WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacterial hemoglobin alters

  1. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation......, the fungus will produce various by-products like organic acids and polyols. In order to circumvent this problem we here study the effects of the expression of a bacterial hemoglobin protein on the metabolism of A. niger. We integrated the vgb gene from Vitreoscilla sp. into the genome at the pyrA locus...... behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO2 evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy...

  2. Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with normal and altered glycated hemoglobin levels in two regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pimentel Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with regard to the management of diabetes, assessed using glycated hemoglobin levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using conjunctival smears of diabetic patients from both sexes and with different ages, residing in two different Brazilian cities (Sorocaba and Rio Branco. A control group of non-diabetic patients was also included. The diabetic patients were considered to have controlled diabetes when their glycated hemoglobin level was ≤7% and blood glucose level was ≤126 mg/dL. Patients with non-controlled diabetes were those with glycated hemoglobin levels >7% and blood glucose levels >126 mg/dL. The samples obtained were inoculated in Brain-Heart Infusion broth and in culture media for aerobic bacteria (blood and chocolate agars; bacterial growth was evaluated in a microbiology laboratory. Results: A total of 120 eyes of 120 patients were included in the present study. The percentage of cultures in which bacterial growth was observed was greater in diabetic patients, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.103. There was a greater trend toward bacterial growth in the conjunctiva of diabetic patients with altered fasting blood glucose. There was no difference in the frequency of bacterial growth on the conjunctiva between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. In Sorocaba, conjunctival bacterial growth was similar to that observed in Rio Branco. The microorganism most frequently detected in the present study was Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: There was no difference between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. The microorganisms found were similar to those found in studies investigating the conjunctival bacterial flora of diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

  3. Thermoglobin, oxygen-avid hemoglobin in a bacterial hyperthermophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J J L; Maillett, David H; Soman, Jayashree; Olson, John S

    2005-11-04

    The hemoglobin family of proteins, ubiquitous in all domains of life, evolved from an ancestral protein of primordial function to extant hemoglobins that perform a myriad of functions with diverged biochemical properties. Study of homologs in bacterial hyperthermophiles may shed light on both mechanisms of adaptation to extreme conditions and the nature of the ancestral protein. A hemoglobin was identified in Aquifex aeolicus, cloned, recombinantly expressed, purified, and characterized. This hemoglobin is monomeric, resistant to thermal and chemical denaturation, pentacoordinate in the ferrous deoxygenated state, and oxygen-avid. The oxygen equilibrium dissociation constant is approximately 1 nm at room temperature, due in part to a hydrogen bond between the bound ligand and a tyrosine residue in the distal pocket. These biochemical properties of A. aeolicus thermoglobin, AaTgb, may have been shared by the ancestral hemoglobin, thus suggesting possible primordial functions and providing a starting point for consequent evolution of the hemoglobin family.

  4. Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-08

    protein that transports oxygen in the body by binding oxygen from the air that is inhaled into the lungs, carrying it throughout the circulatory system ...hemoglobin in the tissues. This classic relationship between hemoglobin structure and function has become a model for the study of cooperative protein systems ...will be 6 required to define precisely the connection between hemoglobin structure and the thermodynamics of 02 binding. Thus, understanding the

  5. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  6. Human hemoglobin structural and functional alterations and heme degradation upon interaction with benzene: A spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-03-15

    Here, the effect of benzene on hemoglobin structure, stability and heme prosthetic group integrity was studied by different methods. These included UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry, normal and synchronous fluorescence techniques, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Our results indicated that benzene has high hemolytic potential even at low concentrations. The UV-vis spectroscopic results demonstrated that benzene altered both the globin chain and the heme prosthetic group of hemoglobin increasing met- and deoxy-Hb, while decreasing oxy-Hb. However, with increasing benzene the concentration of all species decreased due to heme destruction. The spectrophotometric results show that benzene has a high potential for penetrating the hydrophobic pocket of hemoglobin. These results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation results of benzene-hHb. Aggregation and thermal denaturation studies show that the increased benzene concentration induced hemoglobin aggregation with a decrease in stability, which is consistent with the DSC results. Conventional fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the heme degradation species were produced in the presence of benzene. The results of constant wavelength synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (CWSFS) indicated that at least five heme-degraded species were produced. Together, our results indicated that benzene has adverse effects on hemoglobin structure and function, and heme degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied ...

