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Sample records for bacterial isolates collected

  1. Characterization of CCN and IN activity of bacterial isolates collected in Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, Sara; Waters, Samantha; Karthikeyan, Smruthi; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of CCN activity of bacteria, other than a few select types such as Pseudomonas syringae, is limited, especially when looked at in conjunction with corresponding IN activity. The link between these two points is especially important for bacteria as those that have high CCN activity are likely to form an aqueous phase required for immersion freezing. Given the high ice nucleation temperature of bacterial cells, especially in immersion mode, it is important to characterize the CCN and IN activity of many different bacterial strains. To this effect, we developed a droplet freezing assay (DFA) which consists of an aluminum cold plate, cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture, in order to observe immersion freezing of the collected bacteria. Here, we present the initial results on the CCN and IN activities of bacterial samples we have collected in Atlanta, GA. Bacterial strains were collected and isolated from rainwater samples taken from different storms throughout the year. We then characterized the CCN activity of each strain using a DMT Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter by exposing the aerosolized bacteria to supersaturations ranging from 0.05% to 0.6%. Additionally, using our new DFA, we characterized the IN activity of each bacterial strain at temperatures ranging from -20oC to 0oC. The combined CCN and IN activity gives us valuable information on how some uncharacterized bacteria contribute to warm and mixed-phase cloud formation in the atmosphere.

  2. “Streptomyces massilialgeriensis” sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from an extremely saline soil collected from the dry lake of Ank el Djamel in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Djaballah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the main characteristics of “Streptomyces massilialgeriensis” strain S35T (CSUR = P3927, a new bacterial species within the Streptomyces genus, isolated from an extremely saline soil sample collected from the site of Garaet Ank Djemel in the Wilaya of Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria.

  3. (MDR) Bacterial Activity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MDR) bacterial potential of culturable endophytes from A. corniculatum in Beibu Gulf, China. Methods: The plant parts were collected from healthy-looking A. corniculatum. The endophytes were isolated and identified by colonial morphology and ...

  4. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of urine bacterial isolates in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Urine samples collected from students of Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University and Kaduna State Polytechnic, Zaria, Nigeria, commercial sex workers, and illiterate men and women in Zaria were cultured and bacterial isolates identified using standard microbiological procedures.

  5. Collective decisions among bacterial viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Richard; Mileyko, Yuriy; Voit, Eberhard; Weitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    For many temperate bacteriophages, the decision of whether to kill hosts or enter a latent state depends on the multiplicity of infection. In this talk, I present a quantitative model of gene regulatory dynamics to describe how phages make collective decisions within host cells. Unlike most previous studies, the copy number of viral genomes is treated as a variable. In the absence of feedback loops, viral mRNA transcription is expected to be proportional to the viral copy number. However, when there are nonlinear feedback loops in viral gene regulation, our model shows that gene expression patterns are sensitive to changes in viral copy number and there can be a domain of copy number where the system becomes bistable. Hence, the viral copy number is a key control parameter determining host cell fates. This suggests that bacterial viruses can respond adaptively to changes in population dynamics, and can make alternative decisions as a bet-hedging strategy. Finally, I present a stochastic version of viral gene regulation and discuss speed-accuracy trade-offs in the context of cell fate determination by viruses.

  6. Antibiogram of bacterial species isolated from canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Swamy; Varun Bassessar; Yamini Verma

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present work was to ascertain the bacterial flora causing pyometra in female dogs and their antibiotic sensitivity. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted to determine the antibiogram of bacterial species isolated from 20 female dogs diagnosed with pyometra. The vaginal discharge was collected by sterile swab and streaked smoothly over Mueller Hinton medium and sensitivity towards antibiotics was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition using a Hi-media scale. ...

  7. Antibiogram of bacterial species isolated from canine pyometra

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    Madhu Swamy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present work was to ascertain the bacterial flora causing pyometra in female dogs and their antibiotic sensitivity. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted to determine the antibiogram of bacterial species isolated from 20 female dogs diagnosed with pyometra. The vaginal discharge was collected by sterile swab and streaked smoothly over Mueller Hinton medium and sensitivity towards antibiotics was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition using a Hi-media scale. Results: The antobiogram showed that Gentamicin was the most sensitive (85% antibiotic followed by Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin (65%, 65% and 55%, respectively. The isolates were most resistant to Oxytetracycline (85% followed by Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Cloxacillin and Erythromycin (80%, 80%, 75%, 70% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion: Gentamicin was found to be most effective antibiotic against the bacterial species isolated from canine pyometra. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 546-549

  8. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  9. Hexadecane degradation by bacterial strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to detect and monitor the degradation of hexadecane by three potential degrading bacteria (Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus erythroplolis and Bacillus thermoleovorans) isolated from contaminated soils in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The extraction of the bacterial populations from these polluted soils ...

  10. Biosynthesis and structural characterization of silver nanoparticles from bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, Sahar, E-mail: saharzaki@yahoo.com [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt); El Kady, M.F. [Fabrication Technology Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute (ATNMRI), Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria (Egypt); Abd-El-Haleem, Desouky [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt)

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: In this study five bacterial isolates belong to different genera were found to be able to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. Biosynthesis and spectral characterization are reported here. Highlights: {yields} About 300 bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to produce nanosilvers {yields} Five of them were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles {yields} Production of silver nanoparticles was examined using UV-Vis, XRD, SEM and EDS. {yields} The presence of nanoparticles with all five bacterial isolates was confirmed. -- Abstract: This study aimed to develop a green process for biosynthesis of silver nanomaterials by some Egyptian bacterial isolates. This target was achieved by screening an in-house culture collection consists of 300 bacterial isolates for silver nanoparticle formation. Through screening process, it was observed that strains belonging to Escherichia coli (S30, S78), Bacillus megaterium (S52), Acinetobacter sp. (S7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S54) were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by positive isolates was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results demonstrated that UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ion showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 15-50 nm. XRD-spectrum of the silver nanoparticles exhibited 2{theta} values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal that produce in hexagonal and cubic crystal configurations with different plane of orientation. In addition, the signals of the silver atoms were observed by EDS-spectrum analysis that confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag

  11. Isolation and in vitro evaluation of bacteriophages against MDR-bacterial isolates from septic wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavali, Roja Rani; Degati, Vijaya Lakshmi; Lomada, Dakshayani; Reddy, Madhava C; Durbaka, Vijaya Raghava Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance has become a major problem for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. The use of bacteriophages is an attractive approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance in several pathogens that cause fatal diseases. Our study aimed to isolate multi drug resistant bacteria from patients with septic wounds and then isolate and apply bacteriophages in vitro as alternative therapeutic agents. Pus samples were aseptically collected from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS), Kadapa, A.P., and samples were analyzed by gram staining, evaluating morphological characteristics, and biochemical methods. MDR-bacterial strains were collected using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against a variety of antibiotics. Bacteriophages were collected and tested in vitro for lytic activity against MDR-bacterial isolates. Analysis of the pus swab samples revealed that the most of the isolates detected had Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the predominant bacterium, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Our results suggested that gram-negative bacteria were more predominant than gram-positive bacteria in septic wounds; most of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, vancomycin and tetracycline. All the gram-positive isolates (100%) were multi-drug resistant, whereas 86% of the gram-negative isolates had a drug resistant nature. Further bacteriophages isolated from sewage demonstrated perfect lytic activity against the multi-drug resistant bacteria causing septic wounds. In vitro analysis of the isolated bacteriophages demonstrated perfect lysis against the corresponding MDR-bacteria, and these isolated phages may be promising as a first choice for prophylaxis against wound sepsis, Moreover, phage therapy does not enhance multi-drug resistance in bacteria and could work simultaneously on a wide variety of MDR-bacteria when used in a bacteriophage cocktail. Hence, our results suggest

  12. Isolation and in vitro evaluation of bacteriophages against MDR-bacterial isolates from septic wound infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roja Rani Pallavali

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistance has become a major problem for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. The use of bacteriophages is an attractive approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance in several pathogens that cause fatal diseases. Our study aimed to isolate multi drug resistant bacteria from patients with septic wounds and then isolate and apply bacteriophages in vitro as alternative therapeutic agents. Pus samples were aseptically collected from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS, Kadapa, A.P., and samples were analyzed by gram staining, evaluating morphological characteristics, and biochemical methods. MDR-bacterial strains were collected using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against a variety of antibiotics. Bacteriophages were collected and tested in vitro for lytic activity against MDR-bacterial isolates. Analysis of the pus swab samples revealed that the most of the isolates detected had Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the predominant bacterium, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Our results suggested that gram-negative bacteria were more predominant than gram-positive bacteria in septic wounds; most of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, vancomycin and tetracycline. All the gram-positive isolates (100% were multi-drug resistant, whereas 86% of the gram-negative isolates had a drug resistant nature. Further bacteriophages isolated from sewage demonstrated perfect lytic activity against the multi-drug resistant bacteria causing septic wounds. In vitro analysis of the isolated bacteriophages demonstrated perfect lysis against the corresponding MDR-bacteria, and these isolated phages may be promising as a first choice for prophylaxis against wound sepsis, Moreover, phage therapy does not enhance multi-drug resistance in bacteria and could work simultaneously on a wide variety of MDR-bacteria when used in a bacteriophage cocktail. Hence

  13. Biodegradation of phenol by a newly isolated marine bacterial strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    peptone agar plates with. 1500 mg/L phenol. ... biodegradation of the strain was up to 92.0% under the optimum conditions even when the phenol ... Growth of marine bacterial isolates in various concentration of phenol. Isolate.

  14. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

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    Shahid Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of degrading Remazol Black-B azo dye efficientlywere screened through experimentation on modified mineral salt medium. Isolate SS1 (collected from wastewater ofSupreme Textile Industry was able to completely remove the Remazol Black-B dye from the liquid medium in 18 h.Further, the isolate showed the best performance at the dye concentration of 100 mg L-1 medium (pH 7 and attemperature 35oC. Similarly, yeast extract proved to be the best carbon source for decolorization purpose. Theresults imply that the isolate SS1 could be used for the removal of the reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  15. characterisation of bacterial isolates from patients wounds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-12

    Dec 12, 2013 ... resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from the patient's wounds and ward environment. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from samples cultured from patients ... friction/ shear force, pressure or as a result of disease, such as leg ulcers or carcinomas (2,3).

  16. Utilization of chitinolytic bacterial isolates to control anthracnose of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colletotrichum spp. are causal agents of anthracnose in many plant species. Biological control of Colletotrichum spp. utilizing bacterial isolates and fungi has been reported. However, chitinolytic bacterial isolate utilization to control anthracnose of cocoa leaf has not seemingly been studied yet. In this study, we used ...

  17. Identification, Characterization and Antibiotic Resistance of Bacterial Isolates Obtained from Waterpipe Device Hoses

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    Majed M. Masadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The general lack of knowledge about the health effects of waterpipe smoking is among the reasons for its global spread. In this study, bacterial contamination of waterpipe hoses was investigated. Twenty hoses were collected from waterpipe cafés and screened for bacterial pathogens using standard culture and isolation techniques. Additionally, resistance of isolated bacteria to common antibiotics was determined by identifying the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each isolate. Forty eight bacterial isolates were detected. Isolates included both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens from species that included Micrococcus (12, Corynebacterium (13 and Bacillus (9. In addition, some of the detected pathogens were found to be resistant to aztreonam (79%, cefixime (79%, norfloxacin, amoxicillin (47%, clarithromycin (46% and enrofloxacin (38%. In conclusion, the hose of the waterpipe device is a good environment for the growth of bacterial pathogens, which can then be transmitted to users.

  18. Identification, characterization and antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates obtained from waterpipe device hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar; Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Gharaibeh, Mahmoud

    2015-05-13

    The general lack of knowledge about the health effects of waterpipe smoking is among the reasons for its global spread. In this study, bacterial contamination of waterpipe hoses was investigated. Twenty hoses were collected from waterpipe cafés and screened for bacterial pathogens using standard culture and isolation techniques. Additionally, resistance of isolated bacteria to common antibiotics was determined by identifying the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each isolate. Forty eight bacterial isolates were detected. Isolates included both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens from species that included Micrococcus (12), Corynebacterium (13) and Bacillus (9). In addition, some of the detected pathogens were found to be resistant to aztreonam (79%), cefixime (79%), norfloxacin, amoxicillin (47%), clarithromycin (46%) and enrofloxacin (38%). In conclusion, the hose of the waterpipe device is a good environment for the growth of bacterial pathogens, which can then be transmitted to users.

  19. Validation of hierarchical cluster analysis for identification of bacterial species using 42 bacterial isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, Meron; Yesupriya, Shubha; Luka, Janos; Crane, Nicole J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the potential advantages of the use of Raman spectroscopy in the biomedical field due to its rapidity and noninvasive nature. In this study, Raman spectroscopy is applied as a method for differentiating between bacteria isolates for Gram status and Genus species. We created models for identifying 28 bacterial isolates using spectra collected with a 785 nm laser excitation Raman spectroscopic system. In order to investigate the groupings of these samples, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was implemented. In addition, cluster analyses of the isolates were performed using various data types consisting of, biochemical tests, gene sequence alignment, high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility tests of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and degree of antimicrobial resistance (SIR). In order to evaluate the ability of these models to correctly classify bacterial isolates using solely Raman spectroscopic data, a set of 14 validation samples were tested using the PLSDA models and consequently the HCA models. External cluster evaluation criteria of purity and Rand index were calculated at different taxonomic levels to compare the performance of clustering using Raman spectra as well as the other datasets. Results showed that Raman spectra performed comparably, and in some cases better than, the other data types with Rand index and purity values up to 0.933 and 0.947, respectively. This study clearly demonstrates that the discrimination of bacterial species using Raman spectroscopic data and hierarchical cluster analysis is possible and has the potential to be a powerful point-of-care tool in clinical settings.

  20. Quinolone Resistance in Bacterial Isolates from Chicken Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred bacterial isolates including Escherichia coli (95; 47.5%), Salmonella serotypes (78; 38.0%), Klebsiella (17; 8.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (12; 6.0%) were isolated from chicken carcasses within the six-year period. On the overall, the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (40.5%), enrofloxacin (21.0%), ...

  1. Immersion Refractometry of Isolated Bacterial Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    Immersion-refractometric and light-scattering measurements were adapted to determinations of average refractive indices and physical compactness of isolated bacterial cell walls. The structures were immersed in solutions containing various concentrations of polymer molecules that cannot penetrate into wall pores, and then an estimate was made of the polymer concentration or the refractive index of the polymer solution in which light scattering was reduced to zero. Because each wall preparation was heterogeneous, the refractive index of the medium for zero light scattering had to be estimated by extrapolation. Refractive indices for walls suspended in bovine serum albumin solutions ranged from 1.348 for walls of the rod form of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes to 1.382 for walls of the teichoic acid deficient, 52A5 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. These indices were used to calculate approximate values for solids content per milliliter, and the calculated values agreed closely with those estimated from a knowledge of dextran-impermeable volumes per gram, dry weight, of the walls. When large molecules such as dextrans or serum albumin were used for immersion refractometry, the refractive indices obtained were for entire walls, including both wall polymers and wall water. When smaller molecules that can penetrate wall pores to various extents were used with Micrococcus lysodeikticus walls, the average, apparent refractive index of the structures increased as the molecular size of probing molecules was decreased. It was possible to obtain an estimate of 1.45 to 1.46 for the refractive index of wall polymers, predominantly peptidoglycans in this case, by extrapolating the curve for refractive index versus molecular radius to a value of 0.2 nm, the approximate radius of a water molecule. This relatively low value for polymer refractive index was interpreted as evidence in favor of the amorphous, elastic model of peptidoglycan structure and against the crystalline, rigid

  2. Putative radioresistant bacterial isolate from sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, April; Chua, Patricia; Perez, Kristine; Rey, April; Rivor Kristel; San Pablo, Czarina; Santos, Ernestine

    2001-01-01

    Sewage water was collected from a stagnant body of water in Balara, Quezon City. approximately 150 ml was aseptically transferred into eight Erlenmeyer flasks. Seven flasks were then subjected to different doses of radiation at the 60 Co irradiation facility, PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) which are as follows: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 10 kGy, and 15 kGy. The remaining flask was used as the control. After irradiation, all the different treatments were subjected to colony count at the culture collection laboratory, NSRI. Results showed that the colonies from sewage water treatments irradiated at 0.01 kGy (treatment A), 0.10 kGy (treatment B), and 0.50 kGy (treatment C) exhibited a decreasing trend with colony counts 4.60 x 10 3 CFU/ml, and 1.30 x 10 3 CFU/ml, and 26 CFU/ml, respectively. Contrastingly, at 1 kGy (treatment D), high colony count of 2.95 x 10 3 CFU/ml was observed which is even higher compared to the control (1.02 x 10 3 CFU/ml). Treatment E that was irradiated at 5 kGy manifested low survival rate (25 CFU/ml) indicating the presence of few putative intermediate radioresistant bacteria. Radiation dose treatments higher than 5 kGy (i.e., 10 kGy and 15 kGy) exhibited no bacterial survival. (Author)

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organisms encountered include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces sp, Rhodotorula sp, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Micrococcus sp. The resistances of thirty bacterial strains isolated from orange juice products to the commonly used ...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections are common health problems and vary according to geography and regions. A retrospective analysis was conducted to determine the antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from urine at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital from September 2003 to June 2008. From 529 urine specimens, bacterial ...

  5. In vitro susceptibility of gram-negative bacterial isolates to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro susceptibility of gram-negative bacterial isolates to chlorhexidine gluconate. Y Mengistu, W Erge, B Bellete. Abstract. Objective: To investigate the susceptibility of clinical isolates of gram-negative bacteria to chlorhexidine gluconate. Design: Prospective laboratory study. Setting: Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, ...

  6. Clinical bacterial isolates from hospital environment as agents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between bacteria isolated from the hospital environment and those from wounds of operated patients was investigated to determine the causal agents of surgical site nosocomial infections. The study was carried out on bacterial species isolated from the theatre, surgical ward and patients' surgical wounds ...

  7. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon utilizing capability of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (PM-1), isolated from oil contaminated soil composts from Western Ghats region of Karnataka was analyzed. In the bioremediation experiment, ONGC heavy crude oil and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilization by the bacterial isolate was studied.

  8. Bacterial Isolates Associated with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This situation is not in any way different here in Nigeria and more so in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja where this research was conducted, there had never been any published report so far on PID. It therefore became pertinent that such studies be carried out to evaluate the bacterial organisms which may be associated ...

  9. AEROBIC BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM INFECTED WOUNDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Nurs. Times. 1985; 81:16-19. 5. Calvin M. Cutaneous wound repair. Wounds. 1998; 10(1): 12-32. 6. Brook I. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of necrotizing fasciitis in children. PediatrDermatol. 1996; 13:281-284. 7. Madsen SM, Westh H, Danielson L,. Rosadahi VT Bacterial colonization and healing of venous leg ulcers.

  10. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  11. Chitinolytic bactery activity isolated from the mud fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuniek Herdyastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chitinolytic microorganism had been isolated from mud fields in Ketintang Surabaya area by using a minimal media containing 0.4% colloidal chitin. Activity assay is based on released N-acetyl-glucosamine which reacted with 3,5 dinitrosalicyclic acid. Mud fields produce 63 bacterial isolates with chitinase activity (TNH1 – TNH63 isolates. The highest activity was shown by TNH11 isolate with specific activity 1.27 U/mg. TNH11 isolates was Gram negative, rod-cocoid cell, has a colony of yellow, round shape, convex elevation, flat margin and the colony diameter 3–5 mm.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a bacterial celluloseproducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year ripened persimmon vinegar, which belonged to the family of Acetobacteracea based on its morphological and physiological characteristics. The phylogenetic position of the isolated strain was most closely related to Gluconacetobacter ...

  13. ISOLATION OF 2-METHOXYETHANOL DEGRADING BACTERIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the isolate showed that the strain, designated VB is of the genus Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the organism is related to Pseudomonas putida at 99.9% and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida at 99.8% similarity level.

  14. Isolation And Characterization Of The Bacterial Flora Of Soy Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of five bacterial isolates designated A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 were obtained from twelve locally produced soy milk samples purchased from different locations in Nsukka town. The soy milk samples comprised seven unrefrigerated and five refrigerated samples. All samples were 24h-old according to information ...

  15. Biodegradation of orange G by a novel isolated bacterial strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article deals with biodegradation of azo dyes by a newly isolated bacterial strain from soil. Azo dyes are recalcitrant to the conventional modes of treatment due to their complex structure. This article reports decolorization of azo dye by, Gram positive, endospore forming and azo reducing, Bacillus megaterium ...

  16. Profiles of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial isolates and physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Venda region of South Africa is predominantly rural and residents rely on untreated water sources for daily water needs. The physico-chemical quality of these water sources including antibiotic susceptibilities of enteric bacterial isolates which would guide clinicians in the empiric management of diarrhoea have ...

  17. Drug sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolates from septic post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolates from septic post-operative wounds in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. ... Advances in control of infections have not completely eradicated this problem because of development of drug resistance.Antimicrobial resistance can increase complications and costs associated with ...

  18. Investigation of In vitro Mineral Forming Bacterial Isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Although it is known that bacterial mechanisms are involved in dental calculus formation, which is a predisposing factor in periodontal diseases, there have been few studies of such associations, and therefore, information available is limited. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria ...

  19. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacterial Isolates from the Intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacterial Isolates from the Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Methods: Retrospective analysis of the indoor case papers of ICUs from January 2010 to 31st March 2011 was carried out at Department of Pharmacology, Govt.

  20. Multiple antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 545 clinical specimens (pus, blood, urine, and stool) and environmental specimens (air sample, saline solution, nasal swabs etc) were cultured for isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Out of these, 356(65%) specimens yielded one or more bacterial strains. Frequent ...

  1. Etiologic significance of bacterial isolates from rams with palpable epididymitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, E A

    1986-05-01

    Identified and partly identified bacterial isolates were obtained from 48 rams of various breeds that had unilateral or bilateral epididymitis. Most of the animals were approximately 1 year of age; a few were older. Brucella ovis, Actinobacillus spp, Corynebacterium spp, Haemophilus spp, Acinetobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Moraxella spp, Staphylococcus spp, Pasteurella spp, Streptococcus spp, and Chlamydia psittaci were isolated. A vaccine strain of B ovis, isolated species of bacteria, and mixtures of isolates of tissue homogenates containing all isolates except B ovis and C psittaci were inoculated via the mucous membranes of the eyes, nares, and prepuce. Palpable epididymitis was not produced by the inoculations. The vaccine strain of B ovis induced complement-fixation reaction in 11 of 20 rams.

  2. High prevalence of biofilm synergy among bacterial soil isolates in cocultures indicates bacterial interspecific cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2015-01-01

    of single-species biofilms, indicating that all the individual strains benefit from inclusion in the multispecies community. Our results show a high prevalence of synergy in biofilm formation in multispecies consortia isolated from a natural bacterial habitat and suggest that interspecific cooperation...

  3. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  4. Spectrum and Sensitivity of Bacterial Keratitis Isolates in Auckland

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    S. Marasini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. Objectives. To identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. Methods. Hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified. Laboratory records of 89 culture positive cases were retrospectively reviewed and antibiotic sensitivity patterns compared with previous studies from other NZ centres. Results. From 126 positive cultures, 35 species were identified. Staphylococcus was identified to be the most common isolate (38.2%, followed by Pseudomonas (21.3%. Over the last decade, infection due to Pseudomonas species, in the same setting, has increased (p≤0.05. Aminoglycosides, cefazolin, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline were 100% effective against tested isolates in vitro. Amoxicillin (41.6%, cefuroxime (33.3%, and chloramphenicol (94.7% showed reduced efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria, whereas penicillin (51% and ciprofloxacin (98.8% showed reduced efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions. Despite a shift in the spectrum of bacterial keratitis isolates, antibiotic sensitivity patterns have generally remained stable and show comparability to results within the last decade from NZ centres.

  5. Spectrum and Sensitivity of Bacterial Keratitis Isolates in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasini, S; Swift, S; Dean, S J; Ormonde, S E; Craig, J P

    2016-01-01

    Background. The bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. Objectives. To identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. Methods. Hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified. Laboratory records of 89 culture positive cases were retrospectively reviewed and antibiotic sensitivity patterns compared with previous studies from other NZ centres. Results. From 126 positive cultures, 35 species were identified. Staphylococcus was identified to be the most common isolate (38.2%), followed by Pseudomonas (21.3%). Over the last decade, infection due to Pseudomonas species, in the same setting, has increased (p ≤ 0.05). Aminoglycosides, cefazolin, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline were 100% effective against tested isolates in vitro. Amoxicillin (41.6%), cefuroxime (33.3%), and chloramphenicol (94.7%) showed reduced efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria, whereas penicillin (51%) and ciprofloxacin (98.8%) showed reduced efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions. Despite a shift in the spectrum of bacterial keratitis isolates, antibiotic sensitivity patterns have generally remained stable and show comparability to results within the last decade from NZ centres.

  6. Distribution, antibiotic susceptibility and tolerance of bacterial isolates in culture-positive cases of endocarditis in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J. T.; van Vianen, W.; Hu, E.; van Leeuwen, W. B.; Valkenburg, H. A.; Thompson, J.; Michel, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    During a two-year period data were collected nationwide in The Netherlands on 438 episodes of bacterial endocarditis (BE) in 432 patients. Of the strains isolated in these patients 419 were available for analysis. Of these, 326 were isolated in native valve endocarditis (NVE) and 93 in prosthetic

  7. Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid Determined by the Reference Broth Microdilution Method against 3,032 Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates Collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe, and Latin American Countries in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N; Farrell, David J; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    Tedizolid and linezolid in vitro activities against 3,032 Gram-positive pathogens collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American medical centers during 2014 were assessed. The isolates were tested for susceptibility by the current reference broth microdilution methods. Due to concern over the effect of MIC endpoint criteria on the results of testing the oxazolidinones tedizolid and linezolid, MIC endpoint values were read by two methods: (i) reading the MIC at the first well where the trailing began without regard for pinpoint trailing, according to CLSI M07-A10 and M100-S26 document instructions for reading linezolid (i.e., 80% inhibition of growth; these reads were designated tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80), and (ii) at 100% inhibition of growth (designated tedizolid 100 and linezolid 100). All Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis isolates were inhibited at tedizolid 80 and 100 MIC values of 0.25 and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5, 0.12 and 0.25, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, MIC50 and MIC90 results for tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80 were one doubling dilution lower than those read at 100% inhibition. Tedizolid was 4- to 8-fold more potent than linezolid against all the isolates tested regardless of the MIC endpoint criterion used. Despite the differences in potency, >99.9% of isolates tested in this survey were susceptible to both linezolid and tedizolid using CLSI and EUCAST interpretive criteria. In conclusion, tedizolid demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in medical centers across the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Identification of leptospiral isolates by bacterial restriction endonuclease analysis (Brenda

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    Venkatesha M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA samples from 19 reference serovars belonging to 19 different serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and two serovars belonging to Leptospira biflexa were examined by bacterial restriction endonuclease analysis using EcoR I and Hae III enzymes. All the serovars gave unique restriction patterns that differed from each other. DNA from 10 local isolates digested with these enzymes produced patterns which on comparison with the standard patterns produced by reference strains could be identified to serovar level.

  9. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore- forming bacteria.

  10. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by oil field isolated bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mixed consortium was prepared with 15 bacteria isolated by enrichment technique from the sample collected from an oil contaminated site. This consortium was incubated with crude oil to investigate the metabolic capability of bacteria. The degradation efficiency of the isolates in consortium was checked with 2% crude oil ...

  11. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore-forming bacteria.

  12. Correlation properties of collective motion in bacterial suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Shawn D; Berlyand, Leonid; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    The study of collective motion in bacterial suspensions has been of significant recent interest. To better understand the non-trivial spatio-temporal correlations emerging in the course of collective swimming in suspensions of motile bacteria, a simple model is employed: a bacterium is represented as a force dipole with size, through the use of a short-range repelling potential, and shape. The model emphasizes two fundamental mechanisms: dipolar hydrodynamic interactions and short-range bacterial collisions. Using direct particle simulations validated by a dedicated experiment, we show that changing the swimming speed or concentration alters the time scale of sustained collective motion, consistent with experiment. Also, the correlation length in the collective state is almost constant as concentration and swimming speed change even though increasing each greatly increases the input of energy to the system. We demonstrate that the particle shape is critical for the onset of collective effects. In addition, new experimental results are presented illustrating the onset of collective motion with an ultrasound technique. This work exemplifies the delicate balance between various physical mechanisms governing collective motion in bacterial suspensions and provides important insights into its mesoscopic nature. (paper)

  13. Oviposition responses of Aedes mosquitoes to bacterial isolates from attractive bamboo infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Wesson, Dawn M; Arellano, Consuelo; Apperson, Charles S

    2015-09-23

    The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are vectors of pathogenic viruses that cause major human illnesses including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. Both mosquito species are expanding their geographic distributions and now occur worldwide in temperate and tropical climates. Collection of eggs in oviposition traps (ovitraps) is commonly used for monitoring and surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes populations by public health agencies charged with managing mosquito-transmitted illness. Addition of an organic infusion in these traps increases the number of eggs deposited. Gravid females are guided to ovitraps by volatile chemicals produced from the breakdown of organic matter by microbes. We previously isolated and cultured 14 species of bacteria from attractive experimental infusions, made from the senescent leaves of canebrake bamboo (Arundinaria gigantea). Cultures were grown for 24 h at 28 °C with constant shaking (120 rpm) and cell densities were determined with a hemocytometer. Behavioral responses to single bacterial isolates and to a mix of isolates at different cell densities were evaluated using two-choice sticky-screen bioassay methods with gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In behavioral assays of a mix of 14 bacterial isolates, significantly greater attraction responses were exhibited by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to bacterial densities of 10(7) and 10(8) cells/mL than to the control medium. When we tested single bacterial isolates, seven isolates (B1, B2, B3, B5, B12, B13 and B14) were significantly attractive to Ae. aegypti, and six isolates (B1, B5, B7, B10, B13 and B14) significantly attracted Ae. albopictus. Among all the isolates tested at three different cell densities, bacterial isolates B1, B5, B13 and B14 were highly attractive to both Aedes species. Our results show that at specific cell densities, some bacteria significantly influence the attraction of gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females to

  14. Isolation, Characterization and Identification of Environmental Bacterial Isolates with Screening for Antagonism Against Three Bacterial Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    making the broad-spectrum antimicrobial ineffective. When this occurs, the current strategy is to replace an ineffective antimicrobial agent with...Shlae. “Fix the Antibiotic Pipeline ”. Nature 472:32. (2011) Cotter, P.A., C. Hin, and R.P. Ross. “Bacteriocin Developing Innate Immunity for Food...and resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12:147—179. (1999) Silver, S. “Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver

  15. Isolation and identification of bacterial pathogen from mastitis milk in Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjanti, D. W.; Ciptaningtyas, R.; Wahyono, F.; Setiatin, ET

    2018-01-01

    Mastitis is a multi-etiologic disease of the mammary gland characterized mainly by reduction in milk production and milk quality due to intramammary infection by pathogenic bacteria. Nearly 83% of lactating dairy cows in Indonesia are infected with mastitis in various inflammation degrees. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the pathogen in milk collected from mastitis-infected dairy cows. The study was carried out in ten smallholder dairy farms in Central Java Indonesia based on animal examination, California mastitis test, isolation bacterial pathogens, Gram staining, Catalase and Coagulase test, and identification of bacteria species using Vitek. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed 15 isolates where Streptococcus was predominant species (73.3%) and the coagulase negative Staphylococcus species was identified at the least bacteria (26.7%). The Streptococcus bacteria found were Streptococcus uberis (2 isolates), Streptococcus sanguinis(6 isolates), Streptococcus dysgalactiaessp dysgalactiae(1 isolate) , Streptococcus mitis (1 isolate) and Streptococcus agalactiae (1 isolate). The Staphylococcus isolates comprising of Staphylococcus simulans (1 isolate) and Staphylococcus chromogens (3 isolates). Contamination of raw milkwith pathogenic bacteria can cause outbreaks of human disease (milk borne disease). Thus, proper milk processing method that couldinhibit the growth or kill these pathogenic bacteria is important to ensure the safety of milk and milk products.

  16. Molecular cloning of cellulase genes from indigenous bacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Pauline Liew Woan Ying; Mat Rasol Awang

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous cellulolytic bacterial isolates having high activities in degrading carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were isolated from local environments. Identification of these isolates were performed by molecular techniques. By using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, PCR products encoding cellulase gene were amplified from the total genomic DNAs. Purified PCR product was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli host system. The complete nucleotide sequences of the cellulase genes determined. The analysis of amino acid sequences deduced from the genes indicated that the cloned DNA fragments show high homology to those of endoglucanase genes of family GH5. All cloned genes consist of an N-terminal signal peptide, a catalytic domain of family 5 glycosyl hydrolase and a cellulose-binding domain of family III. (Author)

  17. Frequency of isolation and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović-Radić, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred and thirteen bacterial strains were isolated from wound swabs and the isolates were identified on the basis of growth on differential and selective media. In order to test the sensitivity of isolated strains to different antibiotics, the disc diffusion method, according to EUCAST protocol v 5.0 was used. The most common species isolated from wound swabs was Staphylococcus epidermidis (18.4%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis (16.8%, 12.7% and 10.4%, respectively. The maximum resistance of Gram-positive cocci was observed to penicillin and the lowest to linezolid. Gram-negative bacteria showed the highest resistance to tetracyclines, while the same strains demonstrated the highest sensitivity to polypeptide antibiotics. Comparison of the resistance patterns of Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacterial strains showed significant difference in the tetracycline efficiency.

  18. Trends of Bacterial Keratitis Culture Isolates in Jerusalem; a 13- Years Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Politis

    Full Text Available To describe the trends in pathogens and antibacterial resistance of corneal culture isolates in infectious keratitis during a period of 13 years at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center.A Retrospective analysis of bacterial corneal isolates was performed during the months of January 2002 to December 2014 at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center. Demographics, microbiological data and antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were collected.A total of 943 corneal isolates were analyzed during a 13 year period. A total of 415 positive bacterial cultures and 37 positive fungal cultures were recovered, representing 48% of the total cultures. The Annual incidence was 34.78 ± 6.54 cases. The most common isolate was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (32%, which had a significant decrease in trend throughout the study period (APC = -8.1, p = 0.002. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA appears to have a decrease trend (APC = -31.2, P = 0.5. There was an increase in the resistance trend of coagulase-negative staphylococci to penicillin (APC = 5.0, P = <0.001. None of the pathogens had developed any resistance to Vancomycin. (P = 0.88.Coagulase negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria isolated from patients with keratitis. There was no significant change in the annual incidence of cases of bacterial keratitis seen over the past 13 years. Keratitis caused by MRSA appeared to decrease in contrast to the reported literature.

  19. Biodegradation of Ochratoxin A by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Vineyard Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira De Bellis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin with a main nephrotoxic activity contaminating several foodstuffs. In the present report, five soil samples collected from OTA-contaminated vineyards were screened to isolate microorganisms able to biodegrade OTA. When cultivated in OTA-supplemented medium, OTA was converted in OTα by 225 bacterial isolates. To reveal clonal relationships between isolates, molecular typing by using an automated rep-PCR system was carried out, thus showing the presence of 27 different strains (rep-PCR profiles. The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of an isolate representative of each rep-PCR profiles indicated that they belonged to five bacterial genera, namely Pseudomonas, Leclercia, Pantoea, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter. However, further evaluation of OTA-degrading activity by the 27 strains revealed that only Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain 396.1 and Acinetobacter sp. strain neg1, consistently conserved the above property; their further characterization showed that they were able to convert 82% and 91% OTA into OTα in six days at 24 °C, respectively. The presence of OTα, as the unique OTA-degradation product was confirmed by LC-HRMS. This is the first report on OTA biodegradation by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soils and carried out under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. These microorganisms might be used to detoxify OTA-contaminated feed and could be a new source of gene(s for the development of a novel enzymatic detoxification system.

  20. Isolation of cell-free bacterial inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carmona, Escarlata; Cano-Garrido, Olivia; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Villaverde, Antonio; García-Fruitós, Elena

    2010-09-17

    Bacterial inclusion bodies are submicron protein clusters usually found in recombinant bacteria that have been traditionally considered as undesirable products from protein production processes. However, being fully biocompatible, they have been recently characterized as nanoparticulate inert materials useful as scaffolds for tissue engineering, with potentially wider applicability in biomedicine and material sciences. Current protocols for inclusion body isolation from Escherichia coli usually offer between 95 to 99% of protein recovery, what in practical terms, might imply extensive bacterial cell contamination, not compatible with the use of inclusion bodies in biological interfaces. Using an appropriate combination of chemical and mechanical cell disruption methods we have established a convenient procedure for the recovery of bacterial inclusion bodies with undetectable levels of viable cell contamination, below 10⁻¹ cfu/ml, keeping the particulate organization of these aggregates regarding size and protein folding features. The application of the developed protocol allows obtaining bacterial free inclusion bodies suitable for use in mammalian cell cultures and other biological interfaces.

  1. Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates in neonatal care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrestha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bacterial infections account for a huge proportion of neonatal deaths worldwide. The problem of antibiotic resistance among common bacterial pathogens mainly the gram negative bacteria is emerging globally which is of more serious concern in developing countries like Nepal. METHODS: A one year retrospective hospital based study was carried out to analyze the results of neonatal blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, stool and surface cultures and to look into the sensitivity pattern of the commonly used antibiotics. RESULTS: The positive yield of blood, urine, eye swab and CSF cultures were 19.56%, 38.5%, 60% and 0.36% respectively. The most common isolates in the blood culture were coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter and non-haemolytic Streptococcus. A significant percent of the isolates were resistant to the first line antibiotics. Among the gram negative isolates more than 30% are resistant to cefotaxime and more than 50% are resistant to gentamicin. During the one year period we had Nursery outbreaks of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella infections. With the help of environmental cultures we were able to trace the source and intervene appropriately. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous surveillance for antibiotic susceptibility, rational use of antibiotics and the strategy of antibiotic cycling can provide some answers to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance.

  2. Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates in neonatal care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S; Adhikari, N; Rai, B K; Shreepaili, A

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial infections account for a huge proportion of neonatal deaths worldwide. The problem of antibiotic resistance among common bacterial pathogens mainly the gram negative bacteria is emerging globally which is of more serious concern in developing countries like Nepal. A one year retrospective hospital based study was carried out to analyze the results of neonatal blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, stool and surface cultures and to look into the sensitivity pattern of the commonly used antibiotics. The positive yield of blood, urine, eye swab and CSF cultures were 19.56%, 38.5%, 60% and 0.36% respectively. The most common isolates in the blood culture were coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter and non-haemolytic Streptococcus. A significant percent of the isolates were resistant to the first line antibiotics. Among the gram negative isolates more than 30% are resistant to cefotaxime and more than 50% are resistant to gentamicin. During the one year period we had Nursery outbreaks of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella infections. With the help of environmental cultures we were able to trace the source and intervene appropriately. Continuous surveillance for antibiotic susceptibility, rational use of antibiotics and the strategy of antibiotic cycling can provide some answers to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance.

  3. A clinical Acanthamoeba isolate harboring two distinct bacterial endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Anneliese; Walochnik, Julia; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoebae feed on bacteria but are also frequent hosts of bacterial symbionts. Here, we describe the stable co-occurrence of two symbionts, one affiliated to the genus Parachlamydia and the other to the candidate genus Paracaedibacter (Alphaproteobacteria), within a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba hatchetti genotype T4. We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to describe this symbiosis. Our study adds to other reports of simultaneous co-occurrence of two symbionts within one Acanthamoeba cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel bacterial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas demonstrated enhanced degradation for low density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Manjunatha, Vishal; Sultana, Subiya; Jois, Chandana; Bai, Vidya; Vasist, Kiran S

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to formulate novel microbial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas and thereby devise an eco-friendly approach for enhanced degradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The LDPE degrading bacteria were screened and microbiologically characterized. The best isolates were formulated as bacterial consortia, and degradation efficiency was compared with the consortia formulated using known isolates obtained from the Microbial Culture Collection Centre (MTCC). The degradation products were analyzed by FTIR, GC-FID, tensile strength, and SEM. The bacterial consortia were characterized by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. The formulated bacterial consortia demonstrated 81 ± 4 and 38 ± 3 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and LDPE pellets, respectively, over a period of 120 days. However, the consortia formulated by MTCC strains demonstrated 49 ± 4 and 20 ± 2 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and pellets, respectively, for the same period. Furthermore, the three isolates in its individual application exhibited 70 ± 4, 68 ± 4, and 64 ± 4 % weight reduction for LDPE strips and 21 ± 2, 28 ± 2, 24 ± 2 % weight reduction for LDPE pellets over a period of 120 days (p waste management of LDPE and similar types of plastic garbage.

  5. Trends of Bacterial Keratitis Culture Isolates in Jerusalem; a 13- Years Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Michael; Wajnsztajn, Denise; Rosin, Boris; Block, Colin; Solomon, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the trends in pathogens and antibacterial resistance of corneal culture isolates in infectious keratitis during a period of 13 years at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center. Methods A Retrospective analysis of bacterial corneal isolates was performed during the months of January 2002 to December 2014 at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center. Demographics, microbiological data and antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were collected. Results A total of 943 corneal isolates were analyzed during a 13 year period. A total of 415 positive bacterial cultures and 37 positive fungal cultures were recovered, representing 48% of the total cultures. The Annual incidence was 34.78 ± 6.54 cases. The most common isolate was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (32%), which had a significant decrease in trend throughout the study period (APC = -8.1, p = 0.002). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) appears to have a decrease trend (APC = -31.2, P = 0.5). There was an increase in the resistance trend of coagulase-negative staphylococci to penicillin (APC = 5.0, P = keratitis. There was no significant change in the annual incidence of cases of bacterial keratitis seen over the past 13 years. Keratitis caused by MRSA appeared to decrease in contrast to the reported literature. PMID:27893743

  6. Isolation and development of bioluminescent reporter phages for bacterial dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, D A; Wray, D J; Molineux, I J

    2015-02-01

    Shigellosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, most notably amongst children. Moreover, there is a global increase in the occurrence of multidrug-resistant isolates, including the epidemic and pandemic Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strain. We developed a bioluminescent reporter phage assay to facilitate detection and simultaneously determine antibiotic susceptibility. A Shigella flexneri phage (Shfl25875) was isolated from environmental wastewater and characterized by DNA sequencing. Shfl25875 is T4-like, harbors a 169,062-bp genome, and grows on most (28/29) S. flexneri strains and all 12 S. dysenteriae type 1 strains tested. The genes encoding bacterial luciferase were integrated into the Shfl25875 genome to create a "light-tagged" phage capable of transducing a bioluminescent phenotype to infected cells. Shfl25875::luxAB rapidly detects cultured isolates with high sensitivity. Specificity experiments indicate that the reporter does not respond to Shigella boydii, non-type 1 S. dysenteriae strains, and most non-Shigella Enterobacteriaceae. Shfl25875::luxAB generates ampicillin and ciprofloxacin susceptibility profiles that are similar to the standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) growth microdilution method, but in a significantly shorter time. In addition, the reporter phage detects Shigella in mock-infected stool. This new reporter phage shows promise as a tool for the detection of cultured isolates or complex clinical samples.

  7. Studies on antibiotic resistance of some bacterial isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sachet water samples of different brands were collected from several retail outlets in Nsukka, Nigeria and analysed microbiologically to determine their bacteriological quality and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A brand of the sachet water samples tested negative for the presence of bacteria while a total of 61 ...

  8. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of urine bacterial isolates in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The prevalence of E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and Staph aureus isolates from urine of selected residents in Zaria was investigated. This was an attempt to elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria commonly implicated in urinary tact infection. Methods: Urine samples collected from students of ...

  9. Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of different bacteria isolates in 150 wound infections in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria and their antibacterial susceptibility patterns. Methods: Wound swab samples were collected from general culture bench of the Microbiology Department, after obtaining consent from ...

  10. The Prevalent Bacterial Isolates Of Dental Caries In School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at the dental clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife. A total of 100 carious samples were collected from children of varying age and sexes. The bacteria isolated were S. mutans: 45.6%, Lactobacillus spp: 41.2% and S. aureus: 13.2%. Out of the 100 samples, 88(5) ...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from stools in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianirina, Frederique; Ratsima, Elisoa Hariniana; Ramparany, Lova; Randremanana, Rindra; Rakotonirina, Hanitra Clara; Andriamanantena, Tahiry; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Richard, Vincent; Talarmin, Antoine

    2014-02-25

    Diarrheal diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries, and are one of the main causes of hospital admissions in Madagascar. The Pasteur Institute of Madagascar undertook a study to determine the prevalence and the pathogenicity of bacterial, viral and protozoal enteropathogens in diarrheal and non-diarrheal stools of children aged less than 5 years in Madagascar. We present here the results of the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria isolated during this study. The study was conducted in the community setting in 14 districts of Madagascar from October 2008 to May 2009. Conventional methods and PCR were used to identify the bacteria; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using an agar diffusion method for enterobacteriaceae and MICs were measured by an agar dilution method for Campylobacter sp. In addition to the strains isolated during this study, Salmonella sp and Shigella sp isolated at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 2005 to 2009 were included in the analysis to increase the power of the study. Twenty-nine strains of Salmonella sp, 35 strains of Shigella sp, 195 strains of diarrheagenic E. coli, 203 strains of C. jejuni and 71 strains of C. coli isolated in the community setting were tested for antibiotic resistance. Fifty-five strains of Salmonella sp and 129 strains of Shigella sp isolated from patients referred to the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar were also included in the study. Many E. coli and Shigella isolates (around 80%) but fewer Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. A small proportion of strains of each species were resistant to ciprofloxacin and only 3% of E. coli strains presented a resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The resistance of Campylobacter sp to ampicillin was the most prevalent, whereas less than 5% of isolates were resistant to each of the other antibiotics. The

  12. Isolation of Bacterial Strain for Biodegradation of Fats, Oil and Grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhatib, M.F.; Mohd Zahangir Alam; Shabana, H.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposition is one of the major problems that harm the environment and cause dissatisfaction for human. Uncontrolled and un-pre-treated FOG removal from the kitchen could lead to its accumulation in the piping system. Problems include the interference of fat with the aerobic microorganisms that are responsible in treating the wastewater by reducing oxygen transfer rates and for anaerobic microorganisms; their efficiency could also be reduced due to the reduction of the transport of soluble substrates to the bacterial biomass. Biodegradation could be one of the effective means to treat FOG. The main objective of this study is to isolate bacterial strains from the FOG waste and identify the strains that are capable in biodegrading FOG waste. FOG sample was collected from a sewer manhole. Enrichment technique was applied, followed by isolation of bacterial strains to determine which strain is able to degrade the FOG deposition. Some morphology for the bacterial strain was done to determine its characteristics. (author)

  13. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CULTURE MEDIA FOR PATHOGEN ISOLATION OF PURULENT BACTERIAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. V. Podkopaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The State Research Center for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology has designed two nutrient media — chocolate agar and PBM-agar to isolate pathogens of purulent bacterial meningitis (PBM. In our previous research using collected microbial strains the media were shown to be highly susceptible and to provide the growth of Neisseria meningiti-dis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae strains, when inoculated with microbial suspensions containing single cells. When isolating Haemophilus influenzae, meningococci, and pneumococci the use of selective additives in both media assures selective isolation of required microorganisms, inhibiting contaminants. The objective of this research was to assess the media in bacteriological tests of clinical samples collected from the upper and lower respiratory tract in humans. The bacteriological plating of throat smear specimens (n = 90 from children and adults at the age of 0 to 66 with disorder of the upper respiratory tract on chocolate agar, PBM-agar and on a control medium in the absence of selective additives resulted in the equal amount of microbial cultures isolated. Of 154 isolated cultures 2, 23 and 9 were attributed to Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, respectively. The plating of throat smears (n = 10 from healthy people at the age of 30 to 55 on the analyzable and control media in the presence of additives allowed us to selectively isolate Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae cultures without a quantitative loss, with contaminants inhibited. By their growth characteristics chocolate agar and PBM-agar were highly competitive with reference media being used in clinical practice for isolating main causative agents of purulent bacterial meningitis.

  14. From organized internal traffic to collective navigation of bacterial swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariel, Gil; Shklarsh, Adi; Kalisman, Oren; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Ingham, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial swarming resulting in collective navigation over surfaces provides a valuable example of cooperative colonization of new territories. The social bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits successful and diverse swarming strategies. When grown on hard agar surfaces with peptone, P. vortex develops complex colonies of vortices (rotating bacterial aggregates). In contrast, during growth on Mueller–Hinton broth gelled into a soft agar surface, a new strategy of multi-level organization is revealed: the colonies are organized into a special network of swarms (or ‘snakes’ of a fraction of millimeter in width) with intricate internal traffic. More specifically, cell movement is organized in two or three lanes of bacteria traveling between the back and the front of the swarm. This special form of cellular logistics suggests new methods in which bacteria can share resources and risk while searching for food or migrating into new territories. While the vortices-based organization on hard agar surfaces has been modeled before, here, we introduce a new multi-agent bacterial swarming model devised to capture the swarms-based organization on soft surfaces. We test two putative generic mechanisms that may underlie the observed swarming logistics: (i) chemo-activated taxis in response to chemical cues and (ii) special align-and-push interactions between the bacteria and the boundary of the layer of lubricant collectively generated by the swarming bacteria. Using realistic parameters, the model captures the observed phenomena with semi-quantitative agreement in terms of the velocity as well as the dynamics of the swarm and its envelope. This agreement implies that the bacteria interactions with the swarm boundary play a crucial role in mediating the interplay between the collective movement of the swarm and the internal traffic dynamics. (paper)

  15. Isolation of human spontaneous killer lymphocytes by bacterial adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R; De Boer, K P; Teodorescu, M

    1980-01-01

    Human lymphocyte subpopulations (B, T1, T2, T3, and T4 our denomination) have been identified previously by bacterial adherence and differences between them in mitogen responses and specific cytotoxic activity have been found. In this study another aspect has been investigated in order to find functions associated with these subpopulations, namely the spontaneous killing (SK) ability. Freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were separated into adherent and non-adherent cells following centrifugation against various bact:rial monolayers. The PBL and the resulting subpopulations of PBL were tested alone or in combination as effector cells in a 4 hr cytotoxicity assay against human lymphoblastoid cel- lines of B or T cell origin. The T3 + T4 cells or T4 cells alone showed a significantly higher SK activity against both B and T target cell lines when compared with unseparated PBL, T1 + T2, or T3 cells alone. Whe Fc portion of IgG, contain the lymphocytes responsible for SK activity and that SK cells can be purified by negative selection using bacterial adherence. PMID:7389207

  16. Isolation of amoebic-bacterial consortia capable of degrading trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Ironside, K.; Little, C.D.; Katz, S.; Kennedy, J.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater from a waste disposal site contaminated with chlorinated alkenes was examined for the presence of amoebic-bacterial consortia capable of degrading the suspected carcinogen, trichloroethylene (TCE). Consortia were readily isolated from all of four test wells. They contained free-living amoebae, and heterotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria. Electron microscopic examination showed bacteria localized throughout the amoebic cytoplasm and an abundance of hyphomicrobium, but not Type I methanotrophs. The presence of Type II methanotrophs was indirectly indicated by lipid analysis of one consortium. The consortia have been passaged for over two years on mineral salts media in a methane atmosphere, which would not be expected to maintain the heterotrophs or amoebae separately. The methanotrophic bacteria apparently provided a stable nutrient source, allowing the persistence of the various genera. By use of 14 C-radiotracer techniques, the degradation of TCE by the consortia was observed with 14 C eventuating predominantly in CO 2 and water-soluble products. In a more detailed examination of one consortia, the amoebae and heterotrohic components did not degrade TCE, while a mixed culture of heterotrophs and methanotrophs did degrade TCE, suggesting the latter component was the primary cause for the consortium's ability to degrade TCE. Amoebic-bacterial consortia may play a role in stabilizing and preserving methylotrophic bacteria in hostile environments

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  18. Bacterial isolates from Nsukka meat market: a zoonotic appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, U E; Agbo, J A

    1985-06-01

    Swabs collected from butchers hands, knives, tables and meat displayed for sale at Nsukka meat market showed that every item screened was contaminated. Bacteria isolated include Streptococcus faecalis, coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Clostridium perfringens, Brucella species, Corynebacterium haemolyticum, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas multophilia, P. rubescens and beta-haemolytic Streptococci. The zoonotic or public health implications of such contaminations, their probable sources and possible ways of minimizing them are discussed.

  19. Proteolysis produced within biofilms of bacterial isolates from raw milk tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Koon Hoong; Flint, Steve; Palmer, Jon; Andrewes, Paul; Bremer, Phil; Lindsay, Denise

    2012-06-15

    In this study, six bacterial isolates that produced thermo-resistant enzymes isolated from the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers were evaluated for their ability to produce proteolysis within either single culture biofilms or co-culture biofilms. Biofilms were formed in an in vitro model system that simulated the upper internal surface of a raw milk tanker during a typical summer's day of milk collection in New Zealand. The bacterial isolates were further evaluated for their ability to form biofilms at 25, 30 and 37°C. Mutual and competitive effects were observed in some of the co-culture biofilms, with all isolates being able to form biofilms in either single culture or co-culture at the three temperatures. The proteolysis was also evaluated in both biofilms and corresponding planktonic cultures. The proteolysis per cell decreased as the temperature of incubation (20-37°C) increased. Furthermore, mutualistic interactions in terms of proteolysis were observed when cultures were grown as co-culture biofilms. This is the first study to show that proteolytic enzymes can be produced in biofilms on the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers. This has important implications for the cleaning and the temperature control of raw milk transport tankers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of isolate of ruminal fibrolytic bacterial culture supplementation on fibrolytic bacterial population and survivability of inoculated bacterial strain in lactating Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brishketu Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bacterial culture supplementation on ruminal fibrolytic bacterial population as well as on survivability of inoculated bacterial strain in lactating Murrah buffaloes kept on high fibre diet. Materials and Methods: Fibrolytic bacterial strains were isolated from rumen liquor of fistulated Murrah buffaloes and live bacterial culture were supplemented orally in treatment group of lactating Murrah buffaloes fed on high fibre diet to see it's effect on ruminal fibrolytic bacterial population as well as to see the effect of survivability of the inoculated bacterial strain at three different time interval in comparison to control group. Results: It has been shown by real time quantification study that supplementation of bacterial culture orally increases the population of major fibre degrading bacteria i.e. Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus as well as Fibrobacter succinogenes whereas there was decrease in secondary fibre degrading bacterial population i.e. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens over the different time periods. However, the inoculated strain of Ruminococcus flavefaciens survived significantly over the period of time, which was shown in stability of increased inoculated bacterial population. Conclusion: The isolates of fibrolytic bacterial strains are found to be useful in increasing the number of major ruminal fibre degrading bacteria in lactating buffaloes and may act as probiotic in large ruminants on fibre-based diets. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 14-17

  1. Orbital abscess bacterial isolates and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Annie L; Ledbetter, Eric C; Kern, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    To determine bacterial populations, in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and sources of microorganisms for dogs and cats with orbital abscess. In total, 34 dogs and 7 cats with orbital abscess participated in the study. Medical records of dogs and cats with a clinical diagnosis of orbital abscess, confirmed by cytologic or histopathologic evaluation of orbital specimens, were reviewed from the years 1990 to 2007. Animal signalment, presumptive source of microorganisms and mechanism of orbital introduction, bacterial isolates, and aerobic bacterial in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test results were recorded. Percentages of susceptible aerobic bacterial isolates were compared among antimicrobials. Twenty dogs and five cats had positive culture results. The most frequent bacterial genera isolated from dogs were Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Bacteroides, Clostridium and Pasteurella. The most frequent bacterial genera isolated from cats were Pasteurella and Bacteroides. Aerobic bacterial isolates from dogs had the highest percentage of susceptibility to amikacin, ceftiofur, gentamicin, imipenem, ticarcillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Aerobic bacterial isolates from dogs had the lowest percentage of susceptibility to ampicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin and penicillin. Antimicrobial resistance was uncommon among feline aerobic bacterial isolates. The most commonly identified routes of orbital bacteria introduction were extension from adjacent anatomical structures, penetrating exogenous trauma, and foreign bodies. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infections of the orbit occur commonly in dogs and cats. On the basis of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates and in vitro susceptibility testing of aerobic bacterial isolates, cephalosporins, extended-spectrum penicillins, potentiated-penicillins and carbapenems are recommended for initial antimicrobial therapy of orbital abscess in dogs and cats.

  2. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from food sold on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from cooked food samples sold in different eateries on the campus of the University of Ado-Ekiti was investigated. A total of seventy-eight bacterial isolates belonging to six genera were encountered in the following proportion: Escherichia coli (29.5%), Klebsiella spp.

  3. Bacterial isolates from equine infections in western Canada (1998–2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Chris; Greenwood, Sarah; Boison, Joe O.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Dowling, Patricia M.

    2008-01-01

    All bacterial samples of equine origin submitted to the diagnostic laboratory at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from January 1998 to December 2003 from either “in-clinic” or Field Service cases were accessed (1323 submissions). The most common bacterial isolates from specific presenting signs were identified, along with their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The most common site from which significant bacterial isolates were recovered was the respiratory tract, foll...

  4. Efficacy of a marine bacterial nuclease against biofilm forming microorganisms isolated from chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Shields

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistent colonization of paranasal sinus mucosa by microbial biofilms is a major factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS. Control of microorganisms within biofilms is hampered by the presence of viscous extracellular polymers of host or microbial origin, including nucleic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular DNA in biofilm formation by bacteria associated with CRS. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obstructive mucin was collected from patients during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Examination of the mucous by transmission electron microscopy revealed an acellular matrix punctuated occasionally with host cells in varying states of degradation. Bacteria were observed in biofilms on mucosal biopsies, and between two and six different species were isolated from each of 20 different patient samples. In total, 16 different bacterial genera were isolated, of which the most commonly identified organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and α-haemolytic streptococci. Twenty-four fresh clinical isolates were selected for investigation of biofilm formation in vitro using a microplate model system. Biofilms formed by 14 strains, including all 9 extracellular nuclease-producing bacteria, were significantly disrupted by treatment with a novel bacterial deoxyribonuclease, NucB, isolated from a marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis. Extracellular biofilm matrix was observed in untreated samples but not in those treated with NucB and extracellular DNA was purified from in vitro biofilms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that bacteria associated with CRS form robust biofilms which can be reduced by treatment with matrix-degrading enzymes such as NucB. The dispersal of bacterial biofilms with NucB may offer an additional therapeutic target for CRS sufferers.

  5. Promising Biological Indicator of Heavy Metal Pollution: Bioluminescent Bacterial Strains Isolated and Characterized from Marine Niches of Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Neha A; Shanware, Arti S

    2015-09-01

    In present study, several marine water samples collected from the North Goa Beaches, India for isolation of luminescent bacterial species. Isolates obtained labelled as DP1-5 and AB1-6. Molecular characterization including identification of a microbial culture using 16S rRNA gene based molecular technique and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that DP3 & AB1 isolates were Vibrio harveyi. All of the isolates demonstrated multiple metal resistances in terms of growth, with altered luminescence with variable metal concentration. Present investigations were an attempt towards exploring and reporting an updated diversity of bioluminescent bacterial species from various sites around the Goa, India which would be explored in future for constructing luminescence based biosensor for efficiently monitoring the level of hazardous metals in the environment.

  6. Drug resistance analysis of bacterial strains isolated from burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L F; Li, J L; Ma, W H; Li, J Y

    2014-01-22

    This study aimed to analyze the spectrum and drug resistance of bacteria isolated from burn patients to provide a reference for rational clinical use of antibiotics. Up to 1914 bacterial strain specimens isolated from burn patients admitted to hospital between 2001 and 2010 were subjected to resistance monitoring by using the K-B paper disk method. Retrospective analysis was performed on drug resistance analysis of burn patients. The top eight bacterium strains according to detection rate. A total of 1355 strains of Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria and 559 strains of Gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria were detected. The top eight bacterium strains, according to detection rate, were Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus. Drug resistance rates were higher than 90% in A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus, which accounted for 52.2, 21.7, 27.8, and 33.3%, respectively, of the entire sample. Those with drug resistance rates lower than 30% accounted for 4.3, 30.4, 16.7, and 16.7%, respectively. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) accounted for 49.2 and 76.4% of the S. epidermis and S. aureus resistance, respectively. Antibacterial drugs that had drug resistance rates to MRSE and MRSA higher than 90% accounted for 38.9 and 72.2%, respectively, whereas those with lower than 30% drug resistance rates accounted for 11.1 and 16.7%, respectively. The burn patients enrolled in the study were mainly infected with G(-) bacteria. These results strongly suggest that clinicians should practice rational use of antibiotics based on drug susceptibility test results.

  7. Bacteriophages isolated from Lake Michigan demonstrate broad host-range across several bacterial phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Kema; Kula, Alex; Bruder, Katherine; Sible, Emily; Hatzopoulos, Thomas; Steidel, Stephanie; Watkins, Siobhan C; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-10-09

    The study of bacteriophages continues to generate key information about microbial interactions in the environment. Many phenotypic characteristics of bacteriophages cannot be examined by sequencing alone, further highlighting the necessity for isolation and examination of phages from environmental samples. While much of our current knowledge base has been generated by the study of marine phages, freshwater viruses are understudied in comparison. Our group has previously conducted metagenomics-based studies samples collected from Lake Michigan - the data presented in this study relate to four phages that were extracted from the same samples. Four phages were extracted from Lake Michigan on the same bacterial host, exhibiting similar morphological characteristics as shown under transmission electron microscopy. Growth characteristics of the phages were unique to each isolate. Each phage demonstrated a host-range spanning several phyla of bacteria - to date, such a broad host-range is yet to be reported. Genomic data reveals genomes of a similar size, and close similarities between the Lake Michigan phages and the Pseudomonas phage PB1, however, the majority of annotated genes present were ORFans and little insight was offered into mechanisms for host-range. The phages isolated from Lake Michigan are capable of infecting several bacterial phyla, and demonstrate varied phenotypic characteristics despite similarities in host preference, and at the genomic level. We propose that such a broad host-range is likely related to the oligotrophic nature of Lake Michigan, and the competitive benefit that this characteristic may lend to phages in nature.

  8. Preliminary screening of bacterial isolates from mining wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino S.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing innovative biotechnology for obtaining new resources of high tech critical metals is strongly influenced by the need to reduce the potential risk of shortages, to support the development of industry at European level. To set up these new technologies is essential to isolate strains with high potential in bioleaching of ore, tailings and mine wastes and bioaccumulation of high tech critical metals. Microorganisms are capable of mediating metal and mineral bioprecipitation. In this paper are presented preliminary studies performed for the isolation of strains existing in mining residues containing high tech critical metals. Were used samples collected from various depths in an area of mining wastes containing high tech critical metals. The samples were fine grounded and the powder was washed with sterile saline water. Exact quantities of samples were dispersed in sterile saline water, shaken for a period of 60 minutes, diluted and plated in triplicate on selective agar. After several steps were isolated 3 strains of gram negative bacteria.

  9. Increasing Incidence of Multidrug Resistance Among Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Bacterial Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, W Cliff; Burgess, Donna R; Burgess, David S

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are common pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with increasing multidrug resistance (MDR). This study characterized antimicrobial susceptibility trends among organisms isolated from the respiratory tract of CF patients. Microbiological culture and sensitivity results for all CF patients were collected from January 2010 through December 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were obtained using Phoenix ® and Etest ® methods. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines were used to remove duplicate isolates and develop antimicrobial susceptibility reports. MDR was defined as resistance to one agent in three or more antibiotic classes or oxacillin resistance in S. aureus. Overall, 542 bacterial isolates from 376 cultures were analyzed for trends. P. aeruginosa (41%), S. aureus (40%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (8%) were the most commonly isolated organisms. Multidrug-resistant organism isolation increased from 39% to 49% (r = 0.76, p = 0.13), while representing 47.6% of all isolates. Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa incidence increased each year from 26% to 43% (r = 0.89, p = 0.046), while P. aeruginosa isolation decreased from 47% to 38% over the study period (r = -0.93, p = 0.02). MRSA accounted for 62.6% of all S. aureus isolated, while overall multidrug-resistant S. aureus incidence was 73.1% in all cultures. MDR among common pathogens in CF continues to increase. Empiric therapy for CF exacerbations should be targeted to previous antimicrobial susceptibility, and P. aeruginosa and S. aureus should be empirically covered.

  10. Pseudomonas floridensis sp. nov., a bacterial pathogen isolated from tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Sujan; Minsavage, Gerald V; Preston, James; Newberry, Eric A; Paret, Matthews L; Goss, Erica M; Jones, Jeffrey B; Vallad, Gary E

    2018-01-01

    An unusual fluorescent pseudomonad was isolated from tomato exhibiting leaf spot symptoms similar to bacterial speck. Strains were fluorescent, oxidase- and arginine-dihydrolase-negative, elicited a hypersensitive reaction on tobacco and produced a soft rot on potato slices. However, the strains produced an unusual yellow, mucoid growth on media containing 5 % sucrose that is not typical of levan. Based on multilocus sequence analysis using 16S rRNA, gap1, gltA, gyrB and rpoD, these strains formed a distinct phylogenetic group in the genus Pseudomonas and were most closely related to Pseudomonas viridiflava within the Pseudomonassyringae complex. Whole-genome comparisons, using average nucleotide identity based on blast, of representative strain GEV388 T and publicly available genomes representing the genus Pseudomonas revealed phylogroup 7 P. viridiflava strain UASW0038 and P. viridiflava type strain ICMP 2848 T as the closest relatives with 86.59 and 86.56 % nucleotide identity, respectively. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization using the genome-to-genome distance calculation method estimated 31.1 % DNA relatedness between GEV388 T and P. viridiflava ATCC 13223 T , strongly suggesting the strains are representatives of different species. These results together with Biolog GEN III tests, fatty acid methyl ester profiles and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA and multiple housekeeping gene sequences demonstrated that this group represents a novel species member of the genus Pseudomonas. The name Pseudomonas floridensis sp. nov. is proposed with GEV388 T (=LMG 30013 T =ATCC TSD-90 T ) as the type strain.

  11. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation.

  12. Occurrence and antibacterial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens isolated from diarrheal patients in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Rasool

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the occurrence of bacterial pathogens responsible for diarrhea and to engender information regarding the effectiveness of commonly used antibiotic against diarrhea. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between April and July 2014. Samples were collected from the Divisional Headquarter and Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The differential and selective media were used to isolate bacterial pathogens, which were identified through cultural characteristics, microscopy, and biochemical tests. Disc diffusion assay was carried out using Muller Hinton agar medium, and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using broth dilution method against isolated pathogens. Results: One hundred and forty-one (100% samples were positive for some bacteria. Frequency of occurrence was Bacillus cereus (B. cereus (66%, Escherichia coli (E. coli (48.5%, Salmonella typhi (S. Typhi (27.7%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (8.5%, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (4.3%. Single pathogen was detected in 20 (14.2% samples whereas combinations were found in 121 (85.8% samples. Bacillus cereus and E. coli were the most frequently detected pathogens followed by the S. Typhi, P. aeruginosa, and Staph. aureus. The percentage occurrence of isolated pathogens was 31% in B. cereus, 31% in E. coli, 18% in S. Typhi, 5% in P. aeruginosa, and 3% in Staph. aureus. Conclusion: Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed resistance against Amoxicillin and Cefotaxime, whereas S. aureus was found resistant against Cefotaxime. Statistical analysis using one way Analysis of Variance revealed that Ofloxacin and Gentamicin had significant (p<0.05 differences against all isolates as compared with other antibiotics used in this study.

  13. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Study of BSL-2 bacterial isolates from the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In an on-going Microbial Observatory experimental investigation on the International Space Station (ISS) multiple bacterial isolates of Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2)...

  14. Isolation of the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Al-Mufti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to identify the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs. Twelve clinical cases of dogs (5 males and 7 females of different ages and breeds were observed. Tonsils swabs were taken from all the dogs, then cultured on different agars and bacterial smears prepared from all cultures and Gram stains were done. The study confirmed that the most bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella spp. and Pasteurella spp.

  15. Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles as cell lysis agent for bacterial genomic DNA isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Gunajit; Boruah, Himangshu; Gautom, Trishnamoni; Jyoti Hazarika, Dibya; Barooah, Madhumita; Boro, Robin Chandra

    2017-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have seen a recent spurt of use in varied fields of science. In this paper, we showed a novel application of AgNP as a promising microbial cell-lysis agent for genomic DNA isolation. We utilized chemically synthesized AgNPs for lysing bacterial cells to isolate their genomic DNA. The AgNPs efficiently lysed bacterial cells to yield good quality DNA that could be subsequently used for several molecular biology works.

  16. Bacterial isolates associated with pelvic inflammatory disease among female patients attending some hospitals in abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, T H I; Umeh, P O; Irokanulo, E; Baba, M M; Spencer, B B; Umar, A I; Ardzard, S A; Oderinde, S; Onoja, O

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease refers to any infection in the female lower reproductive tract that spreads to the upper reproductive tract. The disease comprises a spectrum of inflammatory disorders of the upper female genital tract, including any combination of endometritis, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess and pelvic peritonitis. PID is not a notifiable disease in most countries, so accurate statistics are not available. This situation is not in any way different here in Nigeria and more so in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja where this research was conducted, there had never been any published report so far on PID. It therefore became pertinent that such studies be carried out to evaluate the bacterial organisms which may be associated with the disease in this part of Nigeria so that health care providers could take a better look at this affliction in women. Endocervical swabs totalling 100 were aseptically collected from patients with confirmed Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), attending some hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria for detection of bacterial pathogens based on cultural and biochemical characterisation tests. Antibiogram was also conducted on the identified bacterial isolates. Out of the 100 samples analysed, 43% yielded pure cultures of bacterial isolates, 2% yielded mixed cultures while no bacterial growths were recorded from the remaining 55% samples. Organisms encountered were Staphylococcus aureus (16%), Escherichia coli (10%), Streptococcus faecalis (8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4%), Streptococcus pyogenes (3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3%), Proteus rettgeri (2%) and Proteus mirabilis (1%). The highest percentage occurrence of pathogenic isolates was observed in polygamous married patients (90%). The age group most affected falls within the mean age 30.5 years (68%) while the least affected group falls within the mean age 40.5 years (5%). There was a significant difference in the acquisition of PID in relation to marital status (P disease with

  17. Antibacterial activity of some disinfectants, essential oils and radiation against some bacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.; Abo-State, M.A.M.; Ghaly, M.F.; Ezzat, S.M.; Hefni, H.M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Nosocomial bacteria has been considered problems for all hospitals. Bacterial isolates of the present study were isolated from Sharkia Hospitals, Egypt. The isolates were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Serratia spp. and S. epidermidis. Two disinfectants (savlon and phenolics) were examined against all the bacterial isolates at the hospitals recommended concentrations to determine the most resistance bacterial isolates. Twelve essential oils, ultraviolet radiation, Gamma radiation and laser were tested against the most resistant bacterial isolates to disinfectants and antiseptics. These bacterial isolates were S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The most effective concentration of savlon was 2%, while that of phenolics were 4 and 5% . Fumigation of essential oils of Eugenia caryophyllata L., Marjorum hortensis L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. had high effects against these bacterial isolates. Rosmarinus officinalis L., Marjorum hortensis L., Eugenia caryophyllata L. and Thymus vulgaris L. essential oils had high effects on bacterial isolates by disc diffusion method. Matricaria chamomilla L. and Eucalyptus spp. oils had no effects against P. aeruginosa. Both essential oils of Jasminum gradiflocum L. and Jasminum sambac L. had no effects by fumigation and diffused essential oils. Ultraviolet irradiation had lethal effect on S. aureus when it exposed to ultraviolet for 10 minutes at a distance of 20 cm, while it had a lethal effect on P. aeruginosa when exposed to the rays for 7 minutes at the same distance. Gamma irradiation had lethal effect on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus at 2.5 and 3 KGy, respectively. Laser had a lethal effect on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus after 14 and 15 minutes of exposure, respectively

  18. Antimicrobial sensitivity and frequency of DRUG resistance among bacterial strains isolated from cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, M.; Bashir, T.

    2004-01-01

    Blood stream infections (bacteremia) is potentially life threatening. Concomitant with a change in the incidence and epidemiology of infecting organisms, there has been an increase in resistance to many antibiotic compounds. The widespread emergence of resistance among bacterial pathogens has an impact on our ability to treat patients effectively. The changing spectrum of microbial pathogens and widespread emergence of microbial resistance to antibiotic drugs has emphasized the need to monitor the prevalence of resistance in these strains. In the present study frequency of isolation of clinically significant bacteria and their susceptibility and resistance pattern against a wide range of antimicrobial drugs from positive blood cultures collected during 2001-2003 was studied. A total of 102 consecutive isolates were found with 63% gram positive and 44% gram negative strains. The dominating pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (51%), Streptococci (31%), Pseudomonas (40%), Proteus (13%), Klebsiella (13%). The isolated strains were tested against a wide range of antibiotics belonging to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and quinolone derivative group by disk diffusion method. It has been observed that isolated strains among gram positive and negative strains showed different level of resistance against aminoglycosides and cephalosporin group of antibiotics with gram positives showing highest number and frequency of resistance against aminoglycosides (40-50%) and cephalosporins.(35-45%) whereas cephalosporins were found to be more effective against gram negatives with low frequency of resistant strains. Cabapenem and quinolone derivative drugs were found to be most effective among other groups in both gram positive and negative strains with 23-41% strains found sensitive to these two drugs. The frequency of sensitive strains against aminoglycoside and cephalosporin in gram negative and gram positive strains were found to be decreasing yearwise with a trend towards an

  19. Isolation, identification and characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BZ-6, a bacterial isolate for enhancing oil recovery from oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Longhua; Chen, Mengfang; Tu, Chen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Over 100 biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were isolated from oily sludge and petroleum-contaminated soil from Shengli oil field in north China. Sixteen of the bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants and reduced the surface tension of the growth medium from 71 to identification, isolate BZ-6 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The biosurfactant produced by isolate BZ-6 was purified and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. There were four ion peaks representing four different fengycin A homologues. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic bacterial populations isolated from medical plants of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Maryam; Amin, Mansour; Hashemi-Shahraki, Abdolrazag; Romani, Bizhan; Yaghoubi, Sajad; Sadeghi, Parisa

    2017-02-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria colonize inside the plant tissues without causing damages to the host plant. Since these microorganisms colonize in the different parts of plants and can stop plant disease, they have been applied as biological agents for controlling human diseases. The aim of this study was molecular identification and measuring the antimicrobial activity of endophytic Actinomycete s isolated from medicinal plants of Iran. The total of 23 medicinal plant samples were collected, sterilized, and crushed. Small pieces of the crushed samples were then cultured directly on three selective media. Grown colonies were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. Each isolate was cultured in TSB medium and then antimicrobial compound was extracted using ethyl acetate and tested against the target bacteria. Sixteen out of 23 bacterial isolates (69%) exhibited antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Our Study showed a high phylogenetic diversity and the potent antibiotic activity of endophytic bacteria in medicinal plants of Iran.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic bacterial populations isolated from medical plants of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Maryam; Amin, Mansour; Hashemi-Shahraki, Abdolrazag; Romani, Bizhan; Yaghoubi, Sajad; Sadeghi, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endophytic actinobacteria colonize inside the plant tissues without causing damages to the host plant. Since these microorganisms colonize in the different parts of plants and can stop plant disease, they have been applied as biological agents for controlling human diseases. The aim of this study was molecular identification and measuring the antimicrobial activity of endophytic Actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants of Iran. Materials and Methods: The total of 23 medicinal plant samples were collected, sterilized, and crushed. Small pieces of the crushed samples were then cultured directly on three selective media. Grown colonies were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. Each isolate was cultured in TSB medium and then antimicrobial compound was extracted using ethyl acetate and tested against the target bacteria. Results: Sixteen out of 23 bacterial isolates (69%) exhibited antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: Our Study showed a high phylogenetic diversity and the potent antibiotic activity of endophytic bacteria in medicinal plants of Iran. PMID:28775818

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Tedesco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Cow Dung Used to Fertilize Nigerian Fish Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso S. OMOJOWO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate and identify antibiotic resistant bacteria from cow dung used for pond fertilization. Cow dung from over 200 cows in NIFFR integrated farms, New-Bussa, Nigeria were collected. Six bacterial pathogens; Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Shigella dysentariae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted using ofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. All the isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin. The multiple resistance patterns revealed that 100% were resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin (85.6%, amoxicillin (83.3%, chloramphenicol (66%, gentamicin (47.6%, erythromycin (44.4% and nalidixic acid (18.3%. The Public Health risks posed by the cow dung manure include proliferation of ponds with these organisms that are pathogenic to fish and man, contamination of the environment and the possible retention of these organisms in the table size fish.

  4. The role indigenous bacterial isolates for bioremediation agent in the uranium contaminated aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochd Yazid

    2014-01-01

    A Research on the role of indigenous bacterial isolates for bio-remediation agent of the uranium contaminated in the aquatic environment has been conducted. The objective of the research is to study the role of Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp. have been isolated from low level uranium waste for bioremediation agent in their environment, such as the determination of efficiency of the uranium binding compared by the non indigenous bacterial, location of these binding and the influences of added acethyl acid stimulant. The uranium reduction studied was measured by weighting bacterial biomass and uranium concentration was measured by spectrophotometer. The acethyl acid stimulant addition has been done with the variation of concentration and volume. The efficiency of the uranium reduction by indigenous bacterial isolate such as Pseudomonas sp were 84.99 % and Bacillus sp were 52.70 %, so the reduction efficiency by non indigenous bacterial such as Pseudomonas aerogenes were 78.47 % and Bacillus subtilis were 45.22 % for 54 hours incubation time. The result of this research can be concluded that Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp. Indigenous bacterial have been isolates from the liquid uranium waste can contributed in bioremediation agent for uranium radionuclide in the environment for 60 ppm concentration with reduction efficiency 52.70 %-84.99 %, that is higher non indigenous bacterial for 54 hours incubation time, the stimulant addition of acethyl acid, the efficiency can be increased up to 99.8 %. (author)

  5. Collection & Processing of Medically Important Arthropods for Arbovirus Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; Chamberlain, Roy W.

    The methods given for collecting, preserving, and processing mosquitoes and other archropods for isolation of arboviruses are those used by the National Communicable Disease Center. Techniques of collecting mosquitoes as they bite, using light or bait traps, and from their daytime resting sites are described and illustrated. Details of subsequent…

  6. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walelign Dessie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1% were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1% was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%. More than 58 (75% of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs. Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8% Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5% E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials.

  7. Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent isolates were S. aureus, (34.04%), and P. aeruginosa, (31.8%). About 82.16% of the isolates showed multiple resistances. In light of our findings, regular antibiotic resistance test has to be done for each patient in order to select an appropriate antimicrobial agent. Keywords: Bacteraemia, Burn, Sepsis, Thermal ...

  8. Isolation of Enterobacter cowanii from Eucalyptus showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, C L; Venter, S N; Cleenwerck, I; Engelbeen, K; de Vos, P; Wingfield, M J; Telechea, N; Coutinho, T A

    2009-10-01

    This study was performed to identify bacterial strains isolated simultaneously with Pantoea species from Eucalyptus trees showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Uruguay. Several molecular techniques including 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization were used to characterize the gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, slime-producing bacterial strains isolated along with Pantoea species from Eucalyptus. Hypersensitivity reactions (HR) and pathogenicity tests were performed on tobacco and Eucalyptus seedlings, respectively. The isolates clustered closely with the type strain of Enterobacter cowanii in both phylogenetic trees constructed. The DNA-DNA similarity between the isolates and the type strain of Ent. cowanii ranged from 88% to 92%. A positive HR was observed on the tobacco seedlings, but no disease symptoms were visible on the inoculated Eucalyptus seedlings. Enterobacter cowanii was isolated from trees with symptoms of bacterial blight although strains of this bacterial species do not appear to be the causal agent of the disease. This study provides the first report of Ent. cowanii isolated from Eucalyptus. Its presence in Eucalyptus tissue suggests that it is an endophyte in trees showing symptoms of blight.

  9. An isolated bacterial consortium for crude oil biodegradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... designed using DesignExpert 6.0.8 software by optimizing the amount of crude oil, microbial inoculum and sludge which are initially ... Key words: Crude oil, bacterial consortium, kinetics, bioremediation, biostimulation, natural attenuation. ... For the preparation of the consortiums, colonies were plated on.

  10. Drug resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from infected wounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    Conclusions: High frequency of mono and multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens were documented. Thus, an alternative method to the causative agent and antimicrobial susceptibility testing surveillance in areas where there is no culture facility is needed to assist health professionals for the selection of appropriate ...

  11. Bacterial Isolates andAntibiotic Sensitivity in Community Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the studywas to determine bacterial causes of community acquired pneumonia and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern amongst patients admitted intomedicalwards inAminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria Methods: The study incorporated patients aged fifteen years and above admitted into ...

  12. Sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates in childhood sepsis in clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the commonest organism cultured from the blood of children suspected to have bacterial sepsis and their antibiogram sensitivity using the commonly used antibiotics in a private practice and see if there are differences from established data from other areas. Children beyond neonatal age presenting to a ...

  13. Antibiogram of bacterial pathogens isolated from subclinical mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence of bacterial pathogens responsible for subclinical mastitis in cattle and their antibiogram pattern to selected antibiotics. The study was carried out on lactating cows in small holder dairy farms in and around Kombolcha, South Wollo, Amhara region, Ethiopia.

  14. Comparison of protease production from newly isolated bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation medium (by using sub-merged fermentation technique) was incubated for 48 h at 37°C temperature and agitation speed of 200 rpm. The protease was partially purified with 70% ammonium sulphate. Four different supports were used for the immobilization of the bacterial protease by physical adsorption ...

  15. Investigation of In vitro Mineral Forming Bacterial Isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... bacterial colony in the oral cavity is important in calculus formation because bacteria have a direct effect on the pH ... Department of Biology,. Faculty of Science, Atatürk. University, 1Department of ... performed with oral bacteria in environments with high ion levels, and thus, their findings have very limited.

  16. Antibiotic Activity Assessment of Bacterial Strains Isolated from Urine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common worldwide and affect all sexes and age groups. An estimated 20% or more of the female population suffers from some form of UTIs in their lifetime. Although antibiotics are the first choice of treatment for many urinary tract infections, antibiotic-resistant strains of bacterial species ...

  17. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry proteomic based identification of clinical bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Pathogenic bacteria often cause life threatening infections especially in immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, rapid and reliable species identification is essential for a successful treatment and disease management. We evaluated a rapid, proteomic based technique for identification of clinical bacterial isolates by protein profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time - of - flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Methods: Freshly grown bacterial isolates were selected from culture plates. Ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure was carried out, followed by charging of MALDI target plate with the extract and overlaying with α-cyano-4 hydroxy-cinnamic acid matrix solution. Identification was performed using the MALDI BioTyper 1.1, software for microbial identification (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany. Results: A comparative analysis of 82 clinical bacterial isolates using MALDI -TOF MS and conventional techniques was carried out. Amongst the clinical isolates, the accuracy at the species level for clinical isolates was 98.78%. One out of 82 isolates was not in accordance with the conventional assays because MALDI-TOF MS established it as Streptococcus pneumoniae and conventional methods as Streptococcus viridans. Interpretation & conclusions: MALDI - TOF MS was found to be an accurate, rapid, cost-effective and robust system for identification of clinical bacterial isolates. This innovative approach holds promise for earlier therapeutic intervention leading to better patient care.

  18. An isolated bacterial consortium for crude oil biodegradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    ) and tested for their ability to degrade COCS. ... Environmental pollution, especially with hydrocarbons is a major environmental ..... Rhodochrous Isolated from Soil and Marine Environments in Kuwait. Environ. Pollut. 65: 1-17 ...

  19. Profiling of antibiotic resistance of bacterial species recovered from routine clinical isolates in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hove, Robert-Jan; Tesfaye, Melaku; Ten Hove, Witold Frederik; Nigussie, Mesfin

    2017-06-26

    With the alarming rise in antibiotic resistance in African countries, the need for a surveillance system in the region has become pressing. The rapid expansion of data networks makes it possible to set up healthcare applications that can be both cost-efficient and effective. Large data sets are available for assessment of current antibiotic resistance among Ethiopian patients. Based on the data-presentation, a practical approach is proposed on how diagnostic laboratories can participate remedial action against antibiotic resistance in Ethiopia. In Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), raw data comprising bacterial species name, specimen type and antibiograms covering the period January 2014 to May 2015 was accessed from the laboratory information management system. Using R code, the data was read and fitted into data-frames and analyzed to assess antibiotic resistance in the Ethiopian patient population. Susceptibility to an antibiotic was tested with 14.983 cultures of 54 different bacterial species or subgroups, isolated from 16 types of specimen. Half of the cultures (n = 6444) showed resistance to an antibiotic. Resistance against penicillin was highest with, on average, 91.1% of 79 bacterial cultures showing resistance. Very high resistance rates were also observed for ampicillin, whereas resistance was lowest with cefoxitin. Extraction and analysis of raw-data from the laboratory database is relatively simple and can provide valuable insight into the relationships between type of sample and drug-resistance in countries where such data is still scarce. With the largest number of antibiotic resistance tests described for Ethiopia, a tool is proposed for consistent data collection with specified core variables. Trends in antibiotic resistance can be revealed and treatment failures avoided when used as an easy accessible reference application for healthcare providers.

  20. Phylogenetic distribution of virulence-associated genes among Escherichia coli isolates associated with neonatal bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, James R.; Oswald, Eric; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk

    2002-01-01

    Seventy cerebrospinal fluid Escherichia coli isolates from infants with neonatal bacterial meningitis (NBM), as submitted to the Netherlands Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis from 1989 through 1997, were assessed for phylogenetic background and extended virulence genotypes, in comparison

  1. Isolation, Screening and Development of Local Bacterial Consortia With Azo Dyes Decolourising Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1540 bacterial isolates were isolated and screened for their ability to degrade selected azo dyes. Of these, nine isolates were chosen for further studies based on their ability to degrade a wide spectrum of dyes efficiently and rapidly. Several microbial consortia were developed and tested for their effectiveness. Overall the consortia were able to degrade 70 - 100% colour within 72 hours compared to 60 – 97% colour removed by individual isolates. A microbial consortium labelled C15 showed good growth in agitation culture but the colour removal was best in static culture with 80 - 100% colour removed in less than 72 hours. Based on the 16S rRNA sequencing, two of the bacterial isolates in C15 belong to the Chryseobacterium genus while the other one belongs to Flavobacterium genus.

  2. Microbiological Assessment of Bacterial Isolates from Ear, Nose And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples from patients who reported to in-patient ENT unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano were isolated for further microbiological assessment. One hundred (100) from both male and female patients comprising 55 ear swabs, 30 and 15 throat and nose swabs respectively were screened between February and ...

  3. Manganese oxidation by bacterial isolates from the Indian Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Krishnan, K.P.; Khedekar, V.D; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    ) observations of both isolates revealed free-living cells in clustered matrices apprrox. 2 Mu diameter. Energy dispersive spectrum of the cell matrix of CR35 cultured in 1 mM Mn detected 30%Mn, while the cell aggregates of CR48 harbored 7 -10% Mn. The relatively...

  4. Bacterial isolates of tonsillitis and pharyngitis in a paediatric casualty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BHS and S. aureus showed 100% sensitivity to cefuroxine, azithromycin, ceftazidine and genticin. All the isolates had little or no sensitivity to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. BHS is a significant cause of pharyngitis and tonsillitis in our environment and therefore poses a potential danger of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart ...

  5. Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of different bacteria isolates in 150 wound infections in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, ... antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present in the wound sites. Keywords: Wound infection , Antibiotic, ... and injections, but post-operative wound infections in hospital are most common. Some.

  6. Increasing incidence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics by isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed on sensitivity test agar (Biotec, UK) using the disc diffusion method in accordance with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (5). The results were compared with a previous study in 1993. A total of 336 urinary isolates were identified, with the coliforms being the ...

  7. EFFECT OT KUNNU-ZAKI ON CLINICAL BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omidiji

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... antimicrobial effect represents another property for Kunun-zaki and obviates the possibility of public health risk in its consumption. Key words: Kunnu-zaki, clinical isolates, antibiotic sensitivity. INTRODUCTION. Kunnu-zaki is a cereal food drink that has become a popular refreshing non-alcoholic beverage ...

  8. Production of bacterial amylase by Bacillus species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimum pH activity was obtained at 4.0 with a concentration of 0.376 mg/ml. Bacillus licheniformis has the greatest potential for producing amylase than the other isolates and rice husk can be exploited for amylase production. The B. licheniformis strain produced thermostable alpha-amylase with characteristics suitable for ...

  9. First Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Bacteriophages Infecting Acidovorax citrulli, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryan Rahimi-Midani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, were isolated from 39 watermelon, pumpkin, and cucumber leaf samples collected from various regions of Korea and tested against 18 A. citrulli strains. Among the six phages isolated, ACP17 forms the largest plaque, and exhibits the morphology of phages in the Myoviridae family with a head diameter of 100 ± 5 nm and tail length of 150 ± 5 nm. ACP17 has eclipse and latent periods of 25 ± 5 min and 50 ± 5 min, respectively, and a burst size of 120. The genome of ACP17 is 156,281 base pairs with a G + C content of 58.7%, 263 open reading frames, and 4 transfer RNA genes. Blast search and phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein showed that ACP17 has limited homology to two Stentrophomonas phages, suggesting that ACP17 is a new type of Myoviridae isolated from A. citrulli.

  10. Pigments Characterization and Molecular Identification of Bacterial Symbionts of Brown Algae Padinasp. Collected from Karimunjawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Bayu Murti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for carotenoids in nature has been extensively studied because of their applications in foods. One treasure of the biopigment source is symbiotic-microorganisms with marine biota. The advantages of symbiont bacteria are easy to culture and sensitize pigments. The use of symbiont bacteria helps to conserve fish, coral reefs, seagrass, and seaweed. Therefore, the bacteria keeps their existence in their ecosystems. In this study, bacterial symbionts were successfully isolated from brown algae Padina sp. The bacterial symbionts had yellow pigment associated with carotenoids. The pigments were characterized using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with a Photo Diode Array (PDA detector. The carotenoid pigments in the bacterial symbionts were identified as dinoxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin. Molecular identification by using a 16S rRNA gene sequence method, reveals that the bacterial symbionts were closely related to Bacillus marisflavi with a homology of 99%. Keywords :carotenoid pigments, brown algae, Padina, bacterial symbionts, 16S rRNA

  11. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  12. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens isolated from childhood diarrhoea in four provinces of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Willie Kipkemboi; Oundo, Valerie; Schnabel, David

    2012-07-23

    Diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among children in sub-Saharan Africa, and one of the main causes of hospital admissions in rural areas of Kenya. In Kenya, antimicrobial resistance surveillance has been conducted only at the institutional levels, with limited sharing of information and analysis of data. As a result, the actual scale of regional or national antimicrobial drug resistance is not well defined. Stool samples were collected between 1 October 2007 and 30 September 2008 from a total of 651 outpatients with diarrhoea who were under five years of age in four provinces of Kenya.  Conventional, biochemical methods, multiplex PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility were conducted to identify the bacterial causes and virulence factors in the isolates, respectively.  Of the 651 patients screened, we identified the causes of 115 cases (17.7%) as follows: Pathogenic E. coli (11.2%) [enteroaggregative (8.9%), enterotoxigenic (1.2%), enteroinvasive (0.6%), shigatoxigenic (0.5%)], Salmonella (3.5%), Shigella (2%) and Vibrio cholera O1 (0.7%). The highest levels of resistance among the E. coli isolates were observed in ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole each at 95% followed by tetracycline at 81%. Shigella isolate levels of resistance ranged from 80% to 100% for ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. The highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was to ampicillin followed by trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline. Though still at low levels, the major concern from our findings is the emerging resistance of enteric pathogens that was observed to quinolones (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin) and gentamycin.

  13. Ceftaroline activity against bacterial organisms isolated from acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in United States medical centers (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-04-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a new cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against resistant Gram-positive organisms including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and commonly isolated Gram-negative organisms, including ceftriaxone-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. We evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftaroline and selected comparator agents against bacterial isolates collected from patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in the USA. A total of 6222 isolates were collected from 67 medical centers distributed across all nine USA census regions between 2009 and 2011 and tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftaroline was very active against S. aureus (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 μg/mL; 99.6% susceptible), including MRSA (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 μg/mL; 99.1% susceptible). Against β-hemolytic streptococci, the activity of ceftaroline (MIC50/90, ≤0.015/0.03 μg/mL; 100.0% susceptible) was comparable to that of both penicillin (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/≤0.06 μg/mL; 100.0% susceptible) and ceftriaxone (MIC50/90, ≤0.25/≤0.25 μg/mL; 100.0% susceptible). Ceftaroline was also highly active against viridans group streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 μg/mL). Similar to ceftriaxone and ceftazidime, ceftaroline was active against wild-type strains of Escherichia coli (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 μg/mL; 94.0% susceptible) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 μg/mL; 96.8% susceptible); however, the ceftaroline activity was compromised among strains with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-phenotype (MIC50/90, >32/>32 μg/mL for both E. coli and K. pneumoniae). In summary, ceftaroline showed potent activity against a large contemporary collection (6222) of bacterial isolates associated with ABSSSI in the USA. © 2014.

  14. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species....

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from surgical wound infections in Tertiary Care Hospital in Allahabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study to analyze the occurrence and in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from surgical wound infections. Specimens from a total of 129 patients undergoing either emergency or elective surgery were collected from infected sites or stitch lines and inoculated onto appropriate media. The bacterial cultures were identified utilizing standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. Of 129 patients investigated (62 emergency and 67 elective surgery cases, bacterial isolates were isolated with almost equal frequency both from emergency and elective surgery cases. Of 108 (83.72% culture positive samples, 62 (57.41% were Gram negative, 39 (36.11% Gram positive, and 7 (6.48% showed multiple organisms. Of total 115 bacteria isolated (101 single and 7 double organisms culture positive, 33 (28.69% were Escherichia coli and were also the commonest; followed by Staphylococcus aureus, 30 (26.09% cases. S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. showed maximum susceptibility (100% to linezolid and vancomycin. Maximum susceptibility of E. coli was observed to ciprofloxacin (75.7%, followed by gentamicin (54.5%; of Klebsiella spp. to ceftriaxone and gentamicin (66.6% each, of Proteus spp. to gentamicin (70% followed by ciprofloxacin (60%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin (100% and tobramycin (71.4%. E. coli and S. aureus were the most common and Salmonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were the least common organism causing surgical site infections. The definitive therapy included ciprofloxacin and gentamicin for E. coli; linezolid and vancomycin for S. aureus and Streptococcus spp; ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin for Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., acinetobacter spp and Salmonella spp.

  16. MICROFLUIDIC MODULES FOR ISOLATION OF RECOMBINANT CYTOKINE FROM BACTERIAL LYSATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The portability and personalization of health-care diagnostics and treatments benefits from advancements and applications of micro and nanotechnology. Modularization and miniaturization of standardized biochemical processes and tests facilitates the advancement and customization of analyte detection and diagnosis on-chip. The goal of our work here is to develop modular platforms for on-chip biochemical processing of synthesized biologics for a range of on-demand applications. Our report focuses on the initial development, characterization and application of microfluidic size exclusion/gel filtration and ion exchange protein concentration modules for cytokine isolation from spiked cell extracts.

  17. Environmental monitoring of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance patterns of the fecal coliforms isolated from Cauvery River, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Mahajanakatti, Arpitha Badarinath; Grandhi, Nisha Jayaprakash; Prasanna, Akshatha; Sen, Ballari; Sharma, Narasimha; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses prudent elucidation of microbial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of the fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India. Water samples were collected from ten hotspots during the year 2011-2012. The physiochemical characteristics and microbial count of water samples collected from most of the hotspots exhibited greater biological oxygen demand and bacterial count especially coliforms in comparison with control samples (p ≤ 0.01). The antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed using 48 antibiotics against the bacterial isolates by disk-diffusion assay. The current study showed that out of 848 bacterial isolates, 93.51% (n = 793) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to most of the current generation antibiotics. Among the major isolates, 96.46% (n = 273) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to 30 antibiotics and they were identified to be Escherichia coli by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Similarly, 93.85% (n = 107), 94.49% (n = 103), and 90.22% (n = 157) of the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance to 32, 40, and 37 antibiotics, and they were identified to be Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas trivialis, and Shigella sonnei, respectively. The molecular studies suggested the prevalence of bla TEM genes in all the four isolates and dhfr gene in Escherichia coli and Sh. sonnei. Analogously, most of the other Gram-negative bacteria were found to be multidrug-resistant and the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the water samples were found to be methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first study elucidating the bacterial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, Karnataka, India.

  18. Isolation and Purification of Bacterial Strains from Treatment Plants for Effective and Efficient Bioconversion of Domestic Wastewater Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    K. C.A. Jalal; Md. Z.   Alam; Suleyman A.   Muyibi; P. Jamal

    2006-01-01

    Forty six bacterial strains were isolated from nine different sources in four treatment plants namely Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) sewage treatment plant, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) treatment plant-1,-2 and 3 to evaluate the bioconversion process in terms of efficient biodegradation and bioseparation. The bacterial strains isolated were found to be 52.2% (24 isolates) and 47.8% (22 isolates) in the IWK and IIUM treatment plants respectively. The results showed that the h...

  19. Identification of bacterial strains isolated from the Mediterranean Sea exhibiting different abilities of biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian-Jaisson, Florence; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Armougom, Fabrice; Blache, Yves; Molmeret, Maëlle

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has rarely been investigated for the characterization of marine bacteria as compared to other marine environments such as the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. Bacteria recovered from inert surfaces are poorly studied in these environments, when it has been shown that the community structure of attached bacteria can be dissimilar from that of planktonic bacteria present in the water column. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize marine bacteria isolated from biofilms developed on inert surfaces immersed in the Mediterranean Sea and to evaluate their capacity to form a biofilm in vitro. Here, 13 marine bacterial strains have been isolated from different supports immersed in seawater in the Bay of Toulon (France). Phylogenetic analysis and different biological and physico-chemical properties have been investigated. Among the 13 strains recovered, 8 different genera and 12 different species were identified including 2 isolates of a novel bacterial species that we named Persicivirga mediterranea and whose genus had never been isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. Shewanella sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp. were the most preponderant genera recovered in our conditions. The phenotypical characterization revealed that one isolate belonging to the Polaribacter genus differed from all the other ones by its hydrophobic properties and poor ability to form biofilms in vitro. Identifying and characterizing species isolated from seawater including from Mediterranean ecosystems could be helpful for example, to understand some aspects of bacterial biodiversity and to further study the mechanisms of biofilm (and biofouling) development in conditions approaching those of the marine environment.

  20. Isolation of Biosurfactant–Producing Bacteria with Antimicrobial Activity against Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripun Sarin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study biosurfactant producing bacteria isolated from soil and to determine their property and efficiency as biosurfactants in order to inhibit bacterial pathogens. The result showed that there were 8 bacterial isolates out of 136 isolates of the total biosurfactant producing bacteria screened that exhibited the diameter of clear zone more than 1.5 cm. in the oil spreading test. The highest potential of emulsifying activity (%EA24 of 54.4 and the maximum additive concentration, (%MAC of 24.2 was obtained from the fermentation broth of the G7 isolate which the G7 isolate was later identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Psuedomonas aeruginosa were the tested bacterial pathogens that were most sensitive to the acid precipitated biosurfactant obtained from P. fluorescens G7 with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 41.6 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of 41.6 mg/ml compared with the acid precipitated bisurfactants of the other isolates used in the antimicrobial activity test. The type of the separated crude biosurfactant produced by P. fluorescens G7 analyzed later by using the rhamose test, TLC and FT-IR techniques was rhamnolipid.

  1. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandounas Luaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel enzymes for waste lignin valorization. Results Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization, the organisms were identified as Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001, Pseudomonas sp LD002 and Bacillus sp LD003. The ligninolytic capability of each of these isolates was assessed by growth on high-molecular weight and low-molecular weight lignin fractions, utilization of lignin-associated aromatic monomers and degradation of ligninolytic indicator dyes. Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001 and Pseudomonas sp. LD002 exhibited best growth on lignin fractions, but limited dye-decolourizing capacity. Bacillus sp. LD003, however, showed least efficient growth on lignin fractions but extensive dye-decolourizing capacity, with a particular preference for the recalcitrant phenothiazine dye class (Azure B, Methylene Blue and Toluidene Blue O. Conclusions Bacillus sp. LD003 was selected as a promising source of novel types of ligninolytic enzymes. Our observations suggested that lignin mineralization and depolymerization are separate events which place additional challenges on the screening of ligninolytic microorganisms for specific ligninolytic enzymes.

  2. A standard bacterial isolate set for research on contemporary dairy spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmčić, A; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Food spoilage is an ongoing issue that could be dealt with more efficiently if some standardization and unification was introduced in this field of research. For example, research and development efforts to understand and reduce food spoilage can greatly be enhanced through availability and use of standardized isolate sets. To address this critical issue, we have assembled a standard isolate set of dairy spoilers and other selected nonpathogenic organisms frequently associated with dairy products. This publicly available bacterial set consists of (1) 35 gram-positive isolates including 9 Bacillus and 15 Paenibacillus isolates and (2) 16 gram-negative isolates including 4 Pseudomonas and 8 coliform isolates. The set includes isolates obtained from samples of pasteurized milk (n=43), pasteurized chocolate milk (n=1), raw milk (n=1), cheese (n=2), as well as isolates obtained from samples obtained from dairy-powder production (n=4). Analysis of growth characteristics in skim milk broth identified 16 gram-positive and 13 gram-negative isolates as psychrotolerant. Additional phenotypic characterization of isolates included testing for activity of β-galactosidase and lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. All groups of isolates included in the isolate set exhibited diversity in growth and enzyme activity. Source data for all isolates in this isolate set are publicly available in the FoodMicrobeTracker database (http://www.foodmicrobetracker.com), which allows for continuous updating of information and advancement of knowledge on dairy-spoilage representatives included in this isolate set. This isolate set along with publicly available isolate data provide a unique resource that will help advance knowledge of dairy-spoilage organisms as well as aid industry in development and validation of new control strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. increasing incidence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics by isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This a prospective study to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among organisms causing urinary tract infections in a Teaching Hospitai between August 2003 and July 2004 and to compare them with an earlier study in 1993. A total of HM urine samples were collected in sterile universal ...

  4. Bacterial species isolated from water bodies in Rivers and Bayelsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of twenty water samples were collected from rivers and cultured for the various microorganisms.The total heterotrophic counts were determined by Standard Plate Count (SPC) method. Salmonella and Vibrio species were enumerated by an enrichment procedure in Selenite F broth and Alkaline Peptone ...

  5. Antibiotic resistance among cultured bacterial isolates from bioethanol fermentation facilities across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Colin A; Heist, E Patrick; Moe, Luke A

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentations by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can have crippling effects on bioethanol production. Producers have had success controlling bacterial growth through prophylactic addition of antibiotics to fermentors, yet concerns have arisen about antibiotic resistance among the LAB. Here, we report on mechanisms used by 32 LAB isolates from eight different US bioethanol facilities to persist under conditions of antibiotic stress. Minimum inhibitory concentration assays with penicillin, erythromycin, and virginiamycin revealed broad resistance to each of the antibiotics as well as high levels of resistance to individual antibiotics. Phenotypic assays revealed that antibiotic inactivation mechanisms contributed to the high levels of individual resistances among the isolates, especially to erythromycin and virginiamycin, yet none of the isolates appeared to use a β-lactamase. Biofilm formation was noted among the majority of the isolates and may contribute to persistence under low levels of antibiotics. Nearly all of the isolates carried at least one canonical antibiotic resistance gene and many carried more than one. The erythromycin ribosomal methyltransferase (erm) gene class was found in 19 of 32 isolates, yet a number of these isolates exhibit little to no resistance to erythromycin. The erm genes were present in 15 isolates that encoded more than one antibiotic resistance mechanism, suggestive of potential genetic linkages.

  6. ‘Tidjanibacter massiliensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from human colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mailhe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the summary of main characteristics of Tidjanibacter massiliensis strain Marseille-P3084T, a new bacterial species isolated from the liquid sample of the colon of a patient with a history of irritable bowel syndrome.

  7. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from food sold on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Table 1. Distribution and proportion of bacterial contaminants in food. Isolates Identified. Prevalence. E. coli. 23 (29.4%). Klebsiella spp. 20 (25.64%). Proteus spp. 14 (17.95%). Pseudomonas spp. 9 (11.54%). Salmonella spp. 19 (12.82%) analysed from February to July 2005. The food items sampled were.

  8. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea eLumactud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except Solidago canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  9. Bacterial Isolates from the Urine of Women in Ilorin and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial Isolates from the Urine of Women in Ilorin and their Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns. ... Methods: Urine samples of women suspected to have UTI were sent for microscopy, culture and sensitivity tests. The results were analyzed and the differences between the results of pregnant and non-pregnant patients were ...

  10. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Biffi, Sauro; Maggini, Valentina; Gori, Luigi; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-09-01

    In this work we analyzed the composition and structure of cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the stem/leaf and root compartments of two medicinal plants, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell, grown in the same soil, as well as the bacterial community from their rhizospheric soils. Molecular PCR-based techniques were applied to cultivable bacteria isolated from the three compartments of the two plants. The results showed that the two plants and their respective compartments were characterized by different communities, indicating a low degree of strain sharing and a strong selective pressure within plant tissues. Pseudomonas was the most highly represented genus, together with Actinobacteria and Bacillus spp. The presence of distinct bacterial communities in different plant species and among compartments of the same plant species could account for the differences in the medicinal properties of the two plants. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  11. Bacterial Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Wound Infections among Inpatients and Outpatients Attending the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynalem Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media. The bacterial pathogens were identified using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion technique following Kirby-Bauer method. Results. A total of 137 study subjects were included in the study with bacterial isolation rate of 115 (83.9%. Of all, 81 (59.1% were males. Seventy-seven (57% of the isolates were Gram-negative and 59 (43% were Gram-positive. From the total isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant isolate 39/115 (34% followed by Klebsiella species (13%, coagulase negative staphylococci spp. (12% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin (86.4%, amoxicillin (83%, penicillin (81.3%, oxacillin (74.6%, and tetracycline (59.4%, while Gram-negative isolates were resistant to amoxicillin (97.4%, ampicillin (94.8%, tetracycline (72.7%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%, and chloramphenicol (54.5%. Conclusion. High prevalence of bacterial isolates was found, Staphylococcus aureus being the most dominant. High rates of multiple drug resistance pathogens to the commonly used antimicrobial agents were isolated. Therefore, concerned bodies should properly monitor the choice of antibiotics to be used as prophylaxis and empiric treatment in the study area.

  12. Isolation and functional characterization of bacterial endophytes from Carica papaya fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P; Bhat, R; Kush, A; Ravikumar, P

    2012-08-01

    To isolate and characterize the endophytes from papaya fruits and to determine the fermentative potential of the strains. Endophytes provide potential sources for novel natural products for the use in agriculture and nutrition. There is very limited information on isolation and characterization of bacterial endophytes from papaya. We describe isolation and characterization of eighteen endophytes of papaya fruit from four economically important papaya varieties viz 'Red lady', 'Solo', 'Coorg Honey' and 'Bangalore'. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence revealed that isolated endophytes are genetically distinct and cluster as discrete clades in the dendrogram. The Bacillus species is a predominant bacterial endophyte across papaya varieties. The seeds and the endocarp of papaya fruits harbour Kocuria, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter species. The Staphylococcus species were detected in the fruit mesocarp of two papaya varieties used in the study. The endophytes isolated from papaya fruits were capable of producing extracellular enzymes like amylase, cellulase, pectinase and xylanase. Three isolates, Bacillus (PE-LR-1 and PE-LR-3) and Kocuria (PE-LR-2), were selected for fruit fermentation, and antioxidant potential of the fermented product was evaluated. PE-LR-3 fermented product has the free radical scavenging activity of 61·2% and a microbial cocktail of PE-LR-3 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 2918 enhances the antioxidant potential to 75·7%. These findings suggest that different parts of papaya fruits harbour an array of bacterial endophytes that could be important agents in attributing the high nutritive status to the fruit and can serve as potent microbial cocktails for developing value-added fermented products of this important fruit. This study describes isolation of a bacterial endophyte from papaya fruit that is capable of improving the antioxidant potential of raw papaya after fermentation. No claim to Indian Government works Journal

  13. Exploration, Isolation, and Identification of Carotenoid from Bacterial Symbiont of Sponge Callyspongia vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqna Kamila Abfa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades research on marine bacteria has highlighted the tremendous potential of symbiotic-microorganisms as a source of bioactive secondary. One of the potential of the bacterial symbionts is producing a natural pigment, and these organisms can be used as a sustainable source of natural pigments. Carotenoid is one of the most important pigments that has important roles in physiological and molecular processes of microorganisms, as well as for human health. The objective of this study is to analyze carotenoid pigments from marine bacterial symbionts from sponge and to identify bacterial symbionts that produce carotenoid pigments. Pigment analysis was performed by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Molecular bacterial identification was performed based on 16S rDNA sequence. The isolation of bacterial symbionts from C. vaginalison Zobell 2216E medium resulted in one bacterium, CB-SP5, positively synthesized carotenoids. By reverse phase HPLC analysis, the carotenoid pigments in the bacterial symbionts were identified as diadinoxanthin, fucoxanthin, neoxanthin, dinoxanthin, anddiadinochrome. CB-SP5 shared the highest level of 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity with Psychrobacter celer (99%.   Keywords : carotenoid, sponge, bacterial symbiont, 16S rDNA.

