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Sample records for bacterial isolates collected

  1. Characterization of CCN and IN activity of bacterial isolates collected in Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, Sara; Waters, Samantha; Karthikeyan, Smruthi; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of CCN activity of bacteria, other than a few select types such as Pseudomonas syringae, is limited, especially when looked at in conjunction with corresponding IN activity. The link between these two points is especially important for bacteria as those that have high CCN activity are likely to form an aqueous phase required for immersion freezing. Given the high ice nucleation temperature of bacterial cells, especially in immersion mode, it is important to characterize the CCN and IN activity of many different bacterial strains. To this effect, we developed a droplet freezing assay (DFA) which consists of an aluminum cold plate, cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture, in order to observe immersion freezing of the collected bacteria. Here, we present the initial results on the CCN and IN activities of bacterial samples we have collected in Atlanta, GA. Bacterial strains were collected and isolated from rainwater samples taken from different storms throughout the year. We then characterized the CCN activity of each strain using a DMT Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter by exposing the aerosolized bacteria to supersaturations ranging from 0.05% to 0.6%. Additionally, using our new DFA, we characterized the IN activity of each bacterial strain at temperatures ranging from -20oC to 0oC. The combined CCN and IN activity gives us valuable information on how some uncharacterized bacteria contribute to warm and mixed-phase cloud formation in the atmosphere.

  2. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  3. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Mahmood; Muhammad Arshad; Azeem Khalid; Zilli Huma Nazli; Tariq Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of...

  4. Antibiogram of bacterial species isolated from canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Swamy; Varun Bassessar; Yamini Verma

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present work was to ascertain the bacterial flora causing pyometra in female dogs and their antibiotic sensitivity. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted to determine the antibiogram of bacterial species isolated from 20 female dogs diagnosed with pyometra. The vaginal discharge was collected by sterile swab and streaked smoothly over Mueller Hinton medium and sensitivity towards antibiotics was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition using a Hi-media scale. ...

  5. Antibiogram of bacterial species isolated from canine pyometra

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    Madhu Swamy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present work was to ascertain the bacterial flora causing pyometra in female dogs and their antibiotic sensitivity. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted to determine the antibiogram of bacterial species isolated from 20 female dogs diagnosed with pyometra. The vaginal discharge was collected by sterile swab and streaked smoothly over Mueller Hinton medium and sensitivity towards antibiotics was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition using a Hi-media scale. Results: The antobiogram showed that Gentamicin was the most sensitive (85% antibiotic followed by Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin (65%, 65% and 55%, respectively. The isolates were most resistant to Oxytetracycline (85% followed by Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Cloxacillin and Erythromycin (80%, 80%, 75%, 70% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion: Gentamicin was found to be most effective antibiotic against the bacterial species isolated from canine pyometra. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 546-549

  6. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

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    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  7. Bacterial isolates degrading aliphatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, T; Hosoya, H; Tokiwa, Y

    1998-04-15

    Bacteria that degrade an aliphatic polycarbonate, poly(hexamethylene carbonate), were isolated from river water in Ibaraki. Prefecture, Japan, after enrichment in liquid medium containing poly(hexamethylene carbonate) suspensions as carbon source, and dilution to single cells. Four of the strains, 35L, WFF52, 61A and 61B2, degraded poly(hexamethylene carbonate) on agar plate containing suspended poly(hexamethylene carbonate). Degradation of poly(hexamethylene carbonate) was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography. Besides poly(hexamethylene carbonate), the strains were found to degrade poly(tetramethylene carbonate). The strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Strains 35L and WFF52 were tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Variovorax sp., respectively, while strains 61A and 61B2 constitute an unidentified branch within the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria.

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL ISOLATES

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    Utkarsha S. Shivsharan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro-organisms have tendency to produce antimicrobial substances which show biological activity against other kind of micro-organisms. This phenomenon of bacterial antagonism is observed in lactic acid bacteria with competitive advantages. The lactic acid bacteria are commonly present in many fermented products, fruits and milk products. The variety of antimicrobial substances produced by lactic acid bacteria showing good inhibition capacity include production of lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide, diacetyl and bacteriocin. Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of intense research because of their antimicrobial activity against food born bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum and several others .Bacteriocins may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal with narrow or broad range of activity. The main of the study was to study the antimicrobial activity of such lactic acid bacterial isolates.

  9. Collective decision making in bacterial viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Joshua S; Mileyko, Yuriy; Joh, Richard I; Voit, Eberhard O

    2008-09-15

    For many bacterial viruses, the choice of whether to kill host cells or enter a latent state depends on the multiplicity of coinfection. Here, we present a mathematical theory of how bacterial viruses can make collective decisions concerning the fate of infected cells. We base our theory on mechanistic models of gene regulatory dynamics. Unlike most previous work, we treat the copy number of viral genes as variable. Increasing the viral copy number increases the rate of transcription of viral mRNAs. When viral regulation of cell fate includes nonlinear feedback loops, very small changes in transcriptional rates can lead to dramatic changes in steady-state gene expression. Hence, we prove that deterministic decisions can be reached, e.g., lysis or latency, depending on the cellular multiplicity of infection within a broad class of gene regulatory models of viral decision-making. Comparisons of a parameterized version of the model with molecular studies of the decision structure in the temperate bacteriophage lambda are consistent with our conclusions. Because the model is general, it suggests that bacterial viruses can respond adaptively to changes in population dynamics, and that features of collective decision-making in viruses are evolvable life history traits.

  10. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

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    Shahid Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of degrading Remazol Black-B azo dye efficientlywere screened through experimentation on modified mineral salt medium. Isolate SS1 (collected from wastewater ofSupreme Textile Industry was able to completely remove the Remazol Black-B dye from the liquid medium in 18 h.Further, the isolate showed the best performance at the dye concentration of 100 mg L-1 medium (pH 7 and attemperature 35oC. Similarly, yeast extract proved to be the best carbon source for decolorization purpose. Theresults imply that the isolate SS1 could be used for the removal of the reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  11. Validation of hierarchical cluster analysis for identification of bacterial species using 42 bacterial isolates

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    Ghebremedhin, Meron; Yesupriya, Shubha; Luka, Janos; Crane, Nicole J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the potential advantages of the use of Raman spectroscopy in the biomedical field due to its rapidity and noninvasive nature. In this study, Raman spectroscopy is applied as a method for differentiating between bacteria isolates for Gram status and Genus species. We created models for identifying 28 bacterial isolates using spectra collected with a 785 nm laser excitation Raman spectroscopic system. In order to investigate the groupings of these samples, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was implemented. In addition, cluster analyses of the isolates were performed using various data types consisting of, biochemical tests, gene sequence alignment, high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility tests of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and degree of antimicrobial resistance (SIR). In order to evaluate the ability of these models to correctly classify bacterial isolates using solely Raman spectroscopic data, a set of 14 validation samples were tested using the PLSDA models and consequently the HCA models. External cluster evaluation criteria of purity and Rand index were calculated at different taxonomic levels to compare the performance of clustering using Raman spectra as well as the other datasets. Results showed that Raman spectra performed comparably, and in some cases better than, the other data types with Rand index and purity values up to 0.933 and 0.947, respectively. This study clearly demonstrates that the discrimination of bacterial species using Raman spectroscopic data and hierarchical cluster analysis is possible and has the potential to be a powerful point-of-care tool in clinical settings.

  12. Improved Method for Isolation of Bacterial Inhibitors from Oleuropein Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Federici, Federico; Bongi, Guido

    1983-01-01

    A new high-pressure liquid chromatography multidetection quantitative method for the isolation of the products of oleuropein hydrolysis is described. A single analysis yields sufficient amounts of the compounds to test their inhibitory effect on bacterial growth.

  13. In vitro activity of difloxacin against canine bacterial isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den J.R.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Walker, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The in vitro activity of difloxacin against canine bacterial isolates from clinical cases was studied in the United States and The Netherlands. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the postantibiotic effect, the effect of pH on antimicrobial activity, and the bacterial killing rate tests were de

  14. Antibiogram study of aerobic bacterial isolates from uropathogens

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    Mallikarjuna Reddy C, Himabindu M, Maity Soumendranath, Kanta RC, Kapur Indu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteria are capable of invading and infecting humans, leading to disease and sometimes death. Systems and tissues in human body are vulnerable to different organisms. Infection pattern is likely to differ by geographical regions. Aim: This study was aimed to isolate and identify the type of aerobic bacteria causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTI in different age groups and sexes, and also in some predisposing conditions. Their antibiogram also was done. Materials and Methods: Midstream urine sample collected aseptically from 276 patients were subjected for isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria by standard technique and subsequently antibiogram was done by Kirby –Bayer Method. Both sexes of patients with an age range of 10-70 years and patients with diabetes (22, hypertension (8 and anemia (8 were also included in the study. Results: Escherichia coli was the predominant organism(50% among other isolates – Klebsiella species (27.3%, Proteus species(7.14%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.95%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.57%, Enterococci (3.57%, Pseudomonas species(2.38%. UTI was more common among patients of 60 and more years of age; however, incidence was more in female patients (36.2 – 38.5% compared with male patients (25-30%. Anemia, Diabetes and Hypertension conditions were found to predispose UTI. Aminoglycosides and Quinolones were found to be more effective against the isolates. Conclusion: The present study reveals in spite of the topographical diversity, the infecting bacterial isolates from this area were found to be the same as from any other part of India.

  15. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies from bacterial cells

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    Peternel Špela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells.

  16. Isolation and characterization of organic-sulfur degradation bacterial strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu; DIAO Meng-xue; SHI Wu-yang; LI Li; DAI Qin-yun; QIU Guan-zhou

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial strain that was capable of degrading organic sulfur (dibenzothiophene) was isolated by enrichment techniques from the petroleum-contaminated soil collected from Zhongyuan Oil Field. The strain is named ZYX and is gram-positive.This strain undergoes bacilus-coccus morphological change, and forms yellow-pigment glossy circular colonies with 1.5 mm in diameter on average after 2 d incubation on Luria-Bertani(LB) plates. The full-length of 16S rDNA sequence of strain ZYX was determined and analyzed. Strain ZYX is found most relative with the genus of Arthrobacter. The similarity values between ZYX and Arthrobacter sp. P2 is 99.53%. The main morphological, biochemical and physiological features of strain ZYX accord with those of Arthrobacter. It is found that the optimal initial pH for growth is about 7.0, and the optimal concentration of dibenzothiophene(DBT)for growth is 0.10 g/L. Additionally, the results show that the best carbon source and nitrogen source are glycerol and glutamine,respectively.

  17. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

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    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  18. Spectrum and Sensitivity of Bacterial Keratitis Isolates in Auckland

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    S. Marasini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. Objectives. To identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. Methods. Hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified. Laboratory records of 89 culture positive cases were retrospectively reviewed and antibiotic sensitivity patterns compared with previous studies from other NZ centres. Results. From 126 positive cultures, 35 species were identified. Staphylococcus was identified to be the most common isolate (38.2%, followed by Pseudomonas (21.3%. Over the last decade, infection due to Pseudomonas species, in the same setting, has increased (p≤0.05. Aminoglycosides, cefazolin, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline were 100% effective against tested isolates in vitro. Amoxicillin (41.6%, cefuroxime (33.3%, and chloramphenicol (94.7% showed reduced efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria, whereas penicillin (51% and ciprofloxacin (98.8% showed reduced efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions. Despite a shift in the spectrum of bacterial keratitis isolates, antibiotic sensitivity patterns have generally remained stable and show comparability to results within the last decade from NZ centres.

  19. Identification of leptospiral isolates by bacterial restriction endonuclease analysis (Brenda

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    Venkatesha M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA samples from 19 reference serovars belonging to 19 different serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and two serovars belonging to Leptospira biflexa were examined by bacterial restriction endonuclease analysis using EcoR I and Hae III enzymes. All the serovars gave unique restriction patterns that differed from each other. DNA from 10 local isolates digested with these enzymes produced patterns which on comparison with the standard patterns produced by reference strains could be identified to serovar level.

  20. Biodegradation of Ochratoxin A by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Vineyard Soils

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    Palmira De Bellis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin with a main nephrotoxic activity contaminating several foodstuffs. In the present report, five soil samples collected from OTA-contaminated vineyards were screened to isolate microorganisms able to biodegrade OTA. When cultivated in OTA-supplemented medium, OTA was converted in OTα by 225 bacterial isolates. To reveal clonal relationships between isolates, molecular typing by using an automated rep-PCR system was carried out, thus showing the presence of 27 different strains (rep-PCR profiles. The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of an isolate representative of each rep-PCR profiles indicated that they belonged to five bacterial genera, namely Pseudomonas, Leclercia, Pantoea, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter. However, further evaluation of OTA-degrading activity by the 27 strains revealed that only Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain 396.1 and Acinetobacter sp. strain neg1, consistently conserved the above property; their further characterization showed that they were able to convert 82% and 91% OTA into OTα in six days at 24 °C, respectively. The presence of OTα, as the unique OTA-degradation product was confirmed by LC-HRMS. This is the first report on OTA biodegradation by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soils and carried out under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. These microorganisms might be used to detoxify OTA-contaminated feed and could be a new source of gene(s for the development of a novel enzymatic detoxification system.

  1. Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to

  2. The bacterial communities of Drosophila suzukii collected from undamaged cherries

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    James Angus Chandler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii is an introduced pest insect that feeds on undamaged, attached fruit. This diet is distinct from the fallen, discomposing fruits utilized by most other species of Drosophila. Since the bacterial microbiota of Drosophila, and of many other animals, is affected by diet, we hypothesized that the bacteria associated with D. suzukii are distinct from that of other Drosophila. Using 16S rDNA PCR and Illumina sequencing, we characterized the bacterial communities of larval and adult D. suzukii collected from undamaged, attached cherries in California, USA. We find that the bacterial communities associated with these samples of D. suzukii contain a high frequency of Tatumella. Gluconobacter and Acetobacter, two taxa with known associations with Drosophila, were also found, although at lower frequency than Tatumella in four of the five samples examined. Sampling D. suzukii from different locations and/or while feeding on different fruits is needed to determine the generality of the results determined by these samples. Nevertheless this is, to our knowledge, the first study characterizing the bacterial communities of this ecologically unique and economically important species of Drosophila.

  3. From organized internal traffic to collective navigation of bacterial swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial swarming resulting in collective navigation over surfaces provides a valuable example of cooperative colonization of new territories. The social bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits successful and diverse swarming strategies. When grown on hard agar surfaces with peptone, P. vortex develops complex colonies of vortices (rotating bacterial aggregates). In contrast, during growth on Mueller–Hinton broth gelled into a soft agar surface, a new strategy of multi-level organization is revealed: the colonies are organized into a special network of swarms (or ‘snakes’ of a fraction of millimeter in width) with intricate internal traffic. More specifically, cell movement is organized in two or three lanes of bacteria traveling between the back and the front of the swarm. This special form of cellular logistics suggests new methods in which bacteria can share resources and risk while searching for food or migrating into new territories. While the vortices-based organization on hard agar surfaces has been modeled before, here, we introduce a new multi-agent bacterial swarming model devised to capture the swarms-based organization on soft surfaces. We test two putative generic mechanisms that may underlie the observed swarming logistics: (i) chemo-activated taxis in response to chemical cues and (ii) special align-and-push interactions between the bacteria and the boundary of the layer of lubricant collectively generated by the swarming bacteria. Using realistic parameters, the model captures the observed phenomena with semi-quantitative agreement in terms of the velocity as well as the dynamics of the swarm and its envelope. This agreement implies that the bacteria interactions with the swarm boundary play a crucial role in mediating the interplay between the collective movement of the swarm and the internal traffic dynamics. (paper)

  4. From organized internal traffic to collective navigation of bacterial swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Gil; Shklarsh, Adi; Kalisman, Oren; Ingham, Colin; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial swarming resulting in collective navigation over surfaces provides a valuable example of cooperative colonization of new territories. The social bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits successful and diverse swarming strategies. When grown on hard agar surfaces with peptone, P. vortex develops complex colonies of vortices (rotating bacterial aggregates). In contrast, during growth on Mueller-Hinton broth gelled into a soft agar surface, a new strategy of multi-level organization is revealed: the colonies are organized into a special network of swarms (or ‘snakes’ of a fraction of millimeter in width) with intricate internal traffic. More specifically, cell movement is organized in two or three lanes of bacteria traveling between the back and the front of the swarm. This special form of cellular logistics suggests new methods in which bacteria can share resources and risk while searching for food or migrating into new territories. While the vortices-based organization on hard agar surfaces has been modeled before, here, we introduce a new multi-agent bacterial swarming model devised to capture the swarms-based organization on soft surfaces. We test two putative generic mechanisms that may underlie the observed swarming logistics: (i) chemo-activated taxis in response to chemical cues and (ii) special align-and-push interactions between the bacteria and the boundary of the layer of lubricant collectively generated by the swarming bacteria. Using realistic parameters, the model captures the observed phenomena with semi-quantitative agreement in terms of the velocity as well as the dynamics of the swarm and its envelope. This agreement implies that the bacteria interactions with the swarm boundary play a crucial role in mediating the interplay between the collective movement of the swarm and the internal traffic dynamics.

  5. Bioremediation Potential of Bacterial Isolates for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

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    Nilesh A. Sonune

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential of bacteria for the treatment of municipal wastewater was investigated in present study. Total eight bacterial isolates were used for this study that showed growth on wastewater agar medium. These isolates were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical test and identified as Bacillus licheniformis NW16, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NS19, Pseudomonas sp. NS20, Planococcus salinarum NS23, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NS21, Paenibacillus sp. NW9, Paenibacillus borealis NS3 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17. The B. licheniformis NW16 showed highest potential to reduce all parameter under study than other isolates except Ammonical nitrogen. B. licheniformis NW16 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17 showed maximum reduction (42.86% in BOD each. B. licheniformis NW16 and Paenibacillus sp. NW9 showed 82.76% and 81.61% reduction in COD respectively. B. licheniformis NW16, P. salinarum NS23 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17 showed reduction in nitrate ranging from 17.36%-63.64%. All the isolates have potential to reduced phosphate from 17.55% -72.3%. B. licheniformis NW16, Ps. aeruginosa NS19, Pseudomonas sp. NS20, Paenibacillus sp. NW9 and Aeromonas hydrophilia NS17 showed reduction in TSS ranging from 42.69%-79.94%. B. licheniformis NW16, Ps. aeruginosa NS19, Pseudomonas sp. NS20, S. maltophilia NS21 and Paenibacillus sp. NW9 showed reduction in TDS ranging from 14%-81.4%.

  6. Isolation of Bacterial Strain for Biodegradation of Fats, Oil and Grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposition is one of the major problems that harm the environment and cause dissatisfaction for human. Uncontrolled and un-pre-treated FOG removal from the kitchen could lead to its accumulation in the piping system. Problems include the interference of fat with the aerobic microorganisms that are responsible in treating the wastewater by reducing oxygen transfer rates and for anaerobic microorganisms; their efficiency could also be reduced due to the reduction of the transport of soluble substrates to the bacterial biomass. Biodegradation could be one of the effective means to treat FOG. The main objective of this study is to isolate bacterial strains from the FOG waste and identify the strains that are capable in biodegrading FOG waste. FOG sample was collected from a sewer manhole. Enrichment technique was applied, followed by isolation of bacterial strains to determine which strain is able to degrade the FOG deposition. Some morphology for the bacterial strain was done to determine its characteristics. (author)

  7. Isolation and molecular characterisation of malathion-degrading bacterial strains from waste water in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinat K. Mohamed; Mohamed A. Ahmed; Nashwa A. Fetyan; SHERIF M. ELNAGDY

    2010-01-01

    Efficiencies of local bacterial isolates in malathion degradation were investigated. Five bacterial isolates obtained from agricultural waste water were selected due to their ability to grow in minimal salt media, supplied with 250 ppm malathion as sole source of carbon and phosphorus. The purified bacterial isolates (MOS-1, MOS-2, MOS-3, MOS-4 and MOS-5) were characterised and identified using a combination of cellular profile (SDS-PAGE), genetic make up profile (RAPD-PCR), and morphological...

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Nickel Uptake by Nickel Resistant Bacterial Isolate (NiRBI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAGDISH S PATEL; PRERNA C PATEL; KIRAN KALIA

    2006-01-01

    Bioremediation technology has gained importance because microbes could be the convenient source of bio-absorption/bioaccumulation of metals from effluent streams. Methods The nickel-resistant bacterial isolates (NiRBI)were selected from various bacterial isolates from industrial effluent and grown in nutrient broth containing different concentrations of nickel sulfate (0.3-3.0 mmol/L) and their capability of accumulating metal from the medium. Results Well-defined growth of NiRBI was observed in the medium containing up to 2.5 mmol/L of nickel. The isolate was identified using 16S rRNA and closely related to Pseudomonas fragi. Maximum accumulation of nickel (0.59 mg/g dry weight of bacterial cells) was observed when NiRBI was grown in media containing 2 mmol/L of nickel. The protein profile of the NiRBI cellular extract by SDS-PAGE showed two metal stress-induced proteins of molecular weight 48 KD and 18 KD with a simultaneous down regulation of four proteins of 46.7 KD, 42.2 KD, 19.7 KD, and 4.0 KD. Conclusion 48 KD and 18 KD proteins play a role in metal resistance mechanism by NiRBI.

  9. Interactions of selected bacterial isolates with DBT and solubilized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, D.H.; Fox, R.V.; Kase, R.S.; Willey, M.S.; Stoner, D.L.; Ward, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    We are studying the interactions of isolated bacteria with dibenzothiophene (DBT), a sulfur-containing model compound, and with a solubilized coal product derived from a high-organic-sulfur lignite. The sensitivity of the tetrazolium assay used to identify and study these strains was improved by substituting tetrazolium violet for triphenyltetrazolium. DBT metabolism by thirteen strains was investigated using qualitative and quantitative GC and GC-MS analyses. Growth medium and incubation time affect the extent of DBT degradation and the production of DBT metabolites. Under specific conditions, seven of the strains produce metabolites which elute close to the position of one or another of the biphenyl standards. However, when these samples are spiked with the standard compounds, the bacterial metabolites do not co-elute with the standards. The modification of solubilized high-organic-sulfur coal by six of these strains was also studied. No selective removal of sulfur relative to carbon was observed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Isolation of amoebic-bacterial consortia capable of degrading trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater from a waste disposal site contaminated with chlorinated alkenes was examined for the presence of amoebic-bacterial consortia capable of degrading the suspected carcinogen, trichloroethylene (TCE). Consortia were readily isolated from all of four test wells. They contained free-living amoebae, and heterotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria. Electron microscopic examination showed bacteria localized throughout the amoebic cytoplasm and an abundance of hyphomicrobium, but not Type I methanotrophs. The presence of Type II methanotrophs was indirectly indicated by lipid analysis of one consortium. The consortia have been passaged for over two years on mineral salts media in a methane atmosphere, which would not be expected to maintain the heterotrophs or amoebae separately. The methanotrophic bacteria apparently provided a stable nutrient source, allowing the persistence of the various genera. By use of 14C-radiotracer techniques, the degradation of TCE by the consortia was observed with 14C eventuating predominantly in CO2 and water-soluble products. In a more detailed examination of one consortia, the amoebae and heterotrohic components did not degrade TCE, while a mixed culture of heterotrophs and methanotrophs did degrade TCE, suggesting the latter component was the primary cause for the consortium's ability to degrade TCE. Amoebic-bacterial consortia may play a role in stabilizing and preserving methylotrophic bacteria in hostile environments

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

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    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  12. In search of alternative antibiotic drugs: Quorum-quenching activity in sponges and their bacterial isolates

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    Kumar eSaurav

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the extensive development of drug resistance in pathogens against the available antibiotic arsenal, antimicrobial resistance is now an emerging major threat to public healthcare. Anti-virulence drugs are a new type of therapeutic agent aiming at virulence factors rather than killing the pathogen, thus providing less selective pressure for evolution of resistance. One promising example of this therapeutic concept targets bacterial quorum sensing (QS, because QS controls many virulence factors responsible for bacterial infections. Marine sponges and their associated bacteria are considered a still untapped source for unique chemical leads with a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we screened extracts of fourteen sponge species collected from the Red and Mediterranean Sea for their quorum-quenching (QQ potential. Half of the species showed QQ activity in at least 2 out of 3 replicates. Six out of the 14 species were selected for bacteria isolation, to test for QQ activity also in isolates, which, once cultured, represent an unlimited source of compounds. We show that approximately 20% of the isolates showed QQ activity based on a Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 screen, and that the presence or absence of QQ activity in a sponge extract did not co-relate with the abundance of isolates with the same activity from the same sponge species. This can be explained by the unknown source of QQ compounds in sponge-holobionts (host or symbionts, and further by the possible non-symbiotic nature of bacteria isolated from sponges. The potential symbiotic nature of the isolates showing QQ activity was tested according to the distribution and abundance of taxonomically close bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs in a dataset including 97 sponge species and 178 environmental samples (i.e., seawater, freshwater and marine sediments. Most isolates were found not to be enriched in sponges, and may simply have been trapped in the

  13. In Search of Alternative Antibiotic Drugs: Quorum-Quenching Activity in Sponges and their Bacterial Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurav, Kumar; Bar-Shalom, Rinat; Haber, Markus; Burgsdorf, Ilia; Oliviero, Giorgia; Costantino, Valeria; Morgenstern, David; Steindler, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the extensive development of drug resistance in pathogens against the available antibiotic arsenal, antimicrobial resistance is now an emerging major threat to public healthcare. Anti-virulence drugs are a new type of therapeutic agent aiming at virulence factors rather than killing the pathogen, thus providing less selective pressure for evolution of resistance. One promising example of this therapeutic concept targets bacterial quorum sensing (QS), because QS controls many virulence factors responsible for bacterial infections. Marine sponges and their associated bacteria are considered a still untapped source for unique chemical leads with a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we screened extracts of 14 sponge species collected from the Red and Mediterranean Sea for their quorum-quenching (QQ) potential. Half of the species showed QQ activity in at least 2 out of 3 replicates. Six out of the 14 species were selected for bacteria isolation, to test for QQ activity also in isolates, which, once cultured, represent an unlimited source of compounds. We show that ≈20% of the isolates showed QQ activity based on a Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 screen, and that the presence or absence of QQ activity in a sponge extract did not correlate with the abundance of isolates with the same activity from the same sponge species. This can be explained by the unknown source of QQ compounds in sponge-holobionts (host or symbionts), and further by the possible non-symbiotic nature of bacteria isolated from sponges. The potential symbiotic nature of the isolates showing QQ activity was tested according to the distribution and abundance of taxonomically close bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in a dataset including 97 sponge species and 178 environmental samples (i.e., seawater, freshwater, and marine sediments). Most isolates were found not to be enriched in sponges and may simply have been trapped in the filtration channels of the

  14. Effect of isolate of ruminal fibrolytic bacterial culture supplementation on fibrolytic bacterial population and survivability of inoculated bacterial strain in lactating Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brishketu Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bacterial culture supplementation on ruminal fibrolytic bacterial population as well as on survivability of inoculated bacterial strain in lactating Murrah buffaloes kept on high fibre diet. Materials and Methods: Fibrolytic bacterial strains were isolated from rumen liquor of fistulated Murrah buffaloes and live bacterial culture were supplemented orally in treatment group of lactating Murrah buffaloes fed on high fibre diet to see it's effect on ruminal fibrolytic bacterial population as well as to see the effect of survivability of the inoculated bacterial strain at three different time interval in comparison to control group. Results: It has been shown by real time quantification study that supplementation of bacterial culture orally increases the population of major fibre degrading bacteria i.e. Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus as well as Fibrobacter succinogenes whereas there was decrease in secondary fibre degrading bacterial population i.e. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens over the different time periods. However, the inoculated strain of Ruminococcus flavefaciens survived significantly over the period of time, which was shown in stability of increased inoculated bacterial population. Conclusion: The isolates of fibrolytic bacterial strains are found to be useful in increasing the number of major ruminal fibre degrading bacteria in lactating buffaloes and may act as probiotic in large ruminants on fibre-based diets. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 14-17

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Gang; Lim, Jeong-A; Song, Yu-Rim; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Koh, Young Jin; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. In this study, we isolated bacteriophages against P. syringae pv. actinidiae from soils collected from kiwifruit orchards in Korea and selected seven bacteriophages for further characterization based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns of genomic DNA. Among the studied bacteriophages, two belong to the Myoviridae family and three belong to the Podoviridae family, based on morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy. The host range of the selected bacteriophages was confirmed using 18 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, including the Psa2 and Psa3 groups, and some were also effective against other P. syringae pathovars. Lytic activity of the selected bacteriophages was sustained in vitro until 80 h, and their activity remained stable up to 50°C, at pH 11, and under UV-B light. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophages are specific to P. syringae species and are resistant to various environmental factors, implying their potential use in control of bacterial canker disease in kiwifruits.

  16. Efficacy of a marine bacterial nuclease against biofilm forming microorganisms isolated from chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Shields

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistent colonization of paranasal sinus mucosa by microbial biofilms is a major factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS. Control of microorganisms within biofilms is hampered by the presence of viscous extracellular polymers of host or microbial origin, including nucleic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular DNA in biofilm formation by bacteria associated with CRS. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obstructive mucin was collected from patients during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Examination of the mucous by transmission electron microscopy revealed an acellular matrix punctuated occasionally with host cells in varying states of degradation. Bacteria were observed in biofilms on mucosal biopsies, and between two and six different species were isolated from each of 20 different patient samples. In total, 16 different bacterial genera were isolated, of which the most commonly identified organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and α-haemolytic streptococci. Twenty-four fresh clinical isolates were selected for investigation of biofilm formation in vitro using a microplate model system. Biofilms formed by 14 strains, including all 9 extracellular nuclease-producing bacteria, were significantly disrupted by treatment with a novel bacterial deoxyribonuclease, NucB, isolated from a marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis. Extracellular biofilm matrix was observed in untreated samples but not in those treated with NucB and extracellular DNA was purified from in vitro biofilms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that bacteria associated with CRS form robust biofilms which can be reduced by treatment with matrix-degrading enzymes such as NucB. The dispersal of bacterial biofilms with NucB may offer an additional therapeutic target for CRS sufferers.

  17. Decolorization of the textile dyes by newly isolated bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Jane-Yii; Liou, Dar-Jen; Hwang, Sz-Chwun John

    2003-02-27

    Six bacterial strains with the capability of degrading textile dyes were isolated from sludge samples and mud lakes. Aeromonas hydrophila was selected and identified because it exhibited the greatest color removal from various dyes. Although A. hydrophila displayed good growth in aerobic or agitation culture (AGI culture), color removal was the best in anoxic or anaerobic culture (ANA culture). For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 5.5-10.0 and 20-35 degrees C under anoxic culture (ANO culture). More than 90% of RED RBN was reduced in color within 8 days at a dye concentration of 3,000 mg l(-1). This strain could also decolorize the media containing a mixture of dyes within 2 days of incubation. Nitrogen sources such as yeast extract or peptone could enhance strongly the decolorization efficiency. In contrast to a nitrogen source, glucose inhibited decolorization activity because the consumed glucose was converted to organic acids that might decrease the pH of the culture medium, thus inhibiting the cell growth and decolorization activity. Decolorization appeared to proceed primarily by biological degradation.

  18. Kinetics of zinc toxicity to environmental bacterial isolates

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    Christian Okechukwu Nweke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of zinc to Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Proteus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter species isolated from a tropical river and petroleum refinery effluent was assessed using TTC-dehydrogenase activity (DHA inhibition test. At sufficient concentrations, zinc is toxic to these bacterial cells, and the exposure of the cells to zinc ion resulted in repression of dehydrogenase activity. The patterns of these toxic effects can be mathematically described with logistic dose-response models and in a manner similar to the non-competitive inhibition of enzymes. The threshold concentration above which toxic effect is observed ranged from 0.008 mM for Pseudomonas sp. DAF1 to 0.364 mM for Proteus sp. PLK2. The coefficients of inhibition Ki correlated with the IC50 and indicate that zinc toxicity is dependent on the organism. The Ki and toxicity threshold values predicted from the equations are comparable and are suitable indicators for kinetic analyses of zinc toxicity against bacteria.

  19. Biotypes and virulence factors of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Udayalaxmi, J.; Bhat, G. K.; S Kotigadde

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. Thirty-two strains of G. vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis were biotyped. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm production, surface hydrophobicity, phospholipase C and protease activity were tested on these isolates. Biotype 1 was the most prevalent (8; 25%), followed by biotype 2 (7; 21.9%) and biotypes ...

  20. Isolation of bacteria causing secondary bacterial infection in the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaie Hengameh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. Secondary bacterial infection is one of the complications of the disease that can increase the tissue destruction and the resulting scar. Objective: To effectively determine the incidence of real secondary bacteria infection in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we designed the current study. Methods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study performed in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Centre, Isfahan, Iran. In this study, 854 patients with confirmed CL were enrolled. Samples were taken from all the patients. Sterile swaps were achieved for the ulcer exudates and scraping was used for nonulcerated lesions. All the samples were transferred to tryptic soy broth medium. After 24 h of incubation in 37°C, they were transferred to eosin methylene blue agar (EBM and blood agar. Laboratory tests were used to determine the species of bacteria. All of the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software and chi-square. Results: Among 854 patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis, 177 patients (20.7% had positive cultures for secondary bacterial infection. Bacteria isolated from the lesions were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus - 123 cases (69.4%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus - 41 cases (23.1%, E. coil - 7 cases (3.9%, Proteus - 3 cases (1.7% and Klebsiella - 3 cases (1.7%. Conclusions: The incidence of secondary bacterial infection in lesions of CL was 20.7%. The most common isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus . The incidence of secondary bacterial infection was significantly more in the ulcerated lesions as compared with nonulcerated lesions ( P = 0.00001.

  1. Microbially-influenced corrosion capability of Yucca Mountain bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitonzo, B.; Castro, P.; Amy, P. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Microorganisms implicated in microbially-influenced corrosion have been isolated from the deep subsurface at Yucca Mt. Iron-oxidizing (FeOx), sulfate-reducing (SRB), and exopolymer (EPS)-producing bacteria were found. Microbial corrosion rate was monitored electrochemically. The test system was composed of a 1020 carbon steel coupon immersed in soft R2A agar prepared with simulated groundwater (J-13). A KCl bridge was used to connect the test and reference cell (calomel electrode). A platinum counter-electrode was used to apply a potential to the coupon and the corrosion process was measured by a potentiostat (Gamry). Corrosion cells (3x) were inoculated with purified cultures of EPS-producing bacteria and enrichment cultures of FeOx and SRB bacteria. Test cells were inoculated with microorganisms separately, as well as in various combinations. An uninoculated control cell was prepared to assess abiotic corrosion. Average corrosion rates were measured in milli-inches per year (mpy) against time. The control, and cells containing EPS-producing, FeOx or SRB bacteria alone or in combination demonstrated a rapid decrease in corrosion rate by 3 days. The corrosion rates stabilized, and at 35 days peaked at 2.25 mpy (FeOx), 3.30 mpy (SRB), and 2.80 mpy (EPS). AU of these values were significantly higher than the corrosion rate observed in the control cell, 1.30 mpy at 35 days. The various combinations demonstrated higher corrosion rates than any bacterial group alone. Coupons were cleaned, revealing surface pits. 200 pits/sq. in. were counted on a coupon previously exposed to a mixture of EPS-producing and FeOx microorganisms. Pit diameter ranged from 0.25 to 2.75 mm. The results indicate that Yucca Mountain microorganisms, alone and in combination, are capable of causing corrosion of 1020 carbon steel.

  2. Biodegradation of the metallic carcinogen hexavalent chromium Cr(VI by an indigenously isolated bacterial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Alok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing. Human exposure to this toxic metal ion not only causes potential human health hazards but also affects other life forms. The World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that Cr(VI compounds are known human carcinogens. The Sukinda valley in Jajpur District, Orissa, is known for its deposit of chromite ore, producing nearly 98% of the chromite ore in India and one of the prime open cast chromite ore mines in the world (CES, Orissa Newsletter. Materials and Methods: Our investigation involved microbial remediation of Cr(VI without producing any byproduct. Bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of Cr were isolated from the soil sample collected from the chromite-contaminated sites of Sukinda, and their bioaccumulation properties were investigated. Strains capable of growing at 250 mg/L Cr(VI were considered as Cr resistant. Results: The experimental investigation showed the maximum specific Cr uptake at pH 7 and temperature 30oC. At about 50 mg/L initial Cr(VI concentrations, uptake of the selected potential strain exceeded 98% within 12 h of incubation. The bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevebacterium casei. Conclusion: Results indicated promising approach for microbial remediation of effluents containing elevated levels of Cr(VI.

  3. Frequency of bacterial isolates and pattern of antimicrobial resistance in patients with hematological malignancies: A snapshot from tertiary cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sengar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections are the most important cause of mortality in patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia. Emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs has become a major challenge for hemato-oncologists. Knowledge of the prevalent organisms and their antimicrobial sensitivity can help deciding the empirical therapy at individual centers and allows timely measures to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance. AIMS: To evaluate the frequency of bacterial isolates from all the samples and the pattern of bacterial bloodstream infections and incidence of MDROs. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis from a tertiary care cancer center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January to June 2014 information on all the samples received in Department of Microbiology was collected retrospectively. The data from samples collected from patients with hematological cancers were analyzed for types of bacterial isolates and antimicrobial sensitivity. RESULTS: A total of 739 isolates were identified with 67.9% of isolates being Gram-negative. The predominant Gram-negative organisms were Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. Among the bacterial bloodstream infections, 66% were Gram-negative isolates. MDROs constituted 22% of all isolates in blood cultures. Incidence of resistant Gram-positive organisms was low in the present dataset (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci-1.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis reconfirms the Gram-negative organisms as the predominant pathogens in bacteremia seen in patients with hematological cancers. The high frequency of multi-drug resistance in the dataset calls for the need of emergency measures to curtail further development and propagation of resistant organisms.

  4. Detection of Bacterial Wilt Pathogen and Isolation of Its Bacteriophage from Banana in Lumajang Area, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardian Susilo Addy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt disease on banana is an important disease in Lumajang District and causes severe yield loss. Utilizing bacteriophage as natural enemy of pathogenic bacteria has been widely known as one of the control strategies. This research was aimed at determining the causing agent of bacterial wilt on banana isolated from Lumajang area, to obtain wide-host range bacteriophages against bacterial wilt pathogen and to know the basic characteristic of bacteriophages, particularly its nucleic acid type. Causative agent of bacterial wilt was isolated from symptomatic banana trees from seven districts in Lumajang area on determinative CPG plates followed by rapid detection by PCR technique using specific pair-primer. Bacteriophages were also isolated from soil of infected banana crop in Sukodono District. Morphological observation showed that all bacterial isolates have similar characteristic as common bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, detection of FliC region in all isolates confirmed that all isolates were R. solanacearum according to the presence of 400 bp of FliC DNA fragment. Moreover, two bacteriophages were obtained from this experiment (ϕRSSKD1 and ϕRSSKD2, which were able to infect all nine R. solanacearum isolates. Nucleic acid analysis showed that the nucleic acid of bacteriophages was DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid.

  5. Collection & Processing of Medically Important Arthropods for Arbovirus Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; Chamberlain, Roy W.

    The methods given for collecting, preserving, and processing mosquitoes and other archropods for isolation of arboviruses are those used by the National Communicable Disease Center. Techniques of collecting mosquitoes as they bite, using light or bait traps, and from their daytime resting sites are described and illustrated. Details of subsequent…

  6. Application of Oligonucleotide Microarrays for Bacterial Source Tracking of Environmental Enterococcus sp. Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Furey, John S.; Kelley Betts; Indest, Karl J.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort towards adapting new and defensible methods for assessing and managing the risk posed by microbial pollution, we evaluated the utility of oligonucleotide microarrays for bacterial source tracking (BST) of environmental Enterococcus sp. isolates derived from various host sources. Current bacterial source tracking approaches rely on various phenotypic and genotypic methods to identify sources of bacterial contamination resulting from point or non-point pollution. For this study Ent...

  7. Optimization of Culture Parameters for Maximum Polyhydroxybutyrate Production by Selected Bacterial Strains Isolated from Rhizospheric Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathwal, Priyanka; Nehra, Kiran; Singh, Manpreet; Jamdagni, Pragati; Rana, Jogender S

    2015-01-01

    The enormous applications of conventional non-biodegradable plastics have led towards their increased usage and accumulation in the environment. This has become one of the major causes of global environmental concern in the present century. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable plastic is known to have properties similar to conventional plastics, thus exhibiting a potential for replacing conventional non-degradable plastics. In the present study, a total of 303 different bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples collected from the rhizospheric area of three crops, viz., wheat, mustard and sugarcane. All the isolates were screened for PHB (Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid) production using Sudan Black staining method, and 194 isolates were found to be PHB positive. Based upon the amount of PHB produced, the isolates were divided into three categories: high, medium and low producers. Representative isolates from each category were selected for biochemical characterization; and for optimization of various culture parameters (carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, different pH, temperature and incubation time periods) for maximizing PHB accumulation. The highest PHB yield was obtained when the culture medium was supplemented with glucose as the carbon source, ammonium sulphate at a concentration of 1.0 g/l as the nitrogen source, and by maintaining the C/N ratio of the medium as 20:1. The physical growth parameters which supported maximum PHB accumulation included a pH of 7.0, and an incubation temperature of 30 degrees C for a period of 48 h. A few isolates exhibited high PHB accumulation under optimized conditions, thus showing a potential for their industrial exploitation. PMID:26638531

  8. Epidemiological Aspect and common Bacterial and Fungal isolates from Suppurative Corneal Ulcer in Mymensingh Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moid, M A; Akhanda, A H; Islam, S; Halder, S K; Islam, R

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study was done to find out the epidemiological factors of suppurative corneal ulcer and the common causative bacterial and fungal isolates from the, patients with suppurative corneal ulcer in secondary and tertiary level hospital at Mymensingh region. A total 100 samples of corneal scrapings were collected purposively from clinically diagnosed suppurative corneal ulcer patients from March 18, 2012 to March 17, 2013. Out of the total 100 samples, bacterial species were 29(29%) cases and the fungal spacies were 71(71%) identified by the culture in blood agar, chocolate agar and sabouraud's agar media and also by microscopic examination. The bacterial species were streptococcus pneumonae 12 cases (12%), Staphylococcus aureus 9 cases (9%), pseudomonas in 6 cases (6%), and Streptococcus pyoganes 2 cases (2%). Fungal species were aspergillus fumigatus 61 cases (61%), aspergillus niger 10 cases (10%). Out of the study populations, most of the populations were from the age group of 41 to 60 years (39 %), followed 21 to 40 years (34%) age group. Considering the sex, male were 67%, female were 33%. The majority of patients came from the rural area of Mymensingh region; occupationally they were farmers (44%). Ocular trauma due to agricultural materials was the most common associated factor (71%). The etiological and epidemiological pattern of suppurative corneal ulcer varies significantly with geographical region, patient population and health of the cornea. The present study was carried out to explore the epidemiological pattern, causative bacterial and fungal specie by laboratory procedure from corneal scraping and to invent a prospective guide line for the management of corneal ulcer in the community.

  9. Isolation of the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs

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    B. Al-Mufti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to identify the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs. Twelve clinical cases of dogs (5 males and 7 females of different ages and breeds were observed. Tonsils swabs were taken from all the dogs, then cultured on different agars and bacterial smears prepared from all cultures and Gram stains were done. The study confirmed that the most bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella spp. and Pasteurella spp.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to antibiotic agents at super specialty hospital, Amravati city, India

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    Hrishikesh Sawdekar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is one of the health problems that is caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms. Information on local pathogens and sensitivity to antimicrobial agent is crucial for successful treatment of wounds. So the present study was conducted to determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among patients with wound infection in Suyash super speciality hospital, from January 2012 to December 2013. Wound swab was collected using sterile cotton swabs and processed for bacterial isolation and susceptibility testing to Systemic antimicrobial agents. Results: In this study 78 bacterial isolates were recovered from 258 specimens showing an isolation rate of 31.2%. The predominant bacteria isolated from wounds were gram positive staphylococci 36 (46.2%, followed by gram negative streptococci 18 (23.1% gram negative pseudomonas 12 (15.4 % and gram negative proteus 8 (10.4%. The gram positive and gram negative bacteria constituted 68 (87.2% and 10 (12.8% of bacterial isolates; respectively. Conclusion: In the present study most of the pathogens isolated from wound isolates showed high rate of resistance to most commonly used newer antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections. Therefore, rational use of antibiotics should be practiced. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(2.000: 433-439

  11. Chlorhexidine Digluconate Effects on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Some Field Isolates of Animal Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Khoshnood, Sheida; Khubani, Shahin; Dokht Faraj, Mahdi; Hakimi Alni, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: To study chlorhexidine digluconate disinfectant effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some bacterial field isolates from animals. Objectives: The current study investigated chlorhexidine digluconate effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some field isolates of veterinary bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates for ea...

  12. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walelign Dessie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1% were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1% was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%. More than 58 (75% of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs. Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8% Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5% E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials.

  13. Isolation, identification, and characterization of gut microflora of Perionyx excavatus collected from Midnapore, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Tanushree Tulsian; Das, Ankita

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture is an important part of the economy of the undivided Midnapore district. Agricultural land is its asset and most importantly its means of sustenance as well as survival. Earthworms are invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matters in soils. Since the intestines of earthworms harbor wide ranges of microorganisms, enzymes, hormones etc., these half digested materials decompose rapidly and are transformed into a stabilized material called vermicompost which is very useful for increasing the soil fertility. One has to look for these characters before recommending any species for vermiculture. In the present study, Perionyx excavatus specimens were collected from the undivided Midnapore district and from the Earthworms gut, bacteria, fungus, actinobacteria, and yeast were isolated and identified using various morphological and biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were identified using morphological study, staining techniques, and different biochemical tests such as catalase test, KOH test, H2 SO4 test, Starch hydrolysis test, oxidase test, and sucrose hydrolysis test. All the fungal, actinobacteria, and yeast isolates were subjected to staining and morphological characterization (color and texture of fungal colony). Bacterial isolates of genus Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterococci, Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., and Citrobacter sp. were identified. Among the fungal isolates Aspergilus sp., and P. boydii were identified. Streptomyces sp., Nocardia sp. among the actinobacteria and Candida sp. among yeast were also found to be present in earthworm gut and these might play an important role along with the earthworm to increase the quality and fertility of soil. PMID:26821782

  14. Biotypes and virulence factors of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayalaxmi, J; Bhat, G K; Kotigadde, S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. Thirty-two strains of G. vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis were biotyped. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm production, surface hydrophobicity, phospholipase C and protease activity were tested on these isolates. Biotype 1 was the most prevalent (8; 25%), followed by biotype 2 (7; 21.9%) and biotypes 5 and 8 (5; 15.6%). We did not find any statistical correlation between G. vaginalis biotypes and its virulence factors. Virulence factors expressed by G. vaginalis were not associated with a single biotype.

  15. Biotypes and virulence factors of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Udayalaxmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. Thirty-two strains of G. vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis were biotyped. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm production, surface hydrophobicity, phospholipase C and protease activity were tested on these isolates. Biotype 1 was the most prevalent (8; 25%, followed by biotype 2 (7; 21.9% and biotypes 5 and 8 (5; 15.6%. We did not find any statistical correlation between G. vaginalis biotypes and its virulence factors. Virulence factors expressed by G. vaginalis were not associated with a single biotype.

  16. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry proteomic based identification of clinical bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Pathogenic bacteria often cause life threatening infections especially in immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, rapid and reliable species identification is essential for a successful treatment and disease management. We evaluated a rapid, proteomic based technique for identification of clinical bacterial isolates by protein profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time - of - flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Methods: Freshly grown bacterial isolates were selected from culture plates. Ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure was carried out, followed by charging of MALDI target plate with the extract and overlaying with α-cyano-4 hydroxy-cinnamic acid matrix solution. Identification was performed using the MALDI BioTyper 1.1, software for microbial identification (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany. Results: A comparative analysis of 82 clinical bacterial isolates using MALDI -TOF MS and conventional techniques was carried out. Amongst the clinical isolates, the accuracy at the species level for clinical isolates was 98.78%. One out of 82 isolates was not in accordance with the conventional assays because MALDI-TOF MS established it as Streptococcus pneumoniae and conventional methods as Streptococcus viridans. Interpretation & conclusions: MALDI - TOF MS was found to be an accurate, rapid, cost-effective and robust system for identification of clinical bacterial isolates. This innovative approach holds promise for earlier therapeutic intervention leading to better patient care.

  17. Identification and characterization of humic substances-degrading bacterial isolates from an estuarine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esham; Ye; Moran

    2000-12-01

    Bacterial isolates were obtained from enrichment cultures containing humic substances extracted from estuarine water using an XAD-8 resin. Eighteen isolates were chosen for phylogenetic and physiological characterization based on numerical importance in serial dilutions of the enrichment culture and unique colony morphology. Partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that six of the isolates were associated with the alpha subclass of Proteobacteria, three with the gamma-Proteobacteria, and nine with the Gram-positive bacteria. Ten isolates degraded at least one (and up to six) selected aromatic single-ring compounds. Six isolates showed ability to degrade [(14)C]humic substances derived from the dominant salt marsh grass in the estuary from which they were isolated (Spartina alterniflora), mineralizing 0.4-1.1% of the humic substances over 4 weeks. A mixture of all 18 isolates did not degrade humic substances significantly faster than any of the individual strains, however, and no isolate degraded humic substances to the same extent as the natural marine bacterial community (3.0%). Similar studies with a radiolabeled synthetic lignin ([beta-(14)C]dehydropolymerisate) showed measurable levels of degradation by all 18 bacteria (3.0-8.8% in 4 weeks), but mineralization levels were again lower than that observed for the natural marine bacterial community (28.2%). Metabolic capabilities of the 18 isolates were highly variable and generally did not map to phylogenetic affiliation.

  18. Exploring the Medicinal Potential of the Fruit Bodies of Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes), against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to present-generation antibiotics is increasing drastically, which has become a major public health concern. The present study focuses on demonstrating the antimicrobial potential of fruit bodies of the culinary/medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against clinical pathogens. Five bacterial isolates were collected from Sagar Hospital in Bangalore, India. The collected strains were grown on selective and differential media and antibiotic susceptibility testing was applied using 48 antibiotics by disc diffusion assay. The antibacterial efficiency of the mushroom extract against clinical pathogens, which were found to be multidrug resistant (MDR) to most of the tested antibiotics, was studied. The yield of cultivated mushrooms was evident at moist, cooler, and humid conditions. The clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Acinetobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, and Proteus spp. were found to be MDR to β-lactam, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines, and carbapenems. The methanolic extracts of mushroom fruit bodies were found to be more effective than present-generation antibiotics against methicillin- and vancomycin- resistant S. aureus, S. typhi, Acinetobacter sp., and P. mirabilis at a concentration ranging from 50 to 100 µg/disc or 50 to 100 µL/well. The current study suggests that the methanolic extract of P. ostreatus can be used as a promising antibacterial agent against MDR bacterial pathogens. PMID:27481158

  19. Collective motion and density fluctuations in bacterial colonies

    OpenAIRE

    H. P. Zhang; Be’er, Avraham; Florin, E.-L.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2010-01-01

    Flocking birds, fish schools, and insect swarms are familiar examples of collective motion that plays a role in a range of problems, such as spreading of diseases. Models have provided a qualitative understanding of the collective motion, but progress has been hindered by the lack of detailed experimental data. Here we report simultaneous measurements of the positions, velocities, and orientations as a function of time for up to a thousand wild-type Bacillus subtilis bacteria in a colony. The...

  20. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated From Poultry Manure Used To Fertilize Fish Ponds In New Bussa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso Omojowo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate and identify antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry manure usually used for pond fertilization. Poultry manure from 120 Chickens in National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR integrated fish farms, New-Bussa, Nigeria was collected. Five bacterial pathogens; Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out using the disk diffusion technique. Antibiotics used were; ofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. All the isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin. The multiple resistance pattern revealed that 100% were resistant to tetracycline, 84.34% resistant to ampicillin, 76.68% resistant to amoxicillin, 66% resistant to chloramphenicol, 66% resistant to gentamicin, 29% resistant to erythromycin, 28.34% resistant to nalidixic acid. The risk posed by untreated poultry manure used in fish pond fertilization and the public health implications of these results were discussed.

  1. Manganese oxidation by bacterial isolates from the Indian Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Krishnan, K.P.; Khedekar, V.D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    ) observations of both isolates revealed free-living cells in clustered matrices apprrox. 2 Mu diameter. Energy dispersive spectrum of the cell matrix of CR35 cultured in 1 mM Mn detected 30%Mn, while the cell aggregates of CR48 harbored 7 -10% Mn. The relatively...

  2. Genome Sequences of Nine Gram-Negative Vaginal Bacterial Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitzler, Grace E.; Ruiz, Maria J.; Lu, Wendy; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd S.; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is home to a wide variety of bacteria that have great potential to impact human health. Here, we announce reference strains (now available through BEI Resources) and draft genome sequences for 9 Gram-negative vaginal isolates from the taxa Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Fusobacterium, Proteus, and Prevotella. PMID:27688330

  3. Genome Sequences of Nine Gram-Negative Vaginal Bacterial Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitzler, Grace E; Ruiz, Maria J; Lu, Wendy; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd S; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka; Lewis, Warren G; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is home to a wide variety of bacteria that have great potential to impact human health. Here, we announce reference strains (now available through BEI Resources) and draft genome sequences for 9 Gram-negative vaginal isolates from the taxa Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Fusobacterium, Proteus, and Prevotella. PMID:27688330

  4. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from surgical wound infections in Tertiary Care Hospital in Allahabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study to analyze the occurrence and in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from surgical wound infections. Specimens from a total of 129 patients undergoing either emergency or elective surgery were collected from infected sites or stitch lines and inoculated onto appropriate media. The bacterial cultures were identified utilizing standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. Of 129 patients investigated (62 emergency and 67 elective surgery cases, bacterial isolates were isolated with almost equal frequency both from emergency and elective surgery cases. Of 108 (83.72% culture positive samples, 62 (57.41% were Gram negative, 39 (36.11% Gram positive, and 7 (6.48% showed multiple organisms. Of total 115 bacteria isolated (101 single and 7 double organisms culture positive, 33 (28.69% were Escherichia coli and were also the commonest; followed by Staphylococcus aureus, 30 (26.09% cases. S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. showed maximum susceptibility (100% to linezolid and vancomycin. Maximum susceptibility of E. coli was observed to ciprofloxacin (75.7%, followed by gentamicin (54.5%; of Klebsiella spp. to ceftriaxone and gentamicin (66.6% each, of Proteus spp. to gentamicin (70% followed by ciprofloxacin (60%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin (100% and tobramycin (71.4%. E. coli and S. aureus were the most common and Salmonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were the least common organism causing surgical site infections. The definitive therapy included ciprofloxacin and gentamicin for E. coli; linezolid and vancomycin for S. aureus and Streptococcus spp; ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin for Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., acinetobacter spp and Salmonella spp.

  6. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Bandounas Luaine; Wierckx Nick JP; de Winde Johannes H; Ruijssenaars Harald J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of...

  7. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Bandounas, L.; Wierckx, N.J.P.; de Winde, J H; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background - To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Bandounas, Luaine; Wierckx, Nick JP; de Winde, Johannes H; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.

    2011-01-01

    Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel en...

  9. Importance of isolation and biotypization of Gardnerella vaginalis in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Hukić, Mirsada; Nurkić, Mahmud; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Imamović, Alma; Pasić, Selma

    2008-08-01

    The natural habitat of Gardnerella vaginalis is a vagina since it could be located among 69% of women who have no signs of vaginal infection and in the vagina of as many as 13.5% girls. G. vaginalis is almost certainly identified among women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis as well as in the urethra of their sexual partner. The increase in prevalence and concentration of G. vaginalis among patients diagnosed with this syndrome confirms that G. vaginalis plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. In our research, based on Amsel criteria for three or more clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis, it was diagnosed in 20.5% of women with subjective problems of vaginal infection, and in 48.80% of women with subjective symptoms characteristic of this disease. G. vaginalis was isolated from vaginal secretion of women without clinical signs characteristic of bacterial vaginosis. In 2.58% of cases it was solitary, while in 1.28% it was found in combination with other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and, in 1.28% women combined with Candida albicans. The isolation of G. vaginalis was significantly increased (pbiotype of G. vaginalis, different from a source biotype or as a consequence of wrong treatment. Following Piot biotype scheme, biotypes 2., 3. and 7. G. vaginalis are significantly more often isolated from women who suffer from bacterial vaginosis. Biotype 7. G. vaginalis, isolated from the group of women without clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis, accounted for 2.58% cases. Following Benit biotype scheme, biotypes IVa, IVc and IIc were identified in 12.90% cases, while biotypes IIIa, IIa, Ia, IVb, IIb were found in 6.45% cases. Lipase-positive isolates of G. vaginalis were significantly more frequently accompanied by the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis.

  10. [Isolation of endophytic bacteria in potato and test of antagonistic action to bacterial ring rot of potato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Sun, Zhen; Tian, Hong Xian; Wang, Li Qin; Xu, Huei Yuen; Sun, Fu Zai; Yuan, Jun

    2002-12-01

    In this study, two hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated from inner tissue of potato tubers collected from DaTong, TaiYuan and Inner Mongolia Autonomous regions. On the basis of antagonistic examination in vitro, fifty and five bacteria strains were characterized for antagonistic bacteria to ring rot of potato. It was 22.9 percentage of all bacteria strains. The biggest radius of suppression circle was 13 mm. Nine strains were chosen for their suppression of bacterial ring rot, blackleg and dry rot of potato. These strains were bacteriologically ideatified. Strain 118 was Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar V. Strain 110 was Bacillus pumilus. Strain 085 was Bacillus stearothermophilus. Strain 069 was Erwinia herbicola. Strain 043 was Xanthomomas fragariae. Strain 116 was Curtobacterium. Strains A-10' and T3 were Bacillus. Strain H1-6 was Pseudomonas fluorescens. PMID:15346992

  11. Isolation of Biosurfactant–Producing Bacteria with Antimicrobial Activity against Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripun Sarin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study biosurfactant producing bacteria isolated from soil and to determine their property and efficiency as biosurfactants in order to inhibit bacterial pathogens. The result showed that there were 8 bacterial isolates out of 136 isolates of the total biosurfactant producing bacteria screened that exhibited the diameter of clear zone more than 1.5 cm. in the oil spreading test. The highest potential of emulsifying activity (%EA24 of 54.4 and the maximum additive concentration, (%MAC of 24.2 was obtained from the fermentation broth of the G7 isolate which the G7 isolate was later identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Psuedomonas aeruginosa were the tested bacterial pathogens that were most sensitive to the acid precipitated biosurfactant obtained from P. fluorescens G7 with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 41.6 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of 41.6 mg/ml compared with the acid precipitated bisurfactants of the other isolates used in the antimicrobial activity test. The type of the separated crude biosurfactant produced by P. fluorescens G7 analyzed later by using the rhamose test, TLC and FT-IR techniques was rhamnolipid.

  12. MICROFLUIDIC MODULES FOR ISOLATION OF RECOMBINANT CYTOKINE FROM BACTERIAL LYSATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The portability and personalization of health-care diagnostics and treatments benefits from advancements and applications of micro and nanotechnology. Modularization and miniaturization of standardized biochemical processes and tests facilitates the advancement and customization of analyte detection and diagnosis on-chip. The goal of our work here is to develop modular platforms for on-chip biochemical processing of synthesized biologics for a range of on-demand applications. Our report focuses on the initial development, characterization and application of microfluidic size exclusion/gel filtration and ion exchange protein concentration modules for cytokine isolation from spiked cell extracts.

  13. Isolation and Identification of Active Compound Cause Light Emmitting of Bacterial Photobacterium phosphoreum Isolated from the Indonesia Jepara Marine Squid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idam Arif

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This research carried out to study the bioluminescence process of bacterial Photobacterium phosphoreum isolated from Indonesia marine squid. The method used in the present study involved isolation, purification, electrophoresis, and the absorbance and light intensity measurement. This result show that the luciferace enzyme of bacterial Photobacterium phosphoreum or called LBPP catalyzes the emission of visible light from the reaction of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2, molecular oxygen (O2, and an aldehyde (RCOH. The electrophoresis data show that LBPP comprised of two different subunits α and βwith 41kD and 38 kD molecular weights. The absorb pattern showed that the bioluminescence process centered around 516 nm and are consistent with the fluorescence data. This result concluded that the excitation state formed after LBPP bind subtracts and the ground state formed after LBPP releases product and visible light.

  14. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandounas Luaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel enzymes for waste lignin valorization. Results Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization, the organisms were identified as Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001, Pseudomonas sp LD002 and Bacillus sp LD003. The ligninolytic capability of each of these isolates was assessed by growth on high-molecular weight and low-molecular weight lignin fractions, utilization of lignin-associated aromatic monomers and degradation of ligninolytic indicator dyes. Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001 and Pseudomonas sp. LD002 exhibited best growth on lignin fractions, but limited dye-decolourizing capacity. Bacillus sp. LD003, however, showed least efficient growth on lignin fractions but extensive dye-decolourizing capacity, with a particular preference for the recalcitrant phenothiazine dye class (Azure B, Methylene Blue and Toluidene Blue O. Conclusions Bacillus sp. LD003 was selected as a promising source of novel types of ligninolytic enzymes. Our observations suggested that lignin mineralization and depolymerization are separate events which place additional challenges on the screening of ligninolytic microorganisms for specific ligninolytic enzymes.

  15. 'Olegusella massiliensis' strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, K; Diop, A; Raoult, D; Fournier, P-E; Fenollar, F

    2016-07-01

    We report the main characteristics of 'Olegusella massiliensis' gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7 (= CSUR P2268 = DSM 101849), a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae family isolated from the vaginal flora of a patient with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:27330814

  16. The Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Uropathogens Isolated from Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ranjbar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered as the most common bacterial infectious disease seen among the pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial uropathogens isolated from the pediatric patients with urinary tract infections."nMethods: This descriptive study was conducted in Children Medial Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2006 to Feb 2007. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens were obtained from the patients and cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media. Bacterial isolates were identified by standard biochemical and serological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI guidelines."nResults: From 14199 urine specimens, 16.2% had positive results for bacterial cultures. Nine hundred twenty one strains were identified as Escherichia coli; 412 as Klebsiella spp., 285 as Coagulase negative Staphylocococci, 202 as Enterococcus spp., 158 as Pseudomonas spp., and 83 as Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli isolates showed high resistance to carbenicillin (68%, ampicillin (96%, trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazol (70% and kanamycin (65%. More than 30% of isolates of Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter spp. have shown high degree of resistance to commonly used antibiotics."nConclusion: Our findings reinforce the need for ongoing investigation to show trends in antibiotic resistance, which can help to prescribing of antibiotics in clinics.

  17. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea eLumactud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except Solidago canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  18. Phase Diagram of Collective Motion of Bacterial Cells in a Shallow Circular Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Wakita, Jun-ichi; Yamamoto, Ken; Katori, Makoto; Yamada, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The collective motion of bacterial cells in a shallow circular pool is systematically studied using the bacterial species $Bacillus$ $subtilis$. The ratio of cell length to pool diameter (i.e., the reduced cell length) ranges from 0.06 to 0.43 in our experiments. Bacterial cells in a circular pool show various types of collective motion depending on the cell density in the pool and the reduced cell length. The motion is classified into six types, which we call random motion, turbulent motion, one-way rotational motion, two-way rotational motion, random oscillatory motion, and ordered oscillatory motion. Two critical values of reduced cell lengths are evaluated, at which drastic changes in collective motion are induced. A phase diagram is proposed in which the six phases are arranged.

  19. BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER USING BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    OpenAIRE

    P.Priya darshini*, J.Sharpudin

    2016-01-01

    Bioremediation is a treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non toxic substances. The microbes are effective in control of pollution due to waste water. The industrial and municipal waste water is analyzed for different Physico-Chemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, TDS, BOD, COD, Total Alkalinity, Chlorides. The collected waste water samples were serially diluted and pour plated on Nutrient Agar medium and incubated at 37˚...

  20. Industrially important hydrolytic enzyme diversity explored in stove ash bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Tabbassum; Asad, Wajeeha; Siddiqui, Shahla; Ajaz, Munazza; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2015-11-01

    Extreme environments merit special attention and significance because of the possible existence of thermophilic microorganisms in such ecological niches. Keeping this in mind indigenous stove ash samples were explored for extremophilic bacteria in term of their biodiversity. Accordingly, this study reports 37 bacterial isolates from the local wood run oven (Tandoor) ash samples. All the isolated strains belong to genus Bacillus on the bases of morpho-cultural and biochemical considerations. The average temperature tolerance profile was >45°C thereby, indicating towards the thermophilic nature of the isolated strains. The Bacillus isolates were screened for 10 different hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase, xylanase, amylase, pectinase, caseinase, keratinase, lipase, esterase, dextranase and β-galactosidase) by plate screening method using the medium incorporated with specific substrate(s). It was found that keratinase was produced by all the isolates while, 36 (97.2%) isolates showed caseinase and esterase production. Amylase was produced by 35(94.6%) isolates and 34 (91.8%) isolates were able to degrade Tween-80 and xylan as substrate for lipase and xylanase respectively. The enzyme, β-galactosidase was produced by 31 (89.1%) of the isolates. Cellulase and dextranase were produced by 26 (70.2%) and 22 (59.4%) isolates respectively. None of the isolates could (under the existing conditions) produce pectin-hydrolyzing enzyme. According to the Tukey's post hoc test, significant difference was found between the mean enzyme index of all the (screened) enzymes. Thus, the isolated bacterial strains with diverse hydrolytic potential may be of great value and relevance for the existing (national) industrial setups. PMID:26639497

  1. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were ...... bacterial species to these compounds, and Salmonella especially seems intrinsically less susceptible than the other bacterial species, which might have human health implications. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Biodegradation of carcinogenic textile azo dyes using bacterial isolates of mangrove sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guru Prasad Srinivasan; Asnar Sikkanthar; Anandajothi Elamaran; Caroline R Delma; Kumaran Subramaniyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the biodegrading property against carcinogenic azo dyes using bacterial isolates of mangrove sediment. Methods: The bacterial isolates were subjected to submerged fermentation and their growth kinetics were studied. The potential strain was characterized using 16S rDNA sequencing. Results:In the present study, dye degrading bacterial colonies were isolated from the mangrove sediment samples of Parangipettai estuarine area, Tamil Nadu. Of the 30 morphologically different strains isolated, 5 showed antagonistic property. The growth kinetics of the two strains, P1 and G1, which showed potent activity were calculated. One particular isolate (P1) showing promising dye degrading potential in the submerged fermentation was further characterized. The strain was identified as Paenibacillus sp. by 16S rDNA sequencing. Conclusions:This study reveals the less explored microflora of mangrove sediments. The novel strain may further be analyzed and used in the treatment of effluent from dye industry so as to reduce the impact of carcinogenic contaminants.

  3. Biodegradation of carcinogenic textile azo dyes using bacterial isolates of mangrove sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Prasad Srinivasan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the biodegrading property against carcinogenic azo dyes using bacterial isolates of mangrove sediment. Methods: The bacterial isolates were subjected to submerged fermentation and their growth kinetics were studied. The potential strain was characterized using 16S rDNA sequencing. Results: In the present study, dye degrading bacterial colonies were isolated from the mangrove sediment samples of Parangipettai estuarine area, Tamil Nadu. Of the 30 morphologically different strains isolated, 5 showed antagonistic property. The growth kinetics of the two strains, P1 and G1, which showed potent activity were calculated. One particular isolate (P1 showing promising dye degrading potential in the submerged fermentation was further characterized. The strain was identified as Paenibacillus sp. by 16S rDNA sequencing. Conclusions: This study reveals the less explored microflora of mangrove sediments. The novel strain may further be analyzed and used in the treatment of effluent from dye industry so as to reduce the impact of carcinogenic contaminants.

  4. Antibacterial synergy of curcumin with antibiotics against biofilm producing clinical bacterial isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Arunava; Bhuvaneshwar, Devaraj; Charles, Pravin M. V.; Seetha, Kunigal Srinivasaiah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role of natural bioactive substances in treating infections has been rediscovered as bacterial resistance become common to most of the antibiotics. Curcumin is a bioactive substance from turmeric. Owing to antimicrobial properties, its prospect as an antibacterial agent is currently under focus. Materials and Methods: We have evaluated the in vitro synergy of curcumin with antibiotics against sixty biofilm producing bacterial isolates. Congo red agar method was used to identify the biofilm producing isolates. Curcumin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar dilution method. Its antibiotic synergy was identified by the increase in disc diffusion zone size on Mueller-Hinton agar with 32 mg/L curcumin. Results: The mean MICs of curcumin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates were 126.9 mg/L and 117.4 mg/L, respectively. Maximum synergy was observed with ciprofloxacin among Gram-positive and amikacin, gentamicin, and cefepime among Gram-negative isolates. Conclusions: Curcumin per se as well as in combination with other antibiotics has a demonstrable antibacterial action against biofilm producing bacterial isolates. It may have a beneficial role in supplementing antibiotic therapy. PMID:27330262

  5. A potent fish pathogenic bacterial killer Streptomyces sp. isolated from the soils of east coast region, South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Durairaj Thirumurugan; Ramasamy Vijayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potentiality of the marine actinobacteria isolated from marine soil against fish pathogenic bacteria.Methods:east coast region (ECR) of Tamilnadu, South India. Then they were used for the isolation of actinobacteria by using conventional serial dilution technique on starch casein agar medium. The antibacterial activities of the actinobacteria were screened primarily by using cross streak plate method against fish pathogenic bacteria namely Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Vibrio cholera, Aeromonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. The antimicrobial efficacy of the selected isolates was carried out with various organic solvents, and finally the active compound was subjected to chromatographic techniques including TLC and GC-MS.Results:In the present study, a total of 33 soil samples were collected from the Bay of Bengal, against fish pathogenic bacteria. Out of 21 antibacterial isolates, the isolate ECR77 was selected for further study based on its potential activity against fish pathogenic bacteria. Of the various solvents tested, the ethyl acetate extract had good antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial pathogens. The isolate ECR77 grew well on oat meal agar medium with 2% salt level at 35 °C. GC-MS study found that the presence of bioactive compounds namely tetradecanoic acid,n-hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid. The morphological, physiological, biochemical and cultural characteristics of the potential isolate were supported the identity up to generic level asStreptomyces sp. ECR77. Conclusions: The results obtained from this study concludes that the ECR soils of South India is a hot spot of novel bioactive compound producing marine actinobacteria with great pharmaceutical values. Of the 82 actinobacteria isolated, 21 (26%) isolates were possessed antibacterial activity.

  6. Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hussein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

  7. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

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    Stärk Katharina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146 for the period 2003–2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002–2004. Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excel-file templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS – external quality assurance system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries. Results Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales, Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to

  8. Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae in Natural Transformation and Contact-Dependent Bacterial Killing Indicative of Type VI Secretion System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardy, Eryn E; Turnsek, Maryann A; Wilson, Sarah K; Tarr, Cheryl L; Hammer, Brian K

    2016-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae can occupy both the human gut and aquatic reservoirs, where it may colonize chitinous surfaces that induce the expression of factors for three phenotypes: chitin utilization, DNA uptake by natural transformation, and contact-dependent bacterial killing via a type VI secretion system (T6SS). In this study, we surveyed a diverse set of 53 isolates from different geographic locales collected over the past century from human clinical and environmental specimens for each phenotype outlined above. The set included pandemic isolates of serogroup O1, as well as several serogroup O139 and non-O1/non-O139 strains. We found that while chitin utilization was common, only 22.6% of the isolates tested were proficient at chitin-induced natural transformation, suggesting that transformation is expendable. Constitutive contact-dependent killing of Escherichia coli prey, which is indicative of a functional T6SS, was rare among clinical isolates (only 4 of 29) but common among environmental isolates (22 of 24). These results bolster the pathoadaptive model in which tight regulation of T6SS-mediated bacterial killing is beneficial in a human host, whereas constitutive killing by environmental isolates may give a competitive advantage in natural settings. Future sequence analysis of this set of diverse isolates may identify previously unknown regulators and structural components for both natural transformation and T6SS. PMID:26944842

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Some Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated From Women With Bacterial Vaginosis

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    Eslami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Considering the high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with urinary tract infection in women and treatment of gynecologic problems occur when a high recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is often treated with antibiotics. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods Ninety-six samples were obtained from vaginal discharge of women with bacterial vaginosis by a gynecologist with a Dacron swab and put in sterile tubes containing TSB broth and Thioglycollate broth. Then were immediately sent to the laboratory in cold chain for further assessment. Afterward, culture was transferred on blood agar, EMB, Palcam and differential diagnosis environments. Then cultures were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. Lactobacillus reuteri strains were cultured in MRS environment and transferred to laboratory. After purification of pathogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus reuteri inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and antibiogram. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software v.16. Results The results of this study demonstrated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on some pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus, Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli. Microscopic examination of stained smears of most Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria showed reduced. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge, history of drug use, contraceptive methods and douching were 61%, 55%, 42% and 13%, respectively. Significant difference was observed between the use and non-use of IUD in women with bacterial. Conclusions Our findings indicated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on pathogenic bacteria that

  10. Pathogenicity testing of shellfish hatchery bacterial isolates on Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Robyn M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Elston, Ralph A; Herwig, Russell P

    2004-03-10

    Bacterial diseases are a major cause of larval mortality in shellfish hatcheries. Even with proper sanitation measures, bacterial pathogens cannot be eliminated in all cases. The pathogenicity of bacteria isolated from Pacific Northwest shellfish hatcheries to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae was investigated. We found 3 highly pathogenic strains and 1 mildly pathogenic strain among 33 isolates tested. These strains appear to be members of the genus Vibrio. Although there have been many studies of bivalve bacterial pathogens, a standard method to assess bacterial pathogenicity in bivalve larvae is needed. Thus, we developed 2 methods using either 15 ml conical tubes or tissue culture plates that were employed for rapidly screening bacterial strains for pathogenicity to Pacific oyster larvae. The tissue culture plates worked well for screening both mildly pathogenic strains and LD50 (lethal dose) assays. This method allowed for non-intrusive and non-destructive observation of the oyster larvae with a dissecting microscope. The LD50 for the 3 highly pathogenic strains ranged between 1.6 and 3.6 x 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1) after 24 h and between 3.2 x 102 and 1.9 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) after 48 h.

  11. In-vitro efficacy of antibacterials against bacterial isolates from corneal ulcers.

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    Bharathi Jayahar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse the in-vitro efficacy of commonly used antibacterials against bacterial pathogens from corneal ulcers. METHODS: We evaluated 596 patients seen over 18 months, period, September 1999 through March 2001. Corneal scrapings were subjected to microscopy and cultures using standard protocols. Antibacterial susceptibility of isolated bacteria were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. RESULTS: 626 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 596 corneal ulcer cases. 411(65.65% were gram positive cocci Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.85% was the predominant bacterial species. The antibacterial susceptibility was: 451(72.04% to cefazolin, 471(75.24% to chloramphenicol; 321(51.28% to cephaloridine; 430(68.69% to vancomycin; 564(90.09% to ciprofloxacin; 429(68.53% to norfloxacin; 464(74.12% to gentamicin and 202(32.27% to co.trimoxazole. CONCLUSION: This study provides information on the efficacy of ocular antibacterials commonly used against bacterial pathogens of keratitis. It is hoped that this information will help decision-making in empiric initial treatment of bacterial keratitis.

  12. Comparison of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae isolates using bacterial restriction endonuclease DNA analysis and SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, A J; Ionas, G; Clarke, J K; Robinson, A J; Marshall, R B

    1985-12-01

    Sixteen isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae recovered from the nasal tract or lungs of sheep from different flocks in New Zealand were examined by bacterial restriction endonuclease DNA analysis (BRENDA) using EcoR1 and by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). All isolates gave BRENDA patterns which differed entirely from one another. Following 20 serial passages (corresponding to approximately 67 generations) of an isolate, no change was detected in the BRENDA pattern. When eight isolates were examined by SDS-PAGE most bands were common but, nevertheless, each isolate was unique in the sense that they differed from one another in one or more bands. The marked heterogeneity of patterns observed when strains of M. ovipneumoniae are compared by BRENDA, together with the stability of such patterns over many generations, will enable this approach to be used to study the epidemiology of individual strains of M. ovipneumoniae within a flock.

  13. Kinetics of kill of bacterial conjunctivitis isolates with moxifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, compared with the aminoglycosides tobramycin and gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph S Wagner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rudolph S Wagner1, David B Granet2, Steven J Lichtenstein3, Tiffany Jamison4, Joseph J Dajcs4, Robert D Gross5, Paul Cockrum41New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA; 2Ratner Children’s Eye Center, University of California – San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, Illinois, USA; 4Alcon Research, Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: To compare the kinetics and speed of kill of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae on exposure to three topical ophthalmic antibiotic solutions.Materials and methods: Bacterial conjunctivitis isolates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were exposed to 1:1000 dilutions of moxifloxacin 0.5%, tobramycin 0.3%, gentamicin 0.3%, and water (control. At 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after exposure, aliquots were collected, cells were cultured, and viable cell counts were determined using standard microbiological methods.Results: Moxifloxacin achieved 99.9% kill (3-log reduction at approximately 2 hours for S. pneumoniae and at 15 minutes for H. influenzae. Tobramycin and gentamicin did not achieve 3-log reduction of S. pneumoniae during the 180-minute study period. An increase in bacterial growth was noted for these isolates. Gentamicin took more than 120 minutes to achieve the 3-log reduction of H. influenzae and tobramycin did not reach the 3-log reduction of this pathogen during the 180-minute study period.Conclusion: Moxifloxacin killed S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in vitro faster than tobramycin and gentamicin, suggesting its potential clinical benefit as a first-line treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis to minimize patient symptoms and to limit the contagiousness of the disease.Keywords: kinetics of kill, bacterial conjunctivitis, in vitro, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides

  14. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, J; Gleichmann, T; Zimmermann, S; Zengerle, R; Koltay, P

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1 μm and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35 pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20 μm in size. Further, the magnification of the optical system used for cell detection was increased. Redesign of the optical path allows for collision-free addressing of any flat substrate since no compartment protrudes below the nozzle of the dispenser chip anymore. The improved system allows for deterministic isolation of individual bacterial cells. A single-cell printing efficiency of 93% was obtained as shown by printing fluorescent labeled E. coli. A 96-well plate filled with growth medium is inoculated with single bacteria cells on average within about 8 min. Finally, individual bacterial cells from a heterogeneous sample of E. coli and E. faecalis were isolated for clonal culturing directly on agar plates in user-defined array geometry. PMID:27596612

  15. Application of Oligonucleotide Microarrays for Bacterial Source Tracking of Environmental Enterococcus sp. Isolates

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    John S. Furey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In an effort towards adapting new and defensible methods for assessing and managing the risk posed by microbial pollution, we evaluated the utility of oligonucleotide microarrays for bacterial source tracking (BST of environmental Enterococcus sp. isolates derived from various host sources. Current bacterial source tracking approaches rely on various phenotypic and genotypic methods to identify sources of bacterial contamination resulting from point or non-point pollution. For this study Enterococcus sp. isolates originating from deer, bovine, gull, and human sources were examined using microarrays. Isolates were subjected to Box PCR amplification and the resulting amplification products labeled with Cy5. Fluorescent-labeled templates were hybridized to in-house constructed nonamer oligonucleotide microarrays consisting of 198 probes. Microarray hybridization profiles were obtained using the ArrayPro image analysis software. Principal Components Analysis (PCA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA were compared for their ability to visually cluster microarray hybridization profiles based on the environmental source from which the Enterococcus sp. isolates originated. The PCA was visually superior at separating origin-specific clusters, even for as few as 3 factors. A Soft Independent Modeling (SIM classification confirmed the PCA, resulting in zero misclassifications using 5 factors for each class. The implication of these results for the application of random oligonucleotide microarrays for BST is that, given the reproducibility issues, factor-based variable selection such as in PCA and SIM greatly outperforms dendrogram-based similarity measures such as in HCA and K-Nearest Neighbor KNN.

  16. Survival of bacterial isolates exposed to simulated Jovian trapped radiation belt electrons and solar wind protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. M.; Hagen, C. A.; Renninger, G. M.; Simko, G. J.; Smith, C. D.; Yelinek, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    With missions to Jupiter, the spacecraft will be exposed for extended duration to solar wind radiation and the Jovian trapped radiation belt. This study is designed to determine the effect of these radiation environments on spacecraft bacterial isolates. The information can be used in the probability of contamination analysis for these missions. A bacterial subpopulation from Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft (nine sporeforming and three nonsporeforming isolates) plus two comparative organisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 17917 and a strain of Bacillus subtilis var. niger, were exposed to 2-, 12-, and 25-MeV electrons at different doses with simultaneous exposure to a vacuum of 0.0013 N/sqm at 20 and -20 C. The radioresistance of the subpopulation was dependent on the isolate, dose, and energy of electrons. Temperature affected the radioresistance of only the sporeforming isolates. Survival data indicated that spores were reduced approximately 1 log/1500 J/kg, while nonsporeforming isolates (micrococci) were reduced 1.5 to 2 logs/1500 J/kg with the exception of an apparent radioresistant isolate whose resistance approached that of the spores. The subpopulation was found to be less resistant to lower energy than to higher energy electrons.

  17. Bacterial isolates from burn wound infections and their antibiograms: A eight-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Manjula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection is an important cause of mortality in burns. Rapidly emerging nosocomial pathogens and the problem of multi-drug resistance necessitates periodic review of isolation patterns and antibiogram in the burn ward. Aim: Keeping this in mind, the present retrospective study from wounds of patients admitted to burns unit was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and the resistance pattern from the burn ward over a period of three years (June 2002 to May 2005 and was compared with the results obtained during the previous five years (June 1997-May 2002, to ascertain any change in the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Materials and Methods: Bacterial isolates from 268 wound swabs taken from burn patients were identified by conventional biochemical methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed. Statistical comparison of bacterial isolates and their resistance pattern with previous five years data was done using c2 test. Results and Conclusions: During the period from 2002 to 2005 Pseudomonas species was the commonest pathogen isolated (51.5% followed by Acinetobacter species (14.28%, Staph. aureus (11.15%, Klebsiella species (9.23% and Proteus species (2.3%. When compared with the results of the previous five years i.e., 1997 to 2002, Pseudomonas species was still the commonest pathogen in the burns unit. However, the isolation of this organism and other gram-negative organisms had decreased in comparison to previous years. Newer drugs were found to be effective.

  18. Assessment of biofilm formation in device-associated clinical bacterial isolates in a tertiary level hospital

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    Summaiya A Mulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilm formation is a developmental process with intercellular signals that regulate growth. Biofilms contaminate catheters, ventilators, and medical implants; they act as a source of disease for humans, animals, and plants. Aim: In this study we have done quantitative assessment of biofilm formation in device-associated clinical bacterial isolates in response to various concentrations of glucose in tryptic soya broth and with different incubation time. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 100 positive bacteriological cultures of medical devices, which were inserted in hospitalized patients. The bacterial isolates were processed as per microtitre plate method with tryptic soya broth alone and with varying concentrations of glucose and were observed in response to time. Results: Majority of catheter cultures were positive. Out of the total 100 bacterial isolates tested, 88 of them were biofilm formers. Incubation period of 16-20 h was found to be optimum for biofilm development. Conclusions: Availability of nutrition in the form of glucose enhances the biofilm formation by bacteria. Biofilm formation depends on adherence of bacteria to various surfaces. Time and availability of glucose are important factors for assessment of biofilm progress.

  19. [Polyvalence of bacteriophages isolated from fruit trees, affected by bacterial fire blight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, F I; Moroz, S N; Korol', N A; Faĭdiuk, Iu V; Kushkina, A I

    2013-01-01

    Phage populations appearing as a result of a pathogenic process caused by Erwinia amylovora have been discovered and described. They accompany bacterial fire blight development in the process of quince, pear and apple trees vegetation in Zakarpattya region of Ukraine. Phage isolates of the affected pear and quince include polyvalent virulent phages able to develop on bacterial strains associated with plants--E. amylovora. E. "horticola" and Pantoea agglomerans. E. amylovora isolated from the plant tissues affected by the fire blight and detected at the same time as phages proved to be resistant to the viral infection. It is hard to explain now this characteristic however it was noticed that resistance to phages can change drastically in case of dissociation, lysogenization and mutagenesis of erwinia in laboratory conditions. Phage population study shows that they are heterogeneous and can obviously include not only polyvalent but also specific viruses. Further studies of biology and molecular genetics of pure lines of isolated phages will help to get closer to understanding the place and role of bacteriophages in the complicated network of relations between bacterial pathogens and plants.

  20. Heterogeneity in restriction patterns of Gardnerella vaginalis isolates from individuals with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, K; Devlin, D; Beddoe, A M

    1992-02-01

    This study was undertaken to resolve the genetic make up of Gardnerella vaginalis present in bacterial vaginosis (BV). DNA from several G. vaginalis isolates from within and between individual BV patients were compared by BamHI, ClaI and EcoRI restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) followed by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) study, utilizing a 5.7-kb BamHI G. vaginalis ATCC14018 DNA probe. Four G. vaginalis isolates from one patient (GVP-062) were composed of 3 different biotypes (biotypes 3, 5 and 8), and while the REA mirrored the biotype, in RFLP studies at least 3 isolates had DNA fragments in common. All of the isolates from 2 other patients (GVP-063 and GVP-072) represented a single biotype (biotype 2), but under REA and in RFLP studies, the isolates GVP-063 differed from GVP-072. An opposite case existed with the isolates GVP-072 (biotype 2) and GVP-065 (biotype 5), which appeared similar under REA and in RFLP studies. Finally, reisolates after 8 weeks (GVP-080) from a BV patient (isolates GVP-065) representing the same biotype (biotype 5) differed under REA and in RFLP studies. Thus, lacking any unique DNA fingerprint, G. vaginalis occurring in BV represents a (genetically) mixed population.

  1. Survival and transfer ability of phylogenetically diverse bacterial endosymbionts in environmental Acanthamoeba isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junji; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Nakamura, Shinji; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Takahashi, Kaori; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yao, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Obligate intracellular bacteria are commonly found as endosymbionts of acanthamoebae; however, their survival in and ability to transfer to amoebae are currently uncharacterized. In this study, six bacterial endosymbionts, found in five environmental Acanthamoeba isolates (S13, R18, S23, S31, S40) from different locations of Sapporo city, Japan, were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three bacterial endosymbionts (eS23, eS31, eS40a) belonged to α- and β-Proteobacteria phyla and the remaining endosymbionts (eS13, eR18, eS40b) belonged to the order Chlamydiales. The Acanthamoeba isolate (S40) contained two phylogenetically different bacterial endosymbionts (eS40a, eS40b). Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis showed that all bacterial endosymbionts were diffusely localized within amoebae. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that the endosymbionts were rod-shaped (eS23, eS31, eS40a) or sphere- or crescent-shaped (eS13, eR18, eS40b). No successful culture of these bacteria was achieved using conventional culture methods, but the viability of endosymbionts was confirmed by live/dead staining and RT-PCR methods. However, endosymbionts (except eR18) derived from original host cells lost the ability to be transferred to another Acanthamoebae strains [ATCC strain (C3), environmental strains (S14, R23, S24)]. Thus, our data demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse bacterial endosymbionts found in amoebae maintain a stable interaction with amoebae, but the transferability is limited.

  2. Characterization of a collection of plasmid-containing bacteria isolated from an on-farm biopurification system used for pesticide removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carla Martini, Maria; Javier Albicoro, Francisco; Nour, Eman; Schlueter, Andreas; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Springael, Dirk; Smalla, Kornelia; Pistorio, Mariano; Lagares, Antonio; Florencia Del Papa, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Biopurification systems (BPS) are complex soil-related and artificially-generated environments usually designed for the removal of toxic compounds from contaminated wastewaters. The present study has been conducted to isolate and characterize a collection of cultivable plasmid-carrying bacterial iso

  3. Quantitative analysis of resistance in cotton to three new isolates of the bacterial blight pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, T P; El-Zik, K M

    1990-04-01

    Genetic variability for virulence of the bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum (Smith) Dye] on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been shown by the identification of 19 races of the pathogen based on disease reactions of a set of ten host differentials. This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of host resistance to three recently identified isolates of X. campestris pv malvacearum, which are virulent on the entire set of differentials. True leaves of Tamcot CAMD-E, LEBOCAS-3-80, Stoneville 825, and their f1, F2, and backcross progenies were wound-inoculated in the field with separate bacterial suspensions of the virulent HV3, HV7, and Sudan isolates of the pathogen. LEBOCAS-3-80 was replaced with S295, a new immune cultivar, for a greenhouse study in which both cotyledons and true leaves were inoculated. Disease reactions were rated on a scale of 1-10, and genetic models were proposed utilizing generation means analysis. Dominance, when significant, was in the direction of resistance in all but one cross-isolate combination. Digenic interaction components indicated a duplicate type. Narrow-sense heritability for resistance ranged from 0.59 to 0.68; therefore, primarily additive-genetic variability among the selected cutlivars was detected, indicating that breeding for improved resistance to these isolates is a practical goal.

  4. Bacterial Agents Isolated from Wards’ Environment and Staff’s Hands in Yahyanejad Hospital, Babol

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    Sadighian, F. (BSc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nowadays, nosocomial infection is one of the greatest problems in hospitals. Normal flora of staff’s hands and the bacterial agents on the surface of medical equipment can become progressively colonized with potential pathogens during patient care. This study was carried out to determine the bacterial agents existed on staff’s hands and in the wards of hospital to step in to control nosocomial infection. Material and Methods: In this descriptive study, during 17 months (22.mar.2010- 30.aug.2011, 403 samples, using sterile swab , were randomly obtained from the staff’s hands and medical equipment of emergency departments , ICU, male operation room and female surgical unit . The samples were cultured on Blood agar (BA and Eosin methylene blue (EMB. Then, identification of isolated bacteria was done with diagnostic tests. Results: Of 430 samples, 530 bacteria were isolated from staff’s hands (N= 291 and medical equipment (N= 234. The most common bacterium from personnel’s hands (144; 49.5% and medical equipment (24; 10% is Staphylococcus aureus. Also, three isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa from staff’s hands of male surgical ward and medical equipment of ICU, and two isolates of Acinetobacter.spp from ICU’s medical equipment were identified. Conclusion: With regard to the findings, it seems that applying the appropriate disinfectant agents by using standard procedures is necessary. Keywords: Medical Equipment; Staff’s Hand; Nosocomial Infection; Staphylococcus Aureus

  5. Physiological and Molecular Characteristics of Bacterial Isolates from Bandealit Coastal Area Jember, East Java, Indonesia

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    DINA FITRIYAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are the most dominant group of microorganisms in aquatic environments due to their role in organic matter decomposition. Decomposition activity is related to the type and dominance of bacteria in the communities. Therefore, study of bacterial diversity is an important step to understand their role in aquatic ecosystems. This study was to determine bacterial diversity and their physiological characters of bacteria from Bandealit Coast in Jember East Java Indonesia. The bacteria were confirmed by BOX-PCR profile for their genetic polymorphisms. Identification of potential isolate was conducted based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. The result showed that BA011109 isolate was able to utilize D-cellobiose as a sole substrate, indicating its ability to hydrolyse -glucoside bond. This isolate was a potential decomposer in the area considering that most of organic pollutants were from plants that cointain high cellulose. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, this isolate was closely related to Microbacterium esteraromaticum with 100% homology. Further study on quantitative hydrolytic activities is needed to elucidate its role as an organic matter decomposer in aquatic environment.

  6. ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract

    OpenAIRE

    Diop, K.; Diop, A.; Raoult, D.; P.-E. Fournier; Fenollar, F.

    2016-01-01

    We report the main characteristics of ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7 (= CSUR P2268=DSM 101849), a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae family isolated from the vaginal flora of a patient with bacterial vaginosis.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus against bacterial isolates from burn wounds

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    Mohammed Sh. Jebur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms which are mainly strains of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. When administered in adequate amounts, these microorganisms offer a health benefit for the host. Probiotic organisms are also available commercially in milk, sour milk, ice cream and other foods. Aims: To identify bacterial species isolated from burn wounds, and also to evaluate (In-vitro the therapeutic efficacy of Lacto. acidophilus against these bacterial isolates. To compare this activity to other antibacterial agents which are used medically in the treatment of burn wound cases. Materials and Methods: Burn wound swabs were obtained from 50 patients who had been admitted to hospitals in Baghdad during August to November 2009. These swabs were inoculated onto enriched and differential culture media. Subcultures were performed on selective media. The necessary biochemical tests were conducted and the organisms identified using standard procedures. Susceptibility of isolated pathogens to local isolates Lacto. Acidophilus (with 1х108 cells/mL and 10 commonly used burn wounds antibiotics was examined using standard susceptibility testing. Results: Ninety different organisms were isolated. Gram-positive cocci accounted for 16 (17.7% and gram-negative bacilli for 74 (82.2% bacterial isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 30(33.3% were the most commonly isolated organisms, followed by Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp.(22.2,20,4.4,2.2%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were performed in 8(8.8%. However, the incidence of Staphylococcus epidermidis was 2 (2.2%, while ß-haemolytic Streptococci was 4(4.4%. In susceptibility testing, Lacto. acidophilus had coverage against 90 (100% of 74 gram-negative and 16 of gram-positive bacteria tested. The coverage of the remaining 10 antibacterial agents used was different in their activity (resistance or sensitivity, which ranged between 50-100%. Conclusion

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus against bacterial isolates from burn wounds

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    Mohammed Sh. Jebur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Probiotics are live microorganisms which are mainly strains of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. When administered in adequate amounts, these microorganisms offer a health benefit for the host. Probiotic organisms are also available commercially in milk, sour milk, ice cream and other foods. Aims : To identify bacterial species isolated from burn wounds, and also to evaluate (In-vitro the therapeutic efficacy of Lacto. acidophilus against these bacterial isolates. To compare this activity to other antibacterial agents which are used medically in the treatment of burn wound cases. Materials and Methods : Burn wound swabs were obtained from 50 patients who had been admitted to hospitals in Baghdad during August to November 2009. These swabs were inoculated onto enriched and differential culture media. Subcultures were performed on selective media. The necessary biochemical tests were conducted and the organisms identified using standard procedures. Susceptibility of isolated pathogens to local isolates Lacto. Acidophilus (with 1υ108 cells/mL and 10 commonly used burn wounds antibiotics was examined using standard susceptibility testing. Results : Ninety different organisms were isolated. Gram-positive cocci accounted for 16 (17.7% and gram-negative bacilli for 74 (82.2% bacterial isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 30(33.3% were the most commonly isolated organisms, followed by Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp.(22.2,20,4.4,2.2%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were performed in 8(8.8%. However, the incidence of Staphylococcus epidermidis was 2 (2.2%, while ί-haemolytic Streptococci was 4(4.4%. In susceptibility testing, Lacto. acidophilus had coverage against 90 (100% of 74 gram-negative and 16 of gram-positive bacteria tested. The coverage of the remaining 10 antibacterial agents used was different in their activity (resistance or sensitivity, which ranged between 50

  9. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis

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    Gita Eslami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with urinary tract infection in women and treatment of gynecologic problems occur when a high recurrence of bacterial vaginosis is often treated with antibiotics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on pathogenic bacteria isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis, respectively.Materials and Methods: 96 samples from women with bacterial vaginosis discharge referred to health centers dependent Shahid Beheshti University in 91-92 were taken by a gynecologist with a dacron swab and put in sterile tubes containing TSB broth and Thioglycollate broth and were immediately sent to the lab location in cold chain for the next stages of investigation. From Thioglycollate and TSB medium was cultured on blood agar and EMB and Palkam and Differential diagnosis environments, and then incubated for 24 h at 37°C. Strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus were cultured in MRSA environment and were transfered to the lab. After purification of pathogenic bacteria, MIC methods and antibiogram, Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria is checked. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software v.16.Results: The results of this study show the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on some pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus, Listeria monocytogenes and E.Coli. Microscopic examination of stained smears of the large number of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria showed reduced. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge, history of drug use means of preventing pregnancy and douching, respectively, 61%, 55%, 42% and 13% respectively. Significant difference was observed between the use and non-use of IUD in women with bacterial vaginosis infection

  10. Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis and from patients with healthy vaginal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroutcheva, A A; Simoes, J A; Behbakht, K; Faro, S

    2001-10-01

    The differences in the phenotype and genotype of Gardnerella vaginalis isolates from patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and from patients without BV are unknown. In our study, 43 isolates of G. vaginalis were examined for biotype (hippurate hydrolysis, lipase, and beta-galactosidase activity), sensitivity to metronidazole, and genotype. Of the 117 women visiting the gynecology clinic at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center who were included in the study, 27.4% were found to have BV. G. vaginalis was found in samples from 87.5% of women with BV, from 34.0% of women with intermediate BV, and from 26.4% of women with healthy vaginal ecosystems. Among patients with G. vaginalis, biotypes 7 and 8 were isolated from 32% and 20% of patients, respectively. Biotype 5 was predominantly associated with a healthy vaginal ecosystem (P=.0004). Biotypes 5 and 7 were the most resistant to metronidazole. No specific phenotype or genotype of G. vaginalis causes BV.

  11. Genome Sequences of 15 Gardnerella vaginalis Strains Isolated from the Vaginas of Women with and without Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lloyd S; Perry, Justin; Lek, Sai; Wollam, Aye; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George; Lewis, Warren G; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is a predominant species in bacterial vaginosis, a dysbiosis of the vagina that is associated with adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 15 Gardnerella vaginalis strains (now available through BEI Resources) isolated from women with and without bacterial vaginosis. PMID:27688326

  12. Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose by Leifsonia sp. CBNU-EW3 isolated from the earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of five bacterial strains were isolated from earthworm, Eisenia fetida and examined for bacterial cellulose (BC) production in Hestrin–Schramm medium (HS). Among the five strains tested, CBNU-EW3 exhibited excellent BC production and was identified as Leifsonia sp. by 16S rDNA sequence analy...

  13. Biofilm inhibition activity of compounds isolated from two Eunicea species collected at the Caribbean Sea

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    Yenny Martínez Díaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biofilm has a primary role in the pathogenesis of diseases and in the attachment of multicellular organisms to a fouled surface. Because of that, the control of bacterial biofilms has been identified as an important target. In the present study, five lipid compounds isolated from soft coral Eunicea sp. and three terpenoids together with a mixture of sterols from Eunicea fusca collected at the Colombian Caribbean Sea showed different effectiveness against biofilm formation by three marine bacteria associated with immersed fouled surfaces, Ochrobactrum pseudogringnonense,Alteromona macleodii and Vibrio harveyi, and against two known biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The pure compounds were characterized by NMR, HRESI-MS, HRGC-MS and optical rotation. The most effective compounds were batyl alcohol (1 and fuscoside E peracetate (6, acting against four strains without affecting their microbial growth. Compound 1 showed biofilm inhibition greater than 30% against A. macleodii, and up to 60% against O. pseudogringnonense,V. harveyi and S. aureus. Compound 6 inhibited O. pseudogringnonense and V. harveyi between 25 and 50%, and P. aeruginosa or S. aureus up to 60% at 0.5 mg/ml. The results suggest that these compounds exhibit specific biofilm inhibition with lower antimicrobial effect against the bacterial species assayed.

  14. Detection of ureolytic activity of bacterial strains isolated from entomopathogenic nematodes using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechowicz, Lukasz; Chrapek, Magdalena; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Tobiasz, Anna; Urbaniak, Mariusz; Matuska-Lyzwa, Joanna; Kaca, Wieslaw

    2016-08-01

    The pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) depends directly on the presence of bacteria in the nematode digestive tracts. Based on 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF analyses 20 isolated bacteria were assigned to 10 species with 10 isolates classified as Pseudomonas ssp. Six strains (30%) show ureolytic activity on Christensen medium. Spectroscopic analysis of the strains showed that the ureolytic activity is strongly correlated with the following wavenumbers: 935 cm(-1) in window W4, which carries information about the bacterial cell wall construction and 1158 cm(-1) in window W3 which corresponds to proteins in bacterial cell. A logistic regression model designed on the basis of the selected wavenumbers differentiates ureolytic from non-ureolytic bacterial strains with an accuracy of 100%. Spectroscopic studies and mathematical analyses made it possible to differentiate EPN-associated Pseudomonas sp. strains from clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. These results suggest, that infrared spectra of EPN-associated Pseudomonas sp. strains may reflect its adaptation to the host. PMID:26972384

  15. Isolation and characterization of culturable seed-associated bacterial endophytes from gnotobiotically grown Marama bean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimwamurombe, Percy Maruwa; Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an indigenous non-nodulating legume to the arid agro-ecological parts of Southern Africa. It is a staple food for the Khoisan and Bantu people from these areas. It is intriguing how it is able to synthesize the high-protein content in the seeds since its natural habitat is nitrogen deficient. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of seed transmittable bacterial endophytes that may have growth promoting effects, which may be particularly important for the harsh conditions. Marama bean seeds were surface sterilized and gnotobiotically grown to 2 weeks old seedlings. From surface-sterilized shoots and roots, 123 distinct bacterial isolates were cultured using three media, and identified by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Phylogenetic analyses of 73 putative endophytes assigned them to bacterial species from 14 genera including Proteobacteria (Rhizobium, Massilia, Kosakonia, Pseudorhodoferax, Caulobacter, Pantoea, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium), Firmicutes (Bacillus), Actinobacteria (Curtobacterium, Microbacterium) and Bacteroidetes (Mucilaginibacter, Chitinophaga). Screening for plant growth-promoting activities revealed that the isolates showed production of IAA, ACC deaminase, siderophores, endoglucanase, protease, AHLs and capacities to solubilize phosphate and fix nitrogen. This is the first report that marama bean seeds may harbor endophytes that can be cultivated from seedlings; in this community of bacteria, physiological characteristics that are potentially plant growth promoting are widespread. PMID:27118727

  16. Isolation and Synthesis of a Bacterially Produced Inhibitor of Rosette Development in Choanoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Alexandra M; Woznica, Arielle; Beemelmanns, Christine; King, Nicole; Clardy, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta is a microbial marine eukaryote that can switch between unicellular and multicellular states. As one of the closest living relatives of animals, this organism has become a model for understanding how multicellularity evolved in the animal lineage. Previously our laboratories isolated and synthesized a bacterially produced sulfonolipid that induces S. rosetta to form multicellular "rosettes." In this study, we report the identification of a bacterially produced inhibitor of rosettes (IOR-1) as well as the total synthesis of this molecule and all of its stereoisomers. Our results confirm the previously noted specificity and potency of rosette-modulating molecules, expand our understanding of the complex chemical ecology between choanoflagellates and rosette-inducing bacteria, and provide a synthetic probe template for conducting further mechanistic studies on the emergence of multicellularity. PMID:26998963

  17. NORMAL VAGINAL BACTERIAL FLORA OF GIANT PANDAS (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) AND THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF THE ISOLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hongning; Li, Caiwu; He, Yongguo; Jin, SenYan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Wang, Pengyan; Xu, Yuesong; Xu, Changwen; Fan, Chengyun; Xu, Lulai; Huang, Shan; Qu, Chunmao; Li, Guo

    2016-06-01

    To study the typical vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we took vaginal swabs for the sake of bacterial isolation, from 24 healthy female giant pandas. A total of 203 isolates were identified, representing a total of 17 bacterial species. The most common bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus spp. (54.2%, 13/24), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (41.7%, 10/24) and Escherichia coli (33.3%, 8/24). Some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Peptostreptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis , were also isolated but showed no pathology. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of aerobic bacterial isolates was performed with the disk diffusion method. Of the 152 isolates, resistance was most frequently observed with chloramphenicol (17.8%), followed by tetracycline (14.5%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%), streptomycin (11.8%), and florfenicol (11.8%), whereas 7.2% were multidrug resistant. This is the first report of the normal culturable vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates. PMID:27468049

  18. Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae the Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf Blight of rice: Isolation, Characterization, and Study of Transposon Mutagenesis

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    Abdjad Asih Nawangsih

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae the Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf Blight of rice: Isolation, Characterization, and Study of Transposon Mutagenesis. X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB of rice (Oryza sativa L., a major disease that constrains production of the staple crop in many countries of the world. Identification of X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo was conducted based on the disease symptoms, pathogenicity, morphological, physiological, and genetic characteristics of bacterial cultures isolated from the infected plants. Fifty bacterial isolates predicted as Xoo have been successfully isolated. They are aerobic, rod shaped, and Gram negative bacteria. The isolates were evaluated for their hypersensitivity in tobacco and pathogenicity in rice plant. Fifty isolates induced hypersensitive reaction in tobacco and showed pathogenicity symptom in rice in different length. Based on physiological test, hypersensitivity and pathogenicity reactions, three bacterial isolates strongly predicted as Xoo, i.e. STG21, STG42, and STG46, were non indole formation, non pigment fluorescent, hydrolyzed casein, catalase activity positive, but negative oxidase. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of STG21 and STG42 showed 80% and 82% homology with X. oryzae, respectively, while STG46 showed 84% homology with X. campestris. Mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis of STG21 generated one of the mutants (M5 lossed it’s ability to induce hypersensitive reaction in tobacco plant and deficient in pathogenicity on rice. The lesion length of rice leaf caused by the mutant M5 decreased up to 80%.

  19. A novel bacterial isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as living factory for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

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    Shekhawat G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs has received considerable attention with their potential applications in various life sciences related applications. Recently, there has been tremendous excitement in the study of nanoparticles synthesis by using some natural biological system, which has led to the development of various biomimetic approaches for the growth of advanced nanomaterials. In the present study, we have demonstrated the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a novel bacterial strain isolated from a site near the famous gold mines in India. A promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by this strain and their stabilization via charge capping was investigated. Results A bacterial isolate capable of gold nanoparticle synthesis was isolated and identified as a novel strain of Stenotrophomonas malophilia (AuRed02 based on its morphology and an analysis of its 16S rDNA gene sequence. After 8 hrs of incubation, monodisperse preparation of gold nanoparticles was obtained. Gold nanoparticles were characterized and found to be of ~40 nm size. Electrophoresis, Zeta potential and FTIR measurements confirmed that the particles are capped with negatively charged phosphate groups from NADP rendering them stable in aqueous medium. Conclusion The process of synthesis of well-dispersed nanoparticles using a novel microorganism isolated from the gold enriched soil sample has been reported in this study, leading to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of GNPs. This is the first study in which an extensive characterization of the indigenous bacterium isolated from the actual gold enriched soil was conducted. Promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by the strain and their stabilization via charge capping is suggested, which involves an NADPH-dependent reductase enzyme that reduces Au3+ to Au0 through electron shuttle enzymatic metal reduction process.

  20. Measuring the CCN and IN ability of bacterial isolates: implications for the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, S.; Waters, S.; Konstantinidis, K.; Nenes, A.; DeLeon-Rodriguez, N.

    2015-12-01

    Ice nucleation is an important process in the climate system as it influences global precipitation processes, and can affect the vertical distribution of clouds with effects that both cool and warm the atmosphere. Of the pathways to ice nucleation, immersion mode, which occurs when ice nuclei (IN) particles are surrounded by an aqueous phase that subsequently freezes, dominates primary ice production in mixed-phase clouds. A simple but effective method to study immersion freezing is to utilize a droplet freezing assay (DFA) that consists of an aluminum plate, precisely cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture. Using such a system we study the immersion IN characteristics of bacterial isolates (for temperatures ranging from -15oC to 0oC) isolated from rainwater and air collected in Atlanta, GA and Puerto Rico, over storms throughout the year. Despite their relatively large size and the presence of hydrophilic groups on the outer membranes of many bacteria, it is unclear if bacteria possess an inherent ability to nucleate an aqueous phase (a requirement for immersion freezing) for the wide range of supersaturations found in clouds. For this, we measure the cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity of each isolate (over the 0.05% to 0.6% supersaturation range) using a Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter. Initial results have shown certain isolates to be very efficient CCN, allowing them to form droplets even for the very low supersaturations found in radiation fogs. In combination, these experiments provide insight into the potential dual-ability of some bacteria, isolated from the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico, to act as both efficient CCN and IN.

  1. Prevalence and antibiogram of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections at Dessie Health Research Laboratory, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mulugeta Kibret; Bayeh Abera

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from suspected urinary tract infections.Methods:A retrospective analysis of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility was done on urine samples at Dessie Regional Laboratory in the period 2003 to 2010. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done using disc diffusion technique as per the standard of Kirby-Bauer method.Results:The male to female ratio of the patients was 1:1.96. Of the total 1404 samples, 319 (22.7%) were culture positive. Escherichia coli was the dominant isolate (63.6%) followed by Klebsiella spp. (8.5%) and Proteus spp. (8.2%). The overall resistance rates to erythromycin, amoxycillin, and tetracycline were 85.6%, 88.9% and 76.7%, respectively. The three most frequently isolated bacteria had resistance rates of 80.1%-90.0% to, amoxycillin, and tetracycline and sensitivity rates of 0 to 25% to nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Antibiogram of isolates showed that 152 (47.85%) isolates were resistance to two and more antimicrobials.Conclusions:In the study area resistance rates to erythromycin, amoxycillin and tetracycline were high. Since most isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin and gentamicin, they are considered as appropriate antimicrobials for empirical treatment urinary tract infections.

  2. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  3. Monitoring of oil pollution at Gemsa Bay and bioremediation capacity of bacterial isolates with biosurfactants and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheshtawy, H S; Khalil, N M; Ahmed, W; Abdallah, R I

    2014-10-15

    Fifteen crude oil-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from an oil-polluted area in Gemsa Bay, Red Sea, Egypt. Two bacterial species showed the highest growth rate on crude oil hydrocarbons. From an analysis of 16S rRNA sequences, these isolates were identified as Pseudomonas xanthomarina KMM 1447 and Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 17588. Gas Chromatographic (GC) analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after one week at 30°C showed that the optimum biodegradation of crude petroleum oil was demonstrated at 50% in medium containing biosurfactant with two types of nanoparticles separately and two bacterial species. The complete degradation of some different members of polyaromatics and the percentage biodegradation of other polyaromatics increased in microcosm containing two different types of nanoparticles with biosurfactant after 7 days. In conclusion, these bacterial strains may be useful for the bioremediation process in the Gemsa Bay, Red Sea decreasing oil pollution in this marine ecosystem.

  4. Isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste: Optimization of acid concentration in the hydrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Budiman; Rosyid, Nurul Huda; Effendi, Devi Bentia; Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hidayat, Topik

    2016-02-01

    Isolation of needle-shaped bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline with a diameter of 16-64 nm, a fiber length of 258-806 nm, and a degree of crystallinity of 64% from pineapple peel waste using an acid hydrolysis process was investigated. Experimental showed that selective concentration of acid played important roles in isolating the bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from the cellulose source. To achieve the successful isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline, various acid concentrations were tested. To confirm the effect of acid concentration on the successful isolation process, the reaction conditions were fixed at a temperature of 50°C, a hydrolysis time of 30 minutes, and a bacterial cellulose-to-acid ratio of 1:50. Pineapple peel waste was used as a model for a cellulose source because to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the use of this raw material for producing bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline. In fact, this material can be used as an alternative for ecofriendly and cost-free cellulose sources. Therefore, understanding in how to isolate bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste has the potential for large-scale production of inexpensive cellulose nanocrystalline.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin and enrofloxacin against bacterial strains isolated from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farca, A M; Cavana, P; Robino, P; Nebbia, P

    2007-06-01

    Fluoroquinolones were originally developed for the Gram-negative aerobic spectrum, but the newer generation agents are also highly effective against some Gram-positive pathogens and cause few adverse effects. Owing to these characteristics, fluoroquinolones are often used in first line therapy in small animal practice. However, their widespread use has raised concern over emerging bacterial resistance. In this study we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of two fluoroquinolones, marbofloxacin and enrofloxacin, on field strains isolated from clinical infections between 2002 and 2005. Our data show that most of the isolates are still sensitive to both antimicrobials and marbofloxacin was more effective than enrofloxacin, especially against P. aeruginosa and beta-Streptococci (P < 0.01). beta-Streptococci demonstrated the greatest resistance to the two study drugs.

  6. Isolation and characteristics of a novel biphenyl-degrading bacterial strain, Dyella ginsengisoli LA-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ang; QU Yuanyuan; ZHOU Jiti; GOU Min

    2009-01-01

    A novel biphenyl-degrading bacterial strain LA-4 was isolated from activated sludge. It was identified as Dyella ginsengisoli according to phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence. This isolate could utilize biphenyl as sole source of carbon and energy, which degraded over 95 mg/L biphenyl within 36 h. The major metabolites formed from biphenyl, such as 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) and benzoic acid, were identified by LC-MS. The crude cell extract of strain LA-4 exhibited the activity of 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (2,3-DHBD) and the kinetic parameters were Km= 26.48 μmol/L and Vmax= 8.12 μmol/mg protein. A conserved region of the biphenyl dioxygenase gene bphA1 of strain LA-4 was amplified by PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing.

  7. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Ting, Yen-Peng [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan [Sourashtra Coll., Madurai (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Biocorrosion Group; Rahman, Pattanathu K.S.M. [Teesside Univ., Tees Valley (United Kingdom). Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Group

    2010-01-15

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Dark fermentative biohydrogen production by mesophilic bacterial consortia isolated from riverbed sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sneha; Sudhakaran, Anu K.; Sarma, Priyangshu Manab; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Mandal, Ajoy Kumar; Lal, Banwari [Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Habitat Place, Darbari Seth Block, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Gandham, Ganesh [Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Mumbai Refinery, B. D. Patil Marg, Mahul, Mumbai 400074 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Dark fermentative bacterial strains were isolated from riverbed sediments and investigated for hydrogen production. A series of batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of pH, substrate concentration and temperature on hydrogen production from a selected bacterial consortium, TERI BH05. Batch experiments for fermentative conversion of sucrose, starch, glucose, fructose, and xylose indicated that TERI BH05 effectively utilized all the five sugars to produce fermentative hydrogen. Glucose was the most preferred carbon source indicating highest hydrogen yields of 22.3 mmol/L. Acetic and butyric acid were the major soluble metabolites detected. Investigation on optimization of pH, temperature, and substrate concentration revealed that TERI BH05 produced maximum hydrogen at 37 C, pH 6 with 8 g/L of glucose supplementation and maximum yield of hydrogen production observed was 2.0-2.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. Characterization of TERI BH05 revealed the presence of two different bacterial strains showing maximum homology to Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium bifermentans. (author)

  9. Characterization of Bacterial Strains Isolated from a Novel Seawater-based Retting Treatment of Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Run-ye; CHEN Jian-yong; FENG Xin-xing; ZHANG Jian-chun

    2008-01-01

    Cultivable bacteria were isolated from seawater-based retting treatment of hemp, in which three of purified strains (SW - 1, SW - 2, and S - SW1) produced relatively high levels of pectinase activities, and also produced mannanases and xylanases.PCR - based entebacterial repetitive intergenic consensus primers (ERIC- PCR) were employed for fingerprinting DNA of the bacterial strains.The ERIC - PCR fingerprints of stains SW- 1, SW -1, and S -SW1 were found to be different, and should be further identified for each isolate.Strains SW - 1 and SW - 2 were identified as Stenotrophomnas maltophilia, while strain S - SW1 was assigned to Ochrobactrum anthropi by BIOLOG system.These two species represented rhizosphere bacterial genera, and possibly were introduced by the hemp plants.These organisms seemed potentially capable of producing pectinase and hemicellulase, and thus effectively degrading the gum substances in the seawater retting.This research could be helpful for improving a novel seawater-based retting treatment of hemp.

  10. Genetic and biochemical diversity of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleckaityte, Milda; Janulaitiene, Migle; Lasickiene, Rita; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-06-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is considered a substantial player in the progression of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We analysed 17 G. vaginalis strains isolated from the genital tract of women diagnosed with BV to establish a potential link between genotypes/biotypes and the expression of virulence factors, vaginolysin (VLY) and sialidase, which are assumed to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BV. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis revealed two G. vaginalis genotypes. Gardnerella vaginalis isolates of genotype 2 appeared more complex than genotype 1 and were subdivided into three subtypes. Biochemical typing allowed us to distinguish four different biotypes. A great diversity of the level of VLY production among the isolates of G. vaginalis may be related to a different cytotoxicity level of the strains. We did not find any correlation between VLY production level and G. vaginalis genotype/biotype. In contrast, a link between G. vaginalis genotype and sialidase production was established. Our findings on the diversity of VLY expression level in different clinical isolates and linking sialidase activity with the genotype of G. vaginalis could help to evaluate the pathogenic potential of different G. vaginalis strains.

  11. In vitro evaluation of Pseudomonas bacterial isolates from rice phylloplane for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and plant growth promoting traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shamima; Kadir, Jugah; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The ability for biocontrol and plant growth promotion of three Pseudomonas bacterial isolates namely Pseudomonas fluorescens (UMB20), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KMB25) and Pseudomonas asplenii (BMB42) obtained from rice plants was investigated. Fungal growth inhibition by the isolates ranged from 86.85 to 93.15% in volatile and 100% in diffusible metabolites test. Among the isolates, BMB42 showed fungal growth inhibition significantly in the volatile metabolite test. Isolates UMB20 and BMB42 were able to synthesis chitinase with chitinolytic indices of 13.66 and 13.50, respectively. In case of -1,3-glucanase, all the isolates showed activity to produce this enzyme at varied levels and isolate KMB25 showed significantly highest activity (53.53 ppm). Among the three isolates, KMB25 showed positive response to protease production and all of them were negative to pectinase and lipase and positive to the production of siderophore, and HCN, and were able to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. All the three bacterial isolates were capable of forming biofilm at different levels. Above results suggest that phylloplane Pseudomonas bacterial isolates have potential for antifungal activities and plant growth promotion. PMID:27498507

  12. Pathogenicity Of Mycogone Perniciosa Isolates Collected On Polish Mushroom Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szumigaj-Tarnowska Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycogone perniciosa is the fungal pathogen causing the wet bubble of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus. The main symptoms of disease are undifferentiated, irregular forms of mushroom tissue, cap spotting and development of amber liquid droplets on the distorted mushrooms. The aim of the research was to assess the pathogenicity of M. perniciosa isolates that were obtained from the infected sporophores. Six isolates from Polish mushroom farms as well reference strain of Hypomyces perniciosus CBS 322.52 were used in this study. The pathogenicity of isolates was assessed on the basis of severity of disease symptoms and crop reduction in the first flush. Mushroom crop was infected with different suspensions containing of M. perniciosa aleuriospores. Significant variability was shown between tested isolates. It was stated that the pathogenicity of isolates and concentration of conidia had a significant influence on the mushroom yield. The isolate of high pathogenicity caused significant yield losses, after inoculation with 1.3 × 104·m−2, whereas the isolate with fairly pathogenicity did not produce symptoms of wet bubble disease or caused slight deformation of single sporophores, even when the casing soil was inoculated with 1.3 × 106·m−2 spores.

  13. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bacterial Isolates from Urine Specimen of Patients with Complaints of Urinary Tract Infections in Awka, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perpetua A. Ekwealor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs account for one of the major reasons for most hospital visits and the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens will help to guide physicians on the best choice of antibiotics to recommend to affected patients. This study is designed to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the pathogens associated with UTI in Anambra State Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. Clean catch urine samples of inpatient and outpatient cases of UTI were collected and bacteriologically analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiogram was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The most prevalent isolates were S. aureus (28%, E. coli (24.6%, and S. saprophyticus (20%. The antibacterial activities of the tested agents were in the order of Augmentin < Ceftazidime < Cefuroxime < Cefixime < Gentamicin < Ofloxacin < Ciprofloxacin < Nitrofurantoin. It was found that all the organisms were susceptible in varying degrees to Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species except Streptococcus spp. have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI greater than 0.2. For empiric treatment of UTIs in Awka locality, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin are the first line of choice.

  14. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIFENTHRIN CATABOLIZING BACTERIAL STRAIN BACILLUS CIBI FROM SOIL FOR PYRETHROIDS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroids are commonly used in most parts of the world and are reported to have potential health risks. Bifenthrin, a third generation pyrethroid used as insecticide has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health. Bioremediation is a practical approach to reduce pesticide in the environment and reports of microbial degradation of bifenthrin are meagre. This study was aimed at isolating and characterizing bacterial isolates for the efficient removal of bifenthrin residues in the environment. A bacterial strain PGS-4 isolated from sewage of pesticide industry was tested for growth at higher concentration of bifenthrin (800 mg L-1 and the optimum pH and temperature were determined. The strain utilized bifenthrin as sole carbon source for growth over a wide range of pH (4.0-9.0 and temperatures (16-37°C. On the basis of growth kinetics studies, the optimal conditions were determined to be pH 7.0-8.0 and 30°C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain PGS-4 forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Bacillus and showed 99% similarity to that of Bacillus cibi. This study depicts the ability of B. cibi to utilize bifenthrin at higher concentration under in vitro thereby can be used in eliminating bifenthrin from contaminated soils as a practical approach to reduce pyrethroid toxicity in the environment.

  15. Routine phenotypic identification of bacterial species of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousse, Florence; Thomann, Andreas; Brodard, Isabelle; Korczak, Bozena M; Schlatter, Yvonne; Kuhnert, Peter; Miserez, Raymond; Frey, Joachim

    2008-11-01

    Pasteurellaceae are bacteria with an important role as primary or opportunistic, mainly respiratory, pathogens in domestic and wild animals. Some species of Pasteurellaceae cause severe diseases with high economic losses in commercial animal husbandry and are of great diagnostic concern. Because of new data on the phylogeny of Pasteurellaceae, their taxonomy has recently been revised profoundly, thus requiring an improved phenotypic differentiation procedure to identify the individual species of this family. A new and simplified procedure to identify species of Actinobacillus, Avibacterium, Gallibacterium, Haemophilus, Mannheimia, Nicoletella, and Pasteurella, which are most commonly isolated from clinical samples of diseased animals in veterinary diagnostic laboratories, is presented in the current study. The identification procedure was evaluated with 40 type and reference strains and with 267 strains from routine diagnostic analysis of various animal species, including 28 different bacterial species. Type, reference, and field strains were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rrs) and rpoB gene sequencing for unambiguous species determination as a basis to evaluate the phenotypic differentiation schema. Primary phenotypic differentiation is based on beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (beta-NAD) dependence and hemolysis, which are readily determined on the isolation medium. The procedure divides the 28 species into 4 groups for which particular biochemical reactions were chosen to identify the bacterial species. The phenotypic identification procedure allowed researchers to determine the species of 240 out of 267 field strains. The procedure is an easy and cost-effective system for the rapid identification of species of the Pasteurellaceae family isolated from clinical specimens of animals. PMID:18987220

  16. Characterization of a new clinical yeast species isolated from a strain collection of Tunisian hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eddouzi, J.; Hofstetter, V.; Groenewald, M.; Manai, M.; Sanglard, S.

    2013-01-01

    From a collection of yeast isolates isolated from patients in Tunisian hospitals between September 2006 and July 2010, the yeast strain JEY63 (CBS 12513), isolated from a 50-year-old male that suffered from oral thrush, could not be identified to the species level using conventional methods used in

  17. Early-onset sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit in Beni Suef, Egypt: bacterial isolates and antibiotic resistance pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmey, Sameh Samir

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify the frequency of bacterial isolates in early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) and their antimicrobial resistance pattern. Methods A retrospective study of EONS was conducted at the Beni Suef University Hospital from September 2008 to September 2012. A case of EONS was defined as an infant who had clinical signs of infection or who was born to a mother with risk factors for infection, and in whom blood culture obtained within 72 hours of life grew a bacterial pathogen. Results ...

  18. Bioremediation potential of a highly mercury resistant bacterial strain Sphingobium SA2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain, SA2, was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate showed 99% sequence similarity to the genera Sphingobium and Sphingomonas of α-proteobacteria group. However, the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with the genus Sphingobium suggesting the strain belongs to Sphingobium sp. Toxicity studies indicated resistance to high levels of mercury with estimated EC50 values 4.5 mg L(-1) and 44.15 mg L(-1) and MIC values 5.1 mg L(-1) and 48.48 mg L(-1) in minimal and rich media, respectively. The strain SA2 was able to volatilize mercury by producing mercuric reductase enzyme which makes it potential candidate for remediating mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of Hg supplemented culture solutions confirmed that almost 79% mercury in the culture suspension was volatilized in 6 h. A very small amount of mercury was observed to accumulate in cell pellets which was also evident according to ESEM-EDX analysis. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated sequence homology with α-proteobacteria and Ascomycota group.

  19. Disinfectant and antibiotic activities: a comparative analysis in Brazilian hospital bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Márcia Aparecida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. It has been shown that appropriate environmental hygienic and disinfection practices can be very helpful to hospital infection control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of some disinfectants against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant hospital bacterial isolates. The susceptibility of 27 clinical isolates to disinfectants and antibiotics was determined by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist?s (AOAC Use-Dilution method and by the Kirby-Bauer method, respectively. All strains tested were susceptible to sodium hypochlorite, glutaraldehyde and to the association quaternary ammonium - formaldehyde - ethyl alcohol disinfectants. However, the susceptibility of strains to phenol and to one quaternary ammonium compound was variable. Among twenty-one antibiotic-multiresistant strains (methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli eleven (52% and eight (38% strains were resistant to the quaternary ammonium and phenol compounds, respectively. Among six isolates that demonstrated susceptibility to antibiotics (staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, P. mirabilis, E. cloacae and E. coli two strains (33% showed resistance to these disinfectants. The results demonstrated the lack of correlation between antibiotic-susceptibility and susceptibility to disinfectants in hospital strains.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Gut Bacterial Proteases Involved in Inducing Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regode, Visweshwar; Kuruba, Sreeramulu; Mohammad, Akbar S.; Sharma, Hari C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxin proteins are deployed in transgenic plants for pest management. The present studies were aimed at characterization of gut bacterial proteases involved in activation of inactive Cry1Ac protoxin (pro-Cry1Ac) to active toxin in Helicoverpa armigera. Bacterial strains were isolated from H. armigera midgut and screened for their proteolytic activation toward pro-Cry1Ac. Among 12 gut bacterial isolates seven isolates showed proteolytic activity, and proteases from three isolates (IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3) were found to be involved in the proteolytic conversion of pro-Cry1Ac into active toxin. The proteases from IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 isolates were purified to 11.90-, 15.50-, and 17.20-fold, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for gut bacterial protease activity was 8.0 and 40°C. Maximum inhibition of total proteolytic activity was exerted by phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride followed by EDTA. Fluorescence zymography revealed that proteases from IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 were chymotrypsin-like and showing protease band at ~15, 65, and 15 kDa, respectively. Active Cry1Ac formed from processing pro-Cry1Ac by gut bacterial proteases exhibited toxicity toward H. armigera. The gut bacterial isolates IVS1, IVS2, and IVS3 showed homology with B. thuringiensis (CP003763.1), Vibrio fischeri (CP000020.2), and Escherichia coli (CP011342.1), respectively. Proteases produced by midgut bacteria are involved in proteolytic processing of B. thuringiensis protoxin and play a major role in inducing pathogenicity of B. thuringiensis toxins in H. armigera. PMID:27766093

  1. Isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain that efficiently degrades sex steroid hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shulan; LIU Zhipei; LIU Zhipeng; REN Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial strain,ZY3,growing on sex steroid hormones as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from the sewage treatment plant of a prophylactic steroids factory.ZY3 degrades the 3-methoxy-17β-hyclroxy-1,3,5(10),8(9)-δ-4-estren (MHE).This strain was preliminarily identified as Raoultella sp.ZY3 according to its morphology and its 16S rRNA gene sequence.During the experimental period (72 h),the optimum temperature,pH and 3-MHE concentration for the degradation of hydride by the strain ZY3 were 35℃,10 and 10 mg/L,respectively.The degradation rate of the sex steroid hormones increased to 87% and 85% after the addition of maltose and peptone,respectively.

  2. Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the ethanolic extracts of seed, leaf and stem bark of Vitellaria paradoxa were investigated. The extracts were tested against three clinical bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using the agar diffusion and the broth dilution techniques. Ethanolic extracts of the plant parts showed activity against all the bacterial pathogens tested. At the highest extract concentration (200 mg/ml, the leaf extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity, while no activity was detected at the lowest concentration (3.13 mg/ml against the tested isolates. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were more susceptible to all extracts of V. paradoxa, while Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the least sensitivity. The efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa was compared to a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. There were differences in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of all the Vitellaria paradoxa ethanolic extracts with respect to the type of organism. All extracts exhibited bacteriostatic effects against the tested organisms at the experimented concentrations. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins and alkaloids as the active principles of Vitellaria paradoxa's antimicrobial activity. V. paradoxa could be used as a potential source of antibiotic substance for a drug development.

  3. Bacterial Agents Andantibiogram of Most Common Isolated Organisms from Hands of Surgical Team Members after Scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Mohseni- Meybodi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many post-surgical wound infections in hospitals cause morbidity and morality of patients and these are usually transmitted via hands of surgical personnel. The aim of the present study was to detect and antibiogram the bacterial agents following scrubbing of hands of surgical personnel before operation. Methods: Hands of 134 personnels of operation room were swabbed following scrubbing with antiseptic Betadine solution. Swab samples were inoculated on selective and differential media such as blood ager, McConky and manitol salt agar(MSA. Following incubation of media at 37c° for 24hr, bacterial species were identified using differential related tests. The isolated species were than antibiogramed and the results together with other data was analysed by SPSS software program. Results: Of the total of 134 cases, 81(60.4% were male and 53(39.6% female. The mean scrub time for each person was (206.1+/-103.2 seconds; 6 to 60 seconds base change. Increasing time of scrub was significantly correlated with decreasing rate of bacteria (P=0.003, (R=-0.254. Contamination was present in 129(96.3% cases following scrubbing. Maximum contamination was observed in nails (92.5%. Average number of bacteria for each individual was between 0 and 159. 62.6% of isolated bacteria were non- staphylococci and 7.7% were S. aureus. Vancomycin and ceftizoxim were the most sensitive, while penicillin was the least sensitive antibiotic. Conclusion: Results revealed that hand contamination was more than the expected standard level. Therefore, regarding the critical task of surgical personnel, training of all operation room staff is highly recommended to minimize the rate of contamination.

  4. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Luo, Jin; Li, Wei; Long, Xiu-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T) was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis) living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T), which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52%) between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T) confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T) represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%). The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T).

  5. Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov., a Bacterial Isolate Associated with a Chinese Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate (SCU-B244T was obtained in China from crickets (Teleogryllus occipitalis living in cropland deserted for approximately 10 years. The isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative rods. A preliminary analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to either the genus Erwinia or Pantoea. Analysis of multilocus sequence typing based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB and infB gene sequences and physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia, as member of a new species as it was distinct from other known Erwinia species. Further analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed SCU-B244T to have 94.71% identity to the closest species of that genus, Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T, which is below the threshold of 97% used to discriminate bacterial species. DNA-DNA hybridization results (5.78±2.52% between SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T confirmed that SCU-B244T and Erwinia oleae (DSM 23398T represent different species combined with average nucleotide identity values which range from 72.42% to 74.41. The DNA G+C content of SCU-B244T was 55.32 mol%, which also differs from that of Erwinia oleae (54.7 to 54.9 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic approach used here confirmed that the strain belongs to the Erwinia group and represents a novel species. The name Erwinia teleogrylli sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon, for which the type strain is SCU-B244T (= CGMCC 1.12772T = DSM 28222T = KCTC 42022T.

  6. Isolation and Purification of Bacterial Strains from Treatment Plants for Effective and Efficient Bioconversion of Domestic Wastewater Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C.A. Jalal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty six bacterial strains were isolated from nine different sources in four treatment plants namely Indah Water Konsortium (IWK sewage treatment plant, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM treatment plant-1,-2 and –3 to evaluate the bioconversion process in terms of efficient biodegradation and bioseparation. The bacterial strains isolated were found to be 52.2% (24 isolates and 47.8% (22 isolates in the IWK and IIUM treatment plants respectively. The results showed that the higher microbial population (9-10x104 cfu mLˉ1 was observed in the secondary clarifier of IWK treatment plant. Only the gram-staining identification was done in the strains isolated from IWK treatment plant not to be determined from IIUM. Among the isolates from IWK, 10 isolates of gram-positive bacillus (GPB and gram-positive cocci (GPC, 10 isolates of gram-negative bacillus (GNB and rest were both or undetermined. Gram-negative cocci (GNC were not found in the isolates from IWK.

  7. Isolation and Identification of a New Tetrodotoxin-Producing Bacterial Species, Raoultella terrigena, from Hong Kong Marine Puffer Fish Takifugu niphobles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Wang-Fat Lee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Puffer fish, Takifugu niphobles, collected from the Hong Kong coastal waters were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. A Gram-negative, non-acid-fast, non-sporing and rod shaped bacterial strain (designated as gutB01 was isolated from the intestine of the puffer fish and was shown to produce tetrodotoxin (TTX. Based on the Microbial Identification (MIDI and 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS phylogenetic analysis, the strain was identified as Raoultella terrigena. The TTX production ability of the strain was confirmed by mouse bioassay, ELISA and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF. Our results reiterate that the TTX found in puffer fish was likely produced by the associated bacteria and TTX are widely produced amongst a diversity of bacterial species.

  8. Isolation and identification of a new tetrodotoxin-producing bacterial species, Raoultella terrigena, from Hong Kong marine puffer fish Takifugu niphobles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vincent Chung-Him; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Ho, Kin-Chung; Lee, Fred Wang-Fat

    2011-01-01

    Puffer fish, Takifugu niphobles, collected from the Hong Kong coastal waters were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. A Gram-negative, non-acid-fast, non-sporing and rod shaped bacterial strain (designated as gutB01) was isolated from the intestine of the puffer fish and was shown to produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Based on the Microbial Identification (MIDI) and 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylogenetic analysis, the strain was identified as Raoultella terrigena. The TTX production ability of the strain was confirmed by mouse bioassay, ELISA and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Our results reiterate that the TTX found in puffer fish was likely produced by the associated bacteria and TTX are widely produced amongst a diversity of bacterial species.

  9. Bacterial growth and biofilm formation in household-stored groundwater collected from public wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkowska-But, Aleksandra; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Swiontek Brzezinska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    The research was aimed at assessing changes in the number of bacteria and evaluating biofilm formation in groundwater collected from public wells, both aspects directly related to the methods of household storage. In the research, water collected from Cretaceous aquifer wells in Toruń (Poland) was stored in a refrigerator and at room temperature. Microbiological parameters of the water were measured immediately after the water collection, and then after 3 and 7 days of storage under specified conditions. The microbiological examination involved determining the number of heterotrophic bacteria capable of growth at 22 and 37 °C, the number of spore-forming bacteria, and the total number of bacteria on membrane filters. The storage may affect water quality to such an extent that the water, which initially met the microbiological criteria for water intended for human consumption, may pose a health risk. The repeated use of the same containers for water storage results in biofilm formation containing live and metabolically active bacterial cells. PMID:26042968

  10. Bacterial Profile of Blood Stream Infection and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Arora, Pushpa Devi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 2542 clinically diagnosed cases of septicemia were processed. Out of these 946(76.55% were from Pediatric Department and rest from other Departments. Growth was obtained in509(20.02% cases . Candida spp were isolated from 23 (4.57 cases Out of 486 bacterial isolates 52.67% were gram positive bacteria whereas 47.33% were gram negative bacilli . Staph aureus 133 (27.37%wasthe predominant organisms followed by CONS 98 (20.1%. Amongst gram negative organismsEnterobacter 69 (14.19 % was the most predominant followed by Esch coli 45 (9.27 % Pseudomonas 37(7.62 % and Acinetobacter spp 34 (6.69 %. Amongst gram positive organisms maximum resistancewas seen with ampicillin (74.61% and erythromycin (69.67 %. Most of the gram negative bacilli wereMDR (71%. Maximum resistance was observed with ampicillin (86.1% cephalexin (68.07% andpiperacillin (57.71%. Most successful drugs were amikacin,gentamicin and cefotaxime. 34.35% of theisolates were ESBL producers.

  11. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. PMID:27209555

  12. ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Diop

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the main characteristics of ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7 (= CSUR P2268=DSM 101849, a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae family isolated from the vaginal flora of a patient with bacterial vaginosis.

  13. In vitro activity of rifaximin against isolates from patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistiki, Aikaterini; Galani, Irene; Pyleris, Emmanouel; Barbatzas, Charalambos; Pimentel, Mark; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2014-03-01

    Rifaximin, a non-absorbable rifamycin derivative, has published clinical efficacy in the alleviation of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with the pathogenesis of IBS. This study describes for the first time the antimicrobial effect of rifaximin against SIBO micro-organisms from humans. Fluid was aspirated from the third part of the duodenum from 567 consecutive patients; quantitative cultures diagnosed SIBO in 117 patients (20.6%). A total of 170 aerobic micro-organisms were isolated and the in vitro efficacy of rifaximin was studied by (i) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing by a microdilution technique and (ii) time-kill assays using bile to simulate the small intestinal environment. At a breakpoint of 32 μg/mL, rifaximin inhibited in vitro 85.4% of Escherichia coli, 43.6% of Klebsiella spp., 34.8% of Enterobacter spp., 54.5% of other Enterobacteriaceae spp., 82.6% of non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative spp., 100% of Enterococcus faecalis, 100% of Enterococcus faecium and 100% of Staphylococcus aureus. For the time-kill assays, 11 E. coli, 15 non-E. coli Gram-negative enterobacteria and three E. faecalis isolates were studied. Rifaximin produced a >3 log10 decrease in the starting inoculum against most of the tested isolates at 500 μg/mL after 24h of growth. The results indicate that rifaximin has a potent effect on specific small bowel flora associated with SIBO. This conclusion should be regarded in light of the considerable time-kill effect at concentrations lower than those achieved in the bowel lumen after administration of conventional doses in humans. PMID:24461710

  14. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coil, David A; Neches, Russell Y; Lang, Jenna M; Brown, Wendy E; Severance, Mark; Cavalier, Darlene; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS). Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation). Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from horses with synovial sepsis: A cross-sectional study of 95 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C S; Timofte, D; Singer, E R; Rimmington, L; Rubio-Martínez, L M

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of septic synovial samples allows instigation of targeted antimicrobial therapy; however, bacterial culture takes more than 24 h and has low sensitivity. This study aimed to identify the most frequently cultured bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile from septic synovial samples in our referral equine hospital, to allow recommendations regarding appropriate initial antimicrobial therapy prior to culture results. Hospital records for all horses with synovial sepsis and a synovial sample submitted to the microbiology laboratory between 2004 and 2013 were retrieved (n= 379 samples). One horse had positive cultures from more than one synovial structure, and two horses had positive cultures obtained from repeat samples. Overall, 114 bacterial isolates were obtained. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 75% of cases, of which 22% were haemolytic Staphylococcus spp., and 52% were Staphylococcus aureus including two multidrug-resistant isolates. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 25% of cases. Anaerobic Clostridium spp. was isolated in 3% of cases. Of the first line antimicrobials, oxytetracycline and doxycycline were effective against 70-100% of the Gram-positive bacteria and 20-100% of the Gram-negative organisms, whilst trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and gentamicin efficacy ranged between 50% and 88% for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Of the equine protected antimicrobials, ceftiofur was effective against 70-90% of all bacterial isolates whilst 80% of isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin. These results indicate that tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole or gentamicin may be suitable first-line antimicrobials for treatment of synovial sepsis cases while awaiting laboratory results, findings which support current recommendations for antimicrobial stewardship in equine medicine. PMID:27687937

  16. The gut bacterial communities associated with lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis (Formicidae: Formicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Wei, Cong; Wheeler, Diana E

    2014-09-01

    Camponotus is the second largest ant genus and known to harbor the primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia. However, little is known about the effect of diet and environment changes on the gut bacterial communities of these ants. We investigated the intestinal bacterial communities in the lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis which is found in the southwestern United States and northern reaches of Mexico. We determined the difference of gut bacterial composition and distribution among the crop, midgut, and hindgut of the two types of colonies. Number of bacterial species varied with the methods of detection and the source of the ants. Lab-raised ants yielded 12 and 11 species using classical microbial culture methods and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rRNAs) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis, respectively. Field-collected ants yielded just 4 and 1-3 species using the same methods. Most gut bacterial species from the lab-raised ants were unevenly distributed among the crop, midgut, and hindgut, and each section had its own dominant bacterial species. Acetobacter was the prominent bacteria group in crop, accounting for about 55 % of the crop clone library. Blochmannia was the dominant species in midgut, nearly reaching 90 % of the midgut clone library. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dominated the hindgut, accounting for over 98 % of the hindgut clone library. P. aeruginosa was the only species common to all three sections. A comparison between lab-raised and field-collected ants, and comparison with other species, shows that gut bacterial communities vary with local environment and diet. The bacterial species identified here were most likely commensals with little effect on their hosts or mild pathogens deleterious to colony health. PMID:24748441

  17. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Massaharu Marubayashi

    Full Text Available Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1, the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2 collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the

  18. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  19. Isolation and Characterization of a Thermophilic Oil-Degrading Bacterial Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Guizhou; Li Zheng; Zhao Dongfeng; Zhao Chaocheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a thermophilic oil-degrading bacterial consortium KO8-2 growing within the temperature range of 45-65℃(with 55℃being the optimum temperature) was isolated from oil-contaminated soil of Karamay in Xinjiang, China. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that there were nine strains included in KO8-2, which originated from the genera of Bacillus, Geobacillus and Clostridium. They all belonged to thermophilic bacteria, and had been previously proved as degraders of at least one petroleum fraction. The crude oil degraded by KO8-2 was analyzed by infrared spectrophotometry, hydrocarbon group type analysis and gas chromatography. The results indicated that the bacterial consortium KO8-2 was able to utilize 64.33%of saturates, 27.06%of aromatics, 13.24%of resins and the oil removal efifciency reached up to 58.73%at 55℃when the oil concentration was 10 g/L. Detailed analysis showed that KO8-2 was able to utilize the hydrocarbon components before C19, and the n-alkanes ranging from C20-C33 were signiif-cantly degraded. The ratios of nC17/Pr and nC18/Ph were 3.12 and 3.87, respectively, before degradation, whereas after degradation the ratios reduced to 0.21 and 0.38, respectively. Compared with the control sample, the oil removal efifciency in KO8-2 composting reactor reached 50.12%after a degradation duration of 60 days.

  20. Critical sources of bacterial contamination and adoption of standard sanitary protocol during semen collection and processing in Semen Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrahas Sannat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was conducted to locate the critical sources of bacterial contamination and to evaluate the standard sanitation protocol so as to improve the hygienic conditions during collection, evaluation, and processing of bull semen in the Semen Station. Materials and Methods: The study compared two different hygienic procedures during the collection, evaluation and processing of semen in Central Semen Station, Anjora, Durg. Routinely used materials including artificial vagina (AV inner liner, cone, semen collection tube, buffer, extender/diluter, straws; and the laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box and laminar air flow (LAF cabinet of extender preparation lab, processing lab, sealing filling machine, and bacteriological lab were subjected to bacteriological examination in two phases of study using two different sanitary protocols. Bacterial load in above items/environment was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU. Results: Bacterial load in a laboratory environment and AV equipments during two different sanitary protocol in present investigation differed highly significantly (p<0.001. Potential sources of bacterial contamination during semen collection and processing included laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box, and LAF cabinets; AV equipments, including AV Liner and cone. Bacterial load was reduced highly significantly (p<0.001 in AV liner (from 2.33±0.67 to 0.50±0.52, cone (from 4.16±1.20 to 1.91±0.55, and extender (from 1.33±0.38 to 0 after application of improved practices of packaging, handling, and sterilization in Phase II of study. Glasswares, buffers, and straws showed nil bacterial contamination in both the phases of study. With slight modification in fumigation protocol (formalin @600 ml/1000 ft3, bacterial load was significantly decreased (p<0.001 up to 0-6 CFU in processing lab (from 6.43±1.34 to 2.86±0.59, pass box (from 12

  1. Fermentative hydrogen production from hydrolyzed cellulosic feedstock prepared with a thermophilic anaerobic bacterial isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Huang, Chi-Yu.; Fu, Tzu-Ning [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Tunghai University, Taichung 407 (China); Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2009-08-15

    Hydrogen gas was produced via dark fermentation from natural cellulosic materials and {alpha}-cellulose via a two-step process, in which the cellulosic substrates were first hydrolyzed by an isolated cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium strain TCW1, and the resulting hydrolysates were then used as substrate for fermentative H{sub 2} production. The TCW1 strain was able to hydrolyze all the cellulosic materials examined to produce reducing sugars (RS), attaining the best reducing sugar production yield of 0.65 g reducing sugar/g substrate from hydrolysis of {alpha}-cellulose. The hydrolysates of those cellulosic materials were successfully converted to H{sub 2} via dark fermentation using seven H{sub 2}-producing bacterial isolates. The bioH{sub 2} production performance was highly dependent on the type of cellulosic feedstock used, the initial reducing sugar concentration (C{sub RS,o}) (ranging from 0.7 to 4.5 mg/l), as well as the composition of sugar and soluble metabolites present in the cellulosic hydrolysates. It was found that Clostridium butyricum CGS5 displayed the highest H{sub 2}-producing efficiency with a cumulative H{sub 2} production of 270 ml/l from {alpha}-cellulose hydrolysate (C{sub RS,o} = 4.52 mg/l) and a H{sub 2} yield of 7.40 mmol/g RS (or 6.66 mmol/g substrate) from napier grass hydrolysate (C{sub RS,o} = 1.22 g/l). (author)

  2. Do Milk Samples Stored for 12 Days after Collection Exhibit a Change in Composition Related to the Initial Bacterial Load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Larissa Nazareth; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; da Silva, Janielen; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Machado, Paulo Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Total bacterial count (TBC) is a tool used to assess milk quality and is associated with not only the initial sample contamination but also the sample storage time and temperature. Several countries have reported milk samples with a high TBC, and the influence of TBC on milk preservation remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the initial bacterial contamination level on the macrocomponents and somatic cell count (SCC) of raw milk samples preserved with bronopol and maintained at two storage temperatures (7 and 25°C) for up to 12 days. Thus, we collected milk samples from 51 dairy farms, which were divided into two groups according to the initial bacterial load: low TBC (preservative bronopol added and maintained under refrigeration may be analyzed up to 12 days after collection, regardless of the milk microbial load. PMID:27296431

  3. Molecular analysis of bacterial isolates and total community DNA from kraft pulp mill effluent treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, N; Fulthorpe, R R; Allen, D G; Greer, C W

    1998-06-01

    Chloroaliphatics are major components of bleached kraft mill effluents. Gene probes and oligonucleotide primers were developed to monitor kraft pulp mill effluent treatment systems for the presence of key genes (dehalogenases) responsible for the dehalogenation of chloroaliphatic organics. The primers were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of genomic DNA extracted from dehalogenating bacterial isolates and from total community DNA extracted from water and sediments of mill effluent treatment system. PCR amplification with oligonucleotide primers designed from dhlB, encoding the haloacid dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus, revealed the presence of dehalogenase genes in both aerated lagoons and stabilization basins. Similarly, positive results were obtained with mmoX primers designed from the soluble methane monooxygenase gene of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The haloacetate dehalogenase encoding gene (dehH2) from Moraxella sp. was typically not detected in mill effluent treatment systems unless the biomass was selectively enriched. DNA sequence analysis of several PCR fragaments revealed significant similarity to known dehalogenase amd methane monooxygenase genes. The results indicated a broad distribution of known dehalogenation genes and bacteria with chloroorganic-degrading potential in the mill effluent treatment systems. PMID:9734304

  4. Textile dye removal from wastewater effluents using bioflocculants produced by indigenous bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buthelezi, Simphiwe P; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2012-11-30

    Bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant located in Durban, South Africa, and identified using standard biochemical tests as well as the analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bioflocculants produced by these organisms were ethanol precipitated, purified using 2% (w/v) cetylpyridinium chloride solution and evaluated for removal of wastewater dyes under different pH, temperature and nutritional conditions. Bioflocculants from these indigenous bacteria were very effective for decolourizing the different dyes tested in this study, with a removal rate of up to 97.04%. The decolourization efficiency was largely influenced by the type of dye, pH, temperature, and flocculant concentration. A pH of 7 was found to be optimum for the removal of both whale and mediblue dyes, while the optimum pH for fawn and mixed dye removal was found to be between 9 and 10. Optimum temperature for whale and mediblue dye removal was 35 °C, and that for fawn and mixed dye varied between 40–45 °C and 35–40 °C, respectively. These bacterial bioflocculants may provide an economical and cleaner alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes for the removal of dyes from wastewater effluents, since they are biodegradable and easily sustainable.

  5. Textile Dye Removal from Wastewater Effluents Using Bioflocculants Produced by Indigenous Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Pillay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant located in Durban, South Africa, and identified using standard biochemical tests as well as the analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bioflocculants produced by these organisms were ethanol precipitated, purified using 2% (w/v cetylpyridinium chloride solution and evaluated for removal of wastewater dyes under different pH, temperature and nutritional conditions. Bioflocculants from these indigenous bacteria were very effective for decolourizing the different dyes tested in this study, with a removal rate of up to 97.04%. The decolourization efficiency was largely influenced by the type of dye, pH, temperature, and flocculant concentration. A pH of 7 was found to be optimum for the removal of both whale and mediblue dyes, while the optimum pH for fawn and mixed dye removal was found to be between 9 and 10. Optimum temperature for whale and mediblue dye removal was 35 °C, and that for fawn and mixed dye varied between 40–45 °C and 35–40 °C, respectively. These bacterial bioflocculants may provide an economical and cleaner alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes for the removal of dyes from wastewater effluents, since they are biodegradable and easily sustainable.

  6. Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles against isolated urinary tract infectious bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob Inbaneson, Samuel; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Manikandan, Nachiappan

    2011-12-01

    The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and the nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were investigated to evaluate the antibacterial activity against urinary tract infectious (UTIs) bacterial pathogens. Thirty-two bacteria were isolated from mid urine samples of 25 male and 25 female patients from Thondi, Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India and identified by conventional methods. Escherichia coli was predominant (47%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%), Enterobacter sp. (6%), Proteus morganii (3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3%). The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion assay. P. aeruginosa showed maximum sensitivity (11 ± 0.58 mm) followed by Enterobacter sp. (8 ± 0.49 mm) at a concentration of 20 μg disc-1 and the sensitivity was highly comparable with the positive control kanamycin and tetracycline. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, P. morganii and S. aureus showed no sensitivity against all the tested concentrations of silver nanoparticles. The results provided evidence that, the silver nanoparticles might indeed be the potential sources to treat urinary tract infections caused by P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp.

  7. Isolation and characterization of two novel halotolerant Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenases from a halophilic bacterial consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Fang, Tingting; Wang, Chongyang; Huang, Yong; Tian, Fang; Cui, Qijia; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Study of enzymes in halophiles will help to understand the mechanism of aromatic hydrocarbons degradation in saline environment. In this study, two novel catechol 2,3-dioxygenases (C23O1 and C23O2) were cloned and overexpressed from a halophilic bacterial consortium enriched from an oil-contaminated saline soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the novel C23Os and their relatives formed a new branch in subfamily I.2.A of extradiol dioxygenases and the sequence differences were further analyzed by amino acid sequence alignment. Two enzymes with the halotolerant feature were active over a range of 0-30% salinity and they performed more stable at high salinity than in the absence of salt. Surface electrostatic potential and amino acids composition calculation suggested high acidic residues content, accounting for their tolerance to high salinity. Moreover, two enzymes were further characterized. The enzymes activity both increased in the presence of Fe3+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ and showed no significant inhibition by other tested metal ions. The optimal temperatures for the C23Os were 40 °C and 60 °C and their best substrates were catechol and 4-methylcatechol respectively. As the firstly isolated and characterized catechol dioxygenases from halophiles, the two halotolerant C23Os presented novel characteristics suggesting their potential application in aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

  8. Bacterial Contamination and Antibiotic Resistance of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Automated Teller Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshtaghi, H. (PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Automated Teller Machine (ATMs is likely to be contaminated with various microorganisms specially pathogen germs. This may be due to their exposure to dust and their vast dermal contact with multiple users. This study investigated the bacterial contamination on the keyboard of ATMs and drug resistance of the bacteria isolated from them. Material and Methods: the keyboards of 50 ATMs in Shahrekord city, Iran, were examined from October 2012 to February 2013. The sterile swab sticks moistened with Triptose soy broth were used for sampling. The bacteriological tests used were culture, biochemical test and agar disk diffusion method for antibiogram. Results: All the samples were found to be contaminated with Coagulase negative staphylococci (57.54%, Bacillus species (21.92%, Staphylococcus aureus (19.18% and coliform bacteria (1.36%. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus was 92.8% to penicillin, 85.7% to amoxicilin، 71.4% to ampicillin, 57.1% to nytrofuran, 50% to tetracycline, 42.8% to erythromycin, 42.8% to gentamycin, 14.2 % to ciprofloxacin, 7.1% to trimethoprim and sulfamtuksazul. All species were susceptible to, ofloxacine, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, tobramycin, vancomycin and cefotaxime. Conclusion: given the presence of pathogens on ATMs and their role in transferring the contamination, we recommend considering personal hygiene and periodically disinfecting the keyboards to reduce contamination

  9. Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2011-10-14

    A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped and slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated UST090418-1611(T), was isolated from the marina sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain UST090418-1611(T) in the family Alteromonadaceae with the closest relationship to the genus Marinobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the strain and the type strains of recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 92.9 to 98.3%. Although strain UST090418-1611(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Marinobacter mobilis CN46(T), M. zhejiangensis CN74(T) and M. sediminum R65(T) (98.3, 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively), the relatedness of the strain to these three strains in DNA DNA hybridization was only 58, 56 and 33%, respectively, supporting the novelty of the strain. In contrast to most strains in the genus Marinobacter, strain UST090418-1611(T) tolerated only 6% (w/v) NaCl, and optimal growth occurred at 2.0% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-36 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C-12:0 3-OH, C-16:0, C-12:0 and summed feature 3 (C-16.1 omega 6c and/or C-16:1 omega 7c) The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.1 mol%. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we suggest that the strain represents a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with UST090418-1611(T) (=JCM 17469(T) =NRRL B-59512(T)) as the type strain.

  10. Hormone-dependent bacterial growth, persistence and biofilm formation--a pilot study investigating human follicular fluid collected during IVF cycles.

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    Elise S Pelzer

    Full Text Available Human follicular fluid, considered sterile, is aspirated as part of an in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. However, it is easily contaminated by the trans-vaginal collection route and little information exists in its potential to support the growth of microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to determine whether human follicular fluid can support bacterial growth over time, whether the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone (present at high levels within follicular fluid contribute to the in vitro growth of bacterial species, and whether species isolated from follicular fluid form biofilms. We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp. and E. coli. Several species, Lactobacillus spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp., formed biofilms when incubated in native follicular fluids in vitro (18/24, 75%. We conclude that bacteria aspirated along with follicular fluid during IVF cycles demonstrate a persistent pattern of growth. This discovery is important since it can offer a new avenue for investigation in infertile couples.

  11. Ionome changes in Xylella fastidiosa-infected Nicotiana tabacum correlate with virulence and discriminate between subspecies of bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Sefick, S A; Parker, J K; Arnold, T; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of ionomes has been used to uncover the basis of nutrient utilization and environmental adaptation of plants. Here, ionomic profiles were used to understand the phenotypic response of a plant to infection by genetically diverse isolates of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, X. fastidiosa isolates were used to infect a common model host (Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1'), and leaf and sap concentrations of eleven elements together with plant colonization and symptoms were assessed. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that changes in the ionome were significantly correlated with symptom severity and bacterial populations in host petioles. Moreover, plant ionome modification by infection could be used to differentiate the X. fastidiosa subspecies with which the plant was infected. This report establishes host ionome modification as a phenotypic response to infection. PMID:24983508

  12. Surviving chytridiomycosis: differential anti-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis activity in bacterial isolates from three lowland species of Atelopus.

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    Sandra V Flechas

    Full Text Available In the Neotropics, almost every species of the stream-dwelling harlequin toads (genus Atelopus have experienced catastrophic declines. The persistence of lowland species of Atelopus could be explained by the lower growth rate of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd at temperatures above 25 °C. We tested the complementary hypothesis that the toads' skin bacterial microbiota acts as a protective barrier against the pathogen, perhaps delaying or impeding the symptomatic phase of chytridiomycosis. We isolated 148 cultivable bacterial strains from three lowland Atelopus species and quantified the anti-Bd activity through antagonism assays. Twenty-six percent (38 strains representing 12 species of the bacteria inhibited Bd growth and just two of them were shared among the toad species sampled in different localities. Interestingly, the strongest anti-Bd activity was measured in bacteria isolated from A. elegans, the only species that tested positive for the pathogen. The cutaneous bacterial microbiota is thus likely a fitness-enhancing trait that may (adaptation or not (exaptation have appeared because of natural selection mediated by chytridiomycosis. Our findings reveal bacterial strains for development of local probiotic treatments against chytridiomycosis and also shed light on the mechanisms behind the frog-bacteria-pathogen interaction.

  13. Surviving chytridiomycosis: differential anti-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis activity in bacterial isolates from three lowland species of Atelopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechas, Sandra V; Sarmiento, Carolina; Cárdenas, Martha E; Medina, Edgar M; Restrepo, Silvia; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    In the Neotropics, almost every species of the stream-dwelling harlequin toads (genus Atelopus) have experienced catastrophic declines. The persistence of lowland species of Atelopus could be explained by the lower growth rate of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at temperatures above 25 °C. We tested the complementary hypothesis that the toads' skin bacterial microbiota acts as a protective barrier against the pathogen, perhaps delaying or impeding the symptomatic phase of chytridiomycosis. We isolated 148 cultivable bacterial strains from three lowland Atelopus species and quantified the anti-Bd activity through antagonism assays. Twenty-six percent (38 strains representing 12 species) of the bacteria inhibited Bd growth and just two of them were shared among the toad species sampled in different localities. Interestingly, the strongest anti-Bd activity was measured in bacteria isolated from A. elegans, the only species that tested positive for the pathogen. The cutaneous bacterial microbiota is thus likely a fitness-enhancing trait that may (adaptation) or not (exaptation) have appeared because of natural selection mediated by chytridiomycosis. Our findings reveal bacterial strains for development of local probiotic treatments against chytridiomycosis and also shed light on the mechanisms behind the frog-bacteria-pathogen interaction. PMID:22970314

  14. Influence of the Diversity of Bacterial Isolates from Drinking Water on Resistance of Biofilms to Disinfection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Lúcia C; Simões, M; Vieira, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Single- and multispecies biofilms formed by six drinking water-isolated bacterial species were used to assess their susceptibilities to sodium hypochlorite (SHC). In general, multispecies biofilms were more resistant to inactivation and removal than single biofilms. Total biofilm inactivation was achieved only for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus single-species biofilms and for those multispecies biofilms without A. calcoaceticus. Biofilms with all bacteria had the highest resistance t...

  15. Bacterial microflora isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in areas where air pollution is very high

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    Krystyna Przybył

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 1976 bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Erwinia and Cellulomonas were isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in protective belts around several industrial plants. It was found that the qualitative and quantitative composition of the surface bacterial microflora changes in dependence on the degree of resistance of the poplars to the action of the dust emitted by the industrial establishment and containing high amounts of heavy metals.

  16. A supramolecular nanobiological hybrid as a PET sensor for bacterial DNA isolated from Streptomyces sanglieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sudesna; Saikia, Dilip; Sharma, Priyanka; Adhikary, Nirab Chandra; Thakur, Debajit; Sen Sarma, Neelotpal

    2014-12-21

    The development of a rapid, label free, cost effective and highly efficient sensor for DNA detection is of great importance in disease diagnosis. Herein, we have reported a new hybrid fluorescent probe based on a cationic curcumin-tryptophan complex and water soluble mercapto succinic acid (MSA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for the detection of double stranded DNA (ds DNA) molecules. The cationic curcumin-tryptophan complex (CT) directly interacts with negatively charged MSA capped quantum dots via electrostatic coordination, resulting in photoluminescence (PL) quenching of QDs via the Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET) process. Further, addition of ds DNA results in restoration of PL, as CT would intercalate between DNA strands. Thus, this process can be utilized for selective sensing of ds DNA via fluorescence measurements. Under optimized experimental conditions, the PL quenching efficiency of QDs is found to be 99.4% in the presence of 0.31 × 10(-9) M CT. Interestingly, the regain in PL intensity of QD-CT is found to be 99.28% in the presence of 1 × 10(-8) M ds DNA. The detection limit for ds DNA with the developed sensing probe is 1.4 × 10(-10) M. Furthermore, the probe is found to be highly sensitive towards bacterial DNA isolated from Streptomyces sanglieri with a detection limit of 1.7 × 10(-6) M. The present work will provide a new insight into preparation of bio-inspired hybrid materials as efficient sensors for disease diagnosis and agricultural development. PMID:25343270

  17. Efficiency of silver nanoparticles against bacterial contaminants isolated from surface and ground water in Egypt

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    Reem Dosoky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal efficiency of silver nanoparticles (AgNP was evaluated against bacteria isolated from surface and ground water samples in Egypt. The AgNP were synthesized by typical one-step synthesis protocol, and were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The bactericidal efficiency of AgNP was evaluated by its application in three concentrations i.e., 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 ppm to water sample, and allowed to interact with bacteria for different duration e.g., 5 min 15 min, 30 min, 1 h and 2 h. Then, the bactericidal efficiency of AgNPs was determined by comparing the counted bacteria before and after the treatments. Higher mean values of total bacterial count (TBC, total coliform count (TCC, and total streptococcal count (TFS were detected in surface water than in ground water. Also, the results showed that TBC, TCC and TFS exceeded permissible limits. Application of AgNP at different concentration, the number of bacteria in TBC was significantly reduced in all AgNP-exposed samples as compared to the control group (p<0.05. The highest concentration of AgNP exhibited highest bactericidal efficiency in TBC, where, after two hours, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 mg/L AgNP was found to be sufficient to inhibit 91.85, 89.14 and 74.92%, and 92.33, 85.23 and 53.17% in TBC of surface and ground water, respectively. Moreover, the inhibition efficiency of the highest concentration (0.1 ppm against TCC reached to 98.10 and 99.88% in surface water and 95.54 and 99.20% in ground water after 1 h and 2 h, respectively. Similar results were found against TFS count. The AgNPs were found to be effective against bacteria of water origin.

  18. Metabolomic characterization of halophilic bacterial isolates reveals strains synthesizing rare diaminoacids under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joghee, Nidhya Nadarajan; Jayaraman, Gurunathan

    2014-07-01

    Metabolomics-based approaches to study stress responses in bacteria have received much attention in recent years. In the present study, a metabolomic analysis of the representative halophilic bacterial isolates (Halomonas hydrothermalis VITP9, Bacillus aquimaris VITP4, Planococcus maritimus VITP21 and Virgibacillus dokdonensis VITP14) from a saltern region in India was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Chemometric analysis of (1)H NMR spectra revealed salt-dependent increase in the levels of metabolites, mainly from the aspartate and glutamate family, that are directed from the glycolytic pathway, pentose phosphate pathway and citric acid cycle. The composition of the metabolites was found to be different with respect to the species and the type of growth medium. Analysis of the two dimensional NMR data revealed accumulation of two rare diaminoacids, Nε-acetyl-α-lysine and Nδ-acetylornithine (by VITP21 and VITP4 strains respectively) apart from other well known solutes such as ectoine, proline, glutamate and glycine betaine. Metabolite profiles of strains capable of synthesizing Nε-acetyl-α-lysine and Nδ-acetylornithine suggested their biosynthesis from lysine and ornithine using aspartate and glutamate as their precursors, respectively. Further, the cells in moderate salinity (5% w/v NaCl) showed an increase in growth rate along with increase in the levels of nucleotides, whereas at higher salinity (10% w/v NaCl), the levels of aromatic and hydrophobic metabolites dropped, accompanied with a decrease in growth rate, rightly suggesting that at any salt-stress condition provided, cellular homeostasis was favored over growth. PMID:24636996

  19. Resistance trends among clinical isolates in China reported from CHINET surveillance of bacterial resistance, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, F-P; Guo, Y; Zhu, D-M; Wang, F; Jiang, X-F; Xu, Y-C; Zhang, X-J; Zhang, C-X; Ji, P; Xie, Y; Kang, M; Wang, C-Q; Wang, A-M; Xu, Y-H; Shen, J-L; Sun, Z-Y; Chen, Z-J; Ni, Y-X; Sun, J-Y; Chu, Y-Z; Tian, S-F; Hu, Z-D; Li, J; Yu, Y-S; Lin, J; Shan, B; Du, Y; Han, Y; Guo, S; Wei, L-H; Wu, L; Zhang, H; Kong, J; Hu, Y-J; Ai, X-M; Zhuo, C; Su, D-H; Yang, Q; Jia, B; Huang, W

    2016-03-01

    With the aim of gathering temporal trends on bacterial epidemiology and resistance from multiple laboratories in China, the CHINET surveillance system was organized in 2005. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using the Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems. Results were analyzed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2014 definitions. Between 2005 and 2014, the number of bacterial isolates ranged between 22,774 and 84,572 annually. Rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production among Escherichia coli isolates were stable, between 51.7 and 55.8%. Resistance of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and cefoperazone/sulbactam decreased with time. Carbapenem resistance among K. pneumoniae isolates increased from 2.4 to 13.4%. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains against all of antimicrobial agents tested including imipenem and meropenem decreased with time. On the contrary, resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii strains to carbapenems increased from 31 to 66.7%. A marked decrease of methicillin resistance from 69% in 2005 to 44.6% in 2014 was observed for Staphylococcus aureus. Carbapenem resistance rates in K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii in China are high. Our results indicate the importance of bacterial surveillance studies.

  20. Qualitative toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles on the fresh water bacterial isolates and consortium at low level of exposure concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumari, Jyoti; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Raichur, Ashok M; Sastry, T P; Mandal, A B; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) pose a high risk of exposure to the natural environment owing to their extensive usage in various consumer products. In the present study we attempted to understand the harmful effect of AgNPs at environmentally relevant low concentration levels (≤1ppm) towards two different freshwater bacterial isolates and their consortium. The standard plate count assay suggested that the AgNPs were toxic towards the fresh water bacterial isolates as well as the consortium, though toxicity was significantly reduced for the cells in the consortium. The oxidative stress assessment and membrane permeability studies corroborated with the toxicity data. The detailed electron microscopic studies suggested the cell degrading potential of the AgNPs, and the FT-IR studies confirmed the involvement of the surface groups in the toxic effects. No significant ion leaching from the AgNPs was observed at the applied concentration levels signifying the dominant role of the particle size, and size distribution in bacterial toxicity. The reduced toxicity for the cells in the consortium than the individual isolates has major significance in further studies on the ecotoxicity of the AgNPs.

  1. Characterization of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in a culture collection

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    C.C.S. Zanetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in our culture collection did not grow or grew poorly and showed lysis on the culture plates when removed from the collection and inoculated on MacConkey agar. One hypothesis was that bacteriophages had infected and killed those clinical isolates. To check the best storage conditions to maintain viable P. aeruginosa for a longer time, clinical isolates were stored at various temperatures and were grown monthly. We investigated the presence of phage in 10 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa stored in our culture collection. Four strains of P. aeruginosa were infected by phages that were characterized by electron microscopy and isolated to assess their ability to infect. The best condition to maintain the viability of the strains during storage was in water at room temperature. Three Siphoviridae and two Myoviridae phages were visualized and characterized by morphology. We confirmed the presence of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates, and their ability to infect and lyse alternative hosts. Strain PAO1, however, did not show lysis to any phage. Mucoid and multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa showed lysis to 50% of the phages tested.

  2. Autochthonous Bacterial Isolates Successfully Stimulate In vitro Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of the European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladineo, Ivona; Bušelić, Ivana; Hrabar, Jerko; Radonić, Ivana; Vrbatović, Anamarija; Jozić, Slaven; Trumbić, Željka

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available probiotics are routinely administered as feed supplements in aquaculture important species. Among them, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is the most widely reared fish in the Mediterranean, whose rearing systems are highly variable between countries, affecting at some level the sustainability of production. After random isolation of autochthonous gut bacteria of the sea bass, their identification and pathogenicity testing, we have selected three potentially probiotic isolates; Pseudoalteromonas sp., Alteromonas sp., and Enterovibrio coralii. Selected isolates were tested and their immunostimulative efficiency was compared with a commercially available Lactobacillus casei isolate, inferring inflammatory, apoptotic and anti-pathogen response of sea bass' peripheral blood leukocytes. Phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, and expression of lysozyme, Mx protein, caspase 3, TNF-α, IL-10 genes was measured 1, 3, 5, and 12 h post-stimulation by four bacterial isolates to evaluate early kinetics of the responses. Best immunostimulative properties were observed in Pseudoalteromonas-stimulated leukocytes, followed by Alteromonas sp. and L. casei, while Enterovibrio coralii failed to induce significant stimulation. Based on such in vitro assay intestinal autochthonous bacterial isolates showed to have better immunostimulative effect in sea bass compared to aquaculture-widely used L. casei, and further steps need to engage tank and field feeding trials to evaluate long-term prophylactic suitability of the chosen isolates. A panel of biomarkers that represent pro-/anti-inflammatory, pro-/anti-apoptotic, and anti-bacteria/viral responses of the fish should be taken into consideration when evaluating the usefulness of the potential probiotic in aquaculture. PMID:27551281

  3. Feline cholecystitis and acute neutrophilic cholangitis: clinical findings, bacterial isolates and response to treatment in six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Philip H; Barrs, Vanessa R; Martin, Patricia; Baral, Randolph; White, Joanna D; Beatty, Julia A

    2006-04-01

    Clinicopathological findings from six cats with confirmed cholecystitis or acute neutrophilic cholangitis are presented. Historical findings included lethargy and anorexia or inappetence of up to five days duration. On physical examination all cats were pyrexic and four out of six were jaundiced and had cranial abdominal pain. Bile samples were obtained by cholecystocentesis at exploratory coeliotomy (two cases) or by percutaneous, ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis (four cases). Gall bladder rupture and bile peritonitis occurred subsequent to ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in one case. The most common bacterial isolate was Escherichia coli (four cases); E coli was isolated alone in two cases, in combination with a Streptococcus species (one case) and in combination with a Clostridium species (one case). Streptococcus species alone was isolated from one case, as was Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The latter is the first reported case of Salmonella-associated cholecystitis in a cat. Concurrent pancreatic or intestinal disease was detected histologically in three cases. All cases were treated with antimicrobials based on in vitro susceptibility results. Treatment was successful in five cases. One cat with concurrent diffuse epitheliotropic intestinal lymphoma was euthanased. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis is an effective, minimally-invasive technique enabling identification of bacterial isolates in cats with inflammatory hepatobiliary disease.

  4. Effect of vanadium toxicity at its different oxidation states on selected bacterial and protozoan isolates in wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-08-01

    This study assesses and compares vanadium toxicity in its different oxidation states towards bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus licheniformis) and protozoan isolates (Peranema sp. and Trachelophyllum sp.). The isolates were exposed to various concentrations of V in mixed liquors and their tolerance to V was assessed at 30 degrees C at a pH of 4. The results revealed that the increase in V oxidation state increased its toxicity to bacterial isolates, whereas its toxicity decreased for protozoan isolates. Among the bacterial isolates, P putida was found to be more tolerant to V3+(24h-median lethal concentration (LC50): 390mg/l), V4+(24h-LC50: 230-250mg/l) and V5+(24h-LC50: 180-200mg/l), whereas for the protozoan isolates, Peranema sp. appeared to be more tolerant to V3+(24 h-LC50: 110-120 mg/l), V4+(24 h-LC50: 160-170 mg/l) and V5+(24 h-LC50: 160-200 mg/l). A comparison of both groups of organisms revealed Trachelophyllum sp. as the most sensitive organism to V at its various oxidation states. The visual and spectrophotometric methods used to assess V reduction revealed that P. putida was the only isolate able to reduce V5+, V4+ and V3+ to V2+ in mixed liquor media. Vanadium (+2) in concentrations of approximately 46.46 mg/l, 29.57 m mg/l and 38.01 mg/l found in the media was treated with V3+, V4+ and V5+, respectively, and inoculated with P. putida. This study revealed that the ability of V reduction, adopted with P putida, can be an effective strategy to remove V from polluted environments. This study also showed that the toxicity of V, in terms of its oxidation states, differs from one species to another and in kingdoms. PMID:24956802

  5. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment. PMID:26581816

  6. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  7. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs.

  8. Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed

    2015-06-01

    The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 μg/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

  9. Genome Sequence of the Listeria monocytogenes Food Isolate HPB913, Collected in Canada in 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pightling, Arthur W.; Rand, Hugh; Strain, Errol

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium of importance to public health and food safety agencies. We present the genome sequence of the serotype 1/2a L. monocytogenes food isolate HPB913, which was collected in Canada in 1993 as part of an investigation into a sporadic case of foodborne illness. PMID:27634991

  10. Genome Sequence of the Listeria monocytogenes Food Isolate HPB913, Collected in Canada in 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pightling, Arthur W; Rand, Hugh; Strain, Errol; Pagotto, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium of importance to public health and food safety agencies. We present the genome sequence of the serotype 1/2a L. monocytogenes food isolate HPB913, which was collected in Canada in 1993 as part of an investigation into a sporadic case of foodborne illness. PMID:27634991

  11. Study of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Blood Culture Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobola, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Definitive diagnosis is by bacteriologic culture of blood samples to identify organisms and establish antibiotic susceptibility. Between July and September 2009, 249 blood samples collected from patients at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were processed. Positive cultures which accounted for 48(19.3% of total samples screened, were purified and identified according to standard methods. Sensitivity of bacteria to different antibiotics was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Microorganisms recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis (12.5% respectively, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis (8.3% respectively and Citrobacter freundii (6.3% . The highest antibiotic activities against Gram positive isolates were observed for ofloxacin (90.9%, nitrofurantoin (81.8% and gentamicin (72.7%, while in Gram negative bacteria, ofloxacin (81.1% and nalidixic acid (45.9% were most effective. The possibility of drug resistance acquisition by bacteria makes continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria essential as this will enhance efforts to identify resistance and attempt to limit its spread.

  12. Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Bacterial Studies of the Ethanolic Extract of Citrus Senensis (Linn. Peel against some Clinical Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus senensis peel has many medicinal properties and is widely used against various ailments, such as colic, upset stomach, cancer, diuretic, cormunative, immuno – enhancing, stomachic, tonic to digestive system, immune system and skin. It is also used to treat and prevent vitamin deficiencies, colds, flu, and scurvy and helping to fight viral and bacterial infections. The aim of the study is to verify the ethnomedicinal use of the peel as anti-bacterial. The peels were air-dried and ground to powder using mortar and pestle, extracted with 95% ethanol. The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Agar diffusion method was employed to test the antibacterial activity of the extract and the MIC and MBC of the extract were determined by broth dilution technique. The results of the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, phytosterols and steroids. The results of the antibacterial activity showed that the isolates were sensitive to the extract, with MIC of 0.25-2.5mg/ml and MBC of 0.5-5.0mg/ml. The antibacterial effects of the extracts suggest their possible use for the treatment of infections caused by the test bacteria. The chemotherapeutic potential of the fruit peel could be due to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, phytosterols and steroids. The success of this study could lead to the development of cheap, easily available and relatively safe bactericides from a tropical plant.

  13. Diversity of the bacterial and fungal microflora from the midgut and cuticle of phlebotomine sand flies collected in North-Western Iran.

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    Mohammad Akhoundi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the leishmaniases, parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania spp. Little is known about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly microflora colonizing the midgut or the cuticle. Particularly, there is little information on the fungal diversity. This information is important for development of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FIVE SAND FLY SPECIES: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. kandelakii, P. perfiliewi and P. halepensis were caught in Bileh Savar and Kaleybar in North-Western Iran that are located in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis. A total of 35 specimens were processed. Bacterial and fungal strains were identified by routine microbiological methods. We characterized 39 fungal isolates from the cuticle and/or the midgut. They belong to six different genera including Penicillium (17 isolates, Aspergillus (14, Acremonium (5, Fusarium (1, Geotrichum (1 and Candida (1. We identified 33 Gram-negative bacteria: Serratia marcescens (9 isolates, Enterobacter cloacae (6, Pseudomonas fluorescens (6, Klebsiella ozaenae (4, Acinetobacter sp. (3, Escherichia coli (3, Asaia sp. (1 and Pantoea sp. (1 as well as Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (5 and Micrococcus luteus (5 in 10 isolates. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides new data on the microbiotic diversity of field-collected sand flies and for the first time, evidence of the presence of Asaia sp. in sand flies. We have also found a link between physiological stages (unfed, fresh fed, semi gravid and gravid of sand flies and number of bacteria that they carry. Interestingly Pantoea sp. and Klebsiella ozaenae have been isolated in Old World sand fly species. The presence of latter species on sand fly cuticle and in the female midgut suggests a role for this arthropod in dissemination of these pathogenic bacteria in endemic areas. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial

  14. Characteristics of Bacterial Strains from Pseudomonas Genera Isolated from Diseased Plum Trees

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    Veljko Gavrilović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae strains isolated from diseased plum trees are presented is this paper. Based on pathogenic, biochemical and physiological characteristics, isolated starins were divided into two groups: First group of strains, isolated from diseased plum branches with symptoms of suden decay, was simillar to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae; second group of strains, isolated from necrotic flower buds on plum trees, exhibited characteristics simillar to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum. In addition, phytopathogenic fungi belonging to genera Phomopsis, Botryosphaeria and Leucostoma, were also isolated from diseased plum trees. Further study of these pathogens and their role in the epidemiology of suden plum trees decay is in progress.

  15. Structure Elucidation of Procyanidins Isolated from Rhododendron formosanum and Their Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Bacterial Activities

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    Chao-Min Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron formosanum is an endemic species distributed in the central mountains of Taiwan. In this study, the biological activities of major procyanidins isolated from the leaf extract of R. formosanum were investigated. Four compounds, including two procyanidin dimers, procyanidin A1 (1 and B3 (2, and two procyanidin trimmers, procyanidin C4 (4 and cinnamtannin D1 (5, were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. The structure of a new procyanidin dimer, rhodonidin A (3, was elucidated by 2D-NMR, CD spectrum and MS. The procyanidin trimmers and rhodonidin A are reported for the first time in Ericaceae. The biological activities of these procyanidins were evaluated using anti-bacterial and anti-oxidative assays. Only the new compound 3 demonstrated strong anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at an MIC value of 4 μg/mL. All compounds showed pronounced antioxidant activities and the activities are enhanced as the amount of OH groups in procyanidins increased. In conclusion, the pleiotropic effects of procyanidins isolated from the leaves of R. formosanum can be a source of promising compounds for the development of future pharmacological applications.

  16. Flavivirus isolations from mosquitoes collected from western Cape York Peninsula, Australia, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Cheryl A; Nisbet, Debra J; Zborowski, Paul; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Ritchie, Scott A; Mackenzie, John S

    2003-12-01

    After the 1st appearance of Japanese encephalitis virus (JE) on mainland Australia in 1998, a study was undertaken to investigate whether JE had become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western Cape York Peninsula. Adult mosquitoes were collected during the late wet season from Kowanyama and Pormpuraaw in April 1999, and Pormpuraaw and Barr's Yard in April 2000. Despite processing 269,270 mosquitoes for virus isolation, no isolates of JE were obtained. However, other flaviviruses comprising Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Kunjin virus, Alfuy virus, and Kokobera virus (KOK) were isolated. Isolates of the alphaviruses Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus (BF), and Sindbis virus (SIN) also were obtained. The majority (88%) of isolates were from members of the Culex sitiens subgroup. Single isolates of KOK, BF, and SIN were obtained from Ochlerotatus vigilax, Oc. normanensis, and Anopheles bancroftii, respectively. The isolations of flaviviruses during the late wet season indicate that conditions were suitable for flavivirus activity in the area. No evidence was found to suggest that JE has become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western Cape York, although study sites and field trips were limited. PMID:14710742

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of bacterial pathogens isolated from respiratory tract infections in dogs and cats across Europe: ComPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ian; Moyaert, Hilde; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2016-08-15

    ComPath is a pan-European resistance monitoring programme collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats. We present data for respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. Antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and susceptibility calculated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards for veterinary medicine. The main pathogen from dogs was Staphylococcus intermedius Group (49/215, 22.8%) which was >90% susceptible to most antimicrobials (including oxacillin - 93.9%; 3 isolates confirmed mecA-positive) but only 59.2%, 73.5% and 87.8% susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin. Bordetella bronchiseptica (48/215, 22.3%), streptococci (36/215, 16.7%), Escherichia coli (24/215, 11.2%) and Pasteurella multocida (23/215, 10.7%) were also found in dog RTI. There are no breakpoints for Bordetella bronchiseptica. Most streptococci were penicillin- chloramphenicol-, ampicillin- and pradofloxacin-susceptible. None were enrofloxacin-resistant but 6 isolates (16.7%) were of intermediate susceptibility. The least active agent against streptococci was tetracycline (47.2% susceptible). For E. coli, 37.5% were ampicillin-susceptible but 83.3% were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-susceptible. Only chloramphenicol showed susceptibility>90% against E. coli, with 66.7% tetracycline-susceptible and 79.2% to 87.5% susceptibility to enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pradofloxacin. P. multocida were susceptible to pradofloxacin (no other breakpoints are available). The main pathogen from cats was P. multocida (82/186, 44.1%), where only pradofloxacin has breakpoints (100% susceptible). Streptococci were also collected from cats (25/186, 13.4%) and were >90% susceptible to all antimicrobials except tetracycline (36% susceptible). Most susceptibility was calculated with human-derived breakpoints and some antimicrobials had no breakpoints. Therefore predictions of clinical utility

  18. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

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    Reginaldo Lima-Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.

  19. Enzymatic Screening and Molecular Characterization of Thermophilic Bacterial Strains Isolated from Hotspring of Tatopani, Bhurung, Nepal

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    Hriush Adhikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In Nepal not much of study of Thermophilic area and Thermophiles have been done. Thermophilic bacteria are less studied but are important group of microorganisms due to their ability to produce industrially important enzymes. Methods: In this study, thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot spring of Bhurung, Nepal. Wide range of bacteria that could grow at high temperatures and tolerate extreme temperature were characterized by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolates were screened for production of extracellular enzymes like protease, amylase, lipase, cellulase, caseinase, pectinase and xylanase activity. Phylogenetic tree construction and G+C content evaluation of the isolate was also studied. Results: 15 isolates with ability to tolerate high temperatures were identified as Bacillus sp. by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. BLAST search analysis of the sequence was performed and result showed maximum identity (99% similarity with Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. Isolated strains exhibited considerable amount of extracellular exozymes activity. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates revealed the relatedness among the species. The G+C content of each species was also evaluated and was found to be in range of 54.87 to 55.54%. Conclusion: The study of isolates confirmed that the isolated Bacillus sp. to be a true thermophile and could be a source of various thermostable exozymes which can be exploited for pharmaceutical and industrials applications. Much detailed study of the isolates can

  20. Efficient isolation of multiphoton processes and detection of collective states in dilute samples

    CERN Document Server

    Bruder, Lukas; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique to sensitively and selectively isolate multiple-quantum coherences in a femtosecond pump-probe setup is presented. Detecting incoherent observables and imparting lock-in amplification, even weak signals of highly dilute samples can be acquired. Applying this method, efficient isolation of one- and two-photon transitions in a rubidium-doped helium droplet beam experiment is demonstrated and collective resonances up to fourth order are observed in a potassium vapor for the first time. Our approach provides new perspectives for coherent experiments in the deep UV and novel multidimensional spectroscopy schemes, in particular when selective detection of particles in dilute gas-phase targets is possible.

  1. Bacterial communities in urban aerosols collected with wetted-wall cyclonic samplers and seasonal fluctuations of live and culturable airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Hernlem, Bradley J; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E

    2012-02-01

    Airborne transmission of bacterial pathogens from point sources (e.g., ranches, dairy waste treatment facilities) to areas of food production (farms) has been suspected. Determining the incidence, transport and viability of extremely low levels of pathogens require collection of high volumes of air and characterization of live bacteria from aerosols. We monitored the numbers of culturable bacteria in urban aerosols on 21 separate days during a 9 month period using high volume cyclonic samplers at an elevation of 6 m above ground level. Culturable bacteria in aerosols fluctuated from 3 CFU to 6 million CFU/L of air per hour and correlated significantly with changes in seasonal temperatures, but not with humidity or wind speed. Concentrations of viable bacteria determined by fluorescence staining and flow cytometry correlated significantly with culturable bacteria. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria constituted 98% of the bacterial community, which was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing using DNA from aerosols. Aquabacterium sp., previously characterized from aquatic environments, represented 63% of all clones and the second most common were Burkholderia sp; these are ubiquitous in nature and some are potential human pathogens. Whole genome amplification prior to sequencing resulted in a substantial decrease in species diversity compared to characterizing culturable bacteria sorted by flow cytometry based on scatter signals. Although 27 isolated colonies were characterized, we were able to culture 38% of bacteria characterized by sequencing. The whole genome amplification method amplified DNA preferentially from Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum, a minor member of the bacterial communities, whereas Variovorax paradoxus dominated the cultured organisms. PMID:22193549

  2. Guidance Regarding Sample Collection and Refinement of Fecal Flotation Exam for the Isolation of Aspiculuris tetraptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodroe, Anna E; Baxter, Victoria K; Watson, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Aspiculuris tetraptera continues to be a problem in rodent vivaria, in part due to difficulties in parasite detection. Although PCR testing is highly sensitive, it is expensive and does not always provide immediate results. Consequently, many institutions rely on passive fecal flotation as a quick inhouse exam for diagnosing A. tetraptera infections. To increase the sensitivity of this test, we examined multiple parameters to determine the optimal test protocol. A 30-min soaking period prior to fecal flotation for 15 min allowed fecal pellets to soften and facilitated efficient egg isolation. We also evaluated the effect of time of day, sample size, age, sex, and housing status on egg isolation. No evidence of cyclical egg shedding was found, and although larger fecal sample sizes did not result in more eggs isolated, their use reduced the incidence of false-negative exams. The most eggs were isolated from 8- and 12-wk-old mice, and as mice aged, the number of eggs isolated declined. Overall, neither sex nor housing status influenced the number of eggs isolated. Finally, examination of multiple diagnostic tests (fecal flotation exam, direct examination of cecal and colonic contents, and fecal PCR) revealed that no single test was definitive, thus indicating that multiple tests might be required to successfully screen mice with low pinworm burdens. These findings provide guidance regarding sample selection, collection, and processing to efficiently detect A. tetraptera. PMID:27657708

  3. Decolorization of sulfonated azo dye Metanil Yellow by newly isolated bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. strain AK1 and Lysinibacillus sp. strain AK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneya, O; Souche, S Yogesh; Santoshkumar, M; Karegoudar, T B

    2011-06-15

    Two different bacterial strains capable of decolorizing a highly water soluble azo dye Metanil Yellow were isolated from dye contaminated soil sample collected from Atul Dyeing Industry, Bellary, India. The individual bacterial strains Bacillus sp. AK1 and Lysinibacillus sp. AK2 decolorized Metanil Yellow (200 mg L(-1)) completely within 27 and 12h respectively. Various parameters like pH, temperature, NaCl and initial dye concentrations were optimized to develop an economically feasible decolorization process. The maximum concentration of Metanil Yellow (1000 mg L(-1)) was decolorized by strains AK2 and AK1 within 78 and 84 h respectively. These strains could decolorize Metanil Yellow over a broad pH range 5.5-9.0; the optimum pH was 7.2. The decolorization of Metanil Yellow was most efficient at 40°C and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, TLC, HPLC and GC/MS analysis. Further, both the strains showed the involvement of azoreductase in the decolorization process. Phytotoxicity studies of catabolic products of Metanil Yellow on the seeds of chick pea and pigeon pea revealed much reduction in the toxicity of metabolites as compared to the parent dye. These results indicating the effectiveness of strains AK1 and AK2 for the treatment of textile effluents containing azo dyes. PMID:21470774

  4. Comparison of bacterial biomass and PRP production between different isolation of Haemophilus influenza type-b (Hib under different culture conditions

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    Hadi, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Heamophilus influenzae type-b (Hib is a gram - negative pleomorphic bacterium that causes meningitis infections in children with the age of less than 5 years particularly in two years old infants. In the present study various isolates of Heamophilus influenzae from infants suspected to meningitis were collected, identified, characterized and were used throughout our experiments. Different culture media namely Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB, Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB and GC medium Base (GCB which this medium was modified and prepared in our own laboratory, were compared to determine the highest bacterial yield. All media were added supplements 10mg/ml hemin & 0.01/ml IsovitaleX containing V factor. The bacterial yield for all Hib strains present in our laboratory were measured with an initial inoculums of 104 cfu per ml. The result showed very closed amount of biomass for all isolates however, GCB had slightly higher yield and ultimately we chose this medium for cultivation and extraction of capsular polysaccharide (CPS-b. In our laboratory we have adapted the PRP production according to our technical and instrumental availabilities which exists in our laboratories replacing ultra centrifugation to phenol chloroform to remove contaminants like endotoxin and proteins to the minimum level and also decreased the number of some chemical treatments while some steps were added in purification process. Our study showed although there were not significant differences between the PRP extract of the three isolates with average amount of 108 mg/lit, however, isolate ATCC10210 (ATF2 showed the highest amount with 192mg/lit and the least PRP was produced by isolate H.inf.1, with 16 mg/lit. It seems that the data can be categorized to a normal distribution with the mean of 106.4 and standard deviation of 6.25. This result was confirmed by one sample kolmogorov-Smirnov test, hence the PRP ≥192 mg/lit is statistically significant at a significant level of α =0

  5. Christensenella timonensis, a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndongo, S; Dubourg, G; Khelaifia, S; Fournier, P-E; Raoult, D

    2016-09-01

    We propose a new species, Christensenella timonensis, strain Marseille-P2437(T) (CSUR P2437(T)), which was isolated from gut microbiota of a 66-year-old patient as a part of culturomics study. C. timonensis represents the second species isolated within the Christensenella genus. PMID:27408737

  6. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirima, George Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus) to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection. PMID:27774456

  7. Emergence of Collective Territorial Defense in Bacterial Communities: Horizontal Gene Transfer Can Stabilize Microbiomes

    OpenAIRE

    János Juhász; Attila Kertész-Farkas; Dóra Szabó; Sándor Pongor

    2014-01-01

    Multispecies bacterial communities such as the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract can be remarkably stable and resilient even though they consist of cells and species that compete for resources and also produce a large number of antimicrobial agents. Computational modeling suggests that horizontal transfer of resistance genes may greatly contribute to the formation of stable and diverse communities capable of protecting themselves with a battery of antimicrobial agents while preserving ...

  8. Biological decolorization of the reactive dyes Reactive Black 5 by a novel isolated bacterial strain Enterobacter sp. EC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Su, Jian-Qiang; Tian, Yun; Xiong, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Tian-Ling

    2009-11-15

    Studies were carried out on the decolorization of the reactive dye Reactive Black 5 by a newly isolated bacterium, EC3. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence comparisons indicate that this strain belonged to the genus Enterobacter. The optimal conditions for the decolorizing activity of Enterobacter sp. EC3 were anaerobic conditions with glucose supplementation, at pH 7.0, and 37 degrees C. The maximum decolorization efficiency against Reactive Black 5 achieved in this study was 92.56%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) analyses before and after decolorization and the colorless bacterial biomass after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation, rather than inactive surface adsorption. The bacterial strain also showed a strong ability to decolorize various reactive textile dyes, including both azo and anthraquinone dyes. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a bacterial strain of Enterobacter sp. has been reported with decolorizing ability against both azo and anthraquinone dyes.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY COMBINED PREPARATIONS FOR CLINICAL STRAINS OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH BACTERIAL VAGINIT

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    Aslanian M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of bacterial vaginit in some cases the cause of severe infectious diseases genitalia of the fetus and newborn, which can impair the health of future generations. It is noted that the treatment of antibacterial agents observed numerous negative side effects- reducing the biochemical activity of the intestinal microflora, abuse microbiota, leading to the development of dysbiosis, increasing the number of resistant strains of pathogens, the risk of allergic reaction sand immunological disorders. A study was conducted towards finding effective combinations of drugs from different pharmacological groups means to create a combination of drugs. The aim of the study was to develop and explore and Flamini combination of miramistin combined medicines to treat bacterial vaginit. As a result of studies in patients with bacterial vaginit pathological material was isolated and identified 72 strains of microorganisms (Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Enterococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Haemophillu sssp, Candida albican sand various strains of anaerobic microorganisms. For the combined treatment of infectious and in flammatory diseases (mixed infections in humans the combined drugin tablet form. All clinical strains of microorganisms isolated from patients with bacterial vaginit were tested for sensitivity to the combined preparation in tablet form with Flamini and miramistin. The greatest sensitivity to the drugs found clinical strains of microorganisms: Staphylococcu saureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Peptococcus niger (diameter zone growth retardation is 25,5-23,5 mm. composition tablets number 1 (0.05 g Flamini, miramistini 0.02 g, which was selected for further study shows bacteriostatic effect against a wide range of microorganisms and fungi Rod Candida. IPC for Staphylococcus sp was 20-25 pg / mL for Streptococcus sp 35,0-40,0 mg / ml, for intestinal group 35,0-40,0 for fungi 30,0 mg / ml unlike pills number 2 and number 3, where the

  10. Fungal Profiles Isolated from Open and Used Cosmetic Products Collected from Different Localities in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of seventy five samples of cosmetic products open and used for varying periods of time were collected from different localities in Saudi Arabia. These samples were analyzed for the presence of mesophilic and thermophilic fungi. Six genera and 13 species were isolated at 28 degree C. Eleven genera, 24 species as well as two species varieties were encountered at 45 degree C (thermophilic fungi). Aspergillus was the most common genus while A. terreus was the most common species at 28 degree C and 45 degree C. The highest total count of fungi was obtained from samples of lip cosmetic products, while the lowest total counts were detected in eye cosmetic products. The antifungal activity was studied for seven randomly selected commercial drugs against five species of isolated saprophytic fungi. Results indicated that Dermocart skin cream was largely effective against all tested fungal isolates. (author)

  11. A Model to Explain Plant Growth Promotion Traits: A Multivariate Analysis of 2,211 Bacterial Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Granada, Camille E.; Ambrosini, Adriana; Moreira, Fernanda; de Souza, Rocheli; dos Passos, João Frederico M.; Arruda, Letícia; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling. PMID:25542031

  12. A model to explain plant growth promotion traits: a multivariate analysis of 2,211 bacterial isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Beschoren da Costa

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling.

  13. The uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+ by bacterial strains isolated from a boreal nutrient-poor bog

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    Merja Lusa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+ by bacterial strains of Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus isolated from an acidic nutrient-poor boreal bog. The tests were run in two different growth media at two temperatures; +4 °C and +20 °C. All bacterial strains removed Ni2+ and Ag+ from the solution with highest efficiencies shown by one of the Pseudomonas sp. and one of the Paenibacillus sp. strains. Highest Ni2+ uptake was found in 1% Tryptone solution, whereas the highest removal of Ag+ was obtained using 1% Yeast extract. Temperature affected the uptake of Ni2+ and Ag+, but statistically significant difference was found only for Ni2+. Based on tests carried out for the bacteria in nutrient broths and for fresh samples taken from varying depth up to seven meters from the ombrotrophic bog, from which the bacteria were isolated, we estimated that in in situ conditions of the bog the uptake of Ni2+ by bacteria accounts for approximately 0.02% of the total sorption in the uppermost moss layer, 0.01% in the peat layer, 0.02% in the gyttja layer and 0.1% in the bottom clay layer of the bog. For Ag+ the corresponding values were 2.3% in the moss layer, 0.04% in the peat layer, 0.2% in the gyttja and 0.03% in the clay layer.

  14. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L. LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

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    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L. causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method. Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8 were isolated from soft rot tuber. BL6 isolate showed positive result in Postulat Koch test that caused soft rot on carrot tuber. The result of identification by Microgen™ GnA+B-ID System and identification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 was identified as Citrobacter.

  15. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

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    Maryam Bello-Akinosho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH- polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates’ partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection.

  16. [Algicidal activity against red-tide algaes by marine bacterial strain N3 isolated from a HABs area, southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-jun; Huang, Hong-hui; Qi, Zhan-hui; Hu, Wei-an; Tian, Zi-yang; Dai, Ming

    2013-05-01

    A marine algicidal bacterium N3 was isolated from a HABs area in Mirs Bay, a subtropical bay, in southern China. Algicidal activity and algicidal mode against Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Prorocentrum micans and Skeletonema costatum were observed by the liquid infection method. The results showed that there were no algicidal activities against P. tricornutum and S. costatum. However, when the bacterial volume fractions were 2% and 10% , S. trochoidea and P. micans could be killed, respectively. S. trochoidea cells which were exposed to strain N3 became irregular in shape and the cellular components lost their integrity and were decomposed. While, the P. micans cells became inflated and the cellular components aggregated, followed by cell lysis. Strain N3 killed S. trochoidea and P. micans directly, and the algicidal activities of the bacterial strain N3 was concentration-dependent. To S. trochoidea, 2% (V/V) of bacteria in algae showed the strongest algicidal activity, all of the S. trochoidea cells were killed within 120 h. But the growth rates of cells, in the 1% and 0. 1% treatment groups, were only slightly lower than that in the control group. In all treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 were in declining trends. While, to P. micans, 10% and 5% of bacteria in algae showed strong algicidal activities, 78% and 70% of the S. trochoidea were killed within 120 h, respectively. However, the number of S. trochoidea after exposure to 1% of bacterial cultures still increased up to 5 incubation days. And in the three treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 experienced a decrease process. The isolated strain N3 was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characterization, and homology comparisons based on 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:23914549

  17. A new prenylflavonoid isolated from propolis collected in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Shimamura, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Shirafuji, Kenichi; Moli, Reuben T; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    The new prenylflavonoid, solophenol A (1), together with three known compounds, bonannione A (2), sophoraflavanone A (3) and (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-prenylflavanone (4), were isolated from propolis collected from Malaita Island in The Solomon Islands. The structure of each compound was determined by spectroscopic methods, including mass spectrometry and 2D NMR. Compound 1 exhibited potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity. PMID:22738984

  18. Resistência de bactérias ácido-láticas a bacteriófagos provenientes de unidades de processamento de queijo Coalho Phage resistance of acid lactic bacteria isolated from Coalho cheese industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pereira de Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos isolar bacteriófagos de amostras de leite, soro e queijo de Coalho e avaliar a resistência de cepas de Lactobacillus paracasei, pertencentes à Coleção de Micro-organismos de Interesse para a Agroindústria Tropical da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, aos fagos isolados. Posteriormente, a resistência destas cepas a fagos específicos para L. paracasei, da Coleção do Instituto de Lactología Industrial - INLAIN (Santa Fe, Argentina, também foi avaliada. As amostras para isolamento dos fagos foram obtidas em quatro unidades de processamento de queijo de Coalho, sendo duas artesanais e duas industriais, localizadas no Estado do Ceará. Para o isolamento dos bacteriófagos, foi empregado o teste de lise celular (spot, enquanto que a resistência das culturas aos fagos foi avaliada pelos testes de capacidade de produção de ácido e avaliação da turbidez. As cepas avaliadas foram resistentes aos bacteriófagos provenientes das unidades de processamento de queijo de Coalho e aos bacteriófagos da Coleção do INLAIN. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as culturas láticas testadas, resistentes aos bacteriófagos, podem ser utilizadas na composição de fermento lático destinado à elaboração de queijo de Coalho, a partir de leite pasteurizado.The objectives of this research were to isolate bacteriophages from milk samples, whey and Coalho cheese and to evaluate the resistance of strains of Lactobacillus paracasei from the Collection of Microorganisms of Interest for the Tropical Agroindustry, belonging to Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry, to isolate phages. The strains resistance to specific L. paracasei phages from the collection of the Instituto de Lactología Industrial - INLAIN (Santa Fe, Argentina was also evaluated. Samples for phage isolation were from four Coalho cheese processing units, two artisanal and two industrial, localized in the state of Ceará. Spot test was employed for bacteriophages

  19. Novel bacterial isolate from Permian groundwater, capable of aggregating potential biofuel-producing microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Laughinghouse, Haywood D; Anderson, Matthew A; Chen, Feng; Willliams, Ernest; Place, Allen R; Zmora, Odi; Zohar, Yonathan; Zheng, Tianling; Hill, Russell T

    2012-03-01

    Increasing petroleum costs and climate change have resulted in microalgae receiving attention as potential biofuel producers. Little information is available on the diversity and functions of bacterial communities associated with biofuel-producing algae. A potential biofuel-producing microalgal strain, Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1, was grown in Permian groundwater. Changes in the bacterial community structure at three temperatures were monitored by two culture-independent methods, and culturable bacteria were characterized. After 9 days of incubation, N. oceanica IMET1 began to aggregate and precipitate in cultures grown at 30°C, whereas cells remained uniformly distributed at 15°C and 25°C. The bacterial communities in cultures at 30°C changed markedly. Some bacteria isolated only at 30°C were tested for their potential for aggregating microalgae. A novel bacterium designated HW001 showed a remarkable ability to aggregate N. oceanica IMET1, causing microalgal cells to aggregate after 3 days of incubation, while the total lipid content of the microalgal cells was not affected. Direct interaction of HW001 and N. oceanica is necessary for aggregation. HW001 can also aggregate the microalgae N. oceanica CT-1, Tetraselmis suecica, and T. chuii as well as the cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8007. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated the great novelty of this strain, which exhibited only 89% sequence similarity with any previously cultured bacteria. Specific primers targeted to HW001 revealed that the strain originated from the Permian groundwater. This study of the bacterial communities associated with potential biofuel-producing microalgae addresses a little-investigated area of microalgal biofuel research and provides a novel approach to harvest biofuel-producing microalgae by using the novel bacterium strain HW001.

  20. The in vitro activity of 15 antimicrobial agents against bacterial isolates from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awji, Elias Gebru; Damte, Dereje; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joong-Su; Kim, Young-Hoan; Park, Seung-Chun

    2012-08-01

    The in vitro activity of 15 antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella spp. and Streptococcus canis from dogs was investigated. For Staphylococcus spp., the highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin, followed by ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. The highest frequency of resistance in E. coli isolates was recorded for tetracycline and streptomycin. Pasteurella spp. and S. canis had the highest resistance rate for tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Most isolates showed full susceptibility to low-level resistance to colistin, florfenicol and fluoroquinolones. Further studies using larger number of isolates from both healthy and diseased dogs would provide a broader picture of antimicrobial resistance at a national level and promote prudent use of antimicrobial agents in companion animals. PMID:22516694

  1. Characterization of Bacterial Strains Isolated Through Microbial Profiling of Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulomi Nandy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the microbial profile in urine samples. Differential and selective chromogenic culture media were used for the rapid detection, identification and enumeration of urinary tract pathogens namely, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis. Urine samples of normal healthy individuals as well as patients with Urinary Tract Infection (UTI were screened on hicrome agar plates. The cultivable bacteria present in urine were isolated based on chromogenic detection. Antibiotic sensitivity assay, morphological characterization and biochemical tests, namely protease, oxidase, catalase, lipase, DNase and lecithinase assay were performed with the 15 isolates obtained from urine samples. The molecular analyses of the isolates were done through partial sequencing of the 16SrDNA gene; six of them were found to be novel and submitted in GenBank under the accession numbers EF644491-96. Phylogenetic tree of the isolates were constructed by neighbour joining method.

  2. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, NS; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel...

  3. Comparison of field-collected ascovirus isolates by DNA hybridization, host range, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J J; Styer, E L; Federici, B A

    1998-09-01

    Six field-collected ascovirus isolates obtained from five noctuid species in the continental United States were compared with respect to the general relatedness of their DNA, host range, and histopathology. Two isolates were from Spodoptera frugiperda, and the other four were from Autographa precationis, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Trichoplusia ni. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed that the six isolates belonged to three distinct viral species, with the isolates from S. frugiperda composing one species, those from A. precationis and H. virescens a second species, and those from H. zea and T. ni a third species. The host range and histopathology of each isolate was studied in eight noctuid species, S. frugiperda, Spodoptera ornithogalli, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera eridania, H. virescens, H. zea, A. precationis, and Feltia subterranea. Though some variation existed between the different isolates of each viral species, distinct patterns were apparent for each. The viral species from S. frugiperda had a host range that was limited primarily to Spodoptera species and both isolates of this virus only replicated and caused significant pathology in the fat body, whereas the viral species from A. precationis and H. virescens had a much broader host range that included most of the species tested, but also had a tissue tropism primarily restricted to the fat body. The viral species from T. ni and H. zea readily infected all the hosts tested, where the principal site of replication and significant pathology was the epidermis. In many test hosts, however, this viral species also replicated and caused significant pathology in the tracheal epithelium and to a lesser extent in the fat body. Aside from contributing to knowledge of ascovirus biology, these studies indicate that DNA hybridization profiles combined with studies of host range and tissue tropism can be used as characters for defining ascovirus species. PMID:9709014

  4. Bacterial Plasmids in Antarctic Natural Microbial Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Kobori, Hiromi; Sullivan, Cornelius W.; Shizuya, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Samples of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria were collected from sea ice, seawater, sediments, and benthic or ice-associated animals in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. A total of 155 strains were isolated and tested for the presence of plasmids by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. Thirty-one percent of the isolates carried at least one kind of plasmid. Bacterial isolates taken from sediments showed the highest plasmid incidence (42%), and isolates from seawater showed the lowest plasmid inc...

  5. Bacterial Community Analysis, New Exoelectrogen Isolation and Enhanced Performance of Microbial Electrochemical Systems Using Nano-Decorated Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shoutao

    Microbial electrochemical systems (MESs) have attracted much research attention in recent years due to their promising applications in renewable energy generation, bioremediation, and wastewater treatment. In a MES, microorganisms interact with electrodes via electrons, catalyzing oxidation and reduction reactions at the anode and the cathode. The bacterial community of a high power mixed consortium MESs (maximum power density is 6.5W/m2) was analyzed by using denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S DNA clone library methods. The bacterial DGGE profiles were relatively complex (more than 10 bands) but only three brightly dominant bands in DGGE results. These results indicated there are three dominant bacterial species in mixed consortium MFCs. The 16S DNA clone library method results revealed that the predominant bacterial species in mixed culture is Geobacter sp (66%), Arcobacter sp and Citrobacter sp. These three bacterial species reached to 88% of total bacterial species. This result is consistent with the DGGE result which showed that three bright bands represented three dominant bacterial species. Exoelectrogenic bacterial strain SX-1 was isolated from a mediator-less microbial fuel cell by conventional plating techniques with ferric citrate as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed that it was related to the members of Citrobacter genus with Citrobacter sp. sdy-48 being the most closely related species. The bacterial strain SX-1 produced electricity from citrate, acetate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol, and lactose in MFCs with the highest current density of 205 mA/m2 generated from citrate. Cyclic voltammetry analysis indicated that membrane associated proteins may play an important role in facilitating electron transfer from the bacteria to the electrode. This is the first study that demonstrates that Citrobacter species can transfer electrons to extracellular electron acceptors

  6. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L.) LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari; Retno Kawuri; Meitini Wahyuni Proborini

    2015-01-01

    Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L.) causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method). Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8) were ...

  7. [Biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Ilknur; Alpay Karaoğlu, Sengül; Ciftçi, Hasan; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Aydin, Faruk; Kiliç, Ali Osman; Ertürk, Murat

    2007-01-01

    As Gardnerella vaginalis is accepted as a member of normal vaginal flora, it is one of the dominant species which has been related to bacterial vaginosis (BV). The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rate, biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of G.vaginalis from the vaginal swab samples of 408 women who were admitted to the outpatient clinics of Family Planning Center. Hippurate hydrolysis, lipase and beta-galactosidase tests were performed for biotyping the isolates, and agar dilution (for metronidazole) and disk diffusion (for clindamycin) tests were used for the detection of antibiotic resistance patterns. As a result, by Nugent's BV scoring protocol, 122 (29.9%), 20 (29.4%), 137 (33.6%), and 18 (4.4%) of the women were diagnosed as BV, intermediate form, normal vaginal flora (NVF) and mycotic vaginosis, respectively. The overall isolation rate of G.vaginalis was found as 23% (94/408). Of them, 56.4% (53/94) and 8.5% (8/94) were isolated from samples of BV cases and subjects with NVF, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (pbiotyping results showed that the most frequently detected types were biotype 1 (44%), 5 (20%) and 4 (18%). There was no statistically significant difference between the biotype distribution of BV patients and the subjects who have NVF (p=0.687). The results of antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that 70% and 53% of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole and clindamycin, respectively. It was of interest that MIC values for metronidazole was > or =128 microg/ml in 57% of resistant strains. The data of this study has emphasized that the metronidazole resistance is very high in our population, and the large scale studies are needed to clarify the relationship between BV and G.vaginalis biotypes, which can be found in the normal vaginal flora.

  8. Do Milk Samples Stored for 12 Days after Collection Exhibit a Change in Composition Related to the Initial Bacterial Load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Larissa Nazareth; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; da Silva, Janielen; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Machado, Paulo Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Total bacterial count (TBC) is a tool used to assess milk quality and is associated with not only the initial sample contamination but also the sample storage time and temperature. Several countries have reported milk samples with a high TBC, and the influence of TBC on milk preservation remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the initial bacterial contamination level on the macrocomponents and somatic cell count (SCC) of raw milk samples preserved with bronopol and maintained at two storage temperatures (7 and 25°C) for up to 12 days. Thus, we collected milk samples from 51 dairy farms, which were divided into two groups according to the initial bacterial load: low TBC (<100,000 CFU/ml) and high TBC (≥100,000 CFU/ml). We analyzed the sample composition for protein, fat, total solids, lactose, milk urea nitrogen, and the SCC. We did not observe an effect from TBC and storage time and temperature on the concentration of protein, fat, total solids, and lactose. SCC changes were not observed for samples maintained under refrigeration (7°C); however, samples maintained at room temperature (25°C) exhibited a decrease in the SCC beginning on day 6 of storage. For milk urea nitrogen, values increased when the samples were maintained at room temperature, beginning on the ninth storage day. Samples with the preservative bronopol added and maintained under refrigeration may be analyzed up to 12 days after collection, regardless of the milk microbial load.

  9. Radiation Induced DNA Double Strand Break Studies of a Metal Sensitive Novel Bacterial Isolate from East Calcutta Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita Chowdhury

    2009-01-01

    uncultivable anaerobic bacterial isolate and predict the growth conditions for the isolate. On irradiation with 60Co γ rays the isolate showed maximum repair following 60 Gray damage. DNA polymerase inhibitor arabinose CTP inhibited the repair mechanism completely. This indicated that DNA polymerase took active part in repair process and thus the mechanism was that of homologous recombination repair.

  10. Resistance and Inactivation Kinetics of Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Non-Chlorinated and Chlorinated Effluents of a WWTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coronel-Olivares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of water from a wastewater treatment plant that uses sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant was assessed. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were not removed efficiently. This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. Molecular identification indicated that the strains were related to Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli (three strains, Enterobacter cloacae, Kluyvera cryocrescens (three strains, Kluyvera intermedia, Citrobacter freundii (two strains, Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The first five strains, which were isolated from the non-chlorinated effluent, were used to test resistance to chlorine disinfection using three sets of variables: disinfectant concentration (8, 20 and 30 mg·L−1, contact time (0, 15 and 30 min and water temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C. The results demonstrated that the strains have independent responses to experimental conditions and that the most efficient treatment was an 8 mg·L−1 dose of disinfectant at a temperature of 20 °C for 30 min. The other eight strains, which were isolated from the chlorinated effluent, were used to analyze inactivation kinetics using the disinfectant at a dose of 15 mg·L−1 with various retention times (0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 min. The results indicated that during the inactivation process, there was no relationship between removal percentage and retention time and that the strains have no common response to the treatments.

  11. Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phytopathogen suppressive soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjort, K.; Bergstrom, M.; Adesina, M.F.; Jansson, J.K.; Smalla, K.; Sjoling, S.

    2009-09-01

    Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal-restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF{sup 103} of the isolate, Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.

  12. MicroRNA expression in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Wendt, Karin Tarp; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    , where also studied using miRCURY™ LNA arrays (Exiqon, Denmark). Piglets were inoculated by dripping 1ml bacterial suspension, into each nostril during inhalation. Each time group is a different set of 4-6 pigs. Most of the inoculated pigs revealed characteristic, well demarcated, lung lesions...... all miRNAs for human, mouse and rat. The miRCURY™ LNA array microarray slides were scanned, and image analysis was carried out using the ImaGene 8.0 software (BioDiscovery, Inc., USA). A two-tailed T-test calculated between infected and control identified 10 of 1263 miRNA to be differentially...

  13. Evaluating robustness of a diesel-degrading bacterial consortium isolated from contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydow, Mateusz; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Szczepaniak, Zuzanna;

    2016-01-01

    kinetics on individual hydrocarbons. However, despite this low resistance, structural and functional resilience were high, as verified by re-exposing the hydrocarbon-perturbed consortium to diesel fuel. The high resilience is either due to the short exposure time, insufficient for permanent changes...... structural resistance. The structural resistance was low, with changes in relative abundances of up to four orders of magnitude, depending on hydrocarbon type and bacterial taxon. This low resistance is explained by the presence of hydrocarbon-degrading specialists in the consortium and differences in growth...

  14. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Glen; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-03-01

    Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65% of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita), and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa). In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero) Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Carara) it was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%), oval (20%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and cubic (1%), bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%). Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Rio Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed delta-endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with cry3

  15. Emergence of collective territorial defense in bacterial communities: horizontal gene transfer can stabilize microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, János; Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Szabó, Dóra; Pongor, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Multispecies bacterial communities such as the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract can be remarkably stable and resilient even though they consist of cells and species that compete for resources and also produce a large number of antimicrobial agents. Computational modeling suggests that horizontal transfer of resistance genes may greatly contribute to the formation of stable and diverse communities capable of protecting themselves with a battery of antimicrobial agents while preserving a varied metabolic repertoire of the constituent species. In other words horizontal transfer of resistance genes makes a community compatible in terms of exoproducts and capable to maintain a varied and mature metagenome. The same property may allow microbiota to protect a host organism, or if used as a microbial therapy, to purge pathogens and restore a protective environment. PMID:24755769

  16. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

  17. “Bacillus mediterraneensis,” a new bacterial species isolated from human gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Alou, M.T.; P.-E. Fournier; Raoult, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief description of “Bacillus mediterraneensis” strain Marseille-P2366T (= CSUR P2366 = DSM 102091), a new species isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy 13-month-old boy from Senegal.

  18. Genome Sequences of 12 Bacterial Isolates Obtained from the Urine of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Cory M.; Deitzler, Grace E.; Robinson, Lloyd S.; Park, SoEun; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    The presence of bacteria in urine can pose significant risks during pregnancy. However, there are few reference genome strains for many common urinary bacteria. We isolated 12 urinary strains of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Citrobacter, Gardnerella, and Lactobacillus. These strains and their genomes are now available to the research community. PMID:27688327

  19. Isolation of DNA from bacterial samples of the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Klaassens, E.S.; Booijink, C.C.G.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains a complex microbial community that develops in time and space. The most widely used approaches to study microbial diversity and activity are all based on the analysis of nucleic acids, DNA, rRNA and mRNA. Here, we present a DNA isolation protocol that i

  20. Genome Sequences of 12 Bacterial Isolates Obtained from the Urine of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Cory M; Deitzler, Grace E; Robinson, Lloyd S; Park, SoEun; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka; Lewis, Warren G; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    The presence of bacteria in urine can pose significant risks during pregnancy. However, there are few reference genome strains for many common urinary bacteria. We isolated 12 urinary strains of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Citrobacter, Gardnerella, and Lactobacillus These strains and their genomes are now available to the research community. PMID:27688327

  1. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...

  2. Viruses isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama, Ecuador, and Argentina: establishment of the Gamboa serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S; Justines, G; Francy, D B; Monath, T P; Gutierrez, E; Sabattini, M S; Bowen, G S; Jakob, W L

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four virus strains were isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Ecuador. One additional strain each was isolated from this species from Panama and ARgentina. All 26 isolates were shown to be related serologically to prototype Gamboa virus, originally isolated from Ad. squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama. Antigenic comparisons of eight strains, including prototype Gamboa virus, indicated the existence of four distinct viruses. Neutralization tests with sera from a variety of mammalian and avian species from Argentina provided further evidence that Gamboa serogroup viruses are transmitted between Ad. squamipennis and birds. PMID:6111232

  3. Protocol for Evaluating the Permissiveness of Bacterial Communities Toward Conjugal Plasmids by Quantification and Isolation of Transconjugants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2014-01-01

    may encode catabolic pathways, virulence factors, and antibiotic or metal resistances, it is of environmental, evolutionary, and medical relevance to track and monitor the fate of plasmids in mixed microbial community. When assessing the short-term and long-term implications of conjugal plasmid......The transfer of conjugal plasmids is the main bacterial process of horizontal gene transfer to potentially distantly related bacteria. These extrachromosomal, circular DNA molecules host genes that code for their own replication and transfer to other organisms. Because additional accessory genes...... a gfp-tagged plasmid in a mCherry red fluorescently tagged donor strain repressing gfp expression. We take advantage of fluorescent marker genes to microscopically detect plasmid transfer events and use subsequent high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate...

  4. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Viqar Khan; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; M Ramzan Mir; Indu Shukla; Athar Ali Khan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods: Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results: All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions: Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

  5. Effect of PGR producing bacterial strains isolated from vermisources on germination and growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandharaj Marimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from vermisources andscreened for Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA production among themonly nine strains produce IAA and they were identified asStreptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Alcaligenes spp., Erwinia spp., and Pseudomonas spp. Among all other strains Bacillus sp. showed the higher IAA production hence selected for further molecular analysis and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The B. cereus was grown in nutrient broth supplemented with different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5mg/ml of tryptophan for seven days at pH 7 and at 37ºC. Crude IAA was used for in vitro phytostimulatory studies using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The plant growth parameters were analyzed at different day intervals (5, 10 and 15 days. Supplementation of 5 ml crude IAA (2mg/ml of tryptophan dynamically enhances the plant growth parameters after 15 days.

  6. The aerobic bacterial flora of the nasal cavity in healthy Anatolian water buffalo calves

    OpenAIRE

    Şeker, Esra; Yardimci, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Nasal swab samples from clinically healthy Anatolian water buffalo calves, breeding in Afyonkarahisar provinceof Turkey, were collected to determine the bacterial microflora of their nasal mucosa. A total of 160 samples were examined and 165bacterial isolates were identified by using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Ninety-seven isolates were detected toGram positive bacteria (58.8%) and 68 isolates to Gram negative bacteria (41.2%). Ten bacterial genera including Staphylococ...

  7. Biodegradation of marine crude oil pollution using a salt-tolerant bacterial consortium isolated from Bohai Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinfei; Zhao, Lin; Adam, Mohamed

    2016-04-15

    This study aims at constructing an efficient bacterial consortium to biodegrade crude oil spilled in China's Bohai Sea. In this study, TCOB-1 (Ochrobactrum), TCOB-2 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-3 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-4 (Bacillus) and TCOB-5 (Castellaniella) were isolated from Bohai Bay. Through the analysis of hydrocarbon biodegradation, TCOB-4 was found to biodegrade more middle-chain n-alkanes (from C17 to C23) and long-chain n-alkanes (C31-C36). TCOB-5 capable to degrade more n-alkanes including C24-C30 and aromatics. On the basis of complementary advantages, TCOB-4 and TCOB-5 were chosen to construct a consortium which was capable of degrading about 51.87% of crude oil (2% w/v) after 1week of incubation in saline MSM (3% NaCl). It is more efficient compared with single strain. In order to biodegrade crude oil, the construction of bacterial consortia is essential and the principle of complementary advantages could reduce competition between microbes.

  8. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Qing-Song; Zhang, You-Bing; Guo, Mao-Wei; Gong, An-Dong; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Wu, Ai-Bo; Huang, Tao; Qu, Bo; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON). Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5–10) and temperatures (20–37 °C) values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase), as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation. PMID:27669304

  9. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Qing-Song; Zhang, You-Bing; Guo, Mao-Wei; Gong, An-Dong; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Wu, Ai-Bo; Huang, Tao; Qu, Bo; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON). Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5-10) and temperatures (20-37 °C) values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase), as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation. PMID:27669304

  10. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON. Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5–10 and temperatures (20–37 °C values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase, as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation.

  11. Isolation and characteristics analysis of a novel high bacterial cellulose producing strain Gluconacetobacter intermedius CIs26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Jia, Jingjing; Xing, Jianrong; Chen, Jianbing; Lu, Shengmin

    2013-02-15

    A strain producing bacterial cellulose (BC) screened from rotten mandarin fruit was identified as Gluconacetobacter intermedius CIs26 by the examination of general taxonomical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum showed that pellicle produced by strain CIs26 was composed of glucan, and had the same functional group as a typical BC. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis indicated that the BC was type I in structure with crystallinity index of 75%. BC yields of strain CIs26 in Hestrin-Schramn (HS), citrus waste modified HS (CMHS) and citrus waste solution (CWS) mediums were 2.1 g/L, 5.7 g/L, and 7.2 g/L, respectively. It was shown that citrus waste could stimulate BC production of strain CIs26 efficiently. Based on the ability of utilization of citrus waste, this strain appeared to have potential in BC manufacture on an industrial scale.

  12. Optimization of rhamnolipid production by biodegrading bacterial isolates using Plackett-Burman design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mariam; Essam, Tamer; Yassin, Aymen S; Salama, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are biological surfactants produced by microorganisms. Pseudomonas species are well known for the production of the rhamnolipid biosurfactant. In this work, the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas spp. was investigated and further optimized. Two Plackett-Burman designs to study the effect of carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, iron concentration, magnesium concentration, phenol toxicity, pH, temperature, agitation and sampling time were tested. The first design revealed an optimization that increased biosurfactant productivity by almost two to fivefolds for the tested isolates. However, using the second design showed no remarkable increase in biosurfactant productivity. An additional validation run was adopted using the predicted optimal medium with predicted optimal conditions. The validation run showed remarkable increase in the productivity of the tested isolates. The use of microorganisms with biodegradation ability coupled with optimization of the parameters affecting productivity provides an efficient strategy for biosurfactant production.

  13. Isolation of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterial strains efficient in hydrogen production at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were isolated from root zone associations of aquatic plants like Azolla, Salvinia and Eichhornia, as well as the deep-water rice. Based on the gross cell morphology and pigmentation, the isolates resembled Rhodopseudomonas sp. and have been designated as BHU strains 1 to 4, respectively. When subjected to elevated temperature (from 33-45{sup o}C), substantial growth/hydrogen production could be observed only in strains 1 and 4. Strains 2 and 3 on the other hand, showed diminished growth and negligible hydrogen photoproduction. The BHU strains 1 and 4 have been selected as the most active (thermostable) hydrogen producing strains of local origin as far as the Indian tropical climate is concerned. (author).

  14. Isolation and Structural Determination of an Anti Bacterial Constituent from the Leaves of Cassia alata Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Paul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By different solvent extractions and chromatographic techniques an antibacterial constituent was isolated from leaves of Cassia alata Linn. Infra red spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the isolated compound was chemically 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid. In vitro antibacterial activity of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was studied against four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was also recorded against those bacteria by serial dilution technique. Kanamycin was used as positive control. Results showed that 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid had antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.

  15. Increasing Ciprofloxacin Resistance Among Prevalent Urinary Tract Bacterial Isolates in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Astal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance among 480 clinical isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI during January to June 2004 in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The resistance rates observed were 15.0% to ciprofloxacin, 82.5% to amoxycillin, 64.4% to cotrimoxazole, 63.1% to doxycycline, 32.5% to cephalexin, 31.9% to nalidixic acid, and 10.0% to amikacin. High resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected among Acinetobacter haemolyticus (28.6%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25.0%,Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0%, Klebsiella pneumonia (17.6%, and Escherichia coli (12.0%. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin evenly ranged from 4 to 32 μg/mL with a mean of 25.0 μg/mL. This study indicates emerging ciprofloxacin resistance among urinary tract infection isolates. Increasing resistance against ciprofloxacin demands coordinated monitoring of its activity and rational use of the antibiotics.

  16. Enzymes produced by halotolerant spore-forming gram-positive bacterial strains isolated from a resting habitat (Restinga de Jurubatiba) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: focus on proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Santos, Anderson Fragoso; Pacheco, Clarissa Almeida; Valle, Roberta D Santos; Seldin, Lucy; D Santos, André Luis Souza

    2014-12-01

    The screening for hydrolases-producing, halotolerant, and spore-forming gram-positive bacteria from the root, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soil of Blutaparon portulacoides, a plant found in the Restinga de Jurubatiba located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, resulted in the isolation of 22 strains. These strains were identified as Halobacillus blutaparonensis (n = 2), Oceanobacillus picturae (n = 5), and Oceanobacillus iheyensis (n = 15), and all showed the ability to produce different extracellular enzymes. A total of 20 isolates (90.9 %) showed activity for protease, 5 (22.7 %) for phytase, 3 (13.6 %) for cellulase, and 2 (9.1 %) for amylase. Some bacterial strains were capable of producing three (13.6 %) or two (9.1 %) distinct hydrolytic enzymes. However, no bacterial strain with ability to produce esterase and DNase was observed. The isolate designated M9, belonging to the species H. blutaparonensis, was the best producer of protease and also yielded amylase and phytase. This strain was chosen for further studies regarding its protease activity. The M9 strain produced similar amounts of protease when grown either without or with different NaCl concentrations (from 0.5 to 10 %). A simple inspection of the cell-free culture supernatant by gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed the presence of three major alkaline proteases of 40, 50, and 70 kDa, which were fully inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (two classical serine protease inhibitors). The secreted proteases were detected in a wide range of temperature (from 4 to 45 °C) and their hydrolytic activities were stimulated by NaCl (up to 10 %). The serine proteases produced by the M9 strain cleaved gelatin, casein, albumin, and hemoglobin, however, in different extensions. Collectively, these results suggest the potential use of the M9 strain in biotechnological

  17. Interactions of Antibiotics and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith. Against Drug Resistance Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Okoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection due to multidrug resistance pathogens is difficult to manage due to bacterial virulence factors and because of a relatively limited choice of antimicrobial agents. Thus, it is imperative to discover fresh antimicrobials or new practices that are effective for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant microorganisms. The objective of this experiment is to investigate for synergistic outcomes when crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana and antibiotics were combined against a panel of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains that have been implicated in infections. Standard microbiological protocols were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the extract and antibiotics, as well as to investigate the effect of combinations of the methanolic extract of A. africana stem bark and selected antibiotics using the time-kill assay method. The extract of Afzelia africana exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria made up of environmental and standard strains at a screening concentration of 5 mg/mL. The MICs of the crude extracts and the antibiotics varied between 1 μg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL. Overall, synergistic response constituted about 63.79% of all manner of combinations of extract and antibiotics against all test organisms; antagonism was not detected among the 176 tests carried out. The extract from A. africana stem bark showed potentials of synergy in combination with antibiotics against strains of pathogenic bacteria. The detection of synergy between the extract and antibiotics demonstrates the potential of this plant as a source of antibiotic resistance modulating compounds.

  18. Physico-chemical surface characterization of a bacterial population isolated from a milking machine

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, P.; Lopes, Zulmira; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário; Vieira, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of 26 species of bacteria representative of the main genera isolated from a rubber short milk tube, which is a constituent of a cluster from a milking machine, was determined. The materials forming the cluster namely rubber, stainless steel (SS) 316, stainless steel (SS) 304, glass and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were also assayed in terms of hydrophobicity. In relation with the hydrophobicity of bacteria, all the strains of Lactobacillus lactis lactis as well as...

  19. Enzymatic Screening and Molecular Characterization of Thermophilic Bacterial Strains Isolated from Hotspring of Tatopani, Bhurung, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hriush Adhikari; Sangam Ghimire; Binod Khatri; Yuvraj K.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: In Nepal not much of study of Thermophilic area and Thermophiles have been done. Thermophilic bacteria are less studied but are important group of microorganisms due to their ability to produce industrially important enzymes. Methods: In this study, thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot spring of Bhurung, Nepal. Wide range of bacteria that could grow at high temperatures and tolerate extreme temperature were characterized by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing o...

  20. Textile Dye Removal from Wastewater Effluents Using Bioflocculants Produced by Indigenous Bacterial Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishna Pillay; Ademola O Olaniran; Simphiwe P. Buthelezi

    2012-01-01

    Bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant located in Durban, South Africa, and identified using standard biochemical tests as well as the analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bioflocculants produced by these organisms were ethanol precipitated, purified using 2% (w/v) cetylpyridinium chloride solution and evaluated for removal of wastewater dyes under different pH, temperature and nutritional conditions. Bioflocculants from ...

  1. Isolation and Screening of Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacterial Strains for Bioremediation of Petroleum Pollution in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Al Disi, Zulfa Ali

    2013-01-01

    Pollution, due to activities related to the oil industry, represents a serious threat to the natural environment. The application of biotechnological methods provides much safer and sustainable alternatives for bioremediation of polluted areas, using microorganisms. Several techniques for the isolation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria have been investigated and published worldwide. A wide range of bilogical activities was shown. However, local hydrocarbon degrading strains and the factors af...

  2. Characterization and crop production efficiency of diazotrophic bacterial isolates from coastal saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shilajit; Tripathi, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Ashis; Ghosh, Sagarmoy; Chakrabarti, Kalyan

    2012-01-20

    Use of eco-friendly area specific salt tolerant bioinoculants is better alternatives to chemical fertilizer for sustainable agriculture in coastal saline soils. We isolated diverse groups of diazotrophic bacteria from coastal saline soils of different forest and agricultural lands in the Sundarbans, West Bengal, India, to study their effect on crop productivity in saline soils. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular identifications of the isolates were performed. The isolates produced indole acetic acid, phosphatase, and solubilized insoluble phosphates. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA identified the SUND_BDU1 strain as Agrobacterium and the strains SUND_LM2, Can4 and Can6 belonging to the genus Bacillus. The ARA activity, dinitrogen fixation and presence of nifH genes indicated they were diazotrophs. Field trials with these strains as bioinoculants were carried out during 2007-2009, with rice during August-December followed by Lady's finger during April-June. Microplots, amended with FYM inoculated with four bioinoculants individually were compared against sole FYM (5 t ha(-1)) and a sole chemical fertilizer (60:30:30 kg ha(-1) NPK) treated plot. The strain Can6 was by far the best performer in respect of yield attributes and productivity of studied crops. PMID:21596539

  3. Optimization of isolation and cultivation of bacterial endophytes through addition of plant extract to nutrient media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Gielen, M; Sánchez-López, A; Jaspers, S; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2015-07-01

    Many endophytes have beneficial effects on plants and can be exploited in biotechnological applications. Studies hypothesize that only 0.001-1% of all plant-associated bacteria are cultivable. Moreover, even after successful isolations, many endophytic bacteria often show reduced regrowth capacity. This research aimed to optimize isolation processes and culturing these bacteria afterwards. We compared several minimal and complex media in a screening. Beside the media themselves, two gelling agents and adding plant extract to media were investigated to enhance the number and diversity of endophytes as well as the growth capacity when regrown after isolation. In this work, 869 medium delivered the highest numbers of cultivable bacteria, as well as the highest diversity. When comparing gelling agents, no differences were observed in the numbers of bacteria. Adding plant extract to the media lead to a slight increase in diversity. However, when adding plant extract to improve the regrowth capacity, sharp increases of viable bacteria occurred in both rich and minimal media.

  4. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for ...

  5. Isolation and characterization of an efficient bacterial cellulose producer strain in agitated culture: Gluconacetobacter hansenii P2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Yasar Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2014-02-01

    In this study, typical niches of acetic acid bacteria were screened for isolation of cellulose producer strains. Hestrin Schramm broth was used as enrichment and production media. Only nine out of 329 isolates formed thick biofilms on liquid surface and were identified as potential cellulose producers. Physiological and biochemical tests proved that all cellulose producers belonged to Gluconacetobacter genus. Most productive and mutation-resistant strain was subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis and identified as Gluconacetobacter hansenii P2A due to 99.8 % sequence similarity. X-ray diffraction analysis proved that the biofilm conformed to Cellulose I crystal structure, rich in Iα mass fraction. Static cultivation of G. hansenii P2A in HS medium resulted with 1.89 ± 0.08 g/l of bacterial cellulose production corresponding to 12.0 ± 0.3 % yield in terms of substrate consumption. Shaking and agitation at 120 rpm aided in enhancement of the amount and yield of produced cellulose. Productivity and yield reached up to 3.25 ± 0.11 g/l and 17.20 ± 0.14 % in agitated culture while a slight decrease from 78.7 % to 77.3 % was observed in the crystallinity index.

  6. Differential proteome analysis of a selected bacterial strain isolated from a high background radiation area in response to radium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Farideh; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Masoumi, Fatemeh; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Rigi, Garshasb; Vali, Hojatollah; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz

    2012-08-01

    The present study describes the response of a bacterial strain, isolated from a hot spring in an area with the highest levels of natural radiation, under radium ((226)Ra) stress. The bacterium has been characterized as a novel and efficient radium biosorbent and identified as a variant of Serratia marcescens by biochemical tests and molecular recognition. In order to gain insights into key cellular events that allow this strain to survive and undergo (226)Ra adaptation and biosorption, the strain was tested under two experimental conditions of 1000 and 6000 Bq (226)Ra stress. A proteomic approach involving two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins under (226)Ra stress. Functional assessment of identified proteins with significantly altered expression levels revealed several mechanisms thought to be involved in (226)Ra adaptation and conferring resistant phenotype to the isolate, including general stress adaptation, anti-oxidative stress, protein and nucleic acid synthesis, energy metabolism, efflux and transport proteins. It suggests that this strain through evolution is particularly well adapted to the high background radiation environment and could represent an alternative source to remove (226)Ra from such areas as well as industrial radionuclide polluted wastewaters.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Bacterial Pathogens from Mobile Phones of Volunteered Technologists in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim TA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial density of mobile phones of volunteered technologies in the Food Science Department of Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo was examined using standard bacteriological methods. A total of 174 colonies belonging to 10 genera were isolated from the mobile phones. The isolated genera were Staphylococcus sp(12(24.14, Klebsiella sp(23(13.22%, Enterococcus sp (08(4.59%. Bacillus sp(14(8.05%, Acinetobacter sp(13(7.47%, Corynebacterium sp(10(5.75%, Pseudomonas sp(24(13.79%, Proteus sp (13(7.47%, Serratia sp(10(5.75% and E.coli (17(9.75% when their morphological, gram staining and biochemical characteristics were compared with known taxa. This study showed that all mobile phones under consideration were infected by several microbes, most of which belong to the natural flora of the human body. This means that it is necessary to sterilize hands after contact with phones since it is a source of disease transmission.

  8. Bacillus rubiinfantis sp. nov. strain mt2T, a new bacterial species isolated from human gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tidjiani Alou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus rubiinfantis sp. nov. strain mt2T is the type strain of B. rubiinfantis sp. nov., isolated from the fecal flora of a child with kwashiorkor in Niger. It is Gram-positive facultative anaerobic rod belonging to the Bacillaceae family. We describe the features of this organism alongside the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4 311 083 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid contains 4028 protein-coding gene and 121 RNA genes including nine rRNA genes.

  9. Bacillus niameyensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from human gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tidjani Alou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus niameyensis sp. nov. strain SIT3T (= CSUR P1266 = DSM 29725 is the type strain of B. niameyensis sp. nov. This Gram-positive strain was isolated from the digestive flora of a child with kwashiorkor and is a facultative anaerobic rod and a member of the Bacillaceae family. This organism is hereby described alongside its complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4  286  116 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid contains 4130 protein-coding and 66 RNA genes including five rRNA genes.

  10. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Jones, J W; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; Watts, D M; Fernandez, R; Travassos da Rosa, A; Guzman, H; Tesh, R; Rossi, C A; Ludwig, V; Mangiafico, J A; Kondig, J; Wasieloski, L P; Pecor, J; Zyzak, M; Schoeler, G; Mores, C N; Calampa, C; Lee, J S; Klein, T A

    2005-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive study on the ecology of arthropod-borne viruses in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, we assayed 539,694 mosquitoes captured in Loreto Department, Peru, for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were captured either by dry ice-baited miniature light traps or with aspirators while mosquitoes were landing on human collectors, identified to species, and later tested on Vero cells for virus. In total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the Alphavirus (eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Trocara, Una, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses), Flavivirus (Ilheus and St. Louis encephalitis), and Orthobunyavirus (Caraparu, Itaqui, Mirim, Murutucu, and Wyeomyia viruses) genera. In addition, several viruses distinct from the above-mentioned genera were identified to the serogroup level. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, whereas Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings & Ferreira. Most isolations of Ilheus virus were made from Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Although species of the Culex subgenus Melanoconion accounted for only 45% of the mosquitoes collected, 85% of the virus isolations were made from this subgenus. Knowledge of the viruses that are being transmitted in the Amazon Basin region of Peru will enable the development of more effective diagnostic assays, more efficient and rapid diagnoses of clinical illnesses caused by these pathogens, risk analysis for military/civilian operations, and development of potential disease control measures.

  11. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HALOPHILIC BACTERIAL STRAINS FROM SALINE WATERS OF KHEWRA SALT MINES ON THE BASIS OF 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCE

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    Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Halophiles are salt loving microbes optimally growing at high concentrations of salt. Khewra salt mines of Pakistan provide extreme saline conditions where enormous halophilic microbial biota thrives. The present study aimed at isolation and molecular identification of bacterial strains from saline waters of Khewra salt mines. Using halophilic media, nine halophilic bacterial strains from saline water bodies were cultured and studied under optimized growth conditions (NaCl, pH and temperature. Bacterial growth at different NaCl concentrations was measured at 600nm wavelength, showing optimal growth at 1.5M NaCl. 769bp size 16S rRNA gene was amplified for molecular identification of bacterial strains. The amplified genes of the strains FA2.2 and FA3.3 were sequenced and their homology with other bacterial strains was analyzed. The results showed FA2.2 shared maximum homology with Bacillus anthracis strain while FA3.3 showed close resemblance with Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. bovis. Isolated halophilic bacterial strains possess potential for various biotechnological applications. They could be manipulated for synthesizing transgenic crops tolerating high salinity boosting the agricultural yield. Moreover extremozymes of these bacteria holds great industrial importance.

  12. Valorization of residual bacterial biomass waste after polyhydroxyalkanoate isolation by hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liqing; Liang, Shaobo; Coats, Erik R; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) was used to convert residual bacterial biomass (RBB), recovered from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production, into valuable bioproducts. The effect of processing temperatures (150, 200, and 250°C) on the bioproducts (water-solubles (WSs), bio-oil, insoluble residue, and gas) was investigated. The yields of bio-oil and gas were higher at higher temperatures. The maximum WS content (28 wt%) was obtained at 200°C. GCMS analysis showed higher content of aromatics and N-containing compounds with increasing temperature. ESI-MS revealed chemical compounds (e.g. protein, carbohydrate, lipids, and lignin) associated with RBB are fragmented into smaller molecules (monomers) at higher HTT temperatures. The WS fraction contained totally 838, 889 and 886mg/g acids and 160, 31 and 21 mg/g carbohydrate for HTT at 150, 200, and 250°C, respectively. The solid residues contain unconverted compounds, especially after HTT at 150°C. The WS products (acids and carbohydrates) could be used directly for PHA biosynthesis. PMID:26454039

  13. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, Ns; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel oil biodegradation. The effects of various culture parameters (pH, temperature, NaCl concentrations, initial hydrocarbon concentration, initial inoculum size, role of chemical surfactant, and role of carbon and nitrogen sources) on biodegradation of diesel oil were evaluated. Optimal diesel oil biodegradation by A. baumanii occurred at initial pH 7, 35°C and initial hydrocarbon concentration at 4%. The biodegradation products under optimal cultural conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. The present study suggests that A. baumannii can be used for effective degradation of diesel oil from industrial effluents contaminated with diesel oil. PMID:25530870

  14. Isolation, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial strain capable of degrading acetamiprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xiao-hua; MIN Hang

    2006-01-01

    An aerobic bacterium, capable of degrading the new chloronicotine pesticide acetamiprid, was isolated from the sludge of pesticide factory after successive enrichment cultures and named strain FH2 which is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, obligate aerobic organism with ((0.5-0.7) ×(1.5-3.0))μm of cell size and with monotrichous flagellum. It was identified as a member of Pseudomonas sp. based on morphology, physio-biochemical properties, Biolog GN2, 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic characteristic analysis. The isolate could grow optimally at pH 7.0 and 30℃ in acetamiprid-mineral medium with 800 mg/L concentration. About 53.3% acetamiprid was degraded by strain FH2 after incubation for 14 d in acetamiprid-mineral medium and nearly 96.7% degraded when incubated in acetamiprid-yeast mineral medium at 30℃ for 14 d. This paper describes phylogenetic and degradation characterization of a pure bacterium being able to mineralize acetamiprid for the first time.

  15. DETECTION AND CHARACTERISATION OF LISTERIA ISOLATES COLLECTED ALONG THE GORGONZOLA PDO PRODUCTION CHAIN

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    D. Nucera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that Listeria monocytogenes represents a concern in the production of Gorgonzola PDO cheese, this study was aimed to investigate the presence of Listeria along one Gorgonzola PDO production chain. L. monocytogenes subtype diversity was also investigated in order to identify possible reservoirs and dissemination routes. One dairy plant and its conferring farms (N=20 were selected and samples were collected in 4 visits in order to investigate seasonal variability. In each of them, producer tank milk (N=80, Gorgonzola producer tanks (N=12, Gorgonzola producer environmental samples (N=108 were collected, for a total of 200 samples. L. innocua was isolated from 3 milk samples (4%; L. monocytogenes alone was detected in 3 environmental samples (16% and L. innocua in 11 (58%. Both species were present in 5 samples. All Listeria strains isolated were typed through ERIC and REP PCRs. For each samples, if possible 5 colonies were selected for typing, for a total of 76 isolates. The analyses allowed the differentiation of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua in 9 and 7 PCR profiles (P, respectively. The former showed an overall similarity value of 75% and the latter of 81%. P1 (N=3 of L. monocytogenes was present in multiple sources (ripening surfaces and salting equipment and P5 (N=6 in different sampling rounds (January and June 2009. P1 (N=25 and P2 (N=15 of L. innocua were found in multiple sources (performing equipment, ripening surfaces, salting equipment, moving carts and in multiple sample rounds (P1: May 2008, January and June 2009; P2: June and October 2009. The presence of a few highly similar strains of L. monocytogenes in the production chain, as suggested by the profiles retrieved from different sources/sampling rounds, indicates the presence of persistent and niche-adapted strains. However, no profile was shared between raw milk and environmental samples, suggesting that the plant environment, not the incoming raw milk, is the source

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Criibacterium bergeronii gen. nov., sp. nov., Strain CCRI-22567T, Isolated from a Vaginal Sample from a Woman with Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Bérubé, Ève; Boudreau, Dominique K; Raymond, Frédéric; Corbeil, Jacques; Roy, Paul H; Boissinot, Maurice; Omar, Rabeea F

    2016-01-01

    Criibacterium bergeronii gen. nov., sp. nov., CCRI-22567 is the type strain of the new genus Criibacterium The strain was isolated from a woman with bacterial vaginosis. The genome assembly comprised 2,384,460 bp, with 34.4% G+C content. This is the first genome announcement of a strain belonging to the genus Criibacterium. PMID:27587833

  17. Pre-adapting parasitic phages to a pathogen leads to increased pathogen clearance and lowered resistance evolution with Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, V-P; Soanes-Brown, D; Sierocinski, P; Molin, S; Johansen, H K; Merabishvili, M; Pirnay, J-P; De Vos, D; Buckling, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen renewed interest in phage therapy--the use of viruses to specifically kill disease-causing bacteria--because of the alarming rise in antibiotic resistance. However, a major limitation of phage therapy is the ease at with bacteria can evolve resistance to phages. Here, we determined whether in vitro experimental coevolution can increase the efficiency of phage therapy by limiting the resistance evolution of intermittent and chronic cystic fibrosis Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung isolates to four different phages. We first pre-adapted all phage strains against all bacterial strains and then compared the efficacy of pre-adapted and nonadapted phages against ancestral bacterial strains. We found that evolved phages were more efficient in reducing bacterial densities than ancestral phages. This was primarily because only 50% of bacterial strains were able to evolve resistance to evolved phages, whereas all bacteria were able to evolve some level of resistance to ancestral phages. Although the rate of resistance evolution did not differ between intermittent and chronic isolates, it incurred a relatively higher growth cost for chronic isolates when measured in the absence of phages. This is likely to explain why evolved phages were more effective in reducing the densities of chronic isolates. Our data show that pathogen genotypes respond differently to phage pre-adaptation, and as a result, phage therapies might need to be individually adjusted for different patients. PMID:26476097

  18. Bacterial isolate and antibacterial resistance pattern of ear infection among patients attending at Hawassa university referral Hospital, Hawassa, Ethiopia

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    Mesfin Worku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ear infection is highly prevalent worldwide. In the older child, long-standing Chronic Supparative Ottitis Media can result in a severe conductive hearing loss with significant drawbacks in learning, communication, and social adjustment. It is associated with hearing impairment, death, and severe disability due to central nervous system involvement in developing countries. Objective: To determine the bacteriological profile and antibacterial resistance of ear infection from patients seen at Ear Nose and Throat clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at clinic of Hawassa University Referal Hospital. Result: A total 117 study subjects included in this study from June 2013 to October 2013. Among these, 57 (48.7% were male and 53 (45.3% were children. Bacteria identified from positive ear swabs were: Staphylococcus aureus 24 (20.5%, Pseudomonas aeroginosa 17 (14.5%, Klebsiella species 10 (8.5%, Proteus species 7 (6.0%, Entrobacter species 4 (3.4%, Escherchia coli 3 (2.6%, Citrobacter species 2 (1.7%, and Providentia species 2 (1.7%. The overall sensitivity and resistance profile of antibacterial agent, Amikacin (90.0% and Gentamycin (89.1 showed high level of antibacterial effect on all identified bacterial species. On other hand, all isolates were highly resistance to ampicilin (87.5%, oxacillin (84.0%, ceftriaxone (82.8%, cephalotin (81.4%, and penicillin G (73.8%. Conclusion: Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly prescribed drug in the area. However, Amikacin and Gentamycin were highly active against the isolated organism, whereas Ciprofloxacilin was moderately active. Therefore, culture and susceptibility test is vital for appropriate management of ear infection in study area.

  19. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

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    Xiaojian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0 and high bile salt (0.3-1.5% and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7 CFU/chick or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4 CFU/chick next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1. These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10 in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in

  20. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

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    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  1. Interaction of legionella pneumophila and helicobacter pylori with bacterial species isolated from drinking water biofilms

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    Azevedo Nuno F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that Legionella pneumophila is a waterborne pathogen; by contrast, the mode of Helicobacter pylori transmission remains unknown but water seems to play an important role. This work aims to study the influence of five microorganisms isolated from drinking water biofilms on the survival and integration of both of these pathogens into biofilms. Results Firstly, both pathogens were studied for auto- and co-aggregation with the species isolated from drinking water; subsequently the formation of mono and dual-species biofilms by L. pneumophila or H. pylori with the same microorganisms was investigated. Neither auto- nor co-aggregation was observed between the microorganisms tested. For biofilm studies, sessile cells were quantified in terms of total cells by SYTO 9 staining, viable L. pneumophila or H. pylori cells were quantified using 16 S rRNA-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA probes and cultivable cells by standard culture techniques. Acidovorax sp. and Sphingomonas sp. appeared to have an antagonistic effect on L. pneumophila cultivability but not on the viability (as assessed by rRNA content using the PNA probe, possibly leading to the formation of viable but noncultivable (VBNC cells, whereas Mycobacterium chelonae increased the cultivability of this pathogen. The results obtained for H. pylori showed that M. chelonae and Sphingomonas sp. help this pathogen to maintain cultivability for at least 24 hours. Conclusions It appears that M. chelonae may have an important role in the survival of both pathogens in drinking water. This work also suggests that the presence of some microorganisms can decrease the cultivability of L. pneumophila but not the viability which indicates that the presence of autochthonous microorganisms can lead to misleading results when the safety of water is assessed by cultivable methods alone.

  2. Characterization of novel extracellular protease produced by marine bacterial isolate from the Indian Ocean

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    Rachana Fulzele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of the vast pool of enzymes, proteolytic enzymes from microorganisms are the most widely used in different industries such as detergent, food, peptide production etc. Several marine microorganisms are known to produce proteases with commercially desirable characteristics. We have isolated nine different cultures from marine samples of the Indian Ocean. All of them were i motile ii rod shaped iii non spore forming iv catalase and amylase positive v able to grow in presence of 10 % NaCl. They produced acid from glucose, fructose and maltose and grew optimally at 30 0C temperature and pH 7.0-8.0. None of them could grow above 45 0C and below 15 0C. Only one of them (MBRI 7 exhibited extracellular protease activity on skim milk agar plates. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing, it belonged to the genus Marinobacter (98% sequence similarity, 1201 bp. The cell free extract was used to study effects of temperature and pH on protease activity. The optimum temperature and pH for activity were found to be 40 0C and 7.0 respectively. The crude enzyme was stable at temperature range of 30-80 0C and pH 5.0-9.0. It retained 60 % activity at 80 0C after 4 h and more than 70 % activity at 70 0C after 1 h. D value was found to be 342 minutes and 78 minutes for 40 0C and 80 0C respectively. Interestingly the enzyme remained 50 % active at pH 9.0 after 1 h. Comparison with other proteases from different microbial sources indicated that the neutral protease from the halotolerant marine isolate MBRI 7 is a novel enzyme with high thermostability.

  3. Comparison of Phenotypic and Genotypic Approaches to Capsule Typing of Neisseria meningitidis by Use of Invasive and Carriage Isolate Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C Hal; Mohamed, Naglaa; Rojas, Eduardo; Andrew, Lubomira; Hoyos, Johanna; Hawkins, Julio C; McNeil, Lisa K; Jiang, Qin; Mayer, Leonard W; Wang, Xin; Gilca, Rodica; De Wals, Philippe; Pedneault, Louise; Eiden, Joseph; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis; however, MnB is most commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage in the nasopharyngeal cavity, as opposed to the disease state. Two vaccines are now licensed for the prevention of MnB disease; a possible additional benefit of these vaccines could be to protect against disease indirectly by disrupting nasopharyngeal carriage (e.g., herd protection). To investigate this possibility, accurate diagnostic approaches to characterize MnB carriage isolates are required. In contrast to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) isolates, which can be readily serogrouped, carriage isolates often lack capsule expression, making standard phenotypic assays unsuitable for strain characterization. Several antibody-based methods were evaluated for their abilities to serogroup isolates and were compared with two genotyping methods (real-time PCR [rt-PCR] and whole-genome sequencing [WGS]) to identify which approach would most accurately ascertain the polysaccharide groups associated with carriage isolates. WGS and rt-PCR were in agreement for 99% of IMD isolates, including those with coding sequences for MnB, MnC, MnW, and MnY, and the phenotypic methods correctly identified serogroups for 69 to 98% of IMD isolates. In contrast, only 47% of carriage isolates were groupable by genotypic methods, due to mutations within the capsule operon; of the isolates identified by genotypic methods, ≤43% were serogroupable with any of the phenotypic methods tested. These observations highlight the difficulties in the serogrouping and capsular genogrouping of meningococcal carriage isolates. Based on our findings, WGS is the most suitable approach for the characterization of meningococcal carriage isolates. PMID:26311858

  4. Biochemical changes induced by salt stress in halotolerant bacterial isolates are media dependent as well as species specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joghee, Nidhya Nadarajan; Jayaraman, Gurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Halophilic bacteria respond to salt stress by regulating the cytosolic pools of organic solutes to achieve osmotic equilibrium. In order to understand the metabolic regulation of these organic solutes, for the first time, we have investigated the effect of salt on growth and biochemical changes in four major moderately halophilic bacterial strains isolated from a saltern region of the Kumta coast, India. The strains under study were Halomonas hydrothermalis VITP9, Bacillus aquimaris VITP4, Planococcus maritimus VITP21, and Virgibacillus dokdonensis VITP14, which exhibited similar salt tolerance (0% to 10% w/v NaCl) with optimal growth at 5% w/v NaCl. Biochemical analysis showed that the total intracellular organic solutes increased significantly with increasing NaCl concentration in the growth medium, and the compositions of the solutes were dependent on the type of strain and also on the nutrient richness of the growth medium. Glutamic acid levels increased in all the strains under salt stress, indicating the significance of glutamic acid as the anionic counterpart of K(+)/Na(+) ions and precursor for other synthesized nitrogenous osmolytes. Though initial studies were performed with thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry was used to identify the major solutes accumulated by the strains under salt stress, such as proline (VITP4), ectoine (VITP14 and VITP9), and sugars (VITP21) under minimal medium and glycine betaine (by all the strains under study) under complex growth medium conditions. Such comparative study on the stress-dependent metabolic differences of different microbes, under identical experimental condition, helps to identify possible bacterial sources for the production of industrially important solutes. PMID:25286020

  5. The Characterization of Chlorophyll-A and Microalgae Isolation Process of Wastewater Collected at Sembrong Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellson, R.; Othman, N.; Matias-Peralta, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing number of river water quality deterioration that has brought into water quality disruptions that entering dams including in Johor and one of them is occurred in Sembrong Dam in Johor. Sembrong Dam is a major water source for some 120,000 people in the districts of Kluang and parts of Batu Pahat. The quality of water in Sembrong should be well-monitored in ensuring the continuous distribution of clean and safe water supply to peoples. Based on the news reported by The Star news dated on 11 May 2015, the water bodies in Sembrong Dam are polluted by the algae blooms which has started to cause problems in treating water phase by clogging up the filters and causing the production to be reduced and finally resulting in frequent water disruptions to residents. Therefore, there is a need to study the water quality of the dam water prior to further water treatment. One of important characterizations is by measuring chlorophyll-a and the isolation of the dominant microalgae species in the water body in which they are able to indicate the level of water pollution. This paper presents the determination of chlorophyll-a and the isolation of microalgae strains collected from Sembrong Dam. Chlorophyll-a is a photosynthetic pigment present in all species of phytoplankton, including algae and in some photosynthetic bacteria, known as cyanobacteria. The method used in measuring the chlorophyll-a is based on the standard method of IS0 10 260. The average chlorophyll-a concentration measured at Sembrong Dam is 175.9 µg L-1 and it is responsible for the appearance of green color in the sample and it is categorized into hypereutrophic state which is highly polluted. The technique used for isolation of microalgae strains is traditional method which is by spreading the sample on agar. The pure isolate indicated that the genus Botryococcus is the dominant algae species which is characterized morphologically. Both chlorophyll-a and microalgae

  6. Isolation and characterization of rhamnolipid-producing bacterial strains from a biodiesel facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Price, Neil P J; Ray, Karen J; Kuo, Tsung-Min

    2009-06-01

    Novel strains of rhamnolipid-producing bacteria were isolated from soils at a biodiesel facility on the basis of their ability to grow on glycerol as a sole carbon source. Strains were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Pantoea stewartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strains of the former five species were found to produce rhamnolipids in quantities the same as, or similar to, coisolated strains of P. aeruginosa. Measurements of surface tension revealed that that emulsifying properties of these strains were similar to levels displayed by rhamnolipids produced by P. aeruginosa. Results of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS analyses revealed that the predominant compounds made by all strains were C10-C10 mono- and dirhamnolipids. Notably, E. hormaechei and one strain of A. calcoaceticus produced rhamnolipids in amounts similar to the pseudomonads. As all strains examined were from the same taxonomic class of Proteobacteria, further examination of this group may reveal many additional species not previously known to produce rhamnolipids in addition to novel strains of species currently known to produce rhamnolipids. PMID:19473254

  7. Marine Fungal and Bacterial Isolates for Lipase Production: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnala, H S; Kabilan, U; Gopalakrishnan, L; Rao, R M D; Kumar, D S

    2016-01-01

    Lipases, belonging to the class of enzymes called hydrolases, can catalyze triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol. They are produced by microbes of plant and animal origin, and also by marine organisms. As marine microorganisms thrive in extreme conditions, lipases isolated from their origin possess characteristics of extremozymes, retain its activity in extreme conditions and can catalyze few chemical reactions which are impossible otherwise relative to the lipase produced from terrestrial microorganisms. Lipases are useful in many industries like detergent, food, leather, pharmaceutical, diary, etc. Few commercial enzymes have been developed and the use of them in certain industries like dairy, soaps are proved to be beneficial. There are few research papers reporting the production of lipase from marine bacteria and fungi. Lipase production involves two types of fermentation processes-solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Although SmF process is used conventionally, SSF process produces lipase in higher amounts. The production is also influenced by the composition of the medium, physiochemical parameters like temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources. PMID:27452166

  8. Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia

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    Stott Matthew B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a widespread but poorly characterized bacterial clade. Although cultivation-independent approaches detect representatives of this phylum in a wide range of environments, including soils, seawater, hot springs and human gastrointestinal tract, only few have been isolated in pure culture. We have recently reported cultivation and initial characterization of an extremely acidophilic methanotrophic member of the Verrucomicrobia, strain V4, isolated from the Hell's Gate geothermal area in New Zealand. Similar organisms were independently isolated from geothermal systems in Italy and Russia. Results We report the complete genome sequence of strain V4, the first one from a representative of the Verrucomicrobia. Isolate V4, initially named "Methylokorus infernorum" (and recently renamed Methylacidiphilum infernorum is an autotrophic bacterium with a streamlined genome of ~2.3 Mbp that encodes simple signal transduction pathways and has a limited potential for regulation of gene expression. Central metabolism of M. infernorum was reconstructed almost completely and revealed highly interconnected pathways of autotrophic central metabolism and modifications of C1-utilization pathways compared to other known methylotrophs. The M. infernorum genome does not encode tubulin, which was previously discovered in bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter, or close homologs of any other signature eukaryotic proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits unequivocally supports grouping Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae into a single clade, the PVC superphylum, despite dramatically different gene content in members of these three groups. Comparative-genomic analysis suggests that evolution of the M. infernorum lineage involved extensive horizontal gene exchange with a variety of bacteria. The genome of M. infernorum shows apparent adaptations for existence under extremely

  9. ISOLATION OF PHYTOPLASMA DNA FROM THE COCONUT PALMS (Cocos nucifera L. COLLECTED FROM GHANA

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    Oulo Alla-N'Nan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the presence of the causative agent of Lethal Yellowing which is phytoplasma in samples provided from infected coconut trees. Study was carried out by using various samples like zygotic embryo, young leaves and immature & mature inflorescences. These materials were collected from trees at the stage 1 and 2 of the disease development.. Stage 1 of disease development is characterized by leaf yellowing and the start of the falling nuts while at the stage 2 of disease development, the trees has not bear nuts longer. From infected material, DNA was extracted by three different processes and isolated DNA was amplified by PCR. 16S rRNA gene was amplified by two specific primers of phytoplama viz P1/P2 and Ghana 813/AKSR. Among the various tested materials presence of phytoplasma was reported from the mature inflorescences while the presence of the phytoplasma was not reported from the leaves and embryos of the coconut.

  10. The antibacterial capacity of marine bacteria isolated from sponge Acanthella cavernosa collected from Lombok Island

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    Tutik Murniasih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find a potent antibiotic producer from the sponge-associated bacteria as well as to profile the important substances. Methods: Sponge collection, bacteria isolation, extraction and characterization of potent active compounds were carried out for this study. Results: Approximately 59 single strains of bacteria were isolated from this sponge. Totally 40 strains showed activity against Escerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio eltor. The chemical separation of the potent strain Bacterium sp. Lb.10%.2.1.1.b, using n-phase column chromatography revealed 7 active fractions (7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 15. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of Fraction 7 indicated some phenolic compounds including 4-nonylphenol, methyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylpropionate, acetosyringone, 2,4-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2- ethylhexyl ester, tri(2-ethylhexyl trimellitate and oleamide. Conclusions: Indeed, this is a preliminary information in profiling chemical substances, produced by Bacterium sp. Lb.10%.2.1.1.b. Further purification and structural chemical determination were needed to find a comprehensive result.

  11. The antibacterial capacity of marine bacteria isolated from sponge Acanthella cavernosa collected from Lombok Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tutik Murniasih; Eka Ayu Indriany; Masteri Yunovilsa Putra; Febriana Untari

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To find a potent antibiotic producer from the sponge-associated bacteria as well as to profile the important substances. Methods:Sponge collection, bacteria isolation, extraction and characterization of potent active compounds were carried out for this study. Results:Approximately 59 single strains of bacteria were isolated from this sponge. Totally 40 strains showed activity against Escerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio eltor. The chemical separation of the potent strain Bacterium sp. Lb.10%.2.1.1.b, using n-phase column chromatography revealed 7 active fractions (7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 15). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of Fraction 7 indicated some phenolic compounds including 4-nonylphenol, methyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, acetosyringone, 2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate and oleamide. Conclusions:Indeed, this is a preliminary information in profiling chemical substances, produced by Bacterium sp. Lb.10%.2.1.1.b. Further purification and structural chemical determination were needed to find a comprehensive result.

  12. Collection, isolation and enrichment of naturally occurring magnetotactic bacteria from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K; Lin, Wei; Lower, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are aquatic microorganisms that were first notably described in 1975 from sediment samples collected in salt marshes of Massachusetts (USA). Since then MTB have been discovered in stratified water- and sediment-columns from all over the world. One feature common to all MTB is that they contain magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bound magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or greigite (Fe3S4) or both. In the Northern hemisphere, MTB are typically attracted to the south end of a bar magnet, while in the Southern hemisphere they are usually attracted to the north end of a magnet. This property can be exploited when trying to isolate MTB from environmental samples. One of the most common ways to enrich MTB is to use a clear plastic container to collect sediment and water from a natural source, such as a freshwater pond. In the Northern hemisphere, the south end of a bar magnet is placed against the outside of the container just above the sediment at the sediment-water interface. After some time, the bacteria can be removed from the inside of the container near the magnet with a pipette and then enriched further by using a capillary racetrack and a magnet. Once enriched, the bacteria can be placed on a microscope slide using a hanging drop method and observed in a light microscope or deposited onto a copper grid and observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using this method, isolated MTB may be studied microscopically to determine characteristics such as swimming behavior, type and number of flagella, cell morphology of the cells, shape of the magnetic crystals, number of magnetosomes, number of magnetosome chains in each cell, composition of the nanomineral crystals, and presence of intracellular vacuoles. PMID:23183960

  13. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA isolates from recent bacterial canker of kiwifruit outbreaks belong to the same genetic lineage.

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    Angelo Mazzaglia

    Full Text Available Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA. The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia, Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks.

  14. Degradation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules by the Microscopic Yeast Trichosporon loubieri Isolated from Tropical Wetland Waters

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    Cheng-Siang Wong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteobacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactones as signaling molecules, which will bind to their cognate receptor and activate quorum sensing-mediated phenotypes in a population-dependent manner. Although quorum sensing signaling molecules can be degraded by bacteria or fungi, there is no reported work on the degradation of such molecules by basidiomycetous yeast. By using a minimal growth medium containing N-3-oxohexanoylhomoserine lactone as the sole source of carbon, a wetland water sample from Malaysia was enriched for microbial strains that can degrade N-acylhomoserine lactones, and consequently, a basidiomycetous yeast strain WW1C was isolated. Morphological phenotype and molecular analyses confirmed that WW1C was a strain of Trichosporon loubieri. We showed that WW1C degraded AHLs with N-acyl side chains ranging from 4 to 10 carbons in length, with or without oxo group substitutions at the C3 position. Re-lactonisation bioassays revealed that WW1C degraded AHLs via a lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of degradation of N-acyl-homoserine lactones and utilization of N-3-oxohexanoylhomoserine as carbon and nitrogen source for growth by basidiomycetous yeast from tropical wetland water; and the degradation of bacterial quorum sensing molecules by an eukaryotic yeast.

  15. Aloe vera extract functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles as nanoantibiotics against multi-drug resistant clinical bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Khursheed; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Azam, Ameer; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Said, Mansour S; Alkhedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2016-06-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were synthesised through a simple and efficient biogenic synthesis approach, exploiting the reducing and capping potential of Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. vera) leaf extract (ALE). ALE-capped ZnO nanoparticles (ALE-ZnONPs) were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. XRD analysis provided the average size of ZnONPs as 15 nm. FTIR spectral analysis suggested the role of phenolic compounds, terpenoids and proteins present in ALE, in nucleation and stability of ZnONPs. Flow cytometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) data analyses revealed the surface binding and internalization of ZnONPs in Gram +ve (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli) cells, respectively. Significant antibacterial activity of ALE-ZnONPs was observed against extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) positive E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates exhibiting the MIC and MBC values of 2200, 2400 μg/ml and 2300, 2700 μg/ml, respectively. Substantial inhibitory effects of ALE-ZnONPs on bacterial growth kinetics, exopolysaccharides and biofilm formation, unequivocally suggested the antibiotic and anti-biofilm potential. Overall, the results elucidated a rapid, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and convenient method for ALE-ZnONPs synthesis, for possible applications as nanoantibiotics or drug carriers. PMID:27031596

  16. Radiosensitivities of bacterial isolates on minced chicken and poached chicken meal and their elimination following irradiation and chilled storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus on poached chicken meal (PCM) and minced chicken substrate (MCS) were determined. Effect of irradiation (0, 1, 2 kGy) on total viable cells (TVC) of PCM components was determined under chilled (3-5 oC) storage (0, 9, 14, 21 days) and challenge testing of the bacterial isolates with irradiation (0, 2, 3 kGy) was also conducted on PCM under chilled storage (0,7, 14, 21, 28 days). Additionally, sensory evaluation of the PCM components was assessed with irradiation (0, 2, 3 kGy) during chilled storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days). D10 of E. coli on PCM and MCS were 0.18 and 0.25 kGy whiles those of S. aureus were 0.27 and 0.29 kGy, respectively. D10 values for PCME. coli. 2 kGy controlled TVC and extended the shelf life of meals to ≥14 days but 3 kGy was required to eliminate E. coli and S. aureus. Sensory qualities of the meal were not affected by an irradiation dose of 3 kGy

  17. Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides on selected cariogenic and enteric bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Ajibade Adefisoye

    2012-02-01

    Methods: Crude extracts were obtained by cold extraction method of the powdered stem in methanol-water mixture (MW in ratio 3:2 and phosphate buffer saline (PBS. Filtrates obtained were concentrated in a rotary evaporator and lyophilized. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts, at a concentration of 25 mg/ml was tested against four bacterial isolates using agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract for the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids and flavanoids was based on chemical examination. Results and discussions: Extracts from methanol-water mixture showed some antimicrobial activity against Lactobacillus brevis (NCIMB 4617, L. plantarum (NCDO 1752 and Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of extracts ranged between 1.57 and 12.5 mg/ml except in E. coli with value greater than 12.5.mg/ml. The phytochemical screening indicated that the extract tested positive for tannin, saponin, flavonoids and alkaloids. Results showed that F. zanthoxyloides would be valuable in the treatment of microbial diseases particularly those of the oral cavity. The considerable antibacterial activities exhibited by the extract of the plant thus justify the use as a teeth cleansing agent in the local setting. The problem of antibiotics resistance to synthetic drugs is also expected to be mitigated with the use of natural drugs. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 1-6

  18. Characterization of a Novel Mesophilic Bacterial Amylase Secreted by ZW2531-1,a Strain Newly Isolated from Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; LI Fan; GAO Chao-hui; ZHANG Ying-Jiu

    2009-01-01

    A novel mesophilic bacterial amylase,named oligosaccharide-producing multifunctional amylase(OPMA),was discovered and characterized.OPMA is an extracellular enzyme secreted by ZW2531-1,a strain newly isolated from Chinese soil.It could be purified to homogeneity from the culture supematant of ZW2531-1 by 30%-60% saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation,followed by twice Sephadex gel filtration chromatography.OPMA is a 66 kDa protein based on SDS-PAGE and has an isoelectric point(p/) at pH=5.3 by Isoelectric focusing electrophoresis(IFE),it only catalyzes the degradation of starch,rather than other alpha-1,4-and/or 1,6-glucan polysaccharides such as β-cyclomaltodextrin and pullulan.OPMA degraded starch to produce several oligosccharides including maltose,maltotriose,and isomaltotriose as the major end-products,and perhaps other oligosaccharides such as isomaltotetraose,rather than glucose.OPMA exhibited optimal catalytic activity at a reaction temperature of 50 ℃ and pH=6.0,as determined by orthogonal test.Under the optimal reaction conditions,purified OPMA had a specific activity of 13.75 U/mg.These findings suggest that OPMA could be used for the production of some oligosaccharides beneficial to the food industry and medicine.

  19. Analysis and characterization of cultivable heavy metal-resistant bacterial endophytes isolated from Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and their potential use for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-lian; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jue-liang; Xiao, Xiao; Xu, Tao-ying; Wan, Yong; Rao, Chan; Liu, Cheng-bin; Liu, Yu-tang; Lai, Cui; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the heavy metal-resistant bacterial endophytes of Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. grown on a mine tailing by using cultivation-dependent technique. Thirty Cd-tolerant bacterial endophytes were isolated from roots, stems, and leaves of S. nigrum L. and classified by amplified ribosomal DNA-restriction analysis into 18 different types. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that these isolates belonged to four groups: Actinobacteria (43%), Proteobacteria (23%), Bacteroidetes (27%) and Firmicutes (7%). All the isolates were then characterized for their plant growth promoting traits as well as their resistances to different heavy metals; and the actual plant growth promotion and colonization ability were also assessed. Four isolates were re-introduced into S. nigrum L. under Cd stress and resulted in Cd phytotoxicity decrease, as dry weights of roots increased from 55% to 143% and dry weights of above-ground from 64% to 100% compared to the uninoculated ones. The total Cd accumulation of inoculated plants increased from 66% to 135% (roots) and from 22% to 64% (above-ground) compared to the uninoculated ones. Our research suggests that bacterial endophytes are a most promising resource and may be the excellent candidates of bio-inoculants for enhancing the phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:21868057

  20. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J.; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong

    2015-09-01

    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters.

  1. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

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    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  2. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with calcareous deposits and drip-waters, and isolation of calcifying bacteria from two Colombian mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García G, Mariandrea; Márquez G, Marco Antonio; Moreno H, Claudia Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial carbonate precipitation has implications in geological processes and important biotechnological applications. Bacteria capable of precipitating carbonates have been isolated from different calcium carbonate deposits (speleothems) in caves, soil, freshwater and seawater around the world. However, the diversity of bacteria from calcareous deposits in Colombia, and their ability to precipitate carbonates, remains unknown. In this study, conventional microbiological methods and molecular tools, such as temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE), were used to assess the composition of bacterial communities associated with carbonate deposits and drip-waters from two Colombian mines. A genetic analysis of these bacterial communities revealed a similar level of diversity, based on the number of bands detected using TTGE. The dominant phylogenetic affiliations of the bacteria, determined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were grouped into two phyla: Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Within these phyla, seven genera were capable of precipitating calcium carbonates: Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, Strenotophomonas, Brevibacillus, Methylobacterium, Aeromicrobium and Acinetobacter. FTIR and SEM/EDX were used to analyze calcium carbonate crystals produced by isolated Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. The results showed that rhombohedral and angular calcite crystals with sizes of 90μm were precipitated. This research provides information regarding the presence of complex bacterial communities in secondary carbonate deposits from mines and their ability to precipitate calcium carbonate from calcareous deposits of Colombian mines. PMID:26686610

  3. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with calcareous deposits and drip-waters, and isolation of calcifying bacteria from two Colombian mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García G, Mariandrea; Márquez G, Marco Antonio; Moreno H, Claudia Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial carbonate precipitation has implications in geological processes and important biotechnological applications. Bacteria capable of precipitating carbonates have been isolated from different calcium carbonate deposits (speleothems) in caves, soil, freshwater and seawater around the world. However, the diversity of bacteria from calcareous deposits in Colombia, and their ability to precipitate carbonates, remains unknown. In this study, conventional microbiological methods and molecular tools, such as temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE), were used to assess the composition of bacterial communities associated with carbonate deposits and drip-waters from two Colombian mines. A genetic analysis of these bacterial communities revealed a similar level of diversity, based on the number of bands detected using TTGE. The dominant phylogenetic affiliations of the bacteria, determined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were grouped into two phyla: Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Within these phyla, seven genera were capable of precipitating calcium carbonates: Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, Strenotophomonas, Brevibacillus, Methylobacterium, Aeromicrobium and Acinetobacter. FTIR and SEM/EDX were used to analyze calcium carbonate crystals produced by isolated Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. The results showed that rhombohedral and angular calcite crystals with sizes of 90μm were precipitated. This research provides information regarding the presence of complex bacterial communities in secondary carbonate deposits from mines and their ability to precipitate calcium carbonate from calcareous deposits of Colombian mines.

  4. CHARACTERISATION OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM INFECTE D BURN WOUNDS OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN A TERTIARY LEVEL HEA LTH CARE FACILITY IN NORTHERN REGION OF INDIA

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    Antariksh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Infection is an important cause of mortality in bur ns. Emergence of multi drug resistant pathogens in hospital setting has seriously constrained the available therapeutic options. This necessitates periodic review of the iso lation pattern and study of antibiogram of the isolates to strengthen surveillance activities. To determine the bacteriological profile and antimic robial susceptibility pattern of pathogens isolated from infected burn wounds of pati ents admitted in the burns care unit. The present study was carried out over a duration of six months. Pus samples from infected burn wounds were processed following standard protocols. A ntimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates was performed by Kirby- Bauer dis c diffusion method. A total of 408 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 340 samples. The most fr equent cause of infection was found to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa (53%, followed by Staphyl ococcus aureus (9%, Escherichia coli (9%, Enterobacter spp. (8%, Citrobacter spp. (8%, Kl ebsiella spp. (5%, Acinetobacter spp. (3% and Proteus spp. (3%. High level of drug resist ance (95-100% was observed for cefepime, ceftazidime, amoxyclav, cotrimoxazole and doxycycline among gram negative pathogens. Meropenem, amikacin and ciprofloxacin were found to be most effective. Twenty one percent of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to methicillin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance emphasizes the need for str engthening the infection control practices and regular and periodical surveillance activities t o contain the upward trend of resistance.

  5. Identification of an Endophytic Antifungal Bacterial Strain Isolated from the Rubber Tree and Its Application in the Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Deguan Tan; Lili Fu; Bingyin Han; Xuepiao Sun; Peng Zheng; Jiaming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. Effective control methods are still under exploring. The endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as Serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. This strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana Fusarium disease. Visual agar plate assay showed that ITBB B5-1 restricted the mycelial grow...

  6. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine infections in dairy cows lower profitability of dairy operations. Infections of the reproductive tract are related to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria during the first three weeks after parturition. However, alterations in the vaginal microbiota composition in the first weeks after parturition remain poorly documented. Results In this study, bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy pregnant, and infected postpartum cows were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA gene sequencing. Populations of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Infected cows had a significant increase in the vaginal enteric bacteria population which consisted mainly of Escherichia coli. Three E. coli isolates harboured the gene coding for Shiga-like-toxin (SLT I or II. Several isolates of the Pediococcus acidilactici were found to produce the bacteriocin pediocin AcH/PA-1. Quantitative PCR analyses of vaginal mucus samples collected from ten metritic cows before and after parturition confirmed the presence of the Lactobacillus group (Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Weissella spp.; Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and bacilli. The presence of the pediocin AcH/PA-1 structural gene and SLT genes were also confirmed with qPCR. Conclusions In conclusion, overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, after parturition likely contributes to the development of metritis. Our microbiota analysis extends the information related to the composition of commensal bacteria in the bovine female reproductive tract and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies for prevention of uterine infections in dairy cows.

  7. 405 nm light exposure of osteoblasts and inactivation of bacterial isolates from arthroplasty patients: potential for new disinfection applications?

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    RS McDonald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection rates after arthroplasty surgery are between 1-4 %, rising significantly after revision procedures. To reduce the associated costs of treating these infections, and the patients’ post-operative discomfort and trauma, a new preventative method is required. High intensity narrow spectrum (HINS 405 nm light has bactericidal effects on a wide range of medically important bacteria, and it reduced bacterial bioburden when used as an environmental disinfection method in a Medical Burns Unit. To prove its safety for use for environmental disinfection in orthopaedic theatres during surgery, cultured osteoblasts were exposed to HINS-light of intensities up to 15 mW/cm2 for 1 h (54 J/cm2. Intensities of up to 5 mW/cm2 for 1 h had no effect on cell morphology, activity of alkaline phosphatase, synthesis of collagen or osteocalcin expression, demonstrating that under these conditions this dose is the maximum safe exposure for osteoblasts; after exposure to 15 mW/cm2 all parameters of osteoblast function were significantly decreased. Viability (measured by protein content and Crystal Violet staining of the osteoblasts was not influenced by exposure to 5 mW/cm2 for at least 2 h. At 5 mW/cm2 HINS-light is an effective bactericide. It killed 98.1 % of Staphylococcus aureus and 83.2 % Staphylococcus epidermis populations seeded on agar surfaces, and is active against both laboratory strains and clinical isolates from infected hip and knee arthroplasties. HINS-light could have potential for development as a method of disinfection to reduce transmission of bacteria during arthroplasty, with wider applications in diverse surgical procedures involving implantation of a medical device.

  8. Effect of ADH on rubidium transport in isolated perfused rat cortical collecting tubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, J.A.; Troutman, S.L.

    1986-06-01

    Unidirectional fluxes of 86Rb+ were measured as an indicator of potassium transport in isolated rat cortical collecting tubules perfused and bathed at 38 degrees C with isotonic solutions in which Rb+ replaced K+. Under control conditions the lumen-to-bath flux (Jl----b) was significantly less than the bath-to-lumen flux (Jb----l), indicating net Rb+ secretion. Net secretion increased approximately 180% after addition of 100 microU/ml of arginine vasopressin (ADH) to the bathing solution, due to a rapid and reversible increase in Jb----l from 4.6 +/- 0.8 to 9.0 +/- 1.9 pmol X min-1 X mm-1 with no significant change in Jl----b. The ADH effect was completely inhibited by 2 mM luminal Ba2+. The average transepithelial voltage (Ve) was not significantly different from zero in the control period but became lumen negative (-5 to -10 mV) after ADH. With 10(-5) M amiloride in the lumen Ve was lumen positive (+2 to +4 mV) and was unaltered by ADH or Ba2+, yet ADH produced a significant but attentuated increase in Jb----l with no change in Jl----b. The results indicate that ADH augments net K+ secretion either by an increase in the Ba2+-sensitive conductance of the apical membrane or by an increase in the electrochemical potential driving force for net Rb+ secretion through this pathway.

  9. Experimental evaluation of sand fly collection and storage methods for the isolation and molecular detection of Phlebotomus-borne viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Remoli, Maria Elena; Bongiorno, Gioia; Fortuna, Claudia; Marchi, Antonella; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background Several viruses have been recently isolated from Mediterranean phlebotomine sand flies; some are known to cause human disease while some are new to science. To monitor the Phlebotomus-borne viruses spreading, field studies are in progress using different sand fly collection and storage methods. Two main sampling techniques consist of CDC light traps, an attraction method allowing collection of live insects in which the virus is presumed to be fairly preserved, and sticky traps, an ...

  10. Multilocus sequence typing of a global collection of Pasteurella multocida isolates from cattle and other host species demonstrates niche association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson F Alex

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pasteurella multocida causes disease in many host species throughout the world. In bovids, it contributes to bovine respiratory disease (BRD and causes haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS. Previous studies have suggested that BRD-associated P. multocida isolates are of limited diversity. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme for P. multocida was used to determine whether the low levels of diversity reported are due to the limited discriminatory power of the typing method used, restricted sample selection or true niche association. Bovine respiratory isolates of P. multocida (n = 133 from the UK, the USA and France, collected between 1984 and 2008 from both healthy and clinically affected animals, were typed using MLST. Isolates of P. multocida from cases of HS, isolates from other host species and data from the MLST database were used as comparison. Results Bovine respiratory isolates were found to be clonal (ISA 0.45 with 105/128 belonging to clonal complex 13 (CC13. HS isolates were not related to bovine respiratory isolates. Of the host species studied, the majority had their own unique sequence types (STs, with few STs being shared across host species, although there was some cross over between porcine and bovine respiratory isolates. Avian, ovine and porcine isolates showed greater levels of diversity compared to cattle respiratory isolates, despite more limited geographic origins. Conclusions The homogeneity of STs of bovine respiratory P. multocida observed, and the differences between these and P. multocida subpopulations from bovine non-respiratory isolates and non-bovine hosts may indicate niche association.

  11. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. PMID:27295343

  12. 树鼩粪便细菌分离培养与鉴定%Isolation, culture and identification of bacterial strains from tree shrews feces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽君; 余柄廷; 胡凝珠; 孙晓梅; 王玮; 孙静; 胡云章; 李建芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective Study the fecal flora diversity of the tree shrew , to provide a basis data of fecal bacteria of feeding the tree shrew .Methods Ten tree shrews were used in this study .The Stools of the animals were respectively cultured with oxygen and without oxygen to isolate the bacterial .Then the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA of the bacterial was sequenced and analyzed .Results 25 bacterial strains belonging to ten bacterial species were isolated by anaerobic incubation , and 25 bacterial strains belonging to twelve bacterial species were isolated by aerobic incubation .Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia fergusonii, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus , Aeromonas salmonicida subsp .masoucida , Rahnella aquatilis , Exiguobacterium aquaticum , Raoultella terrigena , and Escherichia coli were identified in this study .Conclusions There is a fecal flora diversity of the tree shrew, and the Proteus vulgaris , Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium may be the major parasitic flora .%目的:了解人工饲养树鼩粪便菌群多样性,为树鼩的正常饲养繁殖和微生物质量控制标准化提供依据。方法随机采集10份树鼩粪便样品,利用有氧及厌氧培养基进行细菌分离培养,提取细菌基因组DNA后PCR扩增16SrRNA基因并测序鉴定。结果本实验从树鼩粪便样品中,经有氧培养分离鉴定出25株、12种细菌,经厌氧培养分离鉴定出25株、10种细菌,包括变形杆菌属、肠球菌属、埃希菌属、志贺菌属、葡萄球菌属、气单胞菌属、拉恩氏菌属、拉乌尔菌属、微小杆菌属、链球菌属、明串珠菌属。结论树鼩肠道好氧菌及厌氧菌具有丰富的种属多样性,普通变形杆菌群、费格森埃希菌群和屎肠球菌群可能是树鼩肠道的主要寄生菌群。

  13. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong ...

  14. Fusarium species isolated from Pennisetum clandestinum collected during outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Christo J; Truter, Mariëtte; Jacobs, Adriaana

    2014-11-20

    Kikuyu poisoning occurs sporadically in South Africa. It is of major economic importance, as valuable dairy cows are often poisoned by it, and once affected, the mortality rate is high. Pennisetum clandestinum samples were collected during eight outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from 2008 to 2010. The kikuyu grass samples were submitted specifically for the isolation and molecular identification of Fusarium species, as it was recently suggested that mycotoxins synthesised by Fusarium torulosum could be the cause of this intoxication. Ninety-four Fusarium isolates were retrieved from the grass samples, of which 72 were members of the Fusarium incarnatum/Fusarium equiseti species complex based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the translation elongation factor 1α sequence data. The South African isolates from kikuyu identified as members of the F. incarnatum/F. equiseti species complex grouped together in six separate clades. The other isolates were Fusarium culmorum (n = 3), Fusarium redolens (n = 4) and Fusarium oxysporum (n = 15). Although F. torulosum could not be isolated from P. clandestinum collected during kikuyu poisoning outbreaks in South Africa, the mycotoxicosis theory is still highly plausible.

  15. Fusarium species isolated from Pennisetum clandestinum collected during outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kikuyu poisoning occurs sporadically in South Africa. It is of major economic importance, as valuable dairy cows are often poisoned by it, and once affected, the mortality rate is high. Pennisetum clandestinum samples were collected during eight outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from 2008 to 2010. The kikuyu grass samples were submitted specifically for the isolation and molecular identification of Fusarium species, as it was recently suggested that mycotoxins synthesised by Fusarium torulosum could be the cause of this intoxication. Ninety-four Fusarium isolates were retrieved from the grass samples, of which 72 were members of the Fusarium incarnatum/Fusarium equiseti species complex based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the translation elongation factor 1α sequence data. The South African isolates from kikuyu identified as members of the F. incarnatum/F. equiseti species complex grouped together in six separate clades. The other isolates were Fusarium culmorum (n = 3, Fusarium redolens (n = 4 and Fusarium oxysporum (n = 15. Although F. torulosum could not be isolated from P. clandestinum collected during kikuyu poisoning outbreaks in South Africa, the mycotoxicosis theory is still highly plausible.

  16. Biodegradation of Alachlor in Liquid and Soil Cultures Under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil

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    Simin Nasseri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alachlor, an aniline herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on isolating bacterial consortium capable of alachlor biodegradation, assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on alachlor biodegradation and evaluating the feasibility of using bacterial consortium in soil culture. Kavar corn field soil with a long history of alachlor application in Fars province of Iran has been explored for their potential of alachlor biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds (glucose, sodium citrate, sucrose, starch and the combination of these compounds, the effect of nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and urea and different pH (5.5-8.5 on alachlor removal efficiency by the bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. After a multi-step enrichment program 100 days of acclimation, a culture with the high capability of alachlor degradation was obtained (63%. Glucose and sodium citrate had the highest alachlor reduction rate (85%. Alachlor reduction rate increased more rapidly by the addition of ammonium nitrate (94% compare to urea. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 7.5 is optimal for alachlor biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of alachlor reduction were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (74% as compared to uninoculated control soils (17.67% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of alachlor degradation in a polluted soil.

  17. Biodegradation of alachlor in liquid and soil cultures under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Nasseri, Simin; Zamanian, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Alachlor, an aniline herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on isolating bacterial consortium capable of alachlor biodegradation, assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on alachlor biodegradation and evaluating the feasibility of using bacterial consortium in soil culture. Kavar corn field soil with a long history of alachlor application in Fars province of Iran has been explored for their potential of alachlor biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds (glucose, sodium citrate, sucrose, starch and the combination of these compounds), the effect of nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and urea) and different pH (5.5-8.5) on alachlor removal efficiency by the bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. After a multi-step enrichment program 100 days of acclimation, a culture with the high capability of alachlor degradation was obtained (63%). Glucose and sodium citrate had the highest alachlor reduction rate (85%). Alachlor reduction rate increased more rapidly by the addition of ammonium nitrate (94%) compare to urea. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 7.5 is optimal for alachlor biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of alachlor reduction were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (74%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (17.67%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of alachlor degradation in a polluted soil. PMID:23452801

  18. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma) associated bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India), and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  19. Identification of non-Listeria spp. bacterial isolates yielding a β-D-glucosidase-positive phenotype on Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Kalamaki, Mary S; Georgiadou, Sofia S

    2015-01-16

    Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA) is the mandatory medium used for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods according to the official International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods. On ALOA, Listeria spp. appear as bluish-green colonies due to the production of β-D-glucosidase, an enzyme that cleaves 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, a chromogenic substrate included in the formulation of the medium. The present work reports on bacterial isolates (n=64) from ready-to-eat soft cheeses, which are able to grow on ALOA, forming bluish-green colonies and therefore phenotypically resemble Listeria spp. All isolates were also capable of growing on the selective media PALCAM and RAPID L'mono. The isolates were characterised with biochemical tests including those specified in the ISO standards for the confirmation of Listeria spp. and identified via partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. According to sequencing results the isolates represented 12 different bacterial species or species-groups belonging to seven different genera: Bacillus spp. (B. circulans, B. clausii, B. licheniformis and B. oleronius), Cellulosimicrobium spp. (C. funkei), Enterococcus spp. (E. faecalis, E. faecium/durans), Kocuria spp. (K. kristinae), Marinilactibacillus spp. (M. psychrotolerans), Rothia spp. (R. terrae) and Staphylococcus spp. (S. sciuri and S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus/xylosus). Cellulosimicrobium spp. have never been previously isolated from foods. These results significantly extend the list of bacteria previously known as capable of growing on ALOA as bluish-green colonies and suggest that there may be room for further improvement in the medium's inhibitory properties towards non-Listeria spp., Gram-positive bacteria present in foods.

  20. Identification of non-Listeria spp. bacterial isolates yielding a β-D-glucosidase-positive phenotype on Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Kalamaki, Mary S; Georgiadou, Sofia S

    2015-01-16

    Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA) is the mandatory medium used for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods according to the official International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods. On ALOA, Listeria spp. appear as bluish-green colonies due to the production of β-D-glucosidase, an enzyme that cleaves 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, a chromogenic substrate included in the formulation of the medium. The present work reports on bacterial isolates (n=64) from ready-to-eat soft cheeses, which are able to grow on ALOA, forming bluish-green colonies and therefore phenotypically resemble Listeria spp. All isolates were also capable of growing on the selective media PALCAM and RAPID L'mono. The isolates were characterised with biochemical tests including those specified in the ISO standards for the confirmation of Listeria spp. and identified via partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. According to sequencing results the isolates represented 12 different bacterial species or species-groups belonging to seven different genera: Bacillus spp. (B. circulans, B. clausii, B. licheniformis and B. oleronius), Cellulosimicrobium spp. (C. funkei), Enterococcus spp. (E. faecalis, E. faecium/durans), Kocuria spp. (K. kristinae), Marinilactibacillus spp. (M. psychrotolerans), Rothia spp. (R. terrae) and Staphylococcus spp. (S. sciuri and S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus/xylosus). Cellulosimicrobium spp. have never been previously isolated from foods. These results significantly extend the list of bacteria previously known as capable of growing on ALOA as bluish-green colonies and suggest that there may be room for further improvement in the medium's inhibitory properties towards non-Listeria spp., Gram-positive bacteria present in foods. PMID:25462931

  1. Influence of First-Line Antibiotics on the Antibacterial Activities of Acetone Stem Bark Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. against Drug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmiso O. Olajuyigbe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of A. mearnsii and its interactions with antibiotics against some resistant bacterial strains. Methods. The antibacterial susceptibility testing was determined by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while the checkerboard method was used for the determination of synergy between the antibiotics and the extract. Results. The results showed that the susceptibility of the different bacterial isolates was concentration dependent for the extract and the different antibiotics. With the exception of S. marcescens, the inhibition zones of the extract produced by 20 mg/mL ranged between 18 and 32 mm. While metronidazole did not inhibit any of the bacterial isolates, all the antibiotics and their combinations, except for ciprofloxacin and its combination, did not inhibit Enterococcus faecalis. The antibacterial combinations were more of being antagonistic than of being synergistic in the agar diffusion assay. From the macrobroth dilution, the extract and the antibiotics exerted a varied degree of inhibitory effect on the test organisms. The MIC values of the acetone extract which are in mg/mL are lower than those of the different antibiotics which are in μg/mL. From the checkerboard assay, the antibacterial combinations showed varied degrees of interactions including synergism, additive, indifference, and antagonism interactions. While antagonistic and additive interactions were 14.44%, indifference interaction was 22.22% and synergistic interaction was 37.78% of the antibacterial combinations against the test isolates. While the additivity/indifference interactions indicated no interactions, the antagonistic interaction may be considered as a negative interaction that could result in toxicity and suboptimal bioactivity. Conclusion. The synergistic effects of the herbal-drug combinations may be harnessed for the discovery and development of more

  2. Incidence of virulence determinants in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates collected in Bulgaria

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    Tanya Strateva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 510 clinical Enterococcus spp. isolates and to assess the association of those genes with the species, infection site, and patient group (inpatients/outpatients. Methods Adhesins genes (aggregation substances agg and asa1 of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively, enterococcal surface protein (esp, endocarditis-specific antigen A (efaA, collagen-binding proteins (ace/acm; invasins (hyaluronidase (hyl and gelatinase (gelE; cytotoxines (activation of cytolysin (cylA in E. faecalis; and modulators of the host immunity and inflammation (enhanced expression pheromone (eep in E. faecalis were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results The overall prevalence was: esp – 44.3%, agg/asa1 – 38.4%, ace/acm – 64.3%, efaA – 85.9%, eep – 69.4%, gelE – 64.3%, hyl – 25.1%, and cylA – 47.1%. E. faecalis isolates had significantly higher frequency of adhesin genes (esp and agg/asa1 and gelatinase in comparison to E. faecium. Multiple virulence genes in E. faecalis were significantly more prevalent than in E. faecium isolates. Domination of E. faecium with or without only one gene compared to the isolates of E. faecalis were found. Enterococcus spp. isolates obtained from outpatients compared to inpatients isolates had significantly higher frequency of agg/asa1, eep, gelE and cylA. Some adhesins genes (esp, agg/asa1 and efaA had higher prevalence among the non-invasive Enterococcus spp. isolates compared to those causing invasive bacteremia, while ace/acm revealed higher dissemination in isolates causing invasive infections compared to non-invasive isolates. Conclusion Most E. faecalis attaches to abiotic surfaces in hospital environment, which correlates with higher prevalence of gene encoding for virulence factors involved in biofilm formation, such as enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substance, and gelatinase. The intestinal tract is an

  3. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. PMID:23568850

  4. Molecular characterization of Indian isolate of peanut mottle virus and immunodiagnosis using bacterial expressed core capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya, K.; Yogita, M.; Prasanthi, Y.; K.Anitha; Kishor, P. B. Kavi; Jain, R. K.; Mandal, Bikash

    2014-01-01

    Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), a seed borne potyvirus was recorded in India in 1978, however the virus was not characterized at molecular level. In the present study, an isolate of PeMoV infecting peanut in southern India was characterized based on host reactions and coat protein (CP) gene sequence, which revealed that the Indian isolate was very close to a peanut isolate reported from Israel and distinct from pea isolate reported from USA. The core region of CP gene that contained majority of ...

  5. Mercury (II) removal by resistant bacterial isolates and mercuric (II) reductase activity in a new strain of Pseudomonas sp. B50A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Patricia; Cabral, Lucélia; Bento, Fátima Menezes; Gianello, Clesio; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio Oliveira

    2016-01-25

    This study aimed to isolate mercury resistant bacteria, determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for Hg, estimate mercury removal by selected isolates, explore the mer genes, and detect and characterize the activity of the enzyme mercuric (II) reductase produced by a new strain of Pseudomonas sp. B50A. The Hg removal capacity of the isolates was determined by incubating the isolates in Luria Bertani broth and the remaining mercury quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A PCR reaction was carried out to detect the merA gene and the mercury (II) reductase activity was determined in a spectrophotometer at 340 nm. Eight Gram-negative bacterial isolates were resistant to high mercury concentrations and capable of removing mercury, and of these, five were positive for the gene merA. The isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50A removed 86% of the mercury present in the culture medium and was chosen for further analysis of its enzyme activity. Mercuric (II) reductase activity was detected in the crude extract of this strain. This enzyme showed optimal activity at pH 8 and at temperatures between 37 °C and 45 °C. The ions NH4(+), Ba(2+), Sn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cd(2+) neither inhibited nor stimulated the enzyme activity but it decreased in the presence of the ions Ca(2+), Cu(+) and K(+). The isolate and the enzyme detected were effective in reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0), showing the potential to develop bioremediation technologies and processes to clean-up the environment and waste contaminated with mercury.

  6. Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from cases of urinary tract infections among hospitalized and out-patients at a tertiary health facility in South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyekale Oluwalana Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common human infections with distribution of causative agents and their susceptibility pattern to antibiotics varying from region to region. This study aimed at determining the bacterial uropathogens and their antibiotic resistance profile among patients in a Nigerian tertiary health care facility. Materials and Methods: Appropriate urine specimens (midstream/catheter specimen urine of all suspected cases of UTI by clinicians were processed in the medical microbiology laboratory for detection of significant bacteriuria. Bacteria uropathogens isolated were identified by standard biochemical tests and antibiotic susceptibility test to eight antibiotics was carried out on them using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was identified by cefoxitin disc diffusion technique and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing enterobacteria were detected using double-disc synergy test. Results: Of the total 157 males and 189 females investigated, 35.7% and 66.1% respectively had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogen both among in- and out-patients (52.6% vs. 65.5%. Other isolated organisms were S. aureus (13.4% vs. 19.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3% vs. 2.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.2% vs. 7.1% and K. aerogenes (7.2% vs. 1.2%. Resistance rate of uropathogens to antibiotics was higher among in-patients. Resistance rate to ofloxacin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone was generally very low compared to other tested antibiotics. Multiple resistant bacteria: MRSA and ESBL-producing enterobacteria were detected among both in-and out-patient with no significant difference in isolation rate. Conclusion: There is a need for continuous monitoring of uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity profile for evidence-based empirical treatment of UTI. There is an urgent need for the establishment of antibiotic

  7. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Arifullah; Nima Dandu Namsa; Manabendra Mandal; Kishore Kumar Chiruvella; Paritala Vikrama; Ghanta Rama Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods:In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results: AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacteriumsmegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion:This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines.

  8. A Geographically Diverse Collection of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Isolates Shows Limited Phenotypic Variation but Extensive Karyotypic Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, William R A; Liti, Gianni; Rosa, Carlos; James, Steve; Roberts, Ian; Robert, Vincent; Jolly, Neil; Tang, Wen; Baumann, Peter; Green, Carter; Schlegel, Kristina; Young, Jonathan; Hirchaud, Fabienne; Leek, Spencer; Thomas, Geraint; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been widely used to study eukaryotic cell biology, but almost all of this work has used derivatives of a single strain. We have studied 81 independent natural isolates and 3 designated laboratory strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Schizosaccharomyce

  9. Selection, isolation and growth kinetic study of a bacterial consortium obtained from the Potengi mangrove in the presence of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.C.; Vaz, M.R.F.; Santos, E.S.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], E-mail: natcintia@gmail.com; Costa, J.G. da [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Coari, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Saude e Biotecnologia

    2011-10-15

    The selection, isolation and kinetic study of a bacterial consortium obtained from a sample of soil from the Potengi mangrove, located in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, has been carried out using the enrichment culture technique to observe aspects such as the evaluation of main growth parameters. The kinetic study used a rotary incubator shaker at 150rpm, under 30 deg C. The bacterial consortium isolated from the estuary of the Potengi River showed a good acclimation in minimum mineral medium with 1% (v/v) of oil. The cell concentration reached 2.55 g/L at 16h of cultivation and surface tension dropped. The maximum productivity in cells obtained was of 0.3 g/L.h, the specific velocity of growth was of 0.075h{sup -1}, with a generation time (tg) of 9.24h. This study seeks to demonstrate that the consortium can be used as inoculants in biological treatments, capable of reducing the waste's degradation time. (author)

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Detection of β-Lactamase Activity in Various Clinical Bacterial Isolates by Three Different Methods and its Correlation with Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M Wavare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: β-lactams such as penicillins are the most widely used antibiotics, and β-lactamases are the greatest source of resistance to penicillins. Aims and Objectives: To study β-lactamase production in clinical isolates of family Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococci by three different methods and to correlate its potential with drug resistance; with an endeavour to evaluate convenient and economical method duly supported by relevant Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC studies. Material and Methods: Total 240 clinical isolates (Gram-negative bacilli-191, staphylococci-49 were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and MIC for ampicillin and penicillin was determined by agar dilution method. β-lactamase was detected by broth acidometric, iodometric cell suspension and microbiological method. Results: Multidrug resistance was observed in more than 90% isolates. One hundred and ninety Gram-negative bacilli were resistant to ampicillin and 47 staphylococcal isolates were resistant to both penicillin and ampicillin. Though microbiological method gave highest positive results 210 (87.5%, iodometric method could detect β-lactamase in apparently sensitive isolates as well giving satisfactory [207 (86.25%] comparable results. Conclusion: In view of the noted bacterial resistance, tests for β-lactamase should be carried out on a routine basis for an early implementation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Iodometric method is eminently convenient, economical and reliable method. Isolates showing MIC <0.125µg/ml for penicillin and MIC <8µg/ml for ampicillin should be checked for β-lactamase production.

  11. The Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC) provides host-specific insight into cultured diversity and functional potential of the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Pukall, Rüdiger; Abt, Birte;

    2016-01-01

    of intestinal microbiomes and their interactions with diet and host. It is thus important to study in detail the diversity and functions of gut microbiota members, including those colonizing the mouse intestine. To address these issues, we aimed at establishing the Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (mi...... species are specific to the mouse intestine and that a minimal consortium of 18 strains covered 50-75% of the known functional potential of metagenomes. The present work will sustain future research on microbiota-host interactions in health and disease, as it will facilitate targeted colonization...

  12. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Markers and Phenotypes among Fecal E. coli Isolates Collected from Nicaraguan Infants ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Daniel; Vilchez, Samuel; Paniagua, Margarita; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Weintraub, Andrej; Möllby, Roland; Kühn, Inger

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) markers and common phenotypes in 2,164 E. coli isolates from 282 DEC-positive samples. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were very diverse and were not correlated with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) estA and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) belonged to a few phenotypes and were significantly correlated with diarrhea.

  13. A polyphasic approach for characterization of a collection of cereal isolates of the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Alessandra; Moretti, Antonio; De Saeger, Sarah; Han, Zheng; Di Mavungu, Jose Diana; Soares, Célia M G; Proctor, Robert H; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson; Stea, Gaetano; Paciolla, Costantino; Logrieco, Antonio F; Susca, Antonia

    2016-10-01

    DNA-based phylogenetic analyses have resolved the fungal genus Fusarium into multiple species complexes. The F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) includes fusaria associated with several diseases of agriculturally important crops, including cereals. Although members of FIESC are considered to be only moderately aggressive, they are able to produce a diversity of mycotoxins, including trichothecenes, which can accumulate to harmful levels in cereals. High levels of cryptic speciation have been detected within the FIESC. As a result, it is often necessary to use approaches other than morphological characterization to distinguish species. In the current study, we used a polyphasic approach to characterize a collection of 69 FIESC isolates recovered from cereals in Europe, Turkey, and North America. In a species phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences from four housekeeping genes, 65 of the isolates were resolved within the Equiseti clade of the FIESC, and four isolates were resolved within the Incarnatum clade. Seven isolates were resolved as a genealogically exclusive lineage, designated here as FIESC 31. Phylogenies based on nucleotide sequences of trichothecene biosynthetic genes and MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry) were largely concordant with phylogeny inferred from the housekeeping gene. Finally, Liquid Chromatography (Time-Of-Flight) Mass Spectrometry [LC-(TOF-)MS(/MS)] revealed variability in mycotoxin production profiles among the different phylogenetic species investigated in this study. PMID:27376677

  14. Macrolide susceptibility in Streptococcus pyogenes: monitoring of isolates collected from throat swabs for the period november 2003 to september 2006

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    Maria Gabriella Mazzarello

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus pyogenes can cause acute suppurative infections (tonsillitis and pharyngitis and serious complications like rheumatic fever or acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Antibiotic treatment of streptococcal infections is recommended and penicillin is the therapy of choice, moreover, macrolides represent an important alternative particularly for patients with ß-lactam-associated allergies. However, increasing resistance of S. pyogenes to macrolides has been observed in some European countries (especially in Spain and Italy in the last decade.This study was conducted to update our knowledge on this evolution. Materials and methods: A total of 128 clinical strains of S. pyogenes isolated from 933 throat swabs collected in the Clinical Microbiological Laboratory of Ovada (ASL 22 between November 2003 and September 2006 were tested for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and rokitamycin. The phenotype of macrolide resistance was determined by the triple-disc diffusion test method (Giovanetti et al, 1999. Results: S. pyogenes strains isolated between November 2003 and December 2005 showed a percentage of macrolide-resistance of 15%; more precisely 9% with phenotype M and 6% with phenotype iMLS. Only 3 of the 28 isolates (10.7% collected between January-September 2006 were macrolide-resistant (phenotype M.All 128 isolates were fully susceptible to rokitamycin. Conclusion: Macrolide resistance rates determined in the present study were relatively low in comparison to the values registered in our country in the last decade. Efflux of the drug (phenotype M is the predominating mechanism. This type of resistance does not affect the activity of macrolides 16-membered (e.g. rokitamicin.However, changes of resistance rates and their prevailing mechanisms can occur rapidly. For safe empirical prescription of macrolides, further surveillance studies that include the identification of resistance mechanisms are required

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity of venom protein isolated from sea snake Enhydrina schistosa against drug-resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palani Damotharan; Anguchamy Veeruraj; Muthuvel Arumugam; Thangavel Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity of sea snake (Enhydrina schistosa) venom protein against drug-resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods:The venom was collected by milking process from the live specimens of sea snake are using capillary tubes or glass plates. Venom was purified by ion exchange chromatography and it was tested for in-vitro antibacterial activity against 10 drug-resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains using the standard disc diffusion method. Results:The notable antibacterial activity was observed at 150 µg/mL concentration of purified venom and gave its minimum inhibitory concentrations values exhibited between 200-100 µg/mL against all the tested bacterial strains. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed at 16.4 mm against Salmonella boydii and the minimum activity was observed at 7.5 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After the sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis there were a clear single band was detected in the gel that corresponding to purified venom protein molecular weight of 44 kDa. Conclusions:These results suggested that the sea snake venom might be a feasible source for searching potential antibiotics agents against human pathogenic diseases.

  16. Standardization of sample collection, isolation and analysis methods in extracellular vesicle research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Witwer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of publications on extracellular RNA (exRNA and extracellular vesicles (EV has highlighted the potential of these molecules and vehicles as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. These findings have created a paradigm shift, most prominently in the field of oncology, prompting expanded interest in the field and dedication of funds for EV research. At the same time, understanding of EV subtypes, biogenesis, cargo and mechanisms of shuttling remains incomplete. The techniques that can be harnessed to address the many gaps in our current knowledge were the subject of a special workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV in New York City in October 2012. As part of the “ISEV Research Seminar: Analysis and Function of RNA in Extracellular Vesicles (evRNA”, 6 round-table discussions were held to provide an evidence-based framework for isolation and analysis of EV, purification and analysis of associated RNA molecules, and molecular engineering of EV for therapeutic intervention. This article arises from the discussion of EV isolation and analysis at that meeting. The conclusions of the round table are supplemented with a review of published materials and our experience. Controversies and outstanding questions are identified that may inform future research and funding priorities. While we emphasize the need for standardization of specimen handling, appropriate normative controls, and isolation and analysis techniques to facilitate comparison of results, we also recognize that continual development and evaluation of techniques will be necessary as new knowledge is amassed. On many points, consensus has not yet been achieved and must be built through the reporting of well-controlled experiments.

  17. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

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    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  18. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  19. The Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC) provides host-specific insight into cultured diversity and functional potential of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Pukall, Rüdiger; Abt, Birte; Foesel, Bärbel U; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Kumar, Neeraj; Bresciani, Anne; Martínez, Inés; Just, Sarah; Ziegler, Caroline; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Garzetti, Debora; Wenning, Mareike; Bui, Thi P N; Wang, Jun; Hugenholtz, Floor; Plugge, Caroline M; Peterson, Daniel A; Hornef, Mathias W; Baines, John F; Smidt, Hauke; Walter, Jens; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nielsen, Henrik B; Haller, Dirk; Overmann, Jörg; Stecher, Bärbel; Clavel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria influence mammalian physiology, but many types of bacteria are still uncharacterized. Moreover, reference strains of mouse gut bacteria are not easily available, although mouse models are extensively used in medical research. These are major limitations for the investigation of intestinal microbiomes and their interactions with diet and host. It is thus important to study in detail the diversity and functions of gut microbiota members, including those colonizing the mouse intestine. To address these issues, we aimed at establishing the Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC), a public repository of bacterial strains and associated genomes from the mouse gut, and studied host-specificity of colonization and sequence-based relevance of the resource. The collection includes several strains representing novel species, genera and even one family. Genomic analyses showed that certain species are specific to the mouse intestine and that a minimal consortium of 18 strains covered 50-75% of the known functional potential of metagenomes. The present work will sustain future research on microbiota-host interactions in health and disease, as it will facilitate targeted colonization and molecular studies. The resource is available at www.dsmz.de/miBC. PMID:27670113

  20. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Cuminum Cyminum Essential Oil and Extract against Bacterial Strains Isolated from Patients with Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infection

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    Yasaman Saee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many efforts have been done to find effective agents against resistant pathogens. Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin is an aromatic plant within the Apiaceae family. It has a variety of purposes and demonstrates antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the activity of C. cyminum extract and essential oil against bacterial isolates which cause urinary tract infection, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae, group A streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from patients with urinary tract infection.Materials and Methods: Extract was prepared by maceration and essential oil was prepared by hydrodistillation from C. cyminum seeds. The study population was 95 patients with urinary tract infection without malignant diseases, diabetes and immunosupression. After identification of organism, susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion method and MIC values by broth microdilution testing.Results: C. cyminum essential oil can have a better effect on the gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection than gram-positive bacteria. In addition, C. cyminum extract have good activity against both gram- positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our findings also showed that essential oil and extract of C. cyminum has better antibacterial activity on uropathogen isolates than amoxicillin and the difference was significant (P value<0.05 but the activity is not superior to other antibiotics.Conclusion: These results suggest that the essential oil and extract of C. cyminum seeds might be considered as interesting sources of antibacterial components against uropathogenic bacteria.

  1. Antagonism in vitro of bacterial isolates from comercial and wild strawberry vs. Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer

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    Rosa Isela Plascencia Tenorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit, with a short postharvest life. The loss of fruit quality may be due, among other factors to damage caused by pathogens. Among the most common fungi are causing gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and white rot (Rhizopus stolonifer two phytopathogenic impact on their growth rate which allows you to colonize the surface of these caused major economic losses. An alternative to control damage in fruit postharvest pathogens usingmicrobial antagonists may be present in the plant or fruit, but at low densities. In this study bacteria were isolated from leaf tissue and wild strawberry fruit (Duchesnea indicates Andr. Fock and comercial strawberry. Those isolates that were selected had the highest percentages of inhibition of mycelial growth of both pathogens in vitro. We isolated a total of 32 strains of which 15 came from wild strawberry and 24 commercial strawberry. Only nine strains were obtained with biocontrol potential for one or both pathogens. The highest percentages of mycelial growth inhibition ranged from 67.1% and 81.7% for Botrytis cinerea and 45.5% to 73.2% for Rhizopus stolonifer. These were obtained from four isolates two of them from wild strawberry and the others from commercial strawberry, all with ability to control both pathogens.

  2. Effective biodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene using a novel bacterial strain isolated from TNT-contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Tekinay, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    In this environmental-sample based study, rapid microbial-mediated degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soils is demonstrated by a novel strain, Achromobacter spanius STE 11. Complete removal of 100 mg L−1 TNT is achieved within only 20 h under aerobic conditions by the isolate. I

  3. Molecular characterization of Indian isolate of peanut mottle virus and immunodiagnosis using bacterial expressed core capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, K; Yogita, M; Prasanthi, Y; Anitha, K; Kishor, P B Kavi; Jain, R K; Mandal, Bikash

    2014-01-01

    Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), a seed borne potyvirus was recorded in India in 1978, however the virus was not characterized at molecular level. In the present study, an isolate of PeMoV infecting peanut in southern India was characterized based on host reactions and coat protein (CP) gene sequence, which revealed that the Indian isolate was very close to a peanut isolate reported from Israel and distinct from pea isolate reported from USA. The core region of CP gene that contained majority of the predicted epitopes was successfully expressed (1.75 mg/l) in Escherichia coli as a 22 kDa protein. A high titer polyclonal antibody (PAb) to the expressed core CP was produced, which efficiently detected PeMoV. The antiserum was useful in specific detection of PeMoV as it showed negligible cross reactivity with the other potyviruses e.g., peanut stripe virus, potato virus Y, papaya ringspot virus and onion yellow dwarf virus. The PAb was validated in ELISA using 1,169 field and greenhouse samples of peanut which showed 1.85-26.3 % incidence of PeMoV in peanut seed multiplication field during 2011-2012. This is the first report of immunodiagnosis of PeMoV with a PAb to recombinant core CP of PeMoV. PMID:25674600

  4. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Lima-Neto; Cledir Santos; Nelson Lima; Paula Sampaio; Célia Pais; Rejane P. Neves

    2014-01-01

    Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classica...

  5. Genetic Marker Analysis of a Global Collection of Isolates of Citrus tristeza virus: Characterization and Distribution of CTV Genotypes and Association with Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilf, Mark E; Mavrodieva, Vessela A; Garnsey, Stephen M

    2005-08-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic markers amplified from three noncontiguous regions by sequence specific primers designed from the partial or complete genome sequences of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates T3, T30, T36, and VT were used to assess genetic relatedness of 372 isolates in an international collection. Eighty-five isolates were judged similar to the T3 isolate, 81 to T30, 11 to T36, and 89 to VT. Fifty-one isolates were mixed infections by two or more identifiable viral genotypes, and 55 isolates could not be assigned unequivocally to a group defined by marker patterns. Maximum parsimony analysis of aligned marker sequences supported the grouping of isolates on the basis of marker patterns only. Specific disease symptoms induced in select citrus host plants were shared across molecular groups, although symptoms were least severe among isolates grouped by markers with the T30 isolate and were most severe among isolates grouped by markers with the T3 isolate. Isolates assigned the same genotype showed variable symptoms and symptom severity. A classification strategy for CTV isolates is proposed that combines genetic marker patterns and nucleotide sequence data. PMID:18944413

  6. Bio-precipitation of uranium by two bacterial isolates recovered from extreme environments as estimated by potentiometric titration, TEM and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merroun, Mohamed L., E-mail: merroun@ugr.es [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Nedelkova, Marta [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ojeda, Jesus J. [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Experimental Techniques Centre, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Reitz, Thomas [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Fernandez, Margarita Lopez; Arias, Jose M. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Romero-Gonzalez, Maria [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Selenska-Pobell, Sonja [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation of uranium as U phosphates by natural bacterial isolates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uranium biomineralization involves the activity of acidic phosphatase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uranium bioremediation could be achieved via the biomineralization of U(VI) in phosphate minerals. - Abstract: This work describes the mechanisms of uranium biomineralization at acidic conditions by Bacillus sphaericus JG-7B and Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1 both recovered from extreme environments. The U-bacterial interaction experiments were performed at low pH values (2.0-4.5) where the uranium aqueous speciation is dominated by highly mobile uranyl ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the cells of the studied strains precipitated uranium at pH 3.0 and 4.5 as a uranium phosphate mineral phase belonging to the meta-autunite group. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses showed strain-specific localization of the uranium precipitates. In the case of B. sphaericus JG-7B, the U(VI) precipitate was bound to the cell wall. Whereas for Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1, the U(VI) precipitates were observed both on the cell surface and intracellularly. The observed U(VI) biomineralization was associated with the activity of indigenous acid phosphatase detected at these pH values in the absence of an organic phosphate substrate. The biomineralization of uranium was not observed at pH 2.0, and U(VI) formed complexes with organophosphate ligands from the cells. This study increases the number of bacterial strains that have been demonstrated to precipitate uranium phosphates at acidic conditions via the activity of acid phosphatase.

  7. The Antimicrobial Activity o f Honey o n Bacterial Isolates From Burns/Wound o f Patients Attending General Hospital, Ankpa, Kogi State. Nigeria

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    Aliyu Aminu Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of honey samples from Ankpa, Enjema and Ojoku districts of Ankpa Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria against coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus speciesobtained from 200 burns/wound patients attending General Hospital, Ankpa were determined. The sensitivity of honey to the test organisms ranges from 16mm to 19mm in diameter. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the honey samples on the bacterial isolates from Ankpa and Ojoku were 0.16 v/v and 0.32 v/v for honey from Enjema. The results of the study revealed that honey from the area understudy has high antimicrobial activity and it is recommended that pure natural honey should be stocked in hospitals/clinics so as to encourage its application in the treatment of burns/wound infections

  8. Inhibitory effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenol extracts on the bacterial growth and survival of clinical isolates of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarulo, Caterina; De Vito, Valentina; Picariello, Gianluca; Colicchio, Roberta; Pastore, Gabiria; Salvatore, Paola; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    In the present study major polyphenols of pomegranate arils and peel by-products were extracted in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, characterized and used in microbiological assays in order to test antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated human pathogenic microorganisms. Total concentration of polyphenols and in vitro antioxidant properties were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH methods, respectively. The most abundant bioactive molecules, including anthocyanins, catechins, tannins, gallic and ellagic acids were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD, also coupled to off-line matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The inhibitory spectrum of extracts against test microorganisms was assessed by the agar well-diffusion method. Data herein indicated that both pomegranate aril and peel extracts have an effective antimicrobial activity, as evidenced by the inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth of two important human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which are often involved in foodborne illness. PMID:26213044

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA FROM SOIL COLLECTED FROM HIMALAYAN REGION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LIPASE BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING TWEEN-20

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu Rahul; Awasthi G; Kumar L

    2013-01-01

    Here we are reporting one microorganism isolated from soil collected from Himalayan region, producing thermostable lipase. Tween 20 agar, selective media was used to isolate soil microbe Bacillus mojavensis 5-SM. Molecular phylogeny of isolated strain shows similarity with Bacillus mojavensis 3EC4A5. Different parameters such as substrate selection, pH of the medium, temperature were optimized. Effects of various organic solvents, reducing and oxidizing agents, metal ions and surfactants were...

  10. Isolation and identification of crude oil degrading bacteria from gastropod Haustrum scobina collected from Persian Gulf (Bandar Abbas Shoreline provenance

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    Zinab Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodegradation is a good alternative rather than chemical and physical methods for cleaning oil contaminated areas. Several factors like crude oil concentration, biosurfactant production, salinity and incubation time affect the biodegradation. Materials and methods: In this study, seawater sample and gastropod were collected from Persian Gulf. To isolate oil degrading bacteria from collected samples, ONR7a medium was used. The strains that had more growth and higher oil removal were selected and identified. The factors such as the effect of different concentrations of oil, incubation time, mixed cultures and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. Results: Six crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated. Between these bacteria 2 strains were selected based on higher oil removal. These strains belonged to the genus Vibrio and Halomonas. Strains with higher Emulsification activity produce more biosurfactant and have higher oil biodegradation. Growth and oil degradation have increment pattern by prolonging the incubation time. Mixed culture of Vibrio and Halomonas strains have higher rates of degradation rather than culturing with one of them. Increase in crudeoil concentration to 2.5% caused reduction in growth of bacteria and degradation of oil. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study show that crude oil degrading bacteria have high diversity in Persian Gulf. These bacteria have higher capability for oil degradation thus they can be used for remediation of oil contaminated areas.

  11. Isolation, crystallization, and investigation of ribosomal protein S8 complexed with specific fragments of rRNA of bacterial or archaeal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, S V; Vassilieva, J M; Platonova, O B; Serganov, A A; Fomenkova, N P; Mudrik, E S; Piendl, W; Ehresmann, C; Ehresmann, B; Garber, M B

    2001-09-01

    The core ribosomal protein S8 binds to the central domain of 16S rRNA independently of other ribosomal proteins and is required for assembling the 30S subunit. It has been shown with E. coli ribosomes that a short rRNA fragment restricted by nucleotides 588-602 and 636-651 is sufficient for strong and specific protein S8 binding. In this work, we studied the complexes formed by ribosomal protein S8 from Thermus thermophilus and Methanococcus jannaschii with short rRNA fragments isolated from the same organisms. The dissociation constants of the complexes of protein S8 with rRNA fragments were determined. Based on the results of binding experiments, rRNA fragments of different length were designed and synthesized in preparative amounts in vitro using T7 RNA-polymerase. Stable S8-RNA complexes were crystallized. Crystals were obtained both for homologous bacterial and archaeal complexes and for hybrid complexes of archaeal protein with bacterial rRNA. Crystals of the complex of protein S8 from M. jannaschii with the 37-nucleotide rRNA fragment from the same organism suitable for X-ray analysis were obtained.

  12. Comparative Genomics of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae Provides Evidence for Possible Correlates with Bacterial Viability and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Vicente, Joaquín; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; López, Vladimir; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Dominguez, Lucas; Sevilla, Iker A.; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramón; Madico, Guillermo; Jones-López, Edward; Gortazar, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly affect humans and animals worldwide. The life cycle of mycobacteria is complex and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Recently, comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the evolution and adaptation of the MTBC to survive inside the host. However, most of this information has been obtained using M. tuberculosis but not other members of the MTBC such as M. bovis and M. caprae. In this study, the genome of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4) and one M. caprae (MB2) field isolates with different lesion score, prevalence and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced. Genome sequence information was used for whole-genome and protein-targeted comparative genomics analysis with the aim of finding correlates with phenotypic variation with potential implications for tuberculosis (TB) disease risk assessment and control. At the whole-genome level the results of the first comparative genomics study of field isolates of M. bovis including M. caprae showed that as previously reported for M. tuberculosis, sequential chromosomal nucleotide substitutions were the main driver of the M. bovis genome evolution. The phylogenetic analysis provided a strong support for the M. bovis/M. caprae clade, but supported M. caprae as a separate species. The comparison of the MB1 and MB4 isolates revealed differences in genome sequence, including gene families that are important for bacterial infection and transmission, thus highlighting differences with functional implications between isolates otherwise classified with the same spoligotype. Strategic protein-targeted analysis using the ESX or type VII secretion system, proteins linking stress response with lipid metabolism, host T cell epitopes of mycobacteria, antigens and peptidoglycan assembly protein identified new genetic markers and candidate vaccine antigens that warrant further study to

  13. Comparative Genomics of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae Provides Evidence for Possible Correlates with Bacterial Viability and Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la Fuente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC greatly affect humans and animals worldwide. The life cycle of mycobacteria is complex and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Recently, comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the evolution and adaptation of the MTBC to survive inside the host. However, most of this information has been obtained using M. tuberculosis but not other members of the MTBC such as M. bovis and M. caprae. In this study, the genome of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4 and one M. caprae (MB2 field isolates with different lesion score, prevalence and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced. Genome sequence information was used for whole-genome and protein-targeted comparative genomics analysis with the aim of finding correlates with phenotypic variation with potential implications for tuberculosis (TB disease risk assessment and control. At the whole-genome level the results of the first comparative genomics study of field isolates of M. bovis including M. caprae showed that as previously reported for M. tuberculosis, sequential chromosomal nucleotide substitutions were the main driver of the M. bovis genome evolution. The phylogenetic analysis provided a strong support for the M. bovis/M. caprae clade, but supported M. caprae as a separate species. The comparison of the MB1 and MB4 isolates revealed differences in genome sequence, including gene families that are important for bacterial infection and transmission, thus highlighting differences with functional implications between isolates otherwise classified with the same spoligotype. Strategic protein-targeted analysis using the ESX or type VII secretion system, proteins linking stress response with lipid metabolism, host T cell epitopes of mycobacteria, antigens and peptidoglycan assembly protein identified new genetic markers and candidate vaccine antigens that warrant

  14. Comparative Genomics of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae Provides Evidence for Possible Correlates with Bacterial Viability and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Vicente, Joaquín; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; López, Vladimir; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Dominguez, Lucas; Sevilla, Iker A; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón; Madico, Guillermo; Jones-López, Edward; Gortazar, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly affect humans and animals worldwide. The life cycle of mycobacteria is complex and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Recently, comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the evolution and adaptation of the MTBC to survive inside the host. However, most of this information has been obtained using M. tuberculosis but not other members of the MTBC such as M. bovis and M. caprae. In this study, the genome of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4) and one M. caprae (MB2) field isolates with different lesion score, prevalence and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced. Genome sequence information was used for whole-genome and protein-targeted comparative genomics analysis with the aim of finding correlates with phenotypic variation with potential implications for tuberculosis (TB) disease risk assessment and control. At the whole-genome level the results of the first comparative genomics study of field isolates of M. bovis including M. caprae showed that as previously reported for M. tuberculosis, sequential chromosomal nucleotide substitutions were the main driver of the M. bovis genome evolution. The phylogenetic analysis provided a strong support for the M. bovis/M. caprae clade, but supported M. caprae as a separate species. The comparison of the MB1 and MB4 isolates revealed differences in genome sequence, including gene families that are important for bacterial infection and transmission, thus highlighting differences with functional implications between isolates otherwise classified with the same spoligotype. Strategic protein-targeted analysis using the ESX or type VII secretion system, proteins linking stress response with lipid metabolism, host T cell epitopes of mycobacteria, antigens and peptidoglycan assembly protein identified new genetic markers and candidate vaccine antigens that warrant further study to

  15. Collection, Isolation and Enrichment of Naturally Occurring Magnetotactic Bacteria from the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K.; Lin, Wei; Lower, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are aquatic microorganisms that were first notably described in 19751 from sediment samples collected in salt marshes of Massachusetts (USA). Since then MTB have been discovered in stratified water- and sediment-columns from all over the world2. One feature common to all MTB is that they contain magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bound magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or greigite (Fe3S4) or both3, 4. In the Northern hemisphere, MTB are t...

  16. Purification and functional analysis of the recombinant protein isolated from E. coli by employing three different methods of bacterial lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA MOJSIN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the purification of the human recombinant protein expressed in E. coli using the GSTGene Fusion System, by applying various methods of bacterial lysis: sonication, freeze/thaw and beadbeating, is presented. The study was an attempt to compare the properties of the proteins obtained by the sonication method, recommended by manufacturers but inaccessible for many researchers, with those obtained using two other readily available lysis methods. The data show that all purified proteins were soluble and intact with the highest protein yield being obtained via the freeze/thaw method. The results of functional analysis indicate that the proteins purified using the sonication and freeze/thaw methods of lysis exhibited similar DNA binding affinity, while the protein purified by beadbeating was also functional but with a lower binding affinity. The conclusion of this study is that all three lysis methods could be successfully employed for protein purification.

  17. 细菌回复突变试验背景数据的采集%Collecting historical data in bacterial reverse mutation test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕平; 宋捷; 李波

    2009-01-01

    细菌回复突变试验(Ames试验)被广泛应用干药物、化学品及医疗器械产品等的遗传毒性研究中.具备完整的背景数据是Ames试验规范化的必要内容,也是验证试验系统正确性和获取数据可靠性的保证.本文介绍了细菌回复突变试验背景数据的采集方法.%Bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) is widely used in genetic toxicology research for products such as drugs, chemicals and medical equipments. A complete set of historical data is required for stand-ardizing the Ames test, and for assuring the correctness of the experimental system and the reliability of the data ob-tained. This article introduced a method in collecting historical data for bacterial reverse mutation test, which can be used as a reference.

  18. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Associated with Larvae and Adults of Anoplophora chinensis Collected in Italy by Culture and Culture-Independent Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Rizzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis Forster, native to China, has recently spread to North America and Europe causing serious damage to ornamental and forest trees. The gut microbial community associated with these xylophagous beetles is of interest for potential biotechnological applications in lignocellulose degradation and development of pest-control measures. In this study the gut bacterial community of larvae and adults of A. chinensis, collected from different host trees in North Italy, was investigated by both culture and culture-independent methods. Larvae and adults harboured a moderately diverse bacterial community, dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The gammaproteobacterial family Enterobacteriaceae (genera Gibbsiella, Enterobacter, Raoultella, and Klebsiella was the best represented. The abundance of such bacteria in the insect gut is likely due to the various metabolic abilities of Enterobacteriaceae, including fermentation of carbohydrates derived from lignocellulose degradation and contribution to nitrogen intake by nitrogen-fixing activity. In addition, bacteria previously shown to have some lignocellulose-degrading activity were detected at a relatively low level in the gut. These bacteria possibly act synergistically with endogenous and fungal enzymes in lignocellulose breakdown. The detection of actinobacterial symbionts could be explained by a possible role in the detoxification of secondary plant metabolites and/or protection against pathogens.

  19. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum. This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents.

  20. Enhancing the decolorizing and degradation ability of bacterial consortium isolated from textile effluent affected area and its application on seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Rashid; Sharif, Faiza; Ali, Sikander; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize) and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum). This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents. PMID:25654132

  1. Lead tolerance capacity of clinical bacterial isolates and change in their antibiotic susceptibility pattern after exposure to a heavy metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Garhwal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metal pollutions of soil and wastewater are a significant environmental problem as they are not degraded or destroyed. Several metal resistance mechanisms have been identified which is responsible for alteration of normal cell physiology leading to development of drug resistance in microorganisms. Heavy metals used in industry and in household products are, along with antibiotics, creating a selective pressure in the environment that leads to the mutations in microorganisms. The present study was carried out to study the heavy metal lead tolerance by bacteria and change in antibiotic-sensitivity pattern after its exposure. Materials and Methods: 30 clinical isolates from various samples received in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Surat, were included in the study. To check the lead tolerance capacity, isolates were exposed to graded concentration of lead nitrate by plate dilution method, starting from 50 up to 1000 μg/ml strength. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. A change in antibiotic susceptibility pattern was studied before and after lead exposure. Result: 30 clinical isolates were included in the study, 25 Gram negative (83.3% and 5 Gram positive (16.7%. MIC to lead was higher in Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. (600-1000 μg/ml as compared to E. coli, Klebsiella spp., S. aureus (50-150 μg/ml. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexes were changed significantly after lead exposure. Conclusion: Bacteria exposed to high levels of heavy metals in their environment have adapted to this stress by developing various resistance mechanism. Infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms create problem in treatment and management of patients. We should take efforts to prevent environmental pollution with such heavy metals and transmission of antibiotic-resistant microorganism from environment to health care set up.

  2. Microcystin-degrading activity of an indigenous bacterial strain Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila MC-LTH2 isolated from Lake Taihu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    Full Text Available Microcystin-LR (MC-LR and microcystin-RR (MC-RR produced by harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs pose substantial threats to the ecosystem and public health due to their potential hepatotoxicity. Degradation of microcystins (MCs by indigenous bacteria represents a promising method for removing MCs from fresh water without harming the aquatic environment, but only a few microcystin (MC-degrading bacteria have been isolated and had their mechanisms reported. This study aimed to isolate indigenous bacteria from Lake Taihu, and investigate the capability and mechanism of MC degradation by these bacteria. During a Microcystis bloom, an indigenous MC-degrading bacterium designated MC-LTH2 was successfully isolated from Lake Taihu, and identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila based on phylogenetic analysis. In the presence of MC-LR together with MC-RR, the strain MC-LTH2 was capable of totally degrading both simultaneously in 8 days, at rates of 3.0 mg/(L⋅d and 5.6 mg/(L⋅d, respectively. The degradation rates of MCs were dependent on temperature, pH, and initial MC concentration. Adda (3-amino-9-methoxy-2, 6, 8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4, 6-dienoic acid was detected as an intermediate degradation product of MCs using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila capable of degrading two MC analogues and other compounds containing Adda residue completely under various conditions, although the mlrA gene in the strain was not detected. These results indicate the Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila strain MC-LTH2 possesses a significant potential to be used in bioremediation of water bodies contaminated by MC-LR and MC-RR, and is potentially involved in the degradation of MCs during the disappearance of the HCBs in Lake Taihu.

  3. Characterization of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) producing bacteria isolated from vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and possible influence of exogenous AHLs on bacterial phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caili; Zhu, Suqin; Jatt, Abdul-Nabi; Zeng, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism through which microbial cells communicate and regulate their wide variety of biological activities. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are considered to be the most important QS signaling molecules produced by several Gram-negative bacteria. The present study aimed to screen the AHLs-producing bacteria from spoiled vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by biosensor assays, and the profiles of AHLs produced by these bacteria were determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Effects of exogenous AHLs and QS inhibitor (QSI) on the phenotypes (i.e., extracellular proteolytic activity and biofilm formation) of the AHLs-producing bacteria were also evaluated. Our results demonstrated that eight out of twenty-two isolates were found to produce AHLs. Three of the AHLs-producing isolates were identified as Serratia sp., and the other five were found to belong to the family of Aeromonas. Two isolates (i.e., S. liquefaciens A2 and A. sobria B1) with higher AHLs-producing activities were selected for further studies. Mainly, RP-TLC and GC-MS analysis revealed three AHLs, i.e., 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C8-HSL and C10-HSL were produced by S. liquefaciens A2, while five AHLs, i.e., C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, and C12-HSL, were produced by A. sobria B1. Moreover, production of AHLs in both bacterial strains were found to be density-dependent, and the AHLs activity reached a maximum level in their middle logarithmic phase and decreased in the stationary phase. The addition of exogenous AHLs and QSI decreased the specific protease activity both of the Serratia A2 and Aeromonas B1. Exogenous AHLs inhibited the biofilm formation of Serratia A2 while it enhanced the biofilm formation in Aeromonas B1. QSI inhibited the specific protease activity and biofilm formation in both bacterial strains. PMID:27118073

  4. Characterization of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) producing bacteria isolated from vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and possible influence of exogenous AHLs on bacterial phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caili; Zhu, Suqin; Jatt, Abdul-Nabi; Zeng, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism through which microbial cells communicate and regulate their wide variety of biological activities. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are considered to be the most important QS signaling molecules produced by several Gram-negative bacteria. The present study aimed to screen the AHLs-producing bacteria from spoiled vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by biosensor assays, and the profiles of AHLs produced by these bacteria were determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Effects of exogenous AHLs and QS inhibitor (QSI) on the phenotypes (i.e., extracellular proteolytic activity and biofilm formation) of the AHLs-producing bacteria were also evaluated. Our results demonstrated that eight out of twenty-two isolates were found to produce AHLs. Three of the AHLs-producing isolates were identified as Serratia sp., and the other five were found to belong to the family of Aeromonas. Two isolates (i.e., S. liquefaciens A2 and A. sobria B1) with higher AHLs-producing activities were selected for further studies. Mainly, RP-TLC and GC-MS analysis revealed three AHLs, i.e., 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C8-HSL and C10-HSL were produced by S. liquefaciens A2, while five AHLs, i.e., C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, and C12-HSL, were produced by A. sobria B1. Moreover, production of AHLs in both bacterial strains were found to be density-dependent, and the AHLs activity reached a maximum level in their middle logarithmic phase and decreased in the stationary phase. The addition of exogenous AHLs and QSI decreased the specific protease activity both of the Serratia A2 and Aeromonas B1. Exogenous AHLs inhibited the biofilm formation of Serratia A2 while it enhanced the biofilm formation in Aeromonas B1. QSI inhibited the specific protease activity and biofilm formation in both bacterial strains.

  5. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Bacillus and Sporosarcina Strains Isolated from Concrete and Analysis of the Bacterial Community of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Eom, Hyo Jung; Park, Chulwoo; Jung, Jaejoon; Shin, Bora; Kim, Wook; Chung, Namhyun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Woojun

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (CCP) is a long-standing but re-emerging environmental engineering process for production of self-healing concrete, bioremediation, and long-term storage of CO2. CCP-capable bacteria, two Bacillus strains (JH3 and JH7) and one Sporosarcina strain (HYO08), were isolated from two samples of concrete and characterized phylogenetically. Calcium carbonate crystals precipitated by the three strains were morphologically distinct according to field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping confirmed biomineralization via extracellular calcium carbonate production. The three strains differed in their physiological characteristics: growth at alkali pH and high NaCl concentrations, and urease activity. Sporosarcina sp. HYO08 and Bacillus sp. JH7 were more alkali- and halotolerant, respectively. Analysis of the community from the same concrete samples using barcoded pyrosequencing revealed that the relative abundance of Bacillus and Sporosarcina species was low, which indicated low culturability of other dominant bacteria. This study suggests that calcium carbonate crystals with different properties can be produced by various CCP-capable strains, and other novel isolates await discovery. PMID:26699752

  6. s-triazine degrading bacterial isolate Arthrobacter sp. AK-YN10, a candidate for bioaugmentation of atrazine contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Storck, Veronika; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Kapley, Atya

    2016-01-01

    The Arthrobacter sp. strain AK-YN10 is an s-triazine pesticide degrading bacterium isolated from a sugarcane field in Central India with history of repeated atrazine use. AK-YN10 was shown to degrade 99 % of atrazine in 30 h from media supplemented with 1000 mg L(-1) of the herbicide. Draft genome sequencing revealed similarity to pAO1, TC1, and TC2 catabolic plasmids of the Arthrobacter taxon. Plasmid profiling analyses revealed the presence of four catabolic plasmids. The trzN, atzB, and atzC atrazine-degrading genes were located on a plasmid of approximately 113 kb.The flagellar operon found in the AK-YN10 draft genome suggests motility, an interesting trait for a bioremediation agent, and was homologous to that of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus. The multiple s-triazines degradation property of this isolate makes it a good candidate for bioremediation of soils contaminated by s-triazine pesticides. PMID:26403923

  7. s-triazine degrading bacterial isolate Arthrobacter sp. AK-YN10, a candidate for bioaugmentation of atrazine contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Storck, Veronika; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Kapley, Atya

    2016-01-01

    The Arthrobacter sp. strain AK-YN10 is an s-triazine pesticide degrading bacterium isolated from a sugarcane field in Central India with history of repeated atrazine use. AK-YN10 was shown to degrade 99 % of atrazine in 30 h from media supplemented with 1000 mg L(-1) of the herbicide. Draft genome sequencing revealed similarity to pAO1, TC1, and TC2 catabolic plasmids of the Arthrobacter taxon. Plasmid profiling analyses revealed the presence of four catabolic plasmids. The trzN, atzB, and atzC atrazine-degrading genes were located on a plasmid of approximately 113 kb.The flagellar operon found in the AK-YN10 draft genome suggests motility, an interesting trait for a bioremediation agent, and was homologous to that of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus. The multiple s-triazines degradation property of this isolate makes it a good candidate for bioremediation of soils contaminated by s-triazine pesticides.

  8. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Bacillus and Sporosarcina Strains Isolated from Concrete and Analysis of the Bacterial Community of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Eom, Hyo Jung; Park, Chulwoo; Jung, Jaejoon; Shin, Bora; Kim, Wook; Chung, Namhyun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Woojun

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (CCP) is a long-standing but re-emerging environmental engineering process for production of self-healing concrete, bioremediation, and long-term storage of CO2. CCP-capable bacteria, two Bacillus strains (JH3 and JH7) and one Sporosarcina strain (HYO08), were isolated from two samples of concrete and characterized phylogenetically. Calcium carbonate crystals precipitated by the three strains were morphologically distinct according to field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping confirmed biomineralization via extracellular calcium carbonate production. The three strains differed in their physiological characteristics: growth at alkali pH and high NaCl concentrations, and urease activity. Sporosarcina sp. HYO08 and Bacillus sp. JH7 were more alkali- and halotolerant, respectively. Analysis of the community from the same concrete samples using barcoded pyrosequencing revealed that the relative abundance of Bacillus and Sporosarcina species was low, which indicated low culturability of other dominant bacteria. This study suggests that calcium carbonate crystals with different properties can be produced by various CCP-capable strains, and other novel isolates await discovery.

  9. Race Specificity of Major Rice Blast Resistance Genes to Magnaporthe grisea Isolates Collected from indica Rice in Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-yuan; CHEN Shen; ZENG Lie-xian; LI Yi-long; CHEN Zhen; LI Chuan-ying; ZHO Xiao-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Race-specific resistance and field resistance of 30 rice blast resistance monogenic lines dedved from different resources were evaluated. The spectra of resistance to 163 Magnaporthe grisea isolates collected from indica rice in Guangdong Province, China ranged from 0.6% to 89.6%. Most of the monogenic lines showed a narrow resistance spectrum and high susceptibility in rice blast area, whereas the lines with Pikh and Pi1(t) had the broad resistance spectra of 89.6% and 82.2% respectively, showing a high and stable blast resistance in fields. According to the cluster analysis of specific resistance to 163 blast isolates tested, the 30 monogenic lines were divided into 15 groups, and based on the principal factor analysis, nine kinds of race-specific resistance were identified. Pik, Piz5, Pi9 and Pish can be used as candidate resistance genes for rice breeding since their specific resistance differed from those of the backbone parents in Guangdong, China. Gene pyramiding of Pikh [or Pi1(t)], Pi9 (or Piz5) and Pish (or Pita2) will be effective to obtain broad-spectrum blast resistance in rice breeding program in Guangdong, China. The strategies for studying and application of rice blast resistance genes were discussed.

  10. Bacterial strains isolated from eggs and their resistance to currently used antibiotics: is there a health hazard for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, C; Dimitriou, D; Levidiotou, S; Gessouli, H; Panagiou, A; Golegou, S; Antoniades, G

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the putative transfer of antibiotic resistance from poultry to humans, hens' eggs were examined for the presence of various pathogens. Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Proteus and Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated genera. Sensitivity tests, performed with the Kirby-Bauer technique, showed the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (to penicillin-G, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, cefalosporins, oxacillin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin), Enterococcus faecalis (to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamycin and tetracyclin), Escherichia coli (to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and cefalosporins), Enterobacter cloacae (to ampicillin, amoxycillin plus clavunalic acid, erythromycin and tetracycline), Pseudomonas stutzeri (to erythromycin and chlorampenicol) and Citrobacter freundii (to ampicillin, amoxycillin plus clavunalic acid, cefalosporins and co-trimoxazole). PMID:9023039

  11. Marine organisms as source of extracts to disrupt bacterial communication: bioguided isolation and identification of quorum sensing inhibitors from Ircinia felix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Quintana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, 39 extracts from marine organisms were evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and the Brazilian Coast including 26 sponges, seven soft corals, five algae and one zooanthid. The results showed that crude extracts from the soft coral Eunicea laciniata, and the sponges Svenzea tubulosa, Ircinia felix and Neopetrosia carbonaria were the most promising source of quorum sensing inhibitors compounds without affecting bacterial growth, unlike the raw extracts of Agelas citrina, Agelas tubulata, Iotrochota arenosa, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Niphates caycedoi, Cliona tenuis, Ptilocaulis walpersi, Petrosia pellasarca, and the algae Laurencia catarinensis and Laurencia obtusa, which displayed potent antibacterial activity against the biosensors employed. The crude extract from the sponge I. felix was fractionated, obtaining furanosesterterpenes which were identified and evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, showing a moderate activity without affecting the biosensor's growth.

  12. Isolation of anaerobic bacterial strains from cellulolytic bacterial com- munity WSC-9%纤维素分解复合菌系WSC-9中厌氧细菌的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温雪; 付博锐; 王彦杰; 高亚梅; 刘权; 晏磊; 王伟东

    2013-01-01

    The microbial community WSC-9 capable of degrading lignocellulose with high efficiency was enriched from composting of cattle manure and rice straw. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify the anaerobic bacterial strains from the cellulose-degrading bacterial community. An anaerobic, thermophilic and cellulolytic bacterium was isolated, which was named WSC-9-7. More than 47% of rice straw was degraded within 10 days of inoculation at 50 ° C by WSC-9-7. WSC-9-7 is a spore-forming and straight rod. Cellobiose, cellulose, filter paper and rice straw can be utilized as sole carbon and energy sources by WSC-9-7 in medium. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity, WSC-9-7 was mapped to the genus Clostridium. It is closely related to HAW-RM37-2-B-1600d-W (99%), and Clostridium islandicum AK1(98%). Clostridium islandicum AK1 was a new anaerobic, saccharolytic, thermophilic bacterium, isolated from hot spring in Iceland. HAW-RM37-2-B-1600d-W was uncultured clone from compost environmental samples. All of them were thermophilic and anaerobic bacterium. Hence, WSC-9-7 represents a novel species is proposed.%  复合菌系WSC-9是一组具高效稳定分解纤维素能力的细菌复合群体.为了研究其微生物组成,以纤维素分解情况为依据,分离复合菌系中具有纤维素分解能力的厌氧纯培养菌株,通过16S rDNA基因序列初步分析确定系统发育地位.从WSC-9中获得1株可有效降解纤维素的严格厌氧细菌WSC-9-7,50℃培养10 d,稻秆的总干重减少了47%.WSC-9-7为杆菌,产孢,能够利用纤维二糖、纤维素、滤纸、稻秆等.经数据库比对,与菌株HAW-RM37-2-B-1600d-W(FN563295)的相似性达到99%,与Clostridium islandicum AK1(EF088328)的相似性为98%.其中,Clostridium islandicum AK1厌氧且可以分解多糖类物质,获于冰岛的热泉;HAW-RM37-2-B-1600d-W在堆肥样品的克隆结果中获得,未获得纯培养.菌株WSC-9-7与这两株细菌均为嗜高温的严格

  13. Beta-lactam effects on mixed cultures of common respiratory isolates as an approach to treatment effects on nasopharyngeal bacterial population dynamics.

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    David Sevillano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae are bacteria present in the nasopharynx as part of normal flora. The ecological equilibrium in the nasopharynx can be disrupted by the presence of antibiotics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A computerized two-compartment pharmacodynamic model was used to explore beta-lactam effects on the evolution over time of a bacterial load containing common pharyngeal isolates by simulating free serum concentrations obtained with amoxicillin (AMX 875 mg tid, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC 875/125 mg tid and cefditoren (CDN 400 mg bid regimens over 24 h. Strains and MICs (microg/ml of AMX, AMC and CDN were: S. pyogenes (0.03, 0.03 and 0.015, S. pneumoniae (2, 2 and 0.25, a beta-lactamase positive H. influenzae (BL(+; >16, 2 and 0.06 and a beta-lactamase positive AMC-resistant H. influenzae (BLPACR, >16, 8 and 0.06. Mixture of identical 1:1:1:1 volumes of each bacterial suspension were prepared yielding an inocula of approximately 4 x 10(6 cfu/ml. Antibiotic concentrations were measured both in bacterial and in bacteria-free antibiotic simulations. beta-lactamase production decreased AMX concentrations and fT(>MIC against S. pneumoniae (from 43.2% to 17.7% or S. pyogenes (from 99.9% to 24.9%, and eradication was precluded. The presence of clavulanic acid countered this effect of co-pathogenicity, and S. pyogenes (but not BL(+ and S. pneumoniae was eradicated. Resistance of CDN to TEM beta-lactamase avoided this co-pathogenicity effect, and CDN eradicated S. pyogenes and H. influenzae strains (fT(>MIC >58%, and reduced in 94% S. pneumoniae counts (fT(>MIC approximately 25%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Co-pathogenicity seems to be gradual since clavulanic acid countered this effect for strains very susceptible to AMX as S. pyogenes but not for strains with AMX MIC values in the limit of susceptibility as S. pneumoniae. There is a potential therapeutic advantage for beta

  14. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals and its prevention and control%水产动物源细菌耐药性与预防控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国烈; 李林桂; 房文红

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial resistance is the ability of a disease-causing bacterium to resist being killed by antibiotics. The formation of bacterial resistance is the result of the development of bacterial evolution and the manifest of bacterial adaptability; however, it threatens the development of aquaculture and human health. Firstly, this paper summarized the research progress on the bacterial resistance in aquatic animals in recent years, including plasmid-mediated resistance of bacteria, resistance gene of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals, and the genetic mechanism of antibiotic resistance and so on. Secondly, the paper analyzed the harm of bacterial resistance, which included the pathogen of bacterial resistance that caused epidemics and the antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals that threatened public health. Finally, from rational and standardized use of drugs, speeding up the development and application of aquatic vaccines and new antimicrobial drugs alternatives, strengthening of the surveillance about pathogen isolates from aquatic animals and so on, the paper provided some valuable methods and strategies on the prevention and control for bacterial resistance in aquatic animals.%细菌耐药性是指细菌对于抗菌药物作用的耐受性。细菌耐药性的形成,是细菌进化发展的结果,是细菌适应性的表现,但它却给养殖业的发展和人类的健康带来威胁。本文首先综述了水产动物源细菌耐药性研究现状,主要包括质粒介导的水产动物源细菌耐药性、细菌耐药基因、细菌耐药性遗传学机制等;其次,从病原菌耐药性会导致水产疾病流行爆发和水产细菌耐药性对人类公共卫生安全的影响两方面,分析了水产动物源细菌耐药性的危害;最后,从合理、规范用药,加快水产疫苗和新型抗菌药物替代品的研制与应用,加强水产动物致病菌耐药性监测等方面,提出了预防和控制

  15. Antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from burns and wounds of cancer patients

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    Sulaiman A. Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 540 burns and wound swabs were collected from cancer patients of some Egyptian hospitals. The single infection was detected from 210, and 70 cases among wounded and burned patients, while mixed infection was 30 and 45, respectively. We recovered where 60 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 60 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 7 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 25 isolates of Escherichia coli, 23 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 27 isolates of Proteus vulgaris from 355 burn and surgical wound infections . All bacterial isolates showed high resistance to the commonly used β-lactams (amoxycillin, cefaclor, ampicillin, vancomycin, amoxicillin/clavulonic, and low resistance to imepenim and ciprofloxacin. Plasmid analysis of six multidrug resistant and two susceptible bacterial isolates revealed the same plasmid pattern. This indicated that R-factor is not responsible for the resistance phenomenon among the isolated opportunistic bacteria. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the isolated bacteria was studied.

  16. Optimization of Endoglucanase Production from a Novel Bacterial Isolate, Arthrobacter sp. HPG166 and Characterization of Its Properties

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    Shengwei Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this study, a potential novel cellulolytic bacteriumArthrobacter sp. HPG166 was isolated from the hindgut of root-feeding larvaeHolotrichia parallela. Optimization of fermentation factors for endoglucanase production byArthrobacter sp. HPG166 was carried out via response surface methodology. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose 1.19% (w/v and beef extract 0.35% (w/v were the ideal combination of carbon and nitrogen sources for enzyme production; the optimum temperature and pH for cellulase production were 34°C and pH 8.0 respectively. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, the maximum endoglucanase activity of 1.411 U mL-1 was obtained. The crude endoglucanase was thermotolerant as it retained 50.31% of its activity after incubation at 70°C for an hour. Metal profile of the enzyme indicated that Mg2+ and Na+ were strong stimulators while Mn2+ and Co+ drastically inhibited its activity. Due to its particular characteristics, this enzyme could have potential for industrial applications.

  17. An Investigation of Antibacterial Resistance Patterns Among Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Collected from Intensive Care Units of a University-Affiliated Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadpour, Farrokh; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Aramesh, Mohammad-Reza; Moosavian, Mojtaba; ShahAli, Shiva; Larki, Farzaneh; Tabesh, Hamed; Morvaridi, Afrooz

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent decades, multidrug-resistant non-fermenting Gram-negative pathogens, particularly Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been recognized as a major cause of healthcare-associated and nosocomial infections and outbreaks. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates collected from intensive care units (ICUs). Methods One hundred fifty-five clinical isolates, including 80 (51.6%) isolates of A. baumannii and 75 (48.4%) isolates of P. aeruginosa, from hospitalized patients in the ICUs of a teaching hospital in Ahvaz, Iran, were collected from January 1 to December 30, 2013. The organisms were identified with conventional bacteriological methods, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all isolates in accordance with clinical laboratory and standards institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results The maximum resistance rates among A. baumannii isolates were observed for ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (96.9% and 95.2%, respectively). For P. aeruginosa isolates, the maximum resistance rates were reported for ceftriaxone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (97.2% and 92.4%, respectively). Conclusions The majority of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates were found to be resistant to commonly recommended antibiotics. Therefore, surveillance of antibiotic consumption and proper antibiotic administration guidelines are essential for preventing major outbreaks in the future. PMID:27800136

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial isolates from man-made high-pH, high-salt environments and identification of gene-cassette-associated open reading frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, Muhammad A; Khalid, Ahmad M; Grant, Susan; Grant, William D; Heaphy, Shaun

    2006-06-01

    Environmental samples were collected from high-pH sites in Pakistan, including a uranium heap set up for carbonate leaching, the lime unit of a tannery, and the Khewra salt mine. Another sample was collected from a hot spring on the shore of the soda lake, Magadi, in Kenya. Microbial cultures were enriched from Pakistani samples. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates was carried out by sequencing 16S rRNA genes. Genomic DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using integron gene-cassette-specific primers. Different gene-cassette-linked genes were recovered from the cultured strains related to Halomonas magadiensis, Virgibacillus halodenitrificans, and Yania flava and from the uncultured environmental DNA sample. The usefulness of this technique as a tool for gene mining is indicated. PMID:16732461

  19. Identification of nif genes in N2-fixing bacterial strains isolated from rice fields along the Yangtze River Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang Hui; Cui, Zongjun; Yu, Jun; Yan, Jing; Hai, Weili; Steinberger, Yosef

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify nifH and nifHDKYE ' genes in twenty strains of N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria isolated from rice fields in the Yangtze River Plain. Southern hybridization of the total DNA from each strain was performed with the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifHDKYE ' gene probe (6.2 kb Eco RI fragment from pSA30) and the Azospirillum brasilense nifH gene probe (0.6 kb Eco RI-Hin dIII fragment from pHU8). We found that Eco RI fragments of total DNA from Aeromonas hydrophila HY2, Bacillus azotoformans FD, Bacillus licheniformis NCH1, NCH5, WH4, Bacillus brevis NC2, Bacillus pumilus NC12, Bacillus cereus NCH2, Citrobacter freundii HY5, HY9, Derxia gummosa HZ5, Pseudomonas mendocina HZ1 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes WH3 were positively hybridized with both of the probes. Agrobacterium radiobacter HY17, Corynebacterium sp. HY12, YZ and Pseudomonas sp. HY11 had Eco RI fragments hybridized with the K. pneumoniae nifHDKYE ' gene probe. An Eco RI fragment of total DNA from Bacillus megaterium YY4 was positively hybridized to the A. brasilense nifH gene probe. No hybridization sign was found in the total DNA fragments from Alcaligenes cupidus YY6 and Corynebacterium sp. NC11 hybridized with either of the gene probes. The data provide the number and size of EcoRI fragments of the total DNA hybridized with the nif gene probes for these strains of rarely studied species, suggesting additional evidence for N2 fixing and nif gene diversity of N2-fixing bacteria in rice fields along the Yangtze River Plain.

  20. Honey bees avoid nectar colonized by three bacterial species, but not by a yeast species, isolated from the bee gut.

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    Ashley P Good

    Full Text Available The gut microflora of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is receiving increasing attention as a potential determinant of the bees' health and their efficacy as pollinators. Studies have focused primarily on the microbial taxa that appear numerically dominant in the bee gut, with the assumption that the dominant status suggests their potential importance to the bees' health. However, numerically minor taxa might also influence the bees' efficacy as pollinators, particularly if they are not only present in the gut, but also capable of growing in floral nectar and altering its chemical properties. Nonetheless, it is not well understood whether honey bees have any feeding preference for or against nectar colonized by specific microbial species. To test whether bees exhibit a preference, we conducted a series of field experiments at an apiary using synthetic nectar inoculated with specific species of bacteria or yeast that had been isolated from the bee gut, but are considered minor components of the gut microflora. These species had also been found in floral nectar. Our results indicated that honey bees avoided nectar colonized by the bacteria Asaia astilbes, Erwinia tasmaniensis, and Lactobacillus kunkeei, whereas the yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii did not affect the feeding preference of the insects. Our results also indicated that avoidance of bacteria-colonized nectar was caused not by the presence of the bacteria per se, but by the chemical changes to nectar made by the bacteria. These findings suggest that gut microbes may not only affect the bees' health as symbionts, but that some of the microbes may possibly affect the efficacy of A. mellifera as pollinators by altering nectar chemistry and influencing their foraging behavior.

  1. Isolation of a Siderophore-Producting Bacterial Strain and Mica-bacterial Interactions%一株产铁载体细菌的筛选及其与云母的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳燕; 张垠; 盛下放; 黄智

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the interactions between siderophore-producting bacteria and mica minerals will help us understand the mechanism of bio-weathering, the formation of soil, global cycle of several elements, and local environmental contamination. A siderophore(pyoverdins)-producting bacterial strain Z6 was isolated from rhizosphere soil of advantage wild plants sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) growing in Longshan potassium mine tailings in Nanjing, which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. By checking the individual morphology, colony characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequencing. Using the test cultures containing biotite or muscovite inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Z6, we found that a strong increase in the amount of siderophore in the fiest 15 days and bacteria could influence silicon and iron mobilization from mica minerals consistently until 75 d of culture. The amounts of iron released from biotite in the presence of Z6 increased by 211 times and the silicon increased by a factor of 27.8, much higher than that in the negative control without minerals. SEM analysis revealed the formation of erosion and bacteria-mineral aggregates on the surface of mica. Cellular growth, siderophere production and pH change by Pseudomonas sp. Z6 cultivated in biotite were directly and quickly influenced, more significantly than that in muscovite experimental setup. The siderophore(pyoverdins)-producting bacterial strain Z6 might play an important role in the process of mica weathering. Production of bacterial siderophore may be related to the presence of different mica minerals.%产铁载体细菌与云母类矿物相互作用的研究有助于了解矿物生物风化和土壤形成的演化规律和机理.采用纯培养法自南京龙山废钾矿区酸模根际土壤分离筛选到一株高产荧光铁载体的细菌Z6,通过16S rDNA序列分析和生理生化反应将其鉴定为假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.);通过室温静置培养试验研究Z6菌株与云母的相互作用结果

  2. Isolation of facultative anaerobic entophytic bacterial companioned Ca Las infected citrus tissues and evaluation of dominant bacterial populations%亚洲韧皮杆菌兼性厌氧型伴生细菌鉴定及优势菌群分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颜方; 殷幼平; 王玉玺; 李佳; 陈世伟; 王中康

    2011-01-01

    To analysis the entophytic bacterial diversity of citrus and find the companion bacteria populations associated with Huanglongbing pathogen-infected and healthy citrus plant tissues for decipher the co-cultivation of HLB pathogen, we selected varied parts of citrus tissues collected from different locations of citrus planted area. The facultative anaerobic entophytic bacteria were isolated and purified based on bacterial morphology, physiology, biochemistry characteristics and the molecular method of PCR-DGGE (Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis based on the sequence of 16S rRNA V6-V8 fragment gene. By the directional isolation of the facultative anaerobic entophytic bacteria and 16S rDNA amplification, total 12 genera of bacteria were identified from 19 cultivable bacterial populations. The dominant bacterial population in infected citrus plants were Curtobacterium sp. (IF: 29.07%), Bacillus sp. (IF: 23.12%), Microbacterium sp. (IF: 21.09%) while in healthy citrus tissues belonged to Bacillus sp. (IF; 21.03%), Planococcus sp. (IF: 20.69%), Pseudomonas sp. (IF: 17.44%). From 50 target bands obtainded by the DGGE approach, 9 genera of cultivable bacteria were recognized, The dominant bacterium population belonged to Serratia sp. (IF: 28%) and Pantoea sp. (IF: 14%) followed by it. Candidate Liberibacter asiaticus was only found in tangerine pith of deformed orange fruit, which suggested that the content (>1%) of Huanglongbing was more in diseased fruits and other tissues of citrus had low abundance percentage. The density and species of entophytic bacteria were also observed in remarkable difference between infected and healthy citrus plant from the PCR-DGGE profiles.%以定向分离培养和基于16S rDNA的PCR-DGGE (Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,DGGE)方法,分析感黄龙病柑橘与健康柑橘植株不同部位的内生细菌多样性,分离柑橘组织共获得19株可培养的兼性厌氧型内生细菌,经形态、生理生化结合16S

  3. Isolation and characterization of a cold-resistant PCB209-degrading bacterial strain from river sediment and its application in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liping; Wang, Hu; Wang, Xuntao

    2016-01-01

    A cold-resistant bacterium (strain QL) that can degrade 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decachlorobiphenyl (PCB209) was isolated from Wei-he River sediment. Strain QL was identified as a rod-shaped gram-negative bacterial strain, which was further identified as Comamonas testosteroni. C. testosteroni has never been reported to be capable of degrading PCB209 at low temperatures. In this study, the degradation characteristics showed that strain QL could grow with PCB209 as the sole carbon source at low temperatures (10 ± 0.5 °C). More significantly, strain QL of 40% inoculation volume was able to completely degrade PCB209 in 140 h (initial concentration of PCB209 was 100-500 µg L(-1) at 10 ± 0.5 °C and pH 7-8). The degradation process proceeded with zero-order reaction kinetics. Moreover, both laboratory simulation and real-world field experiments demonstrated that strain QL was effective in practical applications of PCB209 biodegradation in contaminated soil.

  4. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA FROM SOIL COLLECTED FROM HIMALAYAN REGION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LIPASE BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING TWEEN-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Rahul

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we are reporting one microorganism isolated from soil collected from Himalayan region, producing thermostable lipase. Tween 20 agar, selective media was used to isolate soil microbe Bacillus mojavensis 5-SM. Molecular phylogeny of isolated strain shows similarity with Bacillus mojavensis 3EC4A5. Different parameters such as substrate selection, pH of the medium, temperature were optimized. Effects of various organic solvents, reducing and oxidizing agents, metal ions and surfactants were analyzed on extracted crude lipase. The maximum extracellular activity was observed at pH 11 and temperature 600 C as optimum.

  5. Application of isolated bacterial consortium in UMBR for detoxification of textile effluent: comparative analysis of resultant oxidative stress and genotoxicity in catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) exposed to raw and treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priya; Sarkar, Sandeep; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Bakshi, Madhurima; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhayay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2014-08-01

    A bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge was identified to be Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp. and E. coli. and was found capable of 98.62 % decolourization of highly toxic textile effluent, when applied in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Ceramic capillary UF membranes prepared over low cost support proved to be highly efficient in adverse experimental conditions. The UMBR permeate and untreated textile effluent (40 % (v/v)) was then used to treat Heteropneustes fossilis for a comparative assessment of their toxicity. Micronucleus count in peripheral blood erythrocytes and comet assay carried out in liver and gill cells showed significantly lower nuclear and tissue specific DNA damage respectively in organisms exposed to membrane permeate and was further supported by considerably lower oxidative stress response enzyme activities in comparison to raw effluent treated individuals. The results indicate efficient detoxification of textile effluent by the UMBR treatment using the isolated bacterial consortium. PMID:24804625

  6. DNA-based identification and OspC serotyping in cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. isolated from ticks collected in the Moravia (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norek, Adam; Janda, Lubomír; Žákovská, Alena

    2016-06-01

    Two different genetic loci, flaB and ospC, were employed to assign genospecies and OspC phylogenetic type to 18 strains isolated from ticks collected in Pisárky, a suburban park in the city of Brno, Czech Republic. The RFLP analysis revealed three different genospecies (B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana). Three samples from the collection contained more than one genospecies. In the other 15 strains, nucleotide sequences of flaB and ospC were determined. The following phylogenetic analysis assigned 12 isolates to genospecies B. garinii and three to B. afzelii. These isolates were further subdivided into seven distinct ospC groups. The most related OspC types were G2, G4, and G5 (B. garinii) and A3 and A8 (B. afzelii). PMID:27232140

  7. Detection and organization of atrazine-degrading genetic potential of seventeen bacterial isolates belonging to divergent taxa indicate a recent common origin of their catabolic functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Azhari, Najoi

    2007-01-01

    A collection of 17 atrazine-degrading bacteria isolated from soils was studied to determine the composition of the atrazine-degrading genetic potential (i.e. trzN, trzD and atz) and the presence of IS1071. The characterization of seven new atrazine-degrading bacteria revealed for the first time...... the trzN-atzBC gene composition in Gram-negative bacteria such as Sinorhizobium sp. or Polaromonas sp. Three main atrazine-degrading gene combinations (i) trzN–atzBC, (ii) atzABC–trzD and (iii) atzABCDEF were observed. The atz and trz genes were often located on plasmids, suggesting that plasmid...... the atrazine-degrading genes....

  8. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samad Mosaferi; Reza Ghabouli Mehrabani; Mansoor Khakpoor; Nader Ghabouli Mehrabani; Amir Maleksabet; Faezeh Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99)%, (6/66)%, (13/32)%, (3/33%), (6/66)%, (13/32)%, (9/99)% and (6/66)%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  9. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Mosaferi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (3/33%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (9/99% and (6/66%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  10. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces, water from inside a wastewater treatment plant, and seawater samples collected in the Antarctic Treaty area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, Virginia; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Jiménez, Sebastián; Quezada, Mario; Domínguez, Mariana; Vergara, Luis; Gómez-Fuentes, Claudio; Calisto-Ulloa, Nancy; González-Acuña, Daniel; López, Juana; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a problem of global concern and is frequently associated with human activity. Studying antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from pristine environments, such as Antarctica, extends our understanding of these fragile ecosystems. Escherichia coli strains, important fecal indicator bacteria, were isolated on the Fildes Peninsula (which has the strongest human influence in Antarctica), from seawater, bird droppings, and water samples from inside a local wastewater treatment plant. The strains were subjected to molecular typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine their genetic relationships, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility with disk diffusion tests for several antibiotic families: β-lactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, phenicols, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide. The highest E. coli count in seawater samples was 2400 cfu/100 mL. Only strains isolated from seawater and the wastewater treatment plant showed any genetic relatedness between groups. Strains of both these groups were resistant to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide.In contrast, strains from bird feces were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. We conclude that naturally occurring antibiotic resistance in E. coli strains isolated from Antarctic bird feces is rare and the bacterial antibiotic resistance found in seawater is probably associated with discharged treated wastewater originating from Fildes Peninsula treatment plants.

  11. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal, Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa, Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features.

  12. The effect of dissolved organic carbon on bacterial adhesion to conditioning films adsorbed on glass from natural seawater collected during different seasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.P.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, H.C. van der

    2003-01-01

    Adhesion of three marine bacterial strains, i.e. Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Psychrobacter sp. and Halomonas pacifica with different cell surface hydrophobicities was measured on glass in a stagnation point flow chamber. Prior to bacterial adhesion, the glass surface was conditioned for 1 h

  13. The effect of dissolved organic carbon on bacterial adhesion to conditioning films adsorbed on glass from natural seawater collected during different seasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, DP; Klijnstra, JW; Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC

    2003-01-01

    Adhesion of three marine bacterial strains, i.e. Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus , Psychrobacter sp. and Halomonas pacifica with different cell surface hydrophobicities was measured on glass in a stagnation point flow chamber. Prior to bacterial adhesion, the glass surface was conditioned for 1 h

  14. 黄粉虫不同虫态肠道细菌分离及鉴定%Isolation and identification of intestinal bacterial flora of yellow mealworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉升; 叶保华; 张丽; 郑继法

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the intestinal bacteria of yellow mealworm and its appetite for purpose of providing theoretical basis for further research. Method The intestinal flora of larvae, pupae and adult of captive-bred Tenebrio molitor were isolated, from which 9 bacteria strains were obtained and identified systematically. Result These strains were identified as Actunobacillus, Propionibacterium, Citrobacter, Serratia, Bacillus, Dermabacter, Brachybacterium, Clavibacter and Exiguobcacterium, respectively. Conclusion The intestinal bacterial flora of 3 developmental stages of Tenebrio molitor are different to a certain extent.%目的 研究黄粉虫肠道细菌的类群与其取食的关系,为进一步开发利用提供理论依据.方法 从人工饲养的黄粉虫幼虫、蛹和成虫肠道环境中分离纯化获得9个细菌菌株,对其菌体形态、染色反应、培养性状、生理生化反应进行系统研究.结果 研究结果表明,上述9个细菌菌株分别属于放线杆菌属(Aaunobacillus)、丙酸杆菌属(Propionibacterium)、柠檬酸杆菌属(Citrobacter)、沙雷菌属(Serratia)、芽胞杆菌属(Bacillus)、皮杆菌属(Dermabacter)、短状杆菌属(Brachybacterium)、棍状杆菌属(Clavibacter)和微小杆菌属(Exigu obcacteriu).结论 通过对黄粉虫不同虫态即幼虫、蛹和成虫肠道细菌分离,其细菌种类存在一定差别.

  15. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. from chevon and chicken meat collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, V.K.; Shakya, S; A. Patyal; Gade, N. E.; Bhoomika

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in raw chevon and chicken meat sold in the retail meat shops situated in and around Durg, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh. Studies were also conducted to find out the antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising of 200 chevon meat and 200 chicken meat samples were processed for isolation of Salmonella and all isolates were further confirmed...

  16. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and saprophyticus resistant to antimicrobials isolated from the Lebanese aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve; Yassine, Hadi; Hajjar, Shady; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2006-08-01

    The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials especially in developing countries has evoked serious bacterial resistance and led to the emergence of new and highly resistant strains of bacteria to commonly used antimicrobials. In Lebanon, pollution levels and bacterial infections are increasing at a high rate as a result of inadequate control measures to limit untreated effluent discharges into the sea or freshwater resources. The aim of this study was to isolate and molecularly characterize various Staphylococcus strains isolated from sea water, fresh water, sediments, and crab samples collected from representative communities along the coast of Lebanon. The results on the antimicrobial resistance indicated that the level of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus varied with various antimicrobials tested. The resistance patterns ranged between 45% in freshwater isolates and 54.8% in seawater ones. Fifty one percent of the tested isolates have shown resistance to at least one of the five tested antimicrobials; with seawater isolates exhibiting the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Bacterial Degradation of Cyanide and Its Metal Complexes under Alkaline Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M.; Huertas, María-J.; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, M. Dolores; García-Gil, L. Jesús; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) ...

  18. Bacterial 16S diversity of basal ice, sediment, and the forefront of Svínafellsjökull glacier via isolation chips and classical culturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubes-Rodrigo, Mario; Cook, Simon; Elliott, David; Sen, Robin

    2016-04-01

    following 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetics. Basal ice communities comprised a mix of soil and glacial bacteria, with higher proportion of ice-related bacteria in dispersed cryofacies (Polaromonas sp, Flavobacterium xinjiangense) and a water (Arthrobacter agilis) and soil-related microorganisms (Pseudomonas sp) in the debris bands, similar to sub-glacial sediment. During debris band formation, microorganisms from bedrock and overridden soils can be entrained into the ice matrix and those which have adapted to icy conditions can proliferate, explaining the higher viable bacterial counts on dispersed ice as well as higher proportions of glacial isolated-related microorganisms. Once the subglacial sediment and basal ice are released from the glacier and as soil age increases, increased representation of soil-related microbiota (Arthrobacter alpinus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) were identified. The results in this study suggest cultivable communities shift in two directions: firstly, within the basal ice layer from subglacial sediment, dominated by soil and water communities towards dispersed ice with a high proportion of glacial communities. The other shift occurs when subglacial sediment is released into the forefront, where the composition changes towards a soil-like microbiota with increase in soil age.

  19. Anti-bacterial activity of the methanolic extract of leucas hyssopifolia (Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Methanolic extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots was investigated for its anti-bacterial property. Aim: Evaluation of anti-bacterial activity of Leucas hyssopifolia Benth. Settings and Design: Roots of the plant were collected, extracted and finally evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity. Materials and Methods: Paper disc diffusion method and microdilution technique were employed for the determination of zone of inhibition and minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. Results: The extract showed anti-bacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains except Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Anti-bacterial activity of extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots may be due to the presence of secondary plant metabolites like terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids, which are present in the extract. The extract can be further studied for the isolation of chemical compounds and their biological activity.

  20. Isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from suspected enterotoxaemia cases in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Mechael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety cases of clinically diagnosed enterotoxemia infection in lambs at AL-Hamdaniya region where studied for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes, faecal samples were collected from all suspected cases during January- June 2008, the results show that 41.6% of the isolates were Cl. perfringens as pure single isolates, while mixed infection of Cl. perfringens with each of Enterococci and staphylococcus in percentage of 26.04%, 20.83% respectively, also mixed infection of Cl. septicum with each of Staphylococcus and E.coli were isolated at the percentage of 5.2%, 6.25% respectively. Highest bacterial isolation was from the faecal samples collected during April. McIntosh jar method show isolation of pure culture of anaerobic bacteria (Cl. perfringens, while Candle jar method show detection of 56 isolates in mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  1. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India, and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  2. Increased resistance to first-line agents among bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections in Latin America: time for local guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S Andrade

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance rates among pathogens recovered from community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTI is an increasing problem in specific regions, limiting therapeutic options. As part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, a total of 611 isolates were collected in 2003 from patients with CA-UTI presenting at Latin American medical centers. Each strain was tested in a central laboratory using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI broth microdilution methods with appropriate controls. Escherichia coli was the leading pathogen (66%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (7%, Proteus mirabilis (6.4%, Enterococcus spp. (5.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.6%. Surprisingly high resistance rates were recorded for E. coli against first-line orally administered agents for CA-UTI, such as ampicillin (53.6%, TMP/SMX (40.4%, ciprofloxacin (21.6%, and gatifloxacin (17.1%. Decreased susceptibility rates to TMP/SMX and ciprofloxacin were also documented for Klebsiella spp. (79.1 and 81.4%, respectively, and P. mirabilis (71.8 and 84.6%, respectively. For Enterococcus spp., susceptibility rates to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin were 88.2, 85.3, 55.9, and 97.1%, respectively. High-level resistance to gentamicin was detected in 24% of Enterococcus spp. Bacteria isolated from patients with CA-UTI in Latin America showed limited susceptibility to orally administered antimicrobials, especially for TMP/SMX and fluoroquinolones. Our results highlight the need for developing specific CA-UTI guidelines in geographic regions where elevated resistance to new and old compounds may influence prescribing decisions.

  3. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. from chevon and chicken meat collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Naik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in raw chevon and chicken meat sold in the retail meat shops situated in and around Durg, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh. Studies were also conducted to find out the antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising of 200 chevon meat and 200 chicken meat samples were processed for isolation of Salmonella and all isolates were further confirmed on the basis of cultural and biochemical characters and by targeting invA gene of Salmonella. All Salmonella isolates were also examined for their antimicrobial drug susceptibility/resistance pattern against commonly used antibiotics. Results: Out of 400 samples, the prevalence of Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat was found 9% and 7% respectively, with an overall prevalence of 8%. Polymerase chain reaction targeting invA gene of Salmonella showed positive result with 31 isolates. All 32 Salmonella isolates were found to be highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin while 96.87%, 96.87% and 93.75% were sensitive to gentamicin, imipenem, and ceftazidime, respectively. 93.75% and 59.37% isolates were resistant to erythromycin and oxytetracycline, respectively. Out of 32, 14 isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index equal to or more than 0.2. Conclusion: Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat samples is prevailing in the areas of sampling due to poor hygienic conditions and also demonstrated the varied spectrum of antimicrobial resistance, including several multiple drug resistance phenotypes. Therefore, the present study emphasizes the need for continued surveillance of zoonotic foodborne pathogens including antimicrobial-resistant variants throughout the food production chain.

  4. Ion transport mechanisms in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo: microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear how and whether terrestrial amphibians handle NaCl transport in the distal nephron. Therefore, we studied ion transport in isolated perfused collecting tubules and ducts from toad, Bufo bufo, by means of microelectrodes. No qualitative difference in basolateral cell membrane...... and amiloride application showed a small apical Na+ conductance. Arginine vasotocin depolarized Vbl. The small apical Na+ conductance indicates that the collecting duct system contributes little to NaCl reabsorption when compared to aquatic amphibians. In contrast, Vbl rapidly depolarized upon lowering of [Na...

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF CLOSTRIDIUM ISOLATES ON AEROPONICALLY CULTIVATED POTATO TO PROTECT AGAINST RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM (BACTERIAL WILT) AND PCR DETECTION ON LATEN INFECTION ON TUBERS.

    OpenAIRE

    Baharuddin.

    2012-01-01

    Aeroponic technology was used to optimize production of potato mini tubers. Several adventage was the production 5-10 times higher and tuber size was bigger than covensional methods, but unfortunatelly some times yield loss was present caused by bacterial wilt Ralstonia solanacearum. Although not all of plants were died and some of plants still produce tubers, but laten infection of bacterial wilt was occured. Early observation on microbes diversity on healthy and on infected plants ...

  6. Isolation by a sensitive centrifugation cell culture system of 52 strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae from ticks collected in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Péter, O; Raoult, D.; Gilot, B.

    1990-01-01

    Boutonneuse fever caused by Rickettsia conorii is transmitted mainly by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. We collected 540 ticks in Marseille, France, and tried to isolate as many strains of rickettsia as possible. Ticks were evaluated for the presence of rickettsia by the hemolymph test and by a new culture system, the centrifugation-shell vial technique. We avoided contamination in the culture system. Prior to ticks being submitted to the hemolymph test, they were disinfected. O...

  7. Rapid Ertapenem Susceptibility Testing and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase Phenotype Detection in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates by Use of Automated Microscopy of Immobilized Live Bacterial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Frobel, Rachel A.; Herrera, Monica L.; Wickes, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated detection of ertapenem (ETP) resistance and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) in 47 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates using a novel automated microscopy system. Automated microscopy correctly classified 22/23 isolates as ETP resistant and 24/24 as ETP susceptible and correctly classified 21/21 isolates as KPC positive and 26/26 as KPC negative.

  8. Observations on macrolide resistance and susceptibility testing performance in field isolates collected from clinical bovine respiratory disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, Keith D; Harhay, Dayna M; Apley, Michael D; Lubbers, Brian V; Clawson, Michael L; Schuller, Gennie; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Capik, Sarah F; Riviere, Jim E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Tessman, Ronald K

    2016-08-30

    The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M. haemolytica isolates. M. haemolytica (n=276), P. multocida (n=253), and H. somni (n=78) were isolated from feedlot cattle diagnosed with BRD. Gamithromycin susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was utilized to determine the presence/absence of macrolide resistance genes and to genetically type M. haemolytica. Generalized linear mixed models were built for analysis. There was not a significant difference between MM and CON groups in regards to the likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica or P. multocida. The likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica differed significantly by state of origin in this study. A single M. haemolytica genetic subtype was associated with an over whelming majority of the observed resistance. H. somni isolation counts were low and statistical models would not converge. Phenotypic resistance was predicted with high sensitivity and specificity by WGS. Additional studies to elucidate the relationships between phenotypic expression of resistance/genetic determinants for resistance and clinical response to antimicrobials are necessary to inform judicious use of antimicrobials in the context of relieving animal disease and suffering. PMID:27527782

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and spread of multi drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates collected from nine urology services in the Euregion Meuse-Rhine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina F M van der Donk

    Full Text Available We determined the prevalence and spread of antibiotic resistance and the characteristics of ESBL producing and/or multi drug resistant (MDR Escherichia coli isolates collected from urine samples from urology services in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, the border region of the Netherlands (n=176, Belgium (n=126 and Germany (n=119. Significant differences in resistance between the three regions were observed. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance ranged from 24% in the Netherlands to 39% in Belgium (p=0.018, from 20% to 40% (p<0.004 for the fluoroquinolones and from 20% to 40% (p=0.018 for the folate antagonists. Resistance to nitrofurantoin was less than 5%. The prevalence of ESBL producing isolates varied from 2% among the Dutch isolates to 8% among the German ones (p=0.012 and were mainly CTX-M 15. The prevalence of MDR isolates among the Dutch, German and Belgian isolates was 11%, 17% and 27%, respectively (p< =0.001 for the Belgian compared with the Dutch isolates. The majority of the MDR and ESBL producing isolates belonged to ST131. This study indicates that most antibiotics used as first choice oral empiric treatment for UTIs (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, fluoroquinolones and folate antagonists are not appropriate for this purpose and that MDR strains such as CTX-M producing ST131 have spread in the entire Euregion. Our data stress the importance of ward specific surveillance to optimize empiric treatment. Also, prudent use of antibiotics and further research to alternative agents are warranted.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin Is Conserved among Diverse Hospital Respiratory Isolates Collected from a Global Surveillance Study and Is Neutralized by Monoclonal Antibody MEDI4893.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, David E; Yu, Li; Mok, Hoyin; Tkaczyk, Christine; Sellman, Bret R; Wu, Yuling; Oganesyan, Vaheh; Slidel, Tim; Jafri, Hasan; McCarthy, Michael; Bradford, Patricia; Esser, Mark T

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections lead to an array of illnesses ranging from mild skin infections to serious diseases, such endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and pneumonia. Alpha-toxin (Hla) is a pore-forming toxin, encoded by the hla gene, that is thought to play a key role in S. aureus pathogenesis. A monoclonal antibody targeting Hla, MEDI4893, is in clinical development for the prevention of S. aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The presence of the hla gene and Hla protein in 994 respiratory isolates collected from patients in 34 countries in Asia, Europe, the United States, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, and Australia was determined. Hla levels were correlated with the geographic location, age of the subject, and length of stay in the hospital. hla gene sequence analysis was performed, and mutations were mapped to the Hla crystal structure. S. aureus supernatants containing Hla variants were tested for susceptibility or resistance to MEDI4893. The hla gene was present and Hla was expressed in 99.0% and 83.2% of the isolates, respectively, regardless of geographic region, hospital locale, or age of the subject. More methicillin-susceptible than methicillin-resistant isolates expressed Hla (86.9% versus 78.8%; P = 0.0007), and S. aureus isolates from pediatric patients expressed the largest amounts of Hla. Fifty-seven different Hla subtypes were identified, and 91% of the isolates encoded an Hla subtype that was neutralized by MED4893. This study demonstrates that Hla is conserved in diverse S. aureus isolates from around the world and is an attractive target for prophylactic monoclonal antibody (MAb) or vaccine development.

  11. Antifungal susceptibility patterns of a global collection of fungal isolates: results of the SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Pfaller, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Among 1846 fungal clinical isolates from 31 countries, echinocandin resistance in Candida spp. ranged from 0.0% to 2.8% (highest for anidulafungin versus Candida glabrata), and fluconazole resistance was noted among 11.9% and 11.6% of the C. glabrata and Candida tropicalis, respectively. Two isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus displayed elevated MICs for itraconazole and carried cyp51a mutations encoding TR34 L98H. All Cryptococcus neoformans had azole MIC values below epidemiological cutoff values. The increasing resistance among certain species and more frequent reports of breakthrough infections in patients undergoing antifungal therapy highlights the importance of antifungal surveillance to guide therapy for patients with invasive fungal infections. PMID:27061369

  12. Methods for axolotl blood collection, intravenous injection, and efficient leukocyte isolation from peripheral blood and the regenerating limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuque, Ryan J; Godwin, James W

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate immune system comprises both adaptive and innate immune cells with distinct functions during the resolution of inflammation and wound healing after tissue injury. Recent evidence implicates a requirement for innate immune cells from the myeloid lineage during the early stages of limb regeneration in the Mexican axolotl. Understanding the functions of innate and adaptive immune cells in the axolotl has been hampered by a lack of approaches to isolate and analyze these cells. Here we describe a protocol to isolate myeloid cells from the regenerating axolotl limb that incorporates intravenous delivery of physiological labels. In addition we provide a protocol to enrich for leukocytes in the peripheral blood. These protocols produce single-cell suspensions that can be analyzed using flow cytometry or sorted into specific subsets using fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). FACS is a routine approach to sort cells based on their physical characteristics as well as their cell surface antigen repertoire. Isolated cell populations can then be analyzed in a wide range of downstream assays to facilitate a greater understanding of leukocyte biology in the axolotl.

  13. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5 on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22% among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76% compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5% as compared to uninoculated control soils (12% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil.

  14. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility. PMID:26177415

  15. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility.

  16. Effect of Soil Clay Content on RNA Isolation and on Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Gene Transcripts in Soil by Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR ▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Novinscak, A.; Filion, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil clay content on RNA isolation and on quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) quantification of microbial gene transcripts. The amount of clay significantly altered RNA isolation yields and qRT-PCR analyses. Recommendations are made for quantifying microbial gene transcripts in soil samples varying in clay content.

  17. Digital data for Quick Response (QR) codes of thermophiles to identify and compare the bacterial species isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2016-03-01

    16S rRNA sequences of morphologically and biochemically identified 21 thermophilic bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (19°85'N and 78°25'E), Dist. Nanded (India) has been deposited in NCBI repository. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information). Diversity among the isolates is compared with known isolates and evaluated using CGR, FCGR and PCA i.e. visual comparison and evaluation respectively. Considerable biodiversity was observed among the identified bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/.

  18. Digital data for Quick Response (QR codes of thermophiles to identify and compare the bacterial species isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 16S rRNA sequences of morphologically and biochemically identified 21 thermophilic bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs (19°85′N and 78°25′E, Dist. Nanded (India has been deposited in NCBI repository. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to generate QR codes for sequences (FASTA format and full Gene Bank information. Diversity among the isolates is compared with known isolates and evaluated using CGR, FCGR and PCA i.e. visual comparison and evaluation respectively. Considerable biodiversity was observed among the identified bacteria isolated from Unkeshwar hot springs. The hyperlinked QR codes, CGR, FCGR and PCA of all the isolates are made available to the users on a portal https://sites.google.com/site/bhagwanrekadwad/.

  19. Bacteriophage-encoded shiga toxin gene in atypical bacterial host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas Veronica

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contamination from fecal bacteria in recreational waters is a major health concern since bacteria capable of causing human disease can be found in animal feces. The Dog Beach area of Ocean Beach in San Diego, California is a beach prone to closures due to high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB. A potential source of these FIB could be the canine feces left behind by owners who do not clean up after their pets. We tested this hypothesis by screening the DNA isolated from canine feces for the bacteriophage-encoded stx gene normally found in the virulent strains of the fecal bacterium Escherichia coli. Results Twenty canine fecal samples were collected, processed for total and bacterial fraction DNA, and screened by PCR for the stx gene. The stx gene was detected in the total and bacterial fraction DNA of one fecal sample. Bacterial isolates were then cultivated from the stx-positive fecal sample. Eighty nine of these canine fecal bacterial isolates were screened by PCR for the stx gene. The stx gene was detected in five of these isolates. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene PCR products from the canine fecal bacterial isolates indicated that they were Enterococcus and not E. coli. Conclusions The bacteriophage-encoded stx gene was found in multiple species of bacteria cultivated from canine fecal samples gathered at the shoreline of the Dog Beach area of Ocean Beach in San Diego, California. The canine fecal bacteria carrying the stx gene were not the typical E. coli host and were instead identified through phylogenetic analyses as Enterococcus. This suggests a large degree of horizontal gene transfer of exotoxin genes in recreational waters.

  20. 红茶菌产细菌纤维素菌种分离与初步鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Microbes from Kombucha Producing Bacterial Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍; 徐伟; 傅徐阳

    2012-01-01

    Traditional kombucha will form a layer of white membrane in green tea-sucrose medium surface. Microbes attached to the membrane were taken. The A and Y strains were isolated by crossing on the acetic acid bacterial and yeast plate medium. The two strains were isolated and identified Gluconobacter asai and Schizosaccharomyces pombeLinder by observing the colonies & cell morphology and physiological & biochemical tests separately. The mixture of the two strains was inoculated in green tea-sucrose medium and the products were identified as bacterial cellulose.%传统红茶菌在绿茶-蔗糖培养基表面会形成一层白色菌膜,取附着于菌膜上的菌体,在醋酸菌和酵母菌平板培养基上划线分离得到纯菌种A和Y,经菌落、菌体形态观察和生理生化试验鉴定,确定A为葡糖杆菌Gluconobacter asai和Y为路德类酵母Saccharomycodes ludwigli,进一步将两种菌株混合接入绿茶-蔗糖培养液中,对产物判定结果为纤维素。

  1. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke I. Zonneveld

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system.

  2. Solophenols B-D and solomonin: new prenylated polyphenols isolated from propolis collected from the Solomon Islands and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Shimamura, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Ogawa, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Shirafuji, Kenichi; Moli, Reuben Toli; Kozone, Ikuko; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2012-11-28

    Three new prenylated flavonoids, namely, solophenols B (1), C (2), and D (3), as well as a new prenylated stilbene, solomonin (4), were isolated from propolis collected from the Solomon Islands. In addition, 17 known compounds were identified. The structures of the new compounds were determined by a combination of methods, including mass spectrometry and NMR. These new compounds and several known compounds were tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Most of them exhibited potent antibacterial activity. These findings may indicate that propolis from the Solomon Islands has potential applications as an ingredient in food additives or pharmaceuticals. PMID:23067056

  3. Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with the ability to utilize high concentrations of levulinic acid, a platform chemical from inedible biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen levulinic acid (LA)-utilizing bacteria were isolated from environmental samples. Following examination of the use of 80 g/L LA by some isolated strains, Brevibacterium epidermidis LA39-2 consumed 62.6 g/L LA following 8 days incubation. The strain also utilized both 90 and 100 g/L LA, with consumption ratio of 84.3 and 53.3%, respectively, after 10 days incubation. PMID:25851167

  4. Evaluation of a Method Using Three Genomic Guided Escherichia coli Markers for Phylogenetic Typing of E. coli Isolates of Various Genetic Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Hirai, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping and characterization of bacterial isolates are essential steps in the identification and control of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Recently, one novel genotyping method using three genomic guided Escherichia coli markers (GIG-EM), dinG, tonB, and dipeptide permease (DPP), was reported. Because GIG-EM has not been fully evaluated using clinical isolates, we assessed this typing method with 72 E. coli collection of reference (ECOR) environmental E. coli reference strains ...

  5. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air.

  6. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  7. Characterization of Cronobacter spp. isolated from food of plant origin and environmental samples collected from farms and from supermarkets in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojkovska, Hana; Karpiskova, Renata; Orieskova, Maria; Drahovska, Hana

    2016-01-18

    The Cronobacter genus (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii) comprises seven species (Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter malonaticus, Cronobacter muytjensii, Cronobacter turicensis, Cronobacter dublinensis, Cronobacter universalis and Cronobacter condimenti)which cause serious infections in neonates and immunocompromised people.Most of the documented outbreaks of these bacteria have been associated with consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. The plant environment is considered to be the natural habitat of these bacteria. Therefore, a total number of 563 samples of vegetables, fruit, water and environmental swabs were collected from local farms and supermarkets in the Czech Republic and investigated for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The obtained 45 isolates (8.0%) were further characterized by phenotyping (antimicrobial resistance, capsule and pigment production) and genotyping (fusA sequencing,MLST, PCR-serotyping) methods. Most of the Cronobacter isolates (42.2%) were identified as C. sakazakii, followed by C. turicensis (31.1%), C. dublinensis (22.2%), C. malonaticus (2.2%) and C. universalis (2.2%). The 25 identified sequence types, out of which 17 were unique for only one strain, indicated a high diversity of strains. C. sakazakii sequence type 4 (ST 4), which has been associated with many cases of meningitis, was isolated only in one case. A strong association of C. turicensis and C. dublinensis with the plant environment can be deduced from our results.

  8. Isolation, characterization and development of bacteria in the Mine Gafsa for applications in bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today pollution represents an important environmental problem. Bacterial ability to bioremediate many types of pollutants in different matrixes (soil, water, and air) have been widely acknowledged. The goal of the present work is to isolate from contaminated soil of Gafsa, in Tunisia, bacterial strains to evaluate their potential for bioremediation. Soil from the mining area of Gafsa was collected. Initially, many bacterial strains were isolated in TGY agar (Tryptone/Glucose/Yeast extract agar) based on the presence of pigments. The primary bacterial selection was performed using heavy metals and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a metal-resistant bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. Isolated metal-resistant bacterium was checked for its potential to resistant to gamma radiation. Selected strain, Micrococcus luteus S7, was assessed for its bioremediation potential of matrixes artificially contaminated under laboratory conditions for its future use in developing a bio product for contaminated soil inoculation.

  9. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K;

    2013-01-01

    susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  10. 高效功能菌群 RR 的筛选及其群落分析%Isolation of high performance bacterial consortium RR and its bacterial community composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲玉; 谢学辉; 刘娜; 杨芳; 俞承志; 柳建设

    2015-01-01

    利用梯度浓度压力驯化法,从厌氧反应器中筛选出对直接红28有具有良好脱色能力的混合菌群 RR。在染料初始浓度为200mg/L,pH=7.0,温度为35℃条件下,经48h 静止培养,染料脱色率可达96.16%。进一步对其培养条件如 pH 值、温度、盐度、初始染料浓度等进行了脱色研究,结果表明,在 pH=7、温度为45℃,盐度为2mmol/L 的情况下,功能菌群脱色效果达到最佳。为了进一步适应工程无机条件,筛选出以染料作为唯一氮源、碳源以及能量的功能菌群,遂将培养基中葡萄糖去掉,同样利用梯度浓度压力驯化法,筛选出混合菌群 RM,并对其脱色性能及群落结构进行分析。混合菌群 RM 在染料初始浓度为50mg/L、温度为35℃、pH=7.0条件下,48h 后其脱色效率为20.05%。利用变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)法,对群落进行分析,混合菌群 RR 主要为伯克霍尔德氏菌属(Burkholderia sp.)、链球菌属(Streptococcus)和克雷伯氏菌属(Klebsiella sp.),菌群 RM 主要为伯克霍尔德氏菌属(Burkholderia sp.),可见伯克霍尔德氏菌属菌株(Burkholderia sp.)可以适应工程无机环境,并对直接红28存在一定的降解能力。%A bacterial consortium capable of decoloring Direct Red 28 effectively was screened from a well-running textile printing wastewater biological treatment system,through the method of domestication with gradient concentrations. The bacterial consortium RR had the ability to decolorize Direct Red 28 (at 35℃,pH 7.0,initial dye concentration 200mg/L ) with the decolorization rate being 96.16% in 48h. The optimum pH,temperature,and NaCl concentration for the degradation of Direct Red 28 are 7.0,45℃,and 2mmol/L,respectively. To screen the bacterial consortium RM which fed on Direct Red 28 was to ensure the bacterial consortium to adapt the inorganic conditions. The bacterial consortium RM degrading Direct Red 28

  11. Expression of coding (mRNA) and non-coding (microRNA) RNA in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pleuropneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Wendt, Karin Tarp; Peter M H Heegaard

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules (18-23 nt), that regulate the activity of other genes at the post-transcriptional level. Recently it has become evident that microRNA plays an important role in modulating and fine tuning innate and adaptive immune responses. Still, little is known about the impact of microRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of lung infections. Expression of microRNA known to be induced by bacterial (i.e., LPS) ligands and thus supposed to play a role in the r...

  12. Pre-adapting parasitic phages to a pathogen leads to increased pathogen clearance and lowered resistance evolution with Pseudomonas aeruginosacystic fibrosis bacterial isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Soanes-Brown, Daniel; Sierocinski, Pawel;

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen renewed interest in phage therapy - the use of viruses to specifically kill disease-causing bacteria – because of the alarming rise in antibiotic resistance. However, a major limitation of phage therapy is the ease at with bacteria can evolve resistance to phages. Here we......, while all bacteria were able to evolve some level of resistance to ancestral phages. While the rate of resistance evolution did not differ between intermittent and chronic isolates, it incurred a relatively higher growth cost for chronic isolates when measured in the absence of phages. This is likely...

  13. 陈化烟叶中纤维素降解菌群的分离及其特性研究%Isolation and Characterization of Bacterial Community with Cellulose-Decomposition Ability from Aging Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关亮; 李天丽; 陈竹亭; 周亚维; 汤朝起; 瞿永生; 李朋富

    2013-01-01

    从陈化烟叶中分离到具有降解纤维素活性的菌群,分析了温度、pH 和纤维素材料对菌群酶活性的影响,采用16S rDNA片段的PCR-DGGE(变形梯度凝胶电泳)技术分析菌群组成。结果显示,菌群主要由5种细菌组成。20℃时菌群纤维素酶活性很低,随着温度升高酶活性升高,在60℃时纤维素酶活性达到最高值,继续升温则酶活性下降。pH从3升高到8时,菌群纤维素酶活性不断增大,pH为8时酶活性达到最大,pH继续升高到9时则酶活性下降。菌群对烟叶、滤纸和烟梗中的纤维素都有降解作用,在以烟叶作为纤维素材料培养菌群时,纤维素酶活性明显高于滤纸和烟梗。陈化过程中微生物可能对烟叶纤维素有降解作用,从而影响烟叶的陈化效果;可以利用分离到的菌群在烟叶或烟梗发酵中降解纤维素,改善烟叶或烟梗的品质。%Large amounts of bacteria have been found on aging flue-cured tobacco leaves. A bacterial community with the ability to decompose cellulose was isolated from aging flue-cured tobacco leaves. The effects of temperature, pH value and different cellulose source on the cellulase activity of bacterial community were further investigated. 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE technology was used to analyze bacterial community composition. The results showed that the bacterial community mainly consisted of five species. At 20℃, the cellulase activity of the bacterial community was very low. With the temperature increasing, the cellulase activity increased, and reached the peak at 60℃. When the temperature exceeded 60℃, the cellulase activity then decreased dramatically. With the pH value increasing from 3 to 8, the cellulase activity increased gradually, and reached the peak at pH 8. When the pH value increased from 8 to 9, the cellulose activity dropped sharply. The bacterial community was able to decompose the cellulose in the tobacco leaves, filter paper

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. PUNICAE ISOLATES FROM WESTERN MAHARASHTRA AND THEIR SENSITIVITY TO CHEMICAL TREATMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. RAGHUWANSHI; B. A. HUJARE; V. P. CHIMOTE; S. G. BORKAR

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial blight of pomegranate caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae is a major biotic constraint inpeninsular India. Field survey was undertaken in the major pomegranate growing regions of Western Maharashtra,which revealed the high prevalence of bacterial blight incidence in Solapur, Sangli and Nashik districts. Fourdifferent isolates of this pathogen were obtained from the highly infected plant materials collected during the fieldsurvey. X. axonopodis pv. punicae was detected from ...

  15. Whole-genome phylogenomic heterogeneity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased cephalosporin susceptibility collected in Canada between 1989 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demczuk, Walter; Lynch, Tarah; Martin, Irene; Van Domselaar, Gary; Graham, Morag; Bharat, Amrita; Allen, Vanessa; Hoang, Linda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tyrrell, Greg; Horsman, Greg; Haldane, David; Garceau, Richard; Wylie, John; Wong, Tom; Mulvey, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale, whole-genome comparison of Canadian Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with high-level cephalosporin MICs was used to demonstrate a genomic epidemiology approach to investigate strain relatedness and dynamics. Although current typing methods have been very successful in tracing short-chain transmission of gonorrheal disease, investigating the temporal evolutionary relationships and geographical dissemination of highly clonal lineages requires enhanced resolution only available through whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Phylogenomic cluster analysis grouped 169 Canadian strains into 12 distinct clades. While some N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types (NG-MAST) agreed with specific phylogenomic clades or subclades, other sequence types (ST) and closely related groups of ST were widely distributed among clades. Decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC-DS) emerged among a group of diverse strains in Canada during the 1990s with a variety of nonmosaic penA alleles, followed in 2000/2001 with the penA mosaic X allele and then in 2007 with ST1407 strains with the penA mosaic XXXIV allele. Five genetically distinct ESC-DS lineages were associated with penA mosaic X, XXXV, and XXXIV alleles and nonmosaic XII and XIII alleles. ESC-DS with coresistance to azithromycin was observed in 5 strains with 23S rRNA C2599T or A2143G mutations. As the costs associated with WGS decline and analysis tools are streamlined, WGS can provide a more thorough understanding of strain dynamics, facilitate epidemiological studies to better resolve social networks, and improve surveillance to optimize treatment for gonorrheal infections.

  16. Purification and characterization of a 630 kDa bacterial killing metalloprotease (KilC) isolated from plaice Pleuronectes platessa (L.), epidermal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvete, T; Haugan, K

    2008-05-01

    Antibacterial chemicals in the mucus of fish such as lysozyme, lectins, peptides and proteases provide an efficient first line of defence against pathogens. This study shows that there are at least three antibacterial proteins in plaice skin mucus in addition to lysozyme. One of these proteins is responsible for approximately 74% of the antibacterial activity and is a 630 kDa protease complex designated KilC (bacterial killing metalloprotease C). Purified KilC kills the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa efficiently. The protease activity of KilC is dependent upon the divalent cation Mg(2+) and shows pH dual optima of 5.0 and 8.0. The enzyme has a temperature optimum of 25 degrees C and is made up of at least five different sized peptides. Studies with protease inhibitors show that the catalytic site of KilC may be cysteine- or serine protease-like. KilC may kill bacterial cells by acting directly upon the bacteria or by producing low molecular weight bioactive compounds such as peptides.

  17. Biodegradation efficiency and optimum growth conditions of bacterial strains isolated from a petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil: Evaluation of the selected strain efficiency for contaminated soil bioremediation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotas, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory scale batch studies were performed in order to determine the optimum growth conditions and diesel oil biodegradation ability of the selected strain isolated from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil. These results were used to evaluate the potential of the selected strain for in situ application in PRB remediation technology.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Bacterial Strains Isolated from a Polymicrobial Culture of Coccolith-Bearing (C-Type) Emiliania huxleyi M217

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosana, Albert Remus R.; Orata, Fabini D.; Xu, Yue; Simkus, Danielle N.; Bramucci, Anna R.; Boucher, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Strains of Rhodobacteraceae, Sphingomonadales, Alteromonadales, and Bacteroidetes were isolated from a polymicrobial culture of the coccolith-forming (C-type) haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi strain M217. The genomes encode genes for the production of algal growth factors and the consumption of their hosts’ metabolic by-products, suggesting that the polymicrobial culture harbors many symbiotic interactions. PMID:27417845

  19. The Isolation and Collection of Sperm Cells in Phalaenopsis%蝴蝶兰精细胞的分离和收集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍成厚; 赵玉辉; 杨延红; 田惠桥

    2012-01-01

    The germination of pollens and the isolation and collection of sperm cells were studied by using a Phalaenopsis hybrid in this paper. The results show that the nucleus of generative cell degenerated after the pollen germinated and the generative cell moved into the pollen tube. The generative cell was still in cell division after pollinated 5 days. Pollen tubes were induced in the ovary after manual pollination and the sperm cells were isolated from pollen tubes by immediately blowing up in a broken solution containing 5%–12% mannitol. Four to five pairs of sperms could be collected within 30 mins by using a micromanipulator. The isolated pairs of two sperm cells shown significant differences in sizes and fluorescent intensities,that suggested both sperms have different futures. The successful isolation of sperm cells from Phalaenopsis would provide a solid basis for the studies of in vitro fertilization in orchid in the future.%以蝴蝶兰(Phalaenopsis hybrid)为材料,观察授粉后花粉的萌发,并进行精细胞的分离和收集。观察发现,蝴蝶兰花粉管萌发后营养核退化,生殖细胞进入花粉管,授粉后5d,生殖细胞尚处于分裂期。通过授粉使花粉管在子房内发育,再利用5%-12%的甘露醇将花粉管直接爆破,成功分离出成对的蝴蝶兰精细胞,用显微操作仪30min可收集精细胞4-5对。成对的两个精细胞在直径、荧光强度方面均有较大差异,预示两个精细胞具有不同的前途。蝴蝶兰精细胞分离的成功为进一步开展兰花离体受精研究打下了良好的基础。

  20. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella species Isolated from Washing and Rinsed Water of Broilers in Pluck Shops

    OpenAIRE

    Tuhin-Al-Ferdous; S.M. Lutful Kabir; M. Mansurul Amin; K.M. Mahmud Hossain

    2013-01-01

    The study was designed with a view to isolate, identifies and characterizes Salmonella species from washing and rinsed water of broilers in pluck shops at Sreepur of Gazipur district in Bangladesh during the period from December 2011 to May 2012. A total of 30 samples collected from the different layers of drums of pluck shops’ were subjected to bacterial isolation and identification by using cultural and biochemical techniques. Furthermore, the isolated Salmonella species were characterized ...

  1. Atividade de isolados bacterianos solubilizadores de fosfato na presença de formulações comerciais de Glyphosate Activity of phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates in the presence of commercial glyphosate formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Massenssini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Roundup Transorb®, Zapp QI®, Roundup NA® e Scout® na capacidade de dois isolados bacterianos (To 11 e To 66 em solubilizar diferentes fontes inorgânicas de fosfato. A atividade de solubilização de fosfato inorgânico dos isolados bacterianos foi avaliada em três fontes de fosfato inorgânico (fosfato de cálcio, de alumínio e de ferro, na presença de diferentes formulações de glyphosate na concentração de 60 mg L-1 do equivalente ácido e tratamento controle sem adição dos herbicidas. Os efeitos das formulações de glyphosate foram diferentes para cada isolado. As formulações Roundup Transorb® e Zapp QI® provocaram redução na capacidade de solubilização do isolado To 66, enquanto a formulação Scout® aumentou essa capacidade. Por sua vez, o isolado To 11 não teve sua capacidade de solubilização afetada na presença das formulações avaliadas. Em média, as formulações Roundup NA® e Scout® não alteraram a capacidade de solubilização dos isolados, ao passo que os herbicidas Roundup Transorb® e Zapp QI® reduziram essa capacidade de solubilização.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of applying different commercial formulations of glyphosate (Roundup Transorb®, Zapp QI®, Roundup NA® e Scout® on the ability of two bacterial isolates (To 11 and To 66 to solubilize different inorganic phosphates. The ability to solubilize bacterial isolate phosphate was evaluated in relation to three inorganic phosphate sources (calcium, aluminum, and iron phosphates in the presence of different commercial formulations of glyphosate, at the concentration of 60 mg L-1 acid equivalent, and control treatment without the addition of the herbicides. The effects of the commercial formulations of glyphosate on each bacterial isolate were distinct. Roundup Transorb and Zapp QI led to a significant decrease in

  2. 大鲵细菌性感染综合症的病原分离与药敏试验分析%Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Giant Salamander with Bacterial Infection Syndrome and Drug Sensitivity Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于喆; 江辉; 钟蕾; 肖克宇; 谭情; 毛盼

    2012-01-01

    On the base of the experiment of isolating and purifying bacterial from the body surface, liver, kidney, intestine, limb, ascites of Giant salamander with bacterial infection syndrome, a total of 12 strains bacteria were obtained. The identification of the morphological structure, physiological and biochemical characteristics and artificial infection experiment of the bacteria showed that Citrobacter braakii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Acinetobact-er lwoffi isolated from the Giant salamander are the 3 main strains pathogenic bacteria. Drug sensitive test showed that the 3 strains pathogenic bacteria put up different degrees of drug resistance on many antibiotics, even these pathogenic bacteria were extremely sensitive to Meropenem. Therefore it is concluded that Meropenem can be used as the first option for preventing this disease.%对细菌性感染综合症病鲵的体表、肝脏、肾脏、肠道、四肢、腹水等进行细菌分离培养与纯化,共得到12株细菌.经细菌的形态结构、生理生化特性鉴定和人工感染试验证实,布拉克枸橼酸杆菌(Citrobacter braakii),嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)和洛菲不动杆菌(Acinetobacter lwoffi)为主要致病菌.药敏试验结果表明,3种病原菌对很多抗生素均存在不同程度的耐药性,而对美洛培南(Meropenem)高度敏感,其可作为防治该病的首选药物.

  3. Isolation and characterization of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 from a cow affected by post partum metritis and cloning of the genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a gammaherpesvirus with a Worldwide distribution in cattle and is often isolated from the uterus of animals with postpartum metritis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Virus strain adaptation to an organ, tissue or cell type is an important issue for the pathogenesis of disease. To explore the mechanistic role of viral strain variation for uterine disease, the present study aimed to develop a tool enabling precise genetic discrimination between strains of BoHV-4 and to easily manipulate the viral genome. Methods A strain of BoHV-4 was isolated from the uterus of a persistently infected cow and designated BoHV-4-U. The authenticity of the isolate was confirmed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing using the TK and IE2 loci as genetic marker regions for the BoHV-4 genome. The isolated genome was cloned as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC and manipulated through recombineering technology Results The BoHV-4-U genome was successfully cloned as a BAC, and the stability of the pBAC-BoHV-4-U clone was confirmed over twenty passages, with viral growth similar to the wild type virus. The feasibility of using BoHV-4-U for mutagenesis was demonstrated using the BAC recombineering system. Conclusion The analysis of genome strain variation is a key method for investigating genes associated with disease. A resource for dissection of the interactions between BoHV-4 and host endometrial cells was generated by cloning the genome of BoHV-4 as a BAC.

  4. Bacterial Alkaloids Prevent Amoebal Predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, Martin; Götze, Sebastian; Barnett, Robert; Willing, Karsten; Stallforth, Pierre

    2016-07-25

    Bacterial defense mechanisms have evolved to protect bacteria against predation by nematodes, predatory bacteria, or amoebae. We identified novel bacterial alkaloids (pyreudiones A-D) that protect the producer, Pseudomonas fluorescens HKI0770, against amoebal predation. Isolation, structure elucidation, total synthesis, and a proposed biosynthetic pathway for these structures are presented. The generation of P. fluorescens gene-deletion mutants unable to produce pyreudiones rendered the bacterium edible to a variety of soil-dwelling amoebae. PMID:27294402

  5. Molecular characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato isolates from Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Stephan, D.; Mabagala, R. B.;

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is an emerging disease of tomato in Tanzania. Following reports of outbreaks of the disease in many locations in Tanzania, 56 isolates of P. syringae pv. tomato were collected from four tomato- producing areas and characterized using....... syringae pv. tomato isolates in Tanzania that differ significantly from those used to create the Biolog database. RFLP analysis showed that the isolates were highly conserved in their hrpZ gene. The low level of genomic diversity within the pathogen in Tanzania shows that there is a possibility to use...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and patterns of antibiotic resistance in bacterial isolates from patients and staff in a dialysis center of southeast Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Tashakori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important infection in hemodialysis patients. We studied the prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and its antibiotic resistance pattern in patients receiving hemodialysis as well as in dialysis unit staff.From June to September 2012, we evaluated 74 cases including 61 patients on hemodialysis and 13 dialysis unit staff. Nasal swabs were taken from all cases and were cultured on a blood medium agar. We identified S. aureus based on conventional laboratory methods. For antimicrobial resistance patterns, we used disk diffusion method. Oxacillin MIC, oxacillin and cefoxcitin disk diffusion methods were used for detection of MRSA. Disk approximation test (D-test was applied for the frequency of erythromycin induced clindamycin resistance.S. aureus carrier state was determined in 12 of the 61 patients on hemodialysis (19.67% and 5 of the 13 dialysis unit staffs (38.46%. In hemodialyzed patients, MRSA and MSSA carrier of S. aureus were 6.56% and 13.11%, respectively. All nasal carriage states in studied staffs were MSSA. All isolated S. aureus were found to be sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and rifampin. However, reduced sensitivity of MRSA isolates to other antibiotics was noted. Resistance frequencies to tested antibiotic was as follows: cefteriaxone and penicillin (100%, tetracycline and doxycilin (75%, gentamicin, cloxacillin, and cefazolin (50%, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol, erythromycin, and clindamycin (25%. The resistance rate of isolated MSSA against tested antibiotics was lower than isolated MRSA. Inducible clindamycin resistance was shown in 25% of identified MRSA strains.S. aureus nasal carrier state was lower than former reports from other parts of Iran. The antibiotic resistance patterns also differed, perhaps due to different pattern of administering antibiotics at our hospital. Screening of these patients should be noted as a health priority

  7. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  8. 基于集合的细菌群优化算法%Optimization algorithm of bacterial swarm based on the collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鑫; 刘衍珩; 王爱民; 陈慧灵; 孙鑫

    2012-01-01

    针对细菌觅食优化算法求解高维优化问题时不易跳出局部最优解的问题,引入趋向方向余弦向量和随时间变化的加速系数,控制细菌觅食优化算法的收敛精度和收敛速度,并将改进算法用于求解组合优化问题。依据细菌种群密度计算原则,设计了一种离散空间和连续空间之间相互转换的规则,同时用集合对细菌觅食优化算法中的算术运算符形式化描述。仿真试验结果表明:基于集合的细菌群优化算法避免了早熟现象,寻优结果优于蚁群算法且接近基于集合的粒子群算法。%The conventional Bacterial Foraging Optimizer(BFO) is easy to get stuck in local minima in solving high dimensional optimization problems.This paper proposes an adaptive Bacterial Swarm Optimizer(BSO) with time-varying acceleration coefficients to solve the local-optimal problems of BFO.The proposed method,termed as ABSO-TVAC,is applied to optimize Combinatorial Optimization Problems(COPs).When dealing with COPs,according to the cell-to-cell signaling in E.coli swarm,a conversion rule between continuous space and discrete one is designed.All arithmetic operators in the velocity and position updating rules used in the ABSO-TVAC are described in a manner of set.Simulation shows that the proposed algorithm has the capability to avoid the premature problem,and it is superior to Ant Colony Optimization(ACO) and comparable to set-based particle swarm optimization.

  9. Isolation and bacterial expression of a sesquiterpene synthase CDNA clone from peppermint(mentha .chi. piperita, L.) that produces the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-.beta.-farnesene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wildung, Mark Raymond (Colfax, WA); Crock, John E. (Moscow, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase from peppermint (Mentha piperita) has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO:1) is provided which codes for the expression of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase (SEQ ID NO:2), from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of (E)-.beta.-farnesene, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase, or the production of its product.

  10. Isolation and bacterial expression of a sesquiterpene synthase cDNA clone from peppermint (Mentha x piperita, L.) that produces the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-.beta.-farnesene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Crock, John E.

    2005-01-25

    A cDNA encoding (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase from peppermint (Mentha piperita) has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO:1) is provided which codes for the expression of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase (SEQ ID NO:2), from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant (E)-.beta.-famesene synthase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (E)-.beta.-famesene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of (E)-.beta.-farnesene, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase, or the production of its product.

  11. Metabolic and growth characteristics of novel diverse microbes isolated from deep cores collected at the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE)-Arctic site in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, R.; Pettenato, A.; Tas, N.; Hubbard, S. S.; Jansson, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic is characterized by vast amounts of carbon stored in permafrost and is an important focal point for the study of climate change as increasing temperature may accelerate microbially mediated release of Carbon stored in permafrost into the atmosphere as CO2 and CH4. Yet surprisingly, very little is known about the vulnerability of permafrost and response of microorganisms in the permafrost to their changing environment. This deficiency is largely due to the difficulty in study of largely uncultivated and unknown permafrost microbes. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) in the Arctic, we collected permafrost cores in an effort to isolate resident microbes. The cores were from the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), located at the northern most location on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain near Barrow, AK, and up to 3m in depth. In this location, permafrost starts from 0.5m in depth and is characterized by variable water content and higher pH than surface soils. Enrichments for heterotrophic bacteria were initiated at 4°C and 1°C in the dark in several different media types, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Positive enrichments were identified by an increase in optical density and cell counts after incubation period ranging from two to four weeks. After serial transfers into fresh media, individual colonies were obtained on agar surface. Several strains were isolated that include Firmicutes such as Bacillus, Clostridium, Sporosarcina, and Paenibacillus species and Iron-reducing Betaproteobacteria such as Rhodoferax species. In addition, methanogenic enrichments continue to grow and produce methane gas at 2°C. In this study, we present the characterization, carbon substrate utilization, pH, temperature and osmotic tolerance, as well as the effect of increasing climate change parameters on the growth rate and respiratory gas production from these permafrost isolates.

  12. Genetic Characterization of Fungi Isolated from the Environmental Swabs collected from a Compounding Center Known to Cause Multistate Meningitis Outbreak in United States Using ITS Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak started in September of 2012 which spread in 20 states of the United States. The outbreak has been fatal so far, and has affected 751 individuals with 64 deaths among those who received contaminated spinal injections manufactured by a Compounding Center located in Massachusetts. In a preliminary study, Food and Drug Administration (FDA investigated the outbreak in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, state and local health departments, and identified four fungal and several bacterial contaminations in the recalled unopened injection vials. This follow-up study was carried out to assess DNA sequencing of the ITS1 region of rRNA gene for rapid identification of fungal pathogens during public health outbreak investigations. A total of 26 environmental swabs were collected from several locations at the manufacturing premises of the Compounding Center known to have caused the outbreak. The swab samples were initially examined by conventional microbiologic protocols and a wide range of fungal species were recovered. Species-identification of these microorganisms was accomplished by nucleotide sequencing of ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed 14 additional fungal species in the swabs analyzed.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Pomacea canaliculata isolates collected from rice fields in different origins of China by combined mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    To study the genetic relationships of Pomacea canaliculata collected from rice fields in China, the mitochondrial (mt) 12S and 16S of 9 P. canaliculata isolates from 5 southern provinces in China were sequenced and analyzed. The intra-specific sequence variations of P. canaliculata were 0-1.1% for 12S and 0--0.6% for 16S, while the inter-specific variations among common Pomacea species in mt 12S and 16S were 3.0-11.7% and 2.3-10.1%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S revealed complex genetic structure of P. canaliculata in China. Two phylogenetic groups of P. canaliculata were indicated in China with one group sistered to P. canaliculata isolates from USA, and two groups were even found in the same province. The phylogenetic relationships of Pomacea spp. also could be effectively inferred by combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S. These findings provided basic information for further study of population genetics and diffusion pattern of P. canaliculata in China as well as in the world.

  14. A study of bacterial contamination of rattlesnake venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garcia-Lima

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the bacterial contamination of rattlesnake venom isolated from snakes in captivity and wild snakes caught recently. The captive snakes showed a relatively high incidence of bacterial contamination of their venom.

  15. IncP-1β Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1β plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the re...

  16. Application of a biofilm formed by a mixture of yeasts isolated in Vietnam to degrade aromatic hydrocarbon polluted wastewater collected from petroleum storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhi Cong, Le Thi; Ngoc Mai, Cung Thi; Thanh, Vu Thi; Nga, Le Phi; Minh, Nghiem Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three good biofilm-forming yeast strains, including Candida viswanathii TH1, Candida tropicalis TH4 and Trichosporon asahii B1, were isolated from oil-contaminated water and sediment samples collected in coastal zones of Vietnam. These strains were registered in the GenBank database with the accession numbers JX129175, JX129176 and KC139404 for strain TH1, TH4 and B1, respectively. The biofilm formed by a mixture of these organisms degraded 90, 85, 82 and 67% of phenol, naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, after a 7-day incubation period using an initial concentration of 600 ppm phenol and 200 ppm of each of the other compounds. In addition, this biofilm completely degraded these aromatic compounds, which were from wastewater collected from petroleum tanks in Do Xa, Hanoi after 14 days of incubation based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. To the best of our knowledge, reports on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and phenol degradation by biofilm-forming yeasts are limited. The results obtained indicate that the biofilm formed by multiple yeast strains may considerably increase the degradation efficiency of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and may lead to a new approach for eliminating petroleum oil-contaminated water in Vietnam.

  17. Source, Composition and Bacterial Resistance of 3 637 Clinical Isolates in a Hospital%某院2010年3637株细菌来源、构成及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田庆锷; 李焕德

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解某院细菌谱及耐药情况,为合理用药提供参考.方法:对2010年某院送检标本按美国临床实验室标准化协会(CLSI)2009推荐方法进行药敏试验.结果:3 637株细菌主要分离于痰液、尿液、脓液、血液等标本,革兰阴性(G-)菌占76.08%,革兰阳性(G+)菌占23.92%;发现2株耐万古霉素肠球菌(VRE);耐青霉素肺炎链球菌(PRSP)、耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)和耐甲氧西林凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(MRCNS)检出率分别为14.70%、77.21%和79.35%,产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)的大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌肺炎亚种、普通变形杆菌、奇异变形杆菌检出率分别为59.79%、29.71%、11.11%、10.00%,鲍曼复合醋酸钙不动杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌、大肠埃希菌中泛耐药菌(PDR)检出率分别为10.16%、1.77%、0.62%.结论:细菌耐药形势严峻,出现了泛耐药的鲍曼不动杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌、大肠埃希菌,应予以警惕,加强防控.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the bacterial resistance of clinical isolates, and to provide reference for rational drug use. METHODS: Sensitivity test of clinical isolates from a hospital in 2010 were performed using Kirby-Bauer method according to CLSI 2009. RESULTS: 3 637 bacterial isolates were mainly isolated from sputum, urine, fester and blood, of which 76.08% were Gram-negative(G-), 23.92% Gram-positive(G+). Two VRE strains were found. The prevalence of MRSA, MRCNS and PRSP were 77.21% , 79.35% and 14.70% , respectively. The prevalence of ESBLs ( + ) strains was 59.79% , 29.71% , 11.11% and 10.00% in E.coli, K.pneumoniae, Proteusvulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, respectively. The detection rate of A. Baumarmii, P.aerugino-sa and E.coli were 10.16% , 1.77% and 0.62% , respectively. CONCLUSION: Bacterial resistance is serious, broad resistances of A.baumannii, E. Coli and P. Aeruginosa have been found, which should be emphasized and prevented.

  18. Process optimization of experimental variables using plackett-burman design for decolourisation of reactive blue 222 by a novel bacterial consortium isolated from the gut of termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial consortium derived from termite was tested for its efficiency to decolourise Reactive Blue 222 aerobically. The central composite design matrix and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to design experiments for the assessment of interactive effects of four most important operating variables viz., pH (3.0-11.0), agitation (300 rpm), temperature (20-60 degree C) and glucose (0.1-0.5 g/litre) on the biodegradation of Reactive Blue 222 out of eleven different variables. Optimisation was achieved using the Plackett-Burman statistical design. A regression coefficient between variables and the response indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data by the Stat-Ease package. The experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted ones and the model was highly significant, correlation coefficient being 0.89. RSM indicated that pH 7.0 at static condition; temperature at 20 degree C and a glucose concentration of 0.50 g/litre resulted in 99.21% decolourisation. (author)

  19. Biotransformation of 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural into 2,5-furan-dicarboxylic acid by bacterial isolate using thermal acid algal hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Fang; Huang, Ci-Ruei

    2016-08-01

    Thermal acid hydrolysis is often used to deal with lignocellulosic biomasses, but 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural (5-HMF) formed during hydrolysis deeply influences downstream fermentation. 2,5-Furan-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), which is in the list of future important biomass platform molecules can be obtained using 5-HMF biotransformation. Based on the connection between 5-HMF removal in acid hydrolysate and FDCA production, the optimum thermal acid hydrolysis condition for macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was established. Potential microbes capable of transforming 5-HMF into FDCA were isolated and characterized under various parameters and inoculated into algal hydrolysate to perform 5-HMF biotransformation. The optimum hydrolysis condition was to apply 0.5M HCl to treat 3% algal biomass under 121°C for 15min. Isolated Burkholderia cepacia H-2 could transform 2000mg/L 5-HMF at the initial pH of 7 at 28°C and 1276mg/L FDCA was received. Strain B. cepacia H-2 was suitable for treating the algal hydrolysate without dilution, receiving 989.5mg/L FDCA. PMID:27151683

  20. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  1. A fast and reliable procedure for spore collection from anaerobic fungi: Application for RNA uptake and long-term storage of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Shelby; Elledge, Nicole C; Hanafy, Radwa A; Elshahed, Mostafa S; Youssef, Noha

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic gut fungi (AGF) represent a basal fungal lineage (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) that resides in the rumen and alimentary tracts of herbivores. The AGF reproduce asexually, with a life cycle that involves flagellated zoospores released from zoosporangia followed by encystment, germination and the subsequent development of rhizomycelia. A fast and reliable approach for AGF spore collection is critical not only for developmental biology studies, but also for molecular biological (e.g. AMT-transformation and RNAi) approaches. Here, we developed and optimized a simple and reliable procedure for the collection of viable, competent, and developmentally synchronized AGF spores under strict anaerobic conditions. The approach involves growing AGF on agar medium in serum bottles under anaerobic conditions, and flooding the observed aerial growth to promote spore release from sporangia into the flooding suspension. The released spores are gently collected using a wide bore sterile needle. Process optimization resulted in the recovery of up to 7×10(9) spores per serum bottle. Further, the released spores exhibited synchronized development from flagellated spores to encysted spores and finally to germinating spores within 90min from the onset of flooding. At the germinating spore stage, the obtained spores were competent, and readily uptook small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides. Finally, using multiple monocentric and polycentric AGF isolates, we demonstrate that AGF grown on agar surface could retain viability for up to 16weeks at 39°C, and hence this solid surface growth procedure represents a simple, cryopreservative- and freezing temperature-free approach for AGF storage. PMID:27288952

  2. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of an Environmental Bacteriophage: A 10-Session Laboratory Series in Molecular Virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ryan P.; Barker, Brent T.; Drammeh, Hamidou; Scott, Jefferson; Lin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial viruses, otherwise known as bacteriophage (or phage), are some of the most abundant viruses found in the environment. They can be easily isolated from water or soil and are ideal for use in laboratory classrooms due to their ease of culture and inherent safety. Here, we describe a series of 10 laboratory exercises where students collect,…

  3. Brevibacterium siliguriense sp nov., a facultatively oligotrophic bacterium isolated from river water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Ince, I.A.; Kati, A.; Chakraborty, R.

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, rod-shaped, facultatively oligotrophic bacterial strain, designated MB18(T), was isolated from a water sample collected from the River Mahananda at Siliguri (26 degrees 44' 23.20' N, 88 degrees 25' 22.89' a West-Bengal, India. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similari

  4. Bacterial carbonatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

  5. Exploration and conservation of bacterial genetic resources as bacteriocin producing inhibitory microorganisms to pathogen bacteria in livestock

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Exploration and conservation of microorganisms producing bacteriocin was done as the primary study towards the collection of potential bacteria and its application in improving livestock health condition and inhibit food borne pathogens. Diferent kinds of samples such as beef cattle rectal swab, rumen fluids, cow’s milk, chicken gut content, goat’s milk were collected at Bogor cattle slaughter houses, poultry slaughter houses, dairy cattle and goat farms. A total of 452 bacterial isolates con...

  6. Intense photooxidative degradation of planktonic and bacterial lipids in sinking particles collected with sediment traps across the Canadian Beaufort Shelf (Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Rontani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The lipid content of seven samples of sinking particles collected with sediment traps moored at ~100 m depth in summer and fall across the Canadian Beaufort Shelf (Arctic Ocean was investigated. Our main goal was to quantify and characterize the biotic and abiotic degradation processes that acted on sinking material during these periods. Diatoms, which dominated the phytoplanktonic assemblage in every trap sample, appeared to be remarkably sensitive to Type II (i.e. involving singlet oxygen photodegradation processes in summer, but seemed to be relatively unaffected by biotic degradation at the same time. Hence, the relative recalcitrance of phytodetritus towards biodegradation processes during the Arctic midnight sun period was attributed to the strong photodegradation state of heterotrophic bacteria, which likely resulted from the efficient transfer of singlet oxygen from photodegraded phytoplanktonic cells to attached bacteria. In addition, the detection in trap samples of photoproducts specific to wax ester components found in herbivorous copepods demonstrated that zooplanktonic faecal material exported out of the euphotic zone in summer were as well affected by Type II photodegradation processes. By contrast, sinking particles collected during the autumn were not influenced by any light-driven stress. Further chemical analyses showed that photodegraded sinking particles contained an important amount of intact hydroperoxides, which could then induce a strong oxidative stress in underlying sediments.

  7. Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases among Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates from Clinical Specimens in Three Major Hospitals in Northern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G. Batchoun

    2009-01-01

    Results. 108/472 (22.9% of the isolates were ESBL producers, and were prevalent in tertiary care hospitals. 88.2% of E. cloacae, 71.4% of K. pneumoniae, 28.6% of K. oxytoca, 12.5% of C. freundii, 11.1% of A. calcoacceticus, and 10.8% of E. coli were ESBL producers. The DDD test demonstrated some variations in the efficacy of the different cephalosporins in detecting all the ESBL producers. The inclusion of ceftizoxime discs increased the efficacy of the test. It is concluded that ESBL-producing bacteria were prevalent among our hospitalized patients, and involved genera other than Klebsiella and Escherichia, and the inclusion of ceftizoxime increased the efficacy of ESBL detection by the DDD test.

  8. Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806μM, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606μM) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696μM of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176μM and 0.168μM, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133μM in hemocytes and 0.272μM in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion.

  9. Ceftaroline activity tested against contemporary Latin American bacterial pathogens (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Flamm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2484 target bacterial pathogens were collected (one per patient episode from patients in 16 Latin American medical centers located in seven nations during 2011. Isolate identity was confirmed at a coordinating laboratory and susceptibility testing was performed for ceftaroline and comparator agents according to reference broth microdilution methods. A total of 30.0% of isolates were from respiratory tract, 29.4% from skin and skin structure, 21.4% from blood stream, 7.9% from urinary tract and 11.3% from other sites. Ceftaroline was active againstStaphylococcus aureus (42.8% MRSA with 83.6% of the isolates at 90.0% of the non-ESBL-phenotype. The spectrum of activity of ceftaroline against pathogens from Latin America indicates that it merits further study for its potential use in the Latin American region.

  10. Bacterial community in sclerotia of Cenococcum species and soil in sub-alpine forest, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoyama, Y.; Narisawa, K.; Ohta, H.; Watanabe, M.

    2009-04-01

    Species of Cenococcum, ectomycorrhizal fungi, may be particularly abundant in cold- or nutrient-stressed habitats. The fungus is easily recognized by its jet-black hyphae, and distinct compact masses of fungal mycelium called sclerotia. They are hard, black, comparatively smooth and mostly spherical. Sclerotia are formed in rhizosphere and can provide sufficient inoculums for several years. The purpose of this study is to investigate bacterial community inside sclerotia, with an interest on contribution of sclerotia to microbial diversity in rhizosphere. To investigate bacterial community inside of the fungal sclerotia by 16S rDNA gene clone library, several hundred of sclerotia (ca. 1g) were collected from sub-alpine forest soil in central Japan. Furthermore, three sclerotium grains were applied to investigate internal bacteria community by culture method. The isolated bacterial strains were then proceeded to determine their 16S rDNA partial sequences. The predominant group determined by clone library analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes with DNA from the sclerotia was Acidobacteria in both sclerotia and soil. Bacterial community of sclerotia showed higher diversity compared to soil. On the contrary, bacterial flora isolated from single sclerotium differed each other. Additionally, the bacterial community was composed by limited species of related genus.

  11. DNA Hybridization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Uteri and Fecal Samples of Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    SANCAK, Aziz Arda

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium that has been isolated from the bacterial culture of uterine and fecal samples of dogs with pyometra. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this organism could be relevant to the pathogenesis of pyometra in dogs. Fecal and uterine samples were collected from 17 bitches with pyometra. E. coli strains were isolated in all samples. Representative colonies of E. coli from each sample were analyzed for pathogenicity determinants by h...

  12. Infection of human keratinocytes by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Mafalda N; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. To unravel if bovine SDSD isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine SDSD strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy indicate a high adherence and internalization of SDSD isolates to human cells, suggesting for the first time the ability of bovine isolates to infect human cells. PMID:26655883

  13. Caracterização da comunidade bacteriana endofítica de citros por isolamento, PCR específico e DGGE Characterization of the endophytic bacterial community from citrus by isolation, specific PCR and DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Teixeira Lacava

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a comunidade bacteriana endofítica de plantas assintomáticas (escapes e afetadas pela clorose variegada dos citros (CVC por meio de isolamento em meio de cultura, técnica de gradiente desnaturante em gel de eletroforese (DGGE e detecção de Methylobacterium mesophilicum e Xyllela fastidiosa por meio de PCR específico, para estudar esta comunidade e sua relação com a ocorrência da CVC. A análise da comunidade bacteriana via DGGE permitiu a detecção de X. fastidiosa, bem como Klebsiella sp. e Acinetobacter sp. como endófitos de citros. Foram observados também Curtobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Bacillus spp. Utilizando primers específicos, Methylobacterium mesophilicum e X. fastidiosa também foram observadas, reforçando hipóteses de que estas bactérias podem estar interagindo no interior da planta hospedeira.The aim of this work was to characterize endophytic bacterial community of assintomatic (escape and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC-affected citrus plants using isolation in culture medium, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE technique and Methylobacterium mesophilicum as well as Xylella fastidiosa specific PCR, allowing to assess this community and its interactions with CVC. The study of bacterial community by DGGE analysis allowed the detection of X. fastidiosa, as well as Klebsiella sp. e Acinetobacter sp., which were not detected previously. Curtobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus spp. were also observed as endophyte in citrus plants. Using specific primers Methylobacterium mesophilicum and X. fastidiosa were observed, reinforcing that these bacteria could interact inside the host plant.

  14. Wpływ szczepów bakterii wyizolowanych z hydroponicznej uprawy sałaty (Lactuca sativa L. na wzrost siewek sałaty, rosnących w obecnosci rożnych form pożywienia azotowego [Influence of bacterial strains isolated from hydroponic cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. on the growth of lettuce seedlings growing in the presence of various forms of nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kobierzyńska-Gołąb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 320 bacterial strains isolated from the surface of cultivated plants, as well as from other parts of hydroponic cultures showed stimulating (49 bacterial strains or inhibitory (9 bacterial strains properties in respect to the investigated plant. The following bacteria were isolated: Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Agrobacterium, Achromobacter and Chromobacterium. The effects of active bacterial strains on the growth of seedlings were investigated in dependence on the kind of inorganic form of nitrogen present in the nutrient solutions. The same bacterial strains exerted a stimulating effect on seedlings growing on nitrates, weaker stimulation was observed in cultures with ammonium nitrate; the growth of lettuce seedlings on nutrient solution with ammonium only, was, as a rule, inhibited by the bacteria.

  15. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  16. Bacterial bioluminescence in marine pollution assessment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Warm water marine luminous bacterial species, particularly Vibrio harveyi, V. fischeri and Photobacterium leiognathi, are easy to isolate, maintain and handle in the laboratories without strict temperature requirements, which is an important...

  17. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters......, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...

  18. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  19. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from washing and rinsed water of broilers in pluck shops at Sreepur of Gazipur district in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Tuhin-Al- Ferdous; K.M. Mahmud Hossain; S.M. Lutful Kabir; M. Mansurul Amin

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at characterization of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from washing and rinsed water of broilers in pluck shops at Sreepur of Gazipur district in Bangladesh. A total of 30 samples collected from the different layers of drums of pluck shops’ were subjected to bacterial isolation and identification by using cultural and biochemical techniques. Furthermore, the isolated E. coli strains were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The fermentation reaction by...

  20. Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Granules and Bioemulsifiers from Pseudomonas sp. and Burkholderia sp. Isolates Growing on Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Laís Postai; Castellane, Tereza Cristina Luque; Lopes, Erica Mendes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

    2016-03-01

    A Burkholderia and Pseudomonas species designated as AB4 and AS1, respectively, were isolated from soil containing decomposing straw or sugar cane bagasse collected from Brazil. This study sought to evaluate the capacities of culture media, cell-free medium, and crude lysate preparations (containing PHB inclusion bodies) from bacterial cell cultures to stabilize emulsions with several hydrophobic compounds. Four conditions showed good production of bioemulsifiers (E24 ≥ 50 %), headed by substantially cell-free media from bacterial cell cultures in which bacterial isolates from Burkholderia sp. strain AB4 and Pseudomonas sp. strain AS1 were grown. Our results revealed that the both isolates (AB4 and AS1 strains) exhibited high emulsification indices (indicating usefulness in bioremediation) and good stabilities. PMID:26578147

  1. Resistencia bacteriana en cepas patógenas aisladas de mastitis en vacas lecheras de la V Región, Región Metropolitana y Xª Región, Chile Bacterial resistance of mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cows in the Vth Region, Metropolitan Region and Xth Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B SAN MARTIN

    2002-01-01

    , siendo recomendable que la adquisición de estos fármacos se realice a través de receta veterinaria, instaurando además programas permanentes de monitoreo de resistencia bacteriana en nuestro paísAntimicrobial chemotherapy in human and veterinary medicine is one of the most important therapeutic tool against pathogenic agents causing infectious diseases; nevertheless, the development of multiple resistant strains during the last years has been reported. Some of the measures adopted to control this problem have been the veterinary prescription of antimicrobials for animal use, the permanent rotation of drugs, and the implementation of continuous monitoring programs for bacterial resistance. In the present paper the sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria isolated from dairy cows suffering mastitis in different regions of Chile against antimicrobials most frequently used in dairy herds is reported. The Plate Dilution Method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC were used to evaluate the bacterial resistance of each isolated strain. A total of 449 bacterial strains were isolated from 963 aseptically collected milk samples in the 5th and Metropolitan Regions of Chile, E. coli being the most frequent mastitis pathogen recovered. In the 10th Region, however, S. aureus was the main pathogen among 1012 bacterial strains isolated from 2000 milk samples. S. aureus, Streptococcus spp and coagulase-negative Staphilococcus (CNS were shown to be highly resistant to amoxicilin, ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin and lincomicyn. Resistance to cloxacilin of S. aureus strains isolated in the 5th-Metropolitan and 10th Regions were 6.2% and 3.7% respectively. On the other hand, a high rate of sensitivity was observed in E. coli with resistance values below 25%. According to these results it is possible to conclude that the mastitis pathogens present in the geographical regions under study are resistant to more than one antimicrobial drug and, therefore, usage of these drugs under

  2. Within-Host Bacterial Diversity Hinders Accurate Reconstruction of Transmission Networks from Genomic Distance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Worby, Colin J.; Marc Lipsitch; William P Hanage

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of using whole genome sequence data to investigate bacterial disease outbreaks has been keenly anticipated in many quarters, and the large-scale collection and sequencing of isolates from cases is becoming increasingly feasible. While sequence data can provide many important insights into disease spread and pathogen adaptation, it remains unclear how successfully they may be used to estimate individual routes of transmission. Several studies have attempted to reconstruct transmis...

  3. Within-host bacterial diversity hinders accurate reconstruction of transmission networks from genomic distance data.

    OpenAIRE

    Worby, Colin J.; Marc Lipsitch; Hanage, William P

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of using whole genome sequence data to investigate bacterial disease outbreaks has been keenly anticipated in many quarters, and the large-scale collection and sequencing of isolates from cases is becoming increasingly feasible. While sequence data can provide many important insights into disease spread and pathogen adaptation, it remains unclear how successfully they may be used to estimate individual routes of transmission. Several studies have attempted to reconstruct transmis...

  4. Anticancer Activity Evaluation of Kuanoniamines A and C Isolated from the Marine Sponge Oceanapia sagittaria, Collected from the Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Pinto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The pyridoacridine alkaloids kuanoniamines A and C were isolated together with 24α-methylcholestanol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phenylacetic acid and 3-formylindole from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sponge Oceanapia sagittaria (Sollas, collected from the Gulf of Thailand. Kuanoniamines A and C were evaluated for their effect on the growth of five human tumour and a non-tumour cell lines, as well as on the proliferation of human lymphocytes. Kuanoniamine A was found to be a potent growth inhibitor of all the tumour and a non-tumour cell lines while kuanoniamine C was less potent but showed high selectivity toward the estrogen dependent (ER+ breast cancer cell line. Kuanoniamine A has shown to be a more potent inhibitor of DNA synthesis than kuanoniamine C. Kuanoniamine A was also found to cause an extensive reduction of the MCF-7 cells in G2/M phase as well as an increase in the apoptotic cells.

  5. Distribution of contagious and environmental mastitis agents isolated from milk samples collected from clinically health buffalo cows between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Maia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of clinically health quarters submitted to milking and also to observe the distribution of contagious and environmental agents between brazilian dry and rainy seasons of the year. During nine months 734 quarters from 37 buffalo cows were submitted monthly to udder inspection, palpation and strip cup test before milking. 734 asseptic milk samples were inoculated in 10% ovine blood agar and in MacConkey agar media, then incubated for 72 hours at 37oC. Among the 580 isolated microrganisms, 182 (31,38% were recovered from samples collected during the rainy season and 398 (68,62% from the dry season. In the rainy period the most prevalent agents were: bacteria from the genus Corynebacterium sp (53,30%, Staphylococcus sp (19,78% and Rhodococcus equi (13,74%. In the dry period, the commonest ones were: Corynebacterium sp (44,97%, Staphylococcus sp (18,84% and Micrococcus sp (9,55%. The results demonstrated that the methods used to select health quarters in brazilian dairy buffalo farms allow the transmission of contagious bacteria during both seasons of the year, maintaining Ital.J.Anim.Sci. vol. 6, (Suppl. 2, 896-899, 2007 897 VIII World Buffalo Congress agents known to cause mainly subclinical inflammatory reactions that compromise cronically the physiology and production of the mammary gland.

  6. 一株碳酸钙矿化菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of a Bacterial Strain Inducing Mineralization of Calcium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振远; 李广悦; 丁德馨; 王永东; 胡南

    2014-01-01

    基于微生物诱导碳酸钙沉积的岩土工程加固技术是一种环境友好的新技术。碳酸钙矿化菌是该技术应用的前提。为获得具有诱导碳酸钙沉积能力的菌株,采用选择性富集培养、平板分离方法从土壤中分离得到了一株具有尿素分解能力的菌株,细菌诱导产生的沉积物检测结果表明该菌株具有诱导碳酸钙沉积能力。通过形态学、革兰氏染色和16 S rDNA序列同源性分析鉴定该菌株为巴斯德芽孢杆菌。%Biocementation through microbial calcium carbonate precipitation is an innova-tive and environmentally friendly rock and soil reinforcement technique in geotechnical en-gineering. The bacteria inducing mineralization of calcium carbonate is a prerequisite to im-plement the biological treatment process. In order to obtain the strain with ability to induce CaCO3 precipitation,a ureolytic strain was isolated from soil using selective enrichment cul-ture and plate screening techniques. The precipites induced by this stain were examined, and the results showed it was capable of inducing calcium carbonate mineralization. The strain was identified as Sporosarcina pasteurii based on morphology,Gram stain and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  7. Biochemival Characterization of an Antibactrial Glycoprotein from Achatina fulica ferussac Snail Mucus Local Isolate and Their Implication on Bacterial Dental Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Berniyanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Snails crawl over a variety of potentially contaminated surfaces and their foot is the primary site of entry forpathogens, parasites and a range of opportunistic organisms, so it is a little wonder that they must have a defensivesystem to protect them. The mucus secreted on the body surfaces of mollusks is known to play crucial role inlocomotion, feeding, osmoregulation, reproduction and protection of epithelial surfaces. The snail mucus alsocontains Glycoaminoglycans (GAGs which are complex polysaccharides that participate in the regulation ofphysiological processes through the interactions with a wide variety of proteins. GAGs, such as heparin, serve as keyto biological response modifiers, in example for acting asa a target for pathogen and parasitic factors for attachment,invasion, and immune system.For years, it has been known that the mucus secretions from snails Achatina fulica ferussac local isolate can be usedas a medication, and even empirically it is used to treat infected teeth tahat is suffered by people in rural area. Theantibacterial factor was surveyed in the aqueous extract and the mucin fraction of snail Achatina fulica ferussac, andthey exhibited positive antibacterial for Gram-positive, Escherichia coli and Gram negative, Streptococcus mutans. Inthe following study, it has been proved that an antibacterial content in the mucus was a Glycoprotein. It wascomposed of two subunits of Molecular Weight (MW 71-73 kDa. The GelCode Glycoprotein Staining Kit detectedglycoprotein sugar moieties in polyacrylamide gel and on nitrocellulose membrane, while the glycoproteincarbohydrate estimation kit detected glycoprotein and estimated carbohydrate content. The glycoprotein contentwas 4.537 ± 0.876 for carbohydrate and 6.420 ± 1.242 for protein.Keywords : characterization, glycoprotein, Achatina fullica Ferussac snail mucus, galur Jawa, antibacterialfactor

  8. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A.; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 ...

  9. Microbially influenced corrosion: studies on enterobacteria isolated from seawater environment and influence of toxic metals on bacterial biofilm and bio-corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermond-Tilly, D.; Pineau, S.; Dupont-Morral, I. [Corrodys, 50 - Equeurdreville (France); Janvier, M.; Grimont, P.A.D. [Institut Pasteur, Unite BBPE, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The most widely involved bacteria in Microbially Induced Corrosion (MIC usually called bio-corrosion) are sulfate/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria. The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are major contributors to the anaerobic bio-corrosion of steel. However, corrosion process of pipelines (or off shores platforms) was found to be associated with many other bacteria. These bacteria are able to produce sulfides from the reduction of thiosulfate in anaerobic conditions. By this way, a thiosulfate-reducing non sulfate-reducing bacteria, Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans, showed a significant corrosive activity similar to or higher than that recorded for SRB involved in bio-corrosion, (Magot et al., 1997). Furthermore, a bacteria, Citrobacter amalonaticus, which belongs to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae, is involved in severe pitting corrosion process (Angeles Chavez et al., 2002). Recently, some bacteria (Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella planticola characterized as belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae) were isolated from biofilm developed on carbon steel coupons immersed in natural seawater. The latter bacteria were also associated in severe pitting corrosion process on carbon steel coupons (Bermond-Tilly et al., 2003). Biofilm forms a protective layer, reducing the exposure of the metal surface to the external environment. However, bacteria included in the biofilm could also cause localized corrosion by consuming cathodic hydrogen from the steel or by producing corrosive metabolic end products and by the Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) production. Thus, EPS can also play an important role in the corrosion of the metals (e.g. can complex metal ions). However, sulfate/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and some Enterobacteria are highly efficient to bioremediation by precipitation of toxic metals from wastewater as metal sulfides. Recently it was shown that toxic metal may be involved in the formation

  10. Bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate binds pro-inflammatory bacterial compounds and prevents immune activation in an intestinal co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detzel, Christopher J; Horgan, Alan; Henderson, Abigail L; Petschow, Bryon W; Warner, Christopher D; Maas, Kenneth J; Weaver, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is associated with chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation and diseases such as IBD and IBS. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) is a specially formulated protein preparation (>90%) for oral administration. The composition of SBI is greater than 60% immunoglobulin including contributions from IgG, IgA, and IgM. Immunoglobulin within the lumen of the gut has been recognized to have anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in maintaining gut homeostasis. The binding of common intestinal antigens (LPS and Lipid A) and the ligand Pam3CSK4, by IgG, IgA, and IgM in SBI was shown using a modified ELISA technique. Each of these antigens stimulated IL-8 and TNF-α cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes. Immune exclusion occurred as SBI (≤50 mg/mL) bound free antigen in a dose dependent manner that inhibited cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes in response to 10 ng/mL LPS or 200 ng/mL Lipid A. Conversely, Pam3CSK4 stimulation of THP-1 monocytes was unaffected by SBI/antigen binding. A co-culture model of the intestinal epithelium consisted of a C2BBe1 monolayer separating an apical compartment from a basal compartment containing THP-1 monocytes. The C2BBe1 monolayer was permeabilized with dimethyl palmitoyl ammonio propanesulfonate (PPS) to simulate a damaged epithelial barrier. Results indicate that Pam3CSK4 was able to translocate across the PPS-damaged C2BBe1 monolayer. However, binding of Pam3CSK4 by immunoglobulins in SBI prevented Pam3CSK4 translocation across the damaged C2BBe1 barrier. These results demonstrated steric exclusion of antigen by SBI which prevented apical to basal translocation of antigen due to changes in the physical properties of Pam3CSK4, most likely as a result of immunoglobulin binding. This study demonstrates that immunoglobulins in SBI can reduce antigen-associated inflammation through immune and steric exclusion mechanisms and furthers the mechanistic understanding of how SBI

  11. PHENOTYPIC AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE E. CLOACAE ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalnabi J Abid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed detecting and characterizing of β-lactamases producing E.cloacae isolated from different clinical sources in Hilla hospitals using phenotypic and molecular methods. A total of 308 samples were collected from two major hospitals at Hilla Province from October 2013 to April 2014. All isolates were tested biochemically, it was found that only 15 isolates from all isolates were belonging to Enterobactercloacae. All E. cloacae isolates were primarily screened for β-lactams resistance. Antibiotic susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration tests were performed using disk diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. The molecular study documented a widespread of Amp C genes among isolates of E. cloacae isolatesrepresented by 6/15(40% positive isolates for Amp C primers. PCR assay revealed that prevalence rate of bla-TEM gene among tested isolates was 9(60%. followed by the bla-OXA gene was detected only in 3(20%.While bla-VEB gene and bla-SHV gene was not detected in any of the isolates. Some virulence factors of bacteria were also studied, and the results showed that all bacterial strains have capsule ,the results also also detected biofilm formation among isolates and the results revealed that 13(86%of the isolates are biofilm former.

  12. 冬凌草内生细菌的分离鉴定及其对植物病害的生防作用%Isolation & Identification of Entophytic Bacterial Strain from Rabdosia rubescens & Its Biocontrol Effects against Plant Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯杨; 马瑜; 沈莹华; 李勃

    2013-01-01

    An enlophylic bacterial strain KD3 isolated from the tissue of Rabdosia rubescens ( Hemsl. ) H. Hara obviously had antagonism against many crop fungal pathogens. This strain was identified as Bacillus sublilis according to its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The results of antagonism test showed that strain KD3 could control the plant pathogens effectively, which exhibited a good application and development potential.%从冬凌草(Rabdosia rubescens (Hemsl.) H.Hara)中分离筛选出1株对多种作物真菌病害具有显著拮抗作用的细菌,命名为KD3.通过其形态特征和生理生化特性以及16S rRNA序列的同源性分析,鉴定该菌株为枯草芽胞杆菌(Bacillus subtilis).试验表明,KD3菌株能够显著抑制多种病原真菌的侵染,具有良好的应用开发潜力.

  13. Optimization of single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS with sample anchoring as an assured method for bacterial and yeast cfu enumeration and single colony isolation from diverse samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple technique for bacterial and yeast cfu estimations from diverse samples with no prior idea of viable counts, designated as single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS with the prime recommendation of sample anchoring (100 stocks. For pure cultures, serial dilutions were prepared from 0.1 OD (100 stock and 20 μl aliquots of six dilutions (101–106 were applied as 10–15 micro-drops in six sectors over agar-gelled medium in 9-cm plates. For liquid samples 100–105 dilutions, and for colloidal suspensions and solid samples (10% w/v, 101–106 dilutions were used. Following incubation, at least one dilution level yielded 6–60 cfu per sector comparable to the standard method involving 100 μl samples. Tested on diverse bacteria, composite samples and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SP-SDS offered wider applicability over alternative methods like drop-plating and track-dilution for cfu estimation, single colony isolation and culture purity testing, particularly suiting low resource settings.