  8. Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital shedding among HIV-1-infected women in Mozambique. ... We compared women with detectable cervical HIV viral load (≥40 copies/ml) with women with undetectable cervical HIV. Results. We enrolled 106 women. Women with abnormal vaginal flora ...

  9. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ahmad Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied prospectively in 124 boys. The results were analysed to compare change in bacterial colonisation before and after circumcision. Results: The age range was 6 weeks to 96 months. Most (94.3% of the boys had religious indication and 5.7% had medical indication for circumcision. E. coli, Proteus and Klebsiella were most common periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised subjects. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus was most common periurethral bacterial flora in circumcised subjects. In 66.1% of circumcised subjects, no bacteria were grown from periurethral region. Conclusion: We conclude that presence of prepuce is associated with great quantity of periurethral bacteria, greater likelihood of the presence of high concentration of uropathogens and high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI. This study provides circumstantial evidence supporting the idea that early circumcision may be beneficial for prevention of UTI.

  10. Canopy soil bacterial communities altered by severing host tree limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody R. Dangerfield

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trees of temperate rainforests host a large biomass of epiphytic plants, which are associated with soils formed in the forest canopy. Falling of epiphytic material results in the transfer of carbon and nutrients from the canopy to the forest floor. This study provides the first characterization of bacterial communities in canopy soils enabled by high-depth environmental sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Canopy soil included many of the same major taxonomic groups of Bacteria that are also found in ground soil, but canopy bacterial communities were lower in diversity and contained different operational taxonomic units. A field experiment was conducted with epiphytic material from six Acer macrophyllum trees in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA to document changes in the bacterial communities of soils associated with epiphytic material that falls to the forest floor. Bacterial diversity and composition of canopy soil was highly similar, but not identical, to adjacent ground soil two years after transfer to the forest floor, indicating that canopy bacteria are almost, but not completely, replaced by ground soil bacteria. Furthermore, soil associated with epiphytic material on branches that were severed from the host tree and suspended in the canopy contained altered bacterial communities that were distinct from those in canopy material moved to the forest floor. Therefore, the unique nature of canopy soil bacteria is determined in part by the host tree and not only by the physical environmental conditions associated with the canopy. Connection to the living tree appears to be a key feature of the canopy habitat. These results represent an initial survey of bacterial diversity of the canopy and provide a foundation upon which future studies can more fully investigate the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these communities.

  11. A single natural nucleotide mutation alters bacterial pathogen host tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, David; Comos, María; McAdam, Paul R; Ward, Melissa J; Selva, Laura; Guinane, Caitriona M; González-Muñoz, Beatriz M; Tristan, Anne; Foster, Simon J; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Penadés, José R

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of microbial pathogens to alter their host tropism leading to epidemics in distinct host species populations is a global public and veterinary health concern. To investigate the molecular basis of a bacterial host-switching event in a tractable host species, we traced the evolutionary trajectory of the common rabbit clone of Staphylococcus aureus. We report that it evolved through a likely human-to-rabbit host jump over 40 years ago and that only a single naturally occurring nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one that could infect rabbits. Related mutations were identified at the same locus in other rabbit strains of distinct clonal origin, consistent with convergent evolution. This first report of a single mutation that was sufficient to alter the host tropism of a microorganism during its evolution highlights the capacity of some pathogens to readily expand into new host species populations.

  12. Mutations That Alter the Bacterial Cell Envelope Increase Lipid Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Zhang, Weiping; Langer, Samantha J.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Hu, Dehong; Lemke, Rachelle A.; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Orr, Galya; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.; Ruby, Edward G.

    2017-05-23

    ABSTRACT

    Lipids from microbes offer a promising source of renewable alternatives to petroleum-derived compounds. In particular, oleaginous microbes are of interest because they accumulate a large fraction of their biomass as lipids. In this study, we analyzed genetic changes that alter lipid accumulation inRhodobacter sphaeroides. By screening anR. sphaeroidesTn5mutant library for insertions that increased fatty acid content, we identified 10 high-lipid (HL) mutants for further characterization. These HL mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to drugs that target the bacterial cell envelope and changes in shape, and some had the ability to secrete lipids, with two HL mutants accumulating ~60% of their total lipids extracellularly. When one of the highest-lipid-secreting strains was grown in a fed-batch bioreactor, its lipid content was comparable to that of oleaginous microbes, with the majority of the lipids secreted into the medium. Based on the properties of these HL mutants, we conclude that alterations of the cell envelope are a previously unreported approach to increase microbial lipid production. We also propose that this approach may be combined with knowledge about biosynthetic pathways, in this or other microbes, to increase production of lipids and other chemicals.