  14. Biodegradation of carcinogenic textile azo dyes using bacterial isolates of mangrove sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Prasad Srinivasan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the biodegrading property against carcinogenic azo dyes using bacterial isolates of mangrove sediment. Methods: The bacterial isolates were subjected to submerged fermentation and their growth kinetics were studied. The potential strain was characterized using 16S rDNA sequencing. Results: In the present study, dye degrading bacterial colonies were isolated from the mangrove sediment samples of Parangipettai estuarine area, Tamil Nadu. Of the 30 morphologically different strains isolated, 5 showed antagonistic property. The growth kinetics of the two strains, P1 and G1, which showed potent activity were calculated. One particular isolate (P1 showing promising dye degrading potential in the submerged fermentation was further characterized. The strain was identified as Paenibacillus sp. by 16S rDNA sequencing. Conclusions: This study reveals the less explored microflora of mangrove sediments. The novel strain may further be analyzed and used in the treatment of effluent from dye industry so as to reduce the impact of carcinogenic contaminants.

  15. Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hussein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

  16. Analysis of raw meat for heavy metals and bacterial contamination and comparison of antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the study was to analyze the commercially available meat for its heavy metal contents and bacterial contamination. The meat samples were collected from four commercial markets of Lahore, i.e., as Wafaqi Colony (Site I),Township (Site II), G-1 Market (Site III) and Zenith (Site IV), and analyzed for heavy metal [i.e., manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu)] contents and bacterial contaminants (E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Salmonella sp.) Atomic absorption spectrophotometery was employed for the detection of the heavy metals and plate count method was used for the detection of bacterial contaminants. The Ni concentration in the Site II sample only and Cd concentration in all meat samples were found above the standard value and the concentration of other metals (Cu, Cr, and Mn) was less than the standard concentrations. Bacterial (E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus sp.) contamination was found in all meat samples; however, the number was a little lower in the Site IV samples. Statistical analysis was done, by one-way ANOVA using SPSS, to compare heavy metal contamination in the meat samples. The results showed distribution of heavy metals in all meat samples there was significant difference of Ni concentration in the meat samples. The measure of antibiotic susceptibility showed that isolated species of bacteria were resistant to lincomycin, streptomycin, tertracyclin, ampicillin, amoxicillin and doxycyclin, but did not survive in the medium containing ofloxacin. (author)

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Some Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated From Women With Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Considering the high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with urinary tract infection in women and treatment of gynecologic problems occur when a high recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is often treated with antibiotics. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods Ninety-six samples were obtained from vaginal discharge of women with bacterial vaginosis by a gynecologist with a Dacron swab and put in sterile tubes containing TSB broth and Thioglycollate broth. Then were immediately sent to the laboratory in cold chain for further assessment. Afterward, culture was transferred on blood agar, EMB, Palcam and differential diagnosis environments. Then cultures were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. Lactobacillus reuteri strains were cultured in MRS environment and transferred to laboratory. After purification of pathogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus reuteri inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and antibiogram. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software v.16. Results The results of this study demonstrated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on some pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus, Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli. Microscopic examination of stained smears of most Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria showed reduced. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge, history of drug use, contraceptive methods and douching were 61%, 55%, 42% and 13%, respectively. Significant difference was observed between the use and non-use of IUD in women with bacterial. Conclusions Our findings indicated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on pathogenic bacteria that

  18. In-vitro efficacy of antibacterials against bacterial isolates from corneal ulcers.

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    Bharathi Jayahar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse the in-vitro efficacy of commonly used antibacterials against bacterial pathogens from corneal ulcers. METHODS: We evaluated 596 patients seen over 18 months, period, September 1999 through March 2001. Corneal scrapings were subjected to microscopy and cultures using standard protocols. Antibacterial susceptibility of isolated bacteria were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. RESULTS: 626 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 596 corneal ulcer cases. 411(65.65% were gram positive cocci Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.85% was the predominant bacterial species. The antibacterial susceptibility was: 451(72.04% to cefazolin, 471(75.24% to chloramphenicol; 321(51.28% to cephaloridine; 430(68.69% to vancomycin; 564(90.09% to ciprofloxacin; 429(68.53% to norfloxacin; 464(74.12% to gentamicin and 202(32.27% to co.trimoxazole. CONCLUSION: This study provides information on the efficacy of ocular antibacterials commonly used against bacterial pathogens of keratitis. It is hoped that this information will help decision-making in empiric initial treatment of bacterial keratitis.

  19. Isolation, identification, and characterization of gut microflora of Perionyx excavatus collected from Midnapore, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Tanushree Tulsian; Das, Ankita

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture is an important part of the economy of the undivided Midnapore district. Agricultural land is its asset and most importantly its means of sustenance as well as survival. Earthworms are invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matters in soils. Since the intestines of earthworms harbor wide ranges of microorganisms, enzymes, hormones etc., these half digested materials decompose rapidly and are transformed into a stabilized material called vermicompost which is very useful for increasing the soil fertility. One has to look for these characters before recommending any species for vermiculture. In the present study, Perionyx excavatus specimens were collected from the undivided Midnapore district and from the Earthworms gut, bacteria, fungus, actinobacteria, and yeast were isolated and identified using various morphological and biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were identified using morphological study, staining techniques, and different biochemical tests such as catalase test, KOH test, H2 SO4 test, Starch hydrolysis test, oxidase test, and sucrose hydrolysis test. All the fungal, actinobacteria, and yeast isolates were subjected to staining and morphological characterization (color and texture of fungal colony). Bacterial isolates of genus Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterococci, Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., and Citrobacter sp. were identified. Among the fungal isolates Aspergilus sp., and P. boydii were identified. Streptomyces sp., Nocardia sp. among the actinobacteria and Candida sp. among yeast were also found to be present in earthworm gut and these might play an important role along with the earthworm to increase the quality and fertility of soil. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

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    Stärk Katharina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146 for the period 2003–2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002–2004. Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excel-file templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS – external quality assurance system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries. Results Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales, Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to

  1. Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae in Natural Transformation and Contact-Dependent Bacterial Killing Indicative of Type VI Secretion System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardy, Eryn E; Turnsek, Maryann A; Wilson, Sarah K; Tarr, Cheryl L; Hammer, Brian K

    2016-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae can occupy both the human gut and aquatic reservoirs, where it may colonize chitinous surfaces that induce the expression of factors for three phenotypes: chitin utilization, DNA uptake by natural transformation, and contact-dependent bacterial killing via a type VI secretion system (T6SS). In this study, we surveyed a diverse set of 53 isolates from different geographic locales collected over the past century from human clinical and environmental specimens for each phenotype outlined above. The set included pandemic isolates of serogroup O1, as well as several serogroup O139 and non-O1/non-O139 strains. We found that while chitin utilization was common, only 22.6% of the isolates tested were proficient at chitin-induced natural transformation, suggesting that transformation is expendable. Constitutive contact-dependent killing of Escherichia coli prey, which is indicative of a functional T6SS, was rare among clinical isolates (only 4 of 29) but common among environmental isolates (22 of 24). These results bolster the pathoadaptive model in which tight regulation of T6SS-mediated bacterial killing is beneficial in a human host, whereas constitutive killing by environmental isolates may give a competitive advantage in natural settings. Future sequence analysis of this set of diverse isolates may identify previously unknown regulators and structural components for both natural transformation and T6SS. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae in Natural Transformation and Contact-Dependent Bacterial Killing Indicative of Type VI Secretion System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardy, Eryn E.; Turnsek, Maryann A.; Wilson, Sarah K.; Tarr, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae can occupy both the human gut and aquatic reservoirs, where it may colonize chitinous surfaces that induce the expression of factors for three phenotypes: chitin utilization, DNA uptake by natural transformation, and contact-dependent bacterial killing via a type VI secretion system (T6SS). In this study, we surveyed a diverse set of 53 isolates from different geographic locales collected over the past century from human clinical and environmental specimens for each phenotype outlined above. The set included pandemic isolates of serogroup O1, as well as several serogroup O139 and non-O1/non-O139 strains. We found that while chitin utilization was common, only 22.6% of the isolates tested were proficient at chitin-induced natural transformation, suggesting that transformation is expendable. Constitutive contact-dependent killing of Escherichia coli prey, which is indicative of a functional T6SS, was rare among clinical isolates (only 4 of 29) but common among environmental isolates (22 of 24). These results bolster the pathoadaptive model in which tight regulation of T6SS-mediated bacterial killing is beneficial in a human host, whereas constitutive killing by environmental isolates may give a competitive advantage in natural settings. Future sequence analysis of this set of diverse isolates may identify previously unknown regulators and structural components for both natural transformation and T6SS. PMID:26944842

  3. Common bacterial isolates, clinical outcome and TB meningitis in children admitted at Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital, Tanzania

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    Ramadhani Salum Chambuso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial meningitis is still one of the major causes of deaths, disabilities, and mental retardation in children in Morogoro region. To study the current meningitis burden, we evaluated the common bacterial isolates and clinical outcome of the disease in the region. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based prospective study on 1352 children aged between 7 days and 12 years admitted in pediatric wards at Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital for 7 months. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF for laboratory microbiological examination was collected by lumbar puncture in 72 children with signs and symptoms of meningitis. Latex agglutination test was used to confirm the bacterial colonies in the culture. Chi-square test was used for relative risk with 95% confidence intervals; statistical analysis and tests were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05. Results: Among 72 CSF samples, 23 (31.9% were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 (8.3% for Haemophilus influenzae, 5 (6.9% for Group B Streptococcus, 3 (4.2% for Escherichia coli, and 1 (1.4% was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, 34 CSF samples showed no bacteria growth in the culture media. In addition, 39 children (54.2% did not respond to the treatment, whereas 79.5% (n = 39 of them died, while 20.5% (n = 39 of them were referred to a tertiary hospital. Nevertheless, the incidence of meningitis infection was 5.3% (n = 1352 among the admitted children. Conclusions: S. pneumoniae was the major laboratory-confirmed bacterial isolate associated with meningitis in children. We report for the first time the presence of tuberculous meningitis in Morogoro region. Ziehl–Neelsen staining for acid-fast bacilli should be mandatory for any case clinically suspected for meningitis.

  4. Common bacterial isolates, clinical outcome and TB meningitis in children admitted at Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambuso, Ramadhani Salum; Mkhoi, Mkhoi Lord; Kaambo, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is still one of the major causes of deaths, disabilities, and mental retardation in children in Morogoro region. To study the current meningitis burden, we evaluated the common bacterial isolates and clinical outcome of the disease in the region. We conducted a hospital-based prospective study on 1352 children aged between 7 days and 12 years admitted in pediatric wards at Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital for 7 months. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for laboratory microbiological examination was collected by lumbar puncture in 72 children with signs and symptoms of meningitis. Latex agglutination test was used to confirm the bacterial colonies in the culture. Chi-square test was used for relative risk with 95% confidence intervals; statistical analysis and tests were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05. Among 72 CSF samples, 23 (31.9%) were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 (8.3%) for Haemophilus influenzae, 5 (6.9%) for Group B Streptococcus, 3 (4.2%) for Escherichia coli, and 1 (1.4%) was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, 34 CSF samples showed no bacteria growth in the culture media. In addition, 39 children (54.2%) did not respond to the treatment, whereas 79.5% (n = 39) of them died, while 20.5% (n = 39) of them were referred to a tertiary hospital. Nevertheless, the incidence of meningitis infection was 5.3% (n = 1352) among the admitted children. S. pneumoniae was the major laboratory-confirmed bacterial isolate associated with meningitis in children. We report for the first time the presence of tuberculous meningitis in Morogoro region. Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid-fast bacilli should be mandatory for any case clinically suspected for meningitis.

  5. Initial nitrogen enrichment conditions determines variations in nitrogen substrate utilization by heterotrophic bacterial isolates.

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    Ghosh, Suchismita; Ayayee, Paul A; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; Blackwood, Christopher B; Royer, Todd V; Leff, Laura G

    2017-04-04

    The nitrogen (N) cycle consists of complex microbe-mediated transformations driven by a variety of factors, including diversity and concentrations of N compounds. In this study, we examined taxonomic diversity and N substrate utilization by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from streams under complex and simple N-enrichment conditions. Diversity estimates differed among isolates from the enrichments, but no significant composition were detected. Substrate utilization and substrate range of bacterial assemblages differed within and among enrichments types, and not simply between simple and complex N-enrichments. N substrate use patterns differed between isolates from some complex and simple N-enrichments while others were unexpectedly similar. Taxonomic composition of isolates did not differ among enrichments and was unrelated to N use suggesting strong functional redundancy. Ultimately, our results imply that the available N pool influences physiology and selects for bacteria with various abilities that are unrelated to their taxonomic affiliation.

  6. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing

    OpenAIRE

    J. Riba; T. Gleichmann; S. Zimmermann; R. Zengerle; P. Koltay

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1??m and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35?pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20??m in size....

  7. Bacterial isolates from burn wound infections and their antibiograms: A eight-year study

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    Mehta Manjula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection is an important cause of mortality in burns. Rapidly emerging nosocomial pathogens and the problem of multi-drug resistance necessitates periodic review of isolation patterns and antibiogram in the burn ward. Aim: Keeping this in mind, the present retrospective study from wounds of patients admitted to burns unit was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and the resistance pattern from the burn ward over a period of three years (June 2002 to May 2005 and was compared with the results obtained during the previous five years (June 1997-May 2002, to ascertain any change in the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Materials and Methods: Bacterial isolates from 268 wound swabs taken from burn patients were identified by conventional biochemical methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed. Statistical comparison of bacterial isolates and their resistance pattern with previous five years data was done using c2 test. Results and Conclusions: During the period from 2002 to 2005 Pseudomonas species was the commonest pathogen isolated (51.5% followed by Acinetobacter species (14.28%, Staph. aureus (11.15%, Klebsiella species (9.23% and Proteus species (2.3%. When compared with the results of the previous five years i.e., 1997 to 2002, Pseudomonas species was still the commonest pathogen in the burns unit. However, the isolation of this organism and other gram-negative organisms had decreased in comparison to previous years. Newer drugs were found to be effective.

  8. Changes In Protein Abundance Are Observed In Bacterial Isolates from a Natural Host

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    Megan Anne Rees

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial proteomic studies frequently use strains cultured in synthetic liquid media over many generations. It is uncertain whether bacterial proteins expressed under these conditions will be the same as the repertoire found in natural environments, or when bacteria are infecting a host organism. Thus, genomic and proteomic characterisation of bacteria derived from the host environment in comparison to reference strains grown in the lab, should aid understanding of pathogenesis. Isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were obtained from the nodes of three naturally infected sheep and compared to a laboratory reference strain using bottom-up proteomics, after whole genome sequencing of each of the field isolates. These comparisons were performed following growth in liquid media that allowed us to reach the required protein amount for proteomic analysis. Over 1350 proteins identified in the isolated strains, from which unique proteome features were revealed. Several of the identified proteins demonstrated a significant abundance difference in the field isolates compared to the reference strain even though there were no obvious differences in the DNA sequence of the corresponding gene or in nearby non-coding DNA. Higher abundance in the field isolates was observed for proteins related to hypoxia and nutrient deficiency responses as well as to thiopeptide biosynthesis.

  9. Changes in protein abundance are observed in bacterial isolates from a natural host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Megan A; Stinear, Timothy P; Goode, Robert J A; Coppel, Ross L; Smith, Alexander I; Kleifeld, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial proteomic studies frequently use strains cultured in synthetic liquid media over many generations. It is uncertain whether bacterial proteins expressed under these conditions will be the same as the repertoire found in natural environments, or when bacteria are infecting a host organism. Thus, genomic and proteomic characterization of bacteria derived from the host environment in comparison to reference strains grown in the lab, should aid understanding of pathogenesis. Isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were obtained from the lymph nodes of three naturally infected sheep and compared to a laboratory reference strain using bottom-up proteomics, after whole genome sequencing of each of the field isolates. These comparisons were performed following growth in liquid media that allowed us to reach the required protein amount for proteomic analysis. Over 1350 proteins were identified in the isolated strains, from which unique proteome features were revealed. Several of the identified proteins demonstrated a significant abundance difference in the field isolates compared to the reference strain even though there were no obvious differences in the DNA sequence of the corresponding gene or in nearby non-coding DNA. Higher abundance in the field isolates was observed for proteins related to hypoxia and nutrient deficiency responses as well as to thiopeptide biosynthesis.

  10. MICROBIAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN OF THE BACTERIAL ISOLATES IN A TERTIARY CARE PSYCHIATRY HOSPITAL

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    Jyoti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a challenge for effective management of infections as it increases the morbidity, mortality and costs of treating infectious diseases. AIMS: This study was aimed to obtain the profile of the bacterial isolates and their antibiotic resistance pattern. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It is a cross sectional study carried out in a tertiary care psychiatry hospital in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolation and identification of the isolates were done by standard methods. Susceptibility patterns were checked by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 16.0 version to calculate the frequencies as well as for cross tabulation. RESULTS: Significant bacterial growth observed in 43(25.6% samples, of which 39(90.7% showed resistant to at least one of the antibiotics used and 36(83.7% were multi-drug resistant. Gram negative organism accounted for the 25(58.14% of total significant isolates, Escherichia coli being the highest (76% in this group. Among multi-drug resistant (MDR isolates E.coli was the highest (44.4% and imipenem resistance was also observed in 1(5.3% of 19 E.coli isolates. Among the 43 isolates 18(41.86% were Gram positive with Streptococcus spp. showing incidence of 41.7% among the total MDR isolates. CONCLUSION: Increasing incidence of MDR strains seen in the population requires continuous monitoring and a restricted use of antibiotics to keep a check on resistance pattern, for effective treatment plan.

  11. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-07-01

    Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria.

  12. Assessment of biofilm formation in device-associated clinical bacterial isolates in a tertiary level hospital

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    Summaiya A Mulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilm formation is a developmental process with intercellular signals that regulate growth. Biofilms contaminate catheters, ventilators, and medical implants; they act as a source of disease for humans, animals, and plants. Aim: In this study we have done quantitative assessment of biofilm formation in device-associated clinical bacterial isolates in response to various concentrations of glucose in tryptic soya broth and with different incubation time. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 100 positive bacteriological cultures of medical devices, which were inserted in hospitalized patients. The bacterial isolates were processed as per microtitre plate method with tryptic soya broth alone and with varying concentrations of glucose and were observed in response to time. Results: Majority of catheter cultures were positive. Out of the total 100 bacterial isolates tested, 88 of them were biofilm formers. Incubation period of 16-20 h was found to be optimum for biofilm development. Conclusions: Availability of nutrition in the form of glucose enhances the biofilm formation by bacteria. Biofilm formation depends on adherence of bacteria to various surfaces. Time and availability of glucose are important factors for assessment of biofilm progress.

  13. General and specialized media routinely employed for primary isolation of bacterial pathogens of fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of significant diseases among cultured and free-ranging freshwater fishes that have a bacterial etiology; these represent a variety of gram-negative and gram-positive genera. Confirmatory diagnosis of these diseases involves primary isolation of the causative bacterium on bacteriologic media. Frequently used "general" bacteriologic media simply provide the essential nutrients for growth. For most of the major pathogens, however, there are differential and/or selective media that facilitate primary recovery. Some specialized media are available as "ready-to-use" from suppliers, while others must be prepared. Differential media employ various types of indicator systems, such as pH indicators, that allow diagnosticians to observe assimilation of selected substrates. An advantage to the use of differential media for primary isolation is that they hasten bacterial characterization by yielding the appropriate positive or negative result for a particular substrate, often leading to a presumptive identification. Selective media also incorporate agent(s) that inhibit the growth of contaminants typically encountered with samples from aquatic environments. Media that incorporate differential and/or selective components are ideally based on characters that are unique to the targeted bacterium, and their use can reduce the time associated with diagnosis and facilitate early intervention in affected fish populations. In this review, the concepts of general and differential/selective bacteriologic media and their use and development for fish pathogens are discussed. The media routinely employed for primary isolation of the significant bacterial pathogens of fishes are presented. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  14. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits Lipase Production by Clinical Ocular Isolates Without Affecting Bacterial Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Judith Louise; Khandekar, Neeta; Zhu, Hua; Watanabe, Keizo; Markoulli, Maria; Flanagan, John Terence; Papas, Eric

    2016-02-01

    We sought to determine the relative lipase production of a range of ocular bacterial isolates and to assess the efficacy of glycerol monolaurate (GML) in inhibiting this lipase production in high lipase-producing bacteria without affecting bacterial cell growth. Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis,Propionibacterium acnes, and Corynebacterium spp. were inoculated at a density of 10(6)/mL in varying concentrations of GML up to 25 μg/mL for 24 hours at 37 °C with constant shaking. Bacterial suspensions were centrifuged, bacterial cell density was determined, and production of bacterial lipase was quantified using a commercial lipase assay kit. Staphylococcus spp. produced high levels of lipase activity compared with P. acnes and Corynebacterium spp. GML inhibited lipase production by Staphylococcal spp. in a dose-dependent manner, with S. epidermidis lipase production consistently more sensitive to GML than S. aureus. Glycerol monolaurate showed significant (P lipase inhibition above concentrations of 15 μg/mL in S. aureus and was not cytotoxic up to 25 μg/mL. For S. epidermidis, GML showed significant (P lipase inhibition above 7.5 μg/mL. Lipase activity varied between species and between strains. Staphylococcal spp. produced higher lipase activity compared with P. acnes and Corynebacterium spp. Glycerol monolaurate inhibited lipase production by S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations that did not adversely affect bacterial cell growth. GML can be used to inhibit ocular bacterial lipase production without proving detrimental to commensal bacteria viability.

  15. Efficacy of fresh leaf extracts of Spondias mombin against some clinical bacterial isolates from typhoid patients

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    Olukemi Aromolaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical properties and antibacterial activity of methanol, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Spondias mombin (S. mombin on some clinical bacterial isolates. Methods: Clean and fresh leaves of S. mombin were collected in Ondo, Southwestern Nigeria. The leaves were blended, extracted with methanol, acetone, ethanol and water. The extracts were evaporated to dryness using rotary evaporator and tested for the presence of saponins, tannins, cardiac glycoside, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars, volatile oils, alkaloids and glycoside. The extract were tested against Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi and Enterobacter aerogens; Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus by observing the zones of inhibition using agar well diffusion assay. Results: The study showed that the leaves contained saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and glycoside. All the solvent extracts showed activity against all the test bacteria. The methanol extract also showed the highest activity against Enterobacter aerogens, zone of diameter (15.00 依1.89 mm, while the ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of diameter (12.50依1.50 mm. The acetone extract showed the highest activity against Salmonella typhi, zone of diameter (17.50依0.29 mm followed by methanol extract showing zone of diameter (15.67依1.01 mm. The acetone extract showed the highest activity against Klebsiella pneumonia (15.17依0.67 mm, while the aqueous extract shows the highest activity against Serratia marcescens (14.67依2.68 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the leaf extracts ranged between 10-90 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study showed that the aqueous and organic solvents extract of fresh leaves of S. mombin has anti-microbial activity against all the tested organisms.

  16. ‘Colibacter massiliensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from human left colon

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    M. Mailhe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present here the main characteristics of the strain Marseille-P2911 (= CSUR P2911=DSMZ 103304, a bacterial species isolated from the left colon liquid sample of a 60-year-old man.

  17. Chlorhexidine Digluconate Effects on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Some Field Isolates of Animal Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Khoshnood, Sheida; Khubani, Shahin; Dokht Faraj, Mahdi; Hakimi Alni, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: To study chlorhexidine digluconate disinfectant effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some bacterial field isolates from animals. Objectives: The current study investigated chlorhexidine digluconate effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some field isolates of veterinary bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates for each) were examined for chlorhexidine digluconate effects on biofilm formation and planktonic growth using microtiter plates. In all of the examined strains in the presence of chlorhexidine digluconate, biofilm development and planktonic growth were affected at the same concentrations of the disinfectant. Results: Chlorhexidine digluconate inhibited the planktonic growth of different bacterial species at sub-MICs. But they were able to induce biofilm development of the E. coli, Salmonella spp., S. aureus and Str. agalactiae strains. Conclusions: Bacterial resistance against chlorhexidine is increasing. Sub-MIC doses of chlorhexidine digluconate can stimulate the formation of biofilm strains. PMID:24872940

  18. Plant growth-promoting activities for bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plant of Teucrium polium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Saad El-Din

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal endophytes are widespread inhabitants inside plant tissues and have been shown to assist plant growth and health. However, little is known about plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) of medicinal plants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify bacterial and fungal endophytes of Teucrium polium and to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of these endophytes. Seven bacterial endophytes were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillu...

  19. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis

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    Gita Eslami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with urinary tract infection in women and treatment of gynecologic problems occur when a high recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is often treated with antibiotics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis, respectively.Materials and Methods: 96 samples from women with bacterial vaginosis discharge referred to health centers dependent Shahid Beheshti University in 91-92 were taken by a gynecologist with a dacron swab and put in sterile tubes containing TSB broth and Thioglycollate broth and were immediately sent to the lab location in cold chain for the next stages of investigation. From Thioglycollate and TSB medium was cultured on blood agar and EMB and Palkam and Differential diagnosis environments, and then incubated for 24 h at 37°C. Strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus were cultured in MRSA environment and were transfered to the lab. After purification of pathogenic bacteria, MIC methods and antibiogram, Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria is checked. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software v.16.Results: The results of this study show the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on some pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus, Listeria monocytogenes and E.Coli. Microscopic examination of stained smears of the large number of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria showed reduced. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge, history of drug use means of preventing pregnancy and douching, respectively, 61%, 55%, 42% and 13% respectively. Significant difference was observed between the use and non-use of IUD in women with bacterial vaginosis infection

  20. Radiation resistance of bacterial populations, isolated from the environment of the radiation sterilization plant type JS-6900, Debrecen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, L.; Igali, S.; Daroczy, E.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation resistance of bacterial populations isolated from the air of an industrial sterilization plant loaded with an activity of 250000 Ci was investigated before loading and a year after loading with 60 Co. The mean D 10 value of the 23 strains isolated before loading was 73 krad with a maximum of 173 krad. The mean D 10 value of the 26 strains isolated a year after loading was 32 krad with a maximum of 156 krad. It was not possible to detect any increase in radiation resistance of bacterial populations isolated from the irradiation room after one year of running radiation sterilization of disposable medical supplies. (author)

  1. [Bacterial endosymbiosis within the cytoplasm of Acanthamoeba lugdunensis isolated from a contact lens storage case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, D I; Kong, H H; Kim, T H; Hwang, M Y; Yu, H S; Yun, H C; Seol, S Y

    1997-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy of an Acanthamoeba isolate (KA/L5) from a contact lens case revealed bacterial endosymbionts within cytoplasm of the amoebae. The Acanthamoeba isolate belonged to the morphological group II. Based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 18S ribosomal RNA coding DNA (rDNA), the isolate was identified as A. lugdunensis. Strain typing by isoenzyme analysis using isoelectric focusing (IEF) and mitochondrial (Mt) DNA RFLP revealed that the isolate was closely related with KA/L1, the most predominant type of isolates from contact lens storage cases, KA/E2, a clinical isolate, KA/W4, previously reported to host endosymbionts, and L3a strains of A. lugdunensis. The endosymbionts were similar to those of KA/W4 in aspects that they were randomly distributed in both trophozoites and cysts, and were rod-shaped bacteria measuring approximately 1.38 x 0.50 microns. But the number of endosymbionts per amoeba was significantly lower than that of KA/W4. They were neither limited by phagosomal membranes nor included in lacunaelike structure.

  2. Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Egyptian Local Bacterial Isolates Using Different Agricultural Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen bacterial isolates were isolated from sea water from the coast of the General Petroleum Company on Suez Gulf. They were screened for bio surfactant production using emulsification activity and haemolytic activity. The most potent isolate B11 were selected according to two parameters: The ability to grow and produce surfactant and its haemolytic activity on blood agar plates. The isolate B11 was characterized and identified as Bacillus licheniformis according to API system. The isolate was subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve its ability for bio surfactant production which resulted in a passive effect on bio surfactant production. Three types of agricultural wastes (Rice straw, Cane Bagasse, Corn straw) were used as fertilizers for bio surfactant biosynthesis by the promising isolate in concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 g/l. At five g/l concentration cane bagasse gave high production of bio surfactant with maximum capacity at (32%) flowed by rice straw at 18% and corn straw at 9.8 %.

  3. Eliciting antibiotics active against the ESKAPE pathogens in a collection of actinomycetes isolated from mountain soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Swierstra, Jasper; Wu, Changsheng; Girard, Geneviève; Choi, Young Hae; van Wamel, Willem; Sandiford, Stephanie K; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2014-08-01

    The rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens poses a major threat for human health. In recent years, genome sequencing has unveiled many poorly expressed antibiotic clusters in actinomycetes. Here, we report a well-defined ecological collection of >800 actinomycetes obtained from sites in the Himalaya and Qinling mountains, and we used these in a concept study to see how efficiently antibiotics can be elicited against MDR pathogens isolated recently from the clinic. Using 40 different growth conditions, 96 actinomycetes were identified - predominantly Streptomyces - that produced antibiotics with efficacy against the MDR clinical isolates referred to as ESKAPE pathogens: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and/or Enterobacter cloacae. Antimicrobial activities that fluctuated strongly with growth conditions were correlated with specific compounds, including borrelidin, resistomycin, carbomethoxy-phenazine, and 6,7,8- and 5,6,8-trimethoxy-3-methylisocoumarin, of which the latter was not described previously. Our work provided insights into the potential of actinomycetes as producers of drugs with efficacy against clinical isolates that have emerged recently and also underlined the importance of targeting a specific pathogen. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. Application of silica magnetite nanocomposites to the isolation of ultrapure plasmid DNA from bacterial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chen-Li; Sung, Ching-Shan; Chen, Chuh-Yean

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method for purification of ultrapure plasmid DNA with high yields from bacterial cultures. Nanosized superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3O 4) were prepared by chemical precipitation method using Fe 2+, Fe 3+ salt, and ammonium hydroxide under a nitrogen atmosphere. Silica-magnetite nanocomposites were prepared by the method of acid hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to coat the silica onto magnetite nanoparticles. DNA was adsorbed to the support under high salt conditions, and recovered directly in water for immediate downstream application, without the need for precipitation. We demonstrated that a useful plasmid, pRSETB-EGFP, encoding for the green fluorescent protein with T7 promoter, could be amplified in Escherichia coli of DE3 strain. Up to approximately 43 μg of high-purity ( A260/ A280 ratio=1.75) plasmid DNA was isolated from 3 ml of an overnight bacterial culture. The eluted plasmid DNA was used directly for restriction enzyme digestion, bacterial cell transformation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with success. The protocol, starting from the preparation of bacterial lysate and ending with purified plasmid takes less than 8 min. The silica-magnetite nanocomposites deliver significant time-savings, overall higher yields, lower RNA contamination, and better PCR amplification compared to commercial available silica-based and other methods.

  5. The Role of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Reducing Bacterial Contamination of Autologous Bone Graft Collected from Implant Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mauceri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the bacterial contamination of bone particles collected directly from the burs used for implant site preparation. Thirty-four patients underwent the surgical procedures for a total of 34 implant sites. One 1 gr. tablet of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid was given to the test group 12 hours and 1 hour before the surgery. The control group did not take antibiotic prophylaxis. Bone particles were collected and centrifuged. The suspensions were subjected to serial dilutions and each dilution was examined twice using a spatulation technique in Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA, in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, and in Mitis Salivarius Agar (MSA. The number of colonies was calculated and the identification of various microorganisms was made. The most represented species, in both groups of patients, belonged to the “oral Streptococci.” For TSA, the test and control groups differed significantly (p = 0.018. Conversely, there was no significant difference for MSA (p = 0.201 and for the number of bacterial species isolated in the samples of the two groups of patients (p = 0.898. The antibiotic prophylaxis reduced, but did not cancel, the risk of infection of the autogenous particulate bone graft. This trial is registered with IRCT2017102537002N1.

  6. The Role of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Reducing Bacterial Contamination of Autologous Bone Graft Collected from Implant Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Rodolfo; Campisi, Giuseppina; Matranga, Domenica; Mauceri, Nicola; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Melilli, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the bacterial contamination of bone particles collected directly from the burs used for implant site preparation. Thirty-four patients underwent the surgical procedures for a total of 34 implant sites. One 1 gr. tablet of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid was given to the test group 12 hours and 1 hour before the surgery. The control group did not take antibiotic prophylaxis. Bone particles were collected and centrifuged. The suspensions were subjected to serial dilutions and each dilution was examined twice using a spatulation technique in Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA), in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, and in Mitis Salivarius Agar (MSA). The number of colonies was calculated and the identification of various microorganisms was made. The most represented species, in both groups of patients, belonged to the "oral Streptococci." For TSA, the test and control groups differed significantly ( p = 0.018). Conversely, there was no significant difference for MSA ( p = 0.201) and for the number of bacterial species isolated in the samples of the two groups of patients ( p = 0.898). The antibiotic prophylaxis reduced, but did not cancel, the risk of infection of the autogenous particulate bone graft. This trial is registered with IRCT2017102537002N1.

  7. Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae the Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf Blight of rice: Isolation, Characterization, and Study of Transposon Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdjad Asih Nawangsih

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae the Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf Blight of rice: Isolation, Characterization, and Study of Transposon Mutagenesis. X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB of rice (Oryza sativa L., a major disease that constrains production of the staple crop in many countries of the world. Identification of X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo was conducted based on the disease symptoms, pathogenicity, morphological, physiological, and genetic characteristics of bacterial cultures isolated from the infected plants. Fifty bacterial isolates predicted as Xoo have been successfully isolated. They are aerobic, rod shaped, and Gram negative bacteria. The isolates were evaluated for their hypersensitivity in tobacco and pathogenicity in rice plant. Fifty isolates induced hypersensitive reaction in tobacco and showed pathogenicity symptom in rice in different length. Based on physiological test, hypersensitivity and pathogenicity reactions, three bacterial isolates strongly predicted as Xoo, i.e. STG21, STG42, and STG46, were non indole formation, non pigment fluorescent, hydrolyzed casein, catalase activity positive, but negative oxidase. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of STG21 and STG42 showed 80% and 82% homology with X. oryzae, respectively, while STG46 showed 84% homology with X. campestris. Mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis of STG21 generated one of the mutants (M5 lossed it’s ability to induce hypersensitive reaction in tobacco plant and deficient in pathogenicity on rice. The lesion length of rice leaf caused by the mutant M5 decreased up to 80%.

  8. NORMAL VAGINAL BACTERIAL FLORA OF GIANT PANDAS (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) AND THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF THE ISOLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hongning; Li, Caiwu; He, Yongguo; Jin, SenYan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Wang, Pengyan; Xu, Yuesong; Xu, Changwen; Fan, Chengyun; Xu, Lulai; Huang, Shan; Qu, Chunmao; Li, Guo

    2016-06-01

    To study the typical vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we took vaginal swabs for the sake of bacterial isolation, from 24 healthy female giant pandas. A total of 203 isolates were identified, representing a total of 17 bacterial species. The most common bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus spp. (54.2%, 13/24), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (41.7%, 10/24) and Escherichia coli (33.3%, 8/24). Some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Peptostreptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis , were also isolated but showed no pathology. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of aerobic bacterial isolates was performed with the disk diffusion method. Of the 152 isolates, resistance was most frequently observed with chloramphenicol (17.8%), followed by tetracycline (14.5%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%), streptomycin (11.8%), and florfenicol (11.8%), whereas 7.2% were multidrug resistant. This is the first report of the normal culturable vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates.

  9. Antimicrobial drug resistance among clinically relevant bacterial isolates in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Stije J; van Leth, Frank; Tarekegn, Hayalnesh; Schultsz, Constance

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) amongst bacterial pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), despite calls for continent-wide surveillance to inform empirical treatment guidelines. We searched PubMed and additional databases for susceptibility data of key pathogens for surveillance, published between 1990 and 2013. Extracted data were standardized to a prevalence of resistance in populations of isolates and reported by clinical syndrome, microorganism, relevant antimicrobial drugs and region. We identified 2005 publications, of which 190 were analysed. Studies predominantly originated from east sSA (61%), were hospital based (60%), were from an urban setting (73%) and reported on isolates from patients with a febrile illness (42%). Quality procedures for susceptibility testing were described in resistance to chloramphenicol in Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from patients with a febrile illness, ranged between 31.0% and 94.2%, whilst MP of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins ranged between 0.0% and 46.5%. MP of resistance to nalidixic acid in Salmonella enterica Typhi ranged between 15.4% and 43.2%. The limited number of studies providing prevalence data on AMR in Gram-positive pathogens or in pathogens isolated from patients with a respiratory tract infection, meningitis, urinary tract infection or hospital-acquired infection suggested high prevalence of resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline and low prevalence to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Our results indicate high prevalence of AMR in clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial drugs commonly used in sSA. Enhanced approaches for AMR surveillance are needed to support empirical therapy in sSA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A novel bacterial isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as living factory for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhawat G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs has received considerable attention with their potential applications in various life sciences related applications. Recently, there has been tremendous excitement in the study of nanoparticles synthesis by using some natural biological system, which has led to the development of various biomimetic approaches for the growth of advanced nanomaterials. In the present study, we have demonstrated the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a novel bacterial strain isolated from a site near the famous gold mines in India. A promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by this strain and their stabilization via charge capping was investigated. Results A bacterial isolate capable of gold nanoparticle synthesis was isolated and identified as a novel strain of Stenotrophomonas malophilia (AuRed02 based on its morphology and an analysis of its 16S rDNA gene sequence. After 8 hrs of incubation, monodisperse preparation of gold nanoparticles was obtained. Gold nanoparticles were characterized and found to be of ~40 nm size. Electrophoresis, Zeta potential and FTIR measurements confirmed that the particles are capped with negatively charged phosphate groups from NADP rendering them stable in aqueous medium. Conclusion The process of synthesis of well-dispersed nanoparticles using a novel microorganism isolated from the gold enriched soil sample has been reported in this study, leading to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of GNPs. This is the first study in which an extensive characterization of the indigenous bacterium isolated from the actual gold enriched soil was conducted. Promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by the strain and their stabilization via charge capping is suggested, which involves an NADPH-dependent reductase enzyme that reduces Au3+ to Au0 through electron shuttle enzymatic metal reduction process.

  11. A novel bacterial isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as living factory for synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Yogesh; Wangoo, Nishima; Goyal, Nisha; Shekhawat, G; Suri, C Raman

    2009-07-20

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has received considerable attention with their potential applications in various life sciences related applications. Recently, there has been tremendous excitement in the study of nanoparticles synthesis by using some natural biological system, which has led to the development of various biomimetic approaches for the growth of advanced nanomaterials. In the present study, we have demonstrated the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a novel bacterial strain isolated from a site near the famous gold mines in India. A promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by this strain and their stabilization via charge capping was investigated. A bacterial isolate capable of gold nanoparticle synthesis was isolated and identified as a novel strain of Stenotrophomonas malophilia (AuRed02) based on its morphology and an analysis of its 16S rDNA gene sequence. After 8 hrs of incubation, monodisperse preparation of gold nanoparticles was obtained. Gold nanoparticles were characterized and found to be of ~40 nm size. Electrophoresis, Zeta potential and FTIR measurements confirmed that the particles are capped with negatively charged phosphate groups from NADP rendering them stable in aqueous medium. The process of synthesis of well-dispersed nanoparticles using a novel microorganism isolated from the gold enriched soil sample has been reported in this study, leading to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of GNPs. This is the first study in which an extensive characterization of the indigenous bacterium isolated from the actual gold enriched soil was conducted. Promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by the strain and their stabilization via charge capping is suggested, which involves an NADPH-dependent reductase enzyme that reduces Au3+ to Au0 through electron shuttle enzymatic metal reduction process.

  12. Bacterial succession during curing process of a skate (Dipturus batis) and isolation of novel strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynisson, E; Thornór Marteinsson, V; Jónsdóttir, R; Magnússon, S H; Hreggvidsson, G O

    2012-08-01

    To study the succession of cultivated and uncultivated microbes during the traditional curing process of skate. The microbial diversity was evaluated by sequencing 16Sr RNA clone libraries and cultivation in variety of media from skate samples taken periodically during a 9-day curing process. A pH shift was observed (pH 6·64-9·27) with increasing trimethylamine (2·6 up to 75·6 mg N per 100 g) and total volatile nitrogen (TVN) (from 58·5 to 705·8 mg N per 100 g) but with relatively slow bacterial growth. Uncured skate was dominated by Oceanisphaera and Pseudoalteromonas genera but was substituted after curing by Photobacterium and Aliivibrio in the flesh and Pseudomonas on the skin. Almost 50% of the clone library is derived from putative undiscovered species. Cultivation and enrichment strategies resulted in isolation of putatively new species belonging to the genera Idiomarina, Rheinheimera, Oceanisphaera, Providencia and Pseudomonas. The most abundant genera able to hydrolyse urea to ammonia were Oceanisphaera, Psychrobacter, Pseudoalteromonas and isolates within the Pseudomonas genus. The curing process of skate is controlled and achieved by a dynamic bacterial community where the key players belong to Oceanisphaera, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacterium, Aliivibrio and Pseudomonas. For the first time, the bacterial population developments in the curing process of skate are presented and demonstrate a reservoir of many yet undiscovered bacterial species. No Claim to Norwegian Government works Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Active depinning of bacterial droplets: the collective surfing of Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Marc; Tailleur, Julien; Daerr, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    How systems are endowed with migration capacity is a fascinating question with implications ranging from the design of novel active systems to the control of microbial populations. Bacteria, which can be found in a variety of environments, have developed among the richest set of locomotion mechanisms both at the microscopic and collective levels. Here, we uncover experimentally a new mode of collective bacterial motility in humid environment through the depinning of bacterial droplets. While capillary forces are notoriously enormous at the bacterial scale, even capable of pinning water droplets of millimetric size on inclined surfaces, we show that bacteria are able to harness a variety of mechanisms to unpin contact lines, hence inducing a collective sliding of the colony. Contrary to flagella-dependent migration modes like swarming we show that this much faster colony surfing still occurs in mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis lacking flagella. The diversity of mechanisms involved in the active unpinning seen in our experiments suggests that collective surfing should be a generic mode of migration of microorganisms in humid environments. Bacttern Grant.

  14. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  15. In vitro activity of tigecycline, a new glycylcycline, tested against 1,326 clinical bacterial strains isolated from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Gales

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of tigecycline (former GAR-936, a new semisynthetic tetracycline, was evaluated in comparison with tetracycline and other antimicrobial agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1,326 contemporary clinical isolates collected from the Latin American region were collected in 2000-2002 period and tested with microdilution broth according to the CLSI guidelines. The bacterial pathogens evaluated included Staphylococcus aureus (505, Streptococcus pneumoniae (269, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 227, Haemophilus influenzae (129, Enterococcus spp. (80, Moraxella catarrhalis (54, beta-haemolytic streptococci (28, viridans group streptococci (26, and Neisseria meningitidis (8 RESULTS:Tigecycline demonstrated excellent activity against all Gram-positive cocci, with 90% of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains being inhibited at 0.12 µg/mL, while the same isolates had an MIC90 of > 16 µg/mL for tetracycline. All Enterococcus spp. were inhibited at 0.25 µg/mL of tigecycline. Tigecycline (MIC50, 0.25 µg/mL was eight-fold more potent than minocycline (MIC50, 2 µg/mL against oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA; all ORSA were inhibited at < 2 µg/mL of tigecycline. Tigecycline demonstrated excellent activity (MIC50, 0.5 µg/mL against CoNS with reduced susceptibility to teicoplanin (MIC, 16 µg/mL. Tigecycline also showed high potency against respiratory pathogens such as M. catarrhalis (MIC50, 0.12 µg/mL and H. influenzae (MIC50, 0.5 µg/mL. No tigecycline resistant isolates were detected when the proposed susceptible breakpoints (< 4 µg/mL was applied. CONCLUSIONS: This results indicate that tigecycline has potent in vitro activity against clinically important pathogenic bacteria, including Gram-positive isolates resistant to both tetracycline and minocycline.

  16. Susceptibility of bacterial isolates from community-acquired infections in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia to macrolide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Yoel; Turner, Paul; Ashley, Elizabeth A; White, Nicholas J

    2011-10-01

    To review the literature on the susceptibility of common community pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia to the macrolide antibiotics. Inclusion criteria required that isolates were collected since 2004 to ensure results were of contemporary relevance. The data were aggregated by region, age group and sterility of site of culture sample. A total of 51 studies were identified, which reported the macrolide antimicrobial susceptibilities of common bacterial pathogens isolated since 2004. In general, there was less macrolide resistance in African than in Asian isolates. Most African studies reported high levels of macrolide susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae, whereas most Chinese studies reported high levels of resistance. There was very little information available for Gram-negative organisms. Susceptibility of the pneumococcus to macrolides in SSA remains high in many areas, and good activity of azithromycin has been shown against Salmonellae spp. in Asia. In urban areas where high antibiotic consumption is prevalent, there was evidence of increased resistance to macrolides. However, there is no information on susceptibility from large areas in both continents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Characterization of a collection of plasmid-containing bacteria isolated from an on-farm biopurification system used for pesticide removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carla Martini, Maria; Javier Albicoro, Francisco; Nour, Eman; Schlueter, Andreas; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Springael, Dirk; Smalla, Kornelia; Pistorio, Mariano; Lagares, Antonio; Florencia Del Papa, Maria

    Biopurification systems (BPS) are complex soil-related and artificially-generated environments usually designed for the removal of toxic compounds from contaminated wastewaters. The present study has been conducted to isolate and characterize a collection of cultivable plasmid-carrying bacterial

  18. Acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols among Lactobacillus isolates collected in connection with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almståhl, Annica; Rudbäck, Helena; Basic, Amina; Carlén, Anette; Alstad, Torgny

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols of oral Lactobacillus collected in connection with radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck region. Lactobacillus were collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque in 24 patients before, during, and after RT. The acid-producing capacity of Lactobacillus isolates (n=211) was analyzed using a colorimetric fermentation test in microtiter plates. Solutions containing 2% sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose) or sugar-alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) were used. After 24h of incubation, bacterial acid-producing capacity was determined as strong (pH6). Data regarding intake frequency of sugar-rich products and products with sugar-alcohols was collected. The highest acid-producing capacity using the sugars was seen for isolates collected during RT. Sorbitol was fermented to a higher extent during and post RT, especially among isolates from plaque. Lactobacillus fermenting xylitol showed the highest acid-producing capacity during RT (pacid-producing capacity, or between the intake frequency of sugar-rich products or sugar-alcohol containing products and Lactobacillus acid-producing capacity, were found. The results suggest that Lactobacillus isolates, collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque, have a higher acid-producing capacity using sugars and sugar-alcohols during RT than one year post RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of in Situ Isolated Bacterial Strains on Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Dragomir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis relationships among legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria play a crucial role in agriculture since they provide the opportunity of converting atmospheric molecular nitrogen into an ammonia form of nitrogen that the plants can use in protein formation. To enhance this process we have selected nitrogen fixing bacterial strains commercialised under different forms depending on the cultivation technologies in legume species. In our research, we have pointed out the efficacy of in situ isolated nitrogen fixing bacteria in alfalfa in two ways: rhizobia taken directly from the nodosities on the alfalfa roots and rhizobia taken from the alfalfa root system.

  20. Biofilm inhibition activity of compounds isolated from two Eunicea species collected at the Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Martínez Díaz

    Full Text Available Abstract Biofilm has a primary role in the pathogenesis of diseases and in the attachment of multicellular organisms to a fouled surface. Because of that, the control of bacterial biofilms has been identified as an important target. In the present study, five lipid compounds isolated from soft coral Eunicea sp. and three terpenoids together with a mixture of sterols from Eunicea fusca collected at the Colombian Caribbean Sea showed different effectiveness against biofilm formation by three marine bacteria associated with immersed fouled surfaces, Ochrobactrum pseudogringnonense,Alteromona macleodii and Vibrio harveyi, and against two known biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The pure compounds were characterized by NMR, HRESI-MS, HRGC-MS and optical rotation. The most effective compounds were batyl alcohol (1 and fuscoside E peracetate (6, acting against four strains without affecting their microbial growth. Compound 1 showed biofilm inhibition greater than 30% against A. macleodii, and up to 60% against O. pseudogringnonense,V. harveyi and S. aureus. Compound 6 inhibited O. pseudogringnonense and V. harveyi between 25 and 50%, and P. aeruginosa or S. aureus up to 60% at 0.5 mg/ml. The results suggest that these compounds exhibit specific biofilm inhibition with lower antimicrobial effect against the bacterial species assayed.

  1. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were...

  2. Bacterial Stigmergy: An Organising Principle of Multicellular Collective Behaviours of Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S. Gloag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-organisation of collective behaviours often manifests as dramatic patterns of emergent large-scale order. This is true for relatively “simple” entities such as microbial communities and robot “swarms,” through to more complex self-organised systems such as those displayed by social insects, migrating herds, and many human activities. The principle of stigmergy describes those self-organised phenomena that emerge as a consequence of indirect communication between individuals of the group through the generation of persistent cues in the environment. Interestingly, despite numerous examples of multicellular behaviours of bacteria, the principle of stigmergy has yet to become an accepted theoretical framework that describes how bacterial collectives self-organise. Here we review some examples of multicellular bacterial behaviours in the context of stigmergy with the aim of bringing this powerful and elegant self-organisation principle to the attention of the microbial research community.

  3. Control of biofouling by xanthine oxidase on seawater reverse osmosis membranes from a desalination plant: enzyme production and screening of bacterial isolates from the full-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, V; Skillman, L; Li, D; Xie, Z; Ho, G

    2017-07-01

    Control of biofouling on seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes is a major challenge as treatments can be expensive, damage the membrane material and often biocides do not remove the polymers in which bacteria are embedded. Biological control has been largely ignored for biofouling control. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of xanthine oxidase enzyme against complex fouling communities and then identify naturally occurring bacterial strains that produce the free radical generating enzyme. Initially, 64 bacterial strains were isolated from different locations of the Perth Seawater Desalination Plant. In our preceding study, 25/64 isolates were selected from the culture collection as models for biofouling studies, based on their prevalence in comparison to the genomic bacterial community. In this study, screening of these model strains was performed using a nitroblue tetrazolium assay in the presence of hypoxanthine as substrate. Enzyme activity was measured by absorbance. Nine of 25 strains tested positive for xanthine oxidase production, of which Exiguobacterium from sand filters and Microbacterium from RO membranes exhibited significant levels of enzyme production. Other genera that produced xanthine oxidase were Marinomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas and Staphylococcus. Strain variations were observed between members of the genera Microbacterium and Bacillus. Xanthine oxidase, an oxidoreductase enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species, is endogenously produced by many bacterial species. In this study, production of the enzyme by bacterial isolates from a full-scale desalination plant was investigated for potential use as biological control of membrane fouling in seawater desalination. We have previously demonstrated that free radicals generated by a commercially available xanthine oxidase in the presence of a hypoxanthine substrate, effectively dispersed biofilm polysaccharides on industrially fouled membranes

  4. Isolation, screening and molecular identification of novel bacterial strain removing methylene blue from water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Mona

    2017-11-01

    The potentially deleterious effects of methylene blue (MB) on human health drove the interest in its removal promptly. Bioremediation is an effective and eco friendly for removing MB. Soil bacteria were isolated and examined for their potential to remove MB. The most potent bacterial candidate was characterized and identified using 16S rRNA sequence technique. The evolutionary history of the isolate was conducted by maximum likelihood method. Some physiochemical parameters were optimized for maximum decolorization. Decolorization mechanism and microbial toxicity study of MB (100 mg/l) and by-products were investigated. Participation of heat killed bacteria in color adsorption have been investigated too. The bacterial isolate was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain Kilany_MB 16S ribosomal RNA gene with 99% sequence similarity. The sequence was submitted to NCBI (Accession number = KU533726). Phylogeny depicted the phylogenetic relationships between 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence (1442 bp), of the isolated strain and other strains related to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in the GenBank database. The optimal conditions were investigated to be pH 5 at 30 °C, after 24 h using 5 mg/l MB showing optimum decolorization percentage (61.3%). Microbial toxicity study demonstrated relative reduction in the toxicity of MB decolorized products on test bacteria. Mechanism of color removal was proved by both biosorption and biodegradation, where heat-killed and live cells showed 43 and 52% of decolorization, respectively, as a maximum value after 24-h incubation. It was demonstrated that the mechanism of color removal is by adsorption. Therefore, good performance of S maltophilia in MB color removal reinforces the exploitation of these bacteria in environmental clean-up and restoration of the ecosystem.

  5. Device for collecting and analyzing matrix-isolated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1979-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device is disclosed for matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for presenting these distinct samples for spectrometric examination. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carrousel having a number of external, reflecting surfaces around its axis of rotation for holding samples. A gas inlet is provided for depositing sample and matrix material on the individual reflecting surfaces maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. Two optical windows or lenses are installed in the vacuum chamber walls for transmitting a beam of electromagnetic radiation, for instance infrared light, through a selected sample. Positioned within the chamber are two concave mirrors, the first aligned to receive the light beam from one of the lenses and focus it to the sample on one of the reflecting surfaces of the carrousel. The second mirror is aligned to receive reflected light from that carrousel surface and to focus it outwardly through the second lens. The light beam transmitted from the sample is received by a spectrometer for determining absorption spectra.

  6. Chitosanase purified from bacterial isolate Bacillus licheniformis of ruined vegetables displays broad spectrum biofilm inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Sahira Nsayef; Al-Kadmy, Israa M S; Hussein, Nadheema Hammood; Mohammed Ali, Alaa Naseer; Taha, Buthainah Mohammed; Aziz, Sarah Naji; Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar

    2016-11-01

    A number of bacterial species produces chitosanases which has variety of applications because of its high biodegradability, non-toxicity and antimicrobial assets. In the present study chitosanase is purified from new bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis from spoiled vegetable. This novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from spoilt cucumber and pepper samples has the ability to produce the chitosanase enzyme when grown on chitosan substrate. Study also examined its antibiofilm properties against diverse bacterial species with biofilm forming ability. The purified chitosanase inhibited the biofilm formation ability for all Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilm-forming bacteria [biofilm producers] tested in this study in congo red agar and microtiter plate's methods. Highly antibiofilm activity of chitosanase was recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduction of biofilm formation upto 22 and 29%, respectively compared with [100] % of control. Biofilm formation has multiple role including ability to enhance resistance and self-protection from external stress. This chitosanase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria and has promising application as alternative antibiofilm agents to combat the growing number of multidrug resistant pathogen-associated infections, especially in situation where biofilms are involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dark fermentative biohydrogen production by mesophilic bacterial consortia isolated from riverbed sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sneha; Sudhakaran, Anu K.; Sarma, Priyangshu Manab; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Mandal, Ajoy Kumar; Lal, Banwari [Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Habitat Place, Darbari Seth Block, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Gandham, Ganesh [Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Mumbai Refinery, B. D. Patil Marg, Mahul, Mumbai 400074 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Dark fermentative bacterial strains were isolated from riverbed sediments and investigated for hydrogen production. A series of batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of pH, substrate concentration and temperature on hydrogen production from a selected bacterial consortium, TERI BH05. Batch experiments for fermentative conversion of sucrose, starch, glucose, fructose, and xylose indicated that TERI BH05 effectively utilized all the five sugars to produce fermentative hydrogen. Glucose was the most preferred carbon source indicating highest hydrogen yields of 22.3 mmol/L. Acetic and butyric acid were the major soluble metabolites detected. Investigation on optimization of pH, temperature, and substrate concentration revealed that TERI BH05 produced maximum hydrogen at 37 C, pH 6 with 8 g/L of glucose supplementation and maximum yield of hydrogen production observed was 2.0-2.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. Characterization of TERI BH05 revealed the presence of two different bacterial strains showing maximum homology to Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium bifermentans. (author)

  8. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Ting, Yen-Peng [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan [Sourashtra Coll., Madurai (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Biocorrosion Group; Rahman, Pattanathu K.S.M. [Teesside Univ., Tees Valley (United Kingdom). Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Group

    2010-01-15

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. (orig.)

  9. In vitro susceptibility of gram-negative bacterial isolates to chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Y; Erge, W; Bellete, B

    1999-05-01

    To investigate the susceptibility of clinical isolates of gram-negative bacteria to chlorhexidine gluconate. Prospective laboratory study. Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Clinical specimens from 443 hospital patients. Significant number of gram negative bacteria were not inhibited by chlorhexidine gluconate (0.02-0.05%) used for antisepsis. Four hundred and forty three strains of gram-negative bacteria were isolated from Tikur Anbessa Hospital patients. Escherichia coli (31.6%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (23%) were the most frequently isolated bacteria followed by Proteus species (13.3%), Pseudomonas species (9.2%), and Citrobacter species (6.1%). Each organism was tested to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.0001% to 1%w/v. All Salmonella species and E. coli were inhibited by CHG, MIC or = 0.1%). Our results showed that a significant number of the gram-negative bacterial isolates were not inhibited by CHG at the concentration used for disinfection of wounds or instruments (MIC 0.02-0.05% w/v). It is therefore important to select appropriate concentration of this disinfectant and rationally use it for disinfection and hospital hygiene. Continuing follow up and surveillance is also needed to detect resistant bacteria to chlorhexidine or other disinfectants in time.

  10. Cadmium Bio sorption by Some Bacterial Isolates and Their Mutants Induced by gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Z.S.; Elsonbaty, S.M.; Abdalla, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Cadmium bio sorption by bacterial cells is recognized as a potential alternative to existing recovery technologies. Bacterial strains under investigation were isolated from air surrounding gamma industrial facility Co 60 source of the NCRRT, Cairo. The effect of different concentrations of cadmium on the growth was determined for the spore forming bacteria B.coagulans, B.megaterium, B.pumilus, B.pantothenticus, and also for Staphylo coccus aureus, the reference standard strain used in these study for comparison was B.subtilis MERK 10646. The results indicated that, B.pantothenticus was the most tolerant isolate, and it can resist up to 400 ppm. Cadmium capacity for B.subtilis parent strain was increased through the influence of different doses of gamma radiation, selected mutant of B.subtilis show enhanced level of cadmium accumulation. The effect of environmental parameters as ph, temperature and also the effect of biomass factor on cadmium uptake by B.pantothenticus and B.subtilis (m) was traced

  11. Occurrence of plasmid linked multiple drug resistance in bacterial isolates of tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraian, R; Ram, S; Kaistha, S D; Srivastava, J

    2012-12-22

    Effluents of three different tanneries (T-1, T-2, & T-3) were investigated to isolate and scrutinize antibiotic, chromate and salinity resistant bacteria. Total 18 isolates of 9 different bacterial genera were screened out and identified; some strains established in all effluents. Amongst the three effluents tested; T-1 exhibited largest population of all isolates compared to T-2 and T-3 effluents. The T-1 effluent contained largest 4.4 x10(6) cfu/ml population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by 3.9 x10(6) cfu/ml in T-2 effluent. The lowest 0.7 x10(6) cfu/ml count of Aeromonas spp. was recorded in T-3 effluent. Furthermore, antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with 7 antibiotics which include ampicillin, sulfafurazole, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline and amikacin. Three strains of P. aeruginosa and one strain of Escherichia coli deserved as multiple drug resistant (MDR). The P. aeruginosaT-3 and E. coliT-1 showed strongest MDR feature for 5 antibiotics. The response of chromate (50, 100, 200, 250 and 300 μg/ml) and NaCl concentrations (20, 40, 60 and 80 g/l) was incredible for 4 MDR isolates. Nearly each strain showed tolerance up to 300 μg/ml of chromate and 80 g/l of NaCl. The P. aeruginosaT-1, P. aeruginosaT-2, P. aeruginosaT-3 and E. coliT-1 were most tolerant isolates. Plasmid profiling of resistant strains was conducted with agarose gel electrophoresis. As consequence, plasmids from two strains of P. aeruginosa and E. coliT-1 represented different bands. At least for confirmation of plasmids nature; these were transformed and transformants were screened on medium having antibiotics. The study of plasmid transformation has confirmed the plasmid mediated resistance in isolates.

  12. Occurrence of bacterial endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from corneal and environmental specimens and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, T R; Gautom, R K; Seyedirashti, S; Bergeron, D L; Lindquist, T D

    1993-01-01

    Free-living and parasitic protozoa are known to harbor a variety of endosymbiotic bacteria, although the roles such endosymbionts play in host survival, infectivity, and invasiveness are unclear. We have identified the presence of intracellular bacteria in 14 of 57 (24%) axenically grown Acanthamoeba isolates examined. These organisms are gram negative and non-acid fast, and they cannot be cultured by routine methodologies, although electron microscopy reveals evidence for multiplication within the amoebic cytoplasm. Examination for Legionella spp. with culture and nucleic acid probes has proven unsuccessful. We conclude that these bacteria are endosymbionts which have an obligate need to multiply within their amoebic hosts. Rod-shaped bacteria were identified in 5 of 23 clinical Acanthamoeba isolates (3 of 19 corneal isolates and 2 of 4 contact lens isolates), 4 of 25 environmental Acanthamoeba isolates, and 2 of 9 American Type Culture Collection Acanthamoeba isolates (ATCC 30868 and ATCC 30871) previously unrecognized as having endosymbionts. Coccus-shaped bacteria were present in one clinical (corneal) isolate and two environmental isolates. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.8) between the numbers of endosymbiont strains originating from clinical (26% positive) and environmental (24% positive) amoebic isolates, suggesting that the presence alone of these bacteria does not enhance amoebic infectivity. Rods and cocci were found in both clinical and environmental isolates from different geographical areas (Seattle, Wash., and Portland, Oreg.), demonstrating their widespread occurrence in nature. Our findings suggest that endosymbiosis occurs commonly among members of the family Acanthamoebidae and that the endosymbionts comprise a diverse taxonomic assemblage. The role such endosymbionts may play in pathogenesis remains unknown, although a variety of exogenous bacteria have been implicated in the development of amoebic keratitis, warranting further

  13. Sponge-specific unknown bacterial groups detected in marine sponges collected from Korea through barcoded pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong-Bin; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Jin-Sook

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial diversity of 10 marine sponges belonging to the species Cliona celata, an unidentified Cliona species, Haliclona cinerea, Halichondria okadai, Hymeniacidon sinapium, Lissodendoryx isodictyalis, Penares incrustans, Spirastrella abata, and Spirastrella panis collected from Jeju Island and Chuja Island was investigated using amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The microbial diversity of these sponges has as of yet rarely or never been investigated. All sponges, except Cliona celata, Lissodendoryx isodictyalis, and Penares incrustans, showed simple bacterial diversity, in which one or two bacterial OTUs occupied more than 50% of the pyrosequencing reads and their OTU rank abundance curves saturated quickly. Most of the predominant OTUs belonged to Alpha-, Beta-, or Gammaproteobacteria. Some of the OTUs from the sponges with low diversity were distantly (88%~89%) or moderately (93%~97%) related to known sequences in the GenBank nucleotide database. Phylogenetic analysis showed that many of the representative sequences of the OTUs were related to the sequences originating from sponges and corals, and formed sponge-specific or -related clades. The marine sponges investigated herein harbored unexplored bacterial diversity, and further studies should be done to understand the microbes present in sponges.

  14. Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages display limited genetic diversity and broad killing activity against bacterial skin isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura J; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Hayes, Clarmyra; Bowman, Charles; Inkeles, Megan; Loncaric, Anya; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Cokus, Shawn; Pellegrini, Matteo; Kim, Jenny; Miller, Jeff F; Hatfull, Graham F; Modlin, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of the human microbiome has revealed diverse and complex microbial communities at distinct anatomic sites. The microbiome of the human sebaceous follicle provides a tractable model in which to study its dominant bacterial inhabitant, Propionibacterium acnes, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the human disease acne. To explore the diversity of the bacteriophages that infect P. acnes, 11 P. acnes phages were isolated from the sebaceous follicles of donors with healthy skin or acne and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis of the P. acnes phage population, which spans a 30-year temporal period and a broad geographic range, reveals striking similarity in terms of genome length, percent GC content, nucleotide identity (>85%), and gene content. This was unexpected, given the far-ranging diversity observed in virtually all other phage populations. Although the P. acnes phages display a broad host range against clinical isolates of P. acnes, two bacterial isolates were resistant to many of these phages. Moreover, the patterns of phage resistance correlate closely with the presence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat elements in the bacteria that target a specific subset of phages, conferring a system of prokaryotic innate immunity. The limited diversity of the P. acnes bacteriophages, which may relate to the unique evolutionary constraints imposed by the lipid-rich anaerobic environment in which their bacterial hosts reside, points to the potential utility of phage-based antimicrobial therapy for acne. Propionibacterium acnes is a dominant member of the skin microflora and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne; however, little is known about the bacteriophages that coexist with and infect this bacterium. Here we present the novel genome sequences of 11 P. acnes phages, thereby substantially increasing the amount of available genomic information about this phage population

  15. Microbiological and molecular identification of bacterial species isolated from nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlWakeel, Suaad S

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis , alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis , coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.

  16. Trends in antibiotic resistance in bacterial keratitis isolates from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Prajna; Manoharan, Geetha; Karpagam, Rajaram; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Das, Manoranjan; Porco, Travis C; Lietman, Thomas M; Cevallos, Vicky; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-02-01

    To report trends in antibiotic resistance in cases of bacterial keratitis from a large eye hospital in South India. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the microbiology laboratory records of patients with infectious keratitis diagnosed at an eye hospital in South India from 2002 to 2013 were reviewed to determine the proportion with antibiotic non-susceptibility. 3685 bacterial isolates had susceptibility testing performed over the 12-year period. The two most common organisms with resistance were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=1204) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=894). Antibiotic non-susceptibility was generally uncommon for these two organisms and no significant trends were detected over the course of the study. In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus (N=211) isolates demonstrated a significant increase in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility over the 12-year study period. This coincided with a significant increase in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) during the study period, though the increase in fluoroquinolone resistance was likewise seen in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). For example, ofloxacin resistance in MSSA increased from 11.1% in 2002 to 66.7% in 2013 (p=0.002). No trends were apparent for the aminoglycosides, cefazolin or vancomycin, for which in vitro non-susceptibility generally appeared to be low. Resistance to antibiotics was generally stable for infectious keratitis isolates from a large eye hospital in South India, except for S. aureus, which experienced a significant increase in fluoroquinolone resistance from 2002 to 2013. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics currently have poor in vitro activity against both MRSA and MSSA in South India and are therefore not the ideal therapy for Staphylococcal corneal ulcers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Potency of fiber rumen bacterial isolates from local buffalo inoculated into Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Prihantoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-digesting bacteria are the main rumen bacteria that play an important role in digesting feed. These bacteria are adapted to low quality forage from agricultural byproduct. The aim of these study was to determine the potency of fiber-digesting bacteria consortium obtained from buffalo rumen inoculated to Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning on feed consumption, utilization, mineral uptake and physiological status. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria obtained from collection of Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. The experimental unit consisted of six Frisian Holstein calves at two week old with the average body weight of 38.00 ± 6.23 kg. Calves were inoculated by 20 ml of fiber-digesting rumen bacterial isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/ml] every morning for four weeks. Experimental design used was based on a completly randomized design with three calves received the respective inoculation (treatment group and three calves without any inoculation (control group. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test method with α = 0.05 and 0.01. The results showed that fiber-digesting bacteria (FDB from rumen buffalo have adapted in the calves rumen since preweaning periode. Inoculation FDB increased the number of rumen bacteria, digestibility of protein and P uptake calves at eight weeks old. Increased feed intake, uptake of Mg and cobalt calves at 14 weeks old. Without causing any negative effects on ADG, physiological status and rumen fermentability.

  18. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bacterial Isolates from Urine Specimen of Patients with Complaints of Urinary Tract Infections in Awka, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perpetua A. Ekwealor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs account for one of the major reasons for most hospital visits and the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens will help to guide physicians on the best choice of antibiotics to recommend to affected patients. This study is designed to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the pathogens associated with UTI in Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. Clean catch urine samples of inpatient and outpatient cases of UTI were collected and bacteriologically analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiogram was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The most prevalent isolates were S. aureus (28%, E. coli (24.6%, and S. saprophyticus (20%. The antibacterial activities of the tested agents were in the order of Augmentin < Ceftazidime < Cefuroxime < Cefixime < Gentamicin < Ofloxacin < Ciprofloxacin < Nitrofurantoin. It was found that all the organisms were susceptible in varying degrees to Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species except Streptococcus spp. have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI greater than 0.2. For empiric treatment of UTIs in Awka locality, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin are the first line of choice.

  19. Amylase production potentials of bacterial isolates obtained from the gut of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryati, P. C.; Pangastuti, A.; Sari, S. L. A.

    2017-04-01

    Amylase is one of the main enzymes used in industry, such as food, detergent, textile, and pharmaceutical industry. Amylase can be produced by plants, animals, and microorganisms. However, bacterial and fungal amylases have dominated application in industries. This research was aimed to determine amylolytic activity of bacteria isolated from the gut of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. Based on clear zone formation, 9 from 11 isolates showed amylolytic activity. Isolates with the widest clear zone, i.e Bacillus subtilis GOR1, Bacillus cereus GOR3, and Bacillus pumilus GOR2, were screened for amylolytic activity based on reduction sugar production. The result showed that Bacillus subtilis GOR1 was the most potential as amylase producer, showed by the widest clear zone 5.224 cm2 and highest reduction sugar production 0.0235 mg/ml. Highest amylase specific activity (0.1447 U/mg protein) was obtained at 60°C and pH 7. Amylase activity was stable for 3 hours at 60°C with residual activity respectively was 59.7%.

  20. Disinfectant and antibiotic activities: a comparative analysis in Brazilian hospital bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Márcia Aparecida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. It has been shown that appropriate environmental hygienic and disinfection practices can be very helpful to hospital infection control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of some disinfectants against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant hospital bacterial isolates. The susceptibility of 27 clinical isolates to disinfectants and antibiotics was determined by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist?s (AOAC Use-Dilution method and by the Kirby-Bauer method, respectively. All strains tested were susceptible to sodium hypochlorite, glutaraldehyde and to the association quaternary ammonium - formaldehyde - ethyl alcohol disinfectants. However, the susceptibility of strains to phenol and to one quaternary ammonium compound was variable. Among twenty-one antibiotic-multiresistant strains (methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli eleven (52% and eight (38% strains were resistant to the quaternary ammonium and phenol compounds, respectively. Among six isolates that demonstrated susceptibility to antibiotics (staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, P. mirabilis, E. cloacae and E. coli two strains (33% showed resistance to these disinfectants. The results demonstrated the lack of correlation between antibiotic-susceptibility and susceptibility to disinfectants in hospital strains.

  1. Isolation and characterization of gut bacterial proteases involved in inducing pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visweshwar Regode

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin proteins are deployed in transgenic plants for pest management. The present studies were aimed at characterization of gut bacterial proteases involved in activation of inactive Cry1Ac protoxin (pro-Cry1Ac to active toxin in Helicoverpa armigera. Bacterial strains were isolated from H. armigera midgut and screened for their proteolytic activation towards pro-Cry1Ac. Among twelve gut bacterial isolates seven isolates showed proteolytic activity, and proteases from three isolates (IVS1, IVS2 and IVS3 were found to be involved in the proteolytic conversion of pro-Cry1Ac into active toxin. The proteases from IVS1, IVS2 and IVS3 isolates were purified to 11.90-, 15.50- and 17.20-fold, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for gut bacterial protease activity was 8.0 and 40 oC. Maximum inhibition of total proteolytic activity was exerted by PMSF followed by EDTA. Fluorescence zymography revealed that proteases from IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 were chymotrypsin-like and showing protease band at ~15, 65 and 15 kDa, respectively. Active Cry1Ac formed from processing pro-Cry1Ac by gut bacterial proteases exhibited toxicity towards H. armigera. The gut bacterial isolates IVS1, IVS2 and IVS3 showed homology with Bacillus thuringiensis (CP003763.1, Vibrio fischeri (CP000020.2 and Escherichia coli (CP011342.1, respectively. Proteases produced by midgut bacteria are involved in proteolytic processing of Bt protoxin and play a major role in inducing pathogenicity of Bt toxins in H. armigera.

  2. Microbiological and biochemical response of certain proteolytic bacterial isolates to varying levels of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hifnawi, H.M.N.E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Amniotic membrane allo - and xeno grafts prepared from human foetal placenta, and their potential replacement of skin autotransplant, would significantly contribute to the success of clinical treatment of skin burns. Allo-and xenografts of human amniotic membrane should be ensured for their sterility, bio-mechanics and tissue antigenicity. The present study has been focused on sterilization and sterility assurance of the membrane grafts. Physico-chemical properties and antigenicity of the grafts await investigation. In the present study the isolation and identification of the bacteria contaminating the amniotic membrane allo-and xenografts prepared from human foetal placenta and the effect of gamma irradiation on it has been investigated. The proteolytic activity of these bacteria and the role of gamma irradiation in the control of bacterial activity were similarly investigated

  3. Metabolic fingerprinting of bacterial strains isolated from northern areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, A.; Latif, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere plays a key role in the maintenance of sustainable agricultural system. In this study, samples were obtained from northern areas of Pakistan. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated, purified, characterized biochemically and subjected to the metabolic fingerprinting by performing nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, protease, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal resistance test, lead acetate assay for the H2S production. Strains showing distinct characteristics were further characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and characterized as Bacillus pumilus (KT273321), Acinetobacter baumanii (KT273323), Acinetobacter junii (KT273324), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KT273325), Bacillus circulans (KT273326) and Bacillus cereus (KT273327). As most of the strains show positive results for resistance against heavy metals, phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, IAA production, and so these strains might be utilized for the removal of heavy metals from the ecosystem as well as biofertilizer in agriculture lands of northern areas. (author)

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENCIAL OF SCHINUS TEREBENTHIFOLIUS ON BACTERIAL COLONIES COLLECTED BY PRESSURE ULCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliana de Omena Bomfim; Giani Maria Cavalcante; Marcileide da Silva Santos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is investigate the antimicrobial potential of plant species Schinus terebenthifolius, aroeira-red, on bacterial colonies of the exudate from pressure ulcers. Clinical samples were collected from pressure ulcers of 6 patients of ADEFAL, plated on blood agar and after incubation an aliquot of suspension (in the range of 0.5 Mac Farland) was sown in Mueller-Hinton. The plant extracts were ground and standardized with the aid of sieves of 150 and 75 micrometers. The re...

  5. Crude bacterial extracts of two new Streptomyces sp. isolates as bio-colorants for textile dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, Ana; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Petkovic, Milos; Radulović, Niko; Kostic, Mirjana; Jocic, Dragan; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2014-08-01

    Renewed demand for incorporation of natural dyes (bio-colorants) in textile industry could be met through biotechnological production of bacterial pigments. Two new Streptomyces strains (NP2 and NP4) were isolated for the remarkable ability to produce diffusible deep blue and deep red pigment into fermentation medium. Crude mycelial extracts of both strains were used as bio-colorants in conventional textile dyeing procedures avoiding downstream purification procedures. The yields of bio-colorants obtained in this way were 62 and 84 mg per g of mycelia for Streptomyces sp. NP2 and Streptomyces sp. NP4, respectively. Through nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of crude extracts before and after dyeing procedures, it was shown that both extracts contained prodigiosin-like family of compounds that exhibited different dyeing capabilities towards different textile fibers. Polyamide and acrylic fibers were colored to the deepest shade, polyester and triacetate fibers to a noticeable, but much lower shade depth, while cotton and cellulosic fibers stained weakly. These results confirmed that crude bacterial extracts had the characteristics similar to those of ionic and disperse dyes, which was consistent with the identified polypyrrolic prodigiosin-like structures.

  6. Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates

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    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the ethanolic extracts of seed, leaf and stem bark of Vitellaria paradoxa were investigated. The extracts were tested against three clinical bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using the agar diffusion and the broth dilution techniques. Ethanolic extracts of the plant parts showed activity against all the bacterial pathogens tested. At the highest extract concentration (200 mg/ml, the leaf extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity, while no activity was detected at the lowest concentration (3.13 mg/ml against the tested isolates. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were more susceptible to all extracts of V. paradoxa, while Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the least sensitivity. The efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa was compared to a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. There were differences in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of all the Vitellaria paradoxa ethanolic extracts with respect to the type of organism. All extracts exhibited bacteriostatic effects against the tested organisms at the experimented concentrations. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins and alkaloids as the active principles of Vitellaria paradoxa's antimicrobial activity. V. paradoxa could be used as a potential source of antibiotic substance for a drug development.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENCIAL OF SCHINUS TEREBENTHIFOLIUS ON BACTERIAL COLONIES COLLECTED BY PRESSURE ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana de Omena Bomfim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the antimicrobial potential of plant species Schinus terebenthifolius, aroeira-red, on bacterial colonies of the exudate from pressure ulcers. Clinical samples were collected from pressure ulcers of 6 patients of ADEFAL, plated on blood agar and after incubation an aliquot of suspension (in the range of 0.5 Mac Farland was sown in Mueller-Hinton. The plant extracts were ground and standardized with the aid of sieves of 150 and 75 micrometers. The resulting powder was mixed with distilled water (10% m.v-1. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity, the disks were sterile filter paper saturat results referring to antibacterial activity of Schinus terebenthifolius (leaf indicate an average inhibition zone of bacterial growth of 10.8 mm. Regarding Schinus terebenthifolius (stem this study reveals Potencial antimicrobiano de extrato vegetal the inefficiency of 10% of the extract as antimicrobial agent. This fact legitimizes the literature findings which show antimicrobial activity of plant extract Schinus terebenthifolius (stem, only when tested at a concentration above 10. The efficiency of the leaves of Schinus terebenthifolius supports the use of this product to minimize bacterial colonization and future infections. However, the results that showed antibacterial inactivity of Schinus terebenthifolius (stem makes impracticable use this part of plant to treat pressure ulcers use of the extract of this plant a concentration of 10%.

  8. Bacterial Agents Andantibiogram of Most Common Isolated Organisms from Hands of Surgical Team Members after Scrubbing

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    PS Mohseni- Meybodi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many post-surgical wound infections in hospitals cause morbidity and morality of patients and these are usually transmitted via hands of surgical personnel. The aim of the present study was to detect and antibiogram the bacterial agents following scrubbing of hands of surgical personnel before operation. Methods: Hands of 134 personnels of operation room were swabbed following scrubbing with antiseptic Betadine solution. Swab samples were inoculated on selective and differential media such as blood ager, McConky and manitol salt agar(MSA. Following incubation of media at 37c° for 24hr, bacterial species were identified using differential related tests. The isolated species were than antibiogramed and the results together with other data was analysed by SPSS software program. Results: Of the total of 134 cases, 81(60.4% were male and 53(39.6% female. The mean scrub time for each person was (206.1+/-103.2 seconds; 6 to 60 seconds base change. Increasing time of scrub was significantly correlated with decreasing rate of bacteria (P=0.003, (R=-0.254. Contamination was present in 129(96.3% cases following scrubbing. Maximum contamination was observed in nails (92.5%. Average number of bacteria for each individual was between 0 and 159. 62.6% of isolated bacteria were non- staphylococci and 7.7% were S. aureus. Vancomycin and ceftizoxim were the most sensitive, while penicillin was the least sensitive antibiotic. Conclusion: Results revealed that hand contamination was more than the expected standard level. Therefore, regarding the critical task of surgical personnel, training of all operation room staff is highly recommended to minimize the rate of contamination.

  9. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T, which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52% between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T.

  10. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Bakteri dari Tinja Orangutan Penderita Gangguan Gastrointestinal (BACTERIAL ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION IN FAECES OF ORANGUTAN WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISTURBANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orangutans are among protected animals by the law. One of orangutans’ main health problems isgastrointestinal disease due to bacterial infection. Microbiological data of causative agent of illness inorangutan still not much reported scientifically. This research aim was to identify causative agent ofbacterial infection on gastrointestinal disorder in orangutan isolated from stool samples. The sampleswere collected from Yayasan Konservasi Alam Yogyakarta and Borneo Orangutan Survival, Semboja,Kalimantan Timur. Fresh fecal samples were collected using sterile swab and put them into a steriletransport media. To achieve pure cultures, bacterial isolation was performed by using plate streaking onselective media. Gram stain was done to confirm the cell uniformity and morphology. Bacterialidentification was performed according to Bergey’s Manual Determinative Bacteriology on some biochemicalcharacters to determine the isolated bacteria. The result showed that three bacteria were identified fromstool samples orangutan from Yayasan Konservasi Alam Yogyakarta, i.e.: Citrobacter amalonaticus,Providensia rustigianii, and Proteus mirabilis. Meanwhile, three bacteria, which were Klebsiella planticola,Enterobanter agglomerans and Escherichia coli, were also identified in samples taken from Borneo orangutan.

  11. Detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    There are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern United States, which include: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. The black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. We investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). Eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in Louisiana from June 2010 to March 2011. All 4 common human-biting tick species were represented. Each tick was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting select bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Bacterial DNA was detected in 62% of ticks (n=53). Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of an emerging spotted fever group rickettsiosis, was identified in 66% of A. maculatum, 28% of D. variabilis, and 11% of I. scapularis. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, was detected in 2 I. scapularis, while one A. americanum was positive for Borrelia bissettii, a putative human pathogen. The rickettsial endosymbionts Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, rickettsial endosymbiont of I. scapularis, and Rickettsia amblyommii were detected in their common tick hosts at 21%, 39%, and 60%, respectively. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp., and Babesia microti. This is the first reported detection of R. parkeri in vector ticks in Louisiana; we also report the novel association of R. parkeri with I. scapularis. Detection of both R. parkeri and B. burgdorferi in their respective vectors in Louisiana demands further investigation to determine potential for human exposure to these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological and molecular identification of bacterial species isolated from nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Riyadh,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaad S. AlWakeel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (<60% sensitivity to the antibiotics ampicillin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and norfloxacin were observed. Ninety-seven percent similarity to the microbial bank species was noted when the isolates were compared to it. Most hematological indices recorded were within the normal range. In conclusion, exposure to toxic fumes and compounds within fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.

  13. Isolation, identification, and pathological effects of beach sand bacterial extract on human skin keratinocytesin vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazli; Shahzad, Raheem; Tauseef, Isfahan; Haleem, Kashif Syed; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Mahmood, Sajid; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Beaches are recreational spots for people. However, beach sand contains harmful microbes that affect human health, and there are no established methods for either sampling and identifying beach-borne pathogens or managing the quality of beach sand. This study was conducted with the aim of improving human safety at beaches and augmenting the quality of the beach experience. Beach sand was used as a resource to isolate bacteria due to its distinctive features and the biodiversity of the beach sand biota. A selected bacterial isolate termed FSRS was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank database under the accession number MF599548. The isolated P. stutzeri bacterium was cultured in Luria-Bertani growth medium, and a crude extract was prepared using ethyl acetate to examine the potential pathogenic effect of P. stutzeri on human skin. A human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was used to assess cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell proliferation using a morphological analysis and a WST-1 assay. The crude P. stutzeri extract inhibited cell adhesion and decreased cell viability in HaCaT cells. We concluded that the crude extract of P. stutzeri FSRS had a strong pathological effect on human skin cells. Beach visitors frequently get skin infections, but the exact cause of the infections is yet to be determined. The beach sand bacterium P. stutzeri may, therefore, be responsible for some of the dermatological problems experienced by people visiting the beach.

  14. Towards Defining the Ecological Niches of Novel Coastal Gulf of Mexico Bacterial Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, M. W.; Thrash, C.; Nall, E.

    2016-02-01

    The study of microbial contributions to biogeochemistry is critical to understanding the cycles of fundamental compounds and gain predictive capabilities in a changing environment. Such study requires observation of microbial communities and genetics in nature, coupled with experimental testing of hypotheses both in situ and in laboratory settings. This study combines dilution-to-extinction based high-throughput culturing (HTC) with cultivation-independent and geochemical measurements to define potential ecological niches of novel bacterial isolates from the coastal northern Gulf of Mexico (cnGOM). Here we report findings from the first of a three-year project. In total, 43 cultures from seven HTC experiments were capable of being repeatedly transferred. Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified these isolates as belonging to the phyla Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Eight are being genome sequenced, with two selected for further physiological characterization due to their phylogenic novelty and potential ecological significance. Strain LSUCC101 likely represents a novel family of Gammaproteobacteria (best blast hit to a cultured representative showed 91% sequence identity) and strain LSUCC96 belongs to the OM252 clade, with the Hawaiian isolate HIMB30 as its closest relative. Both are small (0.3-0.5 µm) cocci. The environmental importance of both LSUCC101 and LSUCC96 was illustrated by their presence within the top 30 OTU0.03 of cnGOM 16S rRNA gene datasets as well as within clone libraries from coastal regions around the world. Ongoing work is determining growth efficiencies, substrate utilization profiles, and metabolic potential to elucidate the roles of these organisms in the cnGOM. Comparative genomics will examine the evolutionary divergence of these organisms from their closest neighbors, and metagenomic recruitment to genomes will help identify strain-based variation from different coastal regions.

  15. Isolation, identification, and pathological effects of beach sand bacterial extract on human skin keratinocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Subhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Beaches are recreational spots for people. However, beach sand contains harmful microbes that affect human health, and there are no established methods for either sampling and identifying beach-borne pathogens or managing the quality of beach sand. Method This study was conducted with the aim of improving human safety at beaches and augmenting the quality of the beach experience. Beach sand was used as a resource to isolate bacteria due to its distinctive features and the biodiversity of the beach sand biota. A selected bacterial isolate termed FSRS was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank database under the accession number MF599548. The isolated P. stutzeri bacterium was cultured in Luria–Bertani growth medium, and a crude extract was prepared using ethyl acetate to examine the potential pathogenic effect of P. stutzeri on human skin. A human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT was used to assess cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell proliferation using a morphological analysis and a WST-1 assay. Result The crude P. stutzeri extract inhibited cell adhesion and decreased cell viability in HaCaT cells. We concluded that the crude extract of P. stutzeri FSRS had a strong pathological effect on human skin cells. Discussion Beach visitors frequently get skin infections, but the exact cause of the infections is yet to be determined. The beach sand bacterium P. stutzeri may, therefore, be responsible for some of the dermatological problems experienced by people visiting the beach.

  16. ‘Lactomassilus timonensis,’ a new anaerobic bacterial species isolated from the milk of a healthy African mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Togo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We here report the main characteristics of a new anaerobic bacterial genus and species ‘Lactomassilus timonensis,’ strain Marseille-P4641T (CSUR = P4641, isolated by microbial culturomics from the milk of a 35-year-old healthy lactating mother from Mali.

  17. ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract

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    K. Diop

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the main characteristics of ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7 (= CSUR P2268=DSM 101849, a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae family isolated from the vaginal flora of a patient with bacterial vaginosis.

  18. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

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    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  19. Related antimicrobial resistance genes detected in different bacterial species co-isolated from swine fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jonathan G; Lindsey, Rebecca L; Meinersmann, Richard J; Berrang, Mark E; Jackson, Charlene R; Englen, Mark D; Turpin, Jennifer B; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2011-06-01

    A potential factor leading to the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AR) in bacteria is the horizontal transfer of resistance genes between bacteria in animals or their environment. To investigate this, swine fecal samples were collected on-farm and cultured for Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., and Enterococcus spp. which are all commonly found in swine. Forty-nine of the samples from which all four bacteria were recovered were selected yielding a total of 196 isolates for analysis. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility followed by hybridization to a DNA microarray designed to detect 775 AR-related genes. E. coli and Salmonella isolated from the same fecal sample had the most AR genes in common among the four bacteria. Genes detected encoded resistance to aminoglycosides (aac(3), aadA1, aadB, and strAB), β-lactams (ampC, ampR, and bla(TEM)), chloramphenicols (cat and floR), sulfanillic acid (sul1/sulI), tetracyclines (tet(A), tet(D), tet(C), tet(G), and tet(R)), and trimethoprim (dfrA1 and dfh). Campylobacter coli and Enterococcus isolated from the same sample frequently had tet(O) and aphA-3 genes detected in common. Almost half (47%) of E. coli and Salmonella isolated from the same fecal sample shared resistance genes at a significant level (χ², p genes between these bacteria or there may be a common source of AR genes in the swine environment for E. coli and Salmonella.

  20. Characterization of biocontrol bacterial strains isolated from a suppressiveness-induced soil after amendment with composted almond shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Carmen; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    The improvement in soil quality of avocado crops through organic amendments with composted almond shells has a positive effect on crop yield and plant health, and enhances soil suppressiveness against the phytopathogenic fungus Rosellinia necatrix. In previous studies, induced soil suppressiveness against this pathogen was related to stimulation of Gammaproteobacteria, especially some members of Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol-related activities. In this work, we isolated bacteria from this suppressiveness-induced amended soil using a selective medium for Pseudomonas-like microorganisms. We characterized the obtained bacterial collection to aid in identification, including metabolic profiles, antagonistic responses, hybridization to biosynthetic genes of antifungal compounds, production of lytic exoenzymatic activities and plant growth-promotion-related traits, and sequenced and compared amplified 16S rDNA genes from representative bacteria. The final selection of representative strains mainly belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, but also included the genera Serratia and Stenotrophomonas. Their biocontrol-related activities were assayed using the experimental avocado model, and results showed that all selected strains protected the avocado roots against R. necatrix. This work confirmed the biocontrol activity of these Gammaproteobacteria-related members against R. necatrix following specific stimulation in a suppressiveness-induced soil after a composted almond shell application. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermentative hydrogen production from hydrolyzed cellulosic feedstock prepared with a thermophilic anaerobic bacterial isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Huang, Chi-Yu.; Fu, Tzu-Ning [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Tunghai University, Taichung 407 (China); Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2009-08-15

    Hydrogen gas was produced via dark fermentation from natural cellulosic materials and {alpha}-cellulose via a two-step process, in which the cellulosic substrates were first hydrolyzed by an isolated cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium strain TCW1, and the resulting hydrolysates were then used as substrate for fermentative H{sub 2} production. The TCW1 strain was able to hydrolyze all the cellulosic materials examined to produce reducing sugars (RS), attaining the best reducing sugar production yield of 0.65 g reducing sugar/g substrate from hydrolysis of {alpha}-cellulose. The hydrolysates of those cellulosic materials were successfully converted to H{sub 2} via dark fermentation using seven H{sub 2}-producing bacterial isolates. The bioH{sub 2} production performance was highly dependent on the type of cellulosic feedstock used, the initial reducing sugar concentration (C{sub RS,o}) (ranging from 0.7 to 4.5 mg/l), as well as the composition of sugar and soluble metabolites present in the cellulosic hydrolysates. It was found that Clostridium butyricum CGS5 displayed the highest H{sub 2}-producing efficiency with a cumulative H{sub 2} production of 270 ml/l from {alpha}-cellulose hydrolysate (C{sub RS,o} = 4.52 mg/l) and a H{sub 2} yield of 7.40 mmol/g RS (or 6.66 mmol/g substrate) from napier grass hydrolysate (C{sub RS,o} = 1.22 g/l). (author)

  2. Indoleacetic acid production and plant growth promoting potential of bacterial endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Kang, Sang-Mo; Seo, Chang-Woo; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial endophytes from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere have been used to produce bioactive metabolites and to promote plant growth. However, little is known about the endophytes residing in seeds. This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne bacterial endophytes from rice and elucidate their potential for phytohormone production and growth enhancement. The isolated endophytes included Micrococcus yunnanensis RWL-2, Micrococcus luteus RWL-3, Enterobacter soli RWL-4, Leclercia adecarboxylata RWL-5, Pantoea dispersa RWL-6, and Staphylococcus epidermidis RWL-7, which were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were analyzed for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by using GC-MS and IAA was found in the range of 11.50 ± 0.77 μg ml -1 to 38.80 ± 1.35 μg ml -1 . We also assessed the strains for plant growth promoting potential because these isolates were able to produce IAA in pure culture. Most of the growth attributes of rice plants (shoot and root length, fresh and dry biomass, and chlorophyll content) were significantly increased by bacterial endophytes compared to the controls. These results show that IAA producing bacterial endophytes can improve hostplant growth traits and can be used as bio-fertilizers.

  3. Monitoring of oil pollution at Gemsa Bay and bioremediation capacity of bacterial isolates with biosurfactants and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheshtawy, H S; Khalil, N M; Ahmed, W; Abdallah, R I

    2014-10-15

    Fifteen crude oil-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from an oil-polluted area in Gemsa Bay, Red Sea, Egypt. Two bacterial species showed the highest growth rate on crude oil hydrocarbons. From an analysis of 16S rRNA sequences, these isolates were identified as Pseudomonas xanthomarina KMM 1447 and Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 17588. Gas Chromatographic (GC) analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after one week at 30°C showed that the optimum biodegradation of crude petroleum oil was demonstrated at 50% in medium containing biosurfactant with two types of nanoparticles separately and two bacterial species. The complete degradation of some different members of polyaromatics and the percentage biodegradation of other polyaromatics increased in microcosm containing two different types of nanoparticles with biosurfactant after 7 days. In conclusion, these bacterial strains may be useful for the bioremediation process in the Gemsa Bay, Red Sea decreasing oil pollution in this marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of CuO Nanoparticles over Isolated Bacterial Strains from Agricultural Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concha-Guerrero, S.I.; Pinon-Castillo, H.A.; Luna-Velasco, A.; Orrantia-Borunda, E.; Brito, E.M.S.; Tarango-Rivero, S.H.; Caretta, C.A.; Duran, R.

    2014-01-01

    The increased use of the nanoparticles (NPs) on several processes is notorious. In contrast the eco toxicological effects of NPs have been scarcely studied. The main current researches are related to the oxide metallic NPs. In the present work, fifty-six bacterial strains were isolated from soil, comprising 17 different OTUs distributed into 3 classes: Bacilli (36 strains), Flavobacteria (2 strains), and Gamma proteobacteria (18 strains). Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were synthesized using a process of chemical precipitation. The obtained CuONPs have a spherical shape and primary size less than 17 nm. Twenty-one strains were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CuONPs and 11 of these strains showed high sensibility. Among those 11 strains, 4 (Brevibacillus later osporus strain CSS8, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum strain CSA28, and Pantoea ananatis strains CSA34 and CSA35) were selected to determine the kind of damage produced. The CuONPs toxic effect was observed at expositions over 25 mg·L -1 and the damage to cell membrane above 160 mg·L -1 . The electron microscopy showed the formation of cavities, holes, membrane degradation, blebs, cellular collapse, and lysis. These toxic effects may probably be due to the ions interaction, the oxide-reduction reactions, and the generation of reactive species

  5. In silico design of PHA synthase and its validation by PHAs producing bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susrita Sahoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers are important alternatives to the petroleum-based plastics due to environment friendly manufacturing processes, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Therefore use of novel biopolymers such as polylactide, polysaccharides, aliphatic polyesters and polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHAs is of interest. PHAs are biodegradable polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HA produced from renewable resources by using microorganisms as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds.  Even though PHAs are promising candidate for biodegradable polymers, however, the production cost limits their application on an industrial scale. Therefore an attempt was made to model different PHAs synthases which are the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates as the structural information of this enzyme is in dark veil.Then molecular docking  of class I  PHA  Synthase from Ralstonia Eutrophia was done to study the PHA synthase activity. As there are lots of strain which needs to explore for the production of PHA. This investigation leads to find out the most industrial applicable microbes. Few bacterial isolates from soil sample were screened for production of PHA followed by the validation of the enzymatic activity and its product characterization to understand its structural properties.

  6. Comparative Genomics of Facultative Bacterial Symbionts Isolated from European Orius Species Reveals an Ancestral Symbiotic Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pest control in agriculture employs diverse strategies, among which the use of predatory insects has steadily increased. The use of several species within the genus Orius in pest control is widely spread, particularly in Mediterranean Europe. Commercial mass rearing of predatory insects is costly, and research efforts have concentrated on diet manipulation and selective breeding to reduce costs and improve efficacy. The characterisation and contribution of microbial symbionts to Orius sp. fitness, behaviour, and potential impact on human health has been neglected. This paper provides the first genome sequence level description of the predominant culturable facultative bacterial symbionts associated with five Orius species (O. laevigatus, O. niger, O. pallidicornis, O. majusculus, and O. albidipennis from several geographical locations. Two types of symbionts were broadly classified as members of the genera Serratia and Leucobacter, while a third constitutes a new genus within the Erwiniaceae. These symbionts were found to colonise all the insect specimens tested, which evidenced an ancestral symbiotic association between these bacteria and the genus Orius. Pangenome analyses of the Serratia sp. isolates offered clues linking Type VI secretion system effector–immunity proteins from the Tai4 sub-family to the symbiotic lifestyle.

  7. Calcite biomineralization by bacterial isolates from the recently discovered pristine karstic herrenberg cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M; Nietzsche, Sándor; Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Neu, Thomas R; Frosch, Torsten; Popp, Jürgen; Keiner, Robert; Geletneky, Jörn; Katzschmann, Lutz; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Küsel, Kirsten

    2012-02-01

    Karstic caves represent one of the most important subterranean carbon storages on Earth and provide windows into the subsurface. The recent discovery of the Herrenberg Cave, Germany, gave us the opportunity to investigate the diversity and potential role of bacteria in carbonate mineral formation. Calcite was the only mineral observed by Raman spectroscopy to precipitate as stalactites from seepage water. Bacterial cells were found on the surface and interior of stalactites by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Proteobacteria dominated the microbial communities inhabiting stalactites, representing more than 70% of total 16S rRNA gene clones. Proteobacteria formed 22 to 34% of the detected communities in fluvial sediments, and a large fraction of these bacteria were also metabolically active. A total of 9 isolates, belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Serratia, and Stenotrophomonas, grew on alkaline carbonate-precipitating medium. Two cultures with the most intense precipitate formation, Arthrobacter sulfonivorans and Rhodococcus globerulus, grew as aggregates, produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and formed mixtures of calcite, vaterite, and monohydrocalcite. R. globerulus formed idiomorphous crystals with rhombohedral morphology, whereas A. sulfonivorans formed xenomorphous globular crystals, evidence for taxon-specific crystal morphologies. The results of this study highlighted the importance of combining various techniques in order to understand the geomicrobiology of karstic caves, but further studies are needed to determine whether the mineralogical biosignatures found in nutrient-rich media can also be found in oligotrophic caves.

  8. Effect of gut bacterial isolates fromApis mellifera jemeniticaonPaenibacillus larvaeinfected bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Ali Khan, Khalid; Javed Ansari, Mohammad; Almasaudi, Saad B; Al-Kahtani, Saad

    2018-02-01

    The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1), Proteus mirabilis (T2), Bacillus licheniformis (T3), Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4), Bacillus subtilis (T5), Enterobacter kobei (T6), and Morganella morganii (T7) on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet) and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores). Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%), whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%). Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%). Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  9. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Ghamdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1, Proteus mirabilis (T2, Bacillus licheniformis (T3, Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4, Bacillus subtilis (T5, Enterobacter kobei (T6, and Morganella morganii (T7 on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores. Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%, whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%. Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%. Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  10. Increasing antibiotic resistance in preservative-tolerant bacterial strains isolated from cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orús, Pilar; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Leranoz, Sonia; Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    To ensure the microbiological quality, consumer safety and organoleptic properties of cosmetic products, manufacturers need to comply with defined standards using several preservatives and disinfectants. A drawback regarding the use of these preservatives is the possibility of generating cross-insusceptibility to other disinfectants or preservatives, as well as cross resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the adaptive mechanisms of Enterobacter gergoviae, Pseudomonas putida and Burkholderia cepacia that are involved in recurrent contamination in cosmetic products containing preservatives. Diminished susceptibility to formaldehyde-donors was detected in isolates but not to other preservatives commonly used in the cosmetics industry, although increasing resistance to different antibiotics (β-lactams, quinolones, rifampicin, and tetracycline) was demonstrated in these strains when compared with the wild-type strain. The outer membrane protein modifications and efflux mechanism activities responsible for the resistance trait were evaluated. The development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms due to the selective pressure from preservatives included in cosmetic products could be a risk for the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance in the environment. Nevertheless, the large contribution of disinfection and preservation cannot be denied in cosmetic products. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  11. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Concordance Between Antimicrobial Susceptibility Genotypes and Phenotypes of Bacterial Isolates Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Owen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended laboratory culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing timelines hinder rapid species identification and susceptibility profiling of bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease, the most prevalent cause of cattle mortality in the United States. Whole-genome sequencing offers a culture-independent alternative to current bacterial identification methods, but requires a library of bacterial reference genomes for comparison. To contribute new bacterial genome assemblies and evaluate genetic diversity and variation in antimicrobial resistance genotypes, whole-genome sequencing was performed on bovine respiratory disease–associated bacterial isolates (Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida from dairy and beef cattle. One hundred genomically distinct assemblies were added to the NCBI database, doubling the available genomic sequences for these four species. Computer-based methods identified 11 predicted antimicrobial resistance genes in three species, with none being detected in M. bovis. While computer-based analysis can identify antibiotic resistance genes within whole-genome sequences (genotype, it may not predict the actual antimicrobial resistance observed in a living organism (phenotype. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 64 H. somni, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates had an overall concordance rate between genotype and phenotypic resistance to the associated class of antimicrobials of 72.7% (P < 0.001, showing substantial discordance. Concordance rates varied greatly among different antimicrobial, antibiotic resistance gene, and bacterial species combinations. This suggests that antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes are needed to complement genomically predicted antibiotic resistance gene genotypes to better understand how the presence of antibiotic resistance genes within a given bacterial species could potentially impact optimal bovine respiratory

  12. Protocol for Evaluating the Permissiveness of Bacterial Communities Toward Conjugal Plasmids by Quantification and Isolation of Transconjugants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of conjugal plasmids is the main bacterial process of horizontal gene transfer to potentially distantly related bacteria. These extrachromosomal, circular DNA molecules host genes that code for their own replication and transfer to other organisms. Because additional accessory genes...... of a microbial community able to receive an introduced plasmid at both quantitative and phylogenetic levels. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for simultaneous quantification of plasmid transfer frequency to and high-throughput isolation of transconjugants from a mixed bacterial community after introducing...

  13. The impact of animal age, bacterial coinfection, and isolate pathogenicity on the shedding of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in aerosols from experimentally infected pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jenny G.; Dee, Scott A.; Deen, John; Trincado, Carlos; Fano, Eduardo; Jiang, Yin; Faaberg, Kay; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Guedes, Alonso; Collins, James E.; Joo, Han Soo

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of different variables (animal age, bacterial coinfection, and isolate pathogenicity) on the shedding of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in aerosols. Animals were grouped according to age (2 versus 6 mo) and inoculated with a PRRSV isolate of either low (MN-30100) or high (MN-184) pathogenicity. Selected animals in each group were also inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The pigs were anesthetized and aerosol samples (1000 breaths/sample) collected on alternating days from 1 to 21 after PRRSV inoculation. The results indicated that animal age (P = 0.09), M. hyopneumoniae coinfection (P = 0.09), and PRRSV isolate pathogenicity (P = 0.15) did not significantly influence the concentration of PRRSV in aerosols. However, inoculation with the PRRSV MN-184 isolate significantly increased the probability of aerosol shedding (P = 0.00005; odds ratio = 3.22). Therefore, the shedding of PRRSV in aerosols may be isolate-dependent. PMID:17042383

  14. The gut bacterial communities associated with lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis (Formicidae: Formicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Wei, Cong; Wheeler, Diana E

    2014-09-01

    Camponotus is the second largest ant genus and known to harbor the primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia. However, little is known about the effect of diet and environment changes on the gut bacterial communities of these ants. We investigated the intestinal bacterial communities in the lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis which is found in the southwestern United States and northern reaches of Mexico. We determined the difference of gut bacterial composition and distribution among the crop, midgut, and hindgut of the two types of colonies. Number of bacterial species varied with the methods of detection and the source of the ants. Lab-raised ants yielded 12 and 11 species using classical microbial culture methods and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rRNAs) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis, respectively. Field-collected ants yielded just 4 and 1-3 species using the same methods. Most gut bacterial species from the lab-raised ants were unevenly distributed among the crop, midgut, and hindgut, and each section had its own dominant bacterial species. Acetobacter was the prominent bacteria group in crop, accounting for about 55 % of the crop clone library. Blochmannia was the dominant species in midgut, nearly reaching 90 % of the midgut clone library. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dominated the hindgut, accounting for over 98 % of the hindgut clone library. P. aeruginosa was the only species common to all three sections. A comparison between lab-raised and field-collected ants, and comparison with other species, shows that gut bacterial communities vary with local environment and diet. The bacterial species identified here were most likely commensals with little effect on their hosts or mild pathogens deleterious to colony health.

  15. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  16. Antimicrobial activity of solithromycin against serotyped macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from U.S. medical centers in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D J; Mendes, R E; Jones, R N

    2015-04-01

    Solithromycin, a next-generation macrolide and novel fluoroketolide, was tested against a 2012 collection of serotyped U.S. macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Against all 272 isolates, solithromycin demonstrated high potency (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.25 μg/ml), and it inhibited all strains at MICs of ≤0.5 μg/ml, including the two most prevalent macrolide-resistant serotypes (19A and 35B). These data support the continued clinical development of solithromycin for the treatment of multidrug-resistant CABP. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Solithromycin against Serotyped Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Collected from U.S. Medical Centers in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, D. J.; Mendes, R. E.; Jones, R. N.

    2015-01-01

    Solithromycin, a next-generation macrolide and novel fluoroketolide, was tested against a 2012 collection of serotyped U.S. macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Against all 272 isolates, solithromycin demonstrated high potency (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.25 μg/ml), and it inhibited all strains at MICs of ≤0.5 μg/ml, including the two most prevalent macrolide-resistant serotypes (19A and 35B). These data support the continue...

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of bacterial strains on low organic carbon medium from soils fertilized with different organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senechkin, Ilya V; Speksnijder, Adrianus G C L; Semenov, Alexander M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C; van Overbeek, Leonard S

    2010-11-01

    A total of 720 bacterial strains were isolated from soils with four different organic amendment regimes on a low organic carbon (low-C) agar medium (10 µg C ml(-1)) traditionally used for isolation of oligotrophs. Organic amendments in combination with field history resulted in differences in dissolved organic carbon contents in these soils. There were negative correlations between total and dissolved organic carbon content and the number of isolates on low-C agar medium, whereas these correlations were absent for bacterial strains isolated from the same soil on high-C agar medium (1,000 µg C ml(-1)). Repeated transfers (up to ten times) of the isolates from low-C agar medium to fresh low- and high-C agar media were done to test for exclusive growth under oligotrophic conditions. The number of isolates exclusively growing under oligotrophic conditions dropped after each subsequent transfer from 241 after the first to 98 after the third transfer step. Identification on the basis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the 241 isolates (as well as the subset of 98 isolates) belong to widespread genera such as Streptomyces, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Mesorhizobium, and the taxonomic composition of dominant genera changed from the first transfer step to the third. A selected subset of 17 isolates were further identified and characterized for exclusive growth on low-C agar medium. Two isolates continued to grow only on low-C agar medium up to the tenth transfer step and matched most closely with Rhizobium sullae and an uncultured bacterium on the basis of the almost full-length 16S rRNA gene. It was concluded that the vast majority of strains which are isolated on low-C agar media belong to the trophic group of microorganisms adapted to a "broad range" of carbon concentrations, including well-known and widespread bacterial genera. Oligotrophy is a physiological, not a taxonomic property, and can only be identified by cultural means so far. We

  19. Ionome changes in Xylella fastidiosa-infected Nicotiana tabacum correlate with virulence and discriminate between subspecies of bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Sefick, S A; Parker, J K; Arnold, T; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of ionomes has been used to uncover the basis of nutrient utilization and environmental adaptation of plants. Here, ionomic profiles were used to understand the phenotypic response of a plant to infection by genetically diverse isolates of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, X. fastidiosa isolates were used to infect a common model host (Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1'), and leaf and sap concentrations of eleven elements together with plant colonization and symptoms were assessed. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that changes in the ionome were significantly correlated with symptom severity and bacterial populations in host petioles. Moreover, plant ionome modification by infection could be used to differentiate the X. fastidiosa subspecies with which the plant was infected. This report establishes host ionome modification as a phenotypic response to infection.

  20. Biodegradation of malathion, α- and β-endosulfan by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soil in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Torres, Catya; Ortiz, Irmene; San-Martin, Pablo; Hernandez-Herrera, R Idalia

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of two bacterial strains isolated, cultivated, and purified from agricultural soils of Veracruz, Mexico, for biodegradation and mineralisation of malathion (diethyl 2-(dimethoxyphosphorothioyl) succinate) and α- and β-endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6-9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepine-3-oxide). The isolated bacterial strains were identified using biochemical and morphological characterization and the analysis of their 16S rDNA gene, as Enterobacter cloacae strain PMM16 (E1) and E. amnigenus strain XGL214 (M1). The E1 strain was able to degrade endosulfan, whereas the M1 strain was capable of degrading both pesticides. The E1 strain degraded 71.32% of α-endosulfan and 100% of β-endosulfan within 24 days. The absence of metabolites, such as endosulfan sulfate, endosulfan lactone, or endosulfan diol, would suggest degradation of endosulfan isomers through non-oxidative pathways. Malathion was completely eliminated by the M1 strain. The major metabolite was butanedioic acid. There was a time-dependent increase in bacterial biomass, typical of bacterial growth, correlated with the decrease in pesticide concentration. The CO 2 production also increased significantly with the addition of pesticides to the bacterial growth media, demonstrating that, under aerobic conditions, the bacteria utilized endosulfan and malathion as a carbon source. Here, two bacterial strains are shown to metabolize two toxic pesticides into non-toxic intermediates.

  1. Diversity, Bacterial Symbionts and Antibacterial Potential of Gut-Associated Fungi Isolated from the Pantala flavescens Larvae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Shao

    Full Text Available The diversity of fungi associated with the gut of Pantala flavescens larvae was investigated using a culture-dependent method and molecular identification based on an analysis of the internally transcribed spacer sequence. In total, 48 fungal isolates were obtained from P. flavescens larvae. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the fungal isolates were grouped in 5 classes and 12 different genera. Fourteen bacterial 16S rDNA sequences derived from total genomic DNA extractions of fungal mycelia were obtained. The majority of the sequences were associated with Proteobacteria (13/14, and one Bacillaceae (1/14 was included. Leclercia sp., Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi and Methylobacterium extorquens, were reported for the first time as bacterial endosymbionts in fungi. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis indicated that bacterial symbionts produced specific metabolites and also exerted an inhibitory effect on fungal metabolites. The biological activity of the fungal culture extracts against the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739 was investigated, and 20 extracts (42% exhibited antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested bacterial strains. This study is the first report on the diversity and antibacterial activity of symbiotic fungi residing in the gut of P. flavescens larvae, and the results show that these fungi are highly diverse and could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  2. Surviving chytridiomycosis: differential anti-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis activity in bacterial isolates from three lowland species of Atelopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra V Flechas

    Full Text Available In the Neotropics, almost every species of the stream-dwelling harlequin toads (genus Atelopus have experienced catastrophic declines. The persistence of lowland species of Atelopus could be explained by the lower growth rate of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd at temperatures above 25 °C. We tested the complementary hypothesis that the toads' skin bacterial microbiota acts as a protective barrier against the pathogen, perhaps delaying or impeding the symptomatic phase of chytridiomycosis. We isolated 148 cultivable bacterial strains from three lowland Atelopus species and quantified the anti-Bd activity through antagonism assays. Twenty-six percent (38 strains representing 12 species of the bacteria inhibited Bd growth and just two of them were shared among the toad species sampled in different localities. Interestingly, the strongest anti-Bd activity was measured in bacteria isolated from A. elegans, the only species that tested positive for the pathogen. The cutaneous bacterial microbiota is thus likely a fitness-enhancing trait that may (adaptation or not (exaptation have appeared because of natural selection mediated by chytridiomycosis. Our findings reveal bacterial strains for development of local probiotic treatments against chytridiomycosis and also shed light on the mechanisms behind the frog-bacteria-pathogen interaction.

  3. Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2011-10-14

    A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped and slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated UST090418-1611(T), was isolated from the marina sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain UST090418-1611(T) in the family Alteromonadaceae with the closest relationship to the genus Marinobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the strain and the type strains of recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 92.9 to 98.3%. Although strain UST090418-1611(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Marinobacter mobilis CN46(T), M. zhejiangensis CN74(T) and M. sediminum R65(T) (98.3, 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively), the relatedness of the strain to these three strains in DNA DNA hybridization was only 58, 56 and 33%, respectively, supporting the novelty of the strain. In contrast to most strains in the genus Marinobacter, strain UST090418-1611(T) tolerated only 6% (w/v) NaCl, and optimal growth occurred at 2.0% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-36 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C-12:0 3-OH, C-16:0, C-12:0 and summed feature 3 (C-16.1 omega 6c and/or C-16:1 omega 7c) The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.1 mol%. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we suggest that the strain represents a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with UST090418-1611(T) (=JCM 17469(T) =NRRL B-59512(T)) as the type strain.

  4. Plant-bacteria interactions: identification, characterization and localization of beneficial bacterial endophytes isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera

    OpenAIRE

    Nigris, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reports the results obtained during the three years PhD course focused on the study of culturable bacterial endophytes of Vitis vinifera Glera and their beneficial activities. The study, part of a large project named “EndoFlorVit project” (FEARS-UE and Regione Del Veneto), aims at investigate the biodiversity and the plant growth promoting activities of culturable endophytes isolated from Glera grapevine in vineyards of Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG production area. This thesis re...

  5. Bacterial microflora isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in areas where air pollution is very high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 1976 bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Erwinia and Cellulomonas were isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in protective belts around several industrial plants. It was found that the qualitative and quantitative composition of the surface bacterial microflora changes in dependence on the degree of resistance of the poplars to the action of the dust emitted by the industrial establishment and containing high amounts of heavy metals.

  6. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophyt...

  7. Salmonella serotypes isolated in geckos kept in seven collections in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, T P; Varriale, L; Borrelli, L; Pace, A; Latronico, M; Menna, L F; Fioretti, A; Dipineto, L

    2018-01-09

    Reptiles are considered an important reservoir of Salmonella species. This study evaluated the prevalence of Salmonella species in different species of gecko kept as pets in Italy. Faecal swab samples were collected from 70 clinically healthy geckos and examined for Salmonella species by culture that were then serotyped. Salmonella species were isolated from 24 of 70 (34·3%) samples. Eighteen isolates expressed resistance to ceftazidime and four isolates to ampicillin. Salmonella spp. can be isolated from apparently healthy captive gecko which should be considered as a potential source of infection for humans and other companion animals. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Critical sources of bacterial contamination and adoption of standard sanitary protocol during semen collection and processing in Semen Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrahas Sannat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was conducted to locate the critical sources of bacterial contamination and to evaluate the standard sanitation protocol so as to improve the hygienic conditions during collection, evaluation, and processing of bull semen in the Semen Station. Materials and Methods: The study compared two different hygienic procedures during the collection, evaluation and processing of semen in Central Semen Station, Anjora, Durg. Routinely used materials including artificial vagina (AV inner liner, cone, semen collection tube, buffer, extender/diluter, straws; and the laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box and laminar air flow (LAF cabinet of extender preparation lab, processing lab, sealing filling machine, and bacteriological lab were subjected to bacteriological examination in two phases of study using two different sanitary protocols. Bacterial load in above items/environment was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU. Results: Bacterial load in a laboratory environment and AV equipments during two different sanitary protocol in present investigation differed highly significantly (p<0.001. Potential sources of bacterial contamination during semen collection and processing included laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box, and LAF cabinets; AV equipments, including AV Liner and cone. Bacterial load was reduced highly significantly (p<0.001 in AV liner (from 2.33±0.67 to 0.50±0.52, cone (from 4.16±1.20 to 1.91±0.55, and extender (from 1.33±0.38 to 0 after application of improved practices of packaging, handling, and sterilization in Phase II of study. Glasswares, buffers, and straws showed nil bacterial contamination in both the phases of study. With slight modification in fumigation protocol (formalin @600 ml/1000 ft3, bacterial load was significantly decreased (p<0.001 up to 0-6 CFU in processing lab (from 6.43±1.34 to 2.86±0.59, pass box (from 12

  9. Resistance trends among clinical isolates in China reported from CHINET surveillance of bacterial resistance, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, F-P; Guo, Y; Zhu, D-M; Wang, F; Jiang, X-F; Xu, Y-C; Zhang, X-J; Zhang, C-X; Ji, P; Xie, Y; Kang, M; Wang, C-Q; Wang, A-M; Xu, Y-H; Shen, J-L; Sun, Z-Y; Chen, Z-J; Ni, Y-X; Sun, J-Y; Chu, Y-Z; Tian, S-F; Hu, Z-D; Li, J; Yu, Y-S; Lin, J; Shan, B; Du, Y; Han, Y; Guo, S; Wei, L-H; Wu, L; Zhang, H; Kong, J; Hu, Y-J; Ai, X-M; Zhuo, C; Su, D-H; Yang, Q; Jia, B; Huang, W

    2016-03-01

    With the aim of gathering temporal trends on bacterial epidemiology and resistance from multiple laboratories in China, the CHINET surveillance system was organized in 2005. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using the Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems. Results were analyzed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2014 definitions. Between 2005 and 2014, the number of bacterial isolates ranged between 22,774 and 84,572 annually. Rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production among Escherichia coli isolates were stable, between 51.7 and 55.8%. Resistance of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and cefoperazone/sulbactam decreased with time. Carbapenem resistance among K. pneumoniae isolates increased from 2.4 to 13.4%. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains against all of antimicrobial agents tested including imipenem and meropenem decreased with time. On the contrary, resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii strains to carbapenems increased from 31 to 66.7%. A marked decrease of methicillin resistance from 69% in 2005 to 44.6% in 2014 was observed for Staphylococcus aureus. Carbapenem resistance rates in K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii in China are high. Our results indicate the importance of bacterial surveillance studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Biocontrol of Sugarcane Smut Disease by Interference of Fungal Sexual Mating and Hyphal Growth Using a Bacterial Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyin; Lin, Nuoqiao; Chen, Yumei; Liang, Zhibin; Liao, Lisheng; Lv, Mingfa; Chen, Yufan; Tang, Yingxin; He, Fei; Chen, Shaohua; Zhou, Jianuan; Zhang, Lianhui

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane smut is a fungal disease caused by Sporisorium scitamineum , which can cause severe economic losses in sugarcane industry. The infection depends on the mating of bipolar sporida to form a dikaryon and develops into hyphae to penetrate the meristematic tissue of sugarcane. In this study, we set to isolate bacterial strains capable of blocking the fungal mating and evaluate their potential in control of sugarcane smut disease. A bacterial isolate ST4 from rhizosphere displayed potent inhibitory activity against the mating of S. scitamineum bipolar sporida and was selected for further study. Phylogenetic analyses and biochemical characterization showed that the isolate was most similar to Pseudomonas guariconensis . Methanol extracts from minimum and potato dextrose agar (PDA) agar medium, on which strain ST4 has grown, showed strong inhibitory activity on the sexual mating of S. scitamineum sporida, without killing the haploid cells MAT-1 or MAT-2. Further analysis showed that only glucose, but not sucrose, maltose, and fructose, could support strain ST4 to produce antagonistic chemicals. Consistent with the above findings, greenhouse trials showed that addition of 2% glucose to the bacterial inoculum significantly increased the strain ST4 biocontrol efficiency against sugarcane smut disease by 77% than the inoculum without glucose. The results from this study depict a new strategy to screen for biocontrol agents for control and prevention of the sugarcane smut disease.

  11. The effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on model bacterial strains and isolates from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Sotirova, Anna; Galabova, Danka

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on bacterial strains, laboratory strains, and isolates from industrial wastewater was investigated. It was shown that biosurfactant, depending on the concentration, has a neutral or detrimental effect on the growth and protein release of model Gram (+) strain Bacillus subtilis 168. The growth and protein release of model Gram (-) strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1390 was not influenced by the presence of biosurfactant in the medium. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant at the used concentrations supported the growth of some slow growing on hexadecane bacterial isolates, members of the microbial community. Changes in cell surface hydrophobicity and permeability of some Gram (+) and Gram (-) isolates in the presence of rhamnolipid biosurfactant were followed in experiments in vitro. It was found that bacterial cells treated with biosurfactant became more or less hydrophobic than untreated cells depending on individual characteristics and abilities of the strains. For all treated strains, an increase in the amount of released protein was observed with increasing the amount of biosurfactant, probably due to increased cell permeability as a result of changes in the organization of cell surface structures. The results obtained could contribute to clarify the relationships between members of the microbial community as well as suggest the efficiency of surface properties of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas fluorescens making it potentially applicable in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted environments.

  12. Qualitative toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles on the fresh water bacterial isolates and consortium at low level of exposure concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumari, Jyoti; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Raichur, Ashok M; Sastry, T P; Mandal, A B; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) pose a high risk of exposure to the natural environment owing to their extensive usage in various consumer products. In the present study we attempted to understand the harmful effect of AgNPs at environmentally relevant low concentration levels (≤1ppm) towards two different freshwater bacterial isolates and their consortium. The standard plate count assay suggested that the AgNPs were toxic towards the fresh water bacterial isolates as well as the consortium, though toxicity was significantly reduced for the cells in the consortium. The oxidative stress assessment and membrane permeability studies corroborated with the toxicity data. The detailed electron microscopic studies suggested the cell degrading potential of the AgNPs, and the FT-IR studies confirmed the involvement of the surface groups in the toxic effects. No significant ion leaching from the AgNPs was observed at the applied concentration levels signifying the dominant role of the particle size, and size distribution in bacterial toxicity. The reduced toxicity for the cells in the consortium than the individual isolates has major significance in further studies on the ecotoxicity of the AgNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant growth-promoting activities for bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plant of Teucrium polium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad El-Din Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal endophytes are widespread inhabitants inside plant tissues and have been shown to assist plant growth and health. However, little is known about plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE of medicinal plants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify bacterial and fungal endophytes of Teucrium polium and to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP properties of these endophytes. Seven bacterial endophytes were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, where five endophytic fungi were obtained and assigned to Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium crustosum. The isolated endophytes differentially produced indole acetic acid (IAA and ammonia, and in addition to their enzymatic and antimicrobial activities, they exhibited variable capacity for phosphate solubilization. In order to investigate the effect of endophytes on plant growth, four representative endophytes and their consortiums were selected concerning to their potential ability to promote plant growth. The results indicated that microbial endophytes isolated from medicinal plants possessing a vital role to improve plant growth and could be used as inoculants to establish a sustainable crop production system.

  14. Plant growth-promoting activities for bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plant of Teucrium polium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saad El-Din

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial and fungal endophytes are widespread inhabitants inside plant tissues and have been shown to assist plant growth and health. However, little is known about plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) of medicinal plants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify bacterial and fungal endophytes of Teucrium polium and to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of these endophytes. Seven bacterial endophytes were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis , where five endophytic fungi were obtained and assigned to Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium crustosum . The isolated endophytes differentially produced indole acetic acid (IAA) and ammonia, and in addition to their enzymatic and antimicrobial activities, they exhibited variable capacity for phosphate solubilization. In order to investigate the effect of endophytes on plant growth, four representative endophytes and their consortiums were selected concerning to their potential ability to promote plant growth. The results indicated that microbial endophytes isolated from medicinal plants possessing a vital role to improve plant growth and could be used as inoculants to establish a sustainable crop production system.

  15. SISPA-Seq for rapid whole genome surveys of bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Meredith S; Stockwell, Timothy B; Beck, Erin; Busam, Dana A; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A; Adams, Mark D

    2015-06-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of large isolate collections has many applications, yet sequencing costs are still significant. We sought to develop a rapid and cost efficient WGS method to address fundamental questions in clinical microbiology. We evaluated the performance of SISPA (Sequence-Independent, Single-Primer Amplification) combined with next-generation sequencing (SISPA-Seq) of 75 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii to establish whether SISPA-Seq resulted in sufficient coverage and quality to (1) determine strain phylogenetic placement and (2) and carriage of known antibiotic resistance (AbR) genes. Strains for which whole genome sequences were available were included for validation. Two libraries for each strain were constructed from separate SISPA reactions with different barcoded primers, using genomic DNA prepared from either high quality or rapid heat-lysis preparations. SISPA-Seq resulted in a median of 65× genome coverage when reads from both primer sets were combined. Coverage and quality were sufficient for detection of AbR genes by comparison of reads to the ARG-ANNOT database and were often sufficient to distinguish between different allelic variants of the same gene. kSNP and RAxML were used to construct a robust phylogeny based on single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) that showed that the SISPA-Seq data was sufficient for sensitive and accurate phylogenetic placement. Advantages of the SISPA-Seq method include inexpensive and rapid DNA preparation and a typical total cost less than one-half that of standard genome sequencing. In summary, SISPA-Seq can be used to survey whole genomes of a large strain collection and identify strains that should be targeted for additional sequencing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Resistance patterns of bacterial isolates to antimicrobials from 3 hospitals in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlDhaheri, Ahmed S; AlNiyadi, Mohammed S; AlDhaheri Ahmed D; Bastaki, Salim M

    2009-01-01

    To compare the resistance pattern of common bacterial pathogens to commonly used drugs. Information and statistics of antimicrobial resistance for 1994 and 2005 were collected from the 3 hospital microbiology laboratories in the United Arab Emirates. The resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to several front-line drugs were estimated. All laboratories used automatic machines (Vitek 2), which identifies and determines minimum inhibitory concentrations simultaneously. Increased resistance was observed for Staphylococcus aureus, (n=315, 2005) to erythromycin (approximately 6 fold, Al-Ain Hospital only), cloxacillin (Al-Ain Hospital), and gentamicin (more than 3-10 folds in all hospitals). Increased penicillin resistance was not observed. For the common Gram-negative organisms, there was a high resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem, which seemed to increase for Escherichia coli, (by 4.2-200%, n=305, 2005); however, there was very little resistance to imipenem (0.4%) in Tawam Hospital. Variable resistance patterns were obtained for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=316, 2005) and Klebsiella spp,(n=316, 2005) against aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin. Overall, there was an obvious increase in resistance of bacteria and the prevalence rate to a number of drugs from 1-120 folds during the 11-year period. (author)

  17. Prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of Danish versus other European bacterial isolates from intensive care and hematology/oncology units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A; Høiby, Niels; Friis, H M

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacteria collected consecutively from medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) and from hematology/oncology units in nine hospitals in Denmark were determined and compared to data collected simultaneously in 12 other European countries...... frequent in other European countries than Denmark. In general the Danish isolates were more sensitive to antibiotics than the European isolates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  18. Isolation and identification of bacterial populations of zoonotic importance from captive non-venomous snakes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Yusuf; Ilyasu, Yusuf Maina; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Captivity of non-venomous snakes such as python and boa are common in zoos, aquariums and as pets in households. Poor captivity conditions expose these reptiles to numerous pathogens which may result in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the common bacteria isolated from necropsied captive snakes in Malaysia over a five year period. A total of 27 snake carcasses presented for necropsy at the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) were used in this survey. Samples were aseptically obtained at necropsy from different organs/tissues (lung, liver, heart, kindey, oesophagus, lymph node, stomach, spinal cord, spleen, intestine) and cultured onto 5% blood and McConkey agar, respectively. Gram staining, morphological evaluation and biochemical test such as oxidase, catalase and coagulase were used to tentatively identify the presumptive bacterial isolates. Pythons had the highest number of cases (81.3%) followed by anaconda (14.8%) and boa (3.7%). Mixed infection accounted for 81.5% in all snakes and was highest in pythons (63%). However, single infection was only observed in pythons (18.5%). A total of 82.7%, 95.4% and 100% of the bacterial isolates from python, anaconda and boa, respectively were gram negative. Aeromonas spp was the most frequently isolated bacteria in pythons and anaconda with incidences of 25 (18%) and 8 (36.6%) with no difference (p > 0.05) in incidence, respectively, while Salmonella spp was the most frequently isolated in boa and significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in python and anaconda. Bacteria species were most frequently isolated from the kidney of pythons 35 (25.2%), intestines of anacondas 11 (50%) and stomach of boa 3 (30%). This study showed that captive pythons harbored more bacterial species than anaconda or boa. Most of the bacterial species isolated from these snakes have public health importance and have been incriminated in human infections worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Unculturables: targeted isolation of bacterial species associated with canine periodontal health or disease from dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ian J; Bull, Christopher; Horsfall, Alexander; Morley, Ian; Harris, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    The current inability to culture the entirety of observed bacteria is well known and with the advent of ever more powerful molecular tools, that can survey bacterial communities at previously unattainable depth, the gap in our capacity to culture and define all of these species increases exponentially. This gap has essentially become the rate limiting step in determining how the knowledge of which species are present in a sample can be applied to understand the role of these species in an ecosystem or disease process. A case in point is periodontal disease, which is the most widespread oral disease in dogs. If untreated the disease results in significant pain, eventual loss of the dentition and potentially an increased risk of systemic diseases. Previous molecular based studies have identified the bacterial species associated with periodontal disease in dogs; however without cultured strains from many of these species it has not been possible to study whether they play a role in the disease process. Using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) directed approach a range of microbiological media were screened and optimized to enrich for previously uncultivated target species. A systematic screening methodology was then employed to isolate the species of interest. In cases where the target species were not cultivable in isolation, helper strains grown underneath a nitrocellulose membrane were used to provide the necessary growth factors. This guided media optimization approach enabled the purification of 14 species, 8 of which we had previously been unable to cultivate in isolation. It is also applicable to the targeted isolation of isolates from species that have previously been cultured (for example to study intra-species variation) as demonstrated by the successful isolation of 6 targeted isolates of already cultured species. To our knowledge this is the first time this combination of qPCR guided media optimization, strategic screening and helper strain

  20. Aspiration in head and neck cancer patients: a single centre experience of clinical profile, bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Sirsath, Nagesh T; Subramanyam, Jayshree R; Govind, Babu K; Lokanatha, D; Shenoy, Ashok M

    2013-07-01

    Most patients with head and neck cancer have dysphagia and are at increased risk of having aspiration and subsequent pneumonia. It can cause prolonged hospitalization, treatment delay and/or interruption and mortality in cancer patients. The treatment of these infections often relies on empirical antibiotics based on local microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The aim of present study is to analyse respiratory tract pathogens isolated by sputum culture in head and neck cancer patients undergoing treatment at a tertiary cancer centre in South India who presented with features of aspiration. The study is carried out to establish empirical antibiotic policy for head and neck cancer patients who present with features of aspiration. This was a retrospective study. The study included sputum samples sent for culture and sensitivity from January 2011 to December 2012. Analysis of microbiologic species isolated in sputum specimen and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the bacterial isolates was performed. A detailed study of case files of all patients was done to find out which is the most common site prone for producing aspiration. There were 47 (31.54 %) gram positive isolates and 102 (68.45 %) gram negative isolates. The most common bacterial isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.50 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.77 %) and Haemophilus influenzae (15.43 %). Levofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic with excellent activity against both gram positive and gram negative isolates. Most patients with aspiration had laryngeal cancer (34.89 %). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 14 (9.39 %) patients. Gram negative bacteria are common etiologic agents in head and neck cancer patients presenting with features of aspiration. Levofloxacin should be started as empirical antibiotic in these patients while awaiting sputum culture sensitivity report. As aspiration in head and neck cancer is an underreported event such institutional antibiotic sensitivity

  1. Physicochemical and Bacterial Properties of Pasteurized Milk Samples Collected from Tabriz, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Farhoodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are important components of a balanced diet. Milk does have distinct physicochemical, biological and microbial characteristics. The bacterial contamination of milk not only reduces the nutritional quality but its consumption threatens health of the society. In this study, 100 pasteurized milk samples were collected randomly from Tabriz City, northwestern and were analyzed for total plate count (TPC, coliform, E. coli and some physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity and density. 33.3% of samples had unacceptable microbial contamination in both warm and cold seasons. E. coli contamination was not detected in all milk samples, but 54% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated with coliforms. The pH value (6.6-6.8 and titratable acidity (0.14-0.16% were in acceptable range. The means value of samples’ density was 1028.79±1.04. Lower microbial contamination level in this area indicates that the dairy factories are concerned about appropriate sanitary practice and pasteurization process.

  2. Hormone-dependent bacterial growth, persistence and biofilm formation--a pilot study investigating human follicular fluid collected during IVF cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Pelzer

    Full Text Available Human follicular fluid, considered sterile, is aspirated as part of an in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. However, it is easily contaminated by the trans-vaginal collection route and little information exists in its potential to support the growth of microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to determine whether human follicular fluid can support bacterial growth over time, whether the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone (present at high levels within follicular fluid contribute to the in vitro growth of bacterial species, and whether species isolated from follicular fluid form biofilms. We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp. and E. coli. Several species, Lactobacillus spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp., formed biofilms when incubated in native follicular fluids in vitro (18/24, 75%. We conclude that bacteria aspirated along with follicular fluid during IVF cycles demonstrate a persistent pattern of growth. This discovery is important since it can offer a new avenue for investigation in infertile couples.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Phenotypes of Recent Bacterial Strains Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Elderly Patients with Prostatic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcaru, Cristina; Podgoreanu, Paulina; Alexandru, Ionela; Popescu, Nela; Măruţescu, Luminiţa; Bleotu, Coralia; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Gluck, Marinela; Lazăr, Veronica

    2017-05-31

    Acute bacterial prostatitis is one of the frequent complications of urinary tract infection (UTI). From the approximately 10% of men having prostatitis, 7% experience a bacterial prostatitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of uropathogens associated with UTIs in older patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and to assess their susceptibility to commonly prescribed antibiotics as well as the relationships between microbial virulence and resistance features. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli was found to be the most frequent bacterial strain isolated from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, followed by Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Serratia marcescens . Increased resistance rates to tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides were registered. Besides their resistance profiles, the uropathogenic isolates produced various virulence factors with possible implications in the pathogenesis process. The great majority of the uropathogenic isolates revealed a high capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cell monolayer in vitro, mostly exhibiting a localized adherence pattern. Differences in the repertoire of soluble virulence factors that can affect bacterial growth and persistence within the urinary tract were detected. The Gram-negative strains produced pore-forming toxins-such as hemolysins, lecithinases, and lipases-proteases, siderophore-like molecules resulted from the esculin hydrolysis and amylases, while Enterococcus sp. strains were positive only for caseinase and esculin hydrolase. Our study demonstrates that necessity of investigating the etiology and local resistance patterns of uropathogenic organisms, which is crucial for determining appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment in elderly patients with UTI, while establishing correlations between resistance and virulence profiles could provide valuable input about the clinical evolution and recurrence rates of UTI.

  4. Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Phenotypes of Recent Bacterial Strains Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Elderly Patients with Prostatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Delcaru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute bacterial prostatitis is one of the frequent complications of urinary tract infection (UTI. From the approximately 10% of men having prostatitis, 7% experience a bacterial prostatitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of uropathogens associated with UTIs in older patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and to assess their susceptibility to commonly prescribed antibiotics as well as the relationships between microbial virulence and resistance features. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli was found to be the most frequent bacterial strain isolated from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, followed by Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens. Increased resistance rates to tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides were registered. Besides their resistance profiles, the uropathogenic isolates produced various virulence factors with possible implications in the pathogenesis process. The great majority of the uropathogenic isolates revealed a high capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cell monolayer in vitro, mostly exhibiting a localized adherence pattern. Differences in the repertoire of soluble virulence factors that can affect bacterial growth and persistence within the urinary tract were detected. The Gram-negative strains produced pore-forming toxins—such as hemolysins, lecithinases, and lipases—proteases, siderophore-like molecules resulted from the esculin hydrolysis and amylases, while Enterococcus sp. strains were positive only for caseinase and esculin hydrolase. Our study demonstrates that necessity of investigating the etiology and local resistance patterns of uropathogenic organisms, which is crucial for determining appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment in elderly patients with UTI, while establishing correlations between resistance and virulence profiles could provide valuable input about the clinical evolution and

  5. CHROMagar COL-APSE: a selective bacterial culture medium for the isolation and differentiation of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Momin, Muhd Haziq F; Bean, David C; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. A selective chromogenic culture medium for the laboratory isolation and differentiation of colistin resistant Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Enterobacteriaceae spp. (CHROMagar COL-APSE) was developed, evaluated and compared to an existing selective bacterial culture...

  6. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis by bacterial isolates from pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Paulo Ivan; de Oliveira, Paulo Jansen; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2011-02-01

    The bacterial strains that are able to produce biopolymers that are applied in industrial sectors present a source of renewable resources. Some microorganisms are already applied at several industrial sectors, but the prospecting of new microbes must bring microorganisms that are feasible to produce interesting biopolymers more efficiently and in cheaper conditions. Among the biopolymers applied industrially, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) stand out because of its applications, mainly in biodegradable plastic production and in food industry, respectively. In this context, the capacity of bacteria isolated from pigeonpea root nodules to produce EPS and PHB was evaluated, as well as the cultural characterization of these isolates. Among the 38 isolates evaluated, the majority presented fast growth and ability to acidify the culture media. Regarding the biopolymer production, five isolates produced more than 10 mg PHB per liter of culture medium. Six EPS producing bacteria achieved more than 200 mg EPS per liter of culture medium. Evaluating different carbon sources, the PHB productivity of the isolate 24.6b reached 69% of cell dry weight when cultured with starch as sole carbon source, and the isolate 8.1c synthesized 53% PHB in dry cell biomass and more than 1.3 g L⁻¹ of EPS when grown using xylose as sole carbon source.

  7. Characterization of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in a culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.S. Zanetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in our culture collection did not grow or grew poorly and showed lysis on the culture plates when removed from the collection and inoculated on MacConkey agar. One hypothesis was that bacteriophages had infected and killed those clinical isolates. To check the best storage conditions to maintain viable P. aeruginosa for a longer time, clinical isolates were stored at various temperatures and were grown monthly. We investigated the presence of phage in 10 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa stored in our culture collection. Four strains of P. aeruginosa were infected by phages that were characterized by electron microscopy and isolated to assess their ability to infect. The best condition to maintain the viability of the strains during storage was in water at room temperature. Three Siphoviridae and two Myoviridae phages were visualized and characterized by morphology. We confirmed the presence of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates, and their ability to infect and lyse alternative hosts. Strain PAO1, however, did not show lysis to any phage. Mucoid and multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa showed lysis to 50% of the phages tested.

  8. Final Scientific Report: Bacterial Nanowires and Extracellular Electron Transfer to Heavy Metals and Radionuclides by Bacterial Isolates from DOE Field Research Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealson, Kenneth [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This proposal involved the study of bacteria capable of transferring electrons from the bacterial cells to electron acceptors located outside the cell. These could be either insoluble minerals that were transformed into soluble products upon the addition of electrons, or they could be soluble salts like uranium or chromium, that become insoluble upon the addition of electrons. This process is called extracellular electron transport or EET, and can be done directly by cellular contact, or via conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires. In this work we examined a number of different bacteria for their ability to perform EET, and also looked at their ability to produce conductive nanowires that can be used for EET at a distance away from the EET-capable cells. In the work, new bacteria were isolated, new abilities of EET were examined, and many new methods were developed, and carefully described in the literature. These studies set the stage for future work dealing with the bioremediation of toxic metals like uranium and chromium. They also point out that EET (and conductive nanowires) are far more common that had been appreciated, and may be involved with energy transfer not only in sediments, but in symbioses between different bacteria, and in symbiosis/pathogenesis between bacteria and higher organisms.

  9. Final Scientific Report: Bacterial Nanowires and Extracellular Electron Transfer to Heavy Metals and Radionuclides by Bacterial Isolates from DOE Field Research Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealson, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This proposal involved the study of bacteria capable of transferring electrons from the bacterial cells to electron acceptors located outside the cell. These could be either insoluble minerals that were transformed into soluble products upon the addition of electrons, or they could be soluble salts like uranium or chromium, that become insoluble upon the addition of electrons. This process is called extracellular electron transport or EET, and can be done directly by cellular contact, or via conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires. In this work we examined a number of different bacteria for their ability to perform EET, and also looked at their ability to produce conductive nanowires that can be used for EET at a distance away from the EET-capable cells. In the work, new bacteria were isolated, new abilities of EET were examined, and many new methods were developed, and carefully described in the literature. These studies set the stage for future work dealing with the bioremediation of toxic metals like uranium and chromium. They also point out that EET (and conductive nanowires) are far more common that had been appreciated, and may be involved with energy transfer not only in sediments, but in symbioses between different bacteria, and in symbiosis/pathogenesis between bacteria and higher organisms.

  10. Study of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Blood Culture Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobola, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Definitive diagnosis is by bacteriologic culture of blood samples to identify organisms and establish antibiotic susceptibility. Between July and September 2009, 249 blood samples collected from patients at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were processed. Positive cultures which accounted for 48(19.3% of total samples screened, were purified and identified according to standard methods. Sensitivity of bacteria to different antibiotics was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Microorganisms recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis (12.5% respectively, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis (8.3% respectively and Citrobacter freundii (6.3% . The highest antibiotic activities against Gram positive isolates were observed for ofloxacin (90.9%, nitrofurantoin (81.8% and gentamicin (72.7%, while in Gram negative bacteria, ofloxacin (81.1% and nalidixic acid (45.9% were most effective. The possibility of drug resistance acquisition by bacteria makes continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria essential as this will enhance efforts to identify resistance and attempt to limit its spread.

  11. Biodegradation of anthracene by a newly isolated bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringiensis AT.ISM.1, isolated from a fly ash deposition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, A; Sinha, A; Masto, R E

    2017-10-01

    The current study is aimed to evaluate the mechanism of anthracene degradation by a bacterial strain isolated from fly ash deposition site near Jamadoba Coal Preparation Plant, Jharkhand, India. The Bushnell-Haas media cultured (containing anthracene as sole carbon source) bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence coding as the Bacillus thuringiensis strain, which showed the efficiency to degrade anthracene. The degradation efficiency of the strain has been estimated to be around 91% (for 40 mg l -1 of anthracene concentration) after 2 weeks of incubation at 33-36°C and initial pH of 6·8-7. The growth kinetics of the isolated strain has been described well by the Haldane-Andrews model of microbial growth pattern for inhibitory substrate, with a correlation factor (R 2 value) of 0·9790. The maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) was 0·01053 h -1 and the value of inhibition coefficient for Haldane model was specified as 18·2448 mg l -1 . In the present study, some diphenol metabolites were identified besides the known possible biodegradation products. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as significant health risks and consequently listed as priority pollutants by environmental protection agencies across the globe. The aim of the present study was to degrade one of the important PAHs, anthracene, by a newly isolated Bacillus thuringiensis strain. This is the first report of anthracene degradation by B. thuringiensis. This is also the very first growth kinetic study of a bacteria in an anthracene-containing medium. Some diphenol metabolites were found for the first time as anthracene biodegradation by-products, which can be an indication towards a new pathway. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed

    2015-06-01

    The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 μg/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, monitoring of pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

  13. Pre-adapting parasitic phages to a pathogen leads to increased pathogen clearance and lowered resistance evolution with Pseudomonas aeruginosacystic fibrosis bacterial isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Soanes-Brown, Daniel; Sierocinski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    and then compared the efficacy of pre-adapted and non-adapted phages against ancestral bacterial strains. We found that evolved phages were more efficient in reducing bacterial densities than ancestral phages. This was primarily because only 50% of bacterial strains were able to evolve resistance to evolved phages......, while all bacteria were able to evolve some level of resistance to ancestral phages. While the rate of resistance evolution did not differ between intermittent and chronic isolates, it incurred a relatively higher growth cost for chronic isolates when measured in the absence of phages. This is likely...

  14. Decreased Phototoxic Effects of TiO₂ Nanoparticles in Consortium of Bacterial Isolates from Domestic Waste Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Mathur

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to explore the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles at low concentrations (0.25, 0.50 & 1.00 μg/ml; on five bacterial isolates and their consortium in waste water medium both in dark and UVA conditions. To critically examine the toxic effects of nanoparticles and the response mechanism(s offered by microbes, several aspects were monitored viz. cell viability, ROS generation, SOD activity, membrane permeability, EPS release and biofilm formation. A dose and time dependent loss in viability was observed for treated isolates and the consortium. At the highest dose, after 24h, oxidative stress was examined which conclusively showed more ROS generation & cell permeability and less SOD activity in single isolates as compared to the consortium. As a defense mechanism, EPS release was enhanced in case of the consortium against the single isolates, and was observed to be dose dependent. Similar results were noticed for biofilm formation, which substantially increased at highest dose of nanoparticle exposure. Concluding, the consortium showed more resistance against the toxic effects of the TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the individual isolates.

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs and Cats Across Europe: ComPath Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaert, Hilde; Morrissey, Ian; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    ComPath is a pan-European antimicrobial surveillance program collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats not recently exposed to antimicrobials. We present minimum inhibitory concentration data obtained using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology for 616 urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. In both dogs and cats, the most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (59.8% and 46.7%, respectively). Antimicrobial activity against E. coli in dogs and cats was similar with fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility >90%. Ampicillin susceptibility was ∼80%. Staphylococcus intermedius Group isolates from dogs (67/437, 15.3%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (>90%) toward beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Four canine isolates (6%) were oxacillin resistant, and harbored mecA. Proteus mirabilis from dogs (48/437, 11.0%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (∼90%) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and marbofloxacin and slightly lower susceptibility (∼80-85%) to ampicillin and orbifloxacin. Streptococcus canis isolates (35/437, 8.0%) from dogs were all susceptible to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and >90% susceptible to marbofloxacin. Although resistance was not observed, high intermediate susceptibility was seen for both enrofloxacin (28.6%) and orbifloxacin (85.7%). Overall, antimicrobial in vitro activity appears to be high in UTI pathogens from dogs and cats with low multidrug resistance, although a lack of specific dog and cat breakpoints for important antimicrobials such as cefovecin, cephalexin, and ibafloxacin prevents analysis of susceptibility for these agents.

  16. Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, On On; Lai, Pok Yui; Wu, Hui-xian; Zhou, Xiao-jian; Miao, Li; Wang, Hao; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-08-01

    A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped and slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated UST090418-1611(T), was isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain UST090418-1611(T) in the family Alteromonadaceae with the closest relationship to the genus Marinobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the strain and the type strains of recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 92.9 to 98.3%. Although strain UST090418-1611(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Marinobacter mobilis CN46(T), M. zhejiangensis CN74(T) and M. sediminum R65(T) (98.3, 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively), the relatedness of the strain to these three strains in DNA-DNA hybridization was only 58, 56 and 33%, respectively, supporting the novelty of the strain. In contrast to most strains in the genus Marinobacter, strain UST090418-1611(T) tolerated only 6% (w/v) NaCl, and optimal growth occurred at 2.0% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-36 °C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C(12:0) 3-OH, C(16:0), C(12:0) and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)ω6c and/or C(16:1)ω7c). The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.1 mol%. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we suggest that the strain represents a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with UST090418-1611(T) ( = JCM 17469(T)  = NRRL B-59512(T)) as the type strain.

  17. Evaluation of a Single Procedure Allowing the Isolation of Enteropathogenic Yersinia along with Other Bacterial Enteropathogens from Human Stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other Gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools. PMID:22911756

  18. Selection for bacterial leaf-blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) and sheath-blight (Rhizoctonia oryzae) resistant mutants in a collection of early rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismachin Kartoprawiro, M.; Mugiono

    1977-01-01

    Two of the most important and common rice diseases in Indonesia are bacterial leaf blight (BLB) and sheath blight (SB). The best rice yielding varieties in Indonesia, Pelita I/1 and IR5, were treated with gamma radiation and EMS. All the early maturing mutants which were selected from M 2 and M 3 generations, and afterwards in the M 8 generation we tested for their reaction to bacterial leaf blight and sheath blight. Pelita I/1 is moderately resistant to BLB and moderately susceptible to SB, but IR5 is susceptible to BLB or SB. At 30 and 60 days after transplanting, 107 early maturing mutants were inoculated with BLB. The bacteria were isolated from three different rice fields, and grown into Wakimoto media. Inoculation was done by the cutting method with suspension of 10 -7 -10 -8 cell/cm 3 . The virulence of bacteria isolated from the three fields was different. Resistant mutants were only observed in the Pelita I/1 early mutant collection; however, moderate resistance was found in the IR5 early mutants collection. At late growth stage the plant seems relatively more resistant to BLB. Early mutants of Pelita I/1 were inoculated with fungus SB following the procedure of the International Rice Sheath Blight Nursery (IRSHBN). Of 96 mutants, 55 were susceptible and 41 were moderately susceptible. Pelita I/1 was moderately susceptible with 48% damage and, compared with this, 9 mutant lines showed less than 40% damage. Selection was also carried out by natural infection; however, owing to ecoclimatic conditions the result was not convincing. (author)

  19. Christensenella timonensis, a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ndongo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new species, Christensenella timonensis, strain Marseille-P2437T (CSUR P2437T, which was isolated from gut microbiota of a 66-year-old patient as a part of culturomics study. C. timonensis represents the second species isolated within the Christensenella genus.

  20. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Akinosho, Maryam; Makofane, Rosina; Adeleke, Rasheed; Thantsha, Mapitsi; Pillay, Michael; Chirima, George Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter , Arthrobacter , Bacillus , Flavobacterium , Microbacterium , Ochrobactrum , Pseudomonas , Pseudoxanthomonas , Rhodococcus , and Stenotrophomonas . Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera ( Pseudomonas , Acinetobacter , Arthrobacter , and Rhodococcus ) to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection.

  1. Diversity of the bacterial and fungal microflora from the midgut and cuticle of phlebotomine sand flies collected in North-Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhoundi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the leishmaniases, parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania spp. Little is known about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly microflora colonizing the midgut or the cuticle. Particularly, there is little information on the fungal diversity. This information is important for development of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FIVE SAND FLY SPECIES: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. kandelakii, P. perfiliewi and P. halepensis were caught in Bileh Savar and Kaleybar in North-Western Iran that are located in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis. A total of 35 specimens were processed. Bacterial and fungal strains were identified by routine microbiological methods. We characterized 39 fungal isolates from the cuticle and/or the midgut. They belong to six different genera including Penicillium (17 isolates, Aspergillus (14, Acremonium (5, Fusarium (1, Geotrichum (1 and Candida (1. We identified 33 Gram-negative bacteria: Serratia marcescens (9 isolates, Enterobacter cloacae (6, Pseudomonas fluorescens (6, Klebsiella ozaenae (4, Acinetobacter sp. (3, Escherichia coli (3, Asaia sp. (1 and Pantoea sp. (1 as well as Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (5 and Micrococcus luteus (5 in 10 isolates. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides new data on the microbiotic diversity of field-collected sand flies and for the first time, evidence of the presence of Asaia sp. in sand flies. We have also found a link between physiological stages (unfed, fresh fed, semi gravid and gravid of sand flies and number of bacteria that they carry. Interestingly Pantoea sp. and Klebsiella ozaenae have been isolated in Old World sand fly species. The presence of latter species on sand fly cuticle and in the female midgut suggests a role for this arthropod in dissemination of these pathogenic bacteria in endemic areas. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial

  2. Diversity of the bacterial and fungal microflora from the midgut and cuticle of phlebotomine sand flies collected in North-Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Bakhtiari, Rounak; Guillard, Thomas; Baghaei, Ahmad; Tolouei, Reza; Sereno, Denis; Toubas, Dominique; Depaquit, Jérôme; Abyaneh, Mehdi Razzaghi

    2012-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the leishmaniases, parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania spp. Little is known about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly microflora colonizing the midgut or the cuticle. Particularly, there is little information on the fungal diversity. This information is important for development of vector control strategies. FIVE SAND FLY SPECIES: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. kandelakii, P. perfiliewi and P. halepensis were caught in Bileh Savar and Kaleybar in North-Western Iran that are located in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis. A total of 35 specimens were processed. Bacterial and fungal strains were identified by routine microbiological methods. We characterized 39 fungal isolates from the cuticle and/or the midgut. They belong to six different genera including Penicillium (17 isolates), Aspergillus (14), Acremonium (5), Fusarium (1), Geotrichum (1) and Candida (1). We identified 33 Gram-negative bacteria: Serratia marcescens (9 isolates), Enterobacter cloacae (6), Pseudomonas fluorescens (6), Klebsiella ozaenae (4), Acinetobacter sp. (3), Escherichia coli (3), Asaia sp. (1) and Pantoea sp. (1) as well as Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (5) and Micrococcus luteus (5) in 10 isolates. Our study provides new data on the microbiotic diversity of field-collected sand flies and for the first time, evidence of the presence of Asaia sp. in sand flies. We have also found a link between physiological stages (unfed, fresh fed, semi gravid and gravid) of sand flies and number of bacteria that they carry. Interestingly Pantoea sp. and Klebsiella ozaenae have been isolated in Old World sand fly species. The presence of latter species on sand fly cuticle and in the female midgut suggests a role for this arthropod in dissemination of these pathogenic bacteria in endemic areas. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial role (passive or active) of sand flies.

  3. Larvicidal Activities of Indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates and Nematode Symbiotic Bacterial Toxins against the Mosquito Vector, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have recently caused a panic to the authorities in the endemic countries. This study was conducted to identify native larvicidal biopesticides against Culex pipiens for utilization in the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.Methods: Larvicidal activities of new indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and crude toxin complexes (TCs of two nematode bacterial-symbionts, Photorhabdus luminescens akhurstii (HRM1 and Ph. luminescens akhurstii (HS1 that tested against Cx. pipiens. B. thuringiensis isolates were recovered from different environmental samples in Saudi Arabia, and the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica (HRM1 and He. sp (HS1 were iso­lated from Egypt. Larvicidal activities (LC50 and LC95 of the potentially active B. thuringiensis strains or TCs were then evaluated at 24 and 48h post-treatment.Results: Three B. thuringiensis isolates were almost as active as the reference B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti-H14, and seven isolates were 1.6–5.4 times more toxic than Bti-H14. On the other hand, the TCs of the bacterial sym­bionts, HRM1 and HS1, showed promising larvicidal activities. HS1 showed LC50 of 2.54 folds that of HRM1 at 24h post-treatment. Moreover, histopathological examinations of the HS1-treated larvae showed deformations in midgut epithelial cells at 24h post-treatment.Conclusion: Synergistic activity and molecular characterization of these potentially active biocontrol agents are currently being investigated. These results may lead to the identification of eco-friend mosquito larvicidal product(s that could contribute to the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.

  4. Antimicrobial drug resistance among clinically relevant bacterial isolates in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, Stije J.; van Leth, Frank; Tarekegn, Hayalnesh; Schultsz, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) amongst bacterial pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), despite calls for continent-wide surveillance to inform empirical treatment guidelines. We searched PubMed and additional databases for susceptibility data of key pathogens

  5. Isolation and identification of bacterial glum blotch and leaf blight on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . atrofaciens and P. syringae pv. syringae respectively are the bacterial diseases of wheat in Iran. The disease causes damage on wheat which leads to lots of yield and crop losses in the host plants. During the spring and summer of ...

  6. Bacterial communities in the collection and chlorinated distribution sections of a drinking water system in Budapest, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homonnay, Zalán G; Török, György; Makk, Judit; Brumbauer, Anikó; Major, Eva; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial communities of a bank-filtered drinking water system were investigated by aerobic cultivation and clone library analysis. Moreover, bacterial communities were compared using sequence-aided terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting at ten characteristic points located at both the collecting and the distributing part of the water supply system. Chemical characteristics of the samples were similar, except for the presence of chlorine residuals in the distribution system and increased total iron concentration in two of the samples. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration increased within the collection system, it was reduced by chlorination and it increased again in the distribution system. Neither fecal indicators nor pathogens were detected by standard cultivation techniques. Chlorination reduced bacterial diversity and heterotrophic plate counts. Community structures were found to be significantly different before and after chlorination: the diverse communities in wells and the collection system were dominated by chemolithotrophic (e.g., Gallionella and Nitrospira) and oligocarbophilic-heterotrophic bacteria (e.g., Sphingomonas, Sphingopyxis, and Bradyrhizobium). After chlorination in the distribution system, the most characteristic bacterium was related to the facultative methylotrophic Methylocella spp. Communities changed within the distribution system too, Mycobacterium spp. or Sphingopyxis spp. became predominant in certain samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Comparison of clinical signs and bacterial isolates of postpartum endometritis in holstein dairy cows in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the uterine bacteria in cows with endometritis and to compare other characteristics in cases of endometritis without bacterial growth, with Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes or other bacteria. In total, 86 Holstein cows with postpartum endometritis from 13 commercial dairy herds were sampled once between 21-35 days postpartum. We used several diagnostic techniques for endometritis such as external observation, vaginal exam, rectal palpation, ultrasonography, and cervical and uterine cytological examination. Clear mucus with flakes of pus (E1, mucopurulent discharge (E2, and purulent discharge (E3 are three groups of endometritis. A transcervical double-guarded swab was used for bacterial sampling. The samples were cultured aerobic and anaerobically and biochemical tests were used for differentiation. Measurements were compared between groups: A, no growth (n=47; B, positive bacterial growth without T. pyogenes (n=21; and C, positive bacterial growth with T. pyogenes (n=18. There were no differences (P>0.05 in uterine wall thickness, body condition score (BCS and milk yield between the groups. The uterine horn diameter was largest in groups A (4.30±0.88 in comparison with groups B (4.81±1.17 and C (5.53±2.17 (P<0.05. The percentage of neutrophiles in smears of the uterine discharge (45.7±33.4 in group C was higher (P<0.05 than in groups A (14.5±22.7 and B (23.5±24.0. Eighty-three percent of group C have shown purulent discharge. In conclusion, the facultative anaerobe T. pyogenes may be the most common bacterial agent of postpartum endometritis in Holstein dairy cows in Iran.

  8. Comparison of bacterial biomass and PRP production between different isolation of Haemophilus influenza type-b (Hib under different culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Heamophilus influenzae type-b (Hib is a gram - negative pleomorphic bacterium that causes meningitis infections in children with the age of less than 5 years particularly in two years old infants. In the present study various isolates of Heamophilus influenzae from infants suspected to meningitis were collected, identified, characterized and were used throughout our experiments. Different culture media namely Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB, Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB and GC medium Base (GCB which this medium was modified and prepared in our own laboratory, were compared to determine the highest bacterial yield. All media were added supplements 10mg/ml hemin & 0.01/ml IsovitaleX containing V factor. The bacterial yield for all Hib strains present in our laboratory were measured with an initial inoculums of 104 cfu per ml. The result showed very closed amount of biomass for all isolates however, GCB had slightly higher yield and ultimately we chose this medium for cultivation and extraction of capsular polysaccharide (CPS-b. In our laboratory we have adapted the PRP production according to our technical and instrumental availabilities which exists in our laboratories replacing ultra centrifugation to phenol chloroform to remove contaminants like endotoxin and proteins to the minimum level and also decreased the number of some chemical treatments while some steps were added in purification process. Our study showed although there were not significant differences between the PRP extract of the three isolates with average amount of 108 mg/lit, however, isolate ATCC10210 (ATF2 showed the highest amount with 192mg/lit and the least PRP was produced by isolate H.inf.1, with 16 mg/lit. It seems that the data can be categorized to a normal distribution with the mean of 106.4 and standard deviation of 6.25. This result was confirmed by one sample kolmogorov-Smirnov test, hence the PRP ≥192 mg/lit is statistically significant at a significant level of α =0

  9. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Lima-Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.

  10. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Neto, Reginaldo; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia; Neves, Rejane P

    2014-01-01

    Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.

  11. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bello-Akinosho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH- polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates’ partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection.

  12. A model to explain plant growth promotion traits: a multivariate analysis of 2,211 bacterial isolates.

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    Pedro Beschoren da Costa

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling.

  13. A primary assessment of the endophytic bacterial community in a xerophilous moss (Grimmia montana using molecular method and cultivated isolates

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    Xiao Lei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the endophytic bacterial community in special moss species is fundamental to understanding the microbial-plant interactions and discovering the bacteria with stresses tolerance. Thus, the community structure of endophytic bacteria in the xerophilous moss Grimmia montana were estimated using a 16S rDNA library and traditional cultivation methods. In total, 212 sequences derived from the 16S rDNA library were used to assess the bacterial diversity. Sequence alignment showed that the endophytes were assigned to 54 genera in 4 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids. Of them, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (45.9% and Firmicutes (27.6%, the most abundant genera included Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Leclercia, Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Planococcus, Paenisporosarcina and Planomicrobium. In addition, a total of 14 species belonging to 8 genera in 3 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria were isolated, Curtobacterium, Massilia, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas were the dominant genera. Although some of the genera isolated were inconsistent with those detected by molecular method, both of two methods proved that many different endophytic bacteria coexist in G. montana. According to the potential functional analyses of these bacteria, some species are known to have possible beneficial effects on hosts, but whether this is the case in G. montana needs to be confirmed.

  14. Isolation of a bacterial consortium able to degrade the fungicide thiabendazole: the key role of a Sphingomonas phylotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchon, Chiara; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Omirou, Michalis; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Menkissoglou-Spiroudi, Urania; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2017-05-01

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a fungicide used in fruit-packaging plants. Its application leads to the production of wastewaters requiring detoxification. In the absence of efficient treatment methods, biological depuration of these effluents could be a viable alternative. However, nothing is known regarding the microbial degradation of the recalcitrant and toxic to aquatics TBZ. We report the isolation, via enrichment cultures from a polluted soil, of the first bacterial consortium able to rapidly degrade TBZ and use it as a carbon source. Repeated efforts using various culture-dependent approaches failed to isolate TBZ-degrading bacteria in axenic cultures. Denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning showed that the consortium was composed of α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Culture-independent methods including antibiotics-driven selection with DNA/RNA-DGGE, q-PCR and stable isotope probing (SIP)-DGGE identified a Sphingomonas phylotype (B13) as the key degrading member. Cross-feeding studies with structurally related chemicals showed that ring substituents of the benzimidazole moiety (thiazole or furan rings) favoured the cleavage of the imidazole moiety. LC-MS/MS analysis verified that TBZ degradation proceeds via cleavage of the imidazole moiety releasing thiazole-4-carboxamidine, which was not further transformed, and the benzoyl moiety, possibly as catechol, which was eventually consumed by the bacterial consortium as suggested by SIP-DGGE.

  15. Diversity of Hindgut Bacterial Population in Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju Raji; Dragica Jeremic-Nikolic; Juliet D. Tang

    2017-01-01

    The termite hindgut contains a bacterial community that symbiotically aids in digestion of cellulosic materials. For this paper, a species survey of bacterial hindgut symbionts in termites collected from Saucier, Mississippi was examined. Two methods were tested for optimal genetic material isolation. Genomic DNA was isolated from the hindgut luminal contents of five...

  16. Genotype and Phenotype Characterization of Indonesian Phytophthora infestans Isolates Collected From Java and Outside Java Island

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    Dwinita Wikan Utami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight disease, is a worldwide problem in potato and tomato production. To understand the biology and ecology of P. infestans and the mechanism of spatial and temporal factors for the variation in P. infestans, the population diversity is required to be fully characterized. The objective of this research is to characterize the diversity of P. infestans. Surveys and collection of P. infestans isolates were performed on many locations of potato's production center in Indonesia, as in Java (West Java, Central Java, and East Java and outside of Java islands (Medan, Jambi, and Makassar. The collected isolates were then analyzed for their virulence diversity via plant disease bioassays on differential varieties and genotype diversity based on fragment analysis genotypes profile using the multiplexing 20 simple sequence repeat markers. The virulence characterization showed that the isolates group from Makassar, South Sulawesi, have the broad spectrum virulence pathotype to R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5 differential plants. Simple sequence repeat genotype characterization showed that in general, the population structure of P. infestans grouping is accordance to the origin of the sampling locations. The diversity between populations is lower than diversity between isolates in one location population groups. The characters of P. infestans population showed that the population diversity of P. infestans more occurs on individual isolates in one location compared with the diversity between the population location sampling.

  17. Isolation and Structural Determination of an Anti Bacterial Constituent from the Leaves of Cassia alata Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnali Paul; Prasenjit Mitra; Tanaya Ghosh; Ravinernath Salhan; Takhelmayum Amumachi Singh; Amit Chakrabarti; Sumanta Gupta; Basudeb Basu; Prasanta Kumar Mitra

    2013-01-01

    By different solvent extractions and chromatographic techniques an antibacterial constituent was isolated from leaves of Cassia alata Linn. Infra red spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the isolated compound was chemically 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid. In vitro antibacterial activity of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was studied against four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (M...

  18. Novel bacterial isolate from Permian groundwater, capable of aggregating potential biofuel-producing microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Laughinghouse, Haywood D; Anderson, Matthew A; Chen, Feng; Willliams, Ernest; Place, Allen R; Zmora, Odi; Zohar, Yonathan; Zheng, Tianling; Hill, Russell T

    2012-03-01

    Increasing petroleum costs and climate change have resulted in microalgae receiving attention as potential biofuel producers. Little information is available on the diversity and functions of bacterial communities associated with biofuel-producing algae. A potential biofuel-producing microalgal strain, Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1, was grown in Permian groundwater. Changes in the bacterial community structure at three temperatures were monitored by two culture-independent methods, and culturable bacteria were characterized. After 9 days of incubation, N. oceanica IMET1 began to aggregate and precipitate in cultures grown at 30°C, whereas cells remained uniformly distributed at 15°C and 25°C. The bacterial communities in cultures at 30°C changed markedly. Some bacteria isolated only at 30°C were tested for their potential for aggregating microalgae. A novel bacterium designated HW001 showed a remarkable ability to aggregate N. oceanica IMET1, causing microalgal cells to aggregate after 3 days of incubation, while the total lipid content of the microalgal cells was not affected. Direct interaction of HW001 and N. oceanica is necessary for aggregation. HW001 can also aggregate the microalgae N. oceanica CT-1, Tetraselmis suecica, and T. chuii as well as the cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8007. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated the great novelty of this strain, which exhibited only 89% sequence similarity with any previously cultured bacteria. Specific primers targeted to HW001 revealed that the strain originated from the Permian groundwater. This study of the bacterial communities associated with potential biofuel-producing microalgae addresses a little-investigated area of microalgal biofuel research and provides a novel approach to harvest biofuel-producing microalgae by using the novel bacterium strain HW001.

  19. Bacterial elongation factors EF-Tu, their mutants, chimeric forms, and domains: isolation and purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonák, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 849, 1-2 (2007), s. 141-153 ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5052206; GA AV ČR KJB500520503; GA MŠk 2B06065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : bacterial elongation factors EF-Tu, , G-domain * recombinant EF-Tus * preparation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.935, year: 2007

  20. Bacterial Community Analysis, New Exoelectrogen Isolation and Enhanced Performance of Microbial Electrochemical Systems Using Nano-Decorated Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shoutao

    Microbial electrochemical systems (MESs) have attracted much research attention in recent years due to their promising applications in renewable energy generation, bioremediation, and wastewater treatment. In a MES, microorganisms interact with electrodes via electrons, catalyzing oxidation and reduction reactions at the anode and the cathode. The bacterial community of a high power mixed consortium MESs (maximum power density is 6.5W/m2) was analyzed by using denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S DNA clone library methods. The bacterial DGGE profiles were relatively complex (more than 10 bands) but only three brightly dominant bands in DGGE results. These results indicated there are three dominant bacterial species in mixed consortium MFCs. The 16S DNA clone library method results revealed that the predominant bacterial species in mixed culture is Geobacter sp (66%), Arcobacter sp and Citrobacter sp. These three bacterial species reached to 88% of total bacterial species. This result is consistent with the DGGE result which showed that three bright bands represented three dominant bacterial species. Exoelectrogenic bacterial strain SX-1 was isolated from a mediator-less microbial fuel cell by conventional plating techniques with ferric citrate as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed that it was related to the members of Citrobacter genus with Citrobacter sp. sdy-48 being the most closely related species. The bacterial strain SX-1 produced electricity from citrate, acetate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol, and lactose in MFCs with the highest current density of 205 mA/m2 generated from citrate. Cyclic voltammetry analysis indicated that membrane associated proteins may play an important role in facilitating electron transfer from the bacteria to the electrode. This is the first study that demonstrates that Citrobacter species can transfer electrons to extracellular electron acceptors

  1. Biofilm formation and virulence factor analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from ovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azara, E; Longheu, C; Sanna, G; Tola, S

    2017-08-01

    To perform a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 258 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical ovine mastitis and used for the preparation of inactivated autogenous vaccines. The potential for biofilm production was determined by phenotypic test of Congo Red Agar (CRA) and by PCR for the detection of icaA/D genes. Isolates were also screened by PCR for the presence of enterotoxins (sea, seb, sec, sed and see), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst), leukotoxins (lukD-E, lukM and lukPV83), haemolysins (hly-β and hly-γ), autolysin (atlA) genes and encoding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs: clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnbB, bbp, cna, eno, fib, epbs, sdrC, sdrD and SdrE). None of the 258 isolates showed biofilm-forming ability on CRA and harboured icaA/D genes. The most frequent pyrogenic toxin superantigen genes amplified were sec plus tsst-1, which were found strictly in combination with 71·3% of the Staph. aureus isolates tested. None of the isolates harboured the genes encoding sea and see. Of the 258 isolates tested, 159 (61·6%) possessed all lukD-E/lukM/lukPV83 genes, 123 (47·7%) harboured both hly-β/hly-γ genes, whereas almost all (97·3%) were PCR positive for atlA gene. With respect to adhesion determinants, 179 (69·4%) isolates presented simultaneously four genes (fnbA, fib, clfA and clfB) for fibronectin- and fibrinogen-binding proteins. In this search, several putative virulence determinants have been identified in ovine Staph. aureus isolates collected in Sardinia. Some of the putative virulence determinants could be considered as components of a vaccine because of their role in ovine mastitis pathogenesis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Comparison of Lactobacillus crispatus isolates from Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiomes with isolates from microbiomes containing bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmaksoud, Abdallah A.; Koparde, Vishal N.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Glascock, Abigail L.; Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Buck, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli can inhibit colonization by and growth of other bacteria, thereby preventing development of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Amongst the lactobacilli, Lactobacillus crispatus appears to be particularly effective at inhibiting growth of BV-associated bacteria. Nonetheless, some women who are colonized with this species can still develop clinical BV. Therefore, we sought to determine whether strains of L. crispatus that colonize women with lactobacilli-dominated vaginal microbiomes are distinct from strains that colonize women who develop BV. The genomes of L. crispatus isolates from four women with lactobacilli-dominated vaginal microbiomes ( bacteria (>12 % 16S rRNA reads from bacterial taxa associated with BV) were sequenced and compared. Lactic acid production by the different strains was quantified. Phage induction in the strains was also analysed. There was considerable genetic diversity between strains, and several genes were exclusive to either the strains from Lactobacillus-dominated microbiomes or those containing BV-associated bacteria. Overall, strains from microbiomes dominated by lactobacilli did not differ from strains from microbiomes containing BV-associated bacteria with respect to lactic acid production. All of the strains contained multiple phage, but there was no clear distinction between the presence or absence of BV-associated bacteria with respect to phage-induced lysis. Genes found to be exclusive to the Lactobacillus-dominated versus BV-associated bacteria-containing microbiomes could play a role in the maintenance of vaginal health and the development of BV, respectively. PMID:26747455

  3. Bacterial communities in urban aerosols collected with wetted-wall cyclonic samplers and seasonal fluctuations of live and culturable airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Hernlem, Bradley J; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E

    2012-02-01

    Airborne transmission of bacterial pathogens from point sources (e.g., ranches, dairy waste treatment facilities) to areas of food production (farms) has been suspected. Determining the incidence, transport and viability of extremely low levels of pathogens require collection of high volumes of air and characterization of live bacteria from aerosols. We monitored the numbers of culturable bacteria in urban aerosols on 21 separate days during a 9 month period using high volume cyclonic samplers at an elevation of 6 m above ground level. Culturable bacteria in aerosols fluctuated from 3 CFU to 6 million CFU/L of air per hour and correlated significantly with changes in seasonal temperatures, but not with humidity or wind speed. Concentrations of viable bacteria determined by fluorescence staining and flow cytometry correlated significantly with culturable bacteria. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria constituted 98% of the bacterial community, which was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing using DNA from aerosols. Aquabacterium sp., previously characterized from aquatic environments, represented 63% of all clones and the second most common were Burkholderia sp; these are ubiquitous in nature and some are potential human pathogens. Whole genome amplification prior to sequencing resulted in a substantial decrease in species diversity compared to characterizing culturable bacteria sorted by flow cytometry based on scatter signals. Although 27 isolated colonies were characterized, we were able to culture 38% of bacteria characterized by sequencing. The whole genome amplification method amplified DNA preferentially from Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum, a minor member of the bacterial communities, whereas Variovorax paradoxus dominated the cultured organisms.

  4. Resistência de bactérias ácido-láticas a bacteriófagos provenientes de unidades de processamento de queijo Coalho Phage resistance of acid lactic bacteria isolated from Coalho cheese industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pereira de Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos isolar bacteriófagos de amostras de leite, soro e queijo de Coalho e avaliar a resistência de cepas de Lactobacillus paracasei, pertencentes à Coleção de Micro-organismos de Interesse para a Agroindústria Tropical da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, aos fagos isolados. Posteriormente, a resistência destas cepas a fagos específicos para L. paracasei, da Coleção do Instituto de Lactología Industrial - INLAIN (Santa Fe, Argentina, também foi avaliada. As amostras para isolamento dos fagos foram obtidas em quatro unidades de processamento de queijo de Coalho, sendo duas artesanais e duas industriais, localizadas no Estado do Ceará. Para o isolamento dos bacteriófagos, foi empregado o teste de lise celular (spot, enquanto que a resistência das culturas aos fagos foi avaliada pelos testes de capacidade de produção de ácido e avaliação da turbidez. As cepas avaliadas foram resistentes aos bacteriófagos provenientes das unidades de processamento de queijo de Coalho e aos bacteriófagos da Coleção do INLAIN. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as culturas láticas testadas, resistentes aos bacteriófagos, podem ser utilizadas na composição de fermento lático destinado à elaboração de queijo de Coalho, a partir de leite pasteurizado.The objectives of this research were to isolate bacteriophages from milk samples, whey and Coalho cheese and to evaluate the resistance of strains of Lactobacillus paracasei from the Collection of Microorganisms of Interest for the Tropical Agroindustry, belonging to Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry, to isolate phages. The strains resistance to specific L. paracasei phages from the collection of the Instituto de Lactología Industrial - INLAIN (Santa Fe, Argentina was also evaluated. Samples for phage isolation were from four Coalho cheese processing units, two artisanal and two industrial, localized in the state of Ceará. Spot test was employed for bacteriophages

  5. Fungal Profiles Isolated from Open and Used Cosmetic Products Collected from Different Localities in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, Laila A

    2008-01-01

    A total of seventy five samples of cosmetic products open and used for varying periods of time were collected from different localities in Saudi Arabia. These samples were analyzed for the presence of mesophilic and thermophilic fungi. Six genera and 13 species were isolated at 28 degree C. Eleven genera, 24 species as well as two species varieties were encountered at 45 degree C (thermophilic fungi). Aspergillus was the most common genus while A. terreus was the most common species at 28 degree C and 45 degree C. The highest total count of fungi was obtained from samples of lip cosmetic products, while the lowest total counts were detected in eye cosmetic products. The antifungal activity was studied for seven randomly selected commercial drugs against five species of isolated saprophytic fungi. Results indicated that Dermocart skin cream was largely effective against all tested fungal isolates. (author)

  6. Antimicrobial potencial of Schinus terebenthifolius on bacterial colonies collected by pressure ulcers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcileide da Silva Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the antimicrobial potential of plant species Schinus terebenthifolius, aroeira-red, on bacterial colonies of the exudate from pressure ulcers. Clinical samples were collectedfrom pressure ulcers of 6 patients of ADEFAL, plated on blood agar and after incubation an aliquot of suspension (in the range of 0.5 Mac Farland was sown in Mueller-Hinton. The plant extracts were ground and standardized with the aid of sieves of 150 and 75 micrometers. The resulting powder was mixed with distilled water (10% m.v-1. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity, the disks were sterile filter paper with 10g of each extract. saturatresults referring to antibacterial activity of Schinus terebenthifolius (leaf indicate an average inhibition zone of bacterial growth of 10.8 mm. Regarding Schinus terebenthifolius (stem this study reveals the inefficiency of 10% of the extract as antimicrobial agent. This fact legitimizes the literature findings which show antimicrobial activity of plant extract Schinus terebenthifolius (stem, only when tested at a concentration above 10. The efficiency of the leaves of Schinus terebenthifolius supports the use of this product to minimize bacterial colonization and future infections. However, the results that showed antibacterial inactivity of Schinus terebenthifolius (stem makes impracticable use this part of plant to treat pressure ulcers use of the extract of this plant a concentration of 10%.

  7. Laboratory bioassays and field-cage trials of Metarhizium spp. isolates with field-collected Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex, is an important pest in the western United States. This study evaluates the virulence of 32 isolates of Metarhizium towards field-collected Mormon crickets. Additionally, several isolates were tested in outdoor field-cage studies. All 32 Metarhizium isolates were...

  8. Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phytopathogen suppressive soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjort, K.; Bergstrom, M.; Adesina, M.F.; Jansson, J.K.; Smalla, K.; Sjoling, S.

    2009-09-01

    Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal-restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF{sup 103} of the isolate, Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.

  9. Resistance and inactivation kinetics of bacterial strains isolated from the non-chlorinated and chlorinated effluents of a WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, Sylvia; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A; Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa I; Prieto-García, Francisco; Miranda-López, José M; Franco-Abuín, Carlos M; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Iturbe, Ulises; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia

    2013-08-06

    The microbiological quality of water from a wastewater treatment plant that uses sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant was assessed. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were not removed efficiently. This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. Molecular identification indicated that the strains were related to Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli (three strains), Enterobacter cloacae, Kluyvera cryocrescens (three strains), Kluyvera intermedia, Citrobacter freundii (two strains), Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The first five strains, which were isolated from the non-chlorinated effluent, were used to test resistance to chlorine disinfection using three sets of variables: disinfectant concentration (8, 20 and 30 mg·L(-1)), contact time (0, 15 and 30 min) and water temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C). The results demonstrated that the strains have independent responses to experimental conditions and that the most efficient treatment was an 8 mg·L(-1) dose of disinfectant at a temperature of 20 °C for 30 min. The other eight strains, which were isolated from the chlorinated effluent, were used to analyze inactivation kinetics using the disinfectant at a dose of 15 mg·L(-1) with various retention times (0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 min). The results indicated that during the inactivation process, there was no relationship between removal percentage and retention time and that the strains have no common response to the treatments.

  10. Resistance and Inactivation Kinetics of Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Non-Chlorinated and Chlorinated Effluents of a WWTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coronel-Olivares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of water from a wastewater treatment plant that uses sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant was assessed. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were not removed efficiently. This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. Molecular identification indicated that the strains were related to Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli (three strains, Enterobacter cloacae, Kluyvera cryocrescens (three strains, Kluyvera intermedia, Citrobacter freundii (two strains, Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The first five strains, which were isolated from the non-chlorinated effluent, were used to test resistance to chlorine disinfection using three sets of variables: disinfectant concentration (8, 20 and 30 mg·L−1, contact time (0, 15 and 30 min and water temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C. The results demonstrated that the strains have independent responses to experimental conditions and that the most efficient treatment was an 8 mg·L−1 dose of disinfectant at a temperature of 20 °C for 30 min. The other eight strains, which were isolated from the chlorinated effluent, were used to analyze inactivation kinetics using the disinfectant at a dose of 15 mg·L−1 with various retention times (0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 min. The results indicated that during the inactivation process, there was no relationship between removal percentage and retention time and that the strains have no common response to the treatments.

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity of venom protein isolated from sea snake Enhydrina schistosa against drugresistant human pathogenic bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palani Damotharan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of sea snake (Enhydrina schistosa venom protein against drug-resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods: The venom was collected by milking process from the live specimens of sea snake are using capillary tubes or glass plates. Venom was purified by ion exchange chromatography and it was tested for in-vitro antibacterial activity against 10 drug-resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains using the standard disc diffusion method. Results: The notable antibacterial activity was observed at 150 µg/mL concentration of purified venom and gave its minimum inhibitory concentrations values exhibited between 200-100 µg/mL against all the tested bacterial strains. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed at 16.4 mm against Salmonella boydii and the minimum activity was observed at 7.5 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After the sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis there were a clear single band was detected in the gel that corresponding to purified venom protein molecular weight of 44 kDa. Conclusions: These results suggested that the sea snake venom might be a feasible source for searching potential antibiotics agents against human pathogenic diseases.

  12. ‘Bacillus massiliglaciei’, a new bacterial species isolated from Siberian permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Afouda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the main characteristics of a new species isolated from Siberian permafrost dated around 10 million years. This species was named ‘Bacillus massiliglaciei’ strain Marseille-P2600T (= CSUR P2600=DSM 102861.

  13. ‘Bacteroides cutis,’ a new bacterial species isolated from human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Belkacemi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the main characteristics of ‘Bacteroides cutis’ sp. nov., strain Marseille-P4118T (= CSUR P4118, a new species within the genus Bacteroides. This strain was isolated from a skin sample of a 75-year-old man from Marseille.

  14. ‘Actinotignum timonense’ sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from a human urine sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the main characteristics of ‘Actinotignum timonense’ strain Marseille-P2803T (= CSUR P2803 that was isolated from the urine sample of a 59-year-old man with end-stage renal disease.

  15. Pacaella massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ndongo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the main characteristics of a new species named Pacaella massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., strain Marseille-P2670T (CSUR P2670 that was isolated from the gut microbiota of a 45-year-old French patient.

  16. Anti-bacterial activity of Extract of Crinum jagus bulb against Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crinum jagus plant has been reportedly used for treatment of infectious diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the crude extract and chromatographic fractions from the bulb of Crinium jagus against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was investigated using Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ) and ...

  17. Biosorption of Zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) by metal resistant bacterial isolate from mining tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista Hernandez, D. A.; Carranza Alvarado, M.; Fernandez Linares, L.; Ramirez Landy, I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of microbial biomass in the removal of metals in solution, mainly of low concentrations (100 mg L{sup -}1), present advantages in relation to the physicochemical methods. The resistant microorganisms are potential bio sorbents. The objective of the present study was the isolation, starting from mining tail, of strains with capacity of metal bio sorption (Zn and Pb). (Author)

  18. Biosorption of Zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) by metal resistant bacterial isolate from mining tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista Hernandez, D. A.; Carranza Alvarado, M.; Fernandez Linares, L.; Ramirez Landy, I.

    2009-01-01

    The use of microbial biomass in the removal of metals in solution, mainly of low concentrations (100 mg L - 1), present advantages in relation to the physicochemical methods. The resistant microorganisms are potential bio sorbents. The objective of the present study was the isolation, starting from mining tail, of strains with capacity of metal bio sorption (Zn and Pb). (Author)

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Rhamnolipid-Producing Bacterial Strains from a Biodiesel Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel strains of rhamnolipid-producing bacteria were isolated from soils at a biodiesel facility on the basis of their ability to grow on glycerol as a sole carbon source. Strains were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Enterobacter asburiae, E. hormaecheii, Pantoea stewartii and Pseudomona...

  20. Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Isolates from Captive Green Turtles and In Vitro Sensitivity to Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Delli Paoli Carini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77% and ampicillin (69.2%. More than 50% resistance was also found to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (62.5%, ceftiofur (53.8%, and erythromycin (53.3%. All the enriched phage filtrate mixtures resulted in the lysis of one or more of the multidrug resistant bacteria, including Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. These results indicate that antibiotic resistance is common in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalised sea turtles and their marine environment in North Queensland, supporting global concern over the rapid evolution of multidrug resistant genes in the environment. Using virulent bacteriophages as antibiotic alternatives would not only be beneficial to turtle health but also prevent further addition of multidrug resistant genes to coastal waters.

  1. A study of bacterial isolates from corneal specimens and their antibiotic resistance profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, N. N.; Al-Khattaf, Abdulaziz S.; Yeboah, E. A.; Kambal, Abdel-Majed M.; Al-Mansouri, Samir M.

    2006-01-01

    We aim to examine the spectrum of bacteria causing corneal infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This will serve as a guideline for empiric therapy of corneal infections. We conducted the study over a period of 18 months from March 2001 through December 2002 in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Corneal specimens taken from 200 patients were inoculated directly onto different types of media. The isolates were identified and then tested against the appropriate topical or systemic antibiotics. Sixty-seven (33.5%) of the total specimens were culture positive and 133 (66.5%) were culture negative. Fourteen (7%) of these showed organisms in the Gram stained smears and correlated well with the culture reports. Of the 67 positive cultures, 53 (79.1%) were Gram-positive bacteria mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococci 29 (43.3%) followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) 13 (19.4%). Among Gram-negative bacteria 14 (20.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) 10 (14.9%) was the predominant isolate. All the isolates were sensitive to ofloxacin and the commonly used ocular antibiotics. All the isolated bacteria were sensitive to ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone. Having marked potency for broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, make the fluoroquinolones especially the newer generations, a potential single drug therapy for corneal infections. (author)

  2. Isolation and genomic characterization of Culex theileri flaviviruses in field-collected mosquitoes from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergünay, Koray; Litzba, Nadine; Brinkmann, Annika; Günay, Filiz; Kar, Sırrı; Öter, Kerem; Örsten, Serra; Sarıkaya, Yasemen; Alten, Bülent; Nitsche, Andreas; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2016-12-01

    Vector surveillance for the arthropod-borne infections has resulted in the isolation of a growing number of novel viruses, including several flavivirus strains that exclusively replicate in insects. This report describes the isolation and genomic characterization of four insect-specific flaviviruses from mosquitoes, previously collected from various locations in Turkey. C6/36 Aedes albopictus and Vero cell lines were inoculated with mosquito pools. On C6/36 cells, mild cytopathic effects, characterized as rounding and detachment, were observed in four pools that comprised female Culex theileri mosquitoes. Complete (3 isolates, 10,697 nucleotides) or near-complete (1 isolate, 10,452 nucleotides) genomic characterization was performed in these culture supernatants via next generation sequencing. All strains demonstrated high genetic similarities, with over 99% identity match on nucleotide and amino acid alignments, revealing them to be different isolates of the same virus. Sequence comparisons identified the closest relative to be the Culex theileri flavivirus (CTFV) strains, originally characterized in Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the isolates remained distinct as a cluster but formed a monophyletic group with CTFV strains, and shared a common ancestor with Quang Binh or related Culex flaviviruses. The organization of the viral genome was consistent with the universal flavivirus structure and stem-loops; conserved motifs and imperfect tandem repeats were identified in the non-coding ends of the viral genomes. A potential ribosomal shifting site, resulting in the translation of an additional reading frame, was detected. The deduced viral polyprotein comprised 3357 amino acids and was highly-conserved. Amino acid variations, presumably associated with adaptive environmental pressures, were identified. These isolates comprise the first fully characterized insect-specific flaviviruses in Turkey. Their impact on West Nile virus circulation, which is

  3. Biodegradation of lindane, methyl parathion and carbofuran by various enriched bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, K Rama; Philip, Ligy

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), methyl parathion (O-dimethylO-(4-nitro-phenyl) phosphorothioate) and carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) degradation potential of different enriched bacterial cultures were evaluated under various environmental conditions. Enriched cultures behaved differently with different pesticides. Degradation was more in a facultative anaerobic condition as compared to that in aerobic condition. A specific pesticide enriched culture showed maximum degradation of that pesticide irrespective of pesticides and environmental conditions. Lindane and endosulfan enriched cultures behaved almost similarly. Degradation of lindane by lindane enriched cultures was 75 +/- 3% in aerobic co-metabolic process whereas 78 +/- 5% of lindane degradation occurred in anaerobic co-metabolic process. Degradation of methyl parathion by methyl parathion enriched culture was 87 +/- 1% in facultative anaerobic condition. In almost all the cases, many intermediate metabolites were observed. However, many of these metabolites disappeared after 4-6 weeks of incubation. Mixed pesticide-enriched culture degraded all the three pesticides more effectively as compared to specific pesticide- enriched cultures. It can be inferred from the results that a bacterial consortium enriched with a mixture of all the possible pesticides that are present in the site seems to be a better option for the effective bioremediation of multi-pesticide contaminated site.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts from four plants on bacterial isolates from periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbia, Leila; Chikhi-Chorfi, Nassima; Betatache, Ilhem; Pham-Huy, Chuong; Zenia, Selma; Mameri, Nabil; Drouiche, Nadjib; Lounici, Hakim

    2017-05-01

    Four aqueous extracts of different plant organs are the following: Artemisia herba-alba, Opuntia ficus-indica, Camellia sinensis and Phlomis crinita were evaluated against two bacterial strains: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which are implicated in periodontal diseases. By using a disc method, these plant extracts demonstrated powerful bacterial activity against these Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the four plant extracts varied between 0.03 and 590.82 mg/ml for the microbes. Another assay using commercial antibiotics and antibacterials as positive controls was also conducted. Values obtained after statistical analysis of inhibition diameters of all plant extracts demonstrated that for P. gingivalis, the aqueous extracts of A. herba-alba and O. ficus-indica were most effective, followed by those of C. sinensis and P. crinita. For P. intermedia, aqueous extracts of O. ficus-indica and C. sinensis appeared to be more efficient with significantly different (P > 0.05) inhibition diameters, followed by those of O. ficus-indica and P. crinita. In summary, the statistical results reveal that these plant extracts exert stronger antibacterial activity on P. intermedia germ as compared to P. gingivalis.

  5. Degradation of nicosulfuron by a novel isolated bacterial strain Klebsiella sp. Y1: condition optimization, kinetics and degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain Klebsiella sp. Y1 was isolated from the soil of a constructed wetland, and it was identified based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The co-metabolic degradation of nicosulfuron with glucose by Klebsiella sp. Y1 was investigated. The response surface methodology analysis indicated that the optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 35 °C, respectively, for the degradation of nicosulfuron. Under the optimal conditions, the degradation of nicosulfuron fitted Haldane kinetics model well. The removal of nicosulfuron was triggered by the acidification of glucose, which accelerated the hydrolysis of nicosulfuron. Then, the C-N bond of the sulfonylurea bridge was attacked and cleaved. Finally, the detected intermediate 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine was further biodegraded.

  6. Draft Genomes, Phylogenetic Reconstruction, and Comparative Genomics of Two Novel Cohabiting Bacterial Symbionts Isolated from Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Paul D; Méric, Guillaume; Hitchings, Matthew D; Pachebat, Justin A; Hegarty, Matt J; Chen, Xiaorui; Morgan, Laura V A; Hoeppner, James E; Whitten, Miranda M A; Kirk, William D J; Dyson, Paul J; Sheppard, Sam K; Del Sol, Ricardo

    2015-07-15

    Obligate bacterial symbionts are widespread in many invertebrates, where they are often confined to specialized host cells and are transmitted directly from mother to progeny. Increasing numbers of these bacteria are being characterized but questions remain about their population structure and evolution. Here we take a comparative genomics approach to investigate two prominent bacterial symbionts (BFo1 and BFo2) isolated from geographically separated populations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Our multifaceted approach to classifying these symbionts includes concatenated multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) phylogenies, ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST), construction of whole-genome phylogenies, and in-depth genomic comparisons. We showed that the BFo1 genome clusters more closely to species in the genus Erwinia, and is a putative close relative to Erwinia aphidicola. BFo1 is also likely to have shared a common ancestor with Erwinia pyrifoliae/Erwinia amylovora and the nonpathogenic Erwinia tasmaniensis and genetic traits similar to Erwinia billingiae. The BFo1 genome contained virulence factors found in the genus Erwinia but represented a divergent lineage. In contrast, we showed that BFo2 belongs within the Enterobacteriales but does not group closely with any currently known bacterial species. Concatenated MLSA phylogenies indicate that it may have shared a common ancestor to the Erwinia and Pantoea genera, and based on the clustering of rMLST genes, it was most closely related to Pantoea ananatis but represented a divergent lineage. We reconstructed a core genome of a putative common ancestor of Erwinia and Pantoea and compared this with the genomes of BFo bacteria. BFo2 possessed none of the virulence determinants that were omnipresent in the Erwinia and Pantoea genera. Taken together, these data are consistent with BFo2 representing a highly novel species that maybe related to known Pantoea. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by

  7. Globally dispersed mobile drug-resistance genes in gram-negative bacterial isolates from patients with bloodstream infections in a US urban general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Sapper, S; Sergeevna-Selezneva, J; Tartof, S; Raphael, E; Diep, B An; Perdreau-Remington, F; Riley, L W

    2012-07-01

    Mobile drug-resistance genes with identical nucleic acid sequences carried by multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains that cause community-acquired infections are becomingly increasingly dispersed worldwide. Over a 2-year period, we analysed gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pathogens from the blood of inpatients at an urban public hospital to determine what proportion of these isolates carried such globally dispersed drug-resistance genes. Of 376 GNB isolates, 167 (44 %) were Escherichia coli, 50 (13 %) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 25 (7 %) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 25 (7 %) were Proteus mirabilis and 20 (5 %) were Enterobacter cloacae; the remainder (24 %) comprised 26 different GNB species. Among E. coli isolates, class 1 integrons were detected in 64 (38 %). The most common integron gene cassette configuration was dfrA17-aadA5, found in 30 (25 %) of 119 drug-resistant E. coli isolates and in one isolate of Moraxella morganii. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes were found in 16 E. coli isolates (10 %). These genes with identical sequences were found in nearly 40 % of bloodstream E. coli isolates in the study hospital, as well as in a variety of bacterial species from clinical and non-clinical sources worldwide. Thus, a substantial proportion of bloodstream infections among hospitalized patients were caused by E. coli strains carrying drug-resistance genes that are dispersed globally in a wide variety of bacterial species.

  8. Isolate PM1 populations are dominant and novel methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading bacterial in compost biofilter enrichments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, M A; Hanson, J R; Mefford, J; Scow, K M

    2001-03-01

    The gasoline additive MTBE, methyl tert-butyl ether, is a widespread and persistent groundwater contaminant. MTBE undergoes rapid mineralization as the sole carbon and energy source of bacterial strain PM1, isolated from an enrichment culture of compost biofilter material. In this report, we describe the results of microbial community DNA profiling to assess the relative dominance of isolate PM1 and other bacterial strains cultured from the compost enrichment. Three polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based profiling approaches were evaluated: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 230 bp 16S rDNA fragments; thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of 575 bp 16S rDNA fragments; and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 300-1,500 bp fragments containing 16S/23S ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Whereas all three DNA profiling approaches indicated that PM1-like bands predominated in mixtures from MTBE-grown enrichments, ITS profiling provided the most abundant and specific sequence data to confirm strain PM1's presence in the enrichment. Moreover, ITS profiling did not produce non-specific PCR products that were observed with T/DGGE. A further advantage of ITS community profiling over other methods requiring restriction digestion (e.g. terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms) was that it did not require an additional digestion step or the use of automated sequencing equipment. ITS bands, excised from similar locations in profiles of the enrichment and PM1 pure culture, were 99.9% identical across 750 16S rDNA positions and 100% identical across 691 spacer positions. BLAST comparisons of nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequences showed 96% similarity between isolate PM1 and representatives of at least four different genera in the Leptothrix subgroup of the beta-Proteobacteria (Aquabacterium, Leptothrix, Rubrivivax and Ideonella). Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of 1,249 nucleotide

  9. Biodegradation of marine crude oil pollution using a salt-tolerant bacterial consortium isolated from Bohai Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinfei; Zhao, Lin; Adam, Mohamed

    2016-04-15

    This study aims at constructing an efficient bacterial consortium to biodegrade crude oil spilled in China's Bohai Sea. In this study, TCOB-1 (Ochrobactrum), TCOB-2 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-3 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-4 (Bacillus) and TCOB-5 (Castellaniella) were isolated from Bohai Bay. Through the analysis of hydrocarbon biodegradation, TCOB-4 was found to biodegrade more middle-chain n-alkanes (from C17 to C23) and long-chain n-alkanes (C31-C36). TCOB-5 capable to degrade more n-alkanes including C24-C30 and aromatics. On the basis of complementary advantages, TCOB-4 and TCOB-5 were chosen to construct a consortium which was capable of degrading about 51.87% of crude oil (2% w/v) after 1week of incubation in saline MSM (3% NaCl). It is more efficient compared with single strain. In order to biodegrade crude oil, the construction of bacterial consortia is essential and the principle of complementary advantages could reduce competition between microbes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the ethanolic extracts of seed, leaf and stem bark of Vitellaria paradoxa were investigated. The extracts were tested against three clinical bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using the agar diffusion and the broth dilution techniques. Ethanolic extracts of the plant parts showed activity against all the bacterial pathogens tested. At the highest extract concentration (200 mg/ml, the leaf extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity, while no activity was detected at the lowest concentration (3.13 mg/ml against the tested isolates. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were more susceptible to all extracts of V. paradoxa, while Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the least sensitivity. The efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa was compared to a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. There were differences in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of all the Vitellaria paradoxa ethanolic extracts with respect to the type of organism. All extracts exhibited bacteriostatic effects against the tested organisms at the experimented concentrations. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins and alkaloids as the active principles of Vitellaria paradoxa's antimicrobial activity. V. paradoxa could be used as a potential source of antibiotic substance for a drug development.

  11. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae against bacterial multiresistant strains isolated from nosocomial patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Coelho da Costa

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are considered the main therapeutic option to treat bacterial infections; however, there is the disadvantage of increasing bacterial resistance. Thus, the research of antimicrobials of plant origin has been an important alternative. This work aimed at determining the in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae on multiresistant bacteria isolated from biological materials. 24 strains of nosocomial bacteria were used and divided into six different species that were inhibited by the essential oil in the preliminary "screening" which was accomplished by the diffusion technique in agar. MIC was determined by the microdilution method, beginning with solutions with the final concentrations: 8 up to 0.125% with the following results: The four samples (100% of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and MRSA were inhibited by the essential oil at the concentration of 0.125%. Three samples (75% of Acinetobacter baumannii at 0.125% and a sample (25% at 0.5%; Klebsiella pneumoniae (75% at 0.125% and 25% at 0.25%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (75% at 0.5% and 25% at 0.25%. MIC varied from 78 to 83%. It was concluded through the obtained data that there was not difference in the minimum bactericidal concentration (0.5% of the referred oil for Gram positive as well for Gram negative microorganisms.

  12. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON. Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5–10 and temperatures (20–37 °C values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase, as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation.

  13. Invasive bacterial disease trends and characterization of group B streptococcal isolates among young infants in southern Mozambique, 2001-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betuel Sigaúque

    Full Text Available Maternal group B streptococcal (GBS vaccines under development hold promise to prevent GBS disease in young infants. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest estimated disease burden, although data on incidence and circulating strains are limited. We described invasive bacterial disease (IBD trends among infants <90 days in rural Mozambique during 2001-2015, with a focus on GBS epidemiology and strain characteristics.Community-level birth and mortality data were obtained from Manhiça's demographic surveillance system. IBD cases were captured through ongoing surveillance at Manhiça district hospital. Stored GBS isolates from cases underwent serotyping by multiplex PCR, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and whole genome sequencing.There were 437 IBD cases, including 57 GBS cases. Significant declines in overall IBD, neonatal mortality, and stillbirth rates were observed (P<0.0001, but not for GBS (P = 0.17. In 2015, GBS was the leading cause of young infant IBD (2.7 per 1,000 live births. Among 35 GBS isolates available for testing, 31 (88.6% were highly related serotype III isolates within multilocus sequence types (STs 17 (68.6% or 109 (20.0%. All seven ST109 isolates (21.9% had elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to penicillin (≥0.12 μg/mL associated with penicillin-binding protein (PBP 2x substitution G398A. Epidemiologic and molecular data suggest this is a well-established clone.A notable young infant GBS disease burden persisted despite improvements in overall maternal and neonatal health. We report an established strain with pbp2x point mutation, a first-step mutation associated with reduced penicillin susceptibility within a well-known virulent lineage in rural Mozambique. Our findings further underscores the need for non-antibiotic GBS prevention strategies.

  14. Comparison of pathogenic variation among Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates collected from the United States and International Locations, and identification of Soybean genotypes resistant to the United States isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major constraint in breeding for resistance to soybean rust has been the virulence diversity in Phakopsora pachyrhizi populations. In a greenhouse experiment, reactions of 18 soybean genotypes to 24 U.S. isolates collected 2007-2008 and four foreign isolates were compared. Reactions of four differ...

  15. Lactic Acid Bacterial Starter Culture with Antioxidant and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Biosynthetic Activities Isolated from Flatfish-Sikhae Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yeong Geol; Yu, Hyun-Hee; Chang, Young-Hyo; Hwang, Han-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to select a lactic acid bacterial strain as a starter culture for flatfish-Sikhae fermentation and to evaluate its suitability for application in a food system. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial flatfish-Sikhae were identified and selected as starter culture candidates through investigation of growth rates, salt tolerance, food safety, and functional properties such as antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The fermentation properties of the starter candidates were also examined in food systems prepared with these strains (candidate batch) in comparison with a spontaneous fermentation process without starter culture (control batch) at 15°C. The results showed that the candidate YG331 batch had better fermentation properties such as viable cell count, pH, and acidity than the other experimental batches, including the control batch. The results are expressed according to selection criteria based on a preliminary sensory evaluation and physiochemical investigation. Also, only a small amount of histamine was detected with the candidate YG331 batch. The radical scavenging activity of the candidate batches was better compared with the control batch, and especially candidate YG331 batch showed the best radical scavenging activity. Also, we isolated another starter candidate (identified as Lactobacillus brevis PM03) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing activity from commercial flatfish-Sikhae products. The sensory scores of the candidate YG331 batch were better than those of the other experimental batches in terms of flavor, color, and overall acceptance. In this study, we established selection criteria for the lactic acid bacterial starter for the flatfish-Sikhae production and finally selected candidate YG331 as the most suitable starter.

  16. Optimization of rhamnolipid production by biodegrading bacterial isolates using Plackett-Burman design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mariam; Essam, Tamer; Yassin, Aymen S; Salama, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are biological surfactants produced by microorganisms. Pseudomonas species are well known for the production of the rhamnolipid biosurfactant. In this work, the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas spp. was investigated and further optimized. Two Plackett-Burman designs to study the effect of carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, iron concentration, magnesium concentration, phenol toxicity, pH, temperature, agitation and sampling time were tested. The first design revealed an optimization that increased biosurfactant productivity by almost two to fivefolds for the tested isolates. However, using the second design showed no remarkable increase in biosurfactant productivity. An additional validation run was adopted using the predicted optimal medium with predicted optimal conditions. The validation run showed remarkable increase in the productivity of the tested isolates. The use of microorganisms with biodegradation ability coupled with optimization of the parameters affecting productivity provides an efficient strategy for biosurfactant production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic bacterial populations isolated from medical plants of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Beiranvand, Maryam; Amin, Mansour; Hashemi-Shahraki, Abdolrazag; Romani, Bizhan; Yaghoubi, Sajad; Sadeghi, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endophytic actinobacteria colonize inside the plant tissues without causing damages to the host plant. Since these microorganisms colonize in the different parts of plants and can stop plant disease, they have been applied as biological agents for controlling human diseases. The aim of this study was molecular identification and measuring the antimicrobial activity of endophytic Actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants of Iran. Materials and Methods: The total o...

  18. Optimization of isolation and cultivation of bacterial endophytes through addition of plant extract to nutrient media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Gielen, M; Sánchez-López, A; Jaspers, S; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2015-07-01

    Many endophytes have beneficial effects on plants and can be exploited in biotechnological applications. Studies hypothesize that only 0.001-1% of all plant-associated bacteria are cultivable. Moreover, even after successful isolations, many endophytic bacteria often show reduced regrowth capacity. This research aimed to optimize isolation processes and culturing these bacteria afterwards. We compared several minimal and complex media in a screening. Beside the media themselves, two gelling agents and adding plant extract to media were investigated to enhance the number and diversity of endophytes as well as the growth capacity when regrown after isolation. In this work, 869 medium delivered the highest numbers of cultivable bacteria, as well as the highest diversity. When comparing gelling agents, no differences were observed in the numbers of bacteria. Adding plant extract to the media lead to a slight increase in diversity. However, when adding plant extract to improve the regrowth capacity, sharp increases of viable bacteria occurred in both rich and minimal media. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Microbial culture collection for enhancement of microbial biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Pauline Liew Woan Ying; Goh Chee Meng; Mat Rasol Awang

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial culture collection was established in Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division since 2004. The culture collection was named MINT Bacterial Culture Collection (MBCC). The main objective is to preserve the indigenous bacterial cultures isolated from various environments. Later, the collection was extended to commercially available plasmids, recombinant clones and selected PCR products. This paper describes the importance of culture collection, the experience and the difficulties encountered. (Author)

  20. Imported human brucellosis in Belgium: Bio and molecular typing of bacterial isolates, 1996-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Boarbi, Samira; Michel, Patrick; Bouker, Nora; Escobar-Calle, Luisa; Desqueper, Damien; Fancello, Tiziano; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Godfroid, Jacques; Fretin, David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to characterize by classical biotyping and Multi-Locus variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) all Brucella spp. derived from human cases in Belgium from 1996 to 2015. Final goals were to determine the species and biovar, to trace-back on genetic grounds the origin of each strain when patient history and risk factors were missing, and to survey for particular trends at the national level. Methods A total of 37 Brucella strains, isolated from 37 patients in Belgium, were analyzed by both classical biotyping and MLVA, and the genetic patterns compared to those of human strains isolated worldwide. Results Classical biotyping revealed that isolates were mainly Brucella melitensis. Most of them belonged to biovar 3, the most abundant biovar in the Mediterranean region. MLVA confirmed that Brucella melitensis is too diverse in VNTRs to be able to make clusters associated to each biovar, but it allowed retrieving precious epidemiological information. The analysis highlighted the imported nature of the strains from all over the world with a dominant part from the Mediterranean countries. Findings of the MLVA11 testing were in line with the travel history of patients coming from Italy, Turkey, Lebanon and Peru. The analysis was particularly useful because it suggested the geographical origin of the infection for 12/16 patients for whom no case history was available. Conclusion Classical biotyping and MLVA analysis are not exclusive but remain complementary tools for Brucella melitensis strain surveillance. MLVA11 is sufficient for Brucella-free countries such as Belgium to trace the geographical origin of infection, but complete MLVA16 is needed to search for links with endemic areas. PMID:28384245

  1. Bacterial endosymbionts in field-collected samples of Trialeurodes sp. nr. abutiloneus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Bodil N; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Kelly, Suzanne E; Hunter, Martha S; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Facultative bacterial endosymbionts are common, influential associates of arthropods, yet their movement among host species has not been well documented. Plant-mediated transmission of Rickettsia has been shown for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Bemisia tabaci in USA cotton fields harbors the secondary symbionts Rickettsia and Hamiltonella, and co-occurs with Trialeurodes sp. nr. abutiloneus whiteflies. To determine whether symbionts may be shared, the microbial diversity of these whiteflies on cotton across the USA was analyzed. Trialeurodes sp. nr. abutiloneus bore Portiera, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Arsenophonus and Wolbachia. No Rickettsia or Hamiltonella were detected. These results provide no evidence for horizontal transmission of symbionts between these whitefly genera. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Streptococci isolated from the blood after tooth extraction. Their role in subacute bacterial endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzifotiadis, D; Tsamis, J; Szpirglas, H; Tsitini-Tsamis, M; Roth-Ghanassia, V

    1977-01-01

    A classification, according to the Lancefield's method, of the streptocoques isolated in the blood, after teeth extractions, as well as a determination of their sensibility to the antibiotics, are attempted in this study. It concerns to 23 adults, well supported, to whom multiple extractions, under general anesthesia have been done. We studied both biochemical and serological reactions, and a test for the antibiotic resistance is realised. We insiste in the contrindiction of streptomycine and sulfanilamides in the treatment or the prevention of bacteremia of dental origine.

  3. Bacillus niameyensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from human gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tidjani Alou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus niameyensis sp. nov. strain SIT3T (= CSUR P1266 = DSM 29725 is the type strain of B. niameyensis sp. nov. This Gram-positive strain was isolated from the digestive flora of a child with kwashiorkor and is a facultative anaerobic rod and a member of the Bacillaceae family. This organism is hereby described alongside its complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4  286  116 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid contains 4130 protein-coding and 66 RNA genes including five rRNA genes.

  4. Comparison of Lactobacillus crispatus isolates from Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiomes with isolates from microbiomes containing bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmaksoud, Abdallah A; Koparde, Vishal N; Sheth, Nihar U; Serrano, Myrna G; Glascock, Abigail L; Fettweis, Jennifer M; Strauss, Jerome F; Buck, Gregory A; Jefferson, Kimberly K

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli can inhibit colonization by and growth of other bacteria, thereby preventing development of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Amongst the lactobacilli, Lactobacillus crispatus appears to be particularly effective at inhibiting growth of BV-associated bacteria. Nonetheless, some women who are colonized with this species can still develop clinical BV. Therefore, we sought to determine whether strains of L. crispatus that colonize women with lactobacilli-dominated vaginal microbiomes are distinct from strains that colonize women who develop BV. The genomes of L. crispatus isolates from four women with lactobacilli-dominated vaginal microbiomes ( Lactobacillus) and four women with microbiomes containing BV-associated bacteria (>12% 16S rRNA reads from bacterial taxa associated with BV) were sequenced and compared. Lactic acid production by the different strains was quantified. Phage induction in the strains was also analysed. There was considerable genetic diversity between strains, and several genes were exclusive to either the strains from Lactobacillus-dominated microbiomes or those containing BV-associated bacteria. Overall, strains from microbiomes dominated by lactobacilli did not differ from strains from microbiomes containing BV-associated bacteria with respect to lactic acid production. All of the strains contained multiple phage, but there was no clear distinction between the presence or absence of BV-associated bacteria with respect to phage-induced lysis. Genes found to be exclusive to the Lactobacillus-dominated versus BV-associated bacteria-containing microbiomes could play a role in the maintenance of vaginal health and the development of BV, respectively.

  5. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of bacterial populations isolated from diesel-contaminated soil and treated by two bioremediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta R, Olga M; Rivera R, Angela P; Rojano, Benjamin; Ruiz, Orlando; Correa, Margarita M; Cienfuegos Gallet, Astrid V; Arias, Lida; Cardona G, Santiago A

    2012-01-01

    In this study bioremediation is presented as an alternative for the recovery of contaminated ecosystems. In this work an experimental diesel spill on pasture land was remediated using two bioremediation technologies: natural attenuation, which is the natural capability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade a xenobiotic component in a determined time, and biostimulation, which consist in the acceleration of the degradation process through the stimulation of the metabolism of indigenous microorganisms by the addition of nutrients (P and N) to the media. Results of respirometry assays indicated that both treatments produced significant levels of hydrocarbon removal but the biostimulation treatment stranded out with 98.17% degradation. Seven bacterial isolates were obtained from these treatments which according to their molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis belong to the genus: Enterobacter, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Sanguibacter, Staphylococcus and Flavobacterium. All isolates were able to metabolize diesel as a carbon and energy source; for this reason and taking into account that for some of these microorganisms their role in bioremediation have not been extensively studied, it is recommended to continue with their evaluation to know their real potential for the solution of environmental problems.

  7. Pseudomonas granadensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Granada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Javier; García-López, Marina; Bills, Gerald F; Genilloud, Olga

    2015-02-01

    During the course of screening bacterial isolates as sources of as-yet unknown bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical applications, a chemo-organotrophic, Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a soil sample taken from the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Granada, Spain. Strain F-278,770(T) was oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic, with a respiratory type of metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, non-spore-forming and motile by one polar flagellum, although some cells had two polar flagella. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes revealed that strain F-278,770(T) belongs to the Pseudomonas koreensis subgroup (Pseudomonas fluorescens lineage), with Pseudomonas moraviensis, P. koreensis, P. baetica and P. helmanticensis as its closest relatives. Chemotaxonomic traits such as polar lipid and fatty acid compositions and G+C content of genomic DNA corroborated the placement of strain F-278,770(T) in the genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA hybridization assays and phenotypic traits confirmed that this strain represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas granadensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F-278,770(T) ( = DSM 28040(T) = LMG 27940(T)). © 2015 Fundacion MEDINA, Centro de Excelencia en Investigacion de Medicamentos Innovadores en Andalucia.

  8. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Jihen [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Loungou, Mouna [Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Ammar, Emna, E-mail: ammarenis@yahoo.fr [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The enrichment culture on PG enabled the development of microorganisms. • The isolated Trichoderma asperellum grew on PG concentration at 200 g L{sup −1}. • At 200 g L{sup −1} PG concentration, the experimented strain reduced COD by 52.32%. • Metals concentrations reduction reached a maximum of 73% for the zinc. • Trichoderma asperellum is an efficient microorganism for PG bioremediation. - Abstract: Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/L PG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  9. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, Ns; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel oil biodegradation. The effects of various culture parameters (pH, temperature, NaCl concentrations, initial hydrocarbon concentration, initial inoculum size, role of chemical surfactant, and role of carbon and nitrogen sources) on biodegradation of diesel oil were evaluated. Optimal diesel oil biodegradation by A. baumanii occurred at initial pH 7, 35°C and initial hydrocarbon concentration at 4%. The biodegradation products under optimal cultural conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. The present study suggests that A. baumannii can be used for effective degradation of diesel oil from industrial effluents contaminated with diesel oil.

  10. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Jihen; Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Loungou, Mouna; Ammar, Emna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The enrichment culture on PG enabled the development of microorganisms. • The isolated Trichoderma asperellum grew on PG concentration at 200 g L −1 . • At 200 g L −1 PG concentration, the experimented strain reduced COD by 52.32%. • Metals concentrations reduction reached a maximum of 73% for the zinc. • Trichoderma asperellum is an efficient microorganism for PG bioremediation. - Abstract: Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/L PG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  11. Isolation, taxonomic analysis, and phenotypic characterization of bacterial endophytes present in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, José Luis; Alvarez, Florencia; Príncipe, Analía; Salas, María Eugenia; Lozano, Mauricio Javier; Draghi, Walter Omar; Jofré, Edgardo; Lagares, Antonio

    2018-02-10

    A growing body of evidence has reinforced the central role of microbiomes in the life of sound multicellular eukaryotes, thus more properly described as true holobionts. Though soil was considered a main source of plant microbiomes, seeds have been shown to be endophytically colonized by microorganisms thus representing natural carriers of a selected microbial inoculum to the young seedlings. In this work we have investigated the type of culturable endophytic bacteria that are carried within surface-sterilized alfalfa seeds. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the presence of bacteria that belonged to 40 separate genera, distributed within four taxa (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes). Nonsymbiotic members of the Rhizobiaceae family were also found. The evaluation of nine different in-vitro biochemical activities demonstrated isolates with complex combinations of traits that, upon a Principal-Component-Analysis, could be classified into four phenotypic groups. That isolates from nearly half of the genera identified had been able to colonize alfalfa plants grown under axenic conditions was remarkable. Further analyses should be addressed to investigating the colonization mechanisms of the alfalfa seeds, the evolutionary significance of the alfalfa-seed endophytes, and also how after germination the seed microbiome competes with spermospheric and rhizospheric soil bacteria to colonize newly emerging seedlings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of daily chlorhexidine bathing on cutaneous bacterial isolates: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma VL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vijaya L Soma1, Xuan Qin2, Chuan Zhou1, Amanda Adler1, Jessica E Berry2, Danielle M Zerr11Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG is a topical antiseptic used in a myriad of clinical settings. Recently, CHG baths have been shown to decrease multidrug-resistant organism acquisition and infections and catheter-associated bloodstream infections. The present study examined the effects of daily bathing with CHG on the recovery and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivable cutaneous bacteria. The objectives of this study were to (1 explore the effects of clinical CHG bathing on cultivable cutaneous bacteria, (2 study the relationship between CHG minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci, and (3 demonstrate the feasibility of the approach so a more definitive study may be performed. Significant decreases in bacterial colony counts and phenotypic diversity occurred with greater CHG exposure. The findings also suggest an inverse relationship between CHG minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial susceptibility. Larger prospective studies are necessary to fully investigate the clinical impact of CHG usage.Keywords: antiseptic, resistance, Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative

  13. Kocuria massiliensis sp. nov, a new bacterial species isolated from a patient with foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Sophie; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Beye, Mamadou; Gouriet, Frédérique; Dubourg, Gregory; Delerce, Jeremy; Swiader, Laure; Raoult, Didier

    2018-04-01

    Most of the species from the genus Kocuria are environmental or commensals of mammalian skin and oral bacteria, and had rarely been associated with human infection. However, recent reports showed an increase of the clinical role of these bacteria in human infectious diseases. Most of the cases occurred in hospitals and were device related. They included bacteremia, peritonitis, abscess, endocarditis and ocular infection. We here describe the main characteristics and the draft genome of Kocuria massiliensis sp. nov., strain P3598 T (CSURP3598), a new Kocuria species that caused foot osteomyelitis in a 78-year-old woman. The improvement of diagnostic tools for the identification of bacteria in microbiological laboratories, including MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing, largely contributed to the emergence and to the expansion of the clinical spectrum of infections caused by Kocuria spp. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of osteomyelitis with a bacterial species from the genus Kocuria.

  14. MicroRNA expression in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Wendt, Karin Tarp; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a highly evolutionarily conserved group of small non-coding RNA molecules, which regulate the activity of other genes at the post-transcriptional level. Recently it has become evident that miRNA plays an important role in modulating and fine tuning of the innate and adaptive...... expressed (p-values lower than 0.05). MicroRNA expression in lung tissue over time in response to the two different serotypes were very similar. miR-223 was found to be highly up regulated, followed by miR-146a and to a lesser degree miR-21 in lung tissue of the AP serotype 2 infected animals. MiR-233...... immune responses. Still, little is known about the impact of miRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of lung infections. Expression of miRNA, known to be induced by bacterial (i.e., LPS) ligands and thus supposed to play a role in the regulation of antimicrobial defence, were studied in lung tissue...

  15. Bacterial microcompartments: widespread prokaryotic organelles for isolation and optimization of metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobik, Thomas A; Lehman, Brent P; Yeates, Todd O

    2015-10-01

    Prokaryotes use subcellular compartments for a variety of purposes. An intriguing example is a family of complex subcellular organelles known as bacterial microcompartments (MCPs). MCPs are widely distributed among bacteria and impact processes ranging from global carbon fixation to enteric pathogenesis. Overall, MCPs consist of metabolic enzymes encased within a protein shell, and their function is to optimize biochemical pathways by confining toxic or volatile metabolic intermediates. MCPs are fundamentally different from other organelles in having a complex protein shell rather than a lipid-based membrane as an outer barrier. This unusual feature raises basic questions about organelle assembly, protein targeting and metabolite transport. In this review, we discuss the three best-studied MCPs highlighting atomic-level models for shell assembly, targeting sequences that direct enzyme encapsulation, multivalent proteins that organize the lumen enzymes, the principles of metabolite movement across the shell, internal cofactor recycling, a potential system of allosteric regulation of metabolite transport and the mechanism and rationale behind the functional diversification of the proteins that form the shell. We also touch on some potential biotechnology applications of an unusual compartment designed by nature to optimize metabolic processes within a cellular context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Inverted Heart Model for Interstitial Transudate Collection from the Isolated Rat Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kezhe; Ding, Zhaoping; Steckel, Bodo; Hartwig, Sonja; Lehr, Stefan; Deng, Xiaoming; Schrader, Jürgen

    2017-06-20

    The present protocol describes a unique approach that enables the collection of cardiac transudate (CT) from the isolated, saline-perfused rat heart. After isolation and retrograde perfusion of the heart according to the Langendorff technique, the heart is inverted into an upside-down position and is mechanically stabilized by a balloon catheter inserted into the left ventricle. Then, a thin latex cap - previously cast to match the average size of the rat heart - is placed over the epicardial surface. The outlet of the latex cap is connected to silicon tubing, with the distal opening 10 cm below the base level of the heart, creating slight suction. CT continuously produced on the epicardial surface is collected in ice-cooled vials for further analysis. The rate of CT formation ranged from 17 to 147 µL/min (n = 14) in control and infarcted hearts, which represents 0.1-1% of the coronary venous effluent perfusate. Proteomic analysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that the collected CT contains a wide spectrum of proteins and purinergic metabolites.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of bacterial pathogens isolated from respiratory tract infections in dogs and cats across Europe: ComPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ian; Moyaert, Hilde; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2016-08-15

    ComPath is a pan-European resistance monitoring programme collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats. We present data for respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. Antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and susceptibility calculated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards for veterinary medicine. The main pathogen from dogs was Staphylococcus intermedius Group (49/215, 22.8%) which was >90% susceptible to most antimicrobials (including oxacillin - 93.9%; 3 isolates confirmed mecA-positive) but only 59.2%, 73.5% and 87.8% susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin. Bordetella bronchiseptica (48/215, 22.3%), streptococci (36/215, 16.7%), Escherichia coli (24/215, 11.2%) and Pasteurella multocida (23/215, 10.7%) were also found in dog RTI. There are no breakpoints for Bordetella bronchiseptica. Most streptococci were penicillin- chloramphenicol-, ampicillin- and pradofloxacin-susceptible. None were enrofloxacin-resistant but 6 isolates (16.7%) were of intermediate susceptibility. The least active agent against streptococci was tetracycline (47.2% susceptible). For E. coli, 37.5% were ampicillin-susceptible but 83.3% were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-susceptible. Only chloramphenicol showed susceptibility>90% against E. coli, with 66.7% tetracycline-susceptible and 79.2% to 87.5% susceptibility to enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pradofloxacin. P. multocida were susceptible to pradofloxacin (no other breakpoints are available). The main pathogen from cats was P. multocida (82/186, 44.1%), where only pradofloxacin has breakpoints (100% susceptible). Streptococci were also collected from cats (25/186, 13.4%) and were >90% susceptible to all antimicrobials except tetracycline (36% susceptible). Most susceptibility was calculated with human-derived breakpoints and some antimicrobials had no breakpoints. Therefore predictions of clinical utility

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum based contaminants with biosurfactant produced by a newly isolated petroleum oil degrading bacterial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajit Borah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing bacterial strain was isolated from an automobile engine. The strain was identified as Bacillus cereus DRDU1 on the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. The strain was found to be efficiently degrading 96% of kerosene making it a potential tool for bioremediation of petroleum based contaminants. Production and optimization of the biosurfactant produced by the isolate were also carried out. Surface hydrophobicity trait of isolate was found to be 60.67 ± 1.53% and foaming percentage of the crude biosurfactant was found to be 31.33 ± 0.58%. The presence of amino acids and sugar moieties in the biosurfactant was confirmed by biochemical tests and were further validated by FTIR (the Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analysis revealing the presence of υOH, υCOO, υCOOH, υCH (stretching, υNH, υCH2, υCH3, and υCH (bending, and υCO (ester in the surfactant. The decrease in contact angle of hydrocarbon oil from (30.67 ± 1.15° to (21.3 ± 1.53° respectively after 3 and 6 days of incubation reveals its potential to emulsify petroleum oil. Further, emulsification index (E24 of biosurfactant against kerosene, crude oil, and used engine oil were determined to be 55.33 ± 1.53%, 29.67 ± 1.53%, and 20 ± 1% respectively which attracts its future application in MEOR (microbial enhanced oil recovery process.

  19. Characterization of airag collected in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia with emphasis on isolated lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Ho Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airag, alcoholic sour-tasting beverage, has been traditionally prepared by Mongolian nomads who naturally ferment fresh mares’ milk. Biochemical and microbiological compositions of airag samples collected in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and physiological characteristics of isolated lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Methods Protein composition and biochemical composition were determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria were identified based on nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Carbohydrate fermentation, acid survival, bile resistance and acid production in skim milk culture were determined. Results Equine whey proteins were present in airag samples more than caseins. The airag samples contained 0.10–3.36 % lactose, 1.44–2.33 % ethyl alcohol, 1.08–1.62 % lactic acid and 0.12–0.22 % acetic acid. Lactobacillus (L. helveticus were major lactic acid bacteria consisting of 9 isolates among total 18 isolates of lactic acid bacteria. L. helveticus survived strongly in PBS, pH 3.0 but did not grow in MRS broth containing 0.1 % oxgall. A couple of L. helveticus isolates lowered pH of skim milk culture to less than 4.0 and produced acid up to more than 1.0 %. Conclusion Highly variable biochemical compositions of the airag samples indicated inconsistent quality due to natural fermentation. Airag with low lactose content should be favorable for nutrition, considering that mares’ milk with high lactose content has strong laxative effect. The isolates of L. helveticus which produced acid actively in skim milk culture might have a major role in production of airag.

  20. New Application of Hyperspectral Imaging for Bacterial Cell Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral microscopy has shown potential as a method for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria with spectral characteristics from bacterial cells. Hyperspectral microscope images (HMIs) are collected from broiler chicken isolates of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infa...

  1. Ceftaroline activity tested against bacterial isolates from pediatric patients: results from the assessing worldwide antimicrobial resistance and evaluation program for the United States (2011-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-08-01

    Ceftaroline, the active form of ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against resistant Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ceftriaxone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and many Enterobacteriaceae species. Ceftaroline fosamil is approved in the United States for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults. A total of 5291 consecutive unique pediatric patient strains of clinical significance were collected from 157 US medical centers. The isolates were identified locally and forwarded to a central monitoring laboratory for reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing. S. pneumoniae isolates from the 2011 to 2012 respiratory season were serotyped. Susceptibility results were analyzed according to patient age as follows: ≤ 1 years old (yo; 1857 strains); 2-5 (1342); 6-12 (1281) and 13-17 (811). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rates were slightly lower in isolates from patients 13-17 yo (39.9%) compared with other age groups (48.2-51.5%), and ceftaroline was consistently active against S. aureus isolates from all 4 age groups [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50/90): 0.25-05/1 μg/mL; 99.8-100.0% susceptible]. Overall, 99.8% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were ceftaroline susceptible (MIC50/90: 0.5/1 μg/mL). All S. pneumoniae strains (1178) were ceftaroline susceptible (MIC50/90: ≤ 0.015/0.12 μg/mL), whereas ceftriaxone susceptibility varied from only 84.8 (≤ 1 yo) to 89.7% (13-17 yo). 19A was the most frequent serotype identified among S. pneumoniae and these isolates exhibited low susceptibility to ceftriaxone (42.4%) and most other antimicrobials tested. The highest ceftaroline MIC among Haemophilus influenzae (587 strains) was 0.12 μg/mL (100.0% susceptible), and β-lactamase production rates varied from 24.2 (13-17 yo) to 30.1% (6-12 yo); 27.9% overall

  2. Characterization of novel extracellular protease produced by marine bacterial isolate from the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Fulzele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of the vast pool of enzymes, proteolytic enzymes from microorganisms are the most widely used in different industries such as detergent, food, peptide production etc. Several marine microorganisms are known to produce proteases with commercially desirable characteristics. We have isolated nine different cultures from marine samples of the Indian Ocean. All of them were i motile ii rod shaped iii non spore forming iv catalase and amylase positive v able to grow in presence of 10 % NaCl. They produced acid from glucose, fructose and maltose and grew optimally at 30 0C temperature and pH 7.0-8.0. None of them could grow above 45 0C and below 15 0C. Only one of them (MBRI 7 exhibited extracellular protease activity on skim milk agar plates. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing, it belonged to the genus Marinobacter (98% sequence similarity, 1201 bp. The cell free extract was used to study effects of temperature and pH on protease activity. The optimum temperature and pH for activity were found to be 40 0C and 7.0 respectively. The crude enzyme was stable at temperature range of 30-80 0C and pH 5.0-9.0. It retained 60 % activity at 80 0C after 4 h and more than 70 % activity at 70 0C after 1 h. D value was found to be 342 minutes and 78 minutes for 40 0C and 80 0C respectively. Interestingly the enzyme remained 50 % active at pH 9.0 after 1 h. Comparison with other proteases from different microbial sources indicated that the neutral protease from the halotolerant marine isolate MBRI 7 is a novel enzyme with high thermostability.

  3. Biocontrol of verticillium wilt and colonization of cotton plants by an endophytic bacterial isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-H; Shi, L; Han, Q; Hu, H-L; Zhao, M-W; Tang, C-M; Li, S-P

    2012-09-01

    To explore biocontrol potential of 39 DAEB isolates (doubly antagonistic towards both Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Fusarium oxysporum) against verticillium wilt of cotton and to elucidate colonization and category characteristics of an endophytic bacterium with significant biocontrol activity. Thirty-nine antagonistic endophytic bacteria strains were tested for their ability to control verticillium wilt in cotton plants caused by a defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae 107 in cotton under controlled conditions. The biocontrol trial revealed that an endophytic bacterium, designated HA02, showed a significant biocontrol activity to V. dahliae 107. After cotton seedlings were inoculated with a gfp gene-tagged HA02 (HA02-gfp), HA02-gfp populations were higher in the root than in the stem; in addition, the HA02-gfp was distributed in the maturation zone of cotton root. Furthermore, HA02-gfp also colonized seedlings of maize, rape and soybean after the bacteria inoculation. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rDNA sequences combined with morphological, physiological and identification showed that the bacterium belongs to the Enterobacter genus. Our results showed that only 1 of 39 DAEB isolates demonstrated more efficient biocontrol potential towards V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. HA02-gfp mainly colonized cotton in roots. In addition, we quantitatively observed HA02 colonization in other hosts. HA02 belongs to the Enterobacter genus. This is the first study on biocontrol to defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae Kleb by endophytic bacteria. The HA02 showed effective biocontrol to V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. Furthermore, we assessed the quantitative and qualitative colonization of HA02 in cotton seedlings. Our study provides basic information to further explore managing strategies to control this critical disease. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Interaction of legionella pneumophila and helicobacter pylori with bacterial species isolated from drinking water biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Nuno F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that Legionella pneumophila is a waterborne pathogen; by contrast, the mode of Helicobacter pylori transmission remains unknown but water seems to play an important role. This work aims to study the influence of five microorganisms isolated from drinking water biofilms on the survival and integration of both of these pathogens into biofilms. Results Firstly, both pathogens were studied for auto- and co-aggregation with the species isolated from drinking water; subsequently the formation of mono and dual-species biofilms by L. pneumophila or H. pylori with the same microorganisms was investigated. Neither auto- nor co-aggregation was observed between the microorganisms tested. For biofilm studies, sessile cells were quantified in terms of total cells by SYTO 9 staining, viable L. pneumophila or H. pylori cells were quantified using 16 S rRNA-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA probes and cultivable cells by standard culture techniques. Acidovorax sp. and Sphingomonas sp. appeared to have an antagonistic effect on L. pneumophila cultivability but not on the viability (as assessed by rRNA content using the PNA probe, possibly leading to the formation of viable but noncultivable (VBNC cells, whereas Mycobacterium chelonae increased the cultivability of this pathogen. The results obtained for H. pylori showed that M. chelonae and Sphingomonas sp. help this pathogen to maintain cultivability for at least 24 hours. Conclusions It appears that M. chelonae may have an important role in the survival of both pathogens in drinking water. This work also suggests that the presence of some microorganisms can decrease the cultivability of L. pneumophila but not the viability which indicates that the presence of autochthonous microorganisms can lead to misleading results when the safety of water is assessed by cultivable methods alone.

  5. Electromagnetic field coupling characteristics in graphene plasmonic oligomers: from isolated to collective modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junbo; Qiu, Weibin; Chen, Houbo; Qiu, Pingping; Lin, Zhili; Wang, Jia-Xian; Kan, Qiang; Pan, Jiao-Qing

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, we propose a plasmonic tetramer composed of coupled graphene nanodisks. The transformation from the isolated to the collective modes of the proposed structure is investigated by analysing the whispering-gallery modes and extinction spectra with various inter-nanodisk gap distances. In addition, the effect of introducing a central nanodisk into the tetramer on the extinction spectra is explored, which leads to Fano resonance. Furthermore, the refractive index sensing properties of the proposed graphene plasmonic oligomer have been demonstrated. The proposed nanostructures might pave the road toward the application of graphene plasmonic oligomers in fields such as nanophotonics, and chemical or biochemical sensing.

  6. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  7. Colonization and Maize Growth Promotion Induced by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin; Liu, Xiaomeng; Hao, Tianyi; Chen, Sanfeng

    2017-06-29

    Phosphorus (P) limits the production of maize, one of the major food crops in China. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the capacity to solubilize phosphate complexes into plant absorbable and utilizable forms by the process of acidification, chelation, and exchange reactions. In this study, six bacteria, including one Paenibacillus sp. B1 strain, four Pseudomonas sp. strains (B10, B14, SX1, and SX2) and one Sphingobium sp. SX14 strain, were those isolated from the maize rhizosphere and identified based on their 16S rRNA sequences. All strains could solubilize inorganic P (Ca₃(PO₄)₂, FePO₄ and AlPO₄), and only B1 and B10 organic P (lecithin). All strains, except of SX1, produced IAA, and SX14 and B1 showed the highest level. B1 incited the highest increase in root length and the second increase in shoot and total dry weight, shoot length, and total P and nitrogen (N), along with increased root length. In addition, by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we found that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled B1 mainly colonized root surfaces and in epidermal and cortical tissue. Importantly, B1 can survive through forming spores under adverse conditions and prolong quality guarantee period of bio-fertilizer. Therefore, it can act as a good substitute for bio-fertilizer to promote agricultural sustainability.

  8. The bacterial condensin MukB compacts DNA by sequestering supercoils and stabilizing topologically isolated loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Grosbart, Małgorzata; Nurse, Pearl; Bahng, Soon; Wyman, Claire L; Marians, Kenneth J

    2017-10-13

    MukB is a structural maintenance of chromosome-like protein required for DNA condensation. The complete condensin is a large tripartite complex of MukB, the kleisin, MukF, and an accessory protein, MukE. As found previously, MukB DNA condensation is a stepwise process. We have defined these steps topologically. They proceed first via the formation of negative supercoils that are sequestered by the protein followed by hinge-hinge interactions between MukB dimers that stabilize topologically isolated loops in the DNA. MukB itself is sufficient to mediate both of these topological alterations; neither ATP nor MukEF is required. We show that the MukB hinge region binds DNA and that this region of the protein is involved in sequestration of supercoils. Cells carrying mutations in the MukB hinge that reduce DNA condensation in vitro exhibit nucleoid decondensation in vivo . © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Marine Fungal and Bacterial Isolates for Lipase Production: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnala, H S; Kabilan, U; Gopalakrishnan, L; Rao, R M D; Kumar, D S

    Lipases, belonging to the class of enzymes called hydrolases, can catalyze triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol. They are produced by microbes of plant and animal origin, and also by marine organisms. As marine microorganisms thrive in extreme conditions, lipases isolated from their origin possess characteristics of extremozymes, retain its activity in extreme conditions and can catalyze few chemical reactions which are impossible otherwise relative to the lipase produced from terrestrial microorganisms. Lipases are useful in many industries like detergent, food, leather, pharmaceutical, diary, etc. Few commercial enzymes have been developed and the use of them in certain industries like dairy, soaps are proved to be beneficial. There are few research papers reporting the production of lipase from marine bacteria and fungi. Lipase production involves two types of fermentation processes-solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Although SmF process is used conventionally, SSF process produces lipase in higher amounts. The production is also influenced by the composition of the medium, physiochemical parameters like temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Jihen; Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Loungou, Mouna; Ammar, Emna

    2016-05-05

    Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/LPG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New Metabolites Isolated from a Laurencia obtusa Population Collected in Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Esselin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of an ethyl acetate extract (EtOAc obtained from Laurencia obtusa, collected in Corsica, allowed for the identification of three new compounds (1, 2, and 4 and six known compounds. Compounds 1 to 4 were isolated and fully characterized by a detailed spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 are two C15-acetogenins sharing the same ring system: a tetrahydropyran linked by a methylene to a tetrahydrofuran ring. Compound 1 exhibits a bromoallene unit whereas compound 2 possesses an uncommon α-bromo-α,β-unsaturated aldehyde terminal unit. Compound 4 is the first diterpene exhibiting a 19(4 → 3abeo-labdane skeleton isolated from a Laurencia species. Isolation of concinndiol (compound 3 together with compound 4 suggests a common biosynthetic origin. Additionally, five known compounds, namely sagonenyne, laurene, α-bromocuparene, microcladallene A, and β-snyderol were identified in chromatographic fractions by NMR analysis using a computerized method that was developed in our laboratory.

  12. Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains Paenibacillus sp. and Bacillus sp. for kraft lignin decolorization from pulp paper mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Singh, Shail; Krishna Reddy, M M; Patel, D K; Purohit, Hemant J; Kapley, Atya

    2008-12-01

    Eight aerobic bacterial strains were isolated from pulp paper mill waste and screened for tolerance of kraft lignin (KL) using the nutrient enrichment technique in mineral salt media (MSM) agar plate (15 g/L) amended with different concentrations of KL (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 ppm) along with 1% glucose and 0.5% peptone (w/v) as additional carbon and nitrogen sources. The strains ITRC S6 and ITRC S8 were found to have the most potential for tolerance of the highest concentration of KL. These organisms were characterized by biochemical tests and further 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequencing, which showed 96.5% and 95% sequence similarity of ITRC S(6) and ITRC S(8) and confirmed them as Paenibacillus sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively. KL decolorization was routinely monitored with a spectrophotometer and further confirmed by HPLC analysis. Among eight strains, ITRC S(6) and ITRC S(8) were found to degrade 500 mg/L of KL up to 47.97% and 65.58%, respectively, within 144 h of incubation in the presence of 1% glucose and 0.5% (w/v) peptone as a supplementary source of carbon and nitrogen. In the absence of glucose and peptone, these bacteria were unable to utilize KL. The analysis of lignin degradation products by GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of various acids as lignin monomers which resulted in a decrease in pH and a major change in the chromatographic profile of the bacterial degraded sample as compared to the control clear indications of biochemical modification of KL due to the bacterial ligninolytic system by ITRC S(6), namely, acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, guaiacol, hexanoic acid, and ITRC S(8), namely acetic acid, propanoic acid, ethanedioic acid, furan carboxylic acid, 2-propanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-acetoxybutyric acid, propanedioic acid, acetoguiacone, 1,2,3-thiadiazole, 5-carboxaldixime, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenol, and dibutyl phthalate, indicating the bacterium characteristic to degrade G and S units of lignin polymer.

  13. Comparison of Asian porcine high fever disease isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to United States isolates for their ability to cause disease and secondary bacterial infection in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggest that disease severity was associated with both the virulence of the PRRSV isolates and secondary bacterial infections. Previous reports have indicated that U.S. isola...

  14. CHROMagar COL-APSE: a selective bacterial culture medium for the isolation and differentiation of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Momin, Muhd Haziq F; Bean, David C; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. A selective chromogenic culture medium for the laboratory isolation and differentiation of colistin resistant Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Enterobacteriaceae spp. (CHROMagar COL-APSE) was developed, evaluated and compared to an existing selective bacterial culture...... for the growth of COL-resistant bacterial pathogens. Due to the low limit of detection (101 c.f.u.), it may be useful as a primary isolation medium in the surveillance and recovery of COL-resistant bacteria from complex human, veterinary and environmental samples, especially those with plasmid-mediated MCR-1...... medium (SuperPolymyxin). Methodology. The medium was challenged with 84 isolates, including polymyxin B (POL B)-susceptible and -resistant type strains and colistin (COL)-resistant organisms recovered from human and animal samples. Susceptibility to COL and POL B was determined by agar dilution and broth...

  15. Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia

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    Stott Matthew B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a widespread but poorly characterized bacterial clade. Although cultivation-independent approaches detect representatives of this phylum in a wide range of environments, including soils, seawater, hot springs and human gastrointestinal tract, only few have been isolated in pure culture. We have recently reported cultivation and initial characterization of an extremely acidophilic methanotrophic member of the Verrucomicrobia, strain V4, isolated from the Hell's Gate geothermal area in New Zealand. Similar organisms were independently isolated from geothermal systems in Italy and Russia. Results We report the complete genome sequence of strain V4, the first one from a representative of the Verrucomicrobia. Isolate V4, initially named "Methylokorus infernorum" (and recently renamed Methylacidiphilum infernorum is an autotrophic bacterium with a streamlined genome of ~2.3 Mbp that encodes simple signal transduction pathways and has a limited potential for regulation of gene expression. Central metabolism of M. infernorum was reconstructed almost completely and revealed highly interconnected pathways of autotrophic central metabolism and modifications of C1-utilization pathways compared to other known methylotrophs. The M. infernorum genome does not encode tubulin, which was previously discovered in bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter, or close homologs of any other signature eukaryotic proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits unequivocally supports grouping Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae into a single clade, the PVC superphylum, despite dramatically different gene content in members of these three groups. Comparative-genomic analysis suggests that evolution of the M. infernorum lineage involved extensive horizontal gene exchange with a variety of bacteria. The genome of M. infernorum shows apparent adaptations for existence under extremely

  16. DETECTION AND CHARACTERISATION OF LISTERIA ISOLATES COLLECTED ALONG THE GORGONZOLA PDO PRODUCTION CHAIN

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    D. Nucera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that Listeria monocytogenes represents a concern in the production of Gorgonzola PDO cheese, this study was aimed to investigate the presence of Listeria along one Gorgonzola PDO production chain. L. monocytogenes subtype diversity was also investigated in order to identify possible reservoirs and dissemination routes. One dairy plant and its conferring farms (N=20 were selected and samples were collected in 4 visits in order to investigate seasonal variability. In each of them, producer tank milk (N=80, Gorgonzola producer tanks (N=12, Gorgonzola producer environmental samples (N=108 were collected, for a total of 200 samples. L. innocua was isolated from 3 milk samples (4%; L. monocytogenes alone was detected in 3 environmental samples (16% and L. innocua in 11 (58%. Both species were present in 5 samples. All Listeria strains isolated were typed through ERIC and REP PCRs. For each samples, if possible 5 colonies were selected for typing, for a total of 76 isolates. The analyses allowed the differentiation of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua in 9 and 7 PCR profiles (P, respectively. The former showed an overall similarity value of 75% and the latter of 81%. P1 (N=3 of L. monocytogenes was present in multiple sources (ripening surfaces and salting equipment and P5 (N=6 in different sampling rounds (January and June 2009. P1 (N=25 and P2 (N=15 of L. innocua were found in multiple sources (performing equipment, ripening surfaces, salting equipment, moving carts and in multiple sample rounds (P1: May 2008, January and June 2009; P2: June and October 2009. The presence of a few highly similar strains of L. monocytogenes in the production chain, as suggested by the profiles retrieved from different sources/sampling rounds, indicates the presence of persistent and niche-adapted strains. However, no profile was shared between raw milk and environmental samples, suggesting that the plant environment, not the incoming raw milk, is the source

  17. Uptake and expression of bacterial and cyanobacterial genes by isolated cucumber etioplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniell, H.; McFadden, B.A.

    1987-09-01

    The uptake and expression by plastids isolated from dark-grown cucumber cotyledons (etioplasts) of two pUC derivatives, pCS75 and pUC9-CM, respectively carrying genes for the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of Anacystis nidulans or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, is reported. Untreated etioplasts take up only 3% as much DNA as that taken up by EDTA-washed etioplasts after 2 hr of incubation with nick-translated (/sup 32/P)-pCS75. The presence or absence of light does not affect DNA uptake, binding, or breakdown by etioplasts. Calcium or magnesium ions inhibit DNA uptake by 86% but enhance binding and breakdown of donor DNA by EDTA-treated etioplasts. Uncouplers that abolish membrane potential, transmembrane proton gradient, or both do not affect DNA uptake, binding, or breakdown by etioplasts. However, both DNA uptake and binding are severely inhibited by ATP. After the incubation of EDTA-treated etioplasts with pCS75, immunoprecipitation using antiserum to the small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from A. nidulans reveals the synthesis of small subunits. Treatment of etioplasts with 10 mM EDTA shows a 10-min duration to be optimal for the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by pUC9-CM. A progressive increase in the expression of this enzyme is observed with an increase in the concentration of pUC9-CM in the DNA uptake medium. The plasmid-dependent incorporation of (/sup 35/S) methionine by EDTA-treated organelles declines markedly during cotyledon greening in vivo.

  18. A Deep Nasopharyngeal Swab Versus Nonendoscopic Bronchoalveolar Lavage for Isolation of Bacterial Pathogens from Preweaned Calves With Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driessche, L; Valgaeren, B R; Gille, L; Boyen, F; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F; Deprez, P; Pardon, B

    2017-05-01

    Nonendoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a practical alternative for a deep nasopharyngeal swab (DNS) to sample the airways of a large number of calves in a short period of time. The extent of commensal overgrowth and agreement of BAL with DNS culture results in preweaned calves are unknown. To compare commensal overgrowth and bacterial culture results between DNS and BAL samples. A total of 183 preweaned calves (144 with bovine respiratory disease and 39 healthy animals). Cross-sectional study. Deep nasopharyngeal swab and BAL samples were taken from each calf and cultured to detect Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma bovis. Agreement and associations between culture results of DNS and BAL samples were determined by kappa statistics and logistic regression. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples were less often polymicrobial, more frequently negative and yielded more pure cultures compared to DNS, leading to a clinically interpretable culture result in 79.2% of the cases compared to only in 31.2% of the DNS samples. Isolation rates were lower in healthy animals, but not different between DNS and BAL samples. Only Histophilus somni was more likely to be isolated from BAL samples. In clinical cases, a polymicrobial DNS culture result did not increase the probability of a polymicrobial BAL result by ≥30%, nor did it influence the probability of a negative culture. A significant herd effect was noted for all observed relationships. Nonendoscopic BAL samples are far less overgrown by bacteria compared to DNS samples under the conditions of this study, facilitating clinical interpretation and resulting in a higher return on investment in bacteriologic culturing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of anise wastes against some multidrug resistant bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Khaled Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is becoming a serious problem, especially after the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To overcome this problem, new and effective antibacterials or resistance modulators are highly needed and plant kingdom represents a valuable source of these compounds. In this study we investigated the antibacterial and resistance modulatory activity of Aniseeds waste Residue Extract (ASWRE and Star Anise Waste Residue Extract (SAWRE (post-distillation against 100 isolates belonging to two Gram positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and four Gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Phenolic compounds of anise wastes were determined by HPLC. The antibacterial activity of anise waste extracts assays were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC and MBC. Evaluation of synergy interaction between anise waste extracts and certain known antibacterial drugs like Cephradine, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Amoxicillin was carried out using disc diffusion method, MIC and the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC. The results showed that HPLC method has been developed for the determination of 25 phenolic compounds from waste extracts. Both ASWRE and SAWRE have significant antibacterial activity against all of the test bacteria. SAWRE was found to have higher amounts of phenolic compounds contents that might be responsible for their comparatively higher antibacteria activity than ASWRE. Irradiation at 10 and 30 kGy did not significantly affect the antibacterial activity of both ASWRE and SAWRE. The combination of anise waste extracts and the tested antibiotics mostly showed synergistic effect. Synergistic interaction was most expressed against Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp1 and Staphylococcus aureus (Sa1 by Tetracycline and chloramphenicol; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P2, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K3, Acinetobacter baumannii

  20. (ESBLs) among clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred Gram negative bacterial isolates were collected from a private diagnostic center and identified by subjecting the isolates to biochemical tests using standard procedures. Confirmed Enterobacteriaceae isolates were further subjected to screening for extended spectrum â-lactamases (ESBLs) production using ...

  1. Degradation pathways of 1-methylphenanthrene in bacterial Sphingobium sp. MP9-4 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianan; Luo, Lijuan; Chen, Baowei; Sha, Sha; Qing, Qing; Tam, Nora F Y; Zhang, Yong; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-01-30

    Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant in petroleum, and alkylated phenanthrenes are considered as the primary PAHs during some oil spill events. Bacterial strain of Sphingobium sp. MP9-4, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, was efficient to degrade 1-methylphenanthrene (1-MP). A detailed metabolism map of 1-MP in this strain was delineated based on analysis of metabolites with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). 1-MP was initially oxidized via two different biochemical strategies, including benzene ring and methyl-group attacks. Benzene ring attack was initiated with dioxygenation of the non-methylated aromatic ring via similar degradation pathways of phenanthrene (PHE) by bacteria. For methyl-group attack, mono oxygenase system was involved and more diverse enzymes were needed than that of PHE degradation. This study enhances the understanding of the metabolic pathways of alkylated PAHs and shows the significant potential of Sphingobium sp. MP9-4 for the bioremediation of alkylated PAHs contaminated environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Partial Characterization of α-Galactosidic Activity from the Antarctic Bacterial Isolate, . LX-20 as a Potential Feed Enzyme Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyung Park

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An Antarctic bacterial isolate displaying extracellular α-galactosidic activity was named Paenibacillus sp. LX-20 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Optimal activity for the LX-20 α-galactosidase occurred at pH 6.0–6.5 and 45°C. The enzyme immobilized on the smart polymer Eudragit L-100 retained 70% of its original activity after incubation for 30 min at 50°C, while the free enzyme retained 58% of activity. The enzyme had relatively high specificity for α-D-galactosides such as p-nitrophenyl-α-galactopyranoside, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose, and was resistant to some proteases such as trypsin, pancreatin and pronase. Enzyme activity was almost completely inhibited by Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but activity was not affected by β-mercaptoethanol or EDTA. LX-20 α-galactosidase may be potentially useful as an additive for soybean processing in the feed industry.

  3. Radiosensitivities of bacterial isolates on minced chicken and poached chicken meal and their elimination following irradiation and chilled storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Apea Bah, F.

    2008-01-01

    The radiosensitivities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus on poached chicken meal (PCM) and minced chicken substrate (MCS) were determined. Effect of irradiation (0, 1, 2 kGy) on total viable cells (TVC) of PCM components was determined under chilled (3-5 o C) storage (0, 9, 14, 21 days) and challenge testing of the bacterial isolates with irradiation (0, 2, 3 kGy) was also conducted on PCM under chilled storage (0,7, 14, 21, 28 days). Additionally, sensory evaluation of the PCM components was assessed with irradiation (0, 2, 3 kGy) during chilled storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days). D 10 of E. coli on PCM and MCS were 0.18 and 0.25 kGy whiles those of S. aureus were 0.27 and 0.29 kGy, respectively. D 10 values for PCM E. coli. 2 kGy controlled TVC and extended the shelf life of meals to ≥14 days but 3 kGy was required to eliminate E. coli and S. aureus. Sensory qualities of the meal were not affected by an irradiation dose of 3 kGy

  4. The Characterization of Chlorophyll-A and Microalgae Isolation Process of Wastewater Collected at Sembrong Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellson, R.; Othman, N.; Matias-Peralta, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing number of river water quality deterioration that has brought into water quality disruptions that entering dams including in Johor and one of them is occurred in Sembrong Dam in Johor. Sembrong Dam is a major water source for some 120,000 people in the districts of Kluang and parts of Batu Pahat. The quality of water in Sembrong should be well-monitored in ensuring the continuous distribution of clean and safe water supply to peoples. Based on the news reported by The Star news dated on 11 May 2015, the water bodies in Sembrong Dam are polluted by the algae blooms which has started to cause problems in treating water phase by clogging up the filters and causing the production to be reduced and finally resulting in frequent water disruptions to residents. Therefore, there is a need to study the water quality of the dam water prior to further water treatment. One of important characterizations is by measuring chlorophyll-a and the isolation of the dominant microalgae species in the water body in which they are able to indicate the level of water pollution. This paper presents the determination of chlorophyll-a and the isolation of microalgae strains collected from Sembrong Dam. Chlorophyll-a is a photosynthetic pigment present in all species of phytoplankton, including algae and in some photosynthetic bacteria, known as cyanobacteria. The method used in measuring the chlorophyll-a is based on the standard method of IS0 10 260. The average chlorophyll-a concentration measured at Sembrong Dam is 175.9 µg L-1 and it is responsible for the appearance of green color in the sample and it is categorized into hypereutrophic state which is highly polluted. The technique used for isolation of microalgae strains is traditional method which is by spreading the sample on agar. The pure isolate indicated that the genus Botryococcus is the dominant algae species which is characterized morphologically. Both chlorophyll-a and microalgae

  5. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cell population entrapped in bone marrow collection sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorakova, Jana; Hruba, Alena; Velebny, Vladimir; Kubala, Lukas

    2008-09-01

    Bone marrow is an important source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and a promising tool for cytotherapy. MSC utilization is limited by low cell yields obtained under standard isolation protocols. Herein, used bone marrow collection sets were evaluated as a valuable source of MSCs. Adherent cells washed from the collection sets were examined for widely accepted criteria defining MSCs. Significant numbers of cells (median 9million per set in passage 1) with colony-forming activity and high proliferative potential at low seeding densities were obtained. These cells were positive for essential MSC surface molecules (CD90, CD105, CD166, CD44, CD29) and negative for most haematopoietic and endothelial cell markers (CD45, CD34, CD11a, CD235a, HLA-DR, CD144). The cells were capable of differentiation along adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic pathways. Washing out bone marrow collection sets may constitute a highly ethical source of MSCs for research purposes and may be utilized also in clinical applications.

  6. Urinary pathogenic bacterial profile, antibiogram of isolates and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Ambo town, Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonas Alem Gessese

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a well-known bacterial infection posing serious health problem in pregnant women. A study was conducted in pregnant women with the objectives of estimating prevalence of UTI, determining antibiogram of the bacterial isolates and assessment of the potential risk factors associated with UTI. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to collect 300 mid-stream urine samples from pregnant women from March 2016 to December, 2016. Samples were inoculated into Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED. Colonies from CLED were subcultured onto MacConkey and Blood agar plates. A standard agar disc diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility. Chi-square (X 2 test & logistic regression were used to show associations between UTI and explanatory variables & identify the predictors of UTI, respectively. Results The age of pregnant women enrolled in this study ranges from 16 to 46 years (mean ± standard deviation = 25 ± 4.7 years.The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 18.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.4–23.54%.The prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic UTI was 20.4% (95% CI: 13.09–29.46% and 17.8% (95% CI: 12.70–23.83% respectively. The predominant bacteria identified were E. coli (46.4%, S. aureus (14.3%, coagulase negative Staphylococci [CoNS] (14.3% and Proteus species (10.6%. Majority of Gram-negative bacteria isolates were resistant to ampicillin (70%, ceftriaxon (66%, gentamicin (68% and nitrofurantoin (64% while 75–100% of the Gram positive isolates were resistance to ampicillin. Multiple drug resistance was observed in all of the isolates. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that the odds of acquiring UTI was 4.78 times higher in pregnant women earning monthly income of ≤500 Ethiopian Birr (21.18 USD as compared to those earning monthly income >2001 Ethiopian Birr [84.79 USD] (P = 0.046. Similarly, the

  7. The Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC) provides host-specific insight into cultured diversity and functional potential of the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Pukall, Rüdiger; Abt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    BC), a public repository of bacterial strains and associated genomes from the mouse gut, and studied host-specificity of colonization and sequence-based relevance of the resource. The collection includes several strains representing novel species, genera and even one family. Genomic analyses showed that certain...... of intestinal microbiomes and their interactions with diet and host. It is thus important to study in detail the diversity and functions of gut microbiota members, including those colonizing the mouse intestine. To address these issues, we aimed at establishing the Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (mi...... and molecular studies. The resource is available at www.dsmz.de/miBC....

  8. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J.; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong

    2015-09-01

    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters.

  9. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with calcareous deposits and drip-waters, and isolation of calcifying bacteria from two Colombian mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García G, Mariandrea; Márquez G, Marco Antonio; Moreno H, Claudia Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial carbonate precipitation has implications in geological processes and important biotechnological applications. Bacteria capable of precipitating carbonates have been isolated from different calcium carbonate deposits (speleothems) in caves, soil, freshwater and seawater around the world. However, the diversity of bacteria from calcareous deposits in Colombia, and their ability to precipitate carbonates, remains unknown. In this study, conventional microbiological methods and molecular tools, such as temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE), were used to assess the composition of bacterial communities associated with carbonate deposits and drip-waters from two Colombian mines. A genetic analysis of these bacterial communities revealed a similar level of diversity, based on the number of bands detected using TTGE. The dominant phylogenetic affiliations of the bacteria, determined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were grouped into two phyla: Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Within these phyla, seven genera were capable of precipitating calcium carbonates: Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, Strenotophomonas, Brevibacillus, Methylobacterium, Aeromicrobium and Acinetobacter. FTIR and SEM/EDX were used to analyze calcium carbonate crystals produced by isolated Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. The results showed that rhombohedral and angular calcite crystals with sizes of 90μm were precipitated. This research provides information regarding the presence of complex bacterial communities in secondary carbonate deposits from mines and their ability to precipitate calcium carbonate from calcareous deposits of Colombian mines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the factors modulating indole-3-acetic acid production in endophytic bacterial isolates from Piper nigrum and molecular analysis of ipdc gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, B; Jimtha John, C; Shimil, V; Jyothis, M; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-09-01

    The study mainly aimed quantitative analysis of IAA produced by endophytic bacteria under various conditions including the presence of extract from Piper nigrum. Analysis of genetic basis of IAA production was also conducted by studying the presence and diversity of the ipdc gene among the selected isolates. Five endophytic bacteria isolated previously from P. nigrum were used for the study. The effect of temperature, pH, agitation, tryptophan concentration and plant extract on modulating IAA production of selected isolates was analysed by colorimetric method. Comparative and quantitative analysis of IAA production by colorimetric isolates under optimal culture condition was analysed by HPTLC method. Presence of ipdc gene and thereby biosynthetic basis of IAA production among the selected isolates were studied by PCR-based amplification and subsequent insilico analysis of sequence obtained. Among the selected bacterial isolates from P. nigrum, isolate PnB 8 (Klebsiella pneumoniae) was found to have the maximum yield of IAA under various conditions optimized and was confirmed by colorimetric, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. Very interestingly, the study showed stimulating effect of phytochemicals from P. nigrum on IAA production by endophytic bacteria isolated from same plant. This study is unique because of the selection of endophytes from same source for comparative and quantitative analysis of IAA production under various conditions. Study on stimulatory effect of phytochemicals on bacterial IAA production as explained in the study is a novel approach. Studies on molecular basis of IAA production which was confirmed by sequence analysis of ipdc gene make the study scientifically attractive. Even though microbial production of IAA is well known, current report on detailed optimization, effect of plant extract and molecular confirmation of IAA biosynthesis is comparatively novel in its approach. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. A rapid two-step algorithm detects and identifies clinical macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in clinical bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuedong; Nie, Shuping; Xia, Chengjing; Huang, Lie; He, Ying; Wu, Runxiang; Zhang, Li

    2014-07-01

    Aiming to identify macrolide and beta-lactam resistance in clinical bacterial isolates rapidly and accurately, a two-step algorithm was developed based on detection of eight antibiotic resistance genes. Targeting at genes linked to bacterial macrolide (msrA, ermA, ermB, and ermC) and beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9) antibiotic resistances, this method includes a multiplex real-time PCR, a melting temperature profile analysis as well as a liquid bead microarray assay. Liquid bead microarray assay is applied only when indistinguishable Tm profile is observed. The clinical validity of this method was assessed on clinical bacterial isolates. Among the total 580 isolates that were determined by our diagnostic method, 75% of them were identified by the multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis alone, while the remaining 25% required both multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis and liquid bead microarray assay for identification. Compared with the traditional phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility test, an overall agreement of 81.2% (kappa=0.614, 95% CI=0.550-0.679) was observed, with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.7% and 73% respectively. Besides, the average test turnaround time is 3.9h, which is much shorter in comparison with more than 24h for the traditional phenotypic tests. Having the advantages of the shorter operating time and comparable high sensitivity and specificity with the traditional phenotypic test, our two-step algorithm provides an efficient tool for rapid determination of macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistances in clinical bacterial isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence and characterization of Candida nivariensis from a culture collection of Candida glabrata clinical isolates in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Tee; Lotfalikhani, Azadeh; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Na, Shiang Ling; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-10-01

    Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis have been recently identified as emerging yeast pathogens which are phenotypically indistinguishable from C. glabrata. However, there is little data on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibilities of these species. This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital. C. nivariensis was discriminated from C. glabrata using a PCR assay as described by Enache-Angoulvant et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3375-9, 2011). The identity of the isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the D1D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region of the yeasts. The isolates were cultured on Chromogenic CHROMagar Candida (®) agar (Difco, USA), and their biochemical and enzymic profiles were determined. Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined using E tests. Clotrimazole MICs were determined using a microbroth dilution method. There was a low prevalence (1.1 %) of C. nivariensis in our culture collection of C. glabrata. C. nivariensis was isolated from a blood culture and vaginal swab of two patients. C. nivariensis grew as white colonies on Chromogenic agar and demonstrated few positive reactions using biochemical tests. Enzymatic profiles of the C. nivariensis isolates were similar to that of C. glabrata. The isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Clotrimazole resistance is suspected in one isolate. This study reports for the first time the emergence of C. nivariensis in our clinical setting.

  13. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici

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    Wang Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine infections in dairy cows lower profitability of dairy operations. Infections of the reproductive tract are related to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria during the first three weeks after parturition. However, alterations in the vaginal microbiota composition in the first weeks after parturition remain poorly documented. Results In this study, bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy pregnant, and infected postpartum cows were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA gene sequencing. Populations of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Infected cows had a significant increase in the vaginal enteric bacteria population which consisted mainly of Escherichia coli. Three E. coli isolates harboured the gene coding for Shiga-like-toxin (SLT I or II. Several isolates of the Pediococcus acidilactici were found to produce the bacteriocin pediocin AcH/PA-1. Quantitative PCR analyses of vaginal mucus samples collected from ten metritic cows before and after parturition confirmed the presence of the Lactobacillus group (Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Weissella spp.; Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and bacilli. The presence of the pediocin AcH/PA-1 structural gene and SLT genes were also confirmed with qPCR. Conclusions In conclusion, overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, after parturition likely contributes to the development of metritis. Our microbiota analysis extends the information related to the composition of commensal bacteria in the bovine female reproductive tract and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies for prevention of uterine infections in dairy cows.

  14. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yvonne; Ametaj, Burim N; Ambrose, Divakar J; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-01-29

    Uterine infections in dairy cows lower profitability of dairy operations. Infections of the reproductive tract are related to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria during the first three weeks after parturition. However, alterations in the vaginal microbiota composition in the first weeks after parturition remain poorly documented. In this study, bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy pregnant, and infected postpartum cows were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Populations of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Infected cows had a significant increase in the vaginal enteric bacteria population which consisted mainly of Escherichia coli. Three E. coli isolates harboured the gene coding for Shiga-like-toxin (SLT) I or II. Several isolates of the Pediococcus acidilactici were found to produce the bacteriocin pediocin AcH/PA-1. Quantitative PCR analyses of vaginal mucus samples collected from ten metritic cows before and after parturition confirmed the presence of the Lactobacillus group (Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Weissella spp.); Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and bacilli. The presence of the pediocin AcH/PA-1 structural gene and SLT genes were also confirmed with qPCR. In conclusion, overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, after parturition likely contributes to the development of metritis. Our microbiota analysis extends the information related to the composition of commensal bacteria in the bovine female reproductive tract and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies for prevention of uterine infections in dairy cows.

  15. [Molecular properties of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) isolates from the collection of the Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastal'eva, T B; Girsova, N V; Mozhaeva, K A; Lee, I M; Owens, R A

    2013-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of more than 100 isolates of PSTVd collected from locations in the territory of Russia and the former USSR have been determined. These sequences represent 42 individual sequence variants, each containing 1-10 mutations with respect to the "intermediate" or type strain of PSTVd (GenBank Acc. No. v01465). Isolates containing 2-5 mutations were the most common, and 24 sequence variants are described here for the first time. Twenty one isolates contained a mutation found only in Russian and Ukrainian isolates of PSTVd up till now; i.e., replacement of the adenine at position 121 with cytosine (A121C). Many of these isolates contained two mutations--deletion of one of the three adenine residues occupying positions 118-120 plus replacement of the adenine at position 121 with either uracil or cytosine (A120, A121U/C). Both combinations of mutations were phenotypically neutral, i.e. symptom expression in Rutgers tomato was unaffected. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of different PSTVd isolates presented in work together with sequences of other naturally-occurring isolates obtained from Internet databases suggesting that known PSTVd isolates may be divided into four groups: i) a group of isolates from potato, tomato and solanaceous ornamentals where the type strain of PSTVd (PSTVd.018) may be considered to represent the ancestral sequence, ii) a group of isolates from potato, tomato and solanaceous ornamentals where PSTVd.123 play the same role as PSTVd.018 for the first group, and iii) a group of potato isolates where PSTVd.125 is a possible ancestral sequence. The fourth and most divergent group of PSTVd isolates differs significantly from these first three groups. The majority of isolates in this group originate from New Zealand and Australia and infect different solanaceous hosts (tomato, pepper, cape gooseberry, potato, and others).

  16. Resistance testing of clinical herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates collected over 4 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn-Wippert, Kathrin; Schmidt, Susanne; Runtze, Anna; Zell, Roland; Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    There is only little information about the role of mutations of the thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (pol) genes of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) for the development of antiviral resistance. In this study, the polymorphism of TK and DNA pol genes was examined in 82 clinical isolates collected routinely between 1973 and 2013. If novel, presently unclear or resistance-related mutations were found, the resistance phenotype against acyclovir (ACV) and foscarnet (FOS) was analyzed. The four novel amino acid changes G150D, A157T, R248W, L342W and the hitherto phenotypically unclear substitution T131M within the TK gene were identified as natural polymorphisms. Within the DNA pol gene, 17 novel substitutions and the to-date unclear change R628C were characterized as part of natural gene polymorphism. Two novel DNA pol mutations were linked to resistance (M910T) and weak susceptibility to ACV (684 insertion ED), respectively. In one isolate, the genomic cause of ACV resistance could not be identified. Phylogenetic analysis including sequences of this study and of the GenBank revealed a hierarchy of mutation clusters in TK displaying G39E as first common mutation step, followed by N78D and L140F. In conclusion, the present findings allow a deeper insight in the variability of HSV-2 TK and DNA pol genes. The most common substitution G39E can be excluded as unique cause of HSV-2 resistance. This study supports once more the importance of phenotypic adjustment of genotypic results to enhance the clinical utility of genotypic findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  18. The Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC) provides host-specific insight into cultured diversity and functional potential of the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Pukall, Rüdiger; Abt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    BC), a public repository of bacterial strains and associated genomes from the mouse gut, and studied host-specificity of colonization and sequence-based relevance of the resource. The collection includes several strains representing novel species, genera and even one family. Genomic analyses showed that certain...

  19. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Arrieta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65%of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita, and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa. In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Cararait was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%,oval (20%, bipyramidal (3%, bipyramidal and cubic (1%, bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5% and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%. Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Río Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed ä -endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with

  20. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkola, Satu; Kovanen, Sara; Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans.

  2. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Olkkola

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST, whole-genome (wg MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36 of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326, suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l. Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of

  3. Multilocus sequence typing of a global collection of Pasteurella multocida isolates from cattle and other host species demonstrates niche association

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    Lainson F Alex

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pasteurella multocida causes disease in many host species throughout the world. In bovids, it contributes to bovine respiratory disease (BRD and causes haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS. Previous studies have suggested that BRD-associated P. multocida isolates are of limited diversity. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme for P. multocida was used to determine whether the low levels of diversity reported are due to the limited discriminatory power of the typing method used, restricted sample selection or true niche association. Bovine respiratory isolates of P. multocida (n = 133 from the UK, the USA and France, collected between 1984 and 2008 from both healthy and clinically affected animals, were typed using MLST. Isolates of P. multocida from cases of HS, isolates from other host species and data from the MLST database were used as comparison. Results Bovine respiratory isolates were found to be clonal (ISA 0.45 with 105/128 belonging to clonal complex 13 (CC13. HS isolates were not related to bovine respiratory isolates. Of the host species studied, the majority had their own unique sequence types (STs, with few STs being shared across host species, although there was some cross over between porcine and bovine respiratory isolates. Avian, ovine and porcine isolates showed greater levels of diversity compared to cattle respiratory isolates, despite more limited geographic origins. Conclusions The homogeneity of STs of bovine respiratory P. multocida observed, and the differences between these and P. multocida subpopulations from bovine non-respiratory isolates and non-bovine hosts may indicate niche association.

  4. Botrytis cinerea isolates collected from grapes present different requirements for conidia germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotoras, Milena; García, Carolina; Mendoza, Leonora

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea presents high variability in several biological traits, which can be explained by the high degree of genotypic diversity among isolates. Because this genetic variability might be related to phenotypic differences the requirements for conidia germination of three natural isolates (G1, G5 and G11) obtained from grapes and belonging to the same genetic group were analyzed. The results showed that contact with a solid surface was a common requisite for conidia germination of the isolates but they differed in their nutritional requirements to germinate. Isolate G11 was able to germinate in the absence of a carbon or nitrogen source. G1 and G5 required the presence of a carbon source such as glucose, fructose or sucrose. In G11 and G5 isolates a much higher rate of germination was obtained in the presence of sucrose. It was shown with a pharmacological approach that the cAMP stimulated the germination only in those isolates requiring a carbon source. Conidia germination of G1 and G5 was inhibited by EGTA, a calcium chelator. Isolate G11 germinated in the presence of this compound. On the other hand the germination of three B. cinerea isolates required protein synthesis and did not require RNA synthesis. To explain the ability of isolate G11 to germinate in water the content of total and reducing sugars, mannitol/L-arabitol, trehalose, and proteins in the nongerminated conidia of the three isolates was compared. The isolates presented similar amounts of total and reducing sugars. In the three isolates the amount of mannitol/L-arabitol was higher than that of trehalose. In isolate G11 total protein content was twice higher than in the other isolates.

  5. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de aislamientos bacterianos causantes de infecciones comunitarias Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates causing community infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cabrera Rodríguez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia bacteriana es un problema de salud creciente a nivel mundial. Se realiz�� un estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo en el Laboratorio de Microbiología Clínica, perteneciente al Centro Municipal de Higiene y Epidemiología del municipio de Güines, en el período comprendido desde enero a diciembre de 2005, para conocer la susceptibilidad a los agentes antimicrobianos de elección de 750 cepas que incluyeron los microorganismos siguientes: Staphylococcus aureus (n=250, Escherichia coli (n= 250 y Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n= 250, aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas (secreción ótica, lesiones de piel, pus de heridas, de la faringe y orina de pacientes ambulatorios con signos y síntomas de infección, de 5 municipios del este de La Habana. Se apreciaron altos niveles de resistencia en las cepas de Staphylococcus aureus a la penicilina, la oxacilina y la eritromicina; en Escherichia coli al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, al ácido nalidíxico y la ampicilina; y en el caso de Pseudomonas aeruginosa no se encontraron altos niveles de resistencia a las drogas investigadas. Los resultados ponen en evidencia la necesidad de perfeccionar y continuar la vigilancia microbiológica de la resistencia a los fármacos antimicrobianos.Bacterial resistance is an increasing health problem worldwide. A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted in the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology of the Municipal Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology of Güines municipality, from January to December 2005, to know the susceptibility to the antimicrobial elective agents of 750 strains that included the following microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus (n=250, Escherichia coli (n=250 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=250, isolated from different clinical samples (ear secretion, skin lesions, wound pus, pharynx and urine from ambulatory patients with signs and symptoms of infection from 5 municipalities of Eastern Havana. High levels of resistance were found in the

  6. Degree of bacterial contamination and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates from housekeeping surfaces in operating rooms and surgical wards at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, south west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Chalachew; Kibru, Gebre; Hemalatha, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    The role of the hospital environment as a reservoir of potential pathogens has received increasing attention. There are several reports demonstrating contamination of a wide variety of environmental sites in operating rooms (ORs) and surgical wards (SWs) which lead to nosocomial spread. To determine the degree of bacterial contamination and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates from floor and tabletop surfaces in ORs and SWs at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). A cross sectional study was conducted on 144 floor and tabletop surfaces from October to January 2009/2010. Samples were investigated for identification of bacterial species following standard procedures and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disc diffusion technique. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and compared with the proposed standard value. The mean aerobic colony counts (ACCs) for tabletop surfaces (34 CFU/cm2) and floors (19CFU/cm2) in SWs were significantly higher than the set ACC standard for hand contact surfaces (< 5 CFU/cm2) P < 0.00. The ACCs obtained from tabletop surfaces (6.2 CFU/cm2) and floors (10.1CFU/cm2) in ORs were also exceeding the standard. Over 55% of gram negative bacteria were identified from Critical Zone of ORs. Staphylococcus aureus was the must frequently isolated bacterium accounting 33.3% followed by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp each with 11.1%. Moreover, S. aureus showed 100% resistance to methicillin and multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae were also seen in more than 90 % of isolates. An increased bacterial contamination was measured in both ORs and SWs of the JUSH and the isolated bacteria were also resistant for most of the antibiotics used as a treatment options in the study area. Therefore, appropriate infection control measures needs to be taken to keep the contamination level within the proposed standard.

  7. Isolation of identical nitrilase genes from multiple bacterial strains and real-time PCR detection of the genes from soils provides evidence of horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lee; Clarke, Adrienne; Duggan, Patrick; Tambling, Karen; Horgan, Serenia; Dowling, David; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial enzymes capable of nitrile hydrolysis have significant industrial potential. Microbacterium sp. AJ115, Rhodococcus erythropolis AJ270 and AJ300 were isolated from the same location in England and harbour identical nitrile hydratase/amidase gene clusters. Strain AJ270 has been well studied due to its nitrile hydratase and amidase activity. R. erythropolis ITCBP was isolated from Denmark and carries a very similar nitrile hydratase/amidase gene cluster. In this study, an identical nitrilase gene (nit1) was isolated from the four strains, and the nitrilase from strain AJ270 cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the recombinant nitrilase has shown it to be functional with activity demonstrated towards phenylacetonitrile. A real-time PCR TaqMan assay was developed that allowed nit1 detection directly from soil enrichment cultures without DNA extraction, with nit1 detected in all samples tested. Real-time PCR screening of isolates from these soils resulted in the isolation of nit1 and also very similar nitrilase gene nit2 from a number of Burkholderia sp. The genes nit1 and nit2 have also been detected in many bacteria of different genera but are unstable in these isolates. It is likely that the genes were acquired by horizontal gene transfer and may be wide-spread in the environment.

  8. Bacterial Microbiota of Rice Roots: 16S-Based Taxonomic Profiling of Endophytic and Rhizospheric Diversity, Endophytes Isolation and Simplified Endophytic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moronta-Barrios, Felix; Gionechetti, Fabrizia; Pallavicini, Alberto; Marys, Edgloris; Venturi, Vittorio

    2018-02-11

    Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed a 16S rDNA taxonomic bacterial profiling of the rhizosphere and endorhizosphere of two high-yield rice cultivars-Pionero 2010 FL and DANAC SD20A-extensively grown in Venezuela in 2014. Fifteen putative bacterial endophytes were then isolated from surface-sterilized roots and further studied in vitro and in planta . We have then performed inoculation of rice seedlings with a simplified community composed by 10 of the isolates and we have tracked them in the course of 30 days in greenhouse cultivation. The results obtained suggest that a set was able to significantly colonize together the rice endorhizospheres, indicating possible cooperation and the ability to form a stable multispecies community. This approach can be useful in the development of microbial solutions for a more sustainable rice production.

  9. Influence of bacterial strains isolated from lead-polluted soil and their interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizae on the growth of Trifolium pratense L. under lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, A; Azcón, R; Biró, B; Barea, J M; Ruiz-Lozano, J M

    2003-10-01

    We isolated two bacterial strains from an experimentally lead (Pb)-polluted soil in Hungary, 10 years after soil contamination. These strains represented the two most abundant cultivable bacterial groups in such soil, and we tested their influence on Trifolium pratense L. growth and on the functioning of native mycorrhizal fungi under Pb toxicity in a second Pb-spiked soil. Our results showed that bacterial strain A enhanced plant growth, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulations, nodule formation, and mycorrhizal infection, demonstrating its plant-growth-promoting activity. In addition, strain A decreased the amount of Pb absorbed by plants, when expressed on a root weight basis, because of increased root biomass due to the production of indoleacetic acid. The positive effect of strain A was not only evident after a single inoculation but also in dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Strain A also exhibited higher tolerance than strain B when cultivated under increasing Pb levels in the spiked soil. Molecular identification unambiguously placed strain A within the genus Brevibacillus. We showed that it is important to select the most tolerant and efficient bacterial strain for co-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to promote effective symbiosis and thus stimulate plant growth under adverse environmental conditions, such as heavy-metal contamination.

  10. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: isolation, molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Subramanian, S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants often face the problems of sludge settling mainly due to sludge bulking. Generally, synthetic organic polymer and/or inorganic coagulants (ferric chloride, alum and quick lime) are used for sludge settling. These chemicals are very expensive and further pollute the environment. Whereas, the bioflocculants are environment friendly and may be used to flocculate the sludge. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sludge microorganisms play a definite role in sludge flocculation. In this study, 25 EPS producing strains were isolated from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Microorganisms were selected based on EPS production properties on solid agar medium. Three types of EPS (slime, capsular and bacterial broth mixture of both slime and capsular) were harvested and their characteristics were studied. EPS concentration (dry weight), viscosity and their charge (using a Zetaphoremeter) were also measured. Bioflocculability of obtained EPS was evaluated by measuring the kaolin clay flocculation activity. Six bacterial strains (BS2, BS8, BS9, BS11, BS15 and BS25) were selected based on the kaolin clay flocculation. The slime EPS was better for bioflocculation than capsular EPS and bacterial broth. Therefore, extracted slime EPS (partially purified) from six bacterial strains was studied in terms of sludge settling [sludge volume index (SVI)] and dewatering [capillary suction time (CST)]. Biopolymers produced by individual strains substantially improved dewaterability. The extracted slime EPS from six different strains were partially characterized. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Pathogenic Candida albicans Isolates Collected from a Teaching Hospital in Shanghai, China: A Molecular Epidemiology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Junhao; Gao, Qian; Chen, Min; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Molecular typing of Candida albicans is important for studying the population structure and epidemiology of this opportunistic yeast, such as population dynamics, nosocomial infections, multiple infections and microevolution. The genetic diversity of C. albicans has been rarely studied in China. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of 62 C. albicans isolates collected from 40 patients from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 50 diploid sequence types (DSTs) were identified in the 62 C. albicans isolates, with 41 newly identified DSTs. Based on cluster analysis, the 62 isolates were classified into nine existing clades and two new clades (namely clades New 1 and New 2). The majority of the isolates were clustered into three clades, clade 6 (37.5%), clade 1 (15.0%) and clade 17 (15.0%). Isolates of clade New 2 were specifically identified in East Asia. We identified three cases of potential nosocomial transmission based on association analysis between patients’ clinical data and the genotypes of corresponding isolates. Finally, by analyzing the genotypes of serial isolates we further demonstrated that the microevolution of C. albicans was due to loss of heterozygosity. Our study represents the first molecular typing of C. albicans in eastern China, and we confirmed that MLST is a useful tool for studying the epidemiology and evolution of C. albicans. PMID:25919124

  12. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Pathogenic Candida albicans Isolates Collected from a Teaching Hospital in Shanghai, China: A Molecular Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kefei; Luo, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Junhao; Gao, Qian; Chen, Min; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Molecular typing of Candida albicans is important for studying the population structure and epidemiology of this opportunistic yeast, such as population dynamics, nosocomial infections, multiple infections and microevolution. The genetic diversity of C. albicans has been rarely studied in China. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of 62 C. albicans isolates collected from 40 patients from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 50 diploid sequence types (DSTs) were identified in the 62 C. albicans isolates, with 41 newly identified DSTs. Based on cluster analysis, the 62 isolates were classified into nine existing clades and two new clades (namely clades New 1 and New 2). The majority of the isolates were clustered into three clades, clade 6 (37.5%), clade 1 (15.0%) and clade 17 (15.0%). Isolates of clade New 2 were specifically identified in East Asia. We identified three cases of potential nosocomial transmission based on association analysis between patients' clinical data and the genotypes of corresponding isolates. Finally, by analyzing the genotypes of serial isolates we further demonstrated that the microevolution of C. albicans was due to loss of heterozygosity. Our study represents the first molecular typing of C. albicans in eastern China, and we confirmed that MLST is a useful tool for studying the epidemiology and evolution of C. albicans.

  13. Swimming motility in a longitudinal collection of clinical isolates of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from people with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E A Zlosnik

    Full Text Available Chronic bacterial lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. While a range of bacteria are known to be capable of establishing residence in the CF lung, only a small number have a clearly established link to deteriorating clinical status. The two bacteria with the clearest roles in CF lung disease are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC. A number of common adaptations by P. aeruginosa strains to chronic lung infection in CF have been well described. Typically, initial isolates of P. aeruginosa are nonmucoid and display a range of putative virulence determinants. Upon establishment of chronic infection, subsequent isolates ultimately show a reduction in putative virulence determinants, including swimming motility, along with an acquisition of the mucoid phenotype and increased levels of antimicrobial resistance. Infections by BCC are marked by an unpredictable, but typically worse, clinical outcome. However, in contrast to P. aeruginosa infections in CF, studies describing adaptive changes in BCC bacterial phenotype during chronic lung infections are far more limited. To further enhance our understanding of chronic lung infections by BCC bacteria in CF, we assessed the swimming motility phenotype in 551 isolates of BCC bacteria from cystic fibrosis (CF lung infections between 1981 and 2007. These data suggest that swimming motility is not typically lost by BCC during chronic infection, unlike as seen in P. aeruginosa infections. Furthermore, while we observed a statistically significant link between mucoidy and motility, we did not detect any link between motility phenotype and clinical outcome. These studies highlight the need for further work to understand the adaptive changes of BCC bacteria during chronic infection in the CF lung.

  14. Characterization of a collection of Enterobacter sakazakii isolates from environmental and food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudy, Denise; O'Rourke, Michele; Murphy, Mary; Mullane, Niall R; O'Mahony, Rebecca; Kelly, Lorraine; Fischer, Matthias; Sanjaq, Suhad; Shannon, Pauline; Wall, Patrick; O'Mahony, Micheál; Whyte, Paul; Fanning, Séamus

    2006-07-15

    Enterobacter sakazakii has emerged as a rare cause of neonatal meningitis, septicemia and enterocolitis. Contaminated infant milk formula (IMF) has been identified as one infection route. A small number of clinical outbreaks have been epidemiologically linked to IMF contaminated post-pasteurization during manufacture and/or mishandled when reconstituted. Currently no agreed standardized typing protocol has been developed to trace E. sakazakii. The objectives of this study were to apply biochemical and genetic methods to characterize 51 environmental and food E. sakazakii isolates and 6 E. sakazakii type strains. Isolates were presumptively identified using biochemical profiles based on API 20E and ID32E methods and by culture on differential selective Druggan Forsythe Iversen (DFI) agar. Identification was subsequently confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All but one of the isolates was identified as E. sakazakii by biochemical profiling. One isolate was identified as Escherichia vulneris by ID 32E and as Pantoea agglomerans by API 20E. All isolates produced green/blue colonies on DFI medium characteristic of this organism. Real time PCR could differentiate between E. sakazakii, Enterobacter spp. and other Enterobacteriacae. Analysis of RAPD banding patterns revealed 3 major clusters of E. sakazakii. There was a large degree of diversity noted amongst the remaining isolates. Our findings indicate that RAPD may be applied as a useful and reliable tool for direct comparison of E. sakazakii isolates providing traceability through the infant formula food chain.

  15. Genetic homogeneity among Ugandan isolates of Xanthomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Key words: Banana Xanthomonas wilt, DNA fingerprints, genetic diversity, Xanthomonas campestris pv. .... Bacterial isolates. Thirty two isolates of Xcm were collected in the year 2005 from. Ugandan banana growing districts affected by BXW (Table 1;. Figure 1). ..... Fundamental methods. Springer Lab ...

  16. Mercury (II) removal by resistant bacterial isolates and mercuric (II) reductase activity in a new strain of Pseudomonas sp. B50A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Patricia; Cabral, Lucélia; Bento, Fátima Menezes; Gianello, Clesio; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio Oliveira

    2016-01-25

    This study aimed to isolate mercury resistant bacteria, determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for Hg, estimate mercury removal by selected isolates, explore the mer genes, and detect and characterize the activity of the enzyme mercuric (II) reductase produced by a new strain of Pseudomonas sp. B50A. The Hg removal capacity of the isolates was determined by incubating the isolates in Luria Bertani broth and the remaining mercury quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A PCR reaction was carried out to detect the merA gene and the mercury (II) reductase activity was determined in a spectrophotometer at 340 nm. Eight Gram-negative bacterial isolates were resistant to high mercury concentrations and capable of removing mercury, and of these, five were positive for the gene merA. The isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50A removed 86% of the mercury present in the culture medium and was chosen for further analysis of its enzyme activity. Mercuric (II) reductase activity was detected in the crude extract of this strain. This enzyme showed optimal activity at pH 8 and at temperatures between 37 °C and 45 °C. The ions NH4(+), Ba(2+), Sn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cd(2+) neither inhibited nor stimulated the enzyme activity but it decreased in the presence of the ions Ca(2+), Cu(+) and K(+). The isolate and the enzyme detected were effective in reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0), showing the potential to develop bioremediation technologies and processes to clean-up the environment and waste contaminated with mercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong ...

  18. geo-scientific data collection and integration for the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; McKenna, S.; Powers, D.W.; Holt, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Site characterisation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (Figure 1) began with the drilling of the first-borehole in 1974. Over the next two decades, site-characterisation activities included drilling, logging, and testing of over 100 boreholes; surface-based and borehole geophysical surveys, shaft and repository excavation and mapping, hydraulic testing in wells of formations above and below the repository host formation, hydraulic testing of the host formation in boreholes drilled from within the repository, hydrogeochemical sampling, geomechanical testing, and a host of geologic studies (sedimentology, mineralogy, petrology, deformation, dissolution, etc.). Integration of the information provided by these activities has yielded a robust understanding of the geologic setting of WIPP, but uncertainties remain with respect to the cause and distribution of fracturing in formations above and below the host formation. This paper describes recent efforts to identify relationships among various geo-scientific properties, processes, and parameters to allow extrapolation of observed/measured conditions to less-characterised regions. Numerous types of geologic data from boreholes, well logs, and core have been combined with hydrologic measurements and observations to develop conceptual and numerical models of the distribution of transmissivity in the Culebra. Transmissivity extremes are found east and west of the WIPP site, and have well-understood geologic explanations. But no testable explanations exist for the localised occurrence of fracturing in areas where no dissolution of the upper Salado has occurred. Large-scale pumping tests have been performed to provide both information on the distribution of fractures and transient response data that can be used for model calibration. Uncertainty is addressed probabilistically by generating multiple realizations of the Culebra T field. Sensitivity studies performed on the calibrated T fields allow identification of

  19. CHROMagar COL-APSE: a selective bacterial culture medium for the isolation and differentiation of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Momin, Muhd Haziq F; Bean, David C; Hendriksen, Rene S; Haenni, Marisa; Phee, Lynette M; Wareham, David W

    2017-11-01

    A selective chromogenic culture medium for the laboratory isolation and differentiation of colistin resistant Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Enterobacteriaceae spp. (CHROMagar COL-APSE) was developed, evaluated and compared to an existing selective bacterial culture medium (SuperPolymyxin). The medium was challenged with 84 isolates, including polymyxin B (POL B)-susceptible and -resistant type strains and colistin (COL)-resistant organisms recovered from human and animal samples. Susceptibility to COL and POL B was determined by agar dilution and broth microtitre dilution. The lower limit for the detection of COL-resistant organisms was also calculated for both CHROMagar COL-APSE and SuperPolymyxin media. The ability to isolate and correctly differentiate COL-resistant organisms within mixed cultures was also assessed and compared using both media. Using CHROMagar COL-APSE, Gram-negative pathogens (n=71) with intrinsic (n=8) or acquired COL (n=63) resistance were recovered with 100 % specificity down to the lower limit of detection of 10 1 colony-forming units (c.f.u.). The growth on SuperPolymyxin was similar, but notably weaker for COL-resistant non-fermentative bacteria (Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas). CHROMagar COL-APSE was also more sensitive in supporting the growth of Enterobacteriaceae with COL resistance associated with the carriage of mcr-1. CHROMagar COL-APSE is a sensitive and specific medium for the growth of COL-resistant bacterial pathogens. Due to the low limit of detection (10 1  c.f.u.), it may be useful as a primary isolation medium in the surveillance and recovery of COL-resistant bacteria from complex human, veterinary and environmental samples, especially those with plasmid-mediated MCR-1 or novel mechanisms of polymyxin resistance.

  20. Genome-wide association analysis identifies resistance loci for bacterial blight in a diverse collection of indica rice germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Fan; Dingkuhn, Michael; Xu, Jian-Long; Zhou, Yong-Li; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial blight, which is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. The development and use of disease-resistant cultivars have been the most effective strategy to control bacterial blight. Identifying the genes mediating bacterial blight resistance is a prerequisite for breeding cultivars with broad-spectrum and durable resistance. We herein describe a genome-wide association study involving 172 diverse Oryza sativa ssp. indica accessions to identify loci influencing the resistance to representative strains of six Xoo races. Twelve resistance loci containing 121 significantly associated signals were identified using 317,894 single nucleotide polymorphisms, which explained 13.3-59.9% of the variability in lesion length caused by Xoo races P1, P6, and P9a. Two hotspot regions (L11 and L12) were located within or nearby two cloned R genes (xa25 and Xa26) and one fine-mapped R gene (Xa4). Our results confirmed the relatively high resolution of genome-wide association studies. Moreover, we detected novel significant associations on chromosomes 2, 3, and 6-10. Haplotype analyses of xa25, the Xa26 paralog (MRKc; LOC_Os11g47290), and a Xa4 candidate gene (LOC_11g46870) revealed differences in bacterial blight resistance among indica subgroups. These differences were responsible for the observed variations in lesion lengths resulting from infections by Xoo races P1 and P9a. Our findings may be relevant for future studies involving bacterial blight resistance gene cloning, and provide insights into the genetic basis for bacterial blight resistance in indica rice, which may be useful for knowledge-based crop improvement.

  1. Genome-wide association analysis identifies resistance loci for bacterial blight in a diverse collection of indica rice germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Fan; Dingkuhn, Michael; Xu, Jian-Long; Zhou, Yong-Li; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial blight, which is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. The development and use of disease-resistant cultivars have been the most effective strategy to control bacterial blight. Identifying the genes mediating bacterial blight resistance is a prerequisite for breeding cultivars with broad-spectrum and durable resistance. We herein describe a genome-wide association study involving 172 diverse Oryza sativa ssp. indica accessions to identify loci influencing the resistance to representative strains of six Xoo races. Twelve resistance loci containing 121 significantly associated signals were identified using 317,894 single nucleotide polymorphisms, which explained 13.3–59.9% of the variability in lesion length caused by Xoo races P1, P6, and P9a. Two hotspot regions (L11 and L12) were located within or nearby two cloned R genes (xa25 and Xa26) and one fine-mapped R gene (Xa4). Our results confirmed the relatively high resolution of genome-wide association studies. Moreover, we detected novel significant associations on chromosomes 2, 3, and 6–10. Haplotype analyses of xa25, the Xa26 paralog (MRKc; LOC_Os11g47290), and a Xa4 candidate gene (LOC_11g46870) revealed differences in bacterial blight resistance among indica subgroups. These differences were responsible for the observed variations in lesion lengths resulting from infections by Xoo races P1 and P9a. Our findings may be relevant for future studies involving bacterial blight resistance gene cloning, and provide insights into the genetic basis for bacterial blight resistance in indica rice, which may be useful for knowledge-based crop improvement. PMID:28355306

  2. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates...

  3. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifullah, Mohmmed; Namsa, Nima Dandu; Mandal, Manabendra; Chiruvella, Kishore Kumar; Vikrama, Paritala; Gopal, Ghanta Rama

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacterium smegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines. PMID:23905016

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation of the MBT STAR-BL Module for Simultaneous Bacterial Identification and β-Lactamase-Mediated Resistance Detection in Gram-Negative Rods from Cultured Isolates and Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie W T; Lam, Johnson K S; Lam, Ricky K W; Ng, Wan H; Lee, Ella N L; Lee, Vicky T Y; Sze, Po P; Rajwani, Rahim; Fung, Kitty S C; To, Wing K; Lee, Rodney A; Tsang, Dominic N C; Siu, Gilman K H

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the capability of a MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the newly introduced MBT STAR-BL module to simultaneously perform species identification and β-lactamase-mediated resistance detection in bacteremia -causing bacteria isolated from cultured isolates and patient-derived blood cultures (BCs). Methods: Two hundred retrospective cultured isolates and 153 prospective BCs containing Gram-negative rods (GNR) were collected and subjected to direct bacterial identification, followed by the measurement of β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and meropenem using the MBT STAR-BL module. The results and turnaround times were compared with those of routine microbiological processing. All strains were also characterized by beta-lactamase PCR and sequencing. Results: Using the saponin-based extraction method, MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified bacteria in 116/134 (86.6%) monomicrobial BCs. The detection sensitivities for β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, third-generation cephalosporin and meropenem were 91.3, 100, 97.9, and 100% for cultured isolates, and 80.4, 100, 68.8, and 40% for monomicrobial BCs ( n = 134) respectively. The overall specificities ranged from 91.5 to 100%. Furthermore, the MBT STAR-BL and conventional drug susceptibility test results were concordant in 14/19 (73.7%) polymicrobial cultures. Reducing the logRQ cut-off value from 0.4 to 0.2 increased the direct detection sensitivities for β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, cefotaxime and meropenem in BCs to 85.7, 87.5, and 100% respectively. The MBT STAR-BL test enabled the reporting of β-lactamase-producing GNR at 14.16 and 47.64 h before the interim and final reports of routine BCs processing, respectively, were available. Conclusion: The MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the MBT STAR-BL module enables the simultaneous rapid identification of bacterial species and

  5. Endophytic bacterial flora in root and stem tissues of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) genotype: isolation, identification and evaluation against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, R; Kumar, A; Eapen, S J; Ramana, K V

    2009-01-01

    To isolate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L) associated endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora capsici causing foot rot disease. Endophytic bacteria (74) were isolated, characterized and evaluated against P. capsici. Six genera belong to Pseudomonas spp (20 strains), Serratia (1 strain), Bacillus spp. (22 strains), Arthrobacter spp. (15 strains), Micrococcus spp. (7 strains), Curtobacterium sp. (1 strain) and eight unidentified strains were isolated from internal tissues of root and stem. Three isolates, IISRBP 35, IISRBP 25 and IISRBP 17 were found effective for Phytophthora suppression in multilevel screening assays which recorded over 70% disease suppression in greenhouse trials. A species closest match (99% similarity) of IISRBP 35 was established as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas EF568931), IISRBP 25 as P. putida (Pseudomonas EF568932), and IISRBP 17 as Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium EU071712) based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Black pepper associated P. aeruginosa, P. putida and B. megaterium were identified as effective antagonistic endophytes for biological control of Phytophthora foot rot in black pepper. This work provides the first evidence for endophytic bacterial diversity in black pepper stem and roots, with biocontrol potential against P. capsici infection.

  6. Selection, isolation and growth kinetic study of a bacterial consortium obtained from the Potengi mangrove in the presence of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.C.; Vaz, M.R.F.; Santos, E.S.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], E-mail: natcintia@gmail.com; Costa, J.G. da [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Coari, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Saude e Biotecnologia

    2011-10-15

    The selection, isolation and kinetic study of a bacterial consortium obtained from a sample of soil from the Potengi mangrove, located in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, has been carried out using the enrichment culture technique to observe aspects such as the evaluation of main growth parameters. The kinetic study used a rotary incubator shaker at 150rpm, under 30 deg C. The bacterial consortium isolated from the estuary of the Potengi River showed a good acclimation in minimum mineral medium with 1% (v/v) of oil. The cell concentration reached 2.55 g/L at 16h of cultivation and surface tension dropped. The maximum productivity in cells obtained was of 0.3 g/L.h, the specific velocity of growth was of 0.075h{sup -1}, with a generation time (tg) of 9.24h. This study seeks to demonstrate that the consortium can be used as inoculants in biological treatments, capable of reducing the waste's degradation time. (author)

  7. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other...... components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated...

  8. Changes in qnr Prevalence and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. Collected from 1990 to 2005▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahilevitz, Jacob; Engelstein, Dalia; Adler, Amos; Temper, Violeta; Moses, Allon E.; Block, Colin; Robicsek, Ari

    2007-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. collected from 1990 through 2005 at a tertiary care center were studied for qnr genes. Isolates bearing these genes emerged in the mid-1990s, coinciding with the time of a rapid increase in fluoroquinolone resistance. Sixty percent of these isolates were ciprofloxacin susceptible by CLSI breakpoints. PMID:17526754

  9. Comparison of SNP-based subtyping workflows for bacterial isolates using WGS data, applied to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, Assia; Wuyts, Véronique; Mattheus, Wesley; Bertrand, Sophie; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; Marchal, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing represents a promising new technology for subtyping of bacterial pathogens. Besides the technological advances which have pushed the approach forward, the last years have been marked by considerable evolution of the whole genome sequencing data analysis methods. Prior to application of the technology as a routine epidemiological typing tool, however, reliable and efficient data analysis strategies need to be identified among the wide variety of the emerged methodologies. In this work, we have compared three existing SNP-based subtyping workflows using a benchmark dataset of 32 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates including five isolates from a confirmed outbreak and three isolates obtained from the same patient at different time points. The analysis was carried out using the original (high-coverage) and a down-sampled (low-coverage) datasets and two different reference genomes. All three tested workflows, namely CSI Phylogeny-based workflow, CFSAN-based workflow and PHEnix-based workflow, were able to correctly group the confirmed outbreak isolates and isolates from the same patient with all combinations of reference genomes and datasets. However, the workflows differed strongly with respect to the SNP distances between isolates and sensitivity towards sequencing coverage, which could be linked to the specific data analysis strategies used therein. To demonstrate the effect of particular data analysis steps, several modifications of the existing workflows were also tested. This allowed us to propose data analysis schemes most suitable for routine SNP-based subtyping applied to S. Typhimurium and S. 1,4,[5],12:i:-. Results presented in this study illustrate the importance of using correct data analysis strategies and to define benchmark and fine-tune parameters applied within routine data analysis pipelines to obtain optimal results. PMID:29408896

  10. [PHENOTYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GENETICAL DETERMINANTS OF PATHOGENICITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, ISOLATED FROM BACTERIAL CARRIERS, RESIDING ON THE TERRITORIES WITH VARIOUS LEVELS OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION OF AIR ENVIRONMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkina, T M; Popova, L P; Kartashova, O L; Khazeeva, G D; Khaliullina, A A

    2015-01-01

    Comparative phenotypical and genetical evaluation of pathogenic potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains, isolated from resident bacterial carriers, residing on the territories with anthropogenic pollution of air environment of varying intensity. S. aureus, isolated 3 times from mucous membrane of the anterior of nose from 210 children, were the object of the study. Anti-carnosine activity and biofilm formation was determined by a photometric method, antibiotics resistance--by a disc diffusion method. lukS, lukF, sec 3, clfA, clfB, agr and mecA gene detection, that are associated with S. aureus, was carried out by PCR. S. aureus strains, isolated from children, residing on the territories with a high level of anthropogenic pollution of air environment, were characterized by antibiotics resistance, higher values of anti-carnosine activity, 2 times more frequently formed biofilms with higher values of the parameter. clfA and clfB genes, that determine colonization of mucous membranes, and agr gene were detected in all the studied S. aureus strains, lukF and sec 3 genes were detected in 20-40% of the strains, isolated from children, residing on both territories. mecA and lukS genetical determinants were not detected. S. aureus, isolated from children, residing on the territories with high levels of anthropogenic pollution of air environment; were characterized by higher values of the studied factors of persistence and stability against antibiotics. Genetical determinants of pathogenicity were not detected in S. aureus, isolated from individuals, residing on both territories.

  11. Measuring compliance with transmission-based isolation precautions: comparison of paper-based and electronic data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Barbara; Marine, Melissa; Chou, Mei; Cohen, Bevin; Chaudhry, Rohit; Larson, Elaine; Landers, Timothy; Behta, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Decreasing the transmission of resistant organisms in hospitals is a key goal of infection prevention plans. Studies have consistently shown inadequate health care worker (HCW) compliance with isolation precautions. Evaluating adherence through direct observation of HCW behavior is considered the "gold standard" but is labor-intensive, requiring the collection and analysis of a large volume of observations. Two methods of data collection to assess HCW compliance were evaluated: a manual method using a paper form (PF), with subsequent data entry into a database, and an electronic method using a Web-based form (WBF) with real-time data recording. Observations were conducted at 4 hospitals (a total of 2,065 beds) to assess the availability of gloves, gowns, and masks; isolation sign postings; and HCW isolation practices. A total of 13,878 isolation rooms were observed in 2009. The median number of rooms observed per day was 61 for PF and 60 for WBF, and the respective mean observation times per room were 149 seconds and 60 seconds. Thus, use of the WBF provided a time savings of 89 seconds per room. Simple electronic forms can significantly decrease the required resources for monitoring HCW adherence to hospital policies. Use of the WBF decreased the observation time by 60%, allowing for increases in the frequency and intensity of surveillance activities. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection and organization of atrazine-degrading genetic potential of seventeen bacterial isolates belonging to divergent taxa indicate a recent common origin of their catabolic functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Azhari, Najoi

    2007-01-01

    A collection of 17 atrazine-degrading bacteria isolated from soils was studied to determine the composition of the atrazine-degrading genetic potential (i.e. trzN, trzD and atz) and the presence of IS1071. The characterization of seven new atrazine-degrading bacteria revealed for the first time...

  13. Reproductive isolation revealed in preliminary crossbreeding experiments using field collected Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from three ITS–2 defined groups

    OpenAIRE

    García, Mauricio; Menes, Marianela; Dorn, Patricia L.; Monroy, Carlota; Richards, Bethany; Panzera, Francisco; Bustamante, Dulce María

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata, a Chagas disease vector distributed in Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador, has been studied using genetic markers and four groups have been defined by ITS–2 sequences: 1A, 1B, 2 and 3. To gather evidence on the divergence and reproductive isolation among T. dimidiata ITS–2 groups, we carried out 15 crossbreeding experiments with field–collected sylvan and domestic T. dimidiata from Guatemala where three groups are found: 1A, 2 and 3. Reciprocal ...

  14. Potential for Combined Biocontrol Activity against Fungal Fish and Plant Pathogens by Bacterial Isolates from a Model Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Sirakov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in aquaponics is disease control. One possible solution for this is biological control with organisms exerting inhibitory effects on fish and plant pathogens. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of isolating microorganisms that exert an inhibitory effect on both plant and fish pathogens from an established aquaponic system. We obtained 924 isolates on selective King’s B agar and 101 isolates on MRS agar from different compartments of a model aquaponic system and tested them for antagonism against the plant pathogen Pythium ultimum and fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica. Overall, 42 isolates were able to inhibit both fungi. Although not yet tested in vivo, these findings open new options for the implementation of biological control of diseases in aquaponics, where plants and fish are cultivated in the same water recirculating system.

  15. Isolation and identification of bacterial consortia responsible for degrading oil spills from the coastal area of Yanbu, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abd-EL Mooti EL Hanafy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three crude-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from oil-contaminated sites near the Red Sea. Based on a high growth rate on crude oil and on hydrocarbon degradation ability, four strains were selected from the 23 isolated strains for further study. These four strains were selected on the basis of dichlorophenolindophenol assay. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene showed that these isolated strains belonged to genus Pseudomonas and Nitratireductor. Among the four isolates, strains S5 (Pseudomonas sp., 95% and 4b (Nitratireductor sp., 70% were the most effective ones in degrading crude oil. Using a spectrophotometer and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, degradation of more than 90% of the crude oil was observed after two weeks of cultivation in Bushnell–Haas medium. The results showed that these strains have the ability to degrade crude oil and may be used for environmental remediation.

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of Danish versus other European bacterial isolates from intensive care and hematology/oncology units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A; Høiby, Niels; Friis, H M

    1995-01-01

    ICUs) or Enterococcus spp. and Klebsiella spp. (from hematology/oncology units), are the most prominent pathogens in these units today. Indicator organisms of antibiotic consumption (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus) were more......, Escherichia coli was most prevalent in Denmark while coagulase-negative staphylococci were predominant in other countries. Urinary tract isolates were dominated by Escherichia coli in both Denmark and the other countries, but Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more frequently isolated...

  17. Isolation and Evaluation of Marine Actinomycetes from Mangrove Forests in South of Iran against Some Human Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Recent studies have shown that aquatic actinomycetes can be a source of new biological products such as antibiotics and i n dustrial products. This study was designed to examine the aquatic actinomycetes isolated from mangrove forests in South of Iran and their antibacterial activities against some human pathogens.   Methods: In this study 115 samples were randomly taken from different places of a mangrove forests in South of Iran. Isolation was based on serial dilution of the samples and plating them on starch casein agar medium. Agar well diffusion and disc diffusion assays were used to examine the antibacterial activity of the isolated purified aquatic actinomycetes.   Results: The aquatic actinomycetes were isolated from 83 samples (70%. Of them, 66 (80 percent showed antibacterial activity and 17 (20% could not inhibit the human pathogenic bacteria. The diameter of the inhibitory zones (ZOI ranged from 4 to 11 mm and the biggest zone belonged to B acillus cereus (p≤0.05.   Conclusion: The findings showed that the various and useful aquatic actinomycetes for production of new antibiotic compounds are isolated easily from the mangrove forests in South of Iran. Considering the vast spreading of mangrove forests in South of Iran and the economic and simplicity of isolation of actinomycetes for industrial usage, these source can be an important and new place for research and industry.

  18. Mineralization of ( sup 14 C)hexadecane and ( sup 14 C)phenanthrene in crude oil: Specificity among bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foght, J.M.; Fedorak, P.M.; Westlake, D.W.S. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Bacteria isolated from freshwater, marine, and estuarine samples were tested for the ability to produce {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from n-(1-{sup 14}C)hexadecane or (9-{sup 14}C)phenanthrene added to Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Of 138 isolates tested, 54 (39%) mineralized the model aliphatic compound hexadecane and 6 (4%) mineralized the model aromatic compound phenanthrene. None mineralized both compounds. There was no apparent correlation between degradative ability and genus or source. Additional hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from diverse sources were tested and found to mineralize either hexadecane or phenanthrene. Of 61 hexadecane- and 21 phenanthrene-mineralizing bacteria tested, none mineralized both model compounds. Selected isolates and commercially available cultures were tested for mineralization of specific {sup 14}C-labelled mono-, di-, and tri-cyclic aromatics. An apparent hierarchy of degradation was observed: strains mineralizing the mono- and di-cyclic aromatics toluene and napthalene did not mineralize biphenyl or the tricyclic aromatics anthracene and phenanthrene, whereas those strains that mineralized the tricyclic aromatics also mineralized the smaller substrates. Similarly, not all n-alkane-mineralizing isolates tested mineralized the isoprenoid pristane. A combined culture consisting of one aliphatic- and one aromatic-degrading isolate was tested for mineralization of the model compounds and for degradation of other crude oil components by gas chromatography. No synergism or antagonism was observed compared with degradation by the individual isolates. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. A method to isolate bacterial communities and characterize ecosystems from food products: Validation and utilization in as a reproducible chicken meat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, Amélie; Remenant, Benoit; Prévost, Hervé; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-04-17

    Influenced by production and storage processes and by seasonal changes the diversity of meat products microbiota can be very variable. Because microbiotas influence meat quality and safety, characterizing and understanding their dynamics during processing and storage is important for proposing innovative and efficient storage conditions. Challenge tests are usually performed using meat from the same batch, inoculated at high levels with one or few strains. Such experiments do not reflect the true microbial situation, and the global ecosystem is not taken into account. Our purpose was to constitute live stocks of chicken meat microbiotas to create standard and reproducible ecosystems. We searched for the best method to collect contaminating bacterial communities from chicken cuts to store as frozen aliquots. We tested several methods to extract DNA of these stored communities for subsequent PCR amplification. We determined the best moment to collect bacteria in sufficient amounts during the product shelf life. Results showed that the rinsing method associated to the use of Mobio DNA extraction kit was the most reliable method to collect bacteria and obtain DNA for subsequent PCR amplification. Then, 23 different chicken meat microbiotas were collected using this procedure. Microbiota aliquots were stored at -80°C without important loss of viability. Their characterization by cultural methods confirmed the large variability (richness and abundance) of bacterial communities present on chicken cuts. Four of these bacterial communities were used to estimate their ability to regrow on meat matrices. Challenge tests performed on sterile matrices showed that these microbiotas were successfully inoculated and could overgrow the natural microbiota of chicken meat. They can therefore be used for performing reproducible challenge tests mimicking a true meat ecosystem and enabling the possibility to test the influence of various processing or storage conditions on complex meat

  20. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Isolation of symbionts and GC-MS analysis of lichens collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, a good number of lichen species have been recorded and so far not much work has been done to isolate or identify the symbionts. The utility of lichen comes from a range of secondary compounds produced by them. In view of this, two lichen samples, foliose (Parmalia reticulata Taylor) and fruticose Usnea ...

  2. Collective domino approach toward the core of molecules isolated from the genus Schisandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Alexandra; Chouraqui, Gaëlle; Parrain, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-06

    A concise route to the ABC and ABCD core of molecules isolated from the genus Schisandra has been accomplished. The synthesis demonstrated high atom efficiency employing a new one-pot cascade which sequentially built three rings and a quaternary spirocenter. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cell population entrapped in bone marrow collection sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, J.; Hrubá, A.; Velebný, V.; Kubala, Lukáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 9 (2008), s. 1116-1125 ISSN 1065-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/1704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : bone marrow * cell isolation * differentiation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.619, year: 2008

  4. Risk factors for surgical site infection following laparotomy: Effect of season and perioperative variables and reporting of bacterial isolates in 287 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgren, C M; Salem, S E; Archer, D C; Worsman, F C F; Townsend, N B

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important cause of post operative morbidity following laparotomy. To investigate risk factors for SSI, including effect of season and surgery performed outside normal working hours, and to report bacterial isolates and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Retrospective cohort study. Data were obtained from horses that had undergone exploratory laparotomy over a 3-year period (2010-2013) in a UK hospital population. SSI was defined as any purulent or serous discharge from the laparotomy incision of >24 h duration that developed during hospitalisation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between pre-, intra- and post operative variables and altered likelihood of SSI. Surgical site infection developed in 73/287 (25.4%) horses during hospitalisation. Horses of greater bodyweight (odds ratio [OR] 1.002, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0002-1.005, P = 0.03), increased packed cell volume (≥48%) on admission (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.32-6.94, P = 0.01), small intestinal resection (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.15-4.46, P = 0.02) and post operative colic (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.41-5.79, P = 0.003) were significantly associated with increased likelihood of SSI in a multivariable model. SSI was also significantly more likely to occur during winter (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.38-10.70, P = 0.01) and summer (OR 5.63, 95% CI 2.07-15.3, P = 0.001) months in the model. Three-layer closure of the incision was protective (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.16-0.58, P<0.001) compared to 2-layer closure. There was no effect of surgery being performed outside normal working hours (P = 0.5). The most common bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (59.5%), Enterococcus spp. (42.4%) and Staphylococcus spp. (25.4%). Penicillin resistant isolates accounted for 92% (96/104) of isolates while 18% (21/119) of isolates were gentamicin resistant. Laparotomy during winter and summer months was associated with increased likelihood of SSI but there was no effect of surgery

  5. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Cuminum Cyminum Essential Oil and Extract against Bacterial Strains Isolated from Patients with Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Saee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many efforts have been done to find effective agents against resistant pathogens. Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin is an aromatic plant within the Apiaceae family. It has a variety of purposes and demonstrates antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the activity of C. cyminum extract and essential oil against bacterial isolates which cause urinary tract infection, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae, group A streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from patients with urinary tract infection.Materials and Methods: Extract was prepared by maceration and essential oil was prepared by hydrodistillation from C. cyminum seeds. The study population was 95 patients with urinary tract infection without malignant diseases, diabetes and immunosupression. After identification of organism, susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion method and MIC values by broth microdilution testing.Results: C. cyminum essential oil can have a better effect on the gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection than gram-positive bacteria. In addition, C. cyminum extract have good activity against both gram- positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our findings also showed that essential oil and extract of C. cyminum has better antibacterial activity on uropathogen isolates than amoxicillin and the difference was significant (P value<0.05 but the activity is not superior to other antibiotics.Conclusion: These results suggest that the essential oil and extract of C. cyminum seeds might be considered as interesting sources of antibacterial components against uropathogenic bacteria.

  6. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Markers and Phenotypes among Fecal E. coli Isolates Collected from Nicaraguan Infants ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Daniel; Vilchez, Samuel; Paniagua, Margarita; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Weintraub, Andrej; Möllby, Roland; Kühn, Inger

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) markers and common phenotypes in 2,164 E. coli isolates from 282 DEC-positive samples. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were very diverse and were not correlated with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) estA and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) belonged to a few phenotypes and were significantly correlated with diarrhea.

  7. Protocol for Evaluating the Permissiveness of Bacterial Communities Toward Conjugal Plasmids by Quantification and Isolation of Transconjugants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of conjugal plasmids is the main bacterial process of horizontal gene transfer to potentially distantly related bacteria. These extrachromosomal, circular DNA molecules host genes that code for their own replication and transfer to other organisms. Because additional accessory genes...... may encode catabolic pathways, virulence factors, and antibiotic or metal resistances, it is of environmental, evolutionary, and medical relevance to track and monitor the fate of plasmids in mixed microbial community. When assessing the short-term and long-term implications of conjugal plasmid...

  8. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from international travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India from 2006 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang-Latimer, Jeannette; Jafri, Syed; VanTassel, Audrey; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Gurleen, Kaur; Rodriguez, Savio; Nandy, Ranjan K; Ramamurthy, Thandavaryan; Chatterjee, Santanu; McKenzie, Robin; Steffen, Robert; DuPont, Herbert L

    2011-02-01

    The incidence rates of travelers' diarrhea (TD) have remained high for the last 50 years. More recently, there have been increasing recommendations for self-initiated therapy and use of prophylactic drugs for TD. We last examined the in vitro susceptibilities of commonly used antibiotics against TD pathogens in 1997. We now examine 456 enteropathogens isolated from adult travelers to Mexico, India, and Guatemala with diarrhea acquired between 2006 and 2008 to determine changes in susceptibility against 10 different antimicrobials by the agar dilution method. Traditional antibiotics, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline, continue to show high levels of resistance. Current first-line antibiotic agents, including fluoroquinolones and azithromycin, showed significantly higher MICs than in our earlier study, and MIC(90) levels were above the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute cutoffs for resistance. There were significant geographical differences in resistance patterns when Central America was compared with India. Entertoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates showed increased resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.023) and levofloxacin (P = 0.0078) in India compared with Central America. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) isolates from Central America showed increased resistance to nearly all of the antibiotics tested. Compared to MICs of isolates 10 years prior, there were 4- to 10-fold increases in MIC(90) values for ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and azithromycin for both ETEC and EAEC. There were no significant changes in rifaximin MICs. Rising MICs over time imply the need for continuous surveillance of susceptibility patterns worldwide and geographically specific recommendations in TD therapy.

  9. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes β-lactamics in bacterial strains isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Units for transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Bello-López

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The genotype detection encoding antibiotic resistance in isolates of UCBU clearly indicates the potential risk of sepsis difficult to eradicate in the patient, if present in a UCBU available for transplant. Additionally, the existence of these genes reveals horizontal transfer events of genetic material between bacteria. So the importance to realize this studies before transplant.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup A Strain NMA510612, Isolated from a Patient with Bacterial Meningitis in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jian; Xu, Li; Zhu, Yafang; Liu, Bo; Shao, Zhujun; Zhang, Xiaobing; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Serogroup A meningococcal strains have been involved in several pandemics and a series of epidemics worldwide in the past. Determination of the genome sequence of the prevalent genotype strain will help us understand the genetic background of the evolutionary and epidemiological properties of these bacteria. We sequenced the complete genome of Neisseria meningitidis NMA510612, a clinical isolate from a patient with meningococcal meningitis.

  11. Antagonism in vitro of bacterial isolates from comercial and wild strawberry vs. Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela Plascencia Tenorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit, with a short postharvest life. The loss of fruit quality may be due, among other factors to damage caused by pathogens. Among the most common fungi are causing gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and white rot (Rhizopus stolonifer two phytopathogenic impact on their growth rate which allows you to colonize the surface of these caused major economic losses. An alternative to control damage in fruit postharvest pathogens usingmicrobial antagonists may be present in the plant or fruit, but at low densities. In this study bacteria were isolated from leaf tissue and wild strawberry fruit (Duchesnea indicates Andr. Fock and comercial strawberry. Those isolates that were selected had the highest percentages of inhibition of mycelial growth of both pathogens in vitro. We isolated a total of 32 strains of which 15 came from wild strawberry and 24 commercial strawberry. Only nine strains were obtained with biocontrol potential for one or both pathogens. The highest percentages of mycelial growth inhibition ranged from 67.1% and 81.7% for Botrytis cinerea and 45.5% to 73.2% for Rhizopus stolonifer. These were obtained from four isolates two of them from wild strawberry and the others from commercial strawberry, all with ability to control both pathogens.

  12. Semi-automated Biopanning of Bacterial Display Libraries for Peptide Affinity Reagent Discovery and Analysis of Resulting Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkes, Deborah A; Jahnke, Justin P; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N

    2017-12-06

    Biopanning bacterial display libraries is a proven technique for peptide affinity reagent discovery for recognition of both biotic and abiotic targets. Peptide affinity reagents can be used for similar applications to antibodies, including sensing and therapeutics, but are more robust and able to perform in more extreme environments. Specific enrichment of peptide capture agents to a protein target of interest is enhanced using semi-automated sorting methods which improve binding and wash steps and therefore decrease the occurrence of false positive binders. A semi-automated sorting method is described herein for use with a commercial automated magnetic-activated cell sorting device with an unconstrained bacterial display sorting library expressing random 15-mer peptides. With slight modifications, these methods are extendable to other automated devices, other sorting libraries, and other organisms. A primary goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive methodology and expound the thought process applied in analyzing and minimizing the resulting pool of candidates. These techniques include analysis of on-cell binding using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), to assess affinity and specificity during sorting and in comparing individual candidates, and the analysis of peptide sequences to identify trends and consensus sequences for understanding and potentially improving the affinity to and specificity for the target of interest.

  13. Isolation, pathogenicity and characterization of a novel bacterial pathogen Streptococcus uberis from diseased mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xia; Fu, Xiaozhe; Liao, Guoli; Chang, Ouqin; Huang, Zhibin; Li, Ningqiu

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, mandarin fish had a high mortality rate associated with abnormal swimming, exophthalmia, corneal opacity and eye hemorrhage on a fish farm located at Foshan city, Guangdong province, China. Three isolates of Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci were recovered from moribund fish, and designated as SS131025-1, SS131025-2, and SS131025-3. These isolates were identified as Streptococcus uberis according to their morphologic and physio-biochemical characteristics as well as phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA and GapC gene sequences. The pathogenicity of S. uberis to mandarin fish was determined by challenge experiments. Results of artificial challenge showed S. uberis infected healthy mandarin fish and lead to death by eyeball injection or immersion route, and the LD 50 of SS131025-1 with eyeball injection was 2.0 × 10 6.42  CFU per fish. Moreover extracellular product (ECP) of the isolated S.uberis induced CPB cell apoptosis and cause death of mandarin fish. In addition, these S. uberis strains could also infect tilapia, but not grass carp and crucian carp, and grew in brain-heart infusion broth with an optimal temperature of 37 °C, pH of 7.0, and salinity of 0%. Antibiotic sensitivity testing indicated that these isolates were susceptible to rifampicin and furazolidone but resistant to 20 kinds of antibiotics. Histopathologically, infection with S. uberis could cause serious pathological changes in brain tissues such as vacuoles in matrix, swollen mitochondria with lysis of cristae and disintegration, and lots of coccus was observed both under electron and light microscope. These results shed some light on the pathogenicity of the isolates and how to prevent and control S. uberis infection in mandarin fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Standardization of sample collection, isolation and analysis methods in extracellular vesicle research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Witwer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of publications on extracellular RNA (exRNA and extracellular vesicles (EV has highlighted the potential of these molecules and vehicles as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. These findings have created a paradigm shift, most prominently in the field of oncology, prompting expanded interest in the field and dedication of funds for EV research. At the same time, understanding of EV subtypes, biogenesis, cargo and mechanisms of shuttling remains incomplete. The techniques that can be harnessed to address the many gaps in our current knowledge were the subject of a special workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV in New York City in October 2012. As part of the “ISEV Research Seminar: Analysis and Function of RNA in Extracellular Vesicles (evRNA”, 6 round-table discussions were held to provide an evidence-based framework for isolation and analysis of EV, purification and analysis of associated RNA molecules, and molecular engineering of EV for therapeutic intervention. This article arises from the discussion of EV isolation and analysis at that meeting. The conclusions of the round table are supplemented with a review of published materials and our experience. Controversies and outstanding questions are identified that may inform future research and funding priorities. While we emphasize the need for standardization of specimen handling, appropriate normative controls, and isolation and analysis techniques to facilitate comparison of results, we also recognize that continual development and evaluation of techniques will be necessary as new knowledge is amassed. On many points, consensus has not yet been achieved and must be built through the reporting of well-controlled experiments.

  15. Standardization of sample collection, isolation and analysis methods in extracellular vesicle research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwer, Kenneth W.; Buzás, Edit I.; Bemis, Lynne T.; Bora, Adriana; Lässer, Cecilia; Lötvall, Jan; Nolte-‘t Hoen, Esther N.; Piper, Melissa G.; Sivaraman, Sarada; Skog, Johan; Théry, Clotilde; Wauben, Marca H.; Hochberg, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of publications on extracellular RNA (exRNA) and extracellular vesicles (EV) has highlighted the potential of these molecules and vehicles as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. These findings have created a paradigm shift, most prominently in the field of oncology, prompting expanded interest in the field and dedication of funds for EV research. At the same time, understanding of EV subtypes, biogenesis, cargo and mechanisms of shuttling remains incomplete. The techniques that can be harnessed to address the many gaps in our current knowledge were the subject of a special workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) in New York City in October 2012. As part of the “ISEV Research Seminar: Analysis and Function of RNA in Extracellular Vesicles (evRNA)”, 6 round-table discussions were held to provide an evidence-based framework for isolation and analysis of EV, purification and analysis of associated RNA molecules, and molecular engineering of EV for therapeutic intervention. This article arises from the discussion of EV isolation and analysis at that meeting. The conclusions of the round table are supplemented with a review of published materials and our experience. Controversies and outstanding questions are identified that may inform future research and funding priorities. While we emphasize the need for standardization of specimen handling, appropriate normative controls, and isolation and analysis techniques to facilitate comparison of results, we also recognize that continual development and evaluation of techniques will be necessary as new knowledge is amassed. On many points, consensus has not yet been achieved and must be built through the reporting of well-controlled experiments. PMID:24009894

  16. Streamlining Safety Data Collection in Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia Trials: Recommendations of the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative Antibacterial Drug Development Project Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Helen; Alemayehu, Demissie; Botgros, Radu; Comic-Savic, Sabrina; Eisenstein, Barry; Lorenz, Benjamin; Merchant, Kunal; Pelfrene, Eric; Reith, Christina; Santiago, Jonas; Tiernan, Rosemary; Wunderink, Richard; Tenaerts, Pamela; Knirsch, Charles

    2016-08-15

    Resistant bacteria are one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP). HABP/VABP trials are complex and difficult to conduct due to the large number of medical procedures, adverse events, and concomitant medications involved. Differences in the legislative frameworks between different regions of the world may also lead to excessive data collection. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) seeks to advance antibacterial drug development (ABDD) by streamlining clinical trials to improve efficiency and feasibility while maintaining ethical rigor, patient safety, information value, and scientific validity. In 2013, CTTI engaged a multidisciplinary group of experts to discuss challenges impeding the conduct of HABP/VABP trials. Separate workstreams identified challenges associated with current data collection processes. Experts defined "data collection" as the act of capturing and reporting certain data on the case report form as opposed to recording of data as part of routine clinical care. The ABDD Project Team developed strategies for streamlining safety data collection in HABP/VABP trials using a Quality by Design approach. Current safety data collection processes in HABP/VABP trials often include extraneous information. More targeted strategies for safety data collection in HABP/VABP trials will rely on optimal protocol design and prespecification of which safety data are essential to satisfy regulatory reporting requirements. A consensus and a cultural change in clinical trial design and conduct, which involve recognition of the need for more efficient data collection, are urgently needed to advance ABDD and to improve HABP/VABP trials in particular. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Bio-precipitation of uranium by two bacterial isolates recovered from extreme environments as estimated by potentiometric titration, TEM and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merroun, Mohamed L., E-mail: merroun@ugr.es [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Nedelkova, Marta [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ojeda, Jesus J. [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Experimental Techniques Centre, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Reitz, Thomas [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Fernandez, Margarita Lopez; Arias, Jose M. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Romero-Gonzalez, Maria [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Selenska-Pobell, Sonja [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation of uranium as U phosphates by natural bacterial isolates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uranium biomineralization involves the activity of acidic phosphatase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uranium bioremediation could be achieved via the biomineralization of U(VI) in phosphate minerals. - Abstract: This work describes the mechanisms of uranium biomineralization at acidic conditions by Bacillus sphaericus JG-7B and Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1 both recovered from extreme environments. The U-bacterial interaction experiments were performed at low pH values (2.0-4.5) where the uranium aqueous speciation is dominated by highly mobile uranyl ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the cells of the studied strains precipitated uranium at pH 3.0 and 4.5 as a uranium phosphate mineral phase belonging to the meta-autunite group. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses showed strain-specific localization of the uranium precipitates. In the case of B. sphaericus JG-7B, the U(VI) precipitate was bound to the cell wall. Whereas for Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1, the U(VI) precipitates were observed both on the cell surface and intracellularly. The observed U(VI) biomineralization was associated with the activity of indigenous acid phosphatase detected at these pH values in the absence of an organic phosphate substrate. The biomineralization of uranium was not observed at pH 2.0, and U(VI) formed complexes with organophosphate ligands from the cells. This study increases the number of bacterial strains that have been demonstrated to precipitate uranium phosphates at acidic conditions via the activity of acid phosphatase.

  18. Analysis of the bacterial diversity existing on animal hide and wool: development of a preliminary PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint database for identifying isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool.

  19. Isolation, crystallization, and investigation of ribosomal protein S8 complexed with specific fragments of rRNA of bacterial or archaeal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, S V; Vassilieva, J M; Platonova, O B; Serganov, A A; Fomenkova, N P; Mudrik, E S; Piendl, W; Ehresmann, C; Ehresmann, B; Garber, M B

    2001-09-01

    The core ribosomal protein S8 binds to the central domain of 16S rRNA independently of other ribosomal proteins and is required for assembling the 30S subunit. It has been shown with E. coli ribosomes that a short rRNA fragment restricted by nucleotides 588-602 and 636-651 is sufficient for strong and specific protein S8 binding. In this work, we studied the complexes formed by ribosomal protein S8 from Thermus thermophilus and Methanococcus jannaschii with short rRNA fragments isolated from the same organisms. The dissociation constants of the complexes of protein S8 with rRNA fragments were determined. Based on the results of binding experiments, rRNA fragments of different length were designed and synthesized in preparative amounts in vitro using T7 RNA-polymerase. Stable S8-RNA complexes were crystallized. Crystals were obtained both for homologous bacterial and archaeal complexes and for hybrid complexes of archaeal protein with bacterial rRNA. Crystals of the complex of protein S8 from M. jannaschii with the 37-nucleotide rRNA fragment from the same organism suitable for X-ray analysis were obtained.

  20. Silver- and fluoride-containing mesoporous bioactive glasses versus commonly used antibiotics: Activity against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains isolated from patients with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Sameni, M; Hashemi, A; Zamani, F; Rostami, A; Mozafari, M

    2016-02-01

    The wound healing process is frequently associated with a number of major clinical challenges, due to the failure of commonly used antibiotics as a remedy for wounds. There have always been fascinating questions about the novel applications of bioactive glasses (BGs) and it is expected that in the next few years these types of materials may play an important role in many aspects of soft tissue regeneration. This research focuses on the feasibility of using silver- and fluoride-containing BGs against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains isolated from patients with burns. According to the results obtained, fluoride did not exhibit antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, while both 1% and 2% silver-containing BGs inhibited the bacterial growth. It is an important finding that 1% silver-containing BGs showed a potential antibacterial activity without any toxicity against fibroblasts, suggesting that this class of BGs could play a key role in the prevention of infection, reduction of pain, and removal of excessive exudates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates on the Surface and Core of Tonsils from Patients with Chronic Tonsillitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Niranjan Khadilkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Controversy regarding treatment of tonsillitis based on throat culture report still persists. If surface culture is a determinant of bacteriology of the core, then rational therapy could be aimed at organisms cultured by surface swab. Materials and Methods A Cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 patients of chronic tonsillitis who underwent tonsillectomy. Tonsil surface and core swabs were studied for aerobic and anaerobic growth. Result Eighty seven percent patients had aerobic growth on tonsil surface and ninety percent in tonsil core. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest aerobic bacteria isolated. Anaerobic growth was present in 47% patients on tonsil surface, and 48% in core. Porphyromonas sp. was the commonest anaerobic bacterium isolated. Discussion There was no statistically significant difference between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria found in tonsil surface and core.  Conclusion Throat swabs adequately represent core pathogen, and are dependable in detecting bacteriology of chronic tonsillitis.

  2. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  3. Aspiration in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Centre Experience of Clinical Profile, Bacterial Isolates and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Sirsath, Nagesh T.; Subramanyam, Jayshree R.; Govind, Babu K.; Lokanatha, D.; Shenoy, Ashok M.

    2013-01-01

    Most patients with head and neck cancer have dysphagia and are at increased risk of having aspiration and subsequent pneumonia. It can cause prolonged hospitalization, treatment delay and/or interruption and mortality in cancer patients. The treatment of these infections often relies on empirical antibiotics based on local microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The aim of present study is to analyse respiratory tract pathogens isolated by sputum culture in head and neck cancer pati...

  4. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mevius, Dik J; Sch