transfer processes are determined via transient absorption measurements spanning 100 fs to 50 μs. The resulting ranking of mutants for their yield of P+ QB- from ultrafast experiments is in good agreement with that obtained from the millisecond screening assay, further validating the efficient, high-throughput screen for B-side transmembrane charge separation. Results from mutants that individually show progress toward optimization of P+ HB- → P+ QB- electron transfer or initial P* → P+ HB- conversion highlight unmet challenges of optimizing both processes simultaneously.

  4. Axially assembled photosynthetic reaction center mimics composed of tetrathiafulvalene, aluminum(iii) porphyrin and fullerene entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K.; Lim, Gary N.; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Karr, Paul A.; Ito, Osamu; D'Souza, Francis; Pilkington, Melanie; van der Est, Art

    2015-07-01

    The distance dependence of sequential electron transfer has been studied in six, vertical, linear supramolecular triads, (TTF-Phn-py --> AlPor-Phm-C60, n = 0, 1 and m = 1, 2, 3), constructed using tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), aluminum(iii) porphyrin (AlPor) and fullerene (C60) entities. The C60 and TTF units are bound to the Al center on opposite faces of the porphyrin; the C60 through a covalent axial bond using a benzoate spacer, and the TTF through a coordination bond via an appended pyridine. Time-resolved optical and EPR spectroscopic methods and computational studies are used to demonstrate that excitation of the porphyrin leads to step-wise, sequential electron transfer (ET) between TTF and C60, and to study the electron transfer rates and exchange coupling between the components of the triads as a function of the bridge lengths. Femtosecond transient absorption studies show that the rates of charge separation, kCS are in the range of 109-1011 s-1, depending on the length of the bridges. The lifetimes of the charge-separated state TTF&z.rad;+-C&z.rad;-60 obtained from transient absorbance experiments and the singlet lifetimes of the radical pairs obtained by time-resolved EPR are in good agreement with each other and range from 60-130 ns in the triads. The time-resolved EPR data also show that population of the triplet sublevels of the charge-separated state in the presence of a magnetic field leads to much longer lifetimes of >1 μs. The data show that a modest stabilization of the charge separation lifetime occurs in the triads. The attenuation factor β = 0.36 Å-1 obtained from the exchange coupling values between TTF&z.rad;+ and C&z.rad;-60 is consistent with values reported in the literature for oligophenylene bridged TTF-C60 conjugates. The singlet charge recombination lifetime shows a much weaker dependence on the distance between the donor and acceptor, suggesting that a simple superexchange model is not sufficient to describe the back reaction

  5. Cyclotriphosphazene appended porphyrins and fulleropyrrolidine complexes as supramolecular multiple photosynthetic reaction centers: steady and excited states photophysical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vishnu Sukumaran; Pareek, Yogita; Karunakaran, Venugopal; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2014-06-01

    New multiple photosynthetic reaction centers were constructed from cyclophosphazene decorated multiporphyrin chromophores and a fulleropyrrolidine having a pyridine ligand (FPY). The excited state electron transfer in the self-assembled donor-acceptor assembly was investigated by using steady state absorption and emission, time-resolved emission spectroscopy and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. The effect of metal (Zn(2+)) coordination to porphyrin units in the multiporphyrin arrays on cyclophosphazine scaffold (P3N3Zn) was studied by comparing with metal free porphyrin assembly on a cyclophosphazene scaffold (P3N3). In P3N3Zn, the decrease of absorption and fluorescence intensity and the lowering of the amplitude of longer fluorescence lifetime with increase of FPY concentration reflect the formation of a ground state complex with an association constant of ∼14,910 M(-1). When compared to the metal-free complex P3N3, the metal-coordinated derivative P3N3Zn exhibited shortening of the singlet and triplet state lifetimes and lowering of the singlet and triplet quantum yields. The cause of the decrease of the triplet quantum yields by insertion of zinc metal is discussed along with the possible non-planarity of the porphyrin ring. From the fluorescence lifetime measurements for the P3N3Zn-FPY mixture, it is proposed that self-assembly of the donor-acceptor complex leads to charge separated species with a rate constant of 7.1 × 10(9) s(-1). The decrease of triplet state intensity and lifetime of the P3N3Zn in the P3N3Zn-FPY complex from the nanosecond transient absorption studies support the occurrence of intermolecular electron transfer in the triplet state. PMID:24584716

  6. Effects of temperature and deltaGo on electron transfer from cytochrome c2 to the photosynthetic reaction center of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    OpenAIRE

    Venturoli, G; Drepper, F; Williams, J C; Allen, J P; X. Lin; MATHIS,P

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics of electron transfer from cytochrome c2 to the primary donor (P) of the reaction center from the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been investigated by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. Rereduction of P+ induced by a laser pulse has been measured at temperatures from 300 K to 220 K in a series of specifically mutated reaction centers characterized by altered midpoint redox potentials of P+/P varying from 410 mV to 765 mV (as compared to 505 mV for ...

  7. Energy transfer followed by electron transfer in a supramolecular triad composed of boron dipyrrin, zinc porphyrin, and fullerene: a model for the photosynthetic antenna-reaction center complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Francis; Smith, Phillip M; Zandler, Melvin E; McCarty, Amy L; Itou, Mitsunari; Araki, Yasuyuki; Ito, Osamu

    2004-06-30

    The first example of a working model of the photosynthetic antenna-reaction center complex, constructed via self-assembled supramolecular methodology, is reported. For this, a supramolecular triad is assembled by axially coordinating imidazole-appended fulleropyrrolidine to the zinc center of a covalently linked zinc porphyrin-boron dipyrrin dyad. Selective excitation of the boron dipyrrin moiety in the boron dipyrrin-zinc porphyrin dyad resulted in efficient energy transfer (k(ENT)(singlet) = 9.2 x 10(9) s(-)(1); Phi(ENT)(singlet) = 0.83) creating singlet excited zinc porphyrin. Upon forming the supramolecular triad, the excited zinc porphyrin resulted in efficient electron transfer to the coordinated fullerenes, resulting in a charge-separated state (k(cs)(singlet) = 4.7 x 10(9) s(-)(1); Phi(CS)(singlet) = 0.9). The observed energy transfer followed by electron transfer in the present supramolecular triad mimics the events of natural photosynthesis. Here, the boron dipyrrin acts as antenna chlorophyll that absorbs light energy and transports spatially to the photosynthetic reaction center, while the electron transfer from the excited zinc porphyrin to fullerene mimics the primary events of the reaction center where conversion of the electronic excitation energy to chemical energy in the form of charge separation takes place. The important feature of the present model system is its relative "simplicity" because of the utilized supramolecular approach to mimic rather complex "combined antenna-reaction center" events of photosynthesis. PMID:15212538

  8. Direct correlation between delayed footpad reaction and resistance to local bacterial infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuyama, M; Nomoto, K; Takeya, K.

    1982-01-01

    The resistance to bacteria was studied at the site of delayed footpad reaction in mice immunized with Listeria monocytogenes. When a challenge injection of listeria was given into the footpad of immune mice, no enhancement of bacterial elimination was observed before the generation of delayed footpad reactivity. After the generation of delayed reactivity, an enhanced elimination of listeria or Salmonella typhimurium was observed only at the site of strongly positive delayed footpad reaction e...

  9. Bacterial Bioluminescence: Spectral Study of the Emitters in the In Vivo Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheson, I.B.C.; Lee, J.; Muller, F.

    1981-01-01

    Transient fluorescent species are observed in the bioluminescent reactions of three reduced flavin mononucleotides with aliphatic aldehydes and oxygen, catalyzed by bacterial luciferase. In each case the fluorescence spectral distribution is similar to that of the bioluminescence but is readily dist

  10. Comments on the optical lineshape function: Application to transient hole-burned spectra of bacterial reaction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vibrational spectral density is an important physical parameter needed to describe both linear and non-linear spectra of multi-chromophore systems such as photosynthetic complexes. Low-temperature techniques such as hole burning (HB) and fluorescence line narrowing are commonly used to extract the spectral density for a given electronic transition from experimental data. We report here that the lineshape function formula reported by Hayes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7337 (1994)] in the mean-phonon approximation and frequently applied to analyzing HB data contains inconsistencies in notation, leading to essentially incorrect expressions in cases of moderate and strong electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling strengths. A corrected lineshape function L(ω) is given that retains the computational and intuitive advantages of the expression of Hayes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7337 (1994)]. Although the corrected lineshape function could be used in modeling studies of various optical spectra, we suggest that it is better to calculate the lineshape function numerically, without introducing the mean-phonon approximation. New theoretical fits of the P870 and P960 absorption bands and frequency-dependent resonant HB spectra of Rb. sphaeroides and Rps. viridis reaction centers are provided as examples to demonstrate the importance of correct lineshape expressions. Comparison with the previously determined el-ph coupling parameters [Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. 94, 5849 (1990); Lyle et al., ibid. 97, 6924 (1993); Reddy et al., ibid. 97, 6934 (1993)] is also provided. The new fits lead to modified el-ph coupling strengths and different frequencies of the special pair marker mode, ωsp, for Rb. sphaeroides that could be used in the future for more advanced calculations of absorption and HB spectra obtained for various bacterial reaction centers

  11. The utility of the polymerase chain reaction assay for aetiologic definition of unspecified bacterial meningitis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Tuyama

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with acute suppurative meningitis are otherwise healthy individuals with regard to immune mechanisms against invasive bacterial disease. This medical emergency is among the most dramatic and potentially ravaging diseases that affect humans, particularly young children. The illness often strikes suddenly, and can either result in death or leave the survivors with significant neurological dysfunctions. The demonstration of a bacterial aetiology is necessary for decisions regarding treatment and prophylaxis. Conventional bacteriological methods frequently fail to identify an agent, as a result of administration of antibiotics or delayed lumbar punctures. We investigated the major aetiologic sources of unspecified bacterial meningitis cases (G00.9, ISCD-10 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based identification of Neisseria meningitidis (crgA, Streptococcus pneumoniae (ply and Haemophilus influenzae (bexA in cerebrospinal fluid samples. The multiplex PCR detected N. meningitidis in 92%, S. pneumoniae in 4% and H. influenzae in 1% of the 192 clinical samples assayed; 3% were negative for all three DNA targets. Bacterial DNA detection was found to be a valuable adjunct to enhance bacterial meningitis surveillance when the yield of specimens by culture is reduced. The implementation of PCR assays as a diagnostic procedure in Public Health Laboratories is perceived to be a significant advance in the investigation of bacterial meningitis.

  12. Diagnosis of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis by broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Susanna; Dahlberg, Daniel; Hedegaard, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic strategy with culture to evaluate additional effects on the etiological diagnosis and the quantification of the bacterial load during the course of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis (VR-BM). M...

  13. Temperature-induced dissociation reaction and dynamics of light-harvesting complex Ⅱ isolated from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rps. palustris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Juan; LI XueFeng; LIU Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and resonance Raman spectroscopy have been used to investigate the thermal stability of LH2 complex isolated from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rps. Palustris. The results show that: 1) upon increasing the temperature, a transition from B800 and B850 to free bacteriochlorophyll (B780) happens; 2) a gradual decrease and disappearance of CD signal in visible region occur; 3) a shift of the frequency, belonging to C=C and C-C stretching vibration, to higher wavenumber takes place. It is suggested that LH2 complex can be dissociated in the presence of B800, B850 and carotenoids simultaneously. Single-exponential fitting on the dynamic decay curves gives the apparent time constants of hundreds of minutes for various pigments.

  14. Bacterial discrimination by means of a universal array approach mediated by LDR (ligase detection reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolandi Clarissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes provides the most comprehensive and flexible means of sampling bacterial communities. Sequence analysis of these cloned fragments can provide a qualitative and quantitative insight of the microbial population under scrutiny although this approach is not suited to large-scale screenings. Other methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, heteroduplex or terminal restriction fragment analysis are rapid and therefore amenable to field-scale experiments. A very recent addition to these analytical tools is represented by microarray technology. Results Here we present our results using a Universal DNA Microarray approach as an analytical tool for bacterial discrimination. The proposed procedure is based on the properties of the DNA ligation reaction and requires the design of two probes specific for each target sequence. One oligo carries a fluorescent label and the other a unique sequence (cZipCode or complementary ZipCode which identifies a ligation product. Ligated fragments, obtained in presence of a proper template (a PCR amplified fragment of the 16s rRNA gene contain either the fluorescent label or the unique sequence and therefore are addressed to the location on the microarray where the ZipCode sequence has been spotted. Such an array is therefore "Universal" being unrelated to a specific molecular analysis. Here we present the design of probes specific for some groups of bacteria and their application to bacterial diagnostics. Conclusions The combined use of selective probes, ligation reaction and the Universal Array approach yielded an analytical procedure with a good power of discrimination among bacteria.

  15. Theoretical studies on the influence of molecular interactions on the mechanism of electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction center of Rps. viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Hong(徐红); ZHANG; Rubo(张汝波); QU; Zhengwang(屈正旺); ZHANG; Xingkang(张兴康); ZHANG; Qiyuan(张启元)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the QM/MM optimized X-ray crystal structure of the photosynthetic reaction center (PRC) of purple bacteria Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis, quantum chemistry density functional method (DFT, B3LYP/6-31G) has been performed to study the interactions between the pigment molecules and either the surrounded amino acid residues or water molecules that are either axially coordinated or hydrogen bonded with the pigment molecules, leading to an explanation of the mechanism of the primary electron-transfer (ET) reactions in the PRC. Results show that the axial coordination of amino acid residues greatly raises the ELUMO of pigment molecules and it is important for the possibility of ET to take place. Different hydrogen bonds between amino acid residues, water molecules and pigment molecules decrease the ELUMO of the pigment molecules to different extents. It is crucial for the ET taking place from excited P along L branch and sustains that the ET is a one-step reaction without through accessory bacteriochlorophyll (ABChl b). It is insufficient to treat the whole protein surrounding as a homogeneous dielectric medium.

  16. Photosynthetic antenna-reaction center mimicry: sequential energy- and electron transfer in a self-assembled supramolecular triad composed of boron dipyrrin, zinc porphyrin and fullerene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maligaspe, Eranda; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Chitta, Raghu; Zandler, Melvin E; Lemmetyinen, Helge; D'Souza, Francis

    2009-07-30

    A self-assembled supramolecular triad, a model to mimic the photochemical events of photosynthetic antenna-reaction center, viz., sequential energy and electron transfer, has been newly constructed and studied. Boron dipyrrin, zinc porphyrin, and fullerene respectively constitute the energy donor, electron donor, and electron acceptor segments of the antenna-reaction center mimicry. For the construction, first, boron dipyrrin was covalently attached to a zinc porphyrin entity bearing a benzo-18-crown-6 host segment at the opposite end of the porphyrin ring. Next, an alkyl ammonium functionalized fullerene was used to self-assemble the crown ether entity via ion-dipole interactions. The newly formed supramolecular triad was fully characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical methods. Selective excitation of the boron dipyrrin moiety in the dyad resulted in energy transfer over 97% efficiency creating singlet excited zinc porphyrin. The rate of energy transfer from the decay measurements of time-correlated singlet photon counting (TCSPC) and up-conversion techniques agreed well with that obtained by the pump-probe technique and revealed efficient photoinduced energy transfer in the dyad (time constant in the order of 10-60 ps depending upon the conformer). Upon forming the supramolecular triad by self-assembling fullerene, the excited zinc porphyrin resulted in electron transfer to the coordinated fullerene yielding a charge-separated state, thus mimicking the antenna-reaction center functionalities of photosynthesis. Nanosecond transient absorption studies yielded a lifetime of the charge-separated state to be 23 micros indicating charge stabilization in the supramolecular triad. The present supramolecular system represents a successful model to mimic the rather complex "combined antenna-reaction center" events of photosynthesis. PMID:19580310

  17. Photosynthetic electron sinks in transgenic tobacco with reduced amounts of Rubisco: little evidence for significant Mehler reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuska, S A; Badger, M R; Andrews, T J; von Caemmerer, S

    2000-02-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) plants with an antisense gene directed against the mRNA of the small subunit of Rubisco were used to investigate the role of O2 as an electron acceptor during photosynthesis. The reduction in Rubisco has reduced the capacity for CO2-fixation in these plants without a similar reduction in electron transport capacity. Concurrent measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 assimilation at different CO2 and O2 partial pressures showed close linear relationships between chloroplast electron transport rates calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence and those calculated from CO2-fixation. These relationships were similar for wild-type and transgenic plants, indicating that the reduced capacity for CO2 fixation in the transgenic plants did not result in extra electron transport not associated with the photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) or photorespiratory carbon oxidation (PCO) cycle. This was further investigated with mass spectrometric measurements of 16O2 and 18O2 exchange made concurrently with measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence. In all tobacco lines the rates of 18O2 uptake in the dark were similar to the 18O2 uptake rates at very high CO2 partial pressures in the light. Rates of oxygenase activity calculated from 18O2 uptake at the compensation point were linearly related to the Rubisco content of leaves. The ratios of oxygenase to carboxylase rates were calculated from measurements of 16O2 evolution and 18O2 uptake at the compensation point. These ratios were lower in the transgenic plants, consistent with their higher CO2 compensation points. It is concluded that although there may be some electron transport to O2 to balance conflicting demands of NADPH to ATP requirements, this flux must decrease in proportion with the reduced demand for ATP and NADPH consumption in the transgenic lines. The altered balance between electron transport and Rubisco capacity, however, does not result in rampant electron

  18. A supramolecular tetrad featuring covalently linked ferrocene-zinc porphyrin-BODIPY coordinated to fullerene: a charge stabilizing, photosynthetic antenna-reaction center mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gary N; Maligaspe, Eranda; Zandler, Melvin E; D'Souza, Francis

    2014-12-15

    A novel photosynthetic-antenna-reaction-center model compound, comprised of BF2 -chelated dipyrromethene (BODIPY) as an energy-harvesting antenna, zinc porphyrin (ZnP) as the primary electron donor, ferrocene (Fc) as a hole-shifting agent, and phenylimidazole-functionalized fulleropyrrolidine (C60 Im) as an electron acceptor, has been synthesized and characterized. Optical absorption and emission, computational structure optimization, and cyclic voltammetry studies were systematically performed to establish the role of each entity in the multistep photochemical reactions. The energy-level diagram established from optical and redox data helped identifying different photochemical events. Selective excitation of BODIPY resulted in efficient singlet energy transfer to the ZnP entity. Ultrafast electron transfer from the (1) ZnP* (formed either as a result of singlet-singlet energy transfer or direct excitation) or (1) C60 * of the coordinated fullerene resulting into the formation of the Fc-(C60 (.) (-) Im:ZnP(.) (+) )-BODIPY radical ion pair was witnessed by femtosecond transient absorption studies. Subsequent hole migration to the ferrocene entity resulted in the Fc(+) -(C60 (.) (+) Im:ZnP)-BODIPY radical ion pair that persisted for 7-15 μs, depending upon the solvent conditions and contributions from the triplet excited states of ZnP and ImC60 , as revealed by the nanosecond transient spectral studies. Better utilization of light energy in generating the long-lived charge-separated state with the help of the present "antenna-reaction-center" model system has been successfully demonstrated. PMID:25339606

  19. Manipulation of prenylation reactions by structure-based engineering of bacterial indolactam prenyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takahiro; Zhang, Lihan; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Hoshino, Shotaro; Okada, Masahiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2016-03-01

    Prenylation reactions play crucial roles in controlling the activities of biomolecules. Bacterial prenyltransferases, TleC from Streptomyces blastmyceticus and MpnD from Marinactinospora thermotolerans, catalyse the `reverse' prenylation of (-)-indolactam V at the C-7 position of the indole ring with geranyl pyrophosphate or dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, to produce lyngbyatoxin or pendolmycin, respectively. Using in vitro analyses, here we show that both TleC and MpnD exhibit relaxed substrate specificities and accept various chain lengths (C5-C25) of the prenyl donors. Comparisons of the crystal structures and their ternary complexes with (-)-indolactam V and dimethylallyl S-thiophosphate revealed the intimate structural details of the enzyme-catalysed `reverse' prenylation reactions and identified the active-site residues governing the selection of the substrates. Furthermore, structure-based enzyme engineering successfully altered the preference for the prenyl chain length of the substrates, as well as the regio- and stereo-selectivities of the prenylation reactions, to produce a series of unnatural novel indolactams.

  20. Energy Transfer in Light-Adapted Photosynthetic Membranes: From Active to Saturated Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fassioli, Francesca; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra; Scheuring, Simon; Sturgis, James N.; Neil F. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    In bacterial photosynthesis light-harvesting complexes, LH2 and LH1 absorb sunlight energy and deliver it to reaction centers (RCs) with extraordinarily high efficiency. Submolecular resolution images have revealed that both the LH2:LH1 ratio, and the architecture of the photosynthetic membrane itself, adapt to light intensity. We investigate the functional implications of structural adaptations in the energy transfer performance in natural in vivo low- and high-light-adapted membrane archite...

  1. Orientations of Iron-Sulfur Clusters FA and FB in the Homodimeric Type-I Photosynthetic Reaction Center of Heliobacterium modesticaldum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toru; Matsuoka, Masahiro; Azai, Chihiro; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2016-05-12

    Orientations of the FA and FB iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters in a structure-unknown type-I homodimeric heriobacterial reaction center (hRC) were studied in oriented membranes of the thermophilic anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacterium modesticaldum by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and compared with those in heterodimeric photosystem I (PS I). The Rieske-type FeS center in the cytochrome b/c complex showed a well-oriented EPR signal. Illumination at 14 K induced an FB(-) signal with g-axes of gz = 2.066, gy = 1.937, and gx = 1.890, tilted at angles of 60°, 60°, and 45°, respectively, with respect to the membrane normal. Chemical reduction with dithionite produced an additional signal of FA(-), which magnetically interacted with FB(-), with gz = 2.046, gy = 1.942, and gx = 1.911 at 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. The angles and redox properties of FA(-) and FB(-) in hRC resemble those of FB(-) and FA(-), respectively, in PS I. Therefore, FA and FB in hRC, named after their g-value similarities, seem to be located like FB and FA, not like FA and FB, respectively, in PS I. The reducing side of hRC could resemble those in PS I, if the names of FA and FB are interchanged with each other. PMID:27101081

  2. The acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to blue and red light does not influence the photosynthetic light reaction but strongly disturbs the carbon allocation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jungandreas

    Full Text Available Diatoms are major contributors to the aquatic primary productivity and show an efficient acclimation ability to changing light intensities. Here, we investigated the acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to different light quality with respect to growth rate, photosynthesis rate, macromolecular composition and the metabolic profile by shifting the light quality from red light (RL to blue light (BL and vice versa. Our results show that cultures pre-acclimated to BL and RL exhibited similar growth performance, photosynthesis rates and metabolite profiles. However, light shift experiments revealed rapid and severe changes in the metabolite profile within 15 min as the initial reaction of light acclimation. Thus, during the shift from RL to BL, increased concentrations of amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates were observed whereas during the BL to RL shift the levels of amino acids were decreased and intermediates of glycolysis accumulated. Accordingly, on the time scale of hours the RL to BL shift led to a redirection of carbon into the synthesis of proteins, whereas during the BL to RL shift an accumulation of carbohydrates occurred. Thus, a vast metabolic reorganization of the cells was observed as the initial reaction to changes in light quality. The results are discussed with respect to a putative direct regulation of cellular enzymes by light quality and by transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, the short-term changes in the metabolome were accompanied by changes in the degree of reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Surprisingly, the RL to BL shift led to a severe inhibition of growth within the first 48 h which was not observed during the BL to RL shift. Furthermore, during the phase of growth arrest the photosynthetic performance did not change. We propose arguments that the growth arrest could have been caused by the reorganization of intracellular carbon partitioning.

  3. The Acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to Blue and Red Light Does Not Influence the Photosynthetic Light Reaction but Strongly Disturbs the Carbon Allocation Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungandreas, Anne; Schellenberger Costa, Benjamin; Jakob, Torsten; von Bergen, Martin; Baumann, Sven; Wilhelm, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are major contributors to the aquatic primary productivity and show an efficient acclimation ability to changing light intensities. Here, we investigated the acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to different light quality with respect to growth rate, photosynthesis rate, macromolecular composition and the metabolic profile by shifting the light quality from red light (RL) to blue light (BL) and vice versa. Our results show that cultures pre-acclimated to BL and RL exhibited similar growth performance, photosynthesis rates and metabolite profiles. However, light shift experiments revealed rapid and severe changes in the metabolite profile within 15 min as the initial reaction of light acclimation. Thus, during the shift from RL to BL, increased concentrations of amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates were observed whereas during the BL to RL shift the levels of amino acids were decreased and intermediates of glycolysis accumulated. Accordingly, on the time scale of hours the RL to BL shift led to a redirection of carbon into the synthesis of proteins, whereas during the BL to RL shift an accumulation of carbohydrates occurred. Thus, a vast metabolic reorganization of the cells was observed as the initial reaction to changes in light quality. The results are discussed with respect to a putative direct regulation of cellular enzymes by light quality and by transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, the short-term changes in the metabolome were accompanied by changes in the degree of reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Surprisingly, the RL to BL shift led to a severe inhibition of growth within the first 48 h which was not observed during the BL to RL shift. Furthermore, during the phase of growth arrest the photosynthetic performance did not change. We propose arguments that the growth arrest could have been caused by the reorganization of intracellular carbon partitioning. PMID:25111046

  4. Purification of antibodies to bacterial antigens by an immunoadsorbent and a method to quantify their reaction with insoluble bacterial targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of procedures was employed to develop a radioimmunoassay which quantified the binding of antibodies to antigens of either intact Propionibacterium acnes or to antigens of insoluble extracts derived from the bacteria. Reactive antibody populations were purified by use of bacterial immunoadsorbents which were prepared by coupling P. acnes to diethylaminoethyl cellulose. Binding of antibodies was detected with [125I]staphylococcal protein A ([125I]SpA) and optimal conditions for the assay defined by varying the amounts of antibodies, bacterial antigenic targets and [125I]SpA. In antibody excess, 100% of available [125I]SpA was bound by the target-antibody complexes. However, when antibody concentration was limiting, a linear relationship was demonstrated between per cent specific binding of[125I]SpA and antibodies bound to bacterial targets. These results were achieved only with immunoadsorbent-purified antibody populations and not with hyperimmune sera or IgG. The radioimmunoassay detected subtle antigenic differences and similarities between P. acnes, P. acnes extracts and a variety of unrelated microorganisms. (Auth.)

  5. Immobilization of bacterial luciferase into poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) film for electrochemical control of a bioluminescence reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) film was modified on an indium-tin oxide electrode in order to immobilize bacterial luciferase (BL) on the electrode surface. By using the modified electrode, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) was electrochemically reduced to FMNH2, which is one of the substrates of the BL luminescence reaction, to control the bioluminescence reaction by BL. The BL reaction in the modified film could be promoted and controlled by the electrochemical generation of FMNH2. This BL luminescence system was evaluated as a model system for the inhibitory assay of hydrophobic molecules on protein functions. (author)

  6. Shotgun Genome Sequence of the Large Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122

    OpenAIRE

    Duquesne, K.; Sturgis, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the shotgun genome sequence of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122. The photosynthetic apparatus of this bacterium has been particularly well studied by microscopy. The knowledge of the genome of this oversize bacterium will allow us to compare it with the other purple bacterial organisms to follow the evolution of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  7. Multiscale photosynthetic exciton transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, A K; Stace, T M; 10.1038/nphys2332

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting provides a natural blueprint for bioengineered and biomimetic solar energy and light detection technologies. Recent evidence suggests some individual light harvesting protein complexes (LHCs) and LHC subunits efficiently transfer excitons towards chemical reaction centers (RCs) via an interplay between excitonic quantum coherence, resonant protein vibrations, and thermal decoherence. The role of coherence in vivo is unclear however, where excitons are transferred through multi-LHC/RC aggregates over distances typically large compared with intra-LHC scales. Here we assess the possibility of long-range coherent transfer in a simple chromophore network with disordered site and transfer coupling energies. Through renormalization we find that, surprisingly, decoherence is diminished at larger scales, and long-range coherence is facilitated by chromophoric clustering. Conversely, static disorder in the site energies grows with length scale, forcing localization. Our results suggest s...

  8. Design of a minimal polypeptide unit for bacteriochlorophyll binding and self-assembly based on photosynthetic bacterial light-harvesting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Dror; Dutton, P Leslie

    2006-02-21

    We introduce LH1beta24, a minimal 24 amino acid polypeptide that binds and assembles bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) in micelles of octyl beta-glucoside (OG) into complexes with spectral properties that resemble those of B820, a universal intermediate in the assembly of native purple bacterial light-harvesting complexes (LHs). LH1beta24 was designed by a survey of sequences and crystal structures of bacterial LH proteins from different organisms combined with currently available information from in vitro reconstitution studies and genetically modified LHs in vivo. We took as a template for the design sphbeta31, a truncated 31 amino acid analogue of the native beta-apoprotein from the core LH complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. This peptide self-assembles with BChls to form B820 and, upon cooling and lowering OG concentration, forms red-shifted B850 spectral species that are considered analogous to native LH complexes. We find that LH1beta24 self-assembles with BChl in OG to form homodimeric B820-type subunits comprising two LH1beta24 and two BChl molecules per subunit. We demonstrate, by modeling the structure using the highly homologous structure of LH2 from Rhodospirillum molischianum, that it has the minimal size for BChl binding. Additionally, we have compared the self-assembly of sphbeta31 and LH1beta24 with BChls and discovered that the association enthalpies and entropies of both species are similar to those measured for native LH1 from Rhodospirillum rubrum. However, sphbeta31 readily aggregates into intermediate higher oligomeric species and further to form B850 species; moreover, the assembly process of these oligomers is not reversible, and they are apparently large nonspecific BChl-peptide coaggregates rather than well-defined nativelike LH complexes. Similar aggregates were observed during LH1beta24 assembly, but these were formed less readily and required lower temperatures than sphbeta31. In view of these results, we reevaluate previous in vitro

  9. Photosynthetic system as a biological functional element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic apparatus of high plants and photosynthetic bacteria is essentially autonomic system in terms of genetics and structural -functional properties located in specific medium, a bio-membrane. Processes of light absorption and exciton migration in light harvesting antenna, separation and further transfer of charges in reaction centers have specific features, which may be used for application of these objects as key elements in construction of future biological functional elements. Progress in study and genetic modification of photosynthetic membranes achieved during the last decade opens great prospects in development biological functional elements and systems. The main characteristics of photosynthetic system for these purposes are: (i) energy conversion processes in the first light phase of the photosynthesis have very short periods, up to picoseconds, which indicates possibility of creation of ultrafast functional elements on their basis; (ii) characteristics sizes of photosynthetic units, 10-100 nm, and possibility to arrange regularly disposed elements in relevant membranes could be prospective point for creation of nano structures and on their basis relevant biologic functional elements; (iii) elements based on modified photosynthetic apparatus and bio-membranes might be efficiently created by methods of gene engineering and manipulation, that open huge opportunities for development of read biological functional systems. In the paper structural-functional properties and characteristics of high plants and purple photosynthetic bacteria, which may be useful for creation of future biological functional elements are considered. (author)

  10. Photosynthetic electron-transfer reactions in the gametophyte of Pteris multifida reveal the presence of allelopathic interference from the invasive plant species Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    To date, the response of the fern gametophyte to its environment has received considerable attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion on the fern gametophyte are fewer. Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathy of invasive plant species to the fern gametophyte and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on the gametophytic growth of Pteris multifida. The root exudate plays an important role among various allelochemical delivery mechanisms in B. pilosa. The effect invasive plant species has on photosynthesis in native species is poorly understood. To elucidate this effect, the changes in photosynthesis in the gametophytes of P. multifida are analyzed to examine the mechanisms of the root exudates of B. pilosa. Meanwhile, a non-invasive plant, Coreopsis basalis, was also applied to investigate the effects on fluorescence and pigments in P. multifida gametophytes. We found that gametophytes exposed to both B. pilosa and C. basalis had decreased fluorescence parameters in comparison with the control, except for non-photochemical quenching. Furthermore, it was found that these parameters were markedly affected from day 2 to day 10 in the presence of both exudates at a concentration of 25% or above. B. pilosa exudate had a negative dose-dependent effect on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, and the total chlorophyll in the gametophyte. The inhibitory effects increased with increasing exudate concentrations of both species, exhibiting the greatest inhibition at day 10. In conclusion, B. pilosa irreversibly affected the photosynthesis of P. multifida on both PS I and PS II. Root exudates caused the primary damage with respect to the decrease of the acceptors and donors of photon and electron in photosynthetic units and the production and

  11. Bacterial infection as a likely cause of adverse reactions to polyacrylamide hydrogel fillers in cosmetic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise; Breiting, Vibeke; Bjarnsholt, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    patients and 24 controls were systematically examined for the presence of bacteria by culture, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Gram stain, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results. Bacteria, mostly normal skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes, were identified...... 59 patients with adverse reactions to polyacrylamide gel, and 54 biopsies and 2 cytology specimens from 28 control subjects with no adverse reactions. Samples from 5 patients and 4 controls could not be investigated for presence of bacteria owing to limited material. Samples from the remaining 54...... in bacteriologically investigated samples from 53 of 54 patients (98%), and in none of the 24 controls (0%). The bacteria were lying in small clusters, which in symptomatic lesions were detected up to 5 years postinjection. Conclusions. Commensal bacteria of low virulence are capable of producing long-term infection...

  12. Rapid Bacterial Identification, Resistance, Virulence and Type Profiling using Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Charretier; Olivier Dauwalder; Christine Franceschi; Elodie Degout-Charmette; Gilles Zambardi; Tiphaine Cecchini; Chloe Bardet; Xavier Lacoux; Philippe Dufour; Laurent Veron; Hervé Rostaing; Veronique Lanet; Tanguy Fortin; Corinne Beaulieu; Nadine Perrot

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode is proposed for in-depth characterisation of microorganisms in a multiplexed analysis. Within 60–80 minutes, the SRM method performs microbial identification (I), antibiotic-resistance detection (R), virulence assessment (V) and it provides epidemiological typing information (T). This SRM application is illustrated by the analysis of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating its promise for rapid characterisation ...

  13. Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Ryan W.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C.; de Mattos, Erico Rolim

    2012-11-06

    Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use. Specifically, methods for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency including applying pulsed light to a photosynthetic organism, using a chlorophyll fluorescence feedback control system to determine one or more photosynthetic efficiency parameters, and adjusting one or more of the photosynthetic efficiency parameters to drive the photosynthesis by the delivery of an amount of light to optimize light absorption of the photosynthetic organism while providing enough dark time between light pulses to prevent oversaturation of the chlorophyll reaction centers are disclosed.

  14. Rapid method for separation of bacterial DNA from humic substances in sediments for polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Y L; Olson, B H

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify an Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal gene fragment from sediments with high contents of humic substances. Total DNA was extracted from 1 g of E. coli seeded or unseeded samples by a rapid freeze-and-thaw method. Several approaches (use of Bio-Gel P-6 and P-30 and Sephadex G-50 and G-200 columns, as well as use of the Stoffel fragment) were used to reduce interference with the PCR. The best results were obtained when crude DNA extracts conta...

  15. Lactic Acid Yield Using Different Bacterial Strains, Its Purification, and Polymerization through Ring-Opening Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Orozco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale anaerobic fermentation was performed to obtain lactic acid from lactose, using five lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, and L. delbrueckii lactis. A yield of 0.99 g lactic acid/g lactose was obtained with L. delbrueckii, from which a final concentration of 80.95 g/L aqueous solution was obtained through microfiltration, nanofiltration, and inverse osmosis membranes. The lactic acid was polymerized by means of ring-opening reactions (ROP to obtain poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA, with a viscosity average molecular weight (Mv of 19,264 g/mol.

  16. Effects of reaction conditions on cellulose structures synthesized in vitro by bacterial cellulose synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Paavo A; Sugiyama, Junji; Imai, Tomoya

    2016-01-20

    Cellulose was synthesized by cellulose synthases extracted from the Komagataeibacter xylinus (formerly known as Gluconacetobacter xylinus). The effects of temperature and centrifugation of the reaction solution on the synthesis products were investigated. Cellulose with number-average degree of polymerization (DPn) roughly in the range 60-80 and cellulose II crystal structure was produced under all conditions. The amount of cellulose varied with temperature and centrifugation, and the centrifugation at 2000 × g also slightly reduced the DPn. Cellulose production was maximal around the temperature 35 °C and without centrifugation. At higher temperatures and during centrifugation at 2000 × g the proteins started to denature, causing differences also in the morphology of the cellulosic aggregates, as seen with electron microscopy. These observations serve as a basis for discussions about the factors affecting the structure formation and chain length of in vitro synthesized cellulose. PMID:26572398

  17. Hydration of swelling clay and bacteria interaction. An experimental in situ reaction study; Hydratation des argiles gonflantes et influence des bacteries. Etude experimentale de reaction in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J

    2008-01-15

    -aggregates and bio-films. In confined volume conditions, the presence of bacteria in Na-smectite clay was seen to enhance both the uptake of interlayer water and the amount of externally stored surface and pore water. In this type of compacted smectite, an increase in the total thickness of water layer structures occurs due to bacterial enhancement of sample porosity as seen by combined X-ray diffraction study and CALCMIX profile calculations. In the case of nontronite, additional water was stored as external water indicating a similar enhancement of porosity, but here, the rate of water inflow into the reaction cell decreased, most likely due to clogging of the pores by biofilm. With respect to the application of bentonites as a suitable backfill material in underground waste disposal sites, this study demonstrates that bacterial activity can modify both chemically and physically the properties of the smectite. Even if bacteria are not likely to survive in a hydrated bentonite seal, their effects are considered to be long-term, especially due to bacterially produced substances such as EPS and organic ligands. (author)

  18. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of β-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q A in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of β-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of β-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680 - or Car + in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q A reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680 * and Car is oxidized by P680 + with consequent recombination of Car + and Chl-680 - (or Pheo

  19. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A} in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of {beta}-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of {beta}-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680{sup -} or Car{sup +} in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q{sub A} reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680{sup +} with consequent recombination of

  20. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of β-carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor QA in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of β-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of β-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680- or Car+ in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after QA reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680+ with consequent recombination of Car+ and Chl-680- (or Pheo-). Cyclic

  1. Properties of Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction center with double amino acid substitution I(L177)H+H(M182)L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fufina, T Yu; Vasilieva, L G; Khatypov, R A; Shuvalov, V A

    2011-04-01

    Histidine M182 in the reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides serves as the fifth ligand of the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) B(B) Mg atom. When this His is substituted by an amino acid that is not able to coordinate Mg, bacteriopheophytin appears in the B(B) binding site instead of BChl (Katilius, E., et al. (1999) J. Phys. Chem. B, 103, 7386-7389). We have shown that in the presence of the additional mutation I(L177)H the coordination of the BChl B(B) Mg atom in the double mutant I(L177)H+H(M182)L RC still remains. Changes in the double mutant RC absorption spectrum attributed to BChl absorption suggest that BChl B(B) Mg atom axial ligation might be realized not from the usual α-side of the BChl macrocycle, but from the opposite, β-side. Weaker coordination of BChl B(B) Mg atom compared to the other mutant RC BChl molecules suggests that not an amino acid residue but a water molecule might be a possible ligand. The results are discussed in the light of the structural changes that occurred in the RC upon Ile/His substitution in the L177 position. PMID:21585320

  2. Hydration of swelling clay and bacteria interaction. An experimental in situ reaction study; Hydratation des argiles gonflantes et influence des bacteries. Etude experimentale de reaction in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J

    2008-01-15

    This study reports on the physical-chemical behaviour of swelling di-octahedral clays (smectites) and their interaction with aqueous solutions and bacteria (Shewanella putrefaciens). Experimental results are presented for compacted clays, hydrated under confined volume conditions, using a new type of reaction-cell (the 'wet-cell' of Warr and Hoffman, 2004) that was designed for in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. For comparison, dispersed clay systems were studied using standard batch solutions subjected to varying degrees of agitation. The combination of time-dependent in situ XRD measurements with gravimetric measurements and calculated diffraction patterns using the CALCMIX software (Plancon and Drits, 1999) allowed to successful quantification of the dynamics of water uptake and storage. This analytical procedure combined with published water vapour adsorption data enabled determination of the abundance of structured water layers, developed in the interlayer space, and the amount of water contained in different storage sites (interlayers, surfaces and pore spaces). Qualitative information on surface area and textural organization was also estimated based on calculated changes in the average particle thickness and the organization of water layer structures (ordering). Abiotic smectite hydration experiments, using a range of natural and industrial bentonites (SWy-2, IBECO, MX80, TIXOTON), focused on defining the role of the interlayer cation, variable clay packing densities and the ionic strength of the infiltrating solution. The rate of smectite hydration, as expected, was seen to be highly dependent on the type of interlayer cation (enhanced for Ca as opposed to Na) and the ionic strength of solution (enhanced uptake rates with saline solutions, particularly as they infiltrate Na-smectite). A range of dynamic changes in micro textural state occurred as a function of packing density. These changes explain the differences in hydration behaviour

  3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for a bacterial thiaminase I gene and the thiaminase-producing bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, C.A.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Zajicek, J.L.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    The thiaminase I enzyme produced by the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus isolated from the viscera of Lake Michigan alewives Alosa pseudoharengus is currently the only defined source of the thiaminase activity linked to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the larvae of Great Lakes salmonines. Diets of alewife or isolated strains of P. thiaminolyticus mixed in a semipurified diet and fed to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been shown to produce EMS in fry. We utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to aid in studies of the sources of P. thiaminolyticus and thiaminase I. Quantitative PCR assays were established to detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus, the 16S rRNA gene from most species of bacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene specifically from P. thiaminolyticus and a few closely related taxa. The Q-PCR assays are linear over at least six orders of magnitude and can detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus from as few as 1,000 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample or the Paenibacillus 16S rRNA gene from as few as 100 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample. The initial results from alewife viscera samples with high thiaminase activity yielded unexpectedly low densities of P. thiaminolyticus cells; Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus was detectable in 2 of 6 alewife viscera tested at densities on the order of 100 cells/g out of 100,000,000 total bacterial cells/g. The low numbers of P. thiaminolyticus detected suggest that alewives contain additional non-P. thiaminolyticus sources of thiaminase activity.

  4. Kinetic modeling of exciton migration in photosynthetic systems. 2. Simulations of excitation dynamics in two-dimensional photosystem I core antenna/reaction center complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkunas, G; Holzwarth, A R

    1994-02-01

    Kinetic modeling of the exciton migration in the cyanobacterial photosystem I core complex from Synechococcus sp. was performed by an exact solution of the Pauli master equation for exciton motion. A square two-dimensional 10 x 10 pigment lattice and a Förster dipole-dipole coupling between chromophores was assumed. We calculated decay-associated spectra and lifetimes and compared them to the corresponding experimental data from picosecond fluorescence and transient absorption obtained by global analysis. Seven spectral chlorophyll(Chl) forms, identical in shape but shifted in their absorption maximums, were used to describe the non-homogeneous broadening of the PS I-100 particle absorption spectrum. The optimized Chl lattice arrangement best reproducing the experimental decay-associated spectra as well as the steady-state fluorescence spectrum indicated the long-wavelength-absorbing Chls forming a cluster in the corner of the lattice with the reaction center (RC) placed apart at a distance of two lattice constants. The variable parameters, i.e., the charge separation rate in the RC and the lattice constant a, were found to be optimal at kRC = 2.3 ps-1 and a = 1.14 nm, respectively. The surprising conclusions of the simulations is that Chls with absorption maxima as long a 724 nm have to be taken into account to describe the time-resolved spectra of this PS I particle properly. The dependencies of the exciton decay in the model PS I particle on the excitation wavelength and on the temperature are discussed. We also show that the excited state decay of similar PS I particles that lack the long-wavelength absorbing Chls is nearly mono-exponential. Various critical factors that limit the general reliability of the conclusions of such simulations are discussed in detail. PMID:8161695

  5. Comparison of subgingival bacterial sampling with oral lavage for detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Boutaga, Khalil; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Winkel, Edwin G.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Saliva has been studied for the presence of subgingival pathogens in periodontitis patients. With the anaerobic culture technique, the discrepancy between salivary recovery and subgingival presence has been significant, which makes this approach not suitable for practical use in the microbial diagnosis of periodontitis patients. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique represents a very sensitive technique to detect and quantify bacterial pathogens. The aim of the s...

  6. Photosynthetic Diurnal Variation of Soybean Cultivars with High Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Wei-qun; DU Wei-guang; ZHANG Gui-ru; LUAN Xiao-yan; GE Qiao-ying; HAO Nai-bin; CHEN Yi

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic characters were investigated among soybean cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency and high yield. The results indicated that: 1) There were significant differences in photosynthetic rate (Ph) and dark respiration rate (DR) under saturation light intensity and appropriate temperature.2) There were a little difference in light compensation point among them. Photo flux density (PFD) were mong the cultivars. Diurnal variation of Pn was shown a curve with two peaks. 4) The cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency were subjected less to photoinhibition than that with high yield. Critical temperatures of photoinhibition in high photosynthetic efficiency cultivars were higher than that of high yield.

  7. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2004-10-13

    This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project for the period ending 09/30/2004. The primary effort of this quarter was focused on mass transfer of carbon dioxide into the water film to study the potential effects on the photosynthetic organisms that depend on the carbon. Testing of the carbon dioxide scrubbing capability (mass transfer capability) of flowing water film appears to be relatively high and largely unaffected by transport of the gas through the bioreactor. The implications are that the transfer of carbon dioxide into the film is nearly at maximum and that it is sufficient to sustain photosynthesis at whatever rate the organisms can sustain. This finding is key to assuming that the process is an energy (photon) limited reaction and not a nutrient limited reaction.

  8. Identification of Common Bacterial Pathogens Causing Meningitis in Culture-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Walaa Shawky; Elabd, Safia Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background. Meningitis is a serious communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. It is an endemic disease in Egypt caused mainly by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. In some settings, bacterial meningitis is documented depending mainly on positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results or CSF positive latex agglutination test, missing the important role of prior antimicrobial intake which can yield negative culture and latex agglutination test results. This study aimed to utilize molecular technology in order to diagnose bacterial meningitis in culture-negative CSF samples. Materials and Methods. Forty culture-negative CSF samples from suspected cases of bacterial meningitis were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for the presence of lytA, bexA, and ctrA genes specific for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, respectively. Results. Positive real-time PCR results for Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in 36 (90%) of culture-negative CSF samples while no positive results for Haemophilus influenzae or Neisseria meningitidis were detected. Four (10%) samples were negative by real-time PCR for all tested organisms. Conclusion. The use of molecular techniques as real-time PCR can provide a valuable addition to the proportion of diagnosed cases of bacterial meningitis especially in settings with high rates of culture-negative results. PMID:27563310

  9. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Takuro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  10. Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production - Kinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-01-01

    The simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen was measured in a study of the steady-state turnover times of two biological systems, by driving them into the steady state with repetitive, single-turnover flash illumination. The systems were: (1) in vitro, isolated chloroplasts, ferredoxin and hydrogenase; and (2) the anaerobically-adapted green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. It is found that the turnover times for production of both oxygen and hydrogen in photosynthetic water splitting are in milliseconds, and either equal to, or less than, the turnover time for carbon dioxide reduction in intact algal cells. There is therefore mutual compatibility between hydrogen and oxygen turnover times, and partial compatibility with the excitation rate of the photosynthetic reaction centers under solar irradiation conditions.

  11. Elucidating the design principles of photosynthetic electron-transfer proteins by site-directed spin labeling EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishara Silva, K; Jagannathan, Bharat; Golbeck, John H; Lakshmi, K V

    2016-05-01

    Site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine solvent accessibility, side-chain dynamics, and inter-spin distances at specific sites in biological macromolecules. This information provides important insights into the structure and dynamics of both natural and designed proteins and protein complexes. Here, we discuss the application of SDSL EPR spectroscopy in probing the charge-transfer cofactors in photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) such as photosystem I (PSI) and the bacterial reaction center (bRC). Photosynthetic RCs are large multi-subunit proteins (molecular weight≥300kDa) that perform light-driven charge transfer reactions in photosynthesis. These reactions are carried out by cofactors that are paramagnetic in one of their oxidation states. This renders the RCs unsuitable for conventional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigations. However, the presence of native paramagnetic centers and the ability to covalently attach site-directed spin labels in RCs makes them ideally suited for the application of SDSL EPR spectroscopy. The paramagnetic centers serve as probes of conformational changes, dynamics of subunit assembly, and the relative motion of cofactors and peptide subunits. In this review, we describe novel applications of SDSL EPR spectroscopy for elucidating the effects of local structure and dynamics on the electron-transfer cofactors of photosynthetic RCs. Because SDSL EPR Spectroscopy is uniquely suited to provide dynamic information on protein motion, it is a particularly useful method in the engineering and analysis of designed electron transfer proteins and protein networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics - the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. PMID:26334844

  12. Bioremediation of Fenpropathrin by Photosynthetic Bacterial Strain PSB07-15 in Hydroponic System for Cucumber Culture%光合细菌PSB07-15对水培黄瓜体系中甲氰菊酯污染的生物修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松柏; 张德咏; 刘勇; 罗香文; 成飞雪; 罗源华

    2009-01-01

    为了探索光合细菌PSB07-15降解甲氰菊酯的应用潜力,在实验室研究了光合细菌PSB07-15对水培黄瓜体系中的甲氰菊酯污染的生物修复效率.结果表明,培养30 d,光合细菌PSB07-15对黄瓜营养液中100 mg·L~(-1)甲氰菊酯降解率达到47.63%,黄瓜中甲氰菊酯降解率达59.73%.光合细菌PSB07-15可以使黄瓜的根长和生物量显著增加,而黄瓜的根活力以及根H_2O_2酶活力增加并不显著.%The bioremediation efficiency of fenpropathirn by photosynthetic bacterial strain PSB07-15 in hydroponic cucumber system was e-valuated in lab, for actual potential application of bioremediation by photosynthetic bacterium. The results showed that the strain PSB07-15 could degrade fenpropathrin effectively in hydroponic system. Fenpropathrin was degraded up to 47.63% at the level of 100 mg·L~(-1) by the strain PSB07-15 in hydroponics nutrient solution and degraded up to 59.73% in cucumber at day 30. The strain PSB07-15 significantly en-hanced root-length increment and biomass increment but not the root activity value and root catalase activity value of cucumber. The results indicated this strain PSB07-15 may have an important role in bioremediation in agricultural practice.

  13. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  14. Quantitation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wound biopsy samples: from bacterial culture to rapid `real-time' polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vos, Daniel De; Duinslaeger, Luc; Reper, Pascal; Vandenvelde, Christian; Cornelis, Pierre; Vanderkelen, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Early diagnosis of wound colonisation or prediction of wound sepsis provides an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. There is need for qualitative and quantitative tests that are more rapid than bacterial culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in high morbidity and mortality rates, is inherently resistant to common antibiotics, and is increasingly being isolated as a nosocomial pathogen. We developed three PCR-based methods to detect and quantify P aeruginosa in wound biop...

  15. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber/Molybdenum Disulfide Nanocomposites Derived from Bacterial Cellulose for High-Efficiency Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Feili; Miao, Yue-E; Huang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Youfang; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-02-17

    To remit energy crisis and environmental deterioration, non-noble metal nanocomposites have attracted extensive attention, acting as a fresh kind of cost-effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, hierarchically organized nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber/molybdenum disulfide (pBC-N/MoS2) nanocomposites were successfully prepared via the combination of in situ polymerization, high-temperature carbonization process, and hydrothermal reaction. Attributing to the uniform coating of polyaniline on the surface of bacterial cellulose, the nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber network acts as an excellent three-dimensional template for hydrothermal growth of MoS2 nanosheets. The obtained hierarchical pBC-N/MoS2 nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity for HER with small overpotential of 108 mV, high current density of 8.7 mA cm(-2) at η = 200 mV, low Tafel slope of 61 mV dec(-1), and even excellent stability. The greatly improved performance is benefiting from the highly exposed active edge sites of MoS2 nanosheets, the intimate connection between MoS2 nanosheets and the highly conductive nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and the three-dimensional networks thus formed. Therefore, this work provides a novel strategy for design and application of bacterial cellulose and MoS2-based nanocomposites as cost-effective HER eletrocatalysts. PMID:26302501

  16. Femtosecond spectroscopy of bacterial photosynthesis--towards an understanding of the most important energy conversion process on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction centers of bacterial photosynthesis are ideal systems to study photosynthetic energy conversion. Femtosecond spectroscopy has delivered extensive information on the molecular mechanisms of the primary electron transfer. The data show, that primary electron transfer is an ultrafast stepwise reaction, where the electron is transferred via closely spaced pigments with reaction times as fast as 0.9 ps and 3.5 ps. Experiments on mutated and modified reaction centers allow to determine the energetics of the various intermediates in the reaction center. Recently, femtosecond experiments with light pulses in the mid infrared have shown, that an additional fast process occurs on the 200 fs timescale in the initially excited special pair. Only afterwards the well established electron transfer reactions take place. This fast process may be of importance for the optimization of the primary reaction

  17. Tangled evolutionary processes with commonality and diversity in plastidial glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Koichi; Nobusawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Tei; Madoka, Yuka; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the photosynthetic membrane constitutes a scaffold for light-harvesting complexes and photosynthetic reaction centers. Three kinds of glycolipids, namely monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, constitute approximately 80-90% of photosynthetic membrane lipids and are well conserved from tiny cyanobacteria to the leaves of huge trees. These glycolipids perform a wide variety of functions beyond biological membrane formation. In particular, the capability of adaptation to harsh environments through regulation of membrane glycolipid composition is essential for healthy growth and development of photosynthetic organisms. The genome analysis and functional genetics of the model seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana have yielded many new findings concerning the biosynthesis, regulation, and functions of glycolipids. Nevertheless, it remains to be clarified how the complex biosynthetic pathways and well-organized functions of glycolipids evolved in early and primitive photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, to yield modern photosynthetic organisms like land plants. Recently, genome data for many photosynthetic organisms have been made available as the fruit of the rapid development of sequencing technology. We also have reported the draft genome sequence of the charophyte alga Klebsormidium flaccidum, which is an intermediate organism between green algae and land plants. Here, we performed a comprehensive phylogenic analysis of glycolipid biosynthesis genes in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms including K. flaccidum. Based on the results together with membrane lipid analysis of this alga, we discuss the evolution of glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27108062

  18. Coherent memory functions for finite systems: hexagonal photosynthetic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent memory functions entering the Generalized Master Equation are presented for an hexagonal model of a photosynthetic unit. Influence of an energy heterogeneity on an exciton transfer is an antenna system as well as to a reaction center is investigated. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  19. Association of diverse bacterial communities in human bile samples with biliary tract disorders: a survey using culture and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddin, E; Sherafat, S J; Majidi, M R S; Alebouyeh, M; Alizadeh, A H M; Zali, M R

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial infection is considered a predisposing factor for disorders of the biliary tract. This study aimed to determine the diversity of bacterial communities in bile samples and their involvement in the occurrence of biliary tract diseases. A total of 102 bile samples were collected during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Characterization of bacteria was done using culture and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and identity of the nucleotide sequences of differentiated bands from the DGGE gels was determined based on GenBank data. In total, 41.2 % (42/102) of the patients showed bacterial infection in their bile samples. This infection was detected in 21 % (4/19), 45.4 % (5/11), 53.5 % (15/28), and 54.5 % (24/44) of patients with common bile duct stone, microlithiasis, malignancy, and gallbladder stone, respectively. Escherichia coli showed a significant association with gallstones. Polymicrobial infection was detected in 48 % of the patients. While results of the culture method established coexistence of biofilm-forming bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp., and Acinetobacter spp.) in different combinations, the presence of Capnocytophaga spp., Lactococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter or Citrobacter spp., Morganella spp., Salmonella spp., and Helicobacter pylori was also characterized in these samples by the PCR-DGGE method. Multidrug resistance phenotypes (87.5 %) and resistance to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and quinolones were common in these strains, which could evolve through their selection by bile components. Ability for biofilm formation seems to be a need for polymicrobial infection in this organ. PMID:27193890

  20. The importance of a hot-sequential mechanism in triplet-state formation by charge recombination in reaction centers of bacterial photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In photosynthesis, pigment-excitation energies in the antenna system produced by light harvesting are transferred among antenna pigments toward the core antenna, where they are captured by the reaction center and initially fixed in the form of a charge separation. Primary charge separation between an oxidized special pair (P+) and a reduced bacteriopheohytin (H-) is occasionally intervened by recombination, and a spin-triplet state (3P*) is formed on P in the bacterial reaction center. The 3P* state is harmful to bio-organisms, inducing the formation of the highly damaging singlet oxygen species. Therefore, understanding the 3P*-formation mechanism is important. The 3P* formation is mediated by a state |m> of intermediate charge separation between P and the accessory chlorophyll, which is located between P and H. It will be shown theoretically in the present work that at room temperature, not only the mechanism of superexchange by quantum-mechanical virtual mediation at |m>, but also a hot-sequential mechanism contributes to the mediation. In the latter, although |m> is produced as a real state, the final state 3P* is quickly formed during thermalization of phonons in the protein matrix in |m>. In the former, the final state is formed more quickly before dephasing-thermalization of phonons in |m>. 3P* is unistep formed from the charge-separated state in the both mechanisms

  1. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...

  2. Photosynthetic water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, E.

    It has been demonstrated that eukaryotic green algae (as represented by Chlamydomonas) are inherently rugged algae with respect to the biophotolysis of water. There also exists a potential for selecting subpropulations of wild-type algae with enhanced properties for hydrogen and oxygen production. Second, hydrogenase activity in macroscopic marine algae does not conform to the conventional dogma of the catalog of reactions that this enzyme is supposed to catalyze. A kinetic argument has been presented which suggests that, with respect to light activated reactions, hydrogenase in these organisms operates primarily in a hydrogen uptake mode. Third, the light saturation curves for the simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen do not have the same analytical shape. It is suggested that a Photosystem I-like hydrogen producing light reaction may be present in anaerobically adapted Scenedesmus which is uncoupled from the Z scheme.

  3. Development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay targeted to the dnaJ gene of Vibrio harveyi, a bacterial pathogen in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norwell B. Bautista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial sequence of the dnaJ gene of Vibrio harveyi, which was isolated from diseased juvenileAsian seabass, Lates calcarifer was identified. The partial sequence of dnaJ gene of V. harveyi was 447 bp and shared at least 77% identity at the nucleotide level with the dnaJ gene of other Vibrios. It was distinct from the dnaJ gene of other Vibrios but was closely related with the dnaJ gene of V. rotiferianus and V. campbellii having at least 90% nucleotide identity. PCR primers targeting this gene were designed to detect the pathogen in Asian seabass. The assay was specific to V. harveyi and the limit of detection was 100 pg of genomic DNA ml-1 or 100 fg of bacterial genomic DNA in a PCR reaction. Thiscorresponded to a sensitivity of approximately 20 genome equivalents (GE of V. harveyi. These resultsindicate that the dnaJ gene is a good candidate to develop primers for the PCR assay in detecting V.harveyi in fish.

  4. Inheritance of photosynthetic rate and its selection for crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthesis is the fundamental process of using solar energy as the basis for life. Although there is disagreement about whether photosynthesis under prevailing environmental conditions limits plant growth, it is worth examining if the efficiency of the process can be improved by genetic manipulation. Mutants appear to be most suitable for such studies. The paper reviews research concerning genetic control of C3/C4 pathways, photorespiration, photosynthetic rate, light intensity reaction, and CO2 concentration response. (author)

  5. Oxygen regulation of development of the photosynthetic membrane system in Chloroflexus aurantiacus.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J. M.; Redlinger, T E; Blankenship, R. E.; Fuller, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen levels which control induction of the assembly of the pigment-protein photosynthetic polypeptides in dark-grown Chloroflexus aurantiacus were determined. The induction signal by low-oxygen tension is not directly related to the respiratory competence of these photosynthetic cells. Cytochrome c554, the primary electron donor to P865+ of the reaction center, is not present in dark-grown respiratory cells but is induced in parallel with bacteriochlorophylls a and c and at similar oxygen p...

  6. Förster energy transfer theory as reflected in the structures of photosynthetic light harvesting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Şener, Melih; Strümpfer, Johan; Hsin, Jen; Chandler, Danielle; Scheuring, Simon; Hunter, C. Neil; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Förster’s theory of resonant energy transfer underlies a fundamental process in nature, namely the harvesting of sunlight by photosynthetic life forms. The theoretical framework developed by Förster and others describes how electronic excitation migrates in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants, algae, and bacteria from light absorbing pigments to so-called reaction centers where light energy is utilized for the eventual conversion into chemical energy. The demand for highest possible effici...

  7. Quantificação do efeito do crestamento bacteriano comum na eficiência fotossintética e na produção do feijoeiro Effect of common bacterial blight in the photosynthetic efficiency and in the yield of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA G. DÍAZ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do agente causal do crestamento bacteriano comum na eficiência fotossintética e na produção do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris foi quantificado. Dois experimentos de campo foram conduzidos durante a safra das águas de 1997, em Piracicaba-SP, com duas cultivares, IAC-Carioca e Rosinha. Diferentes níveis de severidade foram obtidos variando-se o número de inoculações com o patógeno. A severidade da doença, avaliada com auxílio de escala diagramática, não apresentou relação linear significativa (P>0,01 com a produção, enquanto a duração da área foliar sadia (HAD relacionou-se linearmente de forma significativa (PThe effect of common bacterial blight on photosynthetic efficiency and on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris yield was quantified. Two experiments were carried out during the wet season of 1997 at Piracicaba-SP using two cultivars, IAC-Carioca and Rosinha. Different levels of severity were obtained by varying the number of inoculations with the pathogen. Disease severity, assessed with a diagrammatic scale, did not show a significant linear relationship (P>0.01 with yield, while the healthy leaf area duration (HAD was significantly (P<=0.01 linear in relation to yield in both experiments (R² between 0,66 and 0,78. Photosynthesis was related to diseased leaf area by the equation Px/P0=(1-x beta, where Px is the net photosynthesis of the leaf with severity x, P0 is the mean net photosynthesis of the healthy leaves, x is the disease severity, and beta is the relation between virtual and visual lesion. The values of beta, determined by non-linear regression, were 3.08±0.18 and 3.19±0.14 for IAC-Carioca and Rosinha, respectively. In general, the use of beta did not significantly improve the HAD-yield relationship.

  8. Menaquinone-7 in the reaction center complex of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme functions as the electron acceptor A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, B; Frigaard, N-U; Yang, F; Zybailov, B; Miller, M; Golbeck, J H; Scheller, H V

    1998-01-01

    Photosynthetically active reaction center complexes were prepared from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme NCIMB 8327, and the content of quinones was determined by extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The analysis showed a stoichiometry of 1.7 molecules of.......7 mT, consistent with its identification as a quinone. This spectrum is highly similar in terms of g values and line widths to photoaccumulated A1- in photosystem I of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. The results indicate that menaquinone-7 in the green sulfur bacterial reaction center is analogous to...

  9. Effect of cerium on photosynthetic characteristics of soybean seedling exposed to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chan-juan; HUANG Xiao-hua; ZHOU Qing

    2006-01-01

    Effects of cerium (Ce3+) on photosynthetic characteristics were investigated by hydroponics under laboratory conditions when soybean seedlings were exposed to two levels of supplementary UV-B radiation. UV-B radiation badly inhibited the photosynthesis in soybean seedling, leading to a reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Ph), Hill reaction activity, light saturated photosynthetic rate (Ps) and apparent quanta yield (AQY), as well as the CO2 and light saturated photosynthetic rate (Pm) and carboxulation efficiency (CE). On the contrary, Ce obviously promoted the photosynthesis of plants by increasing Hill reaction activity, accelerating electron transport and photophosphorylation, and enhancing carboxylation efficiency. For Ce+UV-B treatments,the values of photosynthetic parameters were still lower than those of the control, but obviously higher than those of UV-B treatment.The results indicated that Ce alleviated the inhibition of UV-B radiation on the photosynthesis in soybean seedling to a certain extent.In correlating of Pn with Hill activity, AQY and CE, we found that the changes of photosynthetic rate were mainly influenced by the regulating effect of Ce on Hill activity and AQY at low level (0.15 W/m2) of UV-B radiation, but were dominated by the regulating effect of Ce on CE at high level (0.45 W/m2). Thus, Ce could regulate many aspects in photosynthesis of soybean seedling under UV-B stress. The regulating mechanism was close related with the dosage of UV-B radiation.

  10. Synergistic Two-Photon Absorption Enhancement in Photosynthetic Light Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Mei; Chen, Yu-Wei; Gao, Ting-Fong

    2012-06-01

    The grand scale fixation of solar energies into chemical substances by photosynthetic reactions of light-harvesting organisms provides Earth's other life forms a thriving environment. Scientific explorations in the past decades have unraveled the fundamental photophysical and photochemical processes in photosynthesis. Higher plants, green algae, and light-harvesting bacteria utilize organized pigment-protein complexes to harvest solar power efficiently and the resultant electronic excitations are funneled into a reaction center, where the first charge separation process takes place. Here we show experimental evidences that green algae (Chlorella vulgaris) in vivo display a synergistic two-photon absorption enhancement in their photosynthetic light harvesting. Their absorption coefficients at various wavelengths display dramatic dependence on the photon flux. This newly found phenomenon is attributed to a coherence-electronic-energy-transfer-mediated (CEETRAM) photon absorption process of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of green algae. Under the ambient light level, algae and higher plants can utilize this quantum mechanical mechanism to create two entangled electronic excitations adjacently in their light-harvesting networks. Concerted multiple electron transfer reactions in the reaction centers and oxygen evolving complexes can be implemented efficiently by the coherent motion of two entangled excitons from antennae to the charge separation reaction sites. To fabricate nanostructured, synthetic light-harvesting apparatus, the paramount role of the CEETRAM photon absorption mechanism should be seriously considered in the strategic guidelines.

  11. Carbon dioxide utilization and hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Katsuhiro [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Frontier Technology Research Inst., Yokohama (Japan); Takasaki, Koichi [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Frontier Technology Research Inst., Yokohama (Japan)]|[RITE, Project Center for CO2 Fixation and Utilization, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Miyake, Jun; Asada, Yasuo [National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology, AIST/MITI, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The solar energy is the largest energy source in the world. Using the photosynthesis, we will be able utilise the huge amount of carbon dioxide. Microalgae, cyanobacteria, photosynthetic bacteria belong to photosynthetic microorganisms, which assimilate carbon dioxide during the photosynthesis. One of the cyanobacteria, Spirulina platensis accumulates carbohydrate photoautotrophically up to 50% of the dry cell weight in the nitrogen-deficient condition. Under an anaerobic condition in the dark, it is degraded into organic compounds such as organic acids, alcohol and sugar. As the hydrogen gas is also evolved in this process, the participation of hydrogenase (Hydrogen producing enzyme) has been suggested in this metabolism. We have investigated several conditions of evolution of hydrogen and production of organic compounds. The bacterial concentration initial pH and temperature had significant effects on hydrogen evolution as well as production of organic compounds. When the bacterial cell concentration was high, the pH of fermentation products was reduced to acidic and the evolution of hydrogen tended to be inhibited. The profiles of fermentation products varied according to the culture condition. The increase of organic acids were remarkable in the inhibitory condition for hydrogen production, such as acidic pH and high temperature. Furthermore these fermentation products were converted into hydrogen gas by using photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV with light energy. The composition of evolved gas was mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide, and their contents were 78% and 10%, respectively. The total amount of evolved hydrogen was nearly equal to the estimated, value which was calculated by the degradation of each organic acid. Combining this system with the photosynthesis of cyanobacteria, we could accomplish the production of hydrogen by solar energy, carbon dioxide and water. And we demonstrated that the evolved gas could be directly supplied to the

  12. Program PROTEUS for adding hydrogens to a protein structure and electrostatic field across carotenoids in light harvesting complexes and reaction centers from bacterial sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovaca, Samir

    The hydrogen construction method presented in the program PROTEUS treats hydrogens depending on their torsional degrees of freedom. The positions of hydrogens with restricted torsional degrees of freedom are completely determined by the heavy atoms positions in the structure. The hydroxyl and water hydrogens are the only hydrogens that PROTEUS accepts as movable hydrogens (having rotational degrees of freedom). Their positions are determined by the interactions with neighboring atoms. PROTEUS interaction energy corresponds to a view that the hydrogen bond is affected, besides electrostatic effects and steric constraints of neighboring groups, by an inherent energy barrier that opposes free rotation of the hydroxyl hydrogen. For the water hydrogens that barrier is zero. The hydroxyl and water hydrogens are minimized within a short distance using the Threshold Accepting (TA) energy minimization method. PROTEUS can provide reasonable positions of movable hydrogens and a good initial protein structure for further investigations. We applied the program PROTEUS to place hydrogens in several resolved three-dimensional crystal structures of light harvesting complexes (LHCs) and reaction centers (RCs) from bacterial sources. Using program DelPhi we calculated the local electrostatic field across carotenoid generated by the protein's charges. In each structure we identified amino acids responsible for the field. Much of the field is generated by the charged residues. There are different ways that a RC or LHC uses charged residues. A nearby dipole consisting of the charged residues which are ionized in the physiological pH range (like Arg-Asp), is often used. Clusters of charged residues or scattered isolated charged residues around the carotenoid molecule also contribute. The polarizable field is not necessarily along the carotenoid molecule principal axis. For soluble LHCs the contribution of polar residues to the field cannot be neglected. Our calculations indicate an

  13. The B850/B875 Photosynthetic Complex Ground and Excited State are Both Coherent

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, R H; Rubio, A; Ingles, J R; Cunningham, W A

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial photosynthetic light harvesting complex PLHC absorbs a photon and transfers this energy almost perfectly at room temperature RT to a Reaction Center RC, where charge separation occurs. While there are a number of possible light absorbers involved in this process, our focus is the B850 and B875 complexes. We propose that the dominant feature of the ground states in the B850 ring and the B875 open chain are pseudo one dimensional metals due to each bacteriochlorophyll a BChl containing a coordinated magnesium ion Mg2+. The Mg ion structure undergoes a static Peierls distortion that results in symmetry breaking that changes the even spacing of the Mg/BChl molecules comprising the chains to the experimentally observed Mg/BChl dimers. The results are charge density waves CDW, one for each type of the two complexes that result in an energy gap in the single particle electronic spectrum and coherent phonon s spanning the entire rings. The ground state CDWs seem to have two functions the first is to form ...

  14. Hydrogen Biogeochemistry in Anaerobic and Photosynthetic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of molecular hydrogen is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, a great majority of microbial redox processes involve hydrogen as a reactant, product or potential by-product. Accordingly, the energetics (thermodynamics) of each of these processes is affected by variations in local H2 concentrations. It has long been established that this effect is important in governing microbe-microbe interactions and there are multiple demonstrations that "interspecies hydrogen transfer" can alter the products of, inhibit/stimulate, or even reverse microbial metabolic reactions. In anoxic sediments, H2 concentrations themselves are thought to be controlled by the thermodynamics of the predominant H2-consuming microbial process. In sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, this relationship quantitatively describes the co-variation of H2 concentrations with temperature (for methanogens and sulfate reducers) and with sulfate concentration (for sulfate reducers). The quantitative aspect is import= for two reasons: 1) it permits the modeling of H2-sensitive biogeochemistry, such as anaerobic methane oxidation or pathways of organic matter remineralization, as a function of environmental controls; 2) for such a relationship to be observed requires that intracellular biochemistry and bioenergetics are being directly expressed in a component of the extracellular medium. H2 could therefore be utilized a non-invasive probe of cellular energetic function in intact microbial ecosystems. Based on the latter principle we have measured down-core profiles of H2 and other relevant physico-chemical parameters in order to calculate the metabolic energy yields (DG) that support microbial metabolism in Cape Lookout Bight sediments. Methanogens in this system apparently function with energy yields significantly smaller than the minimum requirements suggested by pure

  15. Using the polymerase chain reaction coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate the association between bacterial translocation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in predicted acute severe pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Callum B Pearce; Vitaly Zinkevich; Iwona Beech; Viera Funjika; Ana Garcia Ruiz; Afraa Aladawi; Hamish D Duncan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the use of PCR and DGGE to investigate the association between bacterial translocation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in predicted severe AP.METHODS: Patients with biochemical and clinical evidence of acute pancreatitis and an APACHE Ⅱ score ≥8 were enrolled. PCR and DGGE were employed to detect bacterial translocation in blood samples collected on d1,3, and 8 after the admission. Standard microbial blood cultures were taken when there was clinical evidence of sepsis or when felt to be clinically indicated by the supervising team.RESULTS: Six patients were included. Of all the patients investigated, only one developed septic complications;the others had uneventful illness. Bacteria were detected using PCR in 4 of the 17 collected blood samples. The patient with sepsis was PCR-positive in two samples (taken on d 1 and 3), despite three negative blood cultures. Using DGGE and specific primers, the bacteria in all blood specimens which tested positive for the presence of bacterial DNA were identified as E coli.CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed thatunlike traditional microbiological techniques, PCR can detect the presence of bacteria in the blood of patients with severe AP. Therefore, this latter method in conjunction with DGGE is potentially an extremely useful tool in predicting septic morbidity and evaluating patients with the disease. Further research using increased numbers of patients, in particular those patients with necrosis and sepsis, is required to assess the reliability of PCR and DGGE in the rapid diagnosis of infection in AP.

  16. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo REPETTO; Zurita, Jorge L.; Roncel Gil, Mercedes; José M Ortega

    2015-01-01

    © 2014. Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate...

  17. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. (topical reviews)

  18. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. PMID:25091409

  19. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the dazzling diversity of colors displayed by living organisms throughout the tree of life is determined by the presence of carotenoids, which most often provide distinctive yellow, orange and red hues. These metabolites play fundamental roles in nature that extend far beyond their importance as pigments. In photosynthetic lineages, carotenoids are essential to sustain life, since they have been exploited to maximize light harvesting and protect the photosynthetic machinery from photooxidative stress. Consequently, photosynthetic organisms have evolved several mechanisms that adjust the carotenoid metabolism to efficiently cope with constantly fluctuating light environments. This chapter will focus on the current knowledge concerning the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in leaves, which are the primary photosynthetic organs of most land plants. PMID:27485221

  20. Interference of Cd2+ in functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Baszyński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The actual opinions concerning the role of Cd2+ in inhibition of photosynthesis have been reviewed. The light phase of photosynthesis, particularly the site of Cd2+ action in the photosynthetic transport chain has been given the greatest attention. Cd2+-induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity as the result of thylakoid membrane degradation has been discussed. The present studies on Cd2+-inhibited dark reactions occurring in stroma has been analysed. Attention has been drawn to the fact that the results of studies in vitro are not always compatible with the changes found in the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants growing in a Cd2 containing medium.

  1. Computation studies into architecture and energy transfer properties of photosynthetic units from filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnanto, Juha Matti [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Freiberg, Arvi [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu, Estonia and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, 51010 Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-10-06

    We have used different computational methods to study structural architecture, and light-harvesting and energy transfer properties of the photosynthetic unit of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs. Due to the huge number of atoms in the photosynthetic unit, a combination of atomistic and coarse methods was used for electronic structure calculations. The calculations reveal that the light energy absorbed by the peripheral chlorosome antenna complex transfers efficiently via the baseplate and the core B808–866 antenna complexes to the reaction center complex, in general agreement with the present understanding of this complex system.

  2. Role of interference in the photosynthetic heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y Y; Liu, J

    2014-11-01

    The observation of quantum coherence in pigment-protein complexes has attracted considerable interest. One such endeavor entails applying a quantum heat engine to model the photosynthetic reaction center, but the definition of work used is inconsistent with that defined in quantum thermodynamics. Using the definition of work proposed in Weimer et al. [Europhys. Lett. 83, 30008 (2008)EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/83/30008], we investigated two proposals for enhancing the performance of the photosynthetic reaction center. In proposal A, which is similar to that in Dorfman et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 2746 (2013)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1212666110], we found that the power and current-voltage characteristic of the heat engine can be increased by Fano interference but the efficiency cannot. In proposal B, which is similar to that in Creatore et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 253601 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.111.253601], we found that the mechanism of strengthening the performance of the heat engine is invalid; i.e., the dipole-dipole interaction between two electron donors could not increase the power, efficiency, or current-voltage characteristic. PMID:25493763

  3. Variance-corrected Michaelis-Menten equation predicts transient rates of single-enzyme reactions and response times in bacterial gene-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, Otto; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Many chemical reactions in biological cells occur at very low concentrations of constituent molecules. Thus, transcriptional gene-regulation is often controlled by poorly expressed transcription-factors, such as E.coli lac repressor with few tens of copies. Here we study the effects of inherent concentration fluctuations of substrate-molecules on the seminal Michaelis-Menten scheme of biochemical reactions. We present a universal correction to the Michaelis-Menten equation for the reaction-rates. The relevance and validity of this correction for enzymatic reactions and intracellular gene-regulation is demonstrated. Our analytical theory and simulation results confirm that the proposed variance-corrected Michaelis-Menten equation predicts the rate of reactions with remarkable accuracy even in the presence of large non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations. The major advantage of our approach is that it involves only the mean and variance of the substrate-molecule concentration. Our theory is therefore accessible to experiments and not specific to the exact source of the concentration fluctuations.

  4. The adaptive response of lichens to mercury exposure involves changes in the photosynthetic machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichens are an excellent model to study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms occurring during bioaccumulation. We investigated the changes of the lichen proteome during exposure to constant concentrations of mercury. We found that most of changes involves proteins of the photosynthetic pathway, such as the chloroplastic photosystem I reaction center subunit II, the oxygen-evolving protein and the chloroplastic ATP synthase β-subunit. This suggests that photosynthesis is a target of the toxic effects of mercury. These findings are also supported by changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and β-carotene). Alterations to the photosynthetic machinery also reflect on the structure of thylakoid membranes of algal cells. Response of lichens to mercury also involves stress-related proteins (such as Hsp70) but not cytoskeletal proteins. Results suggest that lichens adapt to mercury exposure by changing the metabolic production of energy. - Highlights: ► Lichens exposed to Hg° vapors accumulate this metal irreversibly. ► Hg° interferes with physiological processes of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. ► Hg° promotes changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments. ► Hg° treatment causes changes in the ultrastructure of the photobiont plastids. ► Hg° induces changes in the protein machinery involved in the photosynthesis pathway. - Mercury affects the photosynthetic protein machinery of lichens.

  5. Photosynthetic response to fluctuating environments and photoprotective strategies under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru

    2016-05-01

    Plants in natural environments must cope with diverse, highly dynamic, and unpredictable conditions. They have mechanisms to enhance the capture of light energy when light intensity is low, but they can also slow down photosynthetic electron transport to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and consequent damage to the photosynthetic machinery under excess light. Plants need a highly responsive regulatory system to balance the photosynthetic light reactions with downstream metabolism. Various mechanisms of regulation of photosynthetic electron transport under stress have been proposed, however the data have been obtained mainly under environmentally stable and controlled conditions. Thus, our understanding of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis under dramatically fluctuating natural environments remains limited. In this review, first I describe the magnitude of environmental fluctuations under natural conditions. Next, I examine the effects of fluctuations in light intensity, CO2 concentration, leaf temperature, and relative humidity on dynamic photosynthesis. Finally, I summarize photoprotective strategies that allow plants to maintain the photosynthesis under stressful fluctuating environments. The present work clearly showed that fluctuation in various environmental factors resulted in reductions in photosynthetic rate in a stepwise manner at every environmental fluctuation, leading to the conclusion that fluctuating environments would have a large impact on photosynthesis. PMID:27023791

  6. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3- and C4-plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photosynthetic mechanisms of plants have become to be well understood by the use of radioactive and stable isotopes. This review included the distribution of 14C in photosynthetic intermediates by assimilation with 14CO2, resultant CO2 receptors, Calvin cycle, C4 photosynthetic pathway, differences between the photosynthetic pathway for C3-plants and that for C4-plants, photorespiration, glycolate pathway, the yield of photosynthetic quanta and the relationship between assimilation with 14CO2 and 13C values. Reference was made to the photosynthetic mechanism in 13C-NMR follow-up with 13CO2. (Chiba, N.)

  7. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  8. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...

  9. Prostatitis - bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Infections spread through sexual contact can cause prostatitis. These include chlamydia and gonorrhea . Sexually transmitted ...

  10. Bacterial Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Köhle, Ülkü; Kükner, Şahap

    2003-01-01

    Conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva, generally characterized by irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing and discharge. Bacterial conjunctivitis may be distinguished from other types of conjunctivitis by the presence of yellow–white mucopurulent discharge. It is the most common form of ocular infection all around the world. Staphylococcus species are the most common bacterial pathogenes, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus i...

  11. THE C2 OXIDATIVE PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, N. E.

    1997-06-01

    The C2 oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle plus the C3 reductive photosynthetic carbon cycle coexist. Both are initiated by Rubisco, use about equal amounts of energy, must regenerate RuBP, and result in exchanges of CO2 and O2 to establish rates of net photosynthesis, CO2 and O2 compensation points, and the ratio of CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. These concepts evolved from research on O2 inhibition, glycolate metabolism, leaf peroxisomes, photorespiration, 18O2/16O2 exchange, CO2 concentrating processes, and a requirement for the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Nearly 80 years of research on these topics are unified under the one process of photosynthetic carbon metabolism and its self-regulation. PMID:15012254

  12. Towards quantification of vibronic coupling in photosynthetic antenna complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. P.; Westberg, M.; Wang, C.; Gellen, T.; Engel, G. S., E-mail: gsengel@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Dahlberg, P. D. [Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, The James Franck Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Gardiner, A. T.; Cogdell, R. J. [Department of Botany, Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-07

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes harvest sunlight and efficiently transport energy to the reaction center where charge separation powers biochemical energy storage. The discovery of existence of long lived quantum coherence during energy transfer has sparked the discussion on the role of quantum coherence on the energy transfer efficiency. Early works assigned observed coherences to electronic states, and theoretical studies showed that electronic coherences could affect energy transfer efficiency—by either enhancing or suppressing transfer. However, the nature of coherences has been fiercely debated as coherences only report the energy gap between the states that generate coherence signals. Recent works have suggested that either the coherences observed in photosynthetic antenna complexes arise from vibrational wave packets on the ground state or, alternatively, coherences arise from mixed electronic and vibrational states. Understanding origin of coherences is important for designing molecules for efficient light harvesting. Here, we give a direct experimental observation from a mutant of LH2, which does not have B800 chromophores, to distinguish between electronic, vibrational, and vibronic coherence. We also present a minimal theoretical model to characterize the coherences both in the two limiting cases of purely vibrational and purely electronic coherence as well as in the intermediate, vibronic regime.

  13. SANS Investigation of the Photosynthetic Machinery of Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Jianzhong, Wen [Washington University, St. Louis; Yueyong, Xin [Washington University, St. Louis; Blankenship, Robert E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Green photosynthetic bacteria harvest light and perform photosynthesis in low light environments, and contain specialized antenna complexes to adapt to this condition. In this report, we present studies using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to elucidate structural information about the photosynthetic apparatus, including the peripheral light harvesting chlorosome complex, the integral membrane light-harvesting B808-866 complex and the reaction center (RC) in the thermophilic green phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Using contract variation in SANS measurments, our studies suggest that the B808-866 comples is wrapped around the RC in Cfx. aurantiacus, and the overall size and conformation for the B808-866 complex of Cfx. aurantiacus is roughly comparable to the LH1 antenna complex of the purple bacteria. A similar size for the isolated B808-866 complex is also suggested via dynamic light scattering measurements. Alos, a smaller size of the RC of Cfx. aurantiacus that the RC of the purple bacteria is observed. Further, our SANS measurements indicate that the chlorosome is a lipid body with rod-like shape, and that the self-assembly of bacteriochlorophylls, the major component of the chlorosome, is lipid-like. Finally, two populations of chlorosome particles are suggested in our SANS measurements.

  14. Towards quantification of vibronic coupling in photosynthetic antenna complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V. P.; Westberg, M.; Wang, C.; Dahlberg, P. D.; Gellen, T.; Gardiner, A. T.; Cogdell, R. J.; Engel, G. S.

    2015-06-01

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes harvest sunlight and efficiently transport energy to the reaction center where charge separation powers biochemical energy storage. The discovery of existence of long lived quantum coherence during energy transfer has sparked the discussion on the role of quantum coherence on the energy transfer efficiency. Early works assigned observed coherences to electronic states, and theoretical studies showed that electronic coherences could affect energy transfer efficiency—by either enhancing or suppressing transfer. However, the nature of coherences has been fiercely debated as coherences only report the energy gap between the states that generate coherence signals. Recent works have suggested that either the coherences observed in photosynthetic antenna complexes arise from vibrational wave packets on the ground state or, alternatively, coherences arise from mixed electronic and vibrational states. Understanding origin of coherences is important for designing molecules for efficient light harvesting. Here, we give a direct experimental observation from a mutant of LH2, which does not have B800 chromophores, to distinguish between electronic, vibrational, and vibronic coherence. We also present a minimal theoretical model to characterize the coherences both in the two limiting cases of purely vibrational and purely electronic coherence as well as in the intermediate, vibronic regime.

  15. Towards quantification of vibronic coupling in photosynthetic antenna complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes harvest sunlight and efficiently transport energy to the reaction center where charge separation powers biochemical energy storage. The discovery of existence of long lived quantum coherence during energy transfer has sparked the discussion on the role of quantum coherence on the energy transfer efficiency. Early works assigned observed coherences to electronic states, and theoretical studies showed that electronic coherences could affect energy transfer efficiency—by either enhancing or suppressing transfer. However, the nature of coherences has been fiercely debated as coherences only report the energy gap between the states that generate coherence signals. Recent works have suggested that either the coherences observed in photosynthetic antenna complexes arise from vibrational wave packets on the ground state or, alternatively, coherences arise from mixed electronic and vibrational states. Understanding origin of coherences is important for designing molecules for efficient light harvesting. Here, we give a direct experimental observation from a mutant of LH2, which does not have B800 chromophores, to distinguish between electronic, vibrational, and vibronic coherence. We also present a minimal theoretical model to characterize the coherences both in the two limiting cases of purely vibrational and purely electronic coherence as well as in the intermediate, vibronic regime

  16. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van B.F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these prote

  17. Molecular characterization of novel photosynthetic protozoan phylum from corals

    OpenAIRE

    Cihlář, Jaromír

    2010-01-01

    Novel photosynthetic protozoan phylum from caorals eas investigated using molecular biology tools to infer phylogenetic position. According to the data, isolates RM11-26 are also photosynthetic relatives of apicomplexan parasites representing an independent lineage from Chromera velia

  18. Primary charge separation between P* and BA: Electron-transfer pathways in native and mutant GM203L bacterial reaction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent components in the dynamics of decay of stimulated emission from the primary electron donor excited state P*, and of population of the product charge-separated states P+BA- and P+HA-, were studied in GM203L mutant reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides by measuring oscillations in the kinetics of absorbance changes at 940nm (P* stimulated emission region), 1020nm (BA- absorption region) and 760nm (HA bleaching region). Absorbance changes were induced by excitation of P (870nm) with 18fs pulses at 90K. In the GM203L mutant, replacement of Gly M203 by Leu results in exclusion of the crystallographically defined water molecule (HOH55) located close to the oxygen of the 131-keto carbonyl group of BA and to His M202, which provides the axial ligand to the Mg of the PB bacteriochlorophyll. The results of femtosecond measurements were compared with those obtained with Rb. sphaeroides R-26 RCs containing an intact water HOH55. The main consequences of the GM203L mutation were found to be as follows: (i) a low-frequency oscillation at 32cm-1, which is characteristic of the HOH55-containing RCs, disappears from the kinetics of absorbance changes at 1020 and 760nm in the mutant RC; (ii) electron transfer from P* to BA in the wild type RC was characterized by two time constants of 1.1ps (80%) and 4.3ps (20%), but in the GM203L mutant was characterized by a single time constant of 4.3ps, demonstrating a slowing of primary charge separation. The previously postulated rotation of water HOH55 with a fundamental frequency of 32cm-1, triggered by electron transfer from P* to BA, was confirmed by observation of an isotopic shift of the 32cm-1 oscillation in the kinetics of P+BA- population in deuterated, pheophytin-modified RCs of Rb. sphaeroides R-26, by a factor of 1.6. These data are discussed in terms of the influence of water HOH55 on the energetics of the P*->P+BA- reaction, and protein dynamic events that occur on the time scale of this reaction

  19. Primary charge separation between P* and B{sub A}: Electron-transfer pathways in native and mutant GM203L bacterial reaction centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Andrey G. [Department of Photobiophysics, Belozersky Institute of Chemical and Physical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow 119899 (Russian Federation); Jones, Michael R. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.r.jones@bristol.ac.uk; Potter, Jane A. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD (United Kingdom); Fyfe, Paul K. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD (United Kingdom); Vasilieva, Lyudmila G. [Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region 142290 (Russian Federation); Shkuropatov, Anatoli Ya. [Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region 142290 (Russian Federation); Shuvalov, Vladimir A. [Department of Photobiophysics, Belozersky Institute of Chemical and Physical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow 119899 (Russian Federation); Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region 142290 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shuvalov@issp.serpukhov.su

    2005-12-07

    Coherent components in the dynamics of decay of stimulated emission from the primary electron donor excited state P*, and of population of the product charge-separated states P{sup +}B{sub A}{sup -} and P{sup +}H{sub A}{sup -}, were studied in GM203L mutant reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides by measuring oscillations in the kinetics of absorbance changes at 940nm (P* stimulated emission region), 1020nm (B{sub A}{sup -} absorption region) and 760nm (H{sub A} bleaching region). Absorbance changes were induced by excitation of P (870nm) with 18fs pulses at 90K. In the GM203L mutant, replacement of Gly M203 by Leu results in exclusion of the crystallographically defined water molecule (HOH55) located close to the oxygen of the 13{sup 1}-keto carbonyl group of B{sub A} and to His M202, which provides the axial ligand to the Mg of the P{sub B} bacteriochlorophyll. The results of femtosecond measurements were compared with those obtained with Rb. sphaeroides R-26 RCs containing an intact water HOH55. The main consequences of the GM203L mutation were found to be as follows: (i) a low-frequency oscillation at 32cm{sup -1}, which is characteristic of the HOH55-containing RCs, disappears from the kinetics of absorbance changes at 1020 and 760nm in the mutant RC; (ii) electron transfer from P* to B{sub A} in the wild type RC was characterized by two time constants of 1.1ps (80%) and 4.3ps (20%), but in the GM203L mutant was characterized by a single time constant of 4.3ps, demonstrating a slowing of primary charge separation. The previously postulated rotation of water HOH55 with a fundamental frequency of 32cm{sup -1}, triggered by electron transfer from P* to B{sub A}, was confirmed by observation of an isotopic shift of the 32cm{sup -1} oscillation in the kinetics of P{sup +}B{sub A}{sup -} population in deuterated, pheophytin-modified RCs of Rb. sphaeroides R-26, by a factor of 1.6. These data are discussed in terms of the influence of water HOH55 on

  20. Biohybrid photosynthetic antenna complexes for enhanced light-harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Joseph W; Parkes-Loach, Pamela S; Reddy, Kanumuri Ramesh; Krayer, Michael; Jiao, Jieying; Lee, Gregory M; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Harris, Michelle A; Kirmaier, Christine; Bocian, David F; Lindsey, Jonathan S; Holten, Dewey; Loach, Paul A

    2012-03-14

    Biohybrid antenna systems have been constructed that contain synthetic chromophores attached to 31mer analogues of the bacterial photosynthetic core light-harvesting (LH1) β-polypeptide. The peptides are engineered with a Cys site for bioconjugation with maleimide-terminated chromophores, which include synthetic bacteriochlorins (BC1, BC2) with strong near-infrared absorption and commercial dyes Oregon green (OGR) and rhodamine red (RR) with strong absorption in the blue-green to yellow-orange regions. The peptides place the Cys 14 (or 6) residues before a native His site that binds bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl-a) and, like the native LH proteins, have high helical content as probed by single-reflection IR spectroscopy. The His residue associates with BChl-a as in the native LH1 β-polypeptide to form dimeric ββ-subunit complexes [31mer(-14Cys)X/BChl](2), where X is one of the synthetic chromophores. The native-like BChl-a dimer has Q(y) absorption at 820 nm and serves as the acceptor for energy from light absorbed by the appended synthetic chromophore. The energy-transfer characteristics of biohybrid complexes have been characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and absorption measurements. The quantum yields of energy transfer from a synthetic chromophore located 14 residues from the BChl-coordinating His site are as follows: OGR (0.30) BChl](n) are accompanied by a bathochromic shift of the Q(y) absorption of the BChl-a oligomer as far as the 850-nm position found in cyclic native photosynthetic LH2 complexes. Room-temperature stabilized oligomeric biohybrids have energy-transfer quantum yields comparable to those of the dimeric subunit complexes as follows: OGR (0.20) self-assembly characteristics of the native antenna complexes, offer enhanced coverage of the solar spectrum, and illustrate a versatile paradigm for the construction of artificial LH systems. PMID:22375881

  1. Bacterial carbonatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

  2. Photosynthetic production of hydrogen by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.

    1978-09-01

    Because hydrogen as a fuel is very attractive both in energy and ecological terms, the photosynthetic production of hydrogen by some algae is attracting considerable attention. In addition to the ordinary photosynthetic mechanisms, many algae have enzymes which can produce hydrogen: hydrogenation enzymes and nitrogen-fixation enzymes. Certain enzymes with the former begin to produce hydrogen after several hours in an anaerobic envirionment; the reason for the delay is that the hydrogen-producing enzymes must adjust to the anaerobic conditions. Eventually the production of hydrogen ceases because production of oxygen by the ordinary photosynthetic mechanism suppresses activity of the hydrogen-producing enzymes. Any use of these algae to produce hydrogen must involve alternating hydrogen production and rest. Nitrogen-fixing enzymes are found especially in the blue-green algae. These seem to produce hydrogen from organic compounds produced by the ordinary photosynthetic process. The nitrogen-fixation type of hydrogen-producing photosynthesis seems the more promising type for future exploitation.

  3. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2004-07-15

    This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project for the period ending 06/30/2004. The major accomplishment was the modification of the header and harvesting work, with a system designed to distribute algae at startup, sustain operations and harvest in one unit.

  4. A New Mechanism for Photosynthetic Energy Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas D. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Calculations reveal a new kind of non-adiabatic funnel that electronically enhances anti-correlated vibrational wavepackets on the ground state. These wavepackets replicate all observed 2D signatures of photosynthetic energy transfer, including one not previously explained.

  5. Limits of quantum speedup in photosynthetic light harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Stephan; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    In the initial stages of photosynthesis, energy collected from light is transferred across a network of chlorophyll molecules to a reaction center. Recent experimental evidence showing long lived quantum coherences in this energy transport in several photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes has suggested that coherence may play an important role in the function of these systems. In particular, it has been hypothesized that excitation transport in such systems may feature speedups analogous to those found in quantum algorithms. The most direct analogy to such transport is found in quantum walks, which form the basis of a powerful class of quantum algorithms including quantum search. Unlike idealized quantum walks, however, real light harvesting complexes are characterized by disorder, energy funnels and decoherence. Whether any quantum speedup can be found in this situation is unclear. Here we characterize quantum speedup for excitation energy transfer in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex of green sulfur...

  6. Proton and hydrogen currents in photosynthetic water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommos, C; Babcock, G T

    2000-05-12

    The photosynthetic processes that lead to water oxidation involve an evolution in time from photon dynamics to photochemically-driven electron transfer to coupled electron/proton chemistry. The redox-active tyrosine, Y(Z), is the component at which the proton currents necessary for water oxidation are switched on. The thermodynamic and kinetic implications of this function for Y(Z) are discussed. These considerations also provide insight into the related roles of Y(Z) in preserving the high photochemical quantum efficiency in Photosystem II (PSII) and of conserving the highly oxidizing conditions generated by the photochemistry in the PSII reaction center. The oxidation of Y(Z) by P(680)(+) can be described well by a treatment that invokes proton coupling within the context of non-adiabatic electron transfer. The reduction of Y(.)(Z), however, appears to proceed by an adiabatic process that may have hydrogen-atom transfer character. PMID:10812034

  7. Separation of bacteriochlorophyll homologues from green photosynthetic sulfur bacteria by reversed-phase HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C M; Garcia-Gil, L J

    1994-07-01

    A reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to accurately separate bacteriochlorophyllsc, d ande homologues in a reasonably short run time of 60 minutes. By using this method, two well-defined groups of bacteriochlorophyll homologue peaks can be discriminated. The first one consists of 4 peaks (min 24 to 30), which corresponds to the four main farnesyl homologues. The second peak subset is formed by a cluster of up to 10 minor peaks (min 33 to 40). These peaks can be related with series of several alcohol esters of the different chlorosome chlorophylls. The number of homologues was, however, quite variable depending on both, the bacteriochlorophyll and the bacterial species. The method hereby described, also provides a good separation of other photosynthetic pigments, either bacterial (Bacteriochlorophylla, chlorobactene, isorenieratene and okenone) or algal ones (Chlorophylla, Pheophytina and β-carotene). A preliminary screening of the homologue composition of several green photosynthetic bacterial species and isolates, has revealed different relative quantitative patterns. These differences seem to be related to physiological aspects rather than to taxonomic ones. The application of the method to the study of natural populations avoids the typical drawbacks on the pigment identification of overlapping eukaryotic and prokaryotic phototrophic microorganisms, giving further information about their physiological status. PMID:24310022

  8. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental...

  9. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  10. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  11. Modelling and Simulation of Photosynthetic Microorganism Growth: Random Walk vs. Finite Difference Method

    OpenAIRE

    Papáček, Š.; Matonoha, C. (Ctirad); Štumbauer, V.; Štys, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with photosynthetic microorganism growth modelling and simulation in a distributed parameter system. Main result concerns the development and comparison of two modelling frameworks for photo-bioreactor modelling. The first ”classical" approach is based on PDE (reaction-turbulent diffusion system) and finite difference method. The alternative approach is based on random walk model of transport by turbulent diffusion. The complications residing in modelling of multi-scale transp...

  12. Modeling bacterial chemotaxis inside a cell

    OpenAIRE

    Ouannes, Nesrine; Djedi, Noureddine; Luga, Hervé; Duthen, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a bacterial system that reproduces a population of bacteria that behave by simulating the internal reactions of each bacterial cell. The chemotaxis network of a cell is modulated by a hybrid approach that uses an algebraic model for the receptor clusters activity and an ordinary differential equation for the adaptation dynamics. The experiments are defined in order to simulate bacterial growth in an environment where nutrients are regularly added to it. The results show a...

  13. Bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Preveden Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by a reduced defensive reaction to bacterial infections and patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing infections, sepsis and death. The most common bacterial infections in these patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infection and bacteremia. The most common causes are Gram negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determi...

  14. Use of Blood Smears and Dried Blood Spots for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Infection and Plasmodium falciparum in Severely Ill Febrile African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Dondorp, Arjen M; Turner, Paul; Woodrow, Charles J; Imwong, Mallika

    2016-02-01

    Molecular approaches offer a means of testing archived samples stored as dried blood spots in settings where standard blood cultures are not possible. Peripheral blood films are one suggested source of material, although the sensitivity of this approach has not been well defined. Thin blood smears and dried blood spots from a severe pediatric malaria study were assessed using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers to detect non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS; MisL gene), Streptococcus pneumoniae (lytA), and Plasmodium falciparum (18S rRNA). Of 16 cases of NTS and S. pneumoniae confirmed on blood culture, none were positive by PCR using DNA extracts from blood films or dried blood spots. In contrast, four of 36 dried blood spots and two of 178 plasma samples were PCR positive for S. pneumoniae, despite negative bacterial blood cultures, suggesting false positives. Quantitative assessment revealed that the effective concentration of P. falciparum DNA in blood films was three log orders of magnitude lower than for dried blood spots. The P. falciparum kelch13 gene could not be amplified from blood films. These findings question the value of blood PCR-based approaches for detection of NTS and S. pneumoniae, and show that stored blood films are an inefficient method of studying P. falciparum. PMID:26711525

  15. Correlated interaction fluctuations in photosynthetic complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Vlaming, Sebastiaan M

    2011-01-01

    The functioning and efficiency of natural photosynthetic complexes is strongly influenced by their embedding in a noisy protein environment, which can even serve to enhance the transport efficiency. Interactions with the environment induce fluctuations of the transition energies of and interactions between the chlorophyll molecules, and due to the fact that different fluctuations will partially be caused by the same environmental factors, correlations between the various fluctuations will occur. We argue that fluctuations of the interactions should in general not be neglected, as these have a considerable impact on population transfer rates, decoherence rates and the efficiency of photosynthetic complexes. Furthermore, while correlations between transition energy fluctuations have been studied, we provide the first quantitative study of the effect of correlations between interaction fluctuations and transition energy fluctuations, and of correlations between the various interaction fluctuations. It is shown t...

  16. Photosynthetic acclimation to high temperatures in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed, O. H.

    1992-01-01

    Growth and photosynthetic performance were assessed for the Finnish wheat Triticum aestivum L. var. APU under a cool (13/10�C day/night) and a warm (30/25�C day/night) regime. Plants exhibited a certain degree of acclimation to warm growth conditions. This acclimation appeared to involve enhanced performance of both photosystem II and whole-chain electron transport. Enhanced thermal stability of photophosphorylation was also observed in warm-grown plants.

  17. Nonclassical energy transfer in photosynthetic FMO complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramavicius Vytautas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Excitation energy transfer in a photosynthetic FMO complex has been simulated using the stochastic Schrödinger equation. Fluctuating chromophore transition energies are simulated from the quantum correlation function which allows to properly include the finite temperature. The resulting excitation dynamics shows fast thermalization of chromophore occupations into proper thermal equilibrium. The relaxation process is characterized by entropy dynamics, which shows nonclassical behavior.

  18. Ionizing radiation and photosynthetic ability of cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unicellular photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, Anacystis nidulans when exposed to lethal dose of 1.5 kGy of 60Co γ- radiation (D10= 257.32 Gy) were as effective photosynthetical as unirradiated controls immediately after irradiation although level of ROS was higher by several magnitudes in these irradiated cells. The results suggested the preservation of the functional integrity of thylakoids even after exposure to lethal dose of ionizing radiation. (author)

  19. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. PMID:27474242

  20. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat and Comparison with Archean Cherts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbin, M.; Derenne, S.; Gourier, D.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Gautret, P.; Westall, F.

    2012-12-01

    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts.

  1. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Enteromorpha compressa (Chlorophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S.; Shragge, B.

    1987-12-01

    The intertidal macroalga Enteromorpha compressa showed the ability to use HCO/sub 3//sup -/, as an exogenous inorganic carbon (Ci) source for photosynthesis. However, although the natural sea water concentration of this carbon form was saturating, additional CO/sub 2/ above ambient Ci levels doubled net photosynthetic rates. Therefore, the productivity of this alga, when submerged, is likely to be limited by Ci. When plants were exposed to air, photosynthetic rates saturated at air-levels of CO/sub 2/ during mild desiccation. Based on carbon fixing enzyme activities and Ci pulse-chase incorporation patterns, it was found that Enteromorpha is a C/sub 3/ plant. However, this alga did not show O/sub 2/ inhibited photosynthetic rates at natural sea water Ci conditions. It is suggested that such a C/sub 4/-like gas exchange response is due to the HCO/sub 3//sup -/ utilization system concentrating CO/sub 2/ intracellularly, thus alleviating apparent photorespiration.

  2. Chemical proprieties of the iron-quinone complex in mutated reaction centers of Rb. sphaeroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Agnieszka [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics (Poland); Derrien, Valerie; Sebban, Pierre [University of Paris XI, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique (France); Matlak, Krzysztof; Korecki, Jozef [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Solid State Physics (Poland); Kruk, Jerzy [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology (Poland); Burda, Kvetoslava, E-mail: kvetoslava.burda@fis.agh.edu.pl [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics (Poland)

    2012-03-15

    We investigated type II bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers, which contain a quinone - iron complex (Q{sub A}-Fe-Q{sub B}) on their acceptor side. Under physiological conditions it was observed mainly in a reduced high spin state but its low spin ferrous states were also observed. Therefore, it was suggested that it might regulate the dynamical properties of the iron-quinone complex and the protonation and deprotonation events in its neighbourhood. In order to get insight into the molecular mechanism of the NHFe low spin state formation, we preformed Moessbauer studies of a wild type of Rb. sphaeroides and its two mutated forms. Our Moessbauer measurements show that the hydrophobicity of the Q{sub A} binding site can be crucial for stabilization of the high spin ferrous state of NHFe.

  3. Validation of photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters as biomarkers for isoproturon toxic effect on alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters were investigated to be used as valid biomarkers of toxicity when alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] effect. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction of algal cells treated with isoproturon showed inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers and strong inhibition of PSII electron transport. A linear correlation was found (R2 ≥ 0.861) between the change of cells density affected by isoproturon and the change of effective PSII quantum yield (ΦM'), photochemical quenching (qP) and relative photochemical quenching (qP(rel)) values. The cells density was also linearly dependent (R2 = 0.838) on the relative unquenched fluorescence parameter (UQF(rel)). Non-linear correlation was found (R2 = 0.937) only between cells density and the energy transfer efficiency from absorbed light to PSII reaction center (ABS/RC). The order of sensitivity determined by the EC-50% was: UQF(rel) > ΦM' > qP > qP(rel) > ABS/RC. Correlations between cells density and those photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters provide supporting evidence to use them as biomarkers of toxicity for environmental pollutants. - Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters are reliable biomarkers of isoproturon toxicity

  4. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Fghire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in these transients to changes in biophysical parameter's allowing quantification of the energy flow through the photosynthetic apparatus. Drought stress induced a significant decrease in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Φpo = Fv/Fm, and the quantum yield of electron transport (Φeo. The amount of active Photosystem II (PSII reaction centers (RC per excited cross section (RC/CS also decreased when exposed to the highest drought stress. The effective antenna size of active RCs (ABS/RC increased and the effective dissipation per active reaction centers (DIo/RC increased by increasing drought stress during the growth season in comparison to the control. However the performance index (PI, was a very sensitive indicator of the physiological status of plants. Leaf area index, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased as the drought increased. These results indicate that, in quinoa leaf, JIP-test can be used as a sensitive method for measuring drought stress effects.

  5. Photosynthetic Fractionation of the Stable Isotopes of Oxygen and Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, R. D.; Fogel, M. L.; Berry, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Isotope discrimination during photosynthetic exchange of O2 and CO2 was measured using enzyme, thylakoid, and whole cell preparations. Evolved oxygen from isolated spinach thylakoids was isotopically identical (within analytical error) to its source water. Similar results were obtained with Anacystis nidulans Richter and Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin cultures purged with helium. For consumptive reactions, discrimination ([delta], where 1 + [delta]/1000 equals the isotope effect, k16/k18 or k12/k13) was determined by analysis of residual substrate (O2 or CO2). The [delta] for the Mehler reaction, mediated by ferredoxin or methylviologen, was 15.3[per mille (thousand) sign]. Oxygen isotope discrimination during oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was 21.3[per mille (thousand) sign] and independent of enzyme source, unlike carbon isotope discrimination: 30.3[per mille (thousand) sign] for spinach enzyme and 19.6 to 23[per mille (thousand) sign] for Rhodospirillum rubrum and A. nidulans enzymes, depending on reaction conditions. The [delta] for O2 consumption catalyzed by glycolate oxidase was 22.7[per mille (thousand) sign]. The expected overall [delta] for photorespiration is about 21.7[per mille (thousand) sign]. Consistent with this, when Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesophyll cells approached the compensation point within a sealed vessel, the [delta]18O of dissolved O2 came to a steady-state value of about 21.5[per mille (thousand) sign] relative to the source water. The results provide improved estimates of discrimination factors in several reactions prominent in the global O cycle and indicate that photorespiration plays a significant part in determining the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen. PMID:12231663

  6. Long-lived quantum coherence in photosynthetic complexes at physiological temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Panitchayangkoon, Gitt; Fransted, Kelly A; Caram, Justin R; Harel, Elad; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E; Engel, Gregory S

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes capture and concentrate solar radiation by transferring the excitation to the reaction center which stores energy from the photon in chemical bonds. This process occurs with near-perfect quantum efficiency. Recent experiments at cryogenic temperatures have revealed that coherent energy transfer - a wavelike transfer mechanism - occurs in many photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes (1-4). Using the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna complex (FMO) as a model system, theoretical studies incorporating both incoherent and coherent transfer as well as thermal dephasing predict that environmentally assisted quantum transfer efficiency peaks near physiological temperature; these studies further show that this process is equivalent to a quantum random walk algorithm (5-8). This theory requires long-lived quantum coherence at room temperature, which never has been observed in FMO. Here we present the first evidence that quantum coherence survives in FMO at physiological temperature for at l...

  7. Quantification of cyclic electron flow around Photosystem I in spinach leaves during photosynthetic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Da-Yong; Nie, Qin; Hope, Alexander B; Hillier, Warwick; Pogson, Barry J; Chow, Wah Soon

    2007-01-01

    The variation of the rate of cyclic electron transport around Photosystem I (PS I) during photosynthetic induction was investigated by illuminating dark-adapted spinach leaf discs with red + far-red actinic light for a varied duration, followed by abruptly turning off the light. The post-illumination re-reduction kinetics of P700+, the oxidized form of the photoactive chlorophyll of the reaction centre of PS I (normalized to the total P700 content), was well described by the sum of three negative exponential terms. The analysis gave a light-induced total electron flux from which the linear electron flux through PS II and PS I could be subtracted, yielding a cyclic electron flux. Our results show that the cyclic electron flux was small in the very early phase of photosynthetic induction, rose to a maximum at about 30 s of illumination, and declined subsequently to leaves by a relatively straightforward method. PMID:17211579

  8. Multiscale Analysis and Optimisation of Photosynthetic Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    This work asks how light harvesting in photosynthetic systems can be optimised for economically scalable, sustainable energy production. Hierarchy theory is introduced as a system-analysis and optimisation tool better able to handle multiscale, multiprocess complexities in photosynthetic energetics compared with standard linear-process analysis. Within this framework, new insights are given into relationships between composition, structure and energetics at the scale of the thylakoid membrane, and also into how components at different scales cooperate under functional objectives of the whole photosynthetic system. Combining these reductionistic and holistic analyses creates a platform for modelling multiscale-optimal, idealised photosynthetic systems in silico.

  9. Photosynthetic water oxidation: insights from manganese model chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Karin J; Brennan, Bradley J; Tagore, Ranitendranath; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-03-17

    Catalysts for light-driven water oxidation are a critical component for development of solar fuels technology. The multielectron redox chemistry required for this process has been successfully deployed on a global scale in natural photosynthesis by green plants and cyanobacteria using photosystem II (PSII). PSII employs a conserved, cuboidal Mn4CaOX cluster called the O2-evolving complex (OEC) that offers inspiration for artificial O2-evolution catalysts. In this Account, we describe our work on manganese model chemistry relevant to PSII, particularly the functional model [Mn(III/IV)2(terpy)2(μ-O)2(OH2)2](NO3)3 complex (terpy = 2,2';6',2″-terpyridine), a mixed-valent di-μ-oxo Mn dimer with two terminal aqua ligands. In the presence of oxo-donor oxidants such as HSO5(-), this complex evolves O2 by two pathways, one of which incorporates solvent water in an O-O bond-forming reaction. Deactivation pathways of this catalyst include comproportionation to form an inactive Mn(IV)Mn(IV) dimer and also degradation to MnO2, a consequence of ligand loss when the oxidation state of the complex is reduced to labile Mn(II) upon release of O2. The catalyst's versatility has been shown by its continued catalytic activity after direct binding to the semiconductor titanium dioxide. In addition, after binding to the surface of TiO2 via a chromophoric linker, the catalyst can be oxidized by a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism, mimicking the natural PSII process. Model oxomanganese complexes have also aided in interpreting biophysical and computational studies on PSII. In particular, the μ-oxo exchange rates of the Mn-terpy dimer have been instrumental in establishing that the time scale for μ-oxo exchange of high-valent oxomanganese complexes with terminal water ligands is slower than O2 evolution in the natural photosynthetic system. Furthermore, computational studies on the Mn-terpy dimer and the OEC point to similar Mn(IV)-oxyl intermediates in the O-O bond

  10. Bacterial contamination of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, J

    2001-10-01

    Despite considerable advances in the safety of blood components, transfusion associated bacterial infection (TABI) remains an unresolved problem. As yet there are no perfect preventative, screening and/or detection methodologies for eliminating contaminated units. Until a practical, rapid, cost-effective and logistically acceptable test becomes available, we should be satisfied with the choice of various limited solutions that at least partially improve the bacterial safety of blood components. It is also necessary to establish standardised guidelines and agreed upon systematic procedures for the recognition and reporting of the laboratory and clinical evaluation of adverse reactions in recipients of contaminated blood components. PMID:11761277

  11. Magnetic irone oxide nanoparticles in photosynthetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : It was found and studied the effect of biogenic formation of magnetic inclusions in photosynthetic systems - in various higher plants under the influence of some external stress factors (radiation impact, moisture deficit) and in a model system - a suspension of chloroplasts. For registration and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles in the samples used EPR spectrometer because superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles have a chcracteristic signals of electron magnetic resonance. For direct visualization of magnetic nanoparticles it was used the method of transmission electron microscopy

  12. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  13. Photosynthetic isotope fractionation: oxygen and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic carbon analyses of plant tissue and carbon dioxide from air samples and plant and soil respiration were made. Soil respiratory CO2 is about 150/00 lighter than atmospheric CO2. Plant isotopic ratios were found to be influenced by (1) plant photosynthetic efficiency, (2) source CO2, (3) airflow, and (4) CO2 concentrations. Etiolated bean plants have nearly the same delta13C value as seed carbon and seed dark respiratory CO2. Mature leaves from greenhouse grown beans, however, are some 5 0/00 lighter than seed carbon. This is a result of CO2 source, i.e., plant or soil respiratory CO2. Leaves which are generally lighter than other plant organs becomes still lighter during the growing season. As a consequence of increasingly light leaf carbon, photorespired CO2 also becomes lighter during the growing season. Oxygen isotopic values were measured for (1) photorespiratory CO2, which reflects equilibration with leaf water, and (2) photosynthetic O2, which is enriched in 18O, perhaps due to respiratory or photorespiratory 16O preference

  14. Thermal responses of Symbiodinium photosynthetic carbon assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2014-06-01

    The symbiosis between hermatypic corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts, genus Symbiodinium, is based on carbon exchange. This symbiosis is disrupted by thermally induced coral bleaching, a stress response in which the coral host expels its algal symbionts as they become physiologically impaired. The disruption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supply or the thermal inactivation of Rubisco have been proposed as sites of initial thermal damage that leads to the bleaching response. Symbiodinium possesses a highly unusual Form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which exhibits a lower CO2:O2 specificity and may be more thermally unstable than the Form I Rubiscos of other algae and land plants. Components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), which supplies inorganic carbon for photosynthesis, may also be temperature sensitive. Here, we examine the ability of four cultured Symbiodinium strains to acquire and fix DIC across a temperature gradient. Surprisingly, the half-saturation constant of photosynthesis with respect to DIC concentration ( K P), an index of CCM function, declined with increasing temperature in three of the four strains, indicating a greater potential for photosynthetic carbon acquisition at elevated temperatures. In the fourth strain, there was no effect of temperature on K P. Finding no evidence for thermal inhibition of the CCM, we conclude that CCM components are not likely to be the primary sites of thermal damage. Reduced photosynthetic quantum yields, a hallmark of thermal bleaching, were observed at low DIC concentrations, leaving open the possibility that reduced inorganic carbon availability is involved in bleaching.

  15. Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2013-08-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

  16. Determination of photosynthetic parameters in two seawater-tolerant vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Nianwei; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Wenqian

    2016-03-01

    It is difficult to determine the photosynthetic parameters of non-flat leaves/green stems using photosynthetic instruments, due to the unusual morphology of both organs, especially for Suaeda salsa and Salicornia bigelovii as two seawater-tolerant vegetables. To solve the problem, we developed a simple, practical, and effective method to measure and calculate the photosynthetic parameters (such as P N, g s, E) based on unit fresh mass, instead of leaf area. The light/CO2/temperature response curves of the plants can also be measured by this method. This new method is more effective, stable, and reliable than conventional methods for plants with non-flat leaves. In addition, the relative notes on measurements and calculation of photosynthetic parameters were discussed in this paper. This method solves technical difficulties in photosynthetic parameter determination of the two seawater-tolerant vegetables and similar plants.

  17. Variability of photosynthetic parameters of Pinus sibirica Du Tour needles under changing climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    of photosystem II was lower than that in the local ecotype. Thus, the increased photosynthetic intensity under favorable conditions follows the path of formation of both a larger number of reaction centers and light-harvesting pigments.

  18. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  19. Mimicking the Role of the Antenna in Photosynthetic Photoprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazono, Yuichi; Kodis, Gerdenis; Bhushan, Kul; Zaks, Julia; Madden, Christopher; Moore, Ana L.; Moore, Thomas A.; Fleming, Graham R.; Gust, Devens

    2011-03-09

    One mechanism used by plants to protect against damage from excess sunlight is called nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Triggered by low pH in the thylakoid lumen, NPQ leads to conversion of excess excitation energy in the antenna system to heat before it can initiate production of harmful chemical species by photosynthetic reaction centers. Here we report a synthetic hexad molecule that functionally mimics the role of the antenna in NPQ. When the hexad is dissolved in an organic solvent, five zinc porphyrin antenna moieties absorb light, exchange excitation energy, and ultimately decay by normal photophysical processes. Their excited-state lifetimes are long enough to permit harvesting of the excitation energy for photoinduced charge separation or other work. However, when acid is added, a pH-sensitive dye moiety is converted to a form that rapidly quenches the first excited singlet states of all five porphyrins, converting the excitation energy to heat and rendering the porphyrins kinetically incompetent to readily perform useful photochemistry.

  20. Energy transfer and clustering of photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes in reconstituted lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewa, Takehisa, E-mail: takedewa@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Sumino, Ayumi; Watanabe, Natsuko; Noji, Tomoyasu [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nango, Mamoru, E-mail: nango@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► Photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes were reconstituted into lipid membranes. ► Energy transfers between light-harvesting complexes were examined. ► Atomic force microscopy indicated cluster formation of light-harvesting complexes. ► Efficient energy transfer was observed for the clustered complexes in the membranes. - Abstract: In purple photosynthetic bacteria, light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) and light harvesting/reaction centre core complex (LH1-RC) play the key roles of capturing and transferring light energy and subsequent charge separation. These photosynthetic apparatuses form a supramolecular assembly; however, how the assembly influences the efficiency of energy conversion is not yet clear. We addressed this issue by evaluating the energy transfer in reconstituted photosynthetic protein complexes LH2 and LH1-RC and studying the structures and the membrane environment of the LH2/LH1-RC assemblies, which had been embedded into various lipid bilayers. Thus, LH2 and LH1-RC from Rhodopseudomonas palustris 2.1.6 were reconstituted in phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PG/cardiolipin (CL). Efficient energy transfer from LH2 to LH1-RC was observed in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. Atomic force microscopy revealed that LH2 and LH1-RC were heterogeneously distributed to form clusters in the PC and PE/PG/CL membranes. The results indicated that the phospholipid species influenced the cluster formation of LH2 and LH1-RC as well as the energy transfer efficiency.

  1. Optimal number of pigments in photosynthetic complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jesenko, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We study excitation energy transfer in a simple model of photosynthetic complex. The model, described by Lindblad equation, consists of pigments interacting via dipole-dipole interaction. Overlapping of pigments induces an on-site energy disorder, providing a mechanism for blocking the excitation transfer. Based on the average efficiency as well as robustness of random configurations of pigments, we calculate the optimal number of pigments that should be enclosed in a pigment-protein complex of a given size. The results suggest that a large fraction of pigment configurations are efficient as well as robust if the number of pigments is properly chosen. We compare optimal results of the model to the structure of pigment-protein complexes as found in nature, finding good agreement.

  2. Energy storage in the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An analogy with Michaelis-Menten kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN MARKOVIC

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of fluorescence and thermal emission have been performed by applying combined fluorescence and photoacoustic techniques on isolated thylakoids pretreated by prolonged illumination with saturating light. The traces were used to create Lineweaver-Burk type plots, proving clearly at least a formal analogy between the kinetics of the mechanisms governing fluorescence and thermal emission from isolated thylakoids and Michaelis-Menten kinetics of enzymatic reactions. Two characteristic parameters were calculated from them (energy storage and half-saturation light intensity in order to obtain a basic, initial response of the photosynthetic apparatus functioning under photoinhibition stress.

  3. Blue-light-regulated transcription factor, Aureochrome, in photosynthetic stramenopiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumio

    2016-03-01

    During the course of evolution through various endosymbiotic processes, diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes acquired blue light (BL) responses that do not use photosynthetic pathways. Photosynthetic stramenopiles, which have red algae-derived chloroplasts through secondary symbiosis, are principal primary producers in aquatic environments, and play important roles in ecosystems and aquaculture. Through secondary symbiosis, these taxa acquired BL responses, such as phototropism, chloroplast photo-relocation movement, and photomorphogenesis similar to those which green plants acquired through primary symbiosis. Photosynthetic stramenopile BL receptors were undefined until the discovery in 2007, of a new type of BL receptor, the aureochrome (AUREO), from the photosynthetic stramenopile alga, Vaucheria. AUREO has a bZIP domain and a LOV domain, and thus BL-responsive transcription factor. AUREO orthologs are only conserved in photosynthetic stramenopiles, such as brown algae, diatoms, and red tide algae. Here, a brief review is presented of the role of AUREOs as photoreceptors for these diverse BL responses and their biochemical properties in photosynthetic stramenopiles. PMID:26781435

  4. Leaf-architectured 3D Hierarchical Artificial Photosynthetic System of Perovskite Titanates Towards CO2 Photoreduction Into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Han Zhou; Jianjun Guo; Peng Li; Tongxiang Fan; Di Zhang; Jinhua Ye

    2013-01-01

    The development of an “artificial photosynthetic system” (APS) having both the analogous important structural elements and reaction features of photosynthesis to achieve solar-driven water splitting and CO2 reduction is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate a design strategy for a promising 3D APS architecture as an efficient mass flow/light harvesting network relying on the morphological replacement of a concept prototype-leaf's 3D architecture into perovskite titanates for CO2 photoreduc...

  5. Diverse arrangement of photosynthetic gene clusters in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC. In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria.

  6. Construction and Structural Analysis of Tethered Lipid Bilayer Containing Photosynthetic Antenna Proteins for Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumino, Ayumi; Dewa, Takehisa; Takeuchi, Toshikazu; Sugiura, Ryuta; Sasaki, Nobuaki; Misawa, Nobuo; Tero, Ryugo; Urisu, Tsuneo; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nango, Mamoru

    2011-07-11

    The construction and structural analysis of a tethered planar lipid bilayer containing bacterial photosynthetic membrane proteins, light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2), and light-harvesting core complex (LH1-RC) is described and establishes this system as an experimental platform for their functional analysis. The planar lipid bilayer containing LH2 and/or LH1-RC complexes was successfully formed on an avidin-immobilized coverglass via an avidin-biotin linkage. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that a smooth continuous membrane was formed there. Lateral diffusion of these membrane proteins, observed by a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAY), is discussed in terms of the membrane architecture. Energy transfer from LH2 to LH1-RC within the tethered membrane architecture. Energy transfer from LH2 to LH1-RC within the tethered membrane was observed by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, indicating that the tethered membrane can mimic the natural situation.

  7. Exploring photosynthesis evolution by comparative analysis of metabolic networks between chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jing

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts descended from cyanobacteria and have a drastically reduced genome following an endosymbiotic event. Many genes of the ancestral cyanobacterial genome have been transferred to the plant nuclear genome by horizontal gene transfer. However, a selective set of metabolism pathways is maintained in chloroplasts using both chloroplast genome encoded and nuclear genome encoded enzymes. As an organelle specialized for carrying out photosynthesis, does the chloroplast metabolic network have properties adapted for higher efficiency of photosynthesis? We compared metabolic network properties of chloroplasts and prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms, mostly cyanobacteria, based on metabolic maps derived from genome data to identify features of chloroplast network properties that are different from cyanobacteria and to analyze possible functional significance of those features. Results The properties of the entire metabolic network and the sub-network that consists of reactions directly connected to the Calvin Cycle have been analyzed using hypergraph representation. Results showed that the whole metabolic networks in chloroplast and cyanobacteria both possess small-world network properties. Although the number of compounds and reactions in chloroplasts is less than that in cyanobacteria, the chloroplast's metabolic network has longer average path length, a larger diameter, and is Calvin Cycle -centered, indicating an overall less-dense network structure with specific and local high density areas in chloroplasts. Moreover, chloroplast metabolic network exhibits a better modular organization than cyanobacterial ones. Enzymes involved in the same metabolic processes tend to cluster into the same module in chloroplasts. Conclusion In summary, the differences in metabolic network properties may reflect the evolutionary changes during endosymbiosis that led to the improvement of the photosynthesis efficiency in higher plants. Our

  8. Full quantum dynamics of the electronic coupling between photosynthetic pigments

    CERN Document Server

    Oviedo, María Belén

    2015-01-01

    From studying the time evolution of the single electron density matrix within a density functional tight-binding formalism we study in a fully atomistic picture the electronic excitation transfer between two photosynthetic pigments in real time. This time-dependent quantum dynamics is based on fully atomistic structural models of the photosynthetic pigment. We analyze the dependence of the electronic excitation transfer with distance and orientation between photosynthetic pigments. We compare the results obtained from full quantum dynamics with analytical ones, based on a two level system model were the interaction between the pigments is dipolar. We observed that even when the distance of the photosynthetic pigment is about $30$ \\AA\\ the deviation of the dipolarity is of about $15$ percent.

  9. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient light to biomass conversion in photobioreactors is crucial for economically feasible microalgae production processes. It has been suggested that photosynthesis is enhanced in short light path photobioreactors by mixing-induced flashing light regimes. In this study, photosynthetic efficienc

  10. Photoelectrochemical cells based on photosynthetic systems: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin, Roman A.; Kreslavski, Vladimir D.; Zharmukhamedov, Sergey K.; Vladimir S. Bedbenov; Seeram Ramakrishna; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a process which converts light energy into energy contained in the chemical bonds of organic compounds by photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl a, b, c, d, f) or bacteriochlorophyll. It occurs in phototrophic organisms, which include higher plants and many types of photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria. In the case of the oxygenic photosynthesis, water is a donor of both electrons and protons, and solar radiation serves as inexhaustible source of energy...

  11. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, van, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these proteins contain fluorescent pigments. Each pigment’s fluorescence is influenced by its environment, and thereby may provide information on structure and dynamics of pigment protein complexes in vitro a...

  12. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  13. Oxygen uncouples light absorption by the chlorosome antenna and photosynthetic electron transfer in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, N-U; Matsuura, K

    1999-01-01

    In photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria excitation energy is transferred from large bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c chlorosome antennas via small BChl a antennas to the reaction centers which then transfer electrons from cytochrome c to low-potential iron-sulfur proteins. Under oxidizing conditions a...... center as a consequence of the quenching mechanism which is activated by O2. This reversible uncoupling of the chlorosome antenna might prevent formation of toxic reactive oxygen species from photosynthetically produced reductants under aerobic conditions. The green filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus...

  14. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  15. Photosynthetically active sunlight at high southern latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John E; Liao, Yixiang

    2005-01-01

    A network of scanning spectroradiometers has acquired a multiyear database of visible solar irradiance, covering wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm, at four sites in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere, from 55 degrees S to 90 degrees S. Monthly irradiations computed from the hourly measurements reveal the character of the seasonal cycle and illustrate the role of cloudiness as functions of latitude. Near summer solstice, the combined influences of solar elevation and the duration of daylight would produce a monthly irradiation with little latitude dependence under clear skies. However, the attenuation associated with local cloudiness varies geographically, with the greatest effect at the most northern locations, Ushuaia, Argentina and Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula. Near summer solstice, the South Pole experiences the largest monthly irradiation of the sites studied, where relatively clear skies contribute to this result. Scaling factors derived from radiative-transfer calculations combined with the measured 400-600 nm irradiances allow estimating irradiances integrated over the wavelength band 400-700 nm. This produces a climatology of photosynthetically active radiation for each month of the year at each site. PMID:15689179

  16. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-01-16

    This is the first quarterly report of the project Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation. The official project start date, 10/02/2000, was delayed until 10/31/2000 due to an intellectual property dispute that was resolved. However, the delay forced a subsequent delay in subcontracting with Montana State University, which then delayed obtaining a sampling permit from Yellowstone National Park. However, even with these delays, the project moved forward with some success. Accomplishments for this quarter include: Culturing of thermophilic organisms from Yellowstone; Testing of mesophilic organisms in extreme CO{sub 2} conditions; Construction of a second test bed for additional testing; Purchase of a total carbon analyzer dedicated to the project; Construction of a lighting container for Oak Ridge National Laboratory optical fiber testing; Modified lighting of existing test box to provide more uniform distribution; Testing of growth surface adhesion and properties; Experimentation on water-jet harvesting techniques; and Literature review underway regarding uses of biomass after harvesting. Plans for next quarter's work and an update on the project's web page are included in the conclusions.

  17. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-07-25

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 4/03/2001 through 7/02/2001. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. Note that this version of the quarterly technical report is a revision to add the reports from subcontractors Montana State and Oak Ridge National Laboratories The significant accomplishments for this quarter include: Development of an experimental plan and initiation of experiments to create a calibration curve that correlates algal chlorophyll levels with carbon levels (to simplify future experimental procedures); Completion of debugging of the slug flow reactor system, and development of a plan for testing the pressure drop of the slug flow reactor; Design and development of a new bioreactor screen design which integrates the nutrient delivery drip system and the harvesting system; Development of an experimental setup for testing the new integrated drip system/harvesting system; Completion of model-scale bioreactor tests examining the effects of CO{sub 2} concentration levels and lighting levels on Nostoc 86-3 growth rates; Completion of the construction of a larger model-scale bioreactor to improve and expand testing capabilities and initiation of tests; Substantial progress on construction of a pilot-scale bioreactor; and Preliminary economic analysis of photobioreactor deployment. Plans for next quarter's work are included in the conclusions. A preliminary economic analysis is included as an appendix.

  18. Electrochemical and optical studies of model photosynthetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-15

    The objective of this research is to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between the structural organization of photosynthetic pigments and their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties. Defined model systems were studied first. These included the least ordered (solutions) through the most highly ordered (Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers and self-assembled monolayers) systems containing BChl, BPheo, and UQ. Molecules other than the photosynthetic pigments and quinones were also examined, including chromophores (i.e. surface active cyanine dyes and phtahlocyanines) an redox active compounds (methyl viologen (MV) and surfactant ferrocenes), in order to develop the techniques needed to study the photosynthetic components. Because the chlorophylls are photosensitive and labile, it was easier first to develop procedures using stable species. Three different techniques were used to characterize these model systems. These included electrochemical techniques for determining the standard oxidation and reduction potentials of the photosynthetic components as well as methods for determining the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants for BChl and BPheo at metal electrodes (Pt and Au). Resonance Raman (RR) and surface enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy were used to determine the spectra of the photosynthetic pigments and model compounds. SERRS was also used to study several types of photosynthetic preparations.

  19. Hydraulic basis for the evolution of photosynthetic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffoni, Christine; Chatelet, David S; Pasquet-Kok, Jessica; Rawls, Michael; Donoghue, Michael J; Edwards, Erika J; Sack, Lawren

    2016-01-01

    Clarifying the evolution and mechanisms for photosynthetic productivity is a key to both improving crops and understanding plant evolution and habitat distributions. Current theory recognizes a role for the hydraulics of water transport as a potential determinant of photosynthetic productivity based on comparative data across disparate species. However, there has never been rigorous support for the maintenance of this relationship during an evolutionary radiation. We tested this theory for 30 species of Viburnum, diverse in leaf shape and photosynthetic anatomy, grown in a common garden. We found strong support for a fundamental requirement for leaf hydraulic capacity (Kleaf) in determining photosynthetic capacity (Amax), as these traits diversified across this lineage in tight coordination, with their proportionality modulated by the climate experienced in the species' range. Variation in Kleaf arose from differences in venation architecture that influenced xylem and especially outside-xylem flow pathways. These findings substantiate an evolutionary basis for the coordination of hydraulic and photosynthetic physiology across species, and their co-dependence on climate, establishing a fundamental role for water transport in the evolution of the photosynthetic rate. PMID:27255836

  20. Mass spectral analysis of picomolar amounts of compounds isolated from photosynthetic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) is performed with solid samples bombarded by MeV fission fragments. The emission of ions from the sample forms a mass spectrum characterized by parent and fragment ions of even thermally labile molecules. The analysis mode of 252Cf-PDMS is time-of-flight. Compared to quadrapole and sector-field instruments, time-of-flight has much higher sensitivity, an unlimited mass range, high transmission, and simultaneous detection of all ion masses. Because of the high sensitivity and other favorable characteristics of 252Cf-PDMS, nanomolar and picomolar amounts of biomolecules can be easily analyzed. In the course of studying and modelling the photosynthetic photoreaction center of green plants and bacteria, it has become apparent that the composition and identity and organization of the photoreaction center is important to understanding the photosynthetic apparatus. Moreover, for any model system to be valid it is important to know the identity and amount of components present in the model system. The possibility of more than one type of a similar component in the reaction center raises questions about the function for that component in the reaction center

  1. Developing Research Capabilities in Energy Biosciences: Design principles of photosynthetic biofuel production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D. Brown; David Savage

    2012-06-30

    The current fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure is not sustainable. Solar radiation is a plausible alternative, but realizing it as such will require significant technological advances in the ability to harvest light energy and convert it into suitable fuels. The biological system of photosynthesis can carry out these reactions, and in principle could be engineered using the tools of synthetic biology. One desirable implementation would be to rewire the reactions of a photosynthetic bacterium to direct the energy harvested from solar radiation into the synthesis of the biofuel H2. Proposed here is a series of experiments to lay the basic science groundwork for such an attempt. The goal is to elucidate the transcriptional network of photosynthesis using a novel driver-reporter screen, evolve more robust hydrogenases for improved catalysis, and to test the ability of the photosynthetic machinery to directly produce H2 in vivo. The results of these experiments will have broad implications for the understanding of photosynthesis, enzyme function, and the engineering of biological systems for sustainable energy production. The ultimate impact could be a fundamental transformation of the world's energy economy.

  2. Photochemical reactions of various model protocell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsome, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Models for the emergence of cellular life on the primitive Earth, and for physical environments of that era have been studied that embody these assumptions: (1) pregenetic cellular forms were phase-bounded systems primarily photosynthetic in nature, and (2) the early Earth environment was anoxic (lacking appreciable amounts of free hydrogen). It was found that organic structures can also be formed under anoxic conditions (N2, CO3=, H2O) by protracted longwavelength UV radiation. Apparently these structures form initially as organic layers upon CaCO3 crystalloids. The question remains as to whether the UV photosynthetic ability of such phase bounded structures is a curiosity, or a general property of phase bounded systems which is of direct interest to the emergence of cellular life. The question of the requirement and sailient features of a phase boundary for UV photosynthetic abilities was addressed by searching for similar general physical properties which might be manifest in a variety of other simple protocell-like structures. Since it has been shown that laboratory protocell models can effect the UV photosynthesis of low molecular weight compounds, this reaction is being used as an assay to survey other types of structures for similar UV photosynthetic reactions. Various kinds of structures surveyed are: (1) proteinoids; (2) liposomes; (3) reconstituted cell membrane spheroids; (4) coacervates; and (5) model protocells formed under anoxic conditions.

  3. Elementary Energy Transfer Pathways in Allochromatium vinosum Photosynthetic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüer, Larry; Carey, Anne-Marie; Henry, Sarah; Maiuri, Margherita; Hacking, Kirsty; Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio; Cogdell, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Allochromatium vinosum (formerly Chromatium vinosum) purple bacteria are known to adapt their light-harvesting strategy during growth according to environmental factors such as temperature and average light intensity. Under low light illumination or low ambient temperature conditions, most of the LH2 complexes in the photosynthetic membranes form a B820 exciton with reduced spectral overlap with LH1. To elucidate the reason for this light and temperature adaptation of the LH2 electronic structure, we performed broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength in A. vinosum membranes. A target analysis of the acquired data yielded individual rate constants for all relevant elementary energy transfer (ET) processes. We found that the ET dynamics in high-light-grown membranes was well described by a homogeneous model, with forward and backward rate constants independent of the pump wavelength. Thus, the overall B800→B850→B890→ Reaction Center ET cascade is well described by simple triexponential kinetics. In the low-light-grown membranes, we found that the elementary backward transfer rate constant from B890 to B820 was strongly reduced compared with the corresponding constant from B890 to B850 in high-light-grown samples. The ET dynamics of low-light-grown membranes was strongly dependent on the pump wavelength, clearly showing that the excitation memory is not lost throughout the exciton lifetime. The observed pump energy dependence of the forward and backward ET rate constants suggests exciton diffusion via B850→ B850 transfer steps, making the overall ET dynamics nonexponential. Our results show that disorder plays a crucial role in our understanding of low-light adaptation in A. vinosum. PMID:26536265

  4. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of nail infection is often caused by a bacterial infection but may also be caused by herpes, a ... to a type of yeast called Candida , or bacterial infection, and this may lead to abnormal nail growth. ...

  5. Photosynthetic and Molecular Markers of CO2-mediated Photosynthetic Downregulation in Nodulated Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)lvaro Sanz-Sáez; Gorka Erice; Iker Aranjuelo; Ricardo Aroca; Juan Manuel Ruíz-Lozano; Jone Aguirreolea; Juan José Irigoyen

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO2 leads to a decrease in potential net photosynthesis in long-term experiments and thus to a reduction in potential growth.This process is known as photosynthetic downregulation.There is no agreement on the definition of which parameters are the most sensitive for detecting CO2 acclimation.In order to investigate the most sensitive photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO2 acclimation,the effects of elevated CO2,and associated elevated temperature were analyzed in alfalfa plants inoculated with different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains.Plants (Medicago sativa L.cv.Aragón) were grown in summer or autumn in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG).At the end of the experiment,all plants showed acclimation in both seasons,especially under elevated summer temperatures.This was probably due to the lower nitrogen (N) availability caused by decreased N2-fixation under higher temperatures.Photosynthesis measured at growth CO2 concentration,rubisco in vitro activity and maximum rate of carboxylation were the most sensitive parameters for detecting downregulation.Severe acclimation was also related with decreases in leaf nitrogen content associated with declines in rubisco content (large and small subunits) and activity that resulted in a drop in photosynthesis.Despite the sensitivity of rubisco content as a marker of acclimation,it was not coordinated with gene expression,possibly due to a lag between gene transcription and protein translation.

  6. Occurrence and sequence of Sphaeroides Heme Protein and Diheme Cytochrome C in purple photosynthetic bacteria in the family Rhodobacteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyndt John A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphaeroides Heme Protein (SHP was discovered in the purple photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and is the only known c-type heme protein that binds oxygen. Although initially not believed to be widespread among the photosynthetic bacteria, the gene has now been found in more than 40 species of proteobacteria and generally appears to be regulated. Rb. sphaeroides is exceptional in not having regulatory genes associated with the operon. We have thus analyzed additional purple bacteria for the SHP gene and examined the genetic context to obtain new insights into the operon, its distribution, and possible function. Results We found SHP in 9 out of 10 strains of Rb. sphaeroides and in 5 out of 10 purple photosynthetic bacterial species in the family Rhodobacteraceae. We found a remarkable similarity within the family including the lack of regulatory genes. Within the proteobacteria as a whole, SHP is part of a 3-6 gene operon that includes a membrane-spanning diheme cytochrome b and one or two diheme cytochromes c. Other genes in the operon include one of three distinct sensor kinase - response regulators, depending on species, that are likely to regulate SHP. Conclusions SHP is not as rare as generally believed and has a role to play in the photosynthetic bacteria. Furthermore, the two companion cytochromes along with SHP are likely to function as an electron transfer pathway that results in the reduction of SHP by quinol and formation of the oxygen complex, which may function as an oxygenase. The three distinct sensors suggest at least as many separate functional roles for SHP. Two of the sensors are not well characterized, but the third is homologous to the QseC quorum sensor, which is present in a number of pathogens and typically appears to regulate genes involved in virulence.

  7. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will...

  8. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-10-15

    This report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/2/2001 through 10/01/2002. This report marks the end of year 2 of a three-year project as well as the milestone date for completion of Phase I activities. This report includes our current status and defines the steps being taken to ensure that we meet the project goals by the end of year 3. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below our current efforts are focused on evaluating candidate organisms and growth surfaces, preparing to conduct long-term tests in the bench-scale bioreactor test systems, and scaling-up the test facilities from bench scale to pilot scale. Specific results and accomplishments for the third quarter of 2002 include: Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (1) Test results continue to indicate that thermophilic cyanobacteria have significant advantages as agents for practical photosynthetic CO{sub 2} mitigation before mesophilic forms. (2) Additional thermal features with developed cyanobacterial mats, which might be calcium resistant, were found in YNP. (3) Back to back tests show that there is no detectable difference in the growth of isolate 1.2 s.c. (2) in standard and Ca-modified BG-11 medium. The doubling time for both cases was about 12 hours. (4) The cultivation of cyanobacteria in Ca-BG medium should proceed in the pH range between 7 and 7.4, but this suggestion requires additional experiments. (5) Cyanobacteria can be grown in media where sodium is present at trace levels. (6) Ca{sup 2+} enriched medium can be used as a sink for CO{sub 2} under alkaline conditions. (7) Cyanobacteria are able to generate cones of filaments on travertine surfaces. [Travertine is a mixture of CaCO{sub 3} and CaSO{sub 4}]. We hypothesize that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} stimulates the generation of such cones, because they are not almost generated on CaCO3 surface. On the other hand, we know that plant gas contains elevated

  9. Quantitative comparison of bacterial communities in two Mediterranean sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Noyer, Charlotte; Hamilton, A.; Sacristan-Soriano, Oriol; Becerro, Mikel

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges can host in their tissues abundant and diverse bacterial communities. Lack of truly quantitative data on bacterial abundance and dynamics limits our understanding of the organization and functioning of these endobiotic communities. In this technical note, we describe a quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach to quantify the relative abundance of multiple clades of three major sponge-associated bacterial phyla: Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. To test our ...

  10. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-04-16

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 1/03/2001 through 4/02/2001. Many of the activities and accomplishments are continuations of work initiated and reported in last quarter's status report. Major activities and accomplishments for this quarter include: Three sites in Yellowstone National Park have been identified that may contain suitable organisms for use in a bioreactor; Full-scale culturing of one thermophilic organism from Yellowstone has progressed to the point that there is a sufficient quantity to test this organism in the model-scale bioreactor; The effects of the additive monoethanolamine on the growth of one thermophilic organism from Yellowstone has been tested; Testing of growth surface adhesion and properties is continuing; Construction of a larger model-scale bioreactor to improve and expand testing capabilities is completed and the facility is undergoing proof tests; Model-scale bioreactor tests examining the effects of CO{sub 2} concentration levels and lighting levels on organism growth rates are continuing; Alternative fiber optic based deep-penetration light delivery systems for use in the pilot-scale bioreactor have been designed, constructed and tested; An existing slug flow reactor system has been modified for use in this project, and a proof-of-concept test plan has been developed for the slug flow reactor; Research and testing of water-jet harvesting techniques is continuing, and a harvesting system has been designed for use in the model-scale bioreactor; and The investigation of comparative digital image analysis as a means for determining the ''density'' of algae on a growth surface is continuing Plans for next quarter's work and an update on the project's web page are included in the conclusions.

  11. Photosynthetic pigments and model compounds studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and alltrans-β-carotene as well as the quinone model compound duroquinone have been studied in solution by pulse radiolysis combined with time-resolved absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy. In benzene solution the excited triplet states of the subtrates were produced either directly in the case of duroquinone or by triplet energy transfer from triplet naphthalene in the case of chlorophyll a and β-carotene. All relevant rate constants involved in the reactions of the excited states in benzene were determined, including i) the rate constants for energy transfer from triplet naphthalene to chlorophyll a with k = (3.6+-0.6).109 M-1s-1 and β-carotene with k = (10.7+-1.2).109 M-1s-1 ii) the rate constants of triplet annihilation of chlorophyll a: (1.4+-0.3).109 M-1s-1, β-carotene: (3.6+-0.4).109 M-1s-1, duroquinone: (3.0+-0.6).109 M-1s-1. For β-carotene it is suggested that triplet-triplet annihilation produces the optically forbidden excited 1Asub(g) state. The first-order components of the triplet decays were strongly dependent upon irradiation dose in the case of naphthalene and duroquinone but apparently only slightly dependent on or independent or irradiation dose in the case of chlorophyll a and β-carotene. Apparent bimolecular rate constants for triplet quenching by radiolytically produced free radicals are determined. The triplet state of duroquinone is quenched by ground state duroquinone with a rate constant of (1.2+-0.3).106 M-1s-1. The excited triplet state of all-trans-β-carotene has been investigated by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy. Six transient Raman bands at 965 cm-1, 1009 cm-1, 1125 cm-1, 1188 cm-1, 1236 cm-1 and 1496 cm-1 were observed. The spectra suggest that the C = C band order is decreased and that the molecule may be substantially twisted, presumably at the 15,151 band, in the triplet state. The radical anion of chlorophyll a with lambdasub(max) = 455 nm has been produced in

  12. Principles of light harvesting from single photosynthetic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlau-Cohen, G S

    2015-06-01

    Photosynthetic systems harness sunlight to power most life on Earth. In the initial steps of photosynthetic light harvesting, absorbed energy is converted to chemical energy with near-unity quantum efficiency. This is achieved by an efficient, directional and regulated flow of energy through a network of proteins. Here, we discuss the following three key principles of this flow and of photosynthetic light harvesting: thermal fluctuations of the protein structure; intrinsic conformational switches with defined functional consequences; and environmentally triggered conformational switches. Through these principles, photosynthetic systems balance two types of operational costs: metabolic costs, or the cost of maintaining and running the molecular machinery, and opportunity costs, or the cost of losing any operational time. Understanding how the molecular machinery and dynamics are designed to balance these costs may provide a blueprint for improved artificial light-harvesting devices. With a multi-disciplinary approach combining knowledge of biology, this blueprint could lead to low-cost and more effective solar energy conversion. Photosynthetic systems achieve widespread light harvesting across the Earth's surface; in the face of our growing energy needs, this is functionality we need to replicate, and perhaps emulate. PMID:26052423

  13. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS

    2015-01-28

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  14. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • There are very few toxicological applications of thermoluminescence. • It is a luminescence emission induced by heating the sample in the dark. • It is useful for study the photosystem II function and the level of lipid peroxidation. - Abstract: Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of

  15. Structural and Functional Hierarchy in Photosynthetic Energy Conversion—from Molecules to Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Tibor; Magyar, Melinda; Hajdu, Kata; Dorogi, Márta; Nyerki, Emil; Tóth, Tünde; Lingvay, Mónika; Garab, Győző; Hernádi, Klára; Nagy, László

    2015-12-01

    Basic principles of structural and functional requirements of photosynthetic energy conversion in hierarchically organized machineries are reviewed. Blueprints of photosynthesis, the energetic basis of virtually all life on Earth, can serve the basis for constructing artificial light energy-converting molecular devices. In photosynthetic organisms, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy takes places in highly organized fine-tunable systems with structural and functional hierarchy. The incident photons are absorbed by light-harvesting complexes, which funnel the excitation energy into reaction centre (RC) protein complexes containing redox-active chlorophyll molecules; the primary charge separations in the RCs are followed by vectorial transport of charges (electrons and protons) in the photosynthetic membrane. RCs possess properties that make their use in solar energy-converting and integrated optoelectronic systems feasible. Therefore, there is a large interest in many laboratories and in the industry toward their use in molecular devices. RCs have been bound to different carrier matrices, with their photophysical and photochemical activities largely retained in the nano-systems and with electronic connection to conducting surfaces. We show examples of RCs bound to carbon-based materials (functionalized and non-functionalized single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes), transitional metal oxides (ITO) and conducting polymers and porous silicon and characterize their photochemical activities. Recently, we adapted several physical and chemical methods for binding RCs to different nanomaterials. It is generally found that the P+(QAQB)- charge pair, which is formed after single saturating light excitation is stabilized after the attachment of the RCs to the nanostructures, which is followed by slow reorganization of the protein structure. Measuring the electric conductivity in a direct contact mode or in electrochemical cell indicates that there is an

  16. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Guillermo, E-mail: grepkuh@upo.es [Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Área de Toxicología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Zurita, Jorge L. [Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Área de Toxicología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Roncel, Mercedes; Ortega, José M. [Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • There are very few toxicological applications of thermoluminescence. • It is a luminescence emission induced by heating the sample in the dark. • It is useful for study the photosystem II function and the level of lipid peroxidation. - Abstract: Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of

  17. Structural and Functional Hierarchy in Photosynthetic Energy Conversion-from Molecules to Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Tibor; Magyar, Melinda; Hajdu, Kata; Dorogi, Márta; Nyerki, Emil; Tóth, Tünde; Lingvay, Mónika; Garab, Győző; Hernádi, Klára; Nagy, László

    2015-12-01

    Basic principles of structural and functional requirements of photosynthetic energy conversion in hierarchically organized machineries are reviewed. Blueprints of photosynthesis, the energetic basis of virtually all life on Earth, can serve the basis for constructing artificial light energy-converting molecular devices. In photosynthetic organisms, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy takes places in highly organized fine-tunable systems with structural and functional hierarchy. The incident photons are absorbed by light-harvesting complexes, which funnel the excitation energy into reaction centre (RC) protein complexes containing redox-active chlorophyll molecules; the primary charge separations in the RCs are followed by vectorial transport of charges (electrons and protons) in the photosynthetic membrane. RCs possess properties that make their use in solar energy-converting and integrated optoelectronic systems feasible. Therefore, there is a large interest in many laboratories and in the industry toward their use in molecular devices. RCs have been bound to different carrier matrices, with their photophysical and photochemical activities largely retained in the nano-systems and with electronic connection to conducting surfaces. We show examples of RCs bound to carbon-based materials (functionalized and non-functionalized single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes), transitional metal oxides (ITO) and conducting polymers and porous silicon and characterize their photochemical activities. Recently, we adapted several physical and chemical methods for binding RCs to different nanomaterials. It is generally found that the P(+)(QAQB)(-) charge pair, which is formed after single saturating light excitation is stabilized after the attachment of the RCs to the nanostructures, which is followed by slow reorganization of the protein structure. Measuring the electric conductivity in a direct contact mode or in electrochemical cell indicates that there is an

  18. Self-assembly and structural-functional flexibility of oxygenic photosynthetic machineries: personal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garab, Győző

    2016-01-01

    This short review, with a bit of historical aspect and a strong personal bias and emphases on open questions, is focusing on the (macro-)organization and structural-functional flexibilities of the photosynthetic apparatus of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms at different levels of the structural complexity-selected problems that have attracted most my attention in the past years and decades. These include (i) the anisotropic organization of the pigment-protein complexes and photosynthetic membranes-a basic organizing principle of living matter, which can, and probably should be adopted to intelligent materials; (ii) the organization of protein complexes into chiral macrodomains, large self-assembling highly organized but structurally flexible entities with unique spectroscopic fingerprints-structures, where, important, high-level regulatory functions appear to 'reside'; (iii) a novel, dissipation-assisted mechanism of structural changes, based on a thermo-optic effect: ultrafast thermal transients in the close vicinity of dissipation of unused excitation energy, which is capable of inducing elementary structural changes; it makes plants capable of responding to excess excitation with reaction rates proportional to the overexcitation above the light-saturation of photosynthesis; (iv) the 3D ultrastructure of the granum-stroma thylakoid membrane assembly and other multilamellar membrane systems, and their remodelings-associated with regulatory mechanisms; (v) the molecular organization and structural-functional plasticity of the main light-harvesting complex of plants, in relation to their crystal structure and different in vivo and in vitro states; and (vi) the enigmatic role of non-bilayer lipids and lipid phases in the bilayer thylakoid membrane-warranting its high protein content and contributing to its structural flexibility. PMID:26494196

  19. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids. PMID:14740205

  20. Carotenoid Photoprotection in Artificial Photosynthetic Antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloz, Miroslav [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pillai, Smitha [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Kodis, Gerdenis [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gust, Devens [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Moore, Thomas A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Moore, Ana L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); van Grondelle, Rienk [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kennis, John T. M. [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-14

    . These synthetic systems are providing a deeper understanding of structural and environmental effects on the interactions between carotenoids and tetrapyrroles and thereby better defining their role in controlling natural photosynthetic systems.

  1. Superradiance Transition and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Photosynthetic Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nesterov, Alexander [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Lopez, Gustavo [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Sayre, Richard Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-23

    Photosynthetic organisms have evolved protective strategies to allow them to survive in cases of intense sunlight fluctuation with the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process allows light harvesting complexes to transfer the excess sunlight energy to non-damaging quenching channels. This report compares the NPQ process with the superradiance transition (ST). We demonstrated that the maximum of the NPQ efficiency is caused by the ST to the sink associated with the CTS. However, experimental verifications are required in order to determine whether or not the NPQ regime is associated with the ST transition for real photosynthetic complexes. Indeed, it can happen that, in the photosynthetic apparatus, the NPQ regime occurs in the “non-optimal” region of parameters, and it could be independent of the ST.

  2. Effect of space mutation of photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photo synthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP1 to SP4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soy bean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP2 >SP3 >SP4 >CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  3. Tracking photosynthetic efficiency with narrow-band spectroradiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A.; Field, Christopher B.

    1992-01-01

    Narrow-waveband spectroradiometry presents the possibility of detecting subtle signals closely related to the current physiological state of vegetation. One such signal related to the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin is discussed. Recent advances in plant ecophysiology demonstrated a close relationship between these pigments and the regulatory state of photosystem 2 in photosynthesis. Our recent field studies of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and oak (Quercus agrifolia) demonstrated that a 'xanthophyll signal' can be isolated from the diurnal reflectance spectra of intact canopies. Furthermore, the xanthophyll signal can be used to derive a 'physiological reflectance index' (PRI) that closely correlates with the actual photosynthetic efficiency (defined as the photosynthetic rate divided by the incident PAR) in closed canopies. If these signals were detectable in Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images, they could lead to improved remote estimates of photosynthetic fluxes.

  4. Structural Changes in the Mn4Ca Cluster and the Mechanism of Photosynthetic Water Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushkar, Y.; Yano, J.; Sauer, K.; Boussac, A.; Yachandra, V.K.

    2007-10-25

    Photosynthetic water oxidation, where water is oxidized to dioxygen, is a fundamental chemical reaction that sustains the biosphere. This reaction is catalyzed by a Mn4Ca complex in the photosystem II (PS II) oxygen-evolving complex (OEC): a multiproteinassembly embedded in the thylakoid membranes of green plants, cyanobacteria, and algae. The mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation by the Mn4Ca cluster in photosystem II is the subject of much debate, although lacking structural characterization of the catalytic intermediates. Biosynthetically exchanged Ca/Sr-PS II preparations and x-ray spectroscopy, including extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), allowed us to monitor Mn-Mn and Ca(Sr)-Mn distances in the four intermediate S states, S0 through S3, of the catalytic cycle that couples the one-electron photochemistry occurring at the PS II reaction center with the four-electron water-oxidation chemistry taking place at the Mn4Ca(Sr) cluster. We have detected significant changes in the structure of the complex, especially in the Mn-Mn and Ca(Sr)-Mn distances, on the S2-to-S3 and S3-to-S0 transitions. These results implicate the involvement of at least one common bridging oxygen atom between the Mn-Mn and Mn-Ca(Sr) atoms in the O-O bond formation. Because PS II cannot advance beyond the S2 state in preparations that lack Ca(Sr), these results show that Ca(Sr) is one of the critical components in the mechanism of the enzyme. The results also show that Ca is not just a spectator atom involved in providing a structural framework, but is actively involved in the mechanism of water oxidation and represents a rare example of a catalytically active Ca cofactor.

  5. Changes in LIF [Laser Induced Fluerescence] spectra and photosynthetic rate of rice [Oryza sativa] leaves under background light of different intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorophyll fluorescence is known to be a sensitive probe of photosynthesis. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is useful for remotely sensing physiological information of plants by optical measurement. However, it is difficult to assess the LIF independently because of changes in background light. Background light, like sunlight, not only stimulates photosynthetic reaction but also induces fluorescence. To demonstrate the possibility of detecting changes in photosynthetic reaction according to background light from the LIF spectra, the correlation between LIF spectra and intensity of incident light on leaves was investigated. The LIF spectra from rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves, which were illuminated with a metal halide lamp as background light, were measured. A gated CCD camera with monochrometer was synchronized to a pulsed UV-laser (Nd: YAG, 355 nm) to detect the LIF spectrum under background light of different intensities. The LIF magnitude increased linearly with the laser intensity at each intensity of background light. The slope of fluorescence against laser intensity was considered to be a measure of fluorescent efficiency. The fluorescent efficiency increased with intensity of illumination. This increase of fluorescent efficiency was mainly caused by the increase of blue-green fluorescence (BGF) but chlorophyll fluorescence was constant. These changes of LIF spectra can be explained by the interaction of the fluorescent efficiency of chlorophyll and re-absorption of BGF; these phenomena reflect the redox state of the first electron acceptor (QA) in the photosynthetic reaction. The ratio of regression coefficients of BGF to chlorophyll fluorescence against the laser intensity changed in accordance with the change of photosynthetic rate of rice leaves. Photosynthetic information of leaves was detectable by analyzing the correlation between induction intensity and LIF spectra under changing background light

  6. Species selection for the design of gold nanobioreactor by photosynthetic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of cell-based bioreactors for inorganic particles formation requires both a better understanding of the underlying processes and the identification of most suitable organisms. With this purpose, the process of Au3+ incorporation, intracellular reduction, and Au0 nanoparticle release in the culture medium was compared for four photosynthetic microorganisms, Klebsormidium flaccidum and Cosmarium impressulum green algae, Euglena gracilis euglenoid and Anabaena flos-aquae cyanobacteria. At low gold content, the two green algae show maintained photosynthetic activity and recovered particles (ca. 10 nm in size) are similar to internal colloids, indicating a full biological control over the whole process. In similar conditions, the euglenoid exhibits a rapid loss of biological activity, due to the absence of protective extracellular polysaccharide, but could grow again after an adaptation period. This results in a larger particle size dispersity but larger reduction yield. The cyanobacteria undergo rapid cell death, due to their prokaryotic nature, leading to high gold incorporation rate but poor control over released particle size. Similar observations can be made after addition of a larger gold salt concentration when all organisms rapidly die, suggesting that part of the process is not under biological control anymore but also involves extracellular chemical reactions. Overall, fruitful information on the whole biocrystallogenesis process is gained and most suitable species for further bioreactor design can be identified, i.e., green algae with external coating.

  7. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

  8. Bacterial PCR in the diagnosis of joint infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jalava, J; Skurnik, M. (M.); Toivanen, A; P. Toivanen; Eerola, E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the value of broad range bacterial PCR in the diagnosis of joint infection and to find out if there are bacteria causing arthritis which are not cultivable by the present methods.
METHODS—Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with broad range bacterial primers and DNA sequencing (bacterial PCR) was used to analyse 154 synovial fluid (SF) samples from patients with different arthritic diseases.
RESULTS—Bacterial DNA was detected in 18 SF samples, including samples from six pat...

  9. Associação entre reação hansênica após alta e a carga bacilar avaliada utilizando sorologia anti PGL-I e baciloscopia Association between leprosy reactions after treatment and bacterial load evaluated using anti PGL-I serology and bacilloscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de Medeiros Brito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As reações hansênicas são fenômenos imuno inflamatórios que ocorrem durante a evolução da hanseníase. Atualmente com os critérios de finalização de tratamento esta intercorrência pode ser observada após a alta da poliquimioterapia. Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle onde foram comparados, laboratorialmente, os casos de reação hansênica após alta da poliquimioterapia multibacilar (PQT/MB com o grupo controle para analisar a possível associação entre a reação hansênica após alta e a carga bacilar, utilizando o ML Flow, teste sorológico para detecção de anticorpos contra o Mycobacterium leprae, e os resultados das baciloscopias cutâneas. O estudo foi realizado em dois serviços de referência na cidade de Recife - Pernambuco - Brasil, onde participaram 208 pacientes. Os resultados encontrados indicam que a reação após alta está estatisticamente associada à carga bacilar através da positividade do teste sorológico após alta. Conclui-se que existem fatores de riscos comuns entre a recidiva e a reação após alta.Leprosy (Hansen's disease, HD reactions are immune-inflammatory phenomena that occur during the evolution of the disease. Given the current criteria for treatment of the disease, this event is often observed after the patient has been released from treatment (RFT from multi-drug therapy (MDT. A case-control study was conducted comparing laboratory results of cases of leprosy reactions after RFT from multibacillary MDT (MDT/MB with a control group to analyze the possible association between posttreatment reactions and bacterial load using the ML Flow serological test for detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium leprae and the results of bacilloscopic skin smears. The study was conducted in two reference centers in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, involving 208 patients. The results obtained indicate that posttreatment reaction is statistically associated with bacterial load through positive serology post

  10. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    -vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial......Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...

  11. Photosynthetic bacteria as alternative energy sources: overview on hydrogen production research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, A.; Ohta, Y.; Frank, J.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production research towards the application of marine and non-marine species of photosynthetic bacteria is reviewed. Potential use of photosynthetic bacteria as renewable energy resources is discussed.

  12. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-01-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/3/2001 through 1/02/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. Our research team has made significant progress towards completion of our Phase I objectives, and our current efforts remain focused on fulfilling these research objectives in accordance with the project timeline. Overall, we believe that we are on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, which is the milestone date from the original project timeline. Specific results and accomplishments for the fourth quarter of 2001 include: (1) New procedures and protocols have been developed to increase the chances of successful implementation in the bioreactor of organisms that perform well in the lab. The new procedures include pre-screening of organisms for adhesion characteristics and a focus on identifying the organisms with maximum growth rate potential. (2) Preliminary results show an increase in adhesion to glass and a decrease in overall growth rates when using growth media prepared with tap water rather than distilled water. (3) Several of the organisms collected from Yellowstone National Park using the new procedures are currently being cultured in preparation for bioreactor tests. (4) One important result from a test of growth surface temperature distribution as a function of gas stream and drip-fluid temperatures showed a high dependence of membrane temperature on fluid temperature, with gas stream temperature having minimal effect. This result indicates that bioreactor growth surface temperatures can be controlled using fluid delivery temperature. The possible implications for implementation of the bioreactor concept are encouraging, since it may be possible to use the bioreactor with very high gas stream temperatures by controlling the temperature

  13. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-07-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 4/2/2001 through 7/01/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives, and we are currently on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, the milestone date from the original project timeline. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, our efforts are focused on improving the design of the bioreactor test system, evaluating candidate organisms and growth surfaces, and scaling-up the test facilities from bench scale to pilot scale. Specific results and accomplishments for the second quarter of 2002 include: Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (1) Our collection of cyanobacteria, isolated in YNP was increased to 15 unialgal cultures. (2) Illumination rate about 50 {micro}E/m{sup 2}/sec is not saturated for the growth of 1.2 s.c. (2) isolate. The decrease of illumination rate led to the decrease of doubling time of this isolate. (3) The positive effect of Ca{sup 2+} on the growth of isolate 1.2 s.c. (2) without Omnisil was revealed, though Ca{sup 2+} addition was indifferent for the growth of this isolate at the presence of Omnisil. (4) Calcium addition had a positive effect on the generation of cyanobacterial biofilm on Omnisil surface. (5) The survivability problems with the Tr9.4 organism on Omnisil screens in the CRF2 model-scale bioreactor have been solved. The problems were related to the method used to populate the growth surfaces. When pre-populated screens were placed in the bioreactor the microalgae died within 72 hours, but when the microalgae were cultured while in place in the bioreactor using a continuous-population method they grew well inside of the CRF2 test system and survived for the full 7-day test duration. CRF2 tests will continue as soon as the new combined drip system/harvesting system header pipe

  14. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2003-07-22

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 4/2/2003 through 7/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we have completed some long-term model scale bioreactor tests and are prepared to begin pilot scale bioreactor testing. Specific results and accomplishments for the second quarter of 2003 include: (1) Bioreactor support systems and test facilities: (a) Qualitative long-term survivability tests for S.C.1.2(2) on Omnisil have been successfully completed and results demonstrate a growth rate that appears to be acceptable. (b) Quantitative tests of long-term growth productivity for S.C.1.2(2) on Omnisil have been completed and initial results are promising. Initial results show that the mass of organisms doubled (from 54.9 grams to 109.8 grams) in about 5 weeks. Full results will be available as soon as all membranes and filters are completely dried. The growth rate should increase significantly with the initiation of weekly harvesting during the long term tests. (c) The phase 1 construction of the pilot scale bioreactor has been completed, including the solar collector and light distribution system. We are now in the phase of system improvement as we wait for CRF-2 results in order to be able to finalize the design and construction of the pilot scale system. (d) A mass transfer experimental setup was constructed in order to measure the mass transfer rate from the gas to the liquid film flowing over a membrane and to study the hydrodynamics of the liquid film flowing over a membrane in the bioreactor. Results were reported for mass transfer coefficient, film thickness, and fluid velocity over an Omnisil membrane with a ''drilled hole'' header pipe design. (2) Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (a) A selectivity approach was used to obtain a cyanobacterial culture with elevated resistance to acid pH. Microlonies of ''3

  15. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-10-15

    This report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/03/2000 through 10/02/2001. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. This is the fourth quarterly report for this project, so it also serves as a year-1 project review. We have made significant progress on our Phase I objectives, and our current efforts are focused on fulfilling these research objectives ''on time'' relative to the project timeline. Overall, we believe that we are on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, which is the milestone date from the original project timeline. Our results to date concerning the individual factors which have the most significant effect on CO{sub 2} uptake are inconclusive, but we have gathered useful information about the effects of lighting, temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration on one particular organism (Nostoc) and significant progress has been made in identifying other organisms that are more suitable for use in the bioreactor due to their better tolerance for the high temperatures likely to be encountered in the flue gas stream. Our current tests are focused on one such thermophilic organism (Cyanidium), and an enlarged bioreactor system (CRF-2) has been prepared for testing this organism. Tests on the enhanced mass transfer CO{sub 2} absorption technique are underway and useful information is currently being collected concerning pressure drop. The solar collectors for the deep-penetration hybrid solar lighting system have been designed and a single solar collector tracking unit is being prepared for installation in the pilot scale bioreactor system currently under construction. Much progress has been made in designing the fiber optic light delivery system, but final selection of the ''optimum'' delivery system design depends on many

  16. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-04-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 1/3/2001 through 4/02/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives, and we are currently on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, the milestone date from the original project timeline. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, we are continuing to evaluate candidate organisms and growth surfaces, and we are expanding the test facilities in preparation for scaled up system-level testing. Specific results and accomplishments for the first quarter of 2002 include: Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (1) Isolate 1.2 s.c. (2) has been selected for further investigations because of its favorable growth properties. (2) Research on optimal conditions for the growth of cyanobacterial isolates from YNP should be carried out using distilled water which has more stable chemical parameters, although tap water use may be permissible during full scale operations (at the cost of longer organism doubling times). (3) Tr. 9.4 WF is able to generate a biofilm on an Omnisil surface. Over the long term Omnisil does not inhibit the growth of TR 9.4 isolate, though it does elongate the lag phase of growth of this isolate. (4) Initial survivability tests for the TR 9.4 organism on Omnisil screens in the CRF2 modelscale bioreactor are underway. We have experienced problems keeping the organisms alive for more than three days, but we are currently investigating several possible causes for this unexpected result. (5) Accelerated materials testing have shown that Omnisil fabric has acceptable strength properties for use in a practical bioreactor system. Bioreactor support systems and test facilities: (1) Several CO{sub 2} scrubbing experiments have been completed in the translating slug flow test system, however the error introduced by the

  17. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  18. Role of nitric oxide in cadmium-induced stress on growth, photosynthetic components and yield of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanji, Shalini; Setia, R C; Kaur, Navjyot; Kaur, Parminder; Setia, Neelam

    2012-11-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of cadmium (Cd) and exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on growth, photosynthetic attributes, yield components and structural features of Brassica napus L. (cv. GSL 1). Cadmium in the growth medium at different levels (1, 2 and 4 Mm) retarded plant growth viz. shoot (27%) and root (51%) length as compared to control. The accumulation of total dry matter and its partitioning to different plant parts was also reduced by 31% due to Cd toxicity. Photosynthetic parameters viz., leaf area plant(-1) (51%), total Chl (27%), Chl a / Chl b ratio (22%) and Hill reaction activity of chloroplasts (42%) were greatly reduced in Cd-treated plants. Cd treatments adversely affected various yield parameters viz., number of branches (23) and siliquae plant(-1) (246), seed number siliqua(-1) (10.3), 1000-seed weight (2.30g) and seed yield plant(-1) (7.09g). Different Cd treatments also suppressed the differentiation of various tissues like vessels in the root with a maximum inhibition caused by 4mM Cd. Exogenous application of nitric oxide (NO) improved the various morpho-physiological and photosynthetic parameters in control as well as Cd-treated plants. PMID:23741796

  19. Determination of photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers sensitivity used to evaluate toxic effects of copper and fludioxonil in alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modulated PAM fluorometry and Plant Efficiency Analyser methods were used to investigate photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of alga Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to inhibitory effect of fungicides copper sulphate and fludioxonil (N-(4-nitrophenyl)-N'-propyl-uree). The change of those parameters were studied when alga S. obliquus have been exposed during 48 h to different concentrations of fungicides (1, 2 and 3 mg l-1). Under the same condition, enzymatic activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were investigated to evaluate antioxidative response to fungicides effects. The change of sensitivity of those parameters was dependent to the mode of fungicide action, their concentration and time of exposure. For copper effects, the most indicative photosynthetic biomarkers were parameters Q N as non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, Q Emax as the proton induced fluorescence quenching and ABS/RC as the antenna size per photosystem II reaction center. Copper induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased activity of catalase serving as the most sensitive and valuable enzymatic biomarker. On the other hand, fludioxonil effect on photosynthetic parameters was very negligible and consequently not very useful as biomarkers. However, fludioxonil induced strong antioxidative activities associated with cytosol enzymes, as we found for catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities. By obtained results, we may suggest for the activation of those enzymes to be sensitive and valuable biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by fludioxonil. Determination of biomarkers sensitivity may offer advantages in providing real criteria to use them for ecotoxicological diagnostic studies

  20. Heat shock response in photosynthetic organisms: membrane and lipid connections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Horvath; A. Glatz; H. Nakamoto; M.L. Mishkind; T. Munnik; Y. Saidi; P. Goloubinoff; J.L. Harwood; L. Vigh

    2012-01-01

    The ability of photosynthetic organisms to adapt to increases in environmental temperatures is becoming more important with climate change. Heat stress is known to induce heat-shock proteins (HSPs) many of which act as chaperones. Traditionally, it has been thought that protein denaturation acts as

  1. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  2. Gene expression responses in photosynthetic tissues to herbicides and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    When plants are attacked by pathogens, the photosynthetic tissue is often dramatically affected. The chloroplasts within this tissue can participate in defense by being a source of many plant secondary metabolites that serve as defense signaling compounds, antioxidants, and phytoalexins. The chlorop...

  3. Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14CO2, was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.)

  4. Effect of maize seed laser irradiation on plant photosynthetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were made with the two hybrids, H-708 and Px-20. The seeds were irradiated by a helium-neon quantum generator (L'vov-1 Electronica) with output power of 24 MW and 632.8 nm wave length. Once and twice irradiated seeds were sown on the 2nd, 5th and 10th day post irradiation. Changes in leaf area, chlorophyll content in the leaves, photosynthetic rate and its dependence on temperature and light, transpiration, stomatal resistance to CO2 and total dry matter of the overground plant part were traced. Seed irradiation with laser rays did not affect the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The photosynthetic rate did not depend on the cultivar characteristics of the crop. Single and repeated irradiation of the hybrid H-708 in most case enhanced photosynthetic rate, but a similar effect was not observed in Px-20. Transpiration and CO2 stomatal resistance were not equally affected by radiation. Laser rays enhanced the ability of the photosynthetic apparatus of the entire plants to use more efficiently high light intensities. The leaf area and the total plant dry matter increased in case of sowing on the 2nd and 5th day and a single irradiation and in case of sowing on the 5th and 10th day and twice repeated irradiations

  5. Quantum simulator of an open quantum system using superconducting qubits: exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Mostame, Sarah; Tsomokos, Dimitris I; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-01-01

    In the initial stage of photosynthesis, light-harvested energy is transferred with remarkably high efficiency to a reaction center, with the vibrational environment assisting the transport mechanism. It is of great interest to mimic this process with present-day technologies. Here we propose an analog quantum simulator of open system dynamics, where noise engineering of the environment has a central role. In particular, we propose the use of superconducting qubits for the simulation of exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthew-Olson protein, a prototypical photosynthetic complex. Our method allows for a single-molecule implementation and the investigation of energy transfer pathways as well as non-Markovian and spatiotemporal noise-correlation effects.

  6. Space Quantization of Light Transmission by Strong Coupling of Plasmonic Cavity Modes with Photosynthetic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Itai; Hieflero, Omri; Liliach, Igal; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mujica, Vladimiro; Richeter, Shachar

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between molecules and surface plasmons in defined geometries can lead to new light mater hybrid states where light propagation is strongly influenced by molecular photon absorption. Their application range from lasing LEDs to controlling chemical reactions and are relevant in light harvesting. The coupling between the electromagnetic field and molecular excitations may also lead to macroscopic extended coherent states characterized by an increase in temporal and spatial coherency. In this respect, it is intriguing to explore the coherency of the hybrid system for molecules that possess highly efficient exciton energy transfer. Such a molecule, is the photosynthetic light harvesting complex photosystem I which has an extended antenna system dedicated for efficient light harvesting. In this work, we demonstrate space quantization of light transmission through a single slit in free standing Au film coated with several layers of PS I. A self assembly technique for multilayer fabrication is used, e...

  7. The effect of triazine - and urea - type herbicides on photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jerzykiewicz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available About a half of the herbicides used at present in agnculture inhibit the light reactions in photosynthesis. Triazines and phenylureas shut down the photosynthetic process in susceptible plants by binding to specific sites within the plants photosystem II (PS II complex. Both of them bind at the QB site on the Dl protein of PS II, and prevent the transport of electrons between the primary electron acceptor Q and the plastoquinone (PQ. Herbicides can be highly toxic to human and animal health (triazines are possible human carcinogens. Their indiscriminate use has serious environmental implications, for example pollution of soil and water. We compare two heibicides to investigate the one of lowest environmental toxicity but of high toxicity to weeds.

  8. Synthetic analogues of the natural compound cryphonectric acid interfere with photosynthetic machinery through two different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Pereira, Wagner Luiz; Tomaz, Deborah Campos; de Oliveira, Fabrício Marques; Giberti, Samuele; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2013-06-12

    A series of isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ones (phthalides), analogues of the naturally occurring phytotoxin cryphonectric acid, were designed, synthesized, and fully characterized by NMR, IR, and MS analyses. Their synthesis was achieved via condensation, aromatization, and acetylation reactions. The measurement of the electron transport chain in spinach chloroplasts showed that several derivatives are capable of interfering with the photosynthetic apparatus. Few of them were found to inhibit the basal rate, but a significant inhibition was brought about only at concentrations exceeding 50 μM. Some other analogues acted as uncouplers or energy transfer inhibitors, with a remarkably higher effectiveness. Isobenzofuranone addition to the culture medium inhibited the growth of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus , with patterns consistent with the effects measured in vitro upon isolated chloroplasts. The most active derivatives, being able to completely suppress algal growth at 20 μM, may represent structures to be exploited for the design of new active ingredients for weed control. PMID:23678958

  9. Effects of different algaecides on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR release of Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench scale tests were conducted to study the effects of four common algaecides, including copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, diuron and ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate (EMA) on the photosynthetic capacity, cell integrity and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) release of Microcystis aeruginosa. The release of potassium (K+) from cell membrane during algaecide exposure was also analyzed. The three typical photosynthetic parameters, including the effective quantum yield (φe), photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximal electron transport rate (rETRmax), were measured by a pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Results showed that the photosynthetic capacity was all inhibited by the four algaecides, to different degrees, by limiting the energy capture in photosynthesis, and blocking the electron transfer chain in primary reaction. For example, at high diuron concentration (7.5 mg L−1), φe, α and rETRmax decreased from 0.46 to 0.19 (p −2 s−1/μmol photons m−2 s−1, and from 160.7 to 0.1 (p −2 s−1 compared with the control group after 96 h of exposure, respectively. Furthermore, the increase of algaecide dose could lead to the cell lysis, as well as release of intracellular MC-LR that enhanced the accumulation of extracellular MC-LR. The order of MC-LR release potential for the four algaecides was CuSO4 > H2O2 > diuron > EMA. Highlights: • PAM was used to investigate the effects of algaecides on Microcystis aeruginosa. • We estimate the release of potassium (K+) from cell membrane for cell lysis. • The risk of microcystin-LR release was evaluated after algaecides exposure. • The order of MC-LR release potential was copper sulfate > hydrogen peroxide > diuron > ethyl 2-methylacetoacetate

  10. Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand. PMID:17721788

  11. Shuffling bacterial metabolomes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomason, Brendan; Read, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has a far more significant role than gene duplication in bacterial evolution. This has recently been illustrated by work demonstrating the importance of HGT in the emergence of bacterial metabolic networks, with horizontally acquired genes being placed in peripheral pathways at the outer branches of the networks.

  12. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection. PMID:27096872

  13. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...... become valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future....

  14. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim N. Mak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.

  15. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2003-01-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/2/2001 through 1/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below our current efforts are focused on evaluating candidate organisms and growth surfaces, preparing to conduct long-term tests in the bench-scale bioreactor test systems, and scaling-up the test facilities from bench scale to pilot scale. Specific results and accomplishments for the first quarter of 2003 include: Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (1) Additional thermal features with developed cyanobacterial mats, which might be calcium resistant, were found in the West Thumb area of YNP. New samples were isolated and are being cultured in glass tubes. (2) We checked the motile ability of 8.2.1 Synechococcus s.c. (10) and 3.2.2 Synechococcus s.c. 6. It was found that unicellular isolates 8.2.1 Synechococcus s.c. (10) and 3.2.2 Synechococcus s.c. 1 are phototaxic. Isolate 3.2.2 Synechococcus s.c. 1 currently consists of two populations: one population appears to be positive phototaxic, and second population appears negative phototaxis to the same level of light. This means that the character of screen illumination should be uniform and reasonable for cyanobacterial cells. (3) The aeration of growth media with 5% CO{sub 2} in air stimulates cyanobacterial growth 10-20 times over that with air alone. It is possible the rate of the stimulation of cyanobacterial growth in CRF will be higher because cyanobacteria will be grown as a biofilm. We plan to increase the concentration to 15% CO{sub 2} in air. (4) We are continuing the organizing of our collection of the thermophilic cyanobacteria isolated from Yellowstone National Park. During this reporting period we transferred about 160 samples and discarded about 80 samples with weak growth in standard media as BG-11, D or DH. As result of this work we currently have 13 unialgal cultures of thermophilic

  16. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2006-01-15

    This final report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project during the period from 10/1/2001 through 01/02/2006. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, our efforts during this project were focused on the selection of candidate organisms and growth surfaces and initiating long-term tests in the bench-scale and pilot-scale bioreactor test systems. Specific results and accomplishments for the program include: (1) CRF-2 test system: (a) Sampling test results have shown that the initial mass of algae loaded into the Carbon Recycling Facility Version 2 (CRF-2) system can be estimated with about 3% uncertainty using a statistical sampling procedure. (b) The pressure shim header pipe insert design was shown to have better flow for harvesting than the drilled-hole design. (c) The CRF-2 test system has undergone major improvements to produce the high flow rates needed for harvesting (as determined by previous experiments). The main changes to the system are new stainless steel header/frame units, with increased flow capacity and a modified pipe-end-sealing method to improve flow uniformity, and installation and plumbing for a new high flow harvesting pump. Qualitative system tests showed that the harvesting system performed wonderfully, cleaning the growth surfaces within a matter of seconds. (d) Qualitative tests have shown that organisms can be repopulated on a harvested section of a bioreactor screen, demonstrating that continuous bioreactor operation is feasible, with continuous cycles of harvesting and repopulating screens. (e) Final preparations are underway for quantitative, long-term tests in the CRF-2 with weekly harvesting. (2) Pilot-scale test system: (a) The construction of the pilot-scale bioreactor was completed, including the solar collector and light distribution system. Over the course of the project, the solar collector used in the light delivery system showed some degradation, but

  17. Observation of Coherence in the Photosystem II Reaction Center

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Franklin D; Pan, Jie; Senlik, S. Seckin; Wilcox, Daniel E.; Ogilvie, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthesis powers life on our planet. The basic photosynthetic architecture comprises antenna complexes to harvest solar energy and reaction centers to convert the energy into a stable charge separated state. In oxygenic photosynthesis, the initial charge separation event occurs in the photosystem II reaction center; the only known natural enzyme that uses solar energy to split water. Energy transfer and charge separation in photosynthesis are rapid and have high quantum efficiencies. Rec...

  18. Changes in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Murumkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic processes in mature and senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. have been compared. With age, leaf photosynthetic pigments viz. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, and rate of 14°C fixation were considerably affected. Analysis of δ13C, and short term photosynthetic products showed no major change in the path of photosynthetic carbon fixation. Study of long term photosynthetic 14C assimilation revealed that in old senescent leaves, 14C incorporation into organic acid and sugar fractions was enhanced.

  19. 牙周牙髓联合病变菌群的PCR-DGGE分析%Bacterial analysis of combined periodontal-endodontic lesions using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏明慧; 亓庆国

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)技术观察牙周牙髓联合病变患牙牙周组织和根管中原始菌群分布状况及其异同,并通过克隆测序技术来试图探讨两部位可能存在的优势菌.方法 从13例牙周牙髓联合病变患牙分别采集患牙根尖1/3处牙周细菌和根管牙髓细菌,提取细菌总DNA,扩增16S rRNA基因可变区,再进行变性梯度凝胶电泳.应用SPSS17.0软件和Quantity One软件对DGGE图谱菌种条带进行统计学分析和聚类分析.对DGGE凝胶中有代表性的条带进行回收和克隆测序.结果 两取菌部位的菌种条带数间有明显的统计学差异(P<0.01),但二者之间无正相关性.二者间的相似系数为13.1% ~62.5%.牙周牙髓联合病变患牙根尖区1/3处牙周菌属可能有弯曲菌属(Campylobacter)、梭杆菌属(Fusobacterium)、奈瑟菌属(Neisseria)等,该处对应根管中菌属可能有优杆菌属(Mogibacterium)、棒状杆菌属(Corynebacterium)、放线菌属(Actinomyces)等.结论 牙周牙髓联合病变(牙周来源)中牙周组织和邻近根管牙髓组织中菌种在数目和结构上有明显不同.该病变牙周组织和根管中可能存在目前尚未被认知的优势菌种.%Objective To compare the bacterial community profiles present in periodontium and root canals of the same tooth diagnosed as combined periodontal-endodontic lesions by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).Methods Samples were collected from 13 extracted teeth with advanced periodontitis,endodontic samples from root tip 1/3 root canal,and periodontal samples from the corresponding neighboring periodontium.Genomic DNA was collected for the following universal bacterial primersPCR.The PCR products were then loaded on the DGGE gels to gain separate bands.The typical DGGE bands were excised,PCR-cloned and sequenced.Results The number of bands,which was indicative of the number of bacterial species,was compared intra-group (periodontal and

  20. Strategy of control for bacterial biofilm processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Mayansky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of the modern search of the antibiofilm preparations aimed at adhesive bacterial reactions, control of QS-systems, influence over bis-(3’-5’-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (cdi-GMP, and secretory bacterial processes are analysed. Approaches for biofilm dispersal and increasing the sensitivity of biofilm bacteria to antimicrobial drugs are discussed. It is underlined that the majority of inhibitor molecules were studied in vitro or in infected mice experiments. It is prognosed that in future there will appear medical preparations which will help for fighting bacterial biofilms preventing their development and spreading in the host organism.

  1. Analysis of Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Hylan Brown Laying Chicken Fed in Cage by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis%笼养海兰褐蛋雏鸡肠道菌群的聚合酶链式反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 崔一喆; 刘胜军; 尹汉周

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the intestinal bacterial flora of Hylan brown laying chicken fed in cage by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ( DGGE) .Five 8-week-old chick-ens fed in cage were randomly selected and slaughtered to collect whole intestinal samples.Intestinal contents in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were individually mixed, and genome DNA of them were extracted, then sequences in hypervariable region of 16S rDNA were amplified with bacterial common primers, finally, the PCR products were used in DGGE analysis.The results showed as follows:there was obvious difference in bacterial flora composition among different intestinal segments.Eight, twelve, eight and nine strains of bacteri-a were isolated from duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum, respectively, twenty strains in all, and seven strains of Lactobacillus among those ( including two strains of Lactobacillus aviaries, two strains of Lactococ-cus raffinolactis, one strain of Lactobacillus agilis, one strain of Coprococcus comes and one strain of Lactoba-cillus equigenerosi.There were 3 common strains of bacteria in all intestinal segments, which were one strain of Rummeliibacillus stabekisii, one strain of Lactobacillus equigenerosi and one strain of Gardnerella vaginalis. The results indicate that bacterial flora structure is relative with intestinal segment of Hylan brown laying chick-en fed in cage, and there are differences in intestinal bacterial flora composition among different intestinal seg-ments.%本试验旨在采用聚合酶链式反应( PCR )-变性梯度凝胶电泳( DGGE )法分析笼养海兰褐蛋雏鸡肠道菌群。随机取5只8周龄笼养鸡剖杀,取全部小肠,将5只鸡的十二指肠、空肠、回肠和盲肠内容物分别混匀,提取基因组DNA,以细菌通用引物扩增16S rDNA高变区序列,对PCR产物进行DGGE分析。结果表明:雏鸡不同肠段中细菌菌群组成差别很大,十二指肠、

  2. Apparatus and method for measuring single cell and sub-cellular photosynthetic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Singh, Seema; Wu, Huawen

    2013-07-09

    Devices for measuring single cell changes in photosynthetic efficiency in algal aquaculture are disclosed that include a combination of modulated LED trans-illumination of different intensities with synchronized through objective laser illumination and confocal detection. Synchronization and intensity modulation of a dual illumination scheme were provided using a custom microcontroller for a laser beam block and constant current LED driver. Therefore, single whole cell photosynthetic efficiency, and subcellular (diffraction limited) photosynthetic efficiency measurement modes are permitted. Wide field rapid light scanning actinic illumination is provided for both by an intensity modulated 470 nm LED. For the whole cell photosynthetic efficiency measurement, the same LED provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. For the subcellular photosynthetic efficiency measurement, a switched through objective 488 nm laser provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. A second near IR LED is employed to generate dark adapted states in the system under study.

  3. Effects of Chilling Stress on Photosynthetic Rate and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter in Seedlings of Two Rice Cultivars Differing in Cold Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-li; GUO Zhen-fei

    2005-01-01

    A cold-tolerant cultivar, Xiangnuo 1, and a cold-sensitive cultivar, IR50, were used to study the influence of chilling on photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in rice seedlings. The photosynthetic rates declined dramatically during chilling, and decreased by 48.7% and 67.5% in Xiangnuo 1 and IR50 seedlings, respectively, after being subjected to chilling treatment for two days. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that relatively higher qP and qNP in Xiangnuo 1 were maintained to dissipate the redundant excitation energy and protect the reaction centers from chill injury; accordingly, redundant excitation energy accumulated less in the reaction centers, and antenna systems were less injured by chilling in Xiangnuo 1. On the contrary, in IR50, qP and qNP declined rapidly while Ex increased, as the chilling persisted. This result indicated that the reaction centers and antenna systems in IR50 were damaged severely by chilling, which led to the lower photosynthetic rate.

  4. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply. PMID:27318297

  5. Influence of laser light on leaf area and parameters of photosynthetic activity in DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garczyński S.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The initial material for performed studies was constituted by hull and hull-less DH lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The kernels were irradiated with helium-neon laser (He-Ne in red light spectrum and at the wavelength of 632 nm. Plants obtained in greenhouse conditions were analyzed for blade area and their photosynthetic activity in flag and penultimate leaves (photosynthetic and transpiration rate, photosynthetic gas efficiency. The results indicated a biostimulation effect of laser light, causing an increase of blade area of flag and penultimate leaves. This effect was higher for flag leaves, and exposure to 180 min of irradiation was more effective as compared to 60 min. The reaction observed depended on the kind of DH lines analyzed, and two of them – R63N/14 and R58N/91 increased their blade area more effectively than others. Simultaneously, photo- synthetic and transpiration rate decreased in dependence on time of irradiation and the kind of DH lines used. On the other hand, gas exchange efficiency defined as photosynthetic coefficient of water use (CO2 assimilation / H2O transpiration increased for all DH lines and laser light exposure as compared to control.

  6. Flow of light energy in benthic photosynthetic microbial mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad Ahmad A.

    2010-12-15

    The work in this thesis demonstrates the assessment of the energy budget inside microbial mat ecosystems, and the factors affecting light utilization efficiency. It presents the first balanced light energy budget for benthic microbial mat ecosystems, and shows how the budget and the spatial distribution of the local photosynthetic efficiencies within the euphotic zone depend on the absorbed irradiance (Jabs). The energy budget was dominated by heat dissipation on the expense of photosynthesis. The maximum efficiency of photosynthesis was at light limiting conditions When comparing three different marine benthic photosynthetic ecosystems (originated from Abu-Dhabi, Arctic, and Exmouth Gulf in Western Australia), differences in the efficiencies were calculated. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency depended on mat characteristics affecting light absorption and scattering; such as, photopigments ratio and distribution, and the structural organization of the photosynthetic organisms relative to other absorbing components of the ecosystem (i.e., EPS, mineral particles, detritus, etc.). The maximum efficiency decreased with increasing light penetration depth, and increased with increasing the accessory pigments (phycocyanin and fucoxanthin)/chlorophyll ratio. Spatial heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, pigment distribution, as well as light acclimation in microbial mats originating from different geographical locations was investigated. We used a combined pigment imaging approach (variable chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging), and fingerprinting approach. For each mat, the photosynthetic activity was proportional to the local pigment concentration in the photic zone, but not for the deeper layers and between different mats. In each mat, yield of PSII and E1/2 (light acclimation) generally decreased in parallel with depth, but the gradients in both parameters varied greatly between samples. This mismatch between pigments concentration

  7. Rerouting Carbon Flux To Enhance Photosynthetic Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducat, DC; Avelar-Rivas, JA; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2012-03-23

    The bioindustrial production of fuels, chemicals, and therapeutics typically relies upon carbohydrate inputs derived from agricultural plants, resulting in the entanglement of food and chemical commodity markets. We demonstrate the efficient production of sucrose from a cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus, heterologously expressing a symporter of protons and sucrose (cscB). cscB-expressing cyanobacteria export sucrose irreversibly to concentrations of >10 mM without culture toxicity. Moreover, sucrose-exporting cyanobacteria exhibit increased biomass production rates relative to wild-type strains, accompanied by enhanced photosystem II activity, carbon fixation, and chlorophyll content. The genetic modification of sucrose biosynthesis pathways to minimize competing glucose-or sucrose-consuming reactions can further improve sucrose production, allowing the export of sucrose at rates of up to 36.1 mg liter(-1) h illumination(-1). This rate of production exceeds that of previous reports of targeted, photobiological production from microbes. Engineered S. elongatus produces sucrose in sufficient quantities (up to similar to 80% of total biomass) such that it may be a viable alternative to sugar synthesis from terrestrial plants, including sugarcane.

  8. Hydrodynamics of bacterial colonies: A model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, J.; Passot, T.

    2003-03-01

    We propose a hydrodynamic model for the evolution of bacterial colonies growing on soft agar plates. This model consists of reaction-diffusion equations for the concentrations of nutrients, water, and bacteria, coupled to a single hydrodynamic equation for the velocity field of the bacteria-water mixture. It captures the dynamics inside the colony as well as on its boundary and allows us to identify a mechanism for collective motion towards fresh nutrients, which, in its modeling aspects, is similar to classical chemotaxis. As shown in numerical simulations, our model reproduces both usual colony shapes and typical hydrodynamic motions, such as the whirls and jets recently observed in wet colonies of Bacillus subtilis. The approach presented here could be extended to different experimental situations and provides a general framework for the use of advection-reaction-diffusion equations in modeling bacterial colonies.

  9. A novel multipoint measuring system of photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel multipoint measuring system of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) has been designed. It is used as a component of a field measurement system of photosynthesis. The system consists of a multichannel fiberoptic sensor, Intel 486-based microcomputer (PC) with software for control and analysis and interface electronics. The fiberoptic sensor comprises 800 measuring points which are arranged in a regular grid on a plane. This grid is attached to a cuvette to observe the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR falling on the needles along with simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange. PAR is registered through a fiberoptic bundle using a charge coupled device (CCD) sensor. The system has been in operation between July and October 1996 within a Scots pine canopy. The results demonstrate that the obtained regression between the photosynthetic rate estimated with the multipoint PAR measuring system and the measured CO2 exchange rate is as tight within a canopy as in unshaded conditions. (author)

  10. Challenges and Perspectives in Designing Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Yan, Runyu; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-07-11

    The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting and CO2 reduction on a large scale for practical applications is the ultimate goal towards worldwide sustainability. This Concept highlights the state-of-the-art research trends of artificial photosynthesis concepts and designs from some new perspectives. Particularly, it is focused on five important aspects for the design of promising artificial photosynthetic systems: 1) catalyst development, 2) architecture design, 3) device buildup 4) mechanism exploration, and 5) theoretical investigations. Some typical progress and challenges, the most significant milestones achieved to date, as well as possible future directions are illustrated and discussed. This Concept article presents a selection of new developments to highlight new trends and possibilities, main barriers, or challenges; with this, we hope to inspire more advances in the field of artificial photosynthesis. PMID:27138858

  11. Detection of circular polarization in light scattered from photosynthetic microbes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, William B; Germer, Thomas A; Chen, Feng; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Robb, Frank T; Manset, Nadine; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Reid, Neill; Macchetto, F Duccio; Martin, William; 10.1073/pnas.0810215106

    2009-01-01

    The identification of a universal biosignature that could be sensed remotely is critical to the prospects for success in the search for life elsewhere in the universe. A candidate universal biosignature is homochirality, which is likely to be a generic property of all biochemical life. Due to the optical activity of chiral molecules, it has been hypothesized that this unique characteristic may provide a suitable remote sensing probe using circular polarization spectroscopy. Here, we report the detection of circular polarization in light scattered by photosynthetic microbes. We show that the circular polarization appears to arise from circular dichroism of the strong electronic transitions of photosynthetic absorption bands. We conclude that circular polarization spectroscopy could provide a powerful remote sensing technique for generic life searches.

  12. Spatial coherence of thermal photons favors photosynthetic life

    CERN Document Server

    Manrique, Pedro; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Rodríguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis; Johnson, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting of sunlight underpins Life on Earth as well as driving novel energy device design. Though several experiments suggest that excitation energy transport and charge separation within a photosynthetic membrane may benefit from the quantum nature of their dynamics, the effects of spatial coherences in the incident light have been largely ignored. Here we show that spatial correlations in the incident light likely play an important role in trapping light and adding robustness, as well as providing a driving mechanism for an organism's adaptation toward more ordered structures. Our theory is grounded by empirical inputs, while its output is validated against testable predictions. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal correlations between photons, a fundamental property of the quantum world, should play a key role in our understanding of early Life and in improving the design of artificial photosynthetic systems.

  13. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinling HUANG; Jipei YUE

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) may not only create genome mosaicism,but also introduce evolutionary novelties to recipient organisms.HGT in plastid genomes,though relatively rare,still exists.HGT-derived genes are particularly common in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes and they also occur in multicellular plants.In particular,ancient HGT events occurring during the early evolution of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes were probably frequent.There is clear evidence that anciently acquired genes played an important role in the establishment of primary plastids and in the transition of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments.Although algal genes have often been used to infer historical plastids in plastid-lacking eukaryotes,reliable approaches are needed to distinguish endosymbionts-derived genes from those independently acquired from preferential feeding or other activities.

  15. Structural correlations in bacterial metabolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lizana Ludvig; Gerlee Philip; Bernhardsson Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Evolution of metabolism occurs through the acquisition and loss of genes whose products acts as enzymes in metabolic reactions, and from a presumably simple primordial metabolism the organisms living today have evolved complex and highly variable metabolisms. We have studied this phenomenon by comparing the metabolic networks of 134 bacterial species with known phylogenetic relationships, and by studying a neutral model of metabolic network evolution. Results We consider t...

  16. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  17. Bacterial Meningitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.

  18. Photosynthetic activity in rice seedlings infected with Piricularia oryzae Cavara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in photosynthetic activity in the rice seedlings infected with piricularia oryzae Cavara (blast disease) were examined comparing with the non-infected seedlings. The assimilated 14C radioactivity was about 50% lower in the infected rice seedlings than in the non-infected seedlings. A little difference in the distribution of 14C radioactivity was observed. The 14C activity in the cationic fraction of ethanol soluble fractions was a little higher in the infected seedling. (auth.)

  19. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation. Quarterly Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation Project during the ending 12/31/2004. Specific results and accomplishments for the program include review of pilot scale testing and design of a new bioreactor. Testing confirmed that algae can be grown in a sustainable fashion in the pilot bioreactor, even with intermittent availability of sunlight. The pilot-scale tests indicated that algal growth rate followed photon delivery during productivity testing

  20. Photosynthetic electron transport system promotes synthesis of Au-nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabnam, Nisha; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Au-nanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant) and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant) turned Au³⁺ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ photon flux density (PFD) and the purple coloration intensified with time. UV-Vis spectra of these purple colored solutions showed absorption peak at ∼545 nm which is known to arise due to surface plasmon oscillations specific to Au-nanoparticles. However, thylakoids/chloroplasts did not alter color of Au³⁺ solutions in dark. These results clearly demonstrated that photosynthetic electron transport can reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ which nucleate to form Au-nanoparticles in presence of light. Transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that Au-nanoparticles generated by light driven photosynthetic electron transport system of thylakoids/chloroplasts were in range of 5-20 nm. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystalline nature of these nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray confirmed that these nanoparticles were composed of Au. To confirm the potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in generation of Au-nanoparticles, thylakoids/chloroplasts were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles in presence of light of PFD ranging from 60 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The capacity of thylakoids/chloroplasts to generate Au-nanoparticles increased remarkably with increase in PFD, which further clearly demonstrated potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰ to form nanoparticles. The light driven donation of electrons to metal ions by thylakoids/chloroplasts can be exploited for large scale production of nanoparticles. PMID:23976990

  1. Photosynthetic electron transport system promotes synthesis of Au-nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Shabnam

    Full Text Available In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Au-nanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant turned Au³⁺ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ photon flux density (PFD and the purple coloration intensified with time. UV-Vis spectra of these purple colored solutions showed absorption peak at ∼545 nm which is known to arise due to surface plasmon oscillations specific to Au-nanoparticles. However, thylakoids/chloroplasts did not alter color of Au³⁺ solutions in dark. These results clearly demonstrated that photosynthetic electron transport can reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ which nucleate to form Au-nanoparticles in presence of light. Transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that Au-nanoparticles generated by light driven photosynthetic electron transport system of thylakoids/chloroplasts were in range of 5-20 nm. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystalline nature of these nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray confirmed that these nanoparticles were composed of Au. To confirm the potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in generation of Au-nanoparticles, thylakoids/chloroplasts were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles in presence of light of PFD ranging from 60 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The capacity of thylakoids/chloroplasts to generate Au-nanoparticles increased remarkably with increase in PFD, which further clearly demonstrated potential of light driven photosynthetic electron transport in reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰ to form nanoparticles. The light driven donation of electrons to metal ions by thylakoids/chloroplasts can be exploited for large scale production of nanoparticles.

  2. RNA function and phosphorus use by photosynthetic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Raven, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in RNA accounts for half or more of the total non-storage P in oxygenic photolithotrophs grown in either P-replete or P-limiting growth conditions. Since many natural environments are P-limited for photosynthetic primary productivity, and peak phosphorus fertilizer production is inevitable, the paper analyses what economies in P allocation to RNA could, in principle, increase P-use efficiency of growth (rate of dry matter production per unit organism P). The possibilities of de...

  3. Enzymes involved in organellar DNA replication in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Takashi; Sato, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Plastids and mitochondria possess their own genomes. Although the replication mechanisms of these organellar genomes remain unclear in photosynthetic eukaryotes, several organelle-localized enzymes related to genome replication, including DNA polymerase, DNA primase, DNA helicase, DNA topoisomerase, single-stranded DNA maintenance protein, DNA ligase, primer removal enzyme, and several DNA recombination-related enzymes, have been identified. In the reference Eudicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana...

  4. Effect of clinostating on photosynthetic apparatus of pea plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochubey, S. M.; Volovik, O. I.; Porubleva, L. V.; Shevchenko, V. V.

    The photosynthetic membrane composition and low temperature fluorescence spectra were analyzed for pea chloroplasts from control and clinostated plants. Clinorotation induces a decrease in the amount of the oligomeric form of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex (LHCII) and an increase of its monomeric form. Some changes in organization of photosystem 1 (PS1) complex were revealed as well. These changes are in accordance with the variations of fluorescence characteristics and photochemical activity.

  5. Dynamic reorganization of photosynthetic supercomplexes during environmental acclimation of photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Minagawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Plants and algae have acquired the ability to acclimate to ever-changing environments in order to survive. During photosynthesis, light energy is converted by several membrane protein supercomplexes into electrochemical energy, which is eventually used to assimilate CO2. The efficiency of photosynthesis is modulated by many environmental factors such as quality and quantity of light, temperature, drought, and CO2 concentration, among others. Accumulating evidence indicates that photosynthetic...

  6. Taxon-rich multigene phylogeny of the photosynthetic euglenoids (Euglenophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Im; Linton, Eric W.; Shin, Woongghi

    2015-01-01

    To establish taxonomy and understand phylogenetic relationships among strains and species of the photosynthetic euglenoids, we performed phylogenetic analyses based on a four gene sequence dataset (nr SSU and LSU rDNA, and pt SSU and LSU rDNA) from 343 taxa (including three outgroup). The phylogenetic tree based on the combined dataset was split into two major clades: Euglenaceae and Phacaceae. The family Euglenaceae was a well-supported monophyletic group containing eight genera (Colacium, C...

  7. Variation potential influence on photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in pea

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhov, Vladimir; Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Katicheva, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic electron flow is an important component of the total photosynthetic electron flow and participates in adaptation to the action of stressors. Local leaf stimulation induces electrical signals, including variation potential (VP), which inactivate photosynthesis; however, their influence on cyclic electron flow has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate VP's influence on cyclic electron flow in pea (Pisum sativum L.). VP was induced in pea seedling leaves by local...

  8. Spatial coherence of thermal photons favors photosynthetic life

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique, Pedro, Arquebisbe de Saragossa, altres; De Mendoza, Adriana; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Rodríguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis; Johnson, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting of sunlight underpins Life on Earth as well as driving novel energy device design. Though several experiments suggest that excitation energy transport and charge separation within a photosynthetic membrane may benefit from the quantum nature of their dynamics, the effects of spatial coherences in the incident light have been largely ignored. Here we show that spatial correlations in the incident light likely play an important role in trapping light and adding robustness, as well as...

  9. Quantum Coherent Dynamics at Ambient Temperature in Photosynthetic Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Zachary B.

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes are responsible for absorbing energy from sunlight and transmitting it to remote locations where it can be stored. Recent experiments have found that this process involves long-lived quantum coherence between pigment molecules, called chromophores, which make up these complexes. Expected to decay within 100 fs at room temperature, these coherences were instead found to persist for picosecond time scales, despite having no apparent isolation from the thermal en...

  10. Calibrating bacterial evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Ochman, Howard; Elwyn, Susannah; Moran, Nancy A

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to calibrate bacterial evolution have relied on the assumption that rates of molecular sequence divergence in bacteria are similar to those of higher eukaryotes, or to those of the few bacterial taxa for which ancestors can be reliably dated from ecological or geological evidence. Despite similarities in the substitution rates estimated for some lineages, comparisons of the relative rates of evolution at different classes of nucleotide sites indicate no basis for their universal appl...

  11. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms: Approaches, applications and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno D; Mota, Andre; Teixeira, Jose A; Vicente, Antonio A

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of using photosynthetic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae, for converting light and carbon dioxide into valuable biochemical products has raised the need for new cost-efficient processes ensuring a constant product quality. Food, feed, biofuels, cosmetics and pharmaceutics are among the sectors that can profit from the application of photosynthetic microorganisms. Biomass growth in a photobioreactor is a complex process influenced by multiple parameters, such as photosynthetic light capture and attenuation, nutrient uptake, photobioreactor hydrodynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer. In order to optimize productivity while keeping a standard product quality, a permanent control of the main cultivation parameters is necessary, where the continuous cultivation has shown to be the best option. However it is of utmost importance to recognize the singularity of continuous cultivation of cyanobacteria and microalgae due to their dependence on light availability and intensity. In this sense, this review provides comprehensive information on recent breakthroughs and possible future trends regarding technological and process improvements in continuous cultivation systems of microalgae and cyanobacteria, that will directly affect cost-effectiveness and product quality standardization. An overview of the various applications, techniques and equipment (with special emphasis on photobioreactors) in continuous cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria are presented. Additionally, mathematical modeling, feasibility, economics as well as the applicability of continuous cultivation into large-scale operation, are discussed. PMID:25777495

  12. γ- Irradiation Effect: Variation of Photosynthetic Activity of Euglena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on carbon fixation (Specific production rate: SPR), CO2 utilization efficiency (CUE) and electron transfer rate (ETR) in the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis strain Z in a dose-response dependent manner. Methods Euglena cells were cultured in an inorganic nutrient medium containing ammonium chloride or proteose peptone. Cells were exposed to gamma-ray at 5 doses (0, 100, 250, 350, 500 Gy for water). Five days after irradiation, three photosynthetic activities were measured. SPR, which is a carbon uptake rate per unit carbon mass, was determined by 13C tracer methodology. CUE was evaluated using a relation of carbon isotope fractionation in Calvin cycle. ETR in photosystem II (PS II) was measured by a chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Results Even at a dose of 500 Gy, 80 % of ETR of the non-irradiated control (0 Gy) was sustained, while SPR and CUE were about half the level in the non-irradiated control at 500 Gy. Furthermore, the dose response of ETR was considerably different from the others. Conclusion Our findings suggest that not only PS II but also the Calvin cycle in the photosynthetic system is affected by gamma ray irradiation.

  13. The Evolution of Light Stress Proteins in Photosynthetic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Adamska

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The Elip (early light-inducible protein family in pro- and eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms consists of more than 100 different stress proteins. These proteins accumulate in photosynthetic membranes in response to light stress and have photoprotective functions. At the amino acid level, members of the Elip family are closely related to light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (Cab antenna proteins of photosystem I and II, present in higher plants and some algae. Based on their predicted secondary structure, members of the Elip family are divided into three groups: (a one-helix Hlips (high light-induced proteins, also called Scps (small Cab-like proteins or Ohps (one-helix proteins; (b two-helix Seps (stress-enhanced proteins; and (c three-helix Elips and related proteins. Despite having different physiological functions it is believed that eukaryotic three-helix Cab proteins evolved from the prokaryotic Hlips through a series of duplications and fusions. In this review we analyse the occurrence of Elip family members in various photosynthetic prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and discuss their evolutionary relationship with Cab proteins.

  14. A global scale mechanistic model of the photosynthetic capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Rogers, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Wullschleger, S. D.; McDowell, N. G.; Massoud, E. C.; Vrugt, J. A.; Muss, J. D.; Fisher, J. B.; Reich, P. B.; Wilson, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C) is known to vary substantially in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated to plant functional types. In this study, we developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA V1.0) to predict the photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions, based on the optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The LUNA model was able to reasonably well capture the observed patterns of photosynthetic capacity in view that it explained approximately 55 % of the variation in observed Vc, max25 and 65 % of the variation in observed Jmax25 across the globe. Our model simulations under current and future climate conditions indicated that Vc, max25 could be most affected in high-latitude regions under a warming climate and that ESMs using a fixed Vc, max25 or Jmax25 by plant functional types were likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.

  15. Carotenoids are essential for the assembly of cyanobacterial photosynthetic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Tünde N; Chukhutsina, Volha; Domonkos, Ildikó; Knoppová, Jana; Komenda, Josef; Kis, Mihály; Lénárt, Zsófia; Garab, Győző; Kovács, László; Gombos, Zoltán; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are important for light harvesting, photoprotection and structural stability of a variety of pigment-protein complexes. Here, we investigated the consequences of altered carotenoid composition for the functional organization of photosynthetic complexes in wild-type and various mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Although it is generally accepted that xanthophylls do not play a role in cyanobacterial photosynthesis in low-light conditions, we have found that the absence of xanthophylls leads to reduced oligomerization of photosystems I and II. This is remarkable because these complexes do not bind xanthophylls. Oligomerization is even more disturbed in crtH mutant cells, which show limited carotenoid synthesis; in these cells also the phycobilisomes are distorted despite the fact that these extramembranous light-harvesting complexes do not contain carotenoids. The number of phycocyanin rods connected to the phycobilisome core is strongly reduced leading to high amounts of unattached phycocyanin units. In the absence of carotenoids the overall organization of the thylakoid membranes is disturbed: Photosystem II is not formed, photosystem I hardly oligomerizes and the assembly of phycobilisomes remains incomplete. These data underline the importance of carotenoids in the structural and functional organization of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic machinery. PMID:26045333

  16. Improved hydrogen photoproduction from photosynthetic bacteria and green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.F.; Lien, S.; Seibert, M.

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria evolve hydrogen at much higher rates than do other classes of photosynthetic microorganisms. In addition, they tolerate harsh environments, grow rapidly, and utilize both visible and near infrared light in photosynthesis. They do not split water, but this does not necessarily eliminate their potential use in future applied systems. They are easily manipulated genetically, and thus might be modified to metabolize common biomass waste materials in place of expensive defined organic substrates. Furthermore, the potential for increasing hydrogen photoproduction via genetic techniques is promising. Strains that partially degrade cellulose, have high photoproduction rates, or contain very large amounts of the enzymes associated with hydrogen metabolism have been isolated. Green algae also produce hydrogen but are capable of using water as a substrate. For example, C. reinhardi can evolve hydrogen and oxygen at a molar ratio approaching 2:1. Based upon effect of dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (a specific inhibitor of photosystem II, PSII) on hydrogen photoproduction in the wild type strain and upon results obtained with PSII mutants, one can demonstrate that water is the major source of electrons for hydrogen production. The potential efficiency of in vivo coupling between hydrogenase and the photosynthetic electron transport system is high. Up to 76% of the reductants generated by the electron transport system can be channeled directly to the enzyme for in vivo hydrogen production. Rates exceeding 170 ..mu..moles of H/sub 2/ mg Chl/sup -1/ hr/sup -1/ have been observed.

  17. A global scale mechanistic model of the photosynthetic capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Ali, A. A.; Fisher, R.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Rogers, A.; McDowell, N. G.; Wilson, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc,max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25oC) is known to vary substantially in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated to plant functional types. In this study, we developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA V1.0) to predict the photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions, based on the optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The LUNA model was able to reasonably well capture the observed patterns of photosynthetic capacity in view that it explained approximately 55% of the variation in observed Vc,max25 and 65% of the variation in observed Jmax25 across the globe. Our model simulations under current and future climate conditions indicated that Vc,max25 could be most affected in high-latitude regions under a warming climate and that ESMs using a fixed Vc,max25 or Jmax25 by plant functional types were likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.

  18. A global scale mechanistic model of the photosynthetic capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25 and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25 at a reference temperature (generally 25 °C is known to vary substantially in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs with tabulated values associated to plant functional types. In this study, we developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA V1.0 to predict the photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions, based on the optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The LUNA model was able to reasonably well capture the observed patterns of photosynthetic capacity in view that it explained approximately 55 % of the variation in observed Vc, max25 and 65 % of the variation in observed Jmax25 across the globe. Our model simulations under current and future climate conditions indicated that Vc, max25 could be most affected in high-latitude regions under a warming climate and that ESMs using a fixed Vc, max25 or Jmax25 by plant functional types were likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.

  19. The origin of cytosolic ATP in photosynthetic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeström, Per; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2016-07-01

    In photosynthetically active cells, both chloroplasts and mitochondria have the capacity to produce ATP via photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. Thus, theoretically, both organelles could provide ATP for the cytosol, but the extent, to which they actually do this, and how the process is regulated, both remain unclear. Most of the evidence discussed comes from experiments with rapid fractionation of isolated protoplasts subjected to different treatments in combination with application of specific inhibitors. The results obtained indicate that, under conditions where ATP demand for photosynthetic CO2 fixation is sufficiently high, the mitochondria supply the bulk of ATP for the cytosol. In contrast, under stress conditions where CO2 fixation is severely limited, ATP will build up in chloroplasts and it can then be exported to the cytosol, by metabolite shuttle mechanisms. Thus, depending on the conditions, either mitochondria or chloroplasts can supply the bulk of ATP for the cytosol. This supply of ATP is discussed in relation to the idea that mitochondrial functions may be tuned to provide an optimal environment for the chloroplast. By balancing cellular redox states, mitochondria can contribute to an optimal photosynthetic capacity. PMID:27087668

  20. Photosynthetic efficiency of Pedunculate oak seedlings under simulated water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic performance of seedlings of Quercus robur exposed to short-term water stress in the laboratory conditions was assessed through the method of induced fluorometry. The substrate for seedlings was clayey loam, with the dominant texture fraction made of silt, followed by clay and fine sand, with total porosity 68.2%. Seedlings were separated in two groups: control (C (soil water regime in pots was maintained at the level of field water capacity and treated (water-stressed, WS (soil water regime was maintained in the range of wilting point and lentocapillary capacity. The photosynthetic efficiency was 0.642±0.25 and 0.522±0.024 (WS and C, respectively, which was mostly due to transplantation disturbances and sporadic leaf chlorosis. During the experiment Fv/Fm decreased in both groups (0.551±0.0100 and 0.427±0.018 in C and WS, respectively. Our results showed significant differences between stressed and control group, in regard to both observed parameters (Fv/Fm and T½. Photosynthetic efficiency of pedunculate oak seedlings was significantly affected by short-term water stress, but to a lesser extent than by sufficient watering.

  1. Rhodobase, a meta-analytical tool for reconstructing gene regulatory networks in a model photosynthetic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, Oleg V; Bolotin, Dmitry; Wang, Andrew; Ivanov, Pavel S; Gomelsky, Mark

    2011-02-01

    We present Rhodobase, a web-based meta-analytical tool for analysis of transcriptional regulation in a model anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The gene association meta-analysis is based on the pooled data from 100 of R. sphaeroides whole-genome DNA microarrays. Gene-centric regulatory networks were visualized using the StarNet approach (Jupiter, D.C., VanBuren, V., 2008. A visual data mining tool that facilitates reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. PLoS ONE 3, e1717) with several modifications. We developed a means to identify and visualize operons and superoperons. We designed a framework for the cross-genome search for transcription factor binding sites that takes into account high GC-content and oligonucleotide usage profile characteristic of the R. sphaeroides genome. To facilitate reconstruction of directional relationships between co-regulated genes, we screened upstream sequences (-400 to +20bp from start codons) of all genes for putative binding sites of bacterial transcription factors using a self-optimizing search method developed here. To test performance of the meta-analysis tools and transcription factor site predictions, we reconstructed selected nodes of the R. sphaeroides transcription factor-centric regulatory matrix. The test revealed regulatory relationships that correlate well with the experimentally derived data. The database of transcriptional profile correlations, the network visualization engine and the optimized search engine for transcription factor binding sites analysis are available at http://rhodobase.org. PMID:21070832

  2. Solid-state NMR applied to photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Anjali; de Groot, Huub J M

    2012-03-01

    This short review describes how solid-state NMR has provided a mechanistic and electronic picture of pigment-protein and pigment-pigment interactions in photosynthetic antenna complexes. NMR results on purple bacterial antenna complexes show how the packing of the protein and the pigments inside the light-harvesting oligomers induces mutual conformational stress. The protein scaffold produces deformation and electrostatic polarization of the BChl macrocycles and leads to a partial electronic charge transfer between the BChls and their coordinating histidines, which can tune the light-harvesting function. In chlorosome antennae assemblies, the NMR template structure reveals how the chromophores can direct their self-assembly into higher macrostructures which, in turn, tune the light-harvesting properties of the individual molecules by controlling their disorder, structural deformation, and electronic polarization without the need for a protein scaffold. These results pave the way for addressing the next challenge, which is to resolve the functional conformational dynamics of the lhc antennae of oxygenic species that allows them to switch between light-emitting and light-energy dissipating states. PMID:21842288

  3. Whole-cell arsenite biosensor using photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum. Rhodovulum sulfidophilum as an arsenite biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Masato; Yamashiro, Hidenori; Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Yagi, Kiyohito [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Maeda, Isamu [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Miyasaka, Hitoshi [Kansai Electric Power Co., Sourakugun, Kyoto (Japan). Environmental Research Center

    2006-11-15

    An arsenite biosensor plasmid was constructed in Escherichia coli by inserting the operator/promoter region of the ars operon and the arsR gene from E. coli and the crtA gene, which is responsible for carotenoid synthesis in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodovulum sulfidophilum, into the broad-host-range plasmid vector, pRK415. The biosensor plasmid, pSENSE-As, was introduced into a crtA-deleted mutant strain of R. sulfidophilum (CDM2), which is yellow in culture due to its content of spheroiden (SE) and demethylspheroidene (DMSE). CDM2 containing pSENSE-As changed from yellow to red by the addition of arsenite, which caused enzymatic transformation of SE and DMSE to spheroidenone (SO) and demethylspheroidenone (DMSO). Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that the color change depended on transcription of the crtA gene in pSENSE-As. The color change could be clearly recognized with the naked eye at 5 {mu}g/l arsenite. The biosensor strain did not respond to other metals except for bismuth and antimony, which caused significant accumulation of SO and DMSO in the cells at 60 and 600 {mu}g/l, respectively. This biosensor indicates the presence of arsenite with a bacterial color change without the need to add a special reagent or substrate for color development, enabling this pollutant to be monitored in samples by the naked eye in sunlight, even where electricity is not available. (orig.)

  4. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (αETR). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. -- Highlights: •Photosynthetic efficiency of natural and restored mangroves are compared. •Natural stands present higher photosynthetic performance. •Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination. •Chlorophyll a fluorescence is a useful indicator to assess short-term restoration. -- Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination

  5. A study of methods of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration - the sustainability of a photosynthetic bioreactor approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is faced with an intrinsic environmental responsibility, i.e. the minimisation of greenhouse gas emission to acceptable levels. This study seeks to explain the methods of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration and to discuss a line of research that may, in the future, help to reduce the greenhouse effect in a sustainable manner. The capture of carbon dioxide produced by combustion of fossil fuels used in electric generation can be achieved by amine scrubbing of the flue gases. This process is costly and may, in the future, be replaced by options such as membrane separation, molecular sieves or desiccant adsorption. Short term options of sequestration by direct injection into geologic or oceanic sinks are recognised as methods to reduce the carbon dioxide levels but do not address issues of sustainability. For this purpose, the topic of photosynthetic reaction, which has long been known as a natural process that can produce useful by-products of biomass, oxygen and hydrogen and can fix carbon dioxide, has been examined. In a controlled environment, such as a bio-reactor, micro-organisms capable of photosynthetic reactions may hold the key to reducing emissions in both an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. The design of such a laboratory scale reactor, described in this paper, may help researchers study the feasibility of implementing a larger scale economically sustainable system capable of sequestering significant quantities of carbon dioxide

  6. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-08-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers-Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  7. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers–Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  8. Robustness, efficiency, and optimality in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic pigment-protein complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) play a central role in facilitating excitation energy transfer (EET) from light-harvesting antenna complexes to reaction centres in photosynthetic systems; understanding molecular organisation in these biological networks is key to developing better artificial light-harvesting systems. In this article, we combine quantum-mechanical simulations and a network-based picture of transport to investigate how chromophore organization and protein environment in PPCs impacts on EET efficiency and robustness. In a prototypical PPC model, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, we consider the impact on EET efficiency of both disrupting the chromophore network and changing the influence of (local and global) environmental dephasing. Surprisingly, we find a large degree of resilience to changes in both chromophore network and protein environmental dephasing, the extent of which is greater than previously observed; for example, FMO maintains EET when 50% of the constituent chromophores are removed, or when environmental dephasing fluctuations vary over two orders-of-magnitude relative to the in vivo system. We also highlight the fact that the influence of local dephasing can be strongly dependent on the characteristics of the EET network and the initial excitation; for example, initial excitations resulting in rapid coherent decay are generally insensitive to the environment, whereas the incoherent population decay observed following excitation at weakly coupled chromophores demonstrates a more pronounced dependence on dephasing rate as a result of the greater possibility of local exciton trapping. Finally, we show that the FMO electronic Hamiltonian is not particularly optimised for EET; instead, it is just one of many possible chromophore organisations which demonstrate a good level of EET transport efficiency following excitation at different chromophores. Overall, these robustness and efficiency characteristics are attributed to the highly

  9. Robustness, efficiency, and optimality in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic pigment-protein complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lewis A.; Habershon, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) play a central role in facilitating excitation energy transfer (EET) from light-harvesting antenna complexes to reaction centres in photosynthetic systems; understanding molecular organisation in these biological networks is key to developing better artificial light-harvesting systems. In this article, we combine quantum-mechanical simulations and a network-based picture of transport to investigate how chromophore organization and protein environment in PPCs impacts on EET efficiency and robustness. In a prototypical PPC model, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, we consider the impact on EET efficiency of both disrupting the chromophore network and changing the influence of (local and global) environmental dephasing. Surprisingly, we find a large degree of resilience to changes in both chromophore network and protein environmental dephasing, the extent of which is greater than previously observed; for example, FMO maintains EET when 50% of the constituent chromophores are removed, or when environmental dephasing fluctuations vary over two orders-of-magnitude relative to the in vivo system. We also highlight the fact that the influence of local dephasing can be strongly dependent on the characteristics of the EET network and the initial excitation; for example, initial excitations resulting in rapid coherent decay are generally insensitive to the environment, whereas the incoherent population decay observed following excitation at weakly coupled chromophores demonstrates a more pronounced dependence on dephasing rate as a result of the greater possibility of local exciton trapping. Finally, we show that the FMO electronic Hamiltonian is not particularly optimised for EET; instead, it is just one of many possible chromophore organisations which demonstrate a good level of EET transport efficiency following excitation at different chromophores. Overall, these robustness and efficiency characteristics are attributed to the highly

  10. Variation potential-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes increase ATP content in pea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Vodeneev, Vladimir; Katicheva, Lyubov; Semina, Maria; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Local damage induces a physiological response in higher plants by means of generation and propagation of variation potential (VP). The response includes changes in photosynthesis and respiration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of these changes on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in pea leaves. VP was induced by local heating of the first mature leaf and registered using extracellular and intracellular electrodes. Photosynthesis and respiration were measured using Dual-PAM-100 and GFS-3000. ATP content was determined using a bioluminescence-based ATP determination kit. Two non-stimulated leaves (second and fourth) were investigated. We showed that heating induced VP that propagated into the second mature leaf, but only a slight electrical reaction was registered in the fourth mature leaf. VP-induced inactivation of photosynthesis developed in the second leaf and included two stages: short- and long-term inactivation. Local heating also caused a two-stage increase in ATP content in the second leaf, which was connected with the photosynthetic responses. Changes in photosynthesis and ATP content were not observed in the fourth leaf. The effect of VP on respiration was investigated under dark conditions. We found that variation potential induced short-term activation of respiration in the second leaf. Local heating induced ATP content increase which included only one stage under dark conditions. Changes in ATP and respiration were absent in the fourth leaf under dark conditions. Thus, VP-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes are likely to increase ATP content in pea leaves. PMID:27450494

  11. Photosynthetic complex LH2 – Absorption and steady state fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, much effort is devoted to the study of photosynthesis which could be the basis for an ideal energy source in the future. To be able to create such an energy source – an artificial photosynthetic complex, the first step is a detailed understanding of the function of photosynthetic complexes in living organisms. Photosynthesis starts with the absorption of a solar photon by one of the LH (light-harvesting) pigment–protein complexes and transferring the excitation energy to the reaction center where a charge separation is initiated. The geometric structure of some LH complexes is known in great detail, e.g. for the LH2 complexes of purple bacteria. For understanding of photosynthesis first stage efficiency, it is necessary to study especially optical properties of LH complexes. In this paper we present simulated absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra for ring molecular system within full Hamiltonian model. Such system can model bacteriochlorophyll ring of peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2 from purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila (Rhodoblastus acidophilus). Dynamic disorder (coupling with phonon bath) simultaneously with uncorrelated static disorder (transfer integral fluctuations) is used in our present simulations. We compare and discuss our new results with our previously published ones and of course with experimental data. - Highlights: • We model absorption and steady state fluorescence spectra for B850 ring from LH2. • Fluctuations of environment is modelled by static and dynamic disorder. • Full Hamiltonian model is compared with the nearest neighbour approximation one. • Simulated fluorescence spectrum is compared with experimental data

  12. Robustness, efficiency, and optimality in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic pigment-protein complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lewis A.; Habershon, Scott, E-mail: S.Habershon@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Scientific Computing, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-14

    Pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) play a central role in facilitating excitation energy transfer (EET) from light-harvesting antenna complexes to reaction centres in photosynthetic systems; understanding molecular organisation in these biological networks is key to developing better artificial light-harvesting systems. In this article, we combine quantum-mechanical simulations and a network-based picture of transport to investigate how chromophore organization and protein environment in PPCs impacts on EET efficiency and robustness. In a prototypical PPC model, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, we consider the impact on EET efficiency of both disrupting the chromophore network and changing the influence of (local and global) environmental dephasing. Surprisingly, we find a large degree of resilience to changes in both chromophore network and protein environmental dephasing, the extent of which is greater than previously observed; for example, FMO maintains EET when 50% of the constituent chromophores are removed, or when environmental dephasing fluctuations vary over two orders-of-magnitude relative to the in vivo system. We also highlight the fact that the influence of local dephasing can be strongly dependent on the characteristics of the EET network and the initial excitation; for example, initial excitations resulting in rapid coherent decay are generally insensitive to the environment, whereas the incoherent population decay observed following excitation at weakly coupled chromophores demonstrates a more pronounced dependence on dephasing rate as a result of the greater possibility of local exciton trapping. Finally, we show that the FMO electronic Hamiltonian is not particularly optimised for EET; instead, it is just one of many possible chromophore organisations which demonstrate a good level of EET transport efficiency following excitation at different chromophores. Overall, these robustness and efficiency characteristics are attributed to the highly

  13. Effects of Waterlogging on Leaf Mesophyll Cell Ultrastructure and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Summer Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baizhao; Zhang, Jiwang; Dong, Shuting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to study the effects of waterlogging on the leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of summer maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids Denghai605 (DH605) and Zhengdan958 (ZD958). The waterlogging treatments were implemented for different durations (3 and 6 days) at the third leaf stage (V3), the sixth leaf stage (V6), and the 10th day after the tasseling stage (10VT). Leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate (Pn), and actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII) were reduced after waterlogging, indicating that waterlogging significantly decreased photosynthetic capacity. The chloroplast shapes changed from long and oval to elliptical or circular after waterlogging. In addition, the internal structures of chloroplasts were degenerated after waterlogging. After waterlogging for 6 d at V3, the number of grana and grana lamellae of the third expanded leaf in DH605 were decreased by 26.83% and 55.95%, respectively, compared to the control (CK). Those in ZD958 were reduced by 30.08% and 31.94%, respectively. Waterlogging increased MDA content in both hybrids, suggesting an impact of waterlogging on membrane integrity and thus membrane deterioration. Waterlogging also damaged the biological membrane structure and mitochondria. Our results indicated that the physiological reactions to waterlogging were closely related to lower LAI, chlorophyll content, and Pn and to the destruction of chloroplast ultrastructure. These negative effects resulted in the decrease of grain yield in response to waterlogging. Summer maize was the most susceptible to damage when waterlogging occurred at V3, followed by V6 and 10VT, with damage increasing in the wake of waterlogging duration increasing. PMID:27583803

  14. Varying light regimes in naturally growing Jatropha curcus: pigment, proline and photosynthetic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa R.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Light stress is a major abiotic stress which adversely affects productivity of the plants. Tolerance to abiotic stresses is very complex, due to the intricate of interactions between stress factors and various molecular, biochemical and physiological phenomena affecting plant growth and development. In many cases, high yield potential can contribute to yield in moderate stress environment. We studied chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence parameters and analyzed D1 core protein in one year old plants of Jatropha curcus under different light regimes (10–1200 μmol m–2 s–1 in sun and shade plants. Chl a fluorescence provides insights into the responses of the photosynthetic system to increasing irradiance. Total Chl content was 1.43 and 0.61 mg/g-1 FM for shade and sun exposed plants respectively. The effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm' of the sun plants was lower as compared to shade plants but the amount of the D1 core protein was higher in plants grown under high light intensity. A decrease in ΔF/Fm' indicates down regulation of photosynthesis or photoinhibition. D1 protein is the membrane protein complex of the PSII reaction centre. The degradation of D1 protein may regulate the functioning of the PSII repair cycle under photoinhibitory conditions. It has been shown that low-light grown or shade plants are more susceptible to photoinhibition than high light or sun plants. This higher susceptibility is accompanied by slow degradation of damaged D1 protein. High light intensity or exposure to photooxidation leads to the irreversible damage in photosynthetic performance and consequently has an overall inhibitory effect on crop productivity.

  15. Electron uptake and delivery sites on plastocyanin in its reactions with the photosynthetic electron transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Shahak, Y; Pecht, I

    1982-01-01

    French bean plastocyanin is stoichiometrically and specifically labeled upon reduction by Cr(II)aq ions, yielding a substitution-inert (Cr(III) adduct at the protein surface. The effect of the modification on the activity of plastocyanin in electron transfer between photosystems II and I has been...

  16. Direct extraction of photosynthetic electrons from single algal cells by nanoprobing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, WonHyoung; Bai, Seoung-Jai; Park, Joong Sun; Huang, Zubin; Moseley, Jeffrey; Fabian, Tibor; Fasching, Rainer J; Grossman, Arthur R; Prinz, Fritz B

    2010-04-14

    There are numerous sources of bioenergy that are generated by photosynthetic processes, for example, lipids, alcohols, hydrogen, and polysaccharides. However, generally only a small fraction of solar energy absorbed by photosynthetic organisms is converted to a form of energy that can be readily exploited. To more efficiently use the solar energy harvested by photosynthetic organisms, we evaluated the feasibility of generating bioelectricity by directly extracting electrons from the photosynthetic electron transport chain before they are used to fix CO(2) into sugars and polysaccharides. From a living algal cell, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, photosynthetic electrons (1.2 pA at 6000 mA/m(2)) were directly extracted without a mediator electron carrier by inserting a nanoelectrode into the algal chloroplast and applying an overvoltage. This result may represent an initial step in generating "high efficiency" bioelectricity by directly harvesting high energy photosynthetic electrons. PMID:20201533

  17. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, André Scarlate; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto; Scherner, Fernando; Torres, Moacir Aluísio; Horta, Paulo Antunes; Simonassi, José Carlos; Quadros, Daiane Paula Cunha; Borges, Daniel Lázaro Gallindo; Soriano-Sierra, Eduardo Juan

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (αETR). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. PMID:23872046

  18. Discrete redox signaling pathways regulate photosynthetic light-harvesting and chloroplast gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Allen

    Full Text Available In photosynthesis in chloroplasts, two related regulatory processes balance the actions of photosystems I and II. These processes are short-term, post-translational redistribution of light-harvesting capacity, and long-term adjustment of photosystem stoichiometry initiated by control of chloroplast DNA transcription. Both responses are initiated by changes in the redox state of the electron carrier, plastoquinone, which connects the two photosystems. Chloroplast Sensor Kinase (CSK is a regulator of transcription of chloroplast genes for reaction centres of the two photosystems, and a sensor of plastoquinone redox state. We asked whether CSK is also involved in regulation of absorbed light energy distribution by phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II (LHC II. Chloroplast thylakoid membranes isolated from a CSK T-DNA insertion mutant and from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit similar light- and redox-induced (32P-labelling of LHC II and changes in 77 K chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra, while room-temperature chlorophyll fluorescence emission transients from Arabidopsis leaves are perturbed by inactivation of CSK. The results indicate indirect, pleiotropic effects of reaction centre gene transcription on regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting in vivo. A single, direct redox signal is transmitted separately to discrete transcriptional and post-translational branches of an integrated cytoplasmic regulatory system.

  19. Bacterial Nanowires: Is the Subsurface Hardwired?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorby, Y. A.; Davis, C. A.; Atekwana, E.

    2006-05-01

    Bacteria, ranging from oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacteria to heterotrophic sulfate reducing bacteria, produce electrically-conductive appendages referred to as bacterial nanowires. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, including Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens, produce electrically conductive nanowires in direct response to electron acceptor limitation and facilitate electron transfer to solid phase iron oxides. Nanowires produced by S. oneidensis strain MR-1, which served as our primary model organism, are functionalized by decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA that are distributed along the length of the nanowires. Mutants deficient in MtrC and OmcA produce nanowires that were poorly conductive. These mutants also differ from wild type cells in their ability to reduce solid phase iron oxides, to produce electrical current in a mediator less microbial fuel cell, and to form complex biofilms at air liquid interfaces. Recent results obtained using direct cell counts and low frequency electrical measurements demonstrate that microbial growth correlated with real and imaginary electrical conductivity response in uncoated silica sand columns. Direct observation of packing material with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) revealed a fine network of extracellular structures that were morphologically similar to nanowires observed in metal reducing bacteria. No such structures were observed in control columns. We hypothesize that microbial nanowires may in part be responsible for the electrical response observed in the biostimulated columns.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on photosynthetic metabolism of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa studied by 14CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on photosynthetic activity and metabolism of the primary products of photosynthesis has been studied on Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultures, by 14CO2 assimilation. The photosynthetic assimilation rate is remarkably depressed after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy doses, which also produce a significant change in radioactivity distribution pattern of primary compounds from photosynthetic metabolism after irradiation at 10 and 100 Gy. (author)

  1. Adaptation to Fe-deficiency requires remodeling of the photosynthetic apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Moseley, Jeffrey L.; Allinger, Tanja; Herzog, Sebastian; Hoerth, Patric; Wehinger, Elke; Merchant, Sabeeha; Hippler, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of Fe-deficiency chlorosis and the maintenance of photosynthetic function in chlorotic chloroplasts are relevant to global photosynthetic productivity. We describe a series of graded responses of the photosynthetic apparatus to Fe-deficiency, including a novel response that occurs prior to the onset of chlorosis, namely the disconnection of the LHCI antenna from photosystem I (PSI). We propose that disconnection is mediated by a change in the phys...

  2. Photosynthetic response of soybean to twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychydae) injury

    OpenAIRE

    Adeney de Freitas Bueno; Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno; Paul David Nabity; Leon George Higley; Odair Aparecido Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a common pest on soybean plants. To clarify plant-arthropod interaction on mite-soybean system, leaf fluorescence, photosynthetic responses to variable carbon dioxide levels, and chlorophyll content were evaluated. Significant photosynthetic rate reduction was observed due to stomatal limitation. Stomatal closure was the major plant physiological response. As a consequence, there was reduction in photosynthetic rates. Surprisingly, plants...

  3. Role of an elliptical structure in photosynthetic energy transfer: Collaboration between quantum entanglement and thermal fluctuation

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Hisaki

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have revealed that the light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1) in purple photosynthetic bacteria has an elliptical structure. Generally, symmetry lowering in a structure leads to a decrease in quantum effects (quantum coherence and entanglement), which have recently been considered to play a role in photosynthetic energy transfer, and hence, elliptical structure seems to work against efficient photosynthetic energy transfer. Here we analyse the effect of an elliptical structure on...

  4. Nuclear Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bertulani, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear reactions generate energy in nuclear reactors, in stars, and are responsible for the existence of all elements heavier than hydrogen in the universe. Nuclear reactions denote reactions between nuclei, and between nuclei and other fundamental particles, such as electrons and photons. A short description of the conservation laws and the definition of basic physical quantities is presented, followed by a more detailed account of specific cases: (a) formation and decay of compound nuclei;...

  5. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  6. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  7. Effect of temperature and light intensity on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 350C) and two levels of illumination on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied. The growth of the cultures was evaluated by optical density. Photosynthetic activity has been carried out studying either the assimilation rate of CO2 labelled with C 14 or the oxygen evolution by means of polarographic measurements. The maximum photosynthetic rate has been obtained at 250C for the lower lavel of illumination (2400 lux) and at 350C for the higher one (13200 lux). These results suggest an interacton of temperature and illumination on photosynthetic activity. (author)

  8. Structure and function of pigment-protein complexes of photosynthetic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Herbstová, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Biochemical and biophysical methods in combination with electron microscopy were used to investigate structure and function of pigment-protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of various photosynthetic organisms.

  9. The relationships between photosynthetic rate and yield of densely planting corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between photosynthetic rate and yield of densely planting corn was studied by using 14C tracer technique. The results indicated that the photosynthetic rates of corn were not different between varied types. The photosynthetic rate was higher at 8:00 ∼ 16:00 of a day (50 ∼ 70 mg CO2/dm2·h). 80% of the photosynthetic assimilate in leaf of ear was transported to other organs, the amount of distribution in ear was 50% ∼ 60%. As densely planting increased the amount of ear per unit area, higher yield of corn was obtained

  10. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) on young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, photosynthetic performance, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Carmen; Schmidt, Eder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Polo, Luz Karime; Rover, Ticiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the development and growth rates (GRs) of young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum. In addition, photosynthetic pigments were quantified, carotenoids identified, and photosynthetic performance assessed. Over a period of 3 days, young gametophytes were cultivated under laboratory conditions and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR+UVA (0.70 W m(-2))+UVB (0.35 W m(-2)) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for light and electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure features, as well as carry out metabolic studies of GRs, quantify the content of photosynthetic pigments, identify carotenoids and assess photosynthetic performance. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Algae exposed to PAR+UVA+UVB also showed a reduction in GR of 97%. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin contents, decreased significantly from UV radiation exposure. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR), where values of ETRmax declined approximately 44.71%. It can be concluded that radiation is a factor that affects the young gametophytes of G. floridanum at this stage of development. PMID:24893751

  11. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria.......Biofilm resilience poses major challenges to the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Biofilm bacteria can be considered small groups of “Special Forces” capable of infiltrating the host and destroying important components of the cellular defense system with the aim of crippling the host...

  12. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederman, Robert A. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Blankenship, Robert E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Frank, Harry A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-02-07

    These funds were used for partial support of the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems, that was held on 8-11 August, 2013, at Washington University, St. Louis, MO. This conference, held in conjunction with the 16th International Congress on Photosynthesis/St. Louis, continued a long tradition of light-harvesting satellite conferences that have been held prior to the previous six international photosynthesis congresses. In this Workshop, the basis was explored for the current interest in replacing fossil fuels with energy sources derived form direct solar radiation, coupled with light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems and how they offer a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. This was accomplished through sessions on the initial light-harvesting events in the biological conversion of solar energy to chemically stored energy forms, and how these natural photosynthetic processes serve as a guide to the development of robust bio-hybrid and artificial systems for solar energy conversion into both electricity or chemical fuels. Organized similar to a Gordon Research Conference, a lively, informal and collegial setting was established, highlighting the exchange of exciting new data and unpublished results from ongoing studies. A significant amount of time was set aside for open discussion and interactive poster sessions, with a special session devoted to oral presentations by talented students and postdoctoral fellows judged to have the best posters. This area of research has seen exceptionally rapid progress in recent years, with the availability of a number of antenna protein structures at atomic resolution, elucidation of the molecular surface architecture of native photosynthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy and the maturing of ultrafast spectroscopic and molecular biological techniques for the investigation and manipulation of photosynthetic systems. The conferees

  13. Photoelectrochemical cells based on photosynthetic systems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A. Voloshin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a process which converts light energy into energy contained in the chemical bonds of organic compounds by photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl a, b, c, d, f or bacteriochlorophyll. It occurs in phototrophic organisms, which include higher plants and many types of photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria. In the case of the oxygenic photosynthesis, water is a donor of both electrons and protons, and solar radiation serves as inexhaustible source of energy. Efficiency of energy conversion in the primary processes of photosynthesis is close to 100%. Therefore, for many years photosynthesis has attracted the attention of researchers and designers looking for alternative energy systems as one of the most efficient and eco-friendly pathways of energy conversion. The latest advances in the design of optimal solar cells include the creation of converters based on thylakoid membranes, photosystems, and whole cells of cyanobacteria immobilized on nanostructured electrode (gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles of ZnO and TiO2. The mode of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis has a great potential as a source of renewable energy while it is sustainable and environmentally safety as well. Application of pigments such as Chl f and Chl d (unlike Chl a and Chl b, by absorbing the far red and near infrared region of the spectrum (in the range 700-750 nm, will allow to increase the efficiency of such light transforming systems. This review article presents the last achievements in the field of energy photoconverters based on photosynthetic systems.

  14. A Survey into Taxonomic and Physiological Differences of Symbiodinium sp., the Photosynthetic Symbiont of Reef-building Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xianzhe

    2012-11-01

    The dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium is a popular research topic in the coral reef molecular biology field. Primarily because these organisms serve as the coral holobiont’s primary source of energy, carrying out photosynthesis, and providing hydrocarbons to the coral host. Previous studies have shown the difficulty of isolating Symbiodinium as well as the inherent problems in trying to quantify the diversity of this genus and to qualify the distinct reactions of different Symbiodinium sp. to changing environmental conditions. The main goals of this study are: (1) to detail the relationship between the genetic classification of the organism and its physiology in regard to photosynthesis with a number of established Symbiodinium cultures; and (2) to isolate Symbiodinium from coral of the central Red Sea. To evaluate the photosynthetic physiology of Symbiodinium, a microsensor was used to measure oxygen concentrations along with a phytoplankton analyzer system that used pulse-amplitude-modulation (Phyto-PAM) to measure fluorescence. In order to identify the particular clade that the isolates belonged to, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to identify Symbiodinium based on their internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. These techniques helped us to achieve our goals in the following ways: Symbiodinium sp. from a culture collection were classified to the subclade level; species-specific and clade-specific photosynthetic profiles were generated; and a Symbiodinium sp. was isolated from the central Red Sea. This study provided preliminary correlation between the photosynthetic difference and Symbiodinium genetic classification; showed the probable existence of a self-protection system inside the Symbiodinium cells by comparing the difference between the initial oxygen production at the beginning of each light step and the oxygen production after light adaptation; and confirmed the possibility of the isolation of Symbiodinium.

  15. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexian Dong

    Full Text Available Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10 cells mL(-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  16. Photosynthetic flexibility in maize exposed to salinity and shade

    OpenAIRE

    Sharwood, Robert E.; Sonawane, Balasaheb V.; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis involves a close collaboration of the C3 and C4 metabolic cycles across the mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells. This study investigated the coordination of C4 photosynthesis in maize plants subjected to two salinity (50 and 100mM NaCl) treatments and one shade (20% of full sunlight) treatment. Photosynthetic efficiency was probed by combining leaf gas-exchange measurements with carbon isotope discrimination and assaying the key carboxylases [ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxyl...

  17. Stickland reactions of dental plaque.

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, M A; Kemp, C W; Robrish, S A; Bowen, W H

    1983-01-01

    Dental plaque samples from monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were shown to contain proline reduction activity in coupled Stickland reactions with other amino acids and also with certain end products of bacterial glucose metabolism. The unusually high concentration of bound and free proline in the oral environment may be of importance in both the production of base and in the removal of acid from the tooth surface after dietary carbohydrate ingestion.

  18. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  19. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or scraped, the injury should be washed with soap and water and covered with a sterile bandage. Petrolatum may be applied to open areas to keep the tissue moist and to try to prevent bacterial invasion. Doctors recommend that people do not use ...

  20. Bacterial microflora of nectarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...

  1. Unified analysis of ensemble and single-complex optical spectral data from light-harvesting complex-2 chromoproteins for gaining deeper insight into bacterial photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajusalu, Mihkel; Kunz, Ralf; Rätsep, Margus; Timpmann, Kõu; Köhler, Jürgen; Freiberg, Arvi

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes are very efficient at converting photons into excitons and transferring them to reaction centers, where the energy is stored in a chemical form. Optical properties of the complexes are known to change significantly in time and also vary from one complex to another; therefore, a detailed understanding of the variations on the level of single complexes and how they accumulate into effects that can be seen on the macroscopic scale is required. While experimental and theoretical methods exist to study the spectral properties of light-harvesting complexes on both individual complex and bulk ensemble levels, they have been developed largely independently of each other. To fill this gap, we simultaneously analyze experimental low-temperature single-complex and bulk ensemble optical spectra of the light-harvesting complex-2 (LH2) chromoproteins from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila in order to find a unique theoretical model consistent with both experimental situations. The model, which satisfies most of the observations, combines strong exciton-phonon coupling with significant disorder, characteristic of the proteins. We establish a detailed disorder model that, in addition to containing a C2-symmetrical modulation of the site energies, distinguishes between static intercomplex and slow conformational intracomplex disorders. The model evaluations also verify that, despite best efforts, the single-LH2-complex measurements performed so far may be biased toward complexes with higher Huang-Rhys factors.

  2. Production and secretion of glucose in photosynthetic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jr., David R. , Brown, Jr., R. Malcolm

    2010-09-28

    The present invention includes compositions and methods for making and using an isolated cyanobacterium that includes a portion of an exogenous bacterial cellulose operon sufficient to express bacterial cellulose, whereby the cyanobacterium produces extracellular glucose. The compositions and methods of the present invention may be used as a new global crop for the manufacture of cellulose, CO.sub.2 fixation, for the production of alternative sources of conventional cellulose as well as a biofuel and precursors thereof.

  3. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment; Dang, Q.L. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany, Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology

    2006-11-15

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO{sub 2} and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO{sub 2} in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to

  4. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO2 enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO2 and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO2 in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO2 reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to photoprotective mechanisms. Low carboxylation

  5. Excitation energy transfer in natural photosynthetic complexes and chlorophyll trefoils: hole-burning and single complex/trefoil spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryszard Jankowiak, Kansas State University, Department of Chemistry, CBC Bldg., Manhattan KS, 66505; Phone: (785) 532-6785

    2012-09-12

    In this project we studied both natural photosynthetic antenna complexes and various artificial systems (e.g. chlorophyll (Chl) trefoils) using high resolution hole-burning (HB) spectroscopy and excitonic calculations. Results obtained provided more insight into the electronic (excitonic) structure, inhomogeneity, electron-phonon coupling strength, vibrational frequencies, and excitation energy (or electron) transfer (EET) processes in several antennas and reaction centers. For example, our recent work provided important constraints and parameters for more advanced excitonic calculations of CP43, CP47, and PSII core complexes. Improved theoretical description of HB spectra for various model systems offers new insight into the excitonic structure and composition of low-energy absorption traps in very several antenna protein complexes and reaction centers. We anticipate that better understanding of HB spectra obtained for various photosynthetic complexes and their simultaneous fits with other optical spectra (i.e. absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra) provides more insight into the underlying electronic structures of these important biological systems. Our recent progress provides a necessary framework for probing the electronic structure of these systems via Hole Burning Spectroscopy. For example, we have shown that the theoretical description of non-resonant holes is more restrictive (in terms of possible site energies) than those of absorption and emission spectra. We have demonstrated that simultaneous description of linear optical spectra along with HB spectra provides more realistic site energies. We have also developed new algorithms to describe both nonresonant and resonant hole-burn spectra using more advanced Redfield theory. Simultaneous description of various optical spectra for complex biological system, e.g. artificial antenna systems, FMO protein complexes, water soluble protein complexes, and various mutants of reaction centers

  6. Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L. to variations in photosynthetic photon flux densities, temperature and CO2 conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Mahmoud A. ElSohly

    2008-01-01

    Effect of different photosynthetic photon flux densities (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol m−2s−1), temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C) and CO2 concentrations (250, 350, 450, 550, 650 and 750 μmol mol−1) on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of Cannabis sativa L. were studied to determine the suitable and efficient environmental conditions for its indoor mass cultivation for pharmaceutical uses. The rate of photosynthesis (PN) and water use efficiency (WUE) of Cannabis sativa i...

  7. Photosynthetic diversity meets biodiversity: the C4 plant example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; Stata, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Physiological diversification reflects adaptation for specific environmental challenges. As the major physiological process that provides plants with carbon and energy, photosynthesis is under strong evolutionary selection that gives rise to variability in nearly all parts of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we discuss how plants, notably those using C4 photosynthesis, diversified in response to environmental challenges imposed by declining atmospheric CO2 content in recent geological time. This reduction in atmospheric CO2 increases the rate of photorespiration and reduces photosynthetic efficiency. While plants have evolved numerous mechanisms to compensate for low CO2, the most effective are the carbon concentration mechanisms of C4, C2, and CAM photosynthesis; and the pumping of dissolved inorganic carbon, mainly by algae. C4 photosynthesis enables plants to dominate warm, dry and often salinized habitats, and to colonize areas that are too stressful for most plant groups. Because C4 lineages generally lack arborescence, they cannot form forests. Hence, where they predominate, C4 plants create a different landscape than would occur if C3 plants were to predominate. These landscapes (mostly grasslands and savannahs) present unique selection environments that promoted the diversification of animal guilds able to graze upon the C4 vegetation. Thus, the rise of C4 photosynthesis has made a significant contribution to the origin of numerous biomes in the modern biosphere. PMID:25264020

  8. An Inexpensive Apparatus for Growing Photosynthetic Microorganisms in Exotic Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David J.; Herbert, Stephen K.

    2005-02-01

    Given the need for a light source, cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic microorganisms can be difficult and expensive to grow in large quantities. Lighted growth chambers and incubators typically cost 50-100% more than standard microbiological incubators. Self-shading of cells in liquid cultures prevents the growth of dense suspensions. Growing liquid cultures on a shaker table or lighted shaker incubator achieves greater cell densities, but adds considerably to the cost. For experiments in which gases other than air are required, the cost for conventional incubators increases even more. We describe an apparatus for growing photosynthetic organisms in exotic atmospheres that can be built relatively inexpensively (approximately $100 U.S.) using parts available from typical hardware or department stores (e.g., Wal-mart or K-mart). The apparatus uses microfiltered air (or other gases) to aerate, agitate, and mix liquid cultures, thus achieving very high cell densities (A750 > 3). Because gases are delivered to individual culture tubes, a variety of gas mixes can be used without the need for enclosed chambers. The apparatus works with liquid cultures of unicellular and filamentous species, and also works with agar slants.

  9. Theory of Ultrafast Exciton Motion in Photosynthetic Antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renger, Thomas; May, Volkhard

    1998-03-01

    Ultrafast exciton motion and its coupling to protein vibrations in photosynthetic antennae are investigated by means of a density matrix approach (O. Kühn, Th. Renger, T. Pullerits, J. Voigt, V. May, Ann. Rev. Photochem. Photobiol. (in press).). First we consider the Fenna Matthews Olson (FMO) photosynthetic antenna complex of Chlorobium Tepidum. Using the same approach and the same parameters, linear absorption spectra and ultrafast pump--probe and transient anisotropy spectra have been succesfully simulated (Th. Renger, V. May, J. Phys. Chem. B (submitted).). The model allows to utilize exciton relaxation data as a probe for a global--shape estimation of the spectral density of low--frequency protein vibrations. In a second approach concentrating on a Chla/Chlb hetero--dimer of the Light--Harvesting--Complex of the Photosystem II of higher plants an unified microscopic description is offered for coherent vibrational dynamics, excited state absorption, and exciton-exciton annihilation processes. The theory explains the intensity dependent ultrafast nonlinear optical response recently measured in a pump--probe experiment. The presence of non--Markovian effects in the dissipative dynamics is demonstrated (Th. Renger, V. May, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 3406 (1996), Th. Renger, V. May, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7211 (1997).

  10. Dynamic reorganization of photosynthetic supercomplexes during environmental acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eMinagawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants and algae have acquired the ability to acclimate to ever-changing environments in order to survive. During photosynthesis, light energy is converted by several membrane protein supercomplexes into electrochemical energy, which is eventually used to assimilate CO2. The efficiency of photosynthesis is modulated by many environmental factors such as quality and quantity of light, temperature, drought, and CO2 concentration, among others. Accumulating evidence indicates that photosynthetic supercomplexes undergo supramolecular reorganization within a short timeframe during acclimation to an environmental change. This reorganization includes state transitions that balance the excitation of photosystem I and II by shuttling peripheral antenna proteins between the two, thermal energy dissipation that occurs at energy-quenching sites within the light-harvesting antenna generated for negative feedback when excess light is absorbed, and cyclic electron flow that is facilitated between photosystem I and the cytochrome bf complex when cells demand more ATP and/or need to activate energy dissipation. This review will highlight the recent findings regarding these environmental acclimation events in model organisms with particular attention to the unicellular green alga C. reinhardtii and with reference to the vascular plant A. thaliana, which offers a glimpse into the dynamic behavior of photosynthetic machineries in nature.

  11. Evanescent cultivation of photosynthetic bacteria on thin waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waveguides with thicknesses similar to biofilms (10–100 µm) provide an opportunity to improve the bioenergy density of biofilm photobioreactors, avoiding the fundamental light- and mass-transport productivity limitations of planktonic photobioreactors. This report investigates the biofilm growth of a mutant of Synechococcus elongatus (PCC 7942) in evanescent light fields that can be scaled over large planar areas. In this study, areas of 7.2 cm2 are illuminated via frustrated total internal reflections on planar waveguides. The resulting photosynthetic biofilm growth showed resilience to surface intensities exceeding photosynthetic limits and a more uniform cell density distribution (1.0 ± 0.3 × 109 mL−1) than predicted from surface light distribution profiles. These results indicate potential for larger area biofilms using the uniform lighting conditions identified. The combination of evanescent illumination with biofilms indicates a modular reactor cell density on the order of 108 mL−1, representing a two orders of magnitude improvement over current facility architectures, with significant potential for further improvement through denser biofilms. (paper)

  12. Fitting photosynthetic carbon dioxide response curves for C(3) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Thomas D; Bernacchi, Carl J; Farquhar, Graham D; Singsaas, Eric L

    2007-09-01

    Photosynthetic responses to carbon dioxide concentration can provide data on a number of important parameters related to leaf physiology. Methods for fitting a model to such data are briefly described. The method will fit the following parameters: V(cmax), J, TPU, R(d) and g(m)[maximum carboxylation rate allowed by ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (based on NADPH requirement), triose phosphate use, day respiration and mesophyll conductance, respectively]. The method requires at least five data pairs of net CO(2) assimilation (A) and [CO(2)] in the intercellular airspaces of the leaf (C(i)) and requires users to indicate the presumed limiting factor. The output is (1) calculated CO(2) partial pressure at the sites of carboxylation, C(c), (2) values for the five parameters at the measurement temperature and (3) values adjusted to 25 degrees C to facilitate comparisons. Fitting this model is a way of exploring leaf level photosynthesis. However, interpreting leaf level photosynthesis in terms of underlying biochemistry and biophysics is subject to assumptions that hold to a greater or lesser degree, a major assumption being that all parts of the leaf are behaving in the same way at each instant. PMID:17661745

  13. Enzymes involved in organellar DNA replication in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eMoriyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plastids and mitochondria possess their own genomes. Although the replication mechanisms of these organellar genomes remain unclear in photosynthetic eukaryotes, several organelle-localized enzymes related to genome replication, including DNA polymerase, DNA primase, DNA helicase, DNA topoisomerase, single-stranded DNA maintenance protein, DNA ligase, primer removal enzyme, and several DNA recombination-related enzymes, have been identified. In the reference Eudicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the replication-related enzymes of plastids and mitochondria are similar because many of them are dual targeted to both organelles, whereas in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, plastids and mitochondria contain different replication machinery components. The enzymes involved in organellar genome replication in green plants and red algae were derived from different origins, including proteobacterial, cyanobacterial, and eukaryotic lineages. In the present review, we summarize the available data for enzymes related to organellar genome replication in green plants and red algae. In addition, based on the type and distribution of replication enzymes in photosynthetic eukaryotes, we discuss the transitional history of replication enzymes in the organelles of plants.

  14. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the "Maltese mushroom" Cynomorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der Joshua P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although recent molecular phylogenetic studies have identified the photosynthetic relatives of several enigmatic holoparasitic angiosperms, uncertainty remains for the last parasitic plant order, Balanophorales, often considered to include two families, Balanophoraceae and Cynomoriaceae. The nonphotosynthetic (holoparasitic flowering plant Cynomorium coccineum has long been known to the Muslim world as "tarthuth" and to Europeans as the "Maltese mushroom"; C. songaricum is known in Chinese medicine as "suo yang." Interest in these plants is increasing and they are being extensively collected from wild populations for use in herbal medicines. Results Here we report molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial matR sequence data that strongly support the independent origin of Balanophoraceae and Cynomoriaceae. Analyses of single gene and combined gene data sets place Cynomorium in Saxifragales, possibly near Crassulaceae (stonecrop family. Balanophoraceae appear related to Santalales (sandalwood order, a position previously suggested from morphological characters that are often assumed to be convergent. Conclusion Our work shows that Cynomorium and Balanophoraceae are not closely related as indicated in all past and present classifications. Thus, morphological features, such as inflorescences bearing numerous highly reduced flowers, are convergent and were attained independently by these two holoparasite lineages. Given the widespread harvest of wild Cynomorium species for herbal medicines, we here raise conservation concerns and suggest that further molecular phylogenetic work is needed to identify its photosynthetic relatives. These relatives, which will be easier to cultivate, should then be examined for phytochemical activity purported to be present in the more sensitive Cynomorium.

  15. [Pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of pea chlorophyll mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea chlorophyll mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 have been studied. The mutants differ from the initial form (pea cultivar Torsdag) in stem and leaf color (light green in the mutant 2004 and yellow-green in the mutant 2014), relative chlorophyll content (approximately 80 and 50%, respectively), and the composition of carotenoids: the mutant 2004 contains a significantly smaller amount of carotene but accumulates more lutein and violaxanthine; in the mutant 2014, the contents of all carotenoids are decreased proportionally to the decrease in chlorophyll content. It is shown that the rates of CO2 assimilation and oxygen production in the mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 plants are reduced. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants is 29-30% lower than in the control plants; in their hybrids, however, it is 1.5-2 higher. It is proposed that both the greater role of dark respiration in gas exchange and the reduced photosynthetic activity in chlorotica mutants are responsible for the decreased phytomass increment in these plants. On the basis of these results, the conclusion is drawn that the mutations chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affect the genes controlling the formation and functioning of various components of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:12942751

  16. Heme uptake in bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Heidi; Chim, Nicholas; Credali, Alfredo; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the survival of organisms. Bacterial pathogens possess specialized pathways to acquire heme from their human hosts. In this review, we present recent structural and biochemical data that provide mechanistic insights into several bacterial heme uptake pathways, encompassing the sequestration of heme from human hemoproteins to secreted or membrane-associated bacterial proteins, the transport of heme across bacterial membranes, and the degradation of heme within...

  17. The LysR-type transcription factor PacR is a global regulator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Anabaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picossi, Silvia; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-09-01

    Cyanobacteria perform water-splitting photosynthesis and are important primary producers impacting the carbon and nitrogen cycles at global scale. They fix CO2 through ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) and have evolved a distinct CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) that builds high CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of RuBisCo favouring its carboxylase activity. Filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena fix CO2 in photosynthetic vegetative cells, which donate photosynthate to heterocysts that rely on a heterotrophic metabolism to fix N2 . CCM elements are induced in response to inorganic carbon limitation, a cue that exposes the photosynthetic apparatus to photodamage by over-reduction. An Anabaena mutant lacking the LysR-type transcription factor All3953 grew poorly and dies under high light. The rbcL operon encoding RuBisCo was induced upon carbon limitation in the wild type but not in the mutant. ChIP-Seq analysis was used to globally identify All3953 targets under carbon limitation. Targets include, besides rbcL, genes encoding CCM elements, photorespiratory pathway- photosystem- and electron transport-related components, and factors, including flavodiiron proteins, with a demonstrated or putative function in photoprotection. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected All3953 targets showed regulation in the wild type but not in the mutant. All3953 (PacR) is a global regulator of carbon assimilation in an oxygenic photoautotroph. PMID:25684321

  18. Soil Oxidation-Reduction Potential and Plant Photosynthetic Capacity in the Northern Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Couto, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Plant communities of the Pantanal wetland are able to survive long periods of climatic and physiological stress in the dry and wet seasons. During inundation, soil oxygen demand increases dramatically as reducing soil conditions create stress in the root system with possible impacts on photosynthetic capacity of plants. We look at inundation cycles of a tree island (locally known as a cordilheira) in the Northern Pantanal near Poconé, Mato Grosso, and relate soil oxidation-reduction potential and soil oxygen depletion to the photosynthetic capacity of two plant communities of flooded scrub forest (Vochysia divergens and Curatela americana). Results show a drop in soil oxidation-reduction potential of over 400 mV, to levels below the absolute value of -200 mV, following inundation around the tree island. Both plant species showed increased carbon assimilation at highest soil oxygen demand despite a change in stomatal conductance, suggesting adaptation to the inundated environment. Absolute values of soil oxidation-reduction potential also allow for the determination of specific soil chemical reactions characteristic of the tree island environment, namely the reduction of iron(III), or carbon dioxide which in turn produces methane. Our combined analysis of soil chemistry with plant ecophysiology allows for a better understanding of soil-plant interactions in the Pantanal, specifically the drivers of biogeochemical processes between inundation periods.

  19. Evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Joel L.; Skophammer, Ryan G.; Regus, John U.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse bacterial lineages form beneficial infections with eukaryotic hosts. The origins, evolution, and breakdown of these mutualisms represent important evolutionary transitions. To examine these key events, we synthesize data from diverse interactions between bacteria and eukaryote hosts. Five evolutionary transitions are investigated, including the origins of bacterial associations with eukaryotes, the origins and subsequent stable maintenance of bacterial mutualism with hosts, the captur...

  20. Adaptive changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic features to low light in Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and Physocarpus opulifolius "Diabolo".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Zhong, Haixiu; Wang, Jifeng; Sui, Xin; Xu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Physocarpus cultivars, and that the low light intensity significantly inhibited electron transfer on the acceptor side of PS II and reduced the activity of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in the leaves of both Physocarpus cultivars. The PS II function in P. opulifolius "Diabolo" was higher than that in P. amurensis Maxim in response to low light. Under low light, the composition of photosynthetic pigments was altered in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" in order to maintain a relatively high activity of primary photochemical reactions, and this is the basis of the greater photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity and one of the main reasons for the better shade-tolerance in P. opulifolius "Diabolo." PMID:27366639

  1. Photoperiodic Regulation of the Seasonal Pattern of Photosynthetic Capacity and the Implications for Carbon Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauerle, William L. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Oren, Ram [Duke University; Way, Danielle A. [Duke University; Qian, Song S. [Duke University; Stoy, Paul C. [Montana State University; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Bowden, Joseph D. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Reynolds, Robert F. [Clemson University

    2012-01-01

    Although temperature is an important driver of seasonal changes in photosynthetic physiology, photoperiod also regulates leaf activity. Climate change will extend growing seasons if temperature cues predominate, but photoperiod-controlled species will show limited responsiveness to warming. We show that photoperiod explains more seasonal variation in photosynthetic activity across 23 tree species than temperature. Although leaves remain green, photosynthetic capacity peaks just after summer solstice and declines with decreasing photoperiod, before air temperatures peak. In support of these findings, saplings grown at constant temperature but exposed to an extended photoperiod maintained high photosynthetic capacity, but photosynthetic activity declined in saplings experiencing a naturally shortening photoperiod; leaves remained equally green in both treatments. Incorporating a photoperiodic correction of photosynthetic physiology into a global-scale terrestrial carbon-cycle model significantly improves predictions of seasonal atmospheric CO{sub 2} cycling, demonstrating the benefit of such a function in coupled climate system models. Accounting for photoperiod-induced seasonality in photosynthetic parameters reduces modeled global gross primary production 2.5% ({approx}4 PgC y{sup -1}), resulting in a >3% ({approx}2 PgC y{sup -1}) decrease of net primary production. Such a correction is also needed in models estimating current carbon uptake based on remotely sensed greenness. Photoperiod-associated declines in photosynthetic capacity could limit autumn carbon gain in forests, even if warming delays leaf senescence.

  2. Influence of stomatic aperture on photosynthetic activity of bean-seedlings leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper contains the data of photosynthetic activity and stomatic aperture of bean-seedlings Ieaves, and the relations obtained with both results. It has been observed that the product of photosynthetic activity by the resistance; to transpiration measured by a promoter ia a constant, between some limits. (Author) 45 refs

  3. Seasonal patterns of photosynthetic capacity: photoperiodic control and its carbon cycling implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, W.; Oren, R.; Way, D.; Qian, S.; Stoy, P. C.; Thornton, P. E.; Bowden, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Reynolds, R.

    2012-12-01

    While temperature is an important driver of seasonal changes in photosynthetic physiology, photoperiod also regulates leaf activity. Climate change will extend growing seasons if temperature cues predominate, but photoperiod-controlled species will show limited responsiveness to warming. We show that photoperiod explains more seasonal variation in photosynthetic activity across 23 tree species than temperature. Although leaves remain green, photosynthetic capacity peaks just after summer solstice and declines with decreasing photoperiod, before air temperatures peak. In support of these findings, saplings grown at constant temperature, but exposed to an extended photoperiod maintained high photosynthetic capacity, while photosynthetic activity declined in saplings experiencing a naturally shortening photoperiod; leaves remained equally green in both treatments. Incorporating a photoperiodic correction of photosynthetic physiology into a global-scale terrestrial carbon cycle model significantly improves predictions of seasonal atmospheric CO2 cycling, demonstrating the benefit of such a function in coupled climate system models. Accounting for photoperiod-induced seasonality in photosynthetic parameters reduces modeled global gross primary production ~4 PgC y-1, resulting in a ~2 PgC y-1 decrease of net primary production. Such a correction is also needed in models estimating current carbon uptake based on remotely-sensed greenness. Photoperiod-associated declines in photosynthetic capacity could limit autumn carbon gain in forests, even if warming delays leaf senescence. Assessments of late season carbon sequestration under a changing climate should focus on potential adverse impacts of warming via increased ecosystem respiration.

  4. Changes in photosynthetic activity of microalgae under the influence of electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of UHF radiation on photosynthetic activity in pro- and eukaryotic microalgae. A rise of photosynthetic activity is shown to occur, this rise being accompanied by increase of pigment content in the cells and depending on both exposure time and culture age

  5. Methods to measure biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microbiota and their application on illuminated lake sediments. A literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Eva [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology

    2001-06-01

    In the work of finding a place for long time storage of radioactive waste it is of importance to understand the surrounding ecosystems. The storage is supposed to keep the radioactive waste away from humans and nature for some hundreds of thousands of years. It is important to be able to make risk assessments for a hypothetical release and understand by which ways the radionuclides could find their way into the biota. In lakes, released radionuclides would most probably find their way into the biota through heterotrophic bacteria or auto trophic microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to investigate how large the biomass and production of heterotrophic bacteria and photosynthetic organisms in lakes are. This report is an overview of methods that are commonly used today for measuring biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microorganisms in lakes. It elucidates advantages and drawbacks of the different methods. Some results from studies on illuminated lake sediment habitats are given. Biomass of bacteria is commonly measured in microscope after colouring the bacteria with a dye. Dyes commonly used are acridine orange and 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Biomass of photosynthetic microorganisms is also commonly measured in microscope but can also be determined by the amount of chlorophyll 'a' and other pigments. An advantage with measuring the biomass photosynthetic microorganisms in microscope is that a good resolution of the community is achieved. A disadvantage with determining the biomass by measuring the chlorophyll 'a' concentrations is that the concentrations may vary with light climate and nutrients even though the carbon biomass is constant. Methods for measuring bacterial production discussed in this report are the thymidine incorporation method, the leucine incorporation method and the frequency of dividing cell method (FDC). Methods for primary production discussed in this report are the {sup 14}CO{sub 2

  6. Methods to measure biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microbiota and their application on illuminated lake sediments. A literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work of finding a place for long time storage of radioactive waste it is of importance to understand the surrounding ecosystems. The storage is supposed to keep the radioactive waste away from humans and nature for some hundreds of thousands of years. It is important to be able to make risk assessments for a hypothetical release and understand by which ways the radionuclides could find their way into the biota. In lakes, released radionuclides would most probably find their way into the biota through heterotrophic bacteria or auto trophic microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to investigate how large the biomass and production of heterotrophic bacteria and photosynthetic organisms in lakes are. This report is an overview of methods that are commonly used today for measuring biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microorganisms in lakes. It elucidates advantages and drawbacks of the different methods. Some results from studies on illuminated lake sediment habitats are given. Biomass of bacteria is commonly measured in microscope after colouring the bacteria with a dye. Dyes commonly used are acridine orange and 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Biomass of photosynthetic microorganisms is also commonly measured in microscope but can also be determined by the amount of chlorophyll 'a' and other pigments. An advantage with measuring the biomass photosynthetic microorganisms in microscope is that a good resolution of the community is achieved. A disadvantage with determining the biomass by measuring the chlorophyll 'a' concentrations is that the concentrations may vary with light climate and nutrients even though the carbon biomass is constant. Methods for measuring bacterial production discussed in this report are the thymidine incorporation method, the leucine incorporation method and the frequency of dividing cell method (FDC). Methods for primary production discussed in this report are the 14CO2-incorporation method, the O2-production

  7. Detection of Vibrio Cholerae in Turtles by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Colloidal Gold Immunochromatographic Assay and Conventional Bacterial Culture%实时荧光PCR法、胶体金法和培养法检测甲鱼中霍乱弧菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜淑妩; 李哲婷; 邓婵

    2012-01-01

    目的 优化水产品甲鱼中霍乱弧菌的检测程序,提高甲鱼中霍乱弧菌检出率.方法 用实时荧光PCR、常规细菌培养、胶体金法同时对甲鱼中霍乱弧菌进行检测,并用实时荧光PCR法检测标本中霍乱弧菌ctx基因.结果 共检测185份甲鱼样品,其中实时荧光PCR法检出28份霍乱弧菌核酸阳性,阳性率为15.14%;6份ctx基因核酸阳性,阳性率21.43% (6/28).常规细菌培养法分离出2株菌株,一株为O139群霍乱弧菌,一株为小川型霍乱弧菌,用实时荧光PCR检测这两株纯培养菌株或原始标本,霍乱弧菌ctx基因均为阴性;胶体金法未检出阳性标本.结论 对于水产品标本,可先用实时荧光PCR法筛检霍乱弧菌,阳性标本再进行传统细菌分离培养,以提高霍乱弧菌菌株的检出率;同时阳性标本进行霍乱弧菌ctx基因核酸检测,如也为阳性,需提高警惕,加强流行病学上的预防控制措施,及时防范霍乱疫情的发生.%Objective To optimize the detection procedure of Vibrio Cholerae (v. cholerae) and increase its detection rate in turtles. Methods The v. cholerae in turtles was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction (real time PCR), conventional bacterial culture and colloidal gold immunochrornatographic assay, and the ctx gene of the virus was detected by real time PCR. Results Real time PCR revealed that among 185 turtle samples, 28 ones were positive with v. cholerae nucleic acid, with a positive rate of 15.14% (28/185), and six samples were positive with ctx gene, with a positive rate of 21.43% (6/ 28). Two strains of v.cholerae were isolated by conventional bacterial culture, Vibrio cholerae O139, and Vibrio cholerae Ol serotype Ogawa. Neither the pure cultures nor the original samples of both stains were positive with ctx gene. No v. cholerae was detected by colloidal gold immunochromatugraphic assay. Conclusions For V. cholerae detection in seafood samples, real time PCR can be first used for

  8. Induced mutation for disease resistance in rice with special reference to blast, bacterial blight and tungro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice varieties Ratna, Pusa 2-21, Vijaya and Pankaj have been treated with gamma rays, EMS or sodium azide to improve their resistance against blast, bacterial leaf blight or tungro virus. For blast and tungro, mutants with improved resistance were selected. Variation in reaction to bacterial leaf blight has been used in crossbreeding to accumulate genes for resistance. (author)

  9. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

  10. Bacterial proteases and virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing...... tolerance to adverse conditions such as those experienced in the host. In the membrane, HtrA performs similar functions whereas the extracellular proteases, in close contact with host components, pave the way for spreading infections by degrading host matrix components or interfering with host cell...... cell. These extracellular proteases are activated in complex cascades involving auto-processing and proteolytic maturation. Thus, proteolysis has been adopted by bacterial pathogens at multiple levels to ensure the success of the pathogen in contact with the human host....

  11. Supramolecular bacterial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Shrikrishnan

    2015-01-01

    For nearly over a decade, a wide variety of dynamic and responsive supramolecular architectures have been investigated and developed to address biological systems. Since the non-covalent interactions between individual molecular components in such architectures are similar to the interactions found in living systems, it was possible to integrate chemically-synthesized and naturally-occurring components to create platforms with interesting bioactive properties. Bacterial cells and recombinant ...

  12. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references

  13. Effect of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil on bacterial and primary production and the trophic transfer to mesozooplankton through a microbial food web in Yangtze estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshikawa, H.; Xu, K. Q.; Liu, Z. L.; Kohata, K.; Kawachi, M.; Maki, H.; Zhu, M. Y.; Watanabe, M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the influence of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of diesel fuel oil on bacterial and photosynthetic producers and on carbon transfer to higher trophic organisms in an aquatic plankton ecosystem by means of a mesocosm experiment in the Yangtze estuary, China. In the oil-enriched mesocosm, average bacterial production increased 3.9 times compared with that in the control mesocosm. WSF addition also increased the abundance of bacterivorous heterotrophic nanoflagellates, but it decreased the abundance of other higher trophic organisms (micro- and mesozooplankton) due to the toxic effects of the WSF. The amount of carbon transfer from bacterial production to mesozooplankton was of nearly similar magnitude in the oil-enriched and control mesocosms, though bacterial production was much larger in the former. The relative reachable efficiency of bacterial production to mesozooplankton in the oil-enriched mesocosm was only about 36% of that in the control. This lower efficiency in the oil-enriched mesocosm was attributed to decreased mesozooplankton abundance rather than decreased abundance of trophic intermediates in microbial food webs. We found only a slight difference between photosynthetic production in the oil-enriched and control mesocosms. A complementary batch-incubation experiment showed that the WSF may have considerably decreased the photosynthetic activity of an algal assemblage, however, so the photosynthetic production in mesocosms was regulated by nutrient-limitation rather than by the toxic effect of WSF. The carbon transfer from photosynthetic production to mesozooplankton in the oil-enriched mesocosm was comparable to that in the control, though WSF addition decreased the abundance of mesozooplankton in the oil-enriched mesocosm. This may have resulted from the occurrence of the diatom Skeletonema costatum, which is much preferred by mesozooplankton (copepods) as prey, in the oil-enriched mesocosm, whereas the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum

  14. Seasonal photosynthetic activity in evergreen conifer leaves monitored with spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal evergreen conifers must maintain photosynthetic systems in environments where temperatures vary greatly across seasons from high temperatures in the summer to freezing levels in the winter. This involves seasonal downregulation and photoprotection during periods of extreme temperatures. To better understand this downregulation, seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis of lodgepole (Pinus contorta D.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.) were monitored in Edmonton, Canada over two years. Spectral reflectance at the leaf and stand scales was measured weekly and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), often used as a proxy for chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment levels and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), was used to track the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity. Additional physiological measurements included leaf pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange. All the metrics indicate large seasonal changes in photosynthetic activity, with a sharp transition from winter downregulation to active photosynthesis in the spring and a more gradual fall transition into winter. The PRI was a good indicator of several other variables including seasonally changing photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic LUE, and pigment pool sizes. Over the two-year cycle, PRI was primarily driven by changes in constitutive (chlorophyll:carotenoid) pigment levels correlated with seasonal photosynthetic activity, with a much smaller variation caused by diurnal changes in xanthophyll cycle activity (conversion between violaxanthin & zeaxanthin). Leaf and canopy scale PRI measurements exhibited parallel responses during the winter-spring transition. Together, our findings indicate that evergreen conifers photosynthetic system possesses a remarkable degree of resilience in response to large temperature changes across seasons, and that optical remote sensing can be used to observe the seasonal effects on photosynthesis and

  15. In vivo spectroscopy and NMR metabolite fingerprinting approaches to connect the dynamics of photosynthetic and metabolic phenotypes in resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis during desiccation and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko eMladenov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis was used to study dynamics of drought response of photosynthetic machinery parallel with changes in primary metabolism. A relation between leaf water content and photosynthetic performance was established, enabling us to perform a non-destructive evaluation of the plant water status during stress. Spectroscopic analysis of photosynthesis indicated that, at variance with linear electron flow involving photosystem (PS I and II, cyclic electron flow around PSI remains active till almost full dry state at the expense of the linear electron flow, due to the changed protein organization of photosynthetic apparatus. We suggest that, this activity could have a photoprotective role and prevent a complete drop in adenosine triphosphate (ATP, in the absence of linear electron flow, to fuel specific energy-dependent processes necessary for the survival of the plant, during the late states of desiccation. The NMR fingerprint show significant metabolic changes in several pathways. Due to the declining of linear electron flow accompanied by biosynthetic reactions during desiccation, a reduction of the ATP pool during drought was observed, which was fully and quickly recovered after plants rehydration. We found a decline of valine accompanied by lipid degradation during stress, likely to provide alternative carbon sources for sucrose accumulation at late stages of desiccation. This accumulation, as well as the increased levels of glycerophosphodiesters during drought stress could provide osmoprotection to the cells.

  16. Identification of Bacterial Small RNAs by RNA Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molin, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria are known to modulate gene expression and control a variety of processes including metabolic reactions, stress responses, and pathogenesis in response to environmental signals. A method to identify bacterial sRNAs on a genome-wide scale based on RNA seque...

  17. Coupling oxygen consumption with hydrocarbon oxidation in bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weixue; Liang, Alexandria D.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental goal in catalysis is the coupling of multiple reactions to yield a desired product. Enzymes have evolved elegant approaches to address this grand challenge. A salient example is the biological conversion of methane to methanol catalyzed by soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO), a member of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) superfamily.

  18. Improved method for detection of glycosidases in bacterial colonies.

    OpenAIRE

    Paoni, N F; Arroyo, R L

    1984-01-01

    An assay has been developed to detect bacterial glycosidases in colonies grown on the surface of agar plates. Advantages of this technique over previously described methods include elimination of the need for replica plating, better visualization of chromagenic reaction products, and a simple permeabilization step to enable better penetration by chromagenic substrates.

  19. Dark repair of UV-induced lesions in bacterial DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of photochemical reaction resulting in the formation of pyrimidine base dimers in DNA is briefly described. Many bacterial species are able to excise the fragments of singlestranded DNA containing pyrimidine dimers, and to rebuild the lacking oligonucleotide fragment. Enzyme system acting in the restitution of damaged DNA to its native form is reviewed. (author)

  20. Photosynthetic flexibility in maize exposed to salinity and shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E; Sonawane, Balasaheb V; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-07-01

    C4 photosynthesis involves a close collaboration of the C3 and C4 metabolic cycles across the mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells. This study investigated the coordination of C4 photosynthesis in maize plants subjected to two salinity (50 and 100mM NaCl) treatments and one shade (20% of full sunlight) treatment. Photosynthetic efficiency was probed by combining leaf gas-exchange measurements with carbon isotope discrimination and assaying the key carboxylases [ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] operating in maize leaves. Generally, salinity inhibited plant growth and photosynthesis to a lesser extent than shade. Salinity reduced photosynthesis primarily by reducing stomatal conductance and secondarily by equally reducing Rubisco and PEPC activities; the decarboxylases were inhibited more than the carboxylases. Salinity increased photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination (Δp) and reduced leaf dry-matter carbon isotope composition ((13)δ) due to changes in p i/p a (intercellular to ambient CO2 partial pressure), while CO2 leakiness out of the bundle sheath (ϕ) was similar to that in control plants. Acclimation to shade was underpinned by a greater downregulation of PEPC relative to Rubisco activity, and a lesser inhibition of NADP-ME (primary decarboxylase) relative to PEP-CK (secondary decarboxylase). Shade reduced Δp and ɸ without significantly affecting leaf (13)δ or p i/p a relative to control plants. Accordingly, shade perturbed the balance between the C3 and C4 cycles during photosynthesis in maize, and demonstrated the flexible partitioning of C4 acid decarboxylation activity between NADP-ME and PEP-CK in response to the environment. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the links between leaf (13)δ and photosynthetic Δp, and

  1. 培养与聚合酶链反应联合进行住院患儿肺炎细菌病原学检测%Bacterial etiology of pneumonia in hospitalized children:combined detection with culture and polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑跃杰; 邓继岿; 赵瑞珍

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨细菌培养与病原特异性DNA联合检测住院患儿肺炎细菌病原的应用价值.方法对187例肺炎患儿的深部呼吸道吸引物进行肺炎链球菌、流感嗜血杆菌选择性培养和普通培养,并且对同一标本采用靶序列富集多重PCR(Tem-PCB)扩增结合Luminex液态芯片检测平台进行定量测定,检测肺炎链球菌、流感嗜血杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎克雷伯杆菌、大肠杆菌、嗜肺军团菌、绿脓杆菌、鲍曼不动杆菌等14种病原菌的特异性DNA.结果细菌培养的总检出率为40.1%(75/187,含3例检出2种病原菌),病原菌依次为流感嗜血杆菌17.1%、大肠杆菌8.6%、肺炎克雷伯杆菌6.4%、金黄色葡萄球菌4.8%、肺炎链球菌3.7%、绿脓杆菌1.6%、鲍曼不动杆菌1.1%和阴沟肠杆菌1.1%.以细菌培养或Tem-PCR任一阳性为标准,联合检测的总检出率为78.6%(147/187),病原菌依次为流感嗜血杆菌28.9%、肺炎链球菌19.3%、大肠杆菌8.6%、肺炎克雷伯杆菌6.4%、金黄色葡萄球菌5.9%、鲍曼不动杆菌5.9%、绿脓杆菌2.7%和阴沟肠杆菌1.1%.结论 Tem-PCR能提高流感嗜血杆菌、肺炎链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、绿脓杆菌和鲍曼不动杆菌的检出例数.细菌培养与病原特异性DNA联合检测应用能显著提高肺炎病原的检出率,可能更真实地反映肺炎的细菌病原学情况.%Objective Bacterial cultures from respiratory aspirate or sputum have been the conventional diagnostic method for neumonia,but the results of culture was often affected by early extensive rise of antibiotics,sample collection and delivery.The objective of this stuay was to explore application of the combined detection of culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in hospitalized children with pneumonia.Methods Totally 187 hospitalized children with pneumonia were enrolled.The age of the patients ranged from 1 month to 10 years,124 were male,63 female;175 of the patients receired

  2. Non-Hermitian approach for modeling of noise-assisted quantum electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Nesterov, Alexander I; Bishop, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    We model the quantum electron transfer (ET) in the photosynthetic reaction center (RC), using a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian approach. Our model includes (i) two protein cofactors, donor and acceptor, with discrete energy levels and (ii) a third protein pigment (sink) which has a continuous energy spectrum. Interactions are introduced between the donor and acceptor, and between the acceptor and the sink, with noise acting between the donor and acceptor. The noise is considered classically (as an external random force), and it is described by an ensemble of two-level systems (random fluctuators). Each fluctuator has two independent parameters, an amplitude and a switching rate. We represent the noise by a set of fluctuators with fitting parameters (boundaries of switching rates), which allows us to build a desired spectral density of noise in a wide range of frequencies. We analyze the quantum dynamics and the efficiency of the ET as a function of (i) the energy gap between the donor and acceptor, (ii) the streng...

  3. Roles of Thioredoxins in the Obligate Anaerobic Green Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Hosoya-Matsuda; Kazuhito Inoue; Toru Hisabori

    2009-01-01

    Thioredoxin is a small ubiquitous protein that is involved in the dithiol-disulfide exchange reaction, by way of two cysteine residues located on the molecule surface. In order to elucidate the role of thioredoxin in Chlorobaculum tepidum, an anaerobic green sulfur bacterium that uses various inorganic sulfur compounds and H2S as electron donors under strict anaerobic conditions for growth, we applied the thioredoxin affinity chromatography method (Motohashi et al., 2001). In this study, 37 cytoplasmic proteins were captured as thioredoxin target candidates, including proteins involved in sulfur assimilation. Furthermore, six of the candidate proteins were members of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle (pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, pyruvate flavodoxin/ferredoxin oxidoreductase, α-oxoglutarate synthase, citrate lyase, citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase). The redox sensitivity of three enzymes was then examined: citrate lyase, citrate synthase, and malate dehydrogenase, using their recombinant proteins. Based on the information relating to the target proteins, the significance of thioredoxin as a reductant for the metabolic pathway in the anaerobic photosyn-thetic bacteria is discussed.

  4. [Molecular, genetic and physiological analysis of photoinhibition and photosynthetic]. Progress report, June 1991--November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    A major goal of this project is to use a combined molecular genetic, biochemical and physiological approach to understand the relationship between photosynthetic performance and the structure of the multifunctional D1 reaction center protein of Photosystem II encoded by the chloroplast psbA gene. Relative to other chloroplast proteins, turover of D1 is rapid and highly light dependent and de novo synthesis of D1 is required for a plant`s recovery from short term exposure to irradiances which induce photoinhibitory damage. These observations have led to models for a damage/repair cycle of PSII involving the targeted degradation and replacement of photodamaged D1. To investigate the effects of perturbing the D1 cycle on photosynthesis and autotrophic growth under high and low irradiance, we have examined the consequences of site-specific mutations of the psbA and 16S rRNA genes affecting synthesis, maturation and function/stability of the D1 protein introduced into the chloroplast genome of wildtype strain of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using biolistic transformation.

  5. Evidence for a cysteine-mediated mechanism of excitation energy regulation in a photosynthetic antenna complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orf, Gregory S; Saer, Rafael G; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Zhang, Hao; McIntosh, Chelsea L; Schultz, Jason W; Mirica, Liviu M; Blankenship, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    Light-harvesting antenna complexes not only aid in the capture of solar energy for photosynthesis, but regulate the quantity of transferred energy as well. Light-harvesting regulation is important for protecting reaction center complexes from overexcitation, generation of reactive oxygen species, and metabolic overload. Usually, this regulation is controlled by the association of light-harvesting antennas with accessory quenchers such as carotenoids. One antenna complex, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) antenna protein from green sulfur bacteria, completely lacks carotenoids and other known accessory quenchers. Nonetheless, the FMO protein is able to quench energy transfer in aerobic conditions effectively, indicating a previously unidentified type of regulatory mechanism. Through de novo sequencing MS, chemical modification, and mutagenesis, we have pinpointed the source of the quenching action to cysteine residues (Cys49 and Cys353) situated near two low-energy bacteriochlorophylls in the FMO protein from Chlorobaculum tepidum Removal of these cysteines (particularly removal of the completely conserved Cys353) through N-ethylmaleimide modification or mutagenesis to alanine abolishes the aerobic quenching effect. Electrochemical analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra suggest that in aerobic conditions the cysteine thiols are converted to thiyl radicals which then are capable of quenching bacteriochlorophyll excited states through electron transfer photochemistry. This simple mechanism has implications for the design of bio-inspired light-harvesting antennas and the redesign of natural photosynthetic systems. PMID:27335466

  6. Isotopic exchange between CO2 and H2O and labelling kinetics of photosynthetic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of carbon dioxide with water has been studied by measuring the rate of oxygen exchange between C18O2 and H216O. The mathematical treatment of the kinetics allows to determine with accuracy the diffusion flow between the gas and the liquid phase, in the same way as the CO2 hydration rate. The velocity constant of this last process, whose value gives the in situ enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase, has been established in the case of chloroplast and Euglena suspensions and of aerial leaves. The study of the isotopic exchange between C18O2 and a vegetable submitted to alternations of dark and light has allowed to calculate the isotopic abundance of the metabolized CO2 whose value has been compared to that of the intracellular water and that of photosynthetic oxygen. In addition, a new method using 13C18O2 gives the means to measure with accuracy eventual isotopic effects. The labelling kinetics of the oxygen evolved by Euglena suspensions whose water has been enriched with 18O have been established at different temperatures. (author)

  7. Spectroscopic Studies of Carotenoid-to-Bacteriochlorophyll Energy Transfer in LHRC Photosynthetic Complex from Roseiflexus castenholzii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Collins, Aaron M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); LaFountain, Amy M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Enriquez, Miriam M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Frank, Harry A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Blankenship, R. E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-06-14

    Carotenoids present in the photosynthetic light-harvesting reaction center (LHRC) complex from chlorosome lacking filamentous anoxygenic phototroph, Roseiflexus castenholzii were purified and characterized for their photochemical properties. The LHRC from anaerobically grown cells contains five different carotenoids, methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin, γ-carotene, and its three derivatives, whereas the LHRC from aerobically grown cells contains only three carotenoid pigments with methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin being the dominant one. The spectroscopic properties and dynamics of excited singlet states of the carotenoids were studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy in organic solvent and in the intact LHRC complex. Time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy performed in the near-infrared (NIR) on purified carotenoids combined with steady-state absorption spectroscopy led to the precise determination of values of the energies of the S1(21Ag-) excited state. Global and single wavelength fitting of the ultrafast spectral and temporal data sets of the carotenoids in solvents and in the LHRC revealed the pathways of de-excitation of the carotenoid excited states.

  8. Comparison of the oxygen exchange between photosynthetic cell suspensions and detached leaves of Euphorbia characias L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a mass-spectrometric 16O2/18O2-isotope technique, we compared the nature and the relative importance of oxygen exchange in photomixotrophic (PM) and photoautotrophic (PA) suspensions of Euphorbia characias L. with those in intact leaves of the same species. Young and mature leaves, dividing and nondividing cell suspensions were characterized in short-term experiments. On chlorophyll basis, the gross photosynthetic activities at CO2 saturating concentration of PA and PM suspensions varied little from those of leaves. On dry weight basis, gross photosynthesis of PA suspensions was equal to that of leaves because of their similar chlorophyll content. This was not the case in PM suspensions where gross photosynthesis was lower and largely varied during the growth cycle. The CO2 compensation point of PA cells was much higher than that of leaves. Oxygen uptakes were analyzed in terms of mitochondrial respiration, photorespiration and light stimulation of oxygen uptake (LSOU), often identified to Mehler-type reactions. In Pa and PM suspensions, mitochondrial respiration rates were higher than in leaves by a factor of 1.5 to 4.5. In PM suspensions, photorespiration and LSOU were observed only in nondividing cells. Photorespiration and LSOU rates were comparable in PA suspensions and leaves. Our results demonstrate that photorespiration of PA suspensions has not been affected by the 2% CO2 concentration imposed during 2 years of culture

  9. Self-similar dynamics of bacterial chemotaxis

    CERN Document Server

    Ngamsaad, Waipot

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the pattern formation of colony generated by chemotactic bacteria through a continuum model. In a simplified case, the dynamics of system is governed by a density-dependent convection-reaction-diffusion equation, $u_t = (u^{m})_{xx} - 2\\kappa(u^m)_{x}+ u - u^{m}$. This equation admits the analytical solutions that show the self-similarity of the bacterial colony's morphogenesis. In addition, we found that the colony evolves long time as the sharp traveling wave. The roles of chemotaxis on the regulation of pattern formation in these results are also discussed.

  10. Bacterial diseases of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    be divided into either a deep or a superficial type. In the superficial type, the pustule is located at the opening of the hair follicle. In the deep form, the infection may extend beyond the confines of the hair follicle, becoming a furuncle or boil. Carbuncles are aggregates of interconnected furuncles that drain through multiple openings of the skin. Treatment of folliculitis must include searching for and avoiding any factors predisposing to infection. If topical antibiotic therapy is ineffective in controlling the infection, surgical drainage of the infected skin abscess will be necessary. Paronychia is the most common bacterial infection of the hand, which often requires surgical incisional drainage. Similarly, a felon that is an infection of the distal pulp of a finger usually requires surgical drainage. Finally, cellulitis is an acute inflammatory reaction involving the skin and underlying subcutaneous tissue. It usually starts as erysipelas and may advance to lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, or gangrene,which will respond to life-saving interventions in the hospital that usually include systemic antibiotic treatment as well as surgical intervention. PMID:16218899

  11. Leaf-architectured 3D hierarchical artificial photosynthetic system of perovskite titanates towards CO₂ photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Guo, Jianjun; Li, Peng; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di; Ye, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    The development of an "artificial photosynthetic system" (APS) having both the analogous important structural elements and reaction features of photosynthesis to achieve solar-driven water splitting and CO₂ reduction is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate a design strategy for a promising 3D APS architecture as an efficient mass flow/light harvesting network relying on the morphological replacement of a concept prototype-leaf's 3D architecture into perovskite titanates for CO₂ photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels (CO and CH₄). The process uses artificial sunlight as the energy source, water as an electron donor and CO₂ as the carbon source, mimicking what real leaves do. To our knowledge this is the first example utilizing biological systems as "architecture-directing agents" for APS towards CO₂ photoreduction, which hints at a more general principle for APS architectures with a great variety of optimized biological geometries. This research would have great significance for the potential realization of global carbon neutral cycle. PMID:23588925

  12. Fatty acid biosynthesis in eukaryotic photosynthetic microalgae: identification of a microsomal delta 12 desaturase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Guan, Xiangyu; Ding, Ling; Li, Youxun; Wang, Mingqing; Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song

    2008-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important components of infant and adult nutrition because they serve as structural elements of cell membranes. Fatty acid desaturases are responsible for the insertion of double bonds into pre-formed fatty acid chains in reactions that require oxygen and reducing equivalents. In this study, the genome-wide characterization of the fatty acid desaturases from seven eukaryotic photosynthetic microalgae was undertaken according to the conserved histidine-rich motifs and phylogenetic profiles. Analysis of these genomes provided insight into the origin and evolution of the pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in eukaryotic plants. In addition, the candidate enzyme from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the highest similarity to the microsomal delta 12 desaturase of Chlorella vulgaris was isolated, and its function was verified by heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PMID:18545969

  13. Photosynthetic acclimation to drought stress in Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings is largely dependent on thermal dissipation and enhanced electron flux to photosystem I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Huitziméngari; Trejo, Carlos; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Conde-Martínez, F Víctor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck, a crassulacean acid metabolism plant that is adapted to water-limited environments, has great potential for bioenergy production. However, drought stress decreases the requirement for light energy, and if the amount of incident light exceeds energy consumption, the photosynthetic apparatus can be injured, thereby limiting plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of A. salmiana seedlings. The leaf relative water content and leaf water potential decreased to 39.6 % and -1.1 MPa, respectively, over 115 days of water withholding and recovered after re-watering. Drought caused a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in light-acclimated leaves, as indicated by a decrease in the photosynthetic electron transport rate. Additionally, down-regulation of photochemical activity occurred mainly through the inactivation of PSII reaction centres and an increased thermal dissipation capacity of the leaves. Prompt fluorescence kinetics also showed a larger pool of terminal electron acceptors in photosystem I (PSI) as well as an increase in some JIP-test parameters compared to controls, reflecting an enhanced efficiency and specific fluxes for electron transport from the plastoquinone pool to the PSI terminal acceptors. All the above parameters showed similar levels after re-watering. These results suggest that the thermal dissipation of excess energy and the increased energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of PSI end acceptors may be an important acclimation mechanism to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from over-excitation in Agave plants. PMID:24798124

  14. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J

    2001-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  15. Annual cycle of photosynthetically active radiation in maritime pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to model the photosynthesis of an evergreen forest, knowledge of the seasonal variation in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is indispensable. This paper studies the annual cycle of different components of the PAR above and within a maritime pine forest. From measurements of transmitted PAR made on days close to the solstices and the equinoxes, as well as continuous measurements of global and diffuse PAR throughout the year, the annual variation of PAR, within and above the forest was obtained. The relationship between the proportion of diffuse PAR to total PAR was also derived. The PAR reflectance above the canopy varied from 0.035 to 0.07 throughout the year. On clear sky days, roughly 65% of the incident PAR was absorbed by the needles, stems and branches and 20% was reflected; the remaining 15% was absorbed by the understorey. (author)

  16. Interplay between coherence and decoherence in LHCII photosynthetic complex

    CERN Document Server

    Giorda, Paolo; Zanardi, Paolo; Lloyd, Seth

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of excitonic transport in photocomplex LHCII, the primary component of the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants. The dynamics exhibits a strong interplay between coherent processes mediated by the excitonic Hamiltonian, and incoherent processes due to interactions with the environment. The spreading of the exciton over a single monomer is well described by a proper measure of delocalization that allows one to identify two relevant time scales. An exciton initially localized in one chromophore first spreads coherently to neighboring chromophores. During this initial coherent spreading, quantum effects such as entanglement play a role. As the effects of a decohering environment come into play, coherence and decoherence interact to give rise to efficient and robust excitonic transport, reaching a maximum efficiency at the levels of decoherence found in physiological conditions. We analyze the efficiency for different possible topologies (monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer) ...

  17. Quantum entanglement in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarovar, Mohan; Ishizaki, Akihito; Fleming, Graham R.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2010-06-01

    Light-harvesting components of photosynthetic organisms are complex, coupled, many-body quantum systems, in which electronic coherence has recently been shown to survive for relatively long timescales, despite the decohering effects of their environments. Here, we analyse entanglement in multichromophoric light-harvesting complexes, and establish methods for quantification of entanglement by describing necessary and sufficient conditions for entanglement and by deriving a measure of global entanglement. These methods are then applied to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein to extract the initial state and temperature dependencies of entanglement. We show that, although the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein in natural conditions largely contains bipartite entanglement between dimerized chromophores, a small amount of long-range and multipartite entanglement should exist even at physiological temperatures. This constitutes the first rigorous quantification of entanglement in a biological system. Finally, we discuss the practical use of entanglement in densely packed molecular aggregates such as light-harvesting complexes.

  18. Quantum entanglement phenomena in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Whaley, K Birgitta; Ishizaki, Akihito

    2010-01-01

    We review recent theoretical calculations of quantum entanglement in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes. These works establish, for the first time, a manifestation of this characteristically quantum mechanical phenomenon in biologically functional structures. We begin by summarizing calculations on model biomolecular systems that aim to reveal non-trivial characteristics of quantum entanglement in non-equilibrium biological environments. We then discuss and compare several calculations performed recently of excitonic dynamics in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson light harvesting complex and of the entanglement present in this widely studied pigment-protein structure. We point out the commonalities between the derived results and also identify and explain the differences. We also discuss recent work that examines entanglement in the structurally more intricate light harvesting complex II (LHCII). During this overview, we take the opportunity to clarify several subtle issues relating to entanglement in such biomo...

  19. Vibration-assisted resonance in photosynthetic excitation energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Irish, E K; Lovett, B W

    2013-01-01

    Coherent quantum energy transfer, as observed in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, is inhibited by energetic disorder. While this difficulty can be overcome to some extent by the addition of environmental noise, it has recently has begun to be appreciated that discrete intra- and/or intermolecular vibrational modes may play an important role in quantum dynamics. We present a microscopic mechanism by which intramolecular vibrational modes create resonant energy transfer pathways, enhancing the efficiency of both coherent and dephasing-assisted transfer. The principles of this vibration-assisted resonance are illustrated in a simple model based on one energy-transfer branch of the well-characterised Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. Despite its simplicity, this model captures the interplay between strong electronic coupling that produces delocalised exciton states and resonance-enhanced weak coupling to local vibrational modes. Analytical and numerical results show that intramolecular vibrations can enhance...

  20. Photothermal microscopy: imaging of energy dissipation from photosynthetic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszecki, Wieslaw I; Luchowski, Rafal; Zubik, Monika; Grudzinski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    An idea of a photothermal imaging microscopy (PTIM) is proposed, along with its realization based on a dependence of fluorescence anisotropy of dye molecules on heat emission in their nearest vicinity. Erythrosine B was selected as a fluorophore convenient to report thermal deactivation of the excited pigment-protein complex isolated from the photosynthetic apparatus of plants (LHCII), owing to the relatively large spectral gap between the fluorescence emission bands of chlorophyll a and a probe. Comparison of the simultaneously recorded images based on fluorescence lifetime of LHCII and fluorescence anisotropy of erythrosine shows a high rate of thermal energy dissipation from the aggregated forms of the complex and, possibly, thermal energy transmission along the protein supramolecular structures. Relatively high resolution of this novel microscopic technique, comparable to the fluorescence lifetime microscopy, enables its application in a nanoscale imaging and in nanothermography. PMID:26393534

  1. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  2. Factors influencing the purification efficiency of photosynthetic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    One strain of photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) was isolated from substrate sludge offresh-water fishpond. Influence of the use level of PSB culture solution, illumination condition,temperature, salinity, the use level of copper sulfate and dipterex on the purification efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the optimum use level of PSB culture solution was 10 mg/L,and the purification efficiency at illumination was higher than that at black, and if the temperature was lower than 15℃, or the use level of sodium chloride, copper sulfate and dipterex were higherthan 10 000 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, the purification efficiency dropped distinctly.

  3. Quantum superpositions in photosynthetic light harvesting: delocalization and entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, Akihito; Fleming, Graham R, E-mail: GRFleming@lbl.go [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physical Bioscience Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We explore quantum entanglement among the chlorophyll molecules in light-harvesting complex II, which is the most abundant photosynthetic antenna complex in plants containing over 50% of the world's chlorophyll molecules. Our results demonstrate that there exists robust quantum entanglement under physiological conditions for the case of a single elementary excitation. However, this nonvanishing entanglement is not unexpected because entanglement in the single-excitation manifold is conceptually the same as quantum delocalized states, which are the spectroscopically detectable energy eigenstates of the system. We discuss the impact of the surrounding environments and correlated fluctuations in electronic energies of different pigments upon quantum delocalization and quantum entanglement. It is demonstrated that investigations with tools quantifying the entanglement can provide us with more detailed information on the nature of quantum delocalization, in particular the so-called dynamic localization, which is difficult for a traditional treatment to capture.

  4. Increasing algal photosynthetic productivity by integrating ecophysiology with systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Graham

    2014-11-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae, and cyanobacteria convert sunlight and CO2 into chemical energy and biomass. Previously published estimates suggest that algal photosynthesis is, at best, able to convert approximately 5-7% of incident light energy to biomass and there is opportunity for improvement. Recent analyses of in situ photophysiology in mass cultures of algae and cyanobacteria show that cultivation methods can have detrimental effects on a cell's photophysiology - reinforcing the need to understand the complex responses of cell biology to a highly variable environment. A systems-based approach to understanding the stresses and efficiencies associated with light-energy harvesting, CO2 fixation, and carbon partitioning will be necessary to make major headway toward improving photosynthetic yields. PMID:25306192

  5. Quantum Coherent Dynamics at Ambient Temperature in Photosynthetic Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, Zachary B

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes are responsible for absorbing energy from sunlight and transmitting it to remote locations where it can be stored. Recent experiments have found that this process involves long-lived quantum coherence between pigment molecules, called chromophores, which make up these complexes. Expected to decay within 100 fs at room temperature, these coherences were instead found to persist for picosecond time scales, despite having no apparent isolation from the thermal environment of the cell. This paper derives a quantum master equation which describes the coherent evolution of a system in strong contact with a thermal environment. Conditions necessary for long coherence lifetimes are identified, and the role of coherence in efficient energy transport is illuminated. Static spectra and exciton transfer rates for the PE545 complex of the cryptophyte algae CS24 are calculated and shown to have good agreement with experiment.

  6. Electrolyte control of photosynthetic electron transport in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion-permeable cells (permeaplasts) of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans were prepared enzymatically and were characterized with respect to several structural and functional indices. The permeaplasts contain intact, ion-impermeable thylakoids and are photosynthetically active. The authors discuss how, employing these cells, they investigated the effects of cations, acting either on the outer, or on the inner thylakoid membrane surface, on photoinduced electron exchanges with anionic donors (Cyt c-550, plastocyanin, innersurface), or anionic acceptors (FeCN3-; outer surface). Cations accelerate such exchanges by accumulating near the solution-membrane interfaces and screening the negative surface charge of membranes. Electrostatic screening, however, is not the only contributing factor, and other electrolyte-linked influences must be invoked in order to interpret the experimental observations

  7. [Post-photosynthetic use of labeled assimilates in fiber flax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikov, V I; Avvakumova, N Iu; Bakirova, G G

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of 14C in various tissues of fiber flax was assayed 1, 17, and 21 days after 30-min assimilation of 14CO@2 by the whole rapidly growing plant. Polymeric photosynthetic products were largely hydrolyzed in the 14C-donor part of the shoot and the hydrolysates were transported upward. The content of 14C in pigments and lipids of the donor leaves (that absorbed 14CO2) was significantly higher than that in the 14C-acceptor ones. An additional nitrogen feeding decreased the labeled sucrose: hexose ratio and inhibited transport of the assimilates from both 14C-donor and acceptor leaves. 14C transported to the shoot tip was largely used for synthesis of poorly soluble proteins (extractable with alkali and Triton X-100) in the acceptor tissues. In the donor part of the shoot, particularly in the bast, cellulose was mainly synthesized from the "new" assimilates. PMID:12942752

  8. Piezonuclear Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Fabio; Petrucci, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the subject of piezonuclear reactions, namely nuclear reactions (of new type) triggered by pressure waves. We discuss the experimental evidences obtained in the last two decades, which can be summarized essentially as follows: experiments in cavitation of liquids, where transmutation of elements, creation of elements and emission of neutrons have been observed; emission of neutrons in brittle failure of solids subjected to mechanical pressure; alteration of the lifetime of un unstable element (thorium) subjected to cavitation. A theoretical model to explain these facts is proposed. Future perspectives of these experimental and theoretical investigations are also underlined.

  9. Reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Reaction Mechanisms laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research topics are: the valence bond methods, the radical chemistry, the modelling of the transition states by applying geometric constraints, the long range interactions (ion - molecule) in gaseous phase, the reaction sites in gaseous phase and the mass spectroscopy applications. The points of convergence between the investigations of the mass spectroscopy and the theoretical chemistry teams, as well as the purposes guiding the research programs, are discussed. The published papers, the conferences, the congress communications and the thesis, are also reported

  10. A quantitative structure–function relationship for the Photosystem II reaction center: Supermolecular behavior in natural photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Barter, Laura M. C.; Durrant, James R; Klug, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Light-induced charge separation is the primary photochemical event of photosynthesis. Efficient charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centers requires the balancing of electron and excitation energy transfer processes, and in Photosystem II (PSII), these processes are particularly closely entangled. Calculations that treat the cofactors of the PSII reaction center as a supermolecular complex allow energy and electron transfer reactions to be described in a unified way. This calculation...

  11. A photosynthetic-plasmonic-voltaic cell: Excitation of photosynthetic bacteria and current collection through a plasmonic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsonoff, Nathan; Ooms, Matthew D.; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and Institute for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2014-01-27

    Excitation of photosynthetic biofilms using surface-confined evanescent light fields enables energy dense photobioreactors, while electrode-adhered biofilms can provide electricity directly. Here, we demonstrate concurrent light delivery and electron transport through a plasmonically excited metal film. Biofilms of cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris on 50-nm gold films are excited via the Kretschmann configuration at λ = 670 nm. Cells show light/dark response to plasmonic excitation and grow denser biofilms, closer to the electrode surface, as compared to the direct irradiated case. Directly irradiated biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.7 μW/m{sup 2} and plasmonically excited biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.8 μW/m{sup 2}, with individual biofilms producing as much as 12 μW/m{sup 2}.

  12. A photosynthetic-plasmonic-voltaic cell: Excitation of photosynthetic bacteria and current collection through a plasmonic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation of photosynthetic biofilms using surface-confined evanescent light fields enables energy dense photobioreactors, while electrode-adhered biofilms can provide electricity directly. Here, we demonstrate concurrent light delivery and electron transport through a plasmonically excited metal film. Biofilms of cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris on 50-nm gold films are excited via the Kretschmann configuration at λ = 670 nm. Cells show light/dark response to plasmonic excitation and grow denser biofilms, closer to the electrode surface, as compared to the direct irradiated case. Directly irradiated biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.7 μW/m2 and plasmonically excited biofilms produced average electrical powers of 5.8 μW/m2, with individual biofilms producing as much as 12 μW/m2

  13. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implicating that the transplantation induced equal increases in the rate of CO2 diffusion via leaf stomata and the rate of CO2 fixation in leaf photosynthetic cells. Analyses of Rubisco activity and contents of a substrate (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for Rubisco and total protein in leaf suggested that an increase in leaf Rubisco activity, which is likely to result from an increase in leaf Rubisco content, could contribute to the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate. Analyses of leaf major photosynthetic carbohydrates and dry weights of source and sink organs revealed that transplantation increased plant sink capacity that uses leaf starch, inducing a decrease in leaf starch content and an increase in whole plant growth, particularly, growth of sink organs. Previously, in the same soybean species, it was demonstrated that negative correlation exists between leaf starch content and photosynthetic rate and that accumulation of starch in leaf decreases the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf. Thus, it was suggested that the transplantation-induced increase in plant sink capacity decreasing leaf starch content could cause the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate by inducing an increase in the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf and thereby substantiating an increase in leaf Rubisco activity in vivo. It was therefore concluded that transplantation of soybean plants into larger pots attempted in this study increased the

  14. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  15. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte; Kruse, Torben; Nordström, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  16. Bacterial terpene cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2016-01-01

    Covering: up to 2015. This review summarises the accumulated knowledge about characterised bacterial terpene cyclases. The structures of identified products and of crystallised enzymes are included, and the obtained insights into enzyme mechanisms are discussed. After a summary of mono-, sesqui- and diterpene cyclases the special cases of the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol synthases that are both particularly widespread in bacteria will be presented. A total number of 63 enzymes that have been characterised so far is presented, with 132 cited references. PMID:26563452

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on photosynthetic metabolism of Chlorella pyrenoidosa studied by 14CO2 assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five dose of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on photosynthetic activity and metabolism of the primary products of photosynthesis has been studied, on Chlorella pyrenoidoBa cultures, by 14CO2 assimilation. The photosynthetic assimilation rate is remarkably depressed after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy dose, which also produce a significant change in radioactivity distribution pattern of primary compounds from photosynthesis. No significant effects have been observed on photosynthetic metabolism after irradiation at 10 and 100 Gy. (Author) 19 refs

  18. Photosynthetic activity of dominant algal species in eutrophic shallow lake (Grosser Mueggelsee, Berlin) investigated by microautoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic activity of dominant phytoplankton in a eutrophic shallow lake was investigated by autoradiography in 1979 and 1980. It was shown by light and dark field microscopy that all species of cyanophyta (Oscillatoria redekei, Oscillatoria agardhii, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) were characterized by a continuously high uptake of NaH14CO3. Similarly high photosynthetic activity was observed during the occurrence of Cryptomonas sp. and nanoplankton. Contrary to these observations, diatoms showed remarkably high portions of photosynthetically inactive biomass when their development was abundant. The reasons for this discrepancy between high biomass of diatoms and relatively low primary production (measured by 14C method and autoradiography) are discussed. (author)

  19. Application of photosynthetic N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria to the CELSS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Ian V.; Hrabeta, Jana; Dsouza, Joe; Packer, Lester

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using photosynthetic microalgae (cyanobacteria) as a subsystem component for the closed ecological life support system program, with particular emphasis on the manipulation of the biomass (protein/carbohydrate) was addressed. Using factors which retard growth rates, but not photosynthetic electron flux, the partitioning of photosynthetically derived reductant may be dictated towards CO2 fixation (carbohydrate formation) and away from N2 fixation (protein formation). Cold shock treatment of fairly dense cultures markedly increases the glycogen content from 1 to 35 percent (dry weight), and presents a useful technique to change the protein/carbohydrate ratio of these organisms to a more nutritionally acceptable form.

  20. Diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate (NPR) in leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [Objective] The study provided theoretical basis for production practice . [Method] With Lonicera japonica Thunb .as material, diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate (NPR) in leaves of the plant and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation were studied using portable photosynthetic determinator system. [Result] Like most of C3 plants, the diurnal changes curve of NPR of Lonicera japonica Thunb .showed double peaks, but there were time difference in reaching the peak value between the study and previous ones . The responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation could be described by three mathematic functions, such as logarithm, linearity and binomial, but binomial function was more precise than the others. Light saturation point of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was figured out by binomial equation deduced in the study , and light saturation point was 1 086 .3 μmol/ (m2•s) . [Conclusion] The diurnal changes curve of NPR of Lonicera japonica Thunb .showed double peaks, and the responding mathematical model of NPR to photosynthetic valid radiation could be described by binomial functions

  1. Model for transport of glucose across membrane and production of hydrogen by photosynthetic bacteria%光合细菌的葡萄糖跨膜传输及代谢产氢模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学旺; 董舟; 朱恂; 廖强

    2012-01-01

    Based on single photosynthetic bacterial cell in a batch reactor for bio-production of H2, a model was established for transport of glucose across membrane and production of hydrogen. The concentration distribution of glucose and hydrogen in the bioreactor was estimated, and the effect of light wavelength and intensity on glucose concentration in outside of cells as well as concentration profiles of hydrogen was investigated. The results showed that substantial agreement was achieved between the experimental results and model prediction values; and at wavelength and intensity of light 590 nm and 8000 lx respectively, the concentration of glucose was the lowest, and concentration of hydrogen was the highest outside cells.

  2. Bacterial contamination of enteral diets.

    OpenAIRE

    de Leeuw, I H; Vandewoude, M F

    1986-01-01

    Enteral feeding solutions can be contaminated by bacterial micro-organisms already present in the ingredients, or introduced during preparation or transport, or in the hospital ward. During jejunostomy feeding without pump or filter, ascending bacterial invasion of the feeding bag is possible. In patients with lowered immune response contaminated feedings can cause serious septic clinical problems. The progressive loss of the nutritional value of the enteral feeding solution by bacterial cont...

  3. Transport powered by bacterial turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peshkov, Anton; Sokolov, Andrey; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that collective turbulent-like motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedge-like "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that a maximal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp regi...

  4. Photosynthetic bacterial growth and productivity under continuous illumination or diurnal cycles with olive mill wastewater as feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroglu, Ela [Middle East Technical University, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); University of California, Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102 (United States); Gunduz, Ufuk; Yucel, Meral [Middle East Technical University, Dept. of Biology, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Eroglu, Inci [Middle East Technical University, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    Photofermentative hydrogen production from olive mill wastewater by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 was investigated under different regimes of illumination. The analysis included measurements of biomass accumulation, H{sub 2}-production, high-value bio-product accumulation (polyhydroxybutyrate and carotenoid) and measurements of the medium pH as a function of growth and productivity. Batch cultures were grown under continuous light (CL) or 12 h light/12 h dark (12L/12D) diurnal cycles. Growth under CL or 12L/12D cycles yielded about the same amount of biomass (0.5 g dry cell weight per L culture) and volume of H{sub 2} gas (50 ml H{sub 2} per L culture). On the other hand, 12L/12D cultures showed a pronounced lag in biomass and H{sub 2} accumulation. Advances described in the work would find application in lowering operational costs for hydrogen production by better management of the energy source and cheap feedstock utilization. Compare to CL, equivalent amount of hydrogen gas accumulation within shorter time interval denoted to have two times higher hydrogen production rate and light conversion efficiencies via diurnal cycles, which can yield 50% savings on consumed energy source. (author)

  5. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis; Shivaram Bhat; Athar A Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Since its initial description in 1964, research has transformed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) from a feared disease (with reported mortality of 90%) to a treatable complication of decompensated cirrhosis,albeit with steady prevalence and a high recurrence rate. Bacterial translocation, the key mechanism in the pathogenesis of SBP, is only possible because of the concurrent failure of defensive mechanisms in cirrhosis.Variants of SBP should be treated. Leucocyte esterase reagent strips have managed to shorten the 'tap-toshot' time, while future studies should look into their combined use with ascitic fluid pH. Third generation cephalosporins are the antibiotic of choice because they have a number of advantages. Renal dysfunction has been shown to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with SBP. Albumin is felt to reduce the risk of renal impairment by improving effective intravascular volume, and by helping to bind proinflammatory molecules. Following a single episode of SBP, patients should have long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and be considered for liver transplantation.

  6. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M;

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...... susceptibility occurred in 21 (23%) of 92 cases of known aetiology, compared to an estimated 6% in nationally notified cases (p <0.001). Ceftriaxone plus penicillin as empirical treatment was appropriate in 97% of ABM cases in the study population, and in 99.6% of nationally notified cases. The notification rate...... was 75% for penicillin-susceptible episodes, and 24% for penicillin-non-susceptible episodes (p <0.001). Cases involving staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were under-reported. Among 51 ABM cases with no identified risk factors, nine of 11 cases with penicillin...

  7. [Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, also called metastatic bacterial endophthalmitis, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a rare and potentially sight-threatening ocular infection that occurs when bacteria reach the eye via the bloodstream, cross the blood-ocular barrier, and multiply within the eye. It usually affects immunocompromised patients and those suffering from diabetes mellitus, malignancy, or cardiac disease, but has also been reported after invasive procedures or in previously healthy people. In most cases, the ocular symptoms occur after the diagnosis of septicemia or systemic infection. Ocular symptoms include decreased vision, redness, discharge, pain, and floaters. The ocular inflammatory signs may be anterior and/or posterior. Bilateral involvement occurs in nearly 25% of cases. A wide range of microorganisms are involved, with differences in their frequency according to geography as well as the patient's age and past medical history, because of variations in the predisposing conditions and the source of the sepsis. The majority of patients are initially misdiagnosed, and ophthalmologists should be aware of this because prompt local and general management is required to save the eye and/or the patient's life. PMID:21145128

  8. Functional assembly of the foreign carotenoid lycopene into the photosynthetic apparatus of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, achieved by replacement of the native 3-step phytoene desaturase with its 4-step counterpart from Erwinia herbicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Asua, Guillermo; Cogdell, Richard J; Hunter, C Neil

    2002-04-01

    Photosynthetic organisms synthesize a diverse range of carotenoids. These pigments are important for the assembly, function and stability of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, and they are used to quench harmful radicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides was used as a model system to explore the origin of carotenoid diversity. Replacing the native 3-step phytoene desaturase (CrtI) with the 4-step enzyme from Erwinia herbicola results in significant flux down the spirilloxanthin pathway for the first time in Rb. sphaeroides. In Rb. sphaeroides, the completion of four desaturations to lycopene by the Erwinia CrtI appears to require the absence of CrtC and, in a crtC background, even the native 3-step enzyme can synthesize a significant amount (13%) of lycopene, in addition to the expected neurosporene. We suggest that the CrtC hydroxylase can intervene in the sequence of reactions catalyzed by phytoene desaturase. We investigated the properties of the lycopene-synthesizing strain of Rb. sphaeroides. In the LH2 light-harvesting complex, lycopene transfers absorbed light energy to the bacteriochlorophylls with an efficiency of 54%, which compares favourably with other LH2 complexes that contain carotenoids with 11 conjugated double bonds. Thus, lycopene can join the assembly pathway for photosynthetic complexes in Rb. sphaeroides, and can perform its role as an energy donor to bacteriochlorophylls. PMID:11967082

  9. Bacteriophages for detection of bacterial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The G. Eliava Institute of Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology (Tbilisi, Georgia) is one of the most famous institutions focused on bacteriophage research for the elaboration of appropriate phage methodologies for human and animal protection. The main direction of the institute is the study and production of bacteriophages against intestinal disorders (dysentery, typhoid, intesti) and purulent-septic infections (staphylococcus, streptococcus, pyophage, etc.). These preparations were successfully introduced during the Soviet era, and for decades were used throughout the former Soviet Union and in other Socialist countries for the treatment, prophylaxis, and diagnosis of various infectious diseases, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteriophages were widely used for identifying and detecting infections caused by the most dangerous pathogens and causative agents of epidemiological outbreaks. The specific topic of this presentation is the phage typing of bacterial species, which can be an important method for epidemiological diagnostics. Together with different genetic methodologies - such as PCR-based methods, PFGE, plasmid fingerprinting, and ribosomal typing - phage typing is one method for identifying bacterial pathogens. The method has a high percentage of determination of phage types, high specificity of reaction, and is easy for interpretation and use by health workers. Phage typing was applied for inter-species differentiation of different species of Salmonella, S. typhi, Brucella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, E. col,i Clostridium deficile, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Lysteria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, plant pathogens, and other bacterial pathogens. In addition to addressing the utility and efficacy of phage typing, the paper will discuss the isolation and selection of diagnostic typing phages for interspecies differentiation of pathogens that is necessary

  10. Periodic growth of bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takemasa; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Hiramatsu, Fumiko; Kobayashi, Naoki; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Kurosu, Sayuri; Nakatsuchi, Michio; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2005-06-01

    The formation of concentric ring colonies by bacterial species Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis has been investigated experimentally, focusing our attention on the dependence of local cell density upon the bacterial motility. It has been confirmed that these concentric ring colonies reflect the periodic change of the bacterial motility between motile cell state and immotile cell state. We conclude that this periodic change is macroscopically determined neither by biological factors (i.e., biological clock) nor by chemical factors (chemotaxis as inhibitor). And our experimental results strongly suggest that the essential factor for the change of the bacterial motility during concentric ring formation is the local cell density.

  11. Studies of sector formation in expanding bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, I.; Cohen, I.; Ben-Jacob, E.

    1999-12-01

    We study sector formation in expanding bacterial colonies grown on a substrate with low level of nutrient. Bursts of sectors are observed both during compact growth on soft agar and during branching growth on semi-solid agar. For theoretical studies of these bursts we employ two mathematical models we have used successfully in the past to study patterning of bacterial colonies: a discrete model and a continuous reaction-diffusion model. Using these models we investigate the amount of segregation achieved by a neutral mutation, as well as by mutations having some advantage over the wild type. We also study the effect of chemotaxis signaling on the sector formation.

  12. Mutation breeding of rice for bacterial leaf-blight resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedlings of controls and of M2 generation originating from the irradiation treatment of seeds of four rice varieties with thermal neutrons, 60Co gamme-ray, ethylene-imine (EI), were inoculated with some isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae. The variability of the disease reaction in the populations arising from irradiation and chemical treatment increased both resistance and susceptibility compared with the control average, irrespective of chlorophyll mutations in M2. The increased variability was assumed to be due to polygenic mutations giving both germ types more resistance and more susceptibility to bacterial leaf blight. The value of the induced polygenic mutations in resistance breeding for bacterial leaf blight is briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Using a Microscale Approach to Rapidly Separate and Characterize Three Photosynthetic Pigment Species from Fern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayudhya, Theppawut Israsena Na; Posey, Frederick T.; Tyus, Jessica C.; Dingra, Nin N.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid separation of three photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll "a" and "b" and xanthophyll) from fern ("Polystichum acrostichoides") is described using microscale solvent extraction and traditional thin layer chromatography that minimizes use of harmful chemicals and lengthy procedures. The experiment introduces…

  14. Bio-saline research: the use of photosynthetic marine organisms in food and feed production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, A.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities for new research development in the utilization of the oceans and coastal areas for food and feed production are discussed. The advantages of marine resource utilization are presented. The state-of-art in the cultivation and harvesting of marine photosynthetic organisms is described. Research in enhancing solar energy conversion is in the following areas: biochemical and physiological regulation of major pathways; finding ways to reduce photorespiration; achieving more efficient photosynthetic processes through genetic engineering; and creating cell-free technologies. In the use of marine photosynthetic products as food and feed, research into the chemical and nutrient values is continuing. Future directions in developing new technologies for food production are discussed. Marketability, environmental aspects, and economic aspects are considered. The possibilities of using photosynthetic organisms in hydrogen gas production, methane production, medicine, and chemistry are also discussed. (DC)

  15. Effect of Temperature and light intensity on growth and Photosynthetic Activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five temperatures (15,20,25,30 and 35 degree centigree) and two levels of illumination on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II has been studied. The growth of the cultures was evaluated by optical density. Photosynthetic activity has been carried out studying either the assimilation rate of C02 labelled with C-14 or the oxygen evolution by means of polarographic measurements. The maximum photosynthetic rate has been obtained at 25 degree centigree for the lower level of illumination (2400 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher one (13200 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher ono (13200 lux). These results suggest an interaction of temperature and illumination on photosynthetic activity. (Author) 37 refs

  16. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation and energy production - microalgae as a main subject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Yasuo [National Inst. of Bioscience and Human-Technology, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Research activities for application of microalgal photosynthesis to CO{sub 2} fixation in Japan are overviewed. Presenter`s studies on energy (hydrogen gas) production by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and photosynthetic bacteria are also introduced.

  17. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  18. 一株反硝化光合细菌的生物学特性及系统发育分析%Biological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of a denitrifying photosynthetic bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 张德民; 王龙刚; 潘志崇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]养殖水体中亚硝酸盐的过量积累会对养殖生物产生毒害作用,应用脱氮细菌去除亚硝酸盐是养殖水质调控的重要手段之一,本文意在得到一株高效去除亚硝酸盐的光合细菌.[方法]采用软琼脂稀释法分离纯化光合细菌菌株,通过电镜观察、生理生化试验研究其生物学特性、依据16S rDNA和光合反应中心M亚基基因(Gene coding for photosynthetic reaction center subunit M,pufM)序列对其做系统发育分析.[结果]从淡水养殖塘中分离筛选到一株高效还原亚硝氮的光合细菌菌株wps.该菌株为革兰氏阴性菌,细胞杆状,大小为0.4-0.6μm×1.5-4.0 μm,极生丛生鞭毛,片层状光合内膜,兼性厌氧光照条件生长,单菌落及液体培养物呈红色,含细菌叶绿素a和类胡萝卜素.最适生长pH范围为5.5-8.5,最适生长盐度范围为0-2%,最适生长温度范围为25℃-38℃.菌株wps与Rhodopseudomonas palustris的16S rDNA序列相似性为98.9%,光合反应中心M亚基基因序列的相似性为94.9%,但是二者在生物学性质上有较大差异,如菌株wps在pH5.5生长,不能光自养生长,不利用柠檬酸盐、甲酸盐进行光异养生长,需盐酸硫胺素和泛酸钙做生长因子等.[结论]菌株wps可能为Rhodopseudomonas属的一个新种,且在养殖水体水质调控中具有重要应用前景.%[Objective]Nitrite accumulation in aquaculture water is toxic to reared animals.One of the solutions to this problem is to apply denitrifying bacteria.This paper is intended to get a strain of phototrophic bacteria for efficient removal of nitrite from aquaculture water.[Methods]We used soft agar to isolate and purify phototrophic bacteria.We investigated biological characteristics of the isolate by means of light and electronic observations, physical and chemical tests.We analyzed its phylogenetical position based on the sequences of 16S rDNA and the gene that codes for photosynthetic reaction center subunit M

  19. [Small intestine bacterial overgrowth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Ki, E L; Roduit, J; Delarive, J; Guyot, J; Michetti, P; Dorta, G

    2010-01-27

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterised by nutrient malabsorption and excessive bacteria in the small intestine. It typically presents with diarrhea, flatulence and a syndrome of malabsorption (steatorrhea, macrocytic anemia). However, it may be asymptomatic in the eldery. A high index of suspicion is necessary in order to differentiate SIBO from other similar presenting disorders such as coeliac disease, lactose intolerance or the irritable bowel syndrome. A search for predisposing factor is thus necessary. These factors may be anatomical (stenosis, blind loop), or functional (intestinal hypomotility, achlorydria). The hydrogen breath test is the most frequently used diagnostic test although it lacks standardisation. The treatment of SIBO consists of eliminating predisposing factors and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. PMID:20214190

  20. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating...... the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the...... benefits and drawbacks of varying the degree of complexity. This review aims to facilitate multispecies biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge on interspecies interactions. Recent technological advances have enabled total diversity analysis of highly complex and diverse microbial...

  1. Engineering photosynthetic light capture: impacts on improved solar energy to biomass conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mussgnug, Jan H.; Thomas-Hall, Skye; Rupprecht, Jens; Foo, Alexander; Klassen, Viktor; McDowall, Alasdair; Schenk, Peer M.; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The main function of the photosynthetic process is to capture solar energy and to store it in the form of chemical 'fuels'. Increasingly, the photosynthetic machinery is being used for the production of biofuels such as bio-ethanol, biodiesel and bio-H-2. Fuel production efficiency is directly dependent on the solar photon capture and conversion efficiency of the system. Green algae (e.g. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) have evolved genetic strategies to assemble large light-harvesting antenna com...

  2. ENDOSULFAN INDUCED CHANGES IN GROWTH RATE, PIGMENT COMPOSITION AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF MOSQUITO FERN AZOLLA MICROPHYLLA

    OpenAIRE

    Raja W.; Rathaur P.; John S. A.; Ramteke P. W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series reporting a study on the effects of different concentrations of insecticide, Endosulfan (0-600ppm) was premeditated on 5th day after insecticide exposure with respect to growth rate, pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of Azolla microphylla under laboratory conditions which become non-target organism in the rice fields. Endosulfan inhibited the relative growth rate, pigment content and photosynthetic O2 evolution. Phycocyanin was main target fo...

  3. Effect of Light and Organic Acids on Oxygen Uptake by BTAi 1, a Photosynthetic Rhizobium

    OpenAIRE

    Wettlaufer, S. H.; Hardy, R. W. F.

    1992-01-01

    A photosynthetic rhizobium, strain BTAi 1, was cultured ex planta to investigate its photosynthetic-respiratory system and the response of this interactive system to light quantity and quality and to the addition of organic acids. Oxygen uptake, as measured with an oxygen electrode, is diminished upon illumination, with the amount of decrease related to light intensity. This oxygen-sparing effect is correlated with the wavelengths of light that are associated with bacteriochlorophyll absorban...

  4. Does the size of the microphytobenthic biofilm on intertidal muflats depend on the available photosynthetic biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Herlory, Olivier; Blanchard, Gerard F.; Planche, S; Huet, V; Richard, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Many scientists consider that the top centimetre of the sediment on intertidal mudflats contains the photosynthetic competent biomass (PCB). Part of this biomass migrates upward to the surface of the sediment during diurnal emersion periods to form a temporary biofilm: the photosynthetic active biomass (PAB). The present study tests the hypothesis that the size of the biofilm (PAB) is functionally dependent on PCB. Therefore, we have plotted PAB as a function of PCB for a range of different e...

  5. Estimating Photosynthetic Radiation Use Efficiency Using Incident Light and Photosynthesis of Individual Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rosati; DeJong, T M

    2003-01-01

    It has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PhRUE) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. To test this hypothesis, ‘daily’ photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. Instantaneous photosynthes...

  6. Assessing photosynthetic downregulation in sunflower stands with an optically-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, J A; Field, C B; Fredeen, A L; Thayer, S

    2001-01-01

    Using a simple light-use efficiency model based on optical measurements, we explored spatial patterns of photosynthetic activity in fertilized and unfertilized sunflower stands. The model had two components: (1) absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), and (2) radiation-use efficiency. APAR was the product of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and leaf absorptance, which was derived from leaf reflectance. Radiation-use efficiency was either assumed to be constant or allowed to vary linearly with the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), a measure of xanthophyll cycle pigment activity. When efficiency was assumed to be constant, the model overestimated photosynthetic rates in upper canopy layers exposed to direct PPFD, particularly in the unfertilized canopy due to the greater photosynthetic downregulation associated with higher levels of photoprotective (de-epoxidized) xanthophyll cycle pigments in these conditions. When efficiency was allowed to vary according to the PRI, modeled photosynthetic rates closely matched measured rates for all canopy layers in both treatments. These results illustrate the importance of considering reduced radiation-use efficiency due to photosynthetic downregulation when modeling photosynthesis from reflectance, and illustrate the potential for detecting radiation-use efficiency through leaf optical properties. At least under the conditions of this study, these results also suggest that xanthophyll cycle pigment activity and net carbon uptake are coordinately regulated, allowing assays of Photosystem II activity to reveal changing rates of net assimilation. Because the optical methods in this study are adaptable to multiple spatial scales (leaf to landscape), this approach may provide a scalable model for estimating photosynthetic rates independently from flux measurements. PMID:16228321

  7. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Cesar; Rezica Sudar; Zorica Jurković; Ines Mihaljević; Hrvoje Lepeduš; Krunoslav Dugalić; Marija Viljevac; Domagoj Šimić

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS) of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L.) during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days) and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivar...

  8. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  9. Nitric Oxide Alleviates Salt Stress Inhibited Photosynthetic Performance by Interacting with Sulfur Assimilation in Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma, Mehar; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur (S) on stomatal responses and photosynthetic performance was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 μM NO (as sodium nitroprusside) and 200 mg S kg−1 soil (S) more prominently influenced stomatal behavior, photosynthetic and growth performance both in the absence and presence of salt stress. The chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized chloroplast thylakoids, but com...

  10. Photosynthetic response of pepper plants to wilt induced by Verticillium dahliae and soil water deficit.

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Morales Iribas, Fermín; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare stress effects caused by Verticillium dahliae and drought on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments of pepper plants. Three treatments were compared: Verticillium inoculated plants (+V), non-inoculated well-watered plants (−V) and non-inoculated plants subjected to progressive drought (D). Gas exchange, fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments were measured and represented along a gradient of relative water con...

  11. On the photosynthetic and devlopmental responses of leaves to the spectral composition of light

    OpenAIRE

    Hogewoning, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: action spectrum, artificial solar spectrum, blue light, Cucumis sativus, gas-exchange, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), light interception, light quality, non-photosynthetic pigments, photo-synthetic capacity, photomorphogenesis, photosystem excitation balance, quantum yield, red light. A wide range of plant properties respond to the spectral composition of irradiance, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, phototropism and photonastic movements. These responses affect plant prod...

  12. Algal and bacterial activities in acidic (pH 3) strip mine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reservoir 29 and Lake B are extremely acid lakes (epilimnion pHs of 2.7 and 3.2, respectively), because they receive acidic discharges from coal refuse piles. They differ in that the pH of profundal sediments in Reservoir 29 increased from 2.7 to 3.8 during the period of thermal stratification, whereas permanently anoxic sediments in Lake B had a pH of 6.2. The pH rise in Reservoir 29 sediments was correlated with a temporal increase in H2S concentration in the anaerobic hypolimnion from 0 to >1 mM. The chlorophyll a levels in the epilimnion of Reservoir 29 were low, and the rate of primary production was typical of an oligotrophic system. However, there was a dense 10-cm layer of algal biomass at the bottom of the metalimnion. Production by this layer was low owing to light limitation and possibly H2S toxicity. The specific photosynthetic rates of epilimnetic algae were low, which suggests that nutrient availability is more important than pH in limiting production. The highest photosynthetic rates were obtained in water samples incubated at pH 2.7 to 4. Heterotrophic bacterial activity (measured by [14C]glucose metabolism) was greatest at the sediment/water interface. Bacterial production (assayed by thymidine incorporation) was as high in Reservoir 29 as in a nonacid mesotrophic Indiana lake

  13. Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L. to variations in photosynthetic photon flux densities, temperature and CO2 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

    2008-10-01

    Effect of different photosynthetic photon flux densities (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol m(-2)s(-1)), temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C) and CO2 concentrations (250, 350, 450, 550, 650 and 750 μmol mol(-1)) on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of Cannabis sativa L. were studied to determine the suitable and efficient environmental conditions for its indoor mass cultivation for pharmaceutical uses. The rate of photosynthesis (PN) and water use efficiency (WUE) of Cannabis sativa increased with photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) at the lower temperatures (20-25 °C). At 30 °C, PN and WUE increased only up to 1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1) PPFD and decreased at higher light levels. The maximum rate of photosynthesis (PN max) was observed at 30 °C and under 1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1) PPFD. The rate of transpiration (E) responded positively to increased PPFD and temperature up to the highest levels tested (2000 μmol m(-2)s(-1) and 40 °C). Similar to E, leaf stomatal conductance (gs) also increased with PPFD irrespective of temperature. However, gs increased with temperature up to 30 °C only. Temperature above 30 °C had an adverse effect on gs in this species. Overall, high temperature and high PPFD showed an adverse effect on PN and WUE. A continuous decrease in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and therefore, in the ratio of intercellular CO2 to ambient CO2 concentration (Ci/Ca) was observed with the increase in temperature and PPFD. However, the decrease was less pronounced at light intensities above 1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1). In view of these results, temperature and light optima for photosynthesis was concluded to be at 25-30 °C and ∼1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1) respectively. Furthermore, plants were also exposed to different concentrations of CO2 (250, 350, 450, 550, 650 and 750 μmol mol(-1)) under optimum PPFD and temperature conditions to assess their photosynthetic response. Rate of photosynthesis, WUE and Ci decreased by 50 %, 53 % and 10

  14. Host control and nutrient trading in a photosynthetic symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Andrew D; Minter, Ewan J A; Sørensen, Megan E S; Lowe, Christopher D; Cameron, Duncan D; Brockhurst, Michael A; Jamie Wood, A

    2016-09-21

    Photosymbiosis is one of the most important evolutionary trajectories, resulting in the chloroplast and the subsequent development of all complex photosynthetic organisms. The ciliate Paramecium bursaria and the alga Chlorella have a well established and well studied light dependent endosymbiotic relationship. Despite its prominence, there remain many unanswered questions regarding the exact mechanisms of the photosymbiosis. Of particular interest is how a host maintains and manages its symbiont load in response to the allocation of nutrients between itself and its symbionts. Here we construct a detailed mathematical model, parameterised from the literature, that explicitly incorporates nutrient trading within a deterministic model of both partners. The model demonstrates how the symbiotic relationship can manifest as parasitism of the host by the symbionts, mutualism, wherein both partners benefit, or exploitation of the symbionts by the hosts. We show that the precise nature of the photosymbiosis is determined by both environmental conditions (how much light is available for photosynthesis) and the level of control a host has over its symbiont load. Our model provides a framework within which it is possible to pose detailed questions regarding the evolutionary behaviour of this important example of an established light dependent endosymbiosis; we focus on one question in particular, namely the evolution of host control, and show using an adaptive dynamics approach that a moderate level of host control may evolve provided the associated costs are not prohibitive. PMID:26925812

  15. Partitioning changes in photosynthetic rate into contributions from different variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Changes in net CO2 assimilation rate (A) are often partitioned into contributions from changes in different variables using an approach that is based on an expression from calculus: namely the definition of the exact differential of A, which states that an infinitesimal change in A (dA) is equal to the sum of infinitesimal changes in each of the underlying variables, each multiplied by the partial derivative of A with respect to the variable. Finite changes in A can thus be partitioned by integrating this sum across a finite interval. The most widely used method of estimating that integral is a coarse discrete approximation that uses partial derivatives of the natural logarithm of A rather than A itself. This yields biased and ambiguous estimates of partitioned changes in A. We present an alternative partitioning approach based on direct numerical integration of dA. The new approach does not require any partial derivatives to be computed, and it can be applied under any conditions to estimate the contributions from changes in any photosynthetic variable. We demonstrate this approach using field measurements of both seasonal and diurnal changes in assimilation rate, and we provide a spreadsheet implementing the new approach. PMID:25266511

  16. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  17. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the spectral complex index of refraction of biofuel producing photosynthetic microalgae between 400 and 750 nm. They were retrieved from their experimentally measured average absorption and scattering cross-sections. The microalgae were treated as homogeneous polydisperse spheres with equivalent diameter such that their surface area was identical to that of their actual spheroidal shape. An inverse method was developed combining Lorentz-Mie theory as the forward method and genetic algorithm. The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC125 and its truncated chlorophyll antenna transformants tla1, tlaX, and tla1-CW+ as well as Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella sp., and Chlorococcum littorale were investigated. These species were selected for their ability to produce either hydrogen gas or lipids for liquid fuel production. Their retrieved real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction were continuous functions of wavelength with absorption peaks corresponding to those of in vivo Chlorophylls a and b. The T-matrix method was also found to accurately predict the experimental measurements by treating the microalgae as axisymmetric spheroids with the experimentally measured major and minor diameter distributions and the retrieved spectral complex index of refraction. Finally, pigment mass fractions were also estimated from the retrieved absorption index. The method and/or the reported optical properties can be used in various applications from ocean remote sensing, carbon cycle study, as well as photobiological carbon dioxide mitigation and biofuel production.

  18. Thermal Quantum Correlations in Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdian, M.; Kouhestani, H.

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the ancient biological processes, playing crucial role converting solar energy to cellular usable currency. Environmental factors and external perturbations has forced nature to choose systems with the highest efficiency and performance. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have proved the presence of quantum properties in biological systems. Energy transfer systems like Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex shows quantum entanglement between sites of Bacteriophylla molecules in protein environment and presence of decoherence. Complex biological systems implement more truthful mechanisms beside chemical-quantum correlations to assure system's efficiency. In this study we investigate thermal quantum correlations in FMO protein of the photosynthetic apparatus of green sulfur bacteria by quantum discord measure. The results confirmed existence of remarkable quantum correlations of of BChla pigments in room temperature. This results approve involvement of quantum correlation mechanisms for information storage and retention in living organisms that could be useful for further evolutionary studies. Inspired idea of this study is potentially interesting to practice by the same procedure in genetic data transfer mechanisms.

  19. Protein translocons in photosynthetic organelles of Paulinella chromatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Gagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rhizarian amoeba Paulinella chromatophora harbors two photosynthetic cyanobacterial endosymbionts (chromatophores, acquired independently of primary plastids of glaucophytes, red algae and green plants. These endosymbionts have lost many essential genes, and transferred substantial number of genes to the host nuclear genome via endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT, including those involved in photosynthesis. This indicates that, similar to primary plastids, Paulinella endosymbionts must have evolved a transport system to import their EGT-derived proteins. This system involves vesicular trafficking to the outer chromatophore membrane and presumably a simplified Tic-like complex at the inner chromatophore membrane. Since both sequenced Paulinella strains have been shown to undergo differential plastid gene losses, they do not have to possess the same set of Toc and Tic homologs. We searched the genome of Paulinella FK01 strain for potential Toc and Tic homologs, and compared the results with the data obtained for Paulinella CCAC 0185 strain, and 72 cyanobacteria, eight Archaeplastida as well as some other bacteria. Our studies revealed that chromatophore genomes from both Paulinella strains encode the same set of translocons that could potentially create a simplified but fully-functional Tic-like complex at the inner chromatophore membranes. The common maintenance of the same set of translocon proteins in two Paulinella strains suggests a similar import mechanism and/or supports the proposed model of protein import. Moreover, we have discovered a new putative Tic component, Tic62, a redox sensor protein not identified in previous comparative studies of Paulinella translocons.

  20. Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Photosynthetic Cells in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Yan; Benning, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plant and algal oils are some of the most energy-dense renewable compounds provided by nature. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major constituent of plant oils, which can be converted into fatty acid methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. As one of the most efficient producers of TAGs, photosynthetic microalgae have attracted substantial interest for renewable fuel production. Currently, the big challenge of microalgae based TAGs for biofuels is their high cost compared to fossil fuels. A conundrum is that microalgae accumulate large amounts of TAGs only during stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation and temperature stress, which inevitably will inhibit growth. Thus, a better understanding of why and how microalgae induce TAG biosynthesis under stress conditions would allow the development of engineered microalgae with increased TAG production during conditions optimal for growth. Land plants also synthesize TAGs during stresses and we will compare new findings on environmental stress-induced TAG accumulation in plants and microalgae especially in the well-characterized model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a biotechnologically relevant genus Nannochloropsis. PMID:27023236

  1. Quantum correlation dynamics in photosynthetic processes assisted by molecular vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, G.L., E-mail: g.giorgi@inrim.it [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Roncaglia, M. [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Raffa, F.A. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Genovese, M. [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    During the long course of evolution, nature has learnt how to exploit quantum effects. In fact, recent experiments reveal the existence of quantum processes whose coherence extends over unexpectedly long time and space ranges. In particular, photosynthetic processes in light-harvesting complexes display a typical oscillatory dynamics ascribed to quantum coherence. Here, we consider the simple model where a dimer made of two chromophores is strongly coupled with a quasi-resonant vibrational mode. We observe the occurrence of wide oscillations of genuine quantum correlations, between electronic excitations and the environment, represented by vibrational bosonic modes. Such a quantum dynamics has been unveiled through the calculation of the negativity of entanglement and the discord, indicators widely used in quantum information for quantifying the resources needed to realize quantum technologies. We also discuss the possibility of approximating additional weakly-coupled off-resonant vibrational modes, simulating the disturbances induced by the rest of the environment, by a single vibrational mode. Within this approximation, one can show that the off-resonant bath behaves like a classical source of noise.

  2. Hydrogen Fluxes from Photosynthetic Communities: Implications for Early Earth Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Bebout, Brad M.; DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    More than half the history of life on Earth was dominated by photosynthetic microbial mats, which must have represented the preeminent biological influence on global geochemical cycling during that time. In modem analogs of then ancient communities, hypersaline microbial mats from Guerrero Negro, Mexico, we have observed a large flux of molecular hydrogen originating in the cyanobacteria-dominated surface layers. Hydrogen production follows a distinct diel pattern and is sensitive to both oxygen tension and microbial species composition within the mat. On an early Earth dominated by microbial mats, the observed H2 fluxes would scale to global levels far in excess of geothermal emissions. A hydrogen flux of this magnitude represents a profound transmission of reducing power from oxygenic photosynthesis, both to the anaerobic biosphere, where H2 is an almost universally-utilized substrate and regulator of microbial redox chemistry, and to the atmosphere, where subsequent escape to space could provide an important mechanism for the net oxidation of Earth's surface.

  3. Hyperspectral estimation of corn fraction of photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) is one of the important variables in many productivity and biomass estimation models, this analyzed the effect of FPAR estimation with hyperspectral information, which could provide the scientific support on the improvement of FPAR estimation, remote sensing data validation, and the other ecological models. Based on the field experiment of corn, this paper analyzed the correlations between FPAR and spectral reflectance or the differential coefficient, and discussed the mechanism of FPAR estimation, studied corn FPAR estimation with reflectance, first differential coefficient, NDVI and RVI. The reflectance of visible bands showed much better correlations with FPAR than near-infrared bands. The correlation curve between FPAR and differential coefficient varied more frequently and greatly than the curve of FPAR and reflectance. Reflectance and differential coefficient both had good regressions with FPAR of the typical single band, with the maximum R2 of 0.791 and 0.882. In a word, differential coefficient and vegetation index were much effective than reflectance for corn FPAR estimating, and the stepwised regression of multibands differential coefficient showed the best regression with R2 of 0.944. 375 nm purpled band and 950 nm near-infraed band absorbed by water showed prodigious potential for FPAR estimating precision. On the whole, vegetation index and differential coefficient have good relationships with FPAR, and could be used for FAPR estimation. It would be effective of choosing right bands and excavating the hyperspectral data to improve FPAR estimating precision

  4. Quantum correlation dynamics in photosynthetic processes assisted by molecular vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the long course of evolution, nature has learnt how to exploit quantum effects. In fact, recent experiments reveal the existence of quantum processes whose coherence extends over unexpectedly long time and space ranges. In particular, photosynthetic processes in light-harvesting complexes display a typical oscillatory dynamics ascribed to quantum coherence. Here, we consider the simple model where a dimer made of two chromophores is strongly coupled with a quasi-resonant vibrational mode. We observe the occurrence of wide oscillations of genuine quantum correlations, between electronic excitations and the environment, represented by vibrational bosonic modes. Such a quantum dynamics has been unveiled through the calculation of the negativity of entanglement and the discord, indicators widely used in quantum information for quantifying the resources needed to realize quantum technologies. We also discuss the possibility of approximating additional weakly-coupled off-resonant vibrational modes, simulating the disturbances induced by the rest of the environment, by a single vibrational mode. Within this approximation, one can show that the off-resonant bath behaves like a classical source of noise

  5. Three photosynthetic patterns characterized by cluster analysis of gas exchange data in two rice populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaisong Ding

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant photosynthetic rate is affected by stomatal status and internal CO2 carboxylation. Understanding which process determines photosynthetic rate is essential for developing strategies for breeding crops with high photosynthetic efficiency. In this study, we identified different physiological patterns of photosynthetic rate in two different rice populations. Photosynthetic gas exchange parameters were measured during the flowering stage in two rice populations. Clustering and correlation analyses were performed on the resulting data. Five or six groups were defined by K-means clustering according to differences in net photosynthetic rates (Pn. According to differences in stomatal conductance (gs and carboxylation efficiency (CE, each group was clustered into three subgroups characterized by physiological patterns stomatal pattern, carboxylation pattern, and intermediate pattern. Pn was significantly correlated with gs (r = 0.810 and CE (r = 0.531. Pn was also significantly correlated with gs and CE in the three physiological patterns. The correlation coefficients were highest in the stomatal pattern (0.905 and 0.957 and lowest in the carboxylation pattern (0.825 and 0.859. Higher correlation coefficients between Pn and gs or CE in the three physiological patterns indicate that clustering is very important for understanding factors limiting rice photosynthesis.

  6. Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N- in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study bacterial azoreductases. The construction of the recombinant protein by cloning and the overexpression of azoreductase is described. The mechanisms and function of bacterial azoreductases can be studied by other molecular techniques discussed in this review, such as RT-PCR, southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, zymography, and muta-genesis in order to understand bacterial azoreductase properties, function and application. In addition, understanding the regulation of azoreductase gene expression will lead to the systematic use of gene manipulation in bacterial strains for new strategies in future waste remediation technologies.

  7. Use of O-J-I-P Chlorophyll Fluorescence Transients to Probe Multiple Effects of UV-C Radiation on the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Euglena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalinda Koshitha Beneragama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence signals are rich in information, most of the chlorophyll fluorescence related studies deal only with the quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm. JIP-test based OJIP fluorescence transient analysis is relatively a new technique to investigate the environmental stress responses of photosynthetic organisms. In the present study, the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV radiation on the photosynthetic machinery were probed by the JIP-test in Euglena, one of the most potent organisms for the future space stations. The cells were exposed to a series of UV-C doses and immediately after exposure, survival percentage was determined with Neutral Red staining, and the chlorophyll fluorescence was measured using AquaPen AP-C 100 fluorometer. Resultant OJIP transients were analyzed according to JIP-test, and several functional and structural parameters were derived to explain the PSII behavior. Results indicated that the UV-C induced inhibition of electron transport is severely affected due to higher sensitivity of dark reactions after QA -, represented as ψo, the electron transfer probability, than of the light dependent reactions, represented as φPo, the trapping probability. The performance index (PIABS of PSII, which is a combination of the indices of three independent parameters, decreased markedly in exponential manner in response to UVC. Results illustrate the advantage of using a number of fluorescent parameters over the use of one parameter, often the Fv/Fm.

  8. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  9. Observation of Coherence in the Photosystem II Reaction Center

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Franklin D; Senlik, S Seckin; Wilcox, Daniel E; Ogilvie, Jennifer P

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthesis powers life on our planet. The basic photosynthetic architecture comprises antenna complexes to harvest solar energy and reaction centers to convert the energy into a stable charge separated state. In oxygenic photosynthesis, the initial charge separation event occurs in the photosystem II reaction center; the only known natural enzyme that uses solar energy to split water. Energy transfer and charge separation in photosynthesis are rapid and have high quantum efficiencies. Recently, nonlinear spectroscopic experiments have suggested that electronic coherence may play a role in energy transfer efficiency in antenna complexes. Here we report the observation of coherence in the photosystem II reaction center by two dimensional electronic spectroscopy. The frequencies of the observed coherences match exciton difference frequencies and/or known vibrational modes of the photosystem II reaction center. These observations raise questions about the possible role of electronic and/or vibrational coheren...

  10. Regulation of gene expression by photosynthetic signals triggered through modified CO2 availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wormuth Dennis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To coordinate metabolite fluxes and energy availability, plants adjust metabolism and gene expression to environmental changes through employment of interacting signalling pathways. Results Comparing the response of Arabidopsis wild-type plants with that of the mutants adg1, pgr1 and vtc1 upon altered CO2-availability, the regulatory role of the cellular energy status, photosynthetic electron transport, the redox state and concentration of ascorbate and glutathione and the assimilatory force was analyzed in relation to the transcript abundance of stress-responsive nuclear encoded genes and psaA and psbA encoding the reaction centre proteins of photosystem I and II, respectively. Transcript abundance of Bap1, Stp1, psaA and psaB was coupled with seven metabolic parameters. Especially for psaA and psaB, the complex analysis demonstrated that the assumed PQ-dependent redox control is subordinate to signals linked to the relative availability of 3-PGA and DHAP, which define the assimilatory force. For the transcripts of sAPx and Csd2 high correlations with the calculated redox state of NADPH were observed in pgr1, but not in wild-type, suggesting that in wild-type plants signals depending on thylakoid acidification overlay a predominant redox-signal. Strongest correlation with the redox state of ascorbate was observed for 2CPA, whose transcript abundance regulation however was almost insensitive to the ascorbate content demonstrating dominance of redox regulation over metabolite sensing. Conclusion In the mutants, signalling pathways are partially uncoupled, demonstrating dominance of metabolic control of photoreaction centre expression over sensing the redox state of the PQ-pool. The balance between the cellular redox poise and the energy signature regulates sAPx and Csd2 transcript abundance, while 2CPA expression is primarily redox-controlled.

  11. Environmental Stresses Increase Photosynthetic Disruption by Metal Oxide Nanomaterials in a Soil-Grown Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Jon R; Beaulieu, Arielle L; Beaulieu, Nicole L; Mazer, Susan J; Keller, Arturo A

    2015-12-22

    Despite an increasing number of studies over the past decade examining the interactions between plants and engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), very few have investigated the influence of environmental conditions on ENM uptake and toxicity, particularly throughout the entire plant life cycle. In this study, soil-grown herbaceous annual plants (Clarkia unguiculata) were exposed to TiO2, CeO2, or Cu(OH)2 ENMs at different concentrations under distinct light and nutrient levels for 8 weeks. Biweekly fluorescence and gas exchange measurements were recorded, and tissue samples from mature plants were analyzed for metal content. During peak growth, exposure to TiO2 and CeO2 decreased photosynthetic rate and CO2 assimilation efficiency of plants grown under high light and nutrient conditions, possibly by disrupting energy transfer from photosystem II (PSII) to the Calvin cycle. Exposure Cu(OH)2 particles also disrupted photosynthesis but only in plants grown under the most stressful conditions (high light, limited nutrient) likely by preventing the oxidation of a primary PSII reaction center. TiO2 and CeO2 followed similar uptake and distribution patterns with concentrations being highest in roots followed by leaves then stems, while Cu(OH)2 was present at highest concentrations in leaves, likely as ionic Cu. ENM accumulation was highly dependent on both light and nutrient levels and a predictive regression model was developed from these data. These results show that abiotic conditions play an important role in mediating the uptake and physiological impacts of ENMs in terrestrial plants. PMID:26505090

  12. Mutants, Overexpressors, and Interactors of Arabidopsis Plastocyanin Isoforms: Revised Roles of Plastocyanin in Photosynthetic Electron Flow and Thylakoid Redox State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Pesaresi; Michael Scharfenberg; Martin Weigel; Irene Granlund; Wolfgang P. Schr(o)der; Giovanni Finazzi; Fabrice Rappaport; Simona Masiero; Antonella Furini; Peter Jahns; Dario Leister

    2009-01-01

    Two homologous plastocyanin isoforms are encoded by the genes PETE1 and PETE2 in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. The PETE2 transcript is expressed at considerably higher levels and the PETE2 protein is the more abundant isoform. Null mutations in the PETE genes resulted in plants, designated pete1 and pete2, with decreased plas-tocyanin contents. However, despite reducing plastocyanin levels by over~90%, a pete2 null mutation on its own affects rates of photosynthesis and growth only slightly, whereas pete1 knockout plants, with about 60-80% of the wild-type plastocyanin level, did not show any alteration. Hence, plastocyanin concentration is not limiting for photosynthetic elec-tron flow under optimal growth conditions, perhaps implying other possible physiological roles for the protein. Indeed, plastocyanin has been proposed previously to cooperate with cytochrome C6A (Cyt C6A) in thylakoid redox reactions, but we find no evidence for a physical interaction between the two proteins, using interaction assays in yeast. We observed homodimerization of Cyt C6A in yeast interaction assays, but also Cyt C6A homodimers failed to interact with plastocyanin. Moreover, phenotypic analysis of atc6-1 pete1 and atc6-1 pete2 double mutants, each lacking Cyt C6A and one of the two plastocyanin-encoding genes, failed to reveal any genetic interaction. Overexpression of either PETE1 or PETE2 in the pete1 pete2 double knockout mutant background results in essentially wild-type photosynthetic performance, excluding the possibility that the two plastocyanin isoforms could have distinct functions in thylakoid electron flow.

  13. The effect of temperature on the photosynthesis and 14C-photosynthetic products transportation and distribution in cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimum temperature of photosynthesis tended to become higher following the growth of cucumber. The optimum temperature was 30 deg C at the early growth stage and 35 deg C at the late growth stage. Stomatal resistance decreased and transpiration rate increased with increasing of the temperature. Most of the 14C-photosynthetic products in leaves were transported out at 30 deg C during the day. After one night, more photosynthetic products were transported out under higher temperature. From the early to the middle growth stage, most of the 14C-photosynthetic products were transported to fruits at 30 deg C. But caulis, leaves and apical point obtained most of the photosynthetic products at 35 deg C. At the late growth stage, most of the 14C-photosynthetic products were transported to fruits at 35 deg c. At 25 deg C, caulis and leaves got more 14C-photosynthetic products

  14. Evolution of Bacterial Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  15. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  16. The rare bacterial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

  17. Effect of light on respiration and development of photosynthetic cells. Progress report, September 1, 1977--August 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, M

    1977-08-31

    The biophotolysis of water by photosynthetic cells resulting in the formation of hydrogen gas is of prime concern. That algal cells require both photosystems to complete this process is established. That a reduced carbon source can be photoxidized to release hydrogen and carbon dioxide has been proven. On the other hand, whether water is split to hydrogen and oxygen by the intact cell adapted to a hydrogen metabolism is an open question. A reconstituted preparation of higher plants can split water into its two components. A reconstituted algal preparation will be evaluated with respect to a similar reaction. If hydrogen and oxygen are produced in vitro, what then regulates the cell into controlling this reaction during the onset of a hydrogen metabolism. The substrate for photorespiration is glycolic acid. The synthesis of this simple acid remain controversial. A new preparation of the spinach chloroplast has been developed which allows many compounds hitherto uncapable of crossing the organelle envelope to affect directly the carbon metabolism. We plan to use this preparation to evaluate the many proposed mechanisms of glycolate formation. Thus ribulose-1,5-diphosphate, hydroxypyruvate, hydroxypyruvate phosphate, oxaloacetate, and fructose-6-phosphate will be incubated under varying conditions and glycolate yields will be monitored. Conditions such as pH, substrate concentration, and oxygen partial pressure will be varied to determine accordance with in vivo conditions.

  18. The relationship between maximum tolerated light intensity and photoprotective energy dissipation in the photosynthetic antenna: chloroplast gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Alexander V; Belgio, Erica

    2014-04-19

    The principle of quantifying the efficiency of protection of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centres against photoinhibition by non-photochemical energy dissipation (NPQ) has been recently introduced by Ruban & Murchie (2012 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1817, 977-982 (doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.03.026)). This is based upon the assessment of two key parameters: (i) the relationship between the PSII yield and NPQ, and (ii) the fraction of intact PSII reaction centres in the dark after illumination. In this paper, we have quantified the relationship between the amplitude of NPQ and the light intensity at which all PSII reaction centres remain intact for plants with different levels of PsbS protein, known to play a key role in the process. It was found that the same, nearly linear, relationship exists between the levels of the protective NPQ component (pNPQ) and the tolerated light intensity in all types of studied plants. This approach allowed for the quantification of the maximum tolerated light intensity, the light intensity at which all plant leaves become photoinhibited, the fraction of (most likely) unnecessary or 'wasteful' NPQ, and the fraction of photoinhibited PSII reaction centres under conditions of prolonged illumination by full sunlight. It was concluded that the governing factors in the photoprotection of PSII are the level and rate of protective pNPQ formation, which are often in discord with the amplitude of the conventional measure of photoprotection, the quickly reversible NPQ component, qE. Hence, we recommend pNPQ as a more informative and less ambiguous parameter than qE, as it reflects the effectiveness and limitations of the major photoprotective process of the photosynthetic membrane. PMID:24591709

  19. Transport Powered by Bacterial Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peshkov, Anton; Sokolov, Andrey; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that collective turbulentlike motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer the directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedgelike "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that an optimal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp region of the carrier, which is shielded from the outside turbulent fluctuations.

  20. Transport powered by bacterial turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peshkov, Anton; Sokolov, Andrey; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Aranson, Igor S

    2014-04-18

    We demonstrate that collective turbulentlike motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer the directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedgelike "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that an optimal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp region of the carrier, which is shielded from the outside turbulent fluctuations. PMID:24785075