    IMPORTANCEThis paper reports on experiments to understand how to increase microbial lipid production. Microbial lipids are often cited as one renewable replacement for petroleum-based fuels and chemicals, but strategies to increase the yield of these compounds are needed to achieve this goal. While lipid biosynthesis is often well understood, increasing yields of these compounds to industrially relevant levels is a challenge, especially since genetic, synthetic biology, or engineering approaches are not feasible in many microbes. We show that altering the bacterial cell envelope can be used to increase

  13. A 13C-NMR study of mutant hemoglobins with altered oxygen affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Norden, B.; Edlund, U.; Paul, K.-G.

    1986-01-01

    The 13 CO-NMR spectra of carbonylhemoglobins Saint Mande (β 102Asn → Tyr), Malmo (β 97His → Gln), Hotel Dieu (β 99Asp → Gly) and A o have been determined. The positions of the 13 CO resonances for hemoglobins A o , Malmo and Hotel Dieu were similar indicating similar ligand environments for all. The 13 CO resonance for the β-subunit of Saint Mande was upfield-shifted compared to the others. This is evidence that structural changes at the β102 position directly affect iron-ligand bonding as well as quaternary structure. (Auth.)

  14. BacHbpred: Support Vector Machine Methods for the Prediction of Bacterial Hemoglobin-Like Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MuthuKrishnan Selvaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent upsurge in microbial genome data has revealed that hemoglobin-like (HbL proteins may be widely distributed among bacteria and that some organisms may carry more than one HbL encoding gene. However, the discovery of HbL proteins has been limited to a small number of bacteria only. This study describes the prediction of HbL proteins and their domain classification using a machine learning approach. Support vector machine (SVM models were developed for predicting HbL proteins based upon amino acid composition (AC, dipeptide composition (DC, hybrid method (AC + DC, and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM. In addition, we introduce for the first time a new prediction method based on max to min amino acid residue (MM profiles. The average accuracy, standard deviation (SD, false positive rate (FPR, confusion matrix, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC were analyzed. We also compared the performance of our proposed models in homology detection databases. The performance of the different approaches was estimated using fivefold cross-validation techniques. Prediction accuracy was further investigated through confusion matrix and ROC curve analysis. All experimental results indicate that the proposed BacHbpred can be a perspective predictor for determination of HbL related proteins. BacHbpred, a web tool, has been developed for HbL prediction.

  15. Alteration of the α1β2/α2β1 subunit interface contributes to the increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity of high-altitude deer mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoguchi, Noriko; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Baba, Seiki; Kumasaka, Takashi; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Storz, Jay F.; Moriyama, Hideaki; Permyakov, Eugene A.

    2017-03-31

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that are native to high altitudes in the Rocky Mountains have evolved hemoglobins with an increased oxygen-binding affinity relative to those of lowland conspecifics. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the evolved increase in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity, the crystal structure of the highland hemoglobin variant was solved and compared with the previously reported structure for the lowland variant. Highland hemoglobin yielded at least two crystal types, in which the longest axes were 507 and 230 Å. Using the smaller unit cell crystal, the structure was solved at 2.2 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained two tetrameric hemoglobin molecules. The analyses revealed that αPro50 in the highland hemoglobin variant promoted a stable interaction between αHis45 and heme that was not seen in the αHis50 lowland variant. The αPro50 mutation also altered the nature of atomic contacts at the α1β2/α2β1 intersubunit interfaces. These results demonstrate how affinity-altering changes in intersubunit interactions can be produced by mutations at structurally remote sites.

  16. Mutational destabilization of the critical interface water cluster in Scapharca dimeric hemoglobin: structural basis for altered allosteric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanani, A; Gambacurta, A; Ascoli, F; Royer, W E

    1998-12-04

    A cluster of interface ordered water molecules has been proposed to act as a key mediator of intersubunit communication in the homodimeric hemoglobin of Scapharca inaequivalvis. Mutations of Thr72 to Val and Ile, which lack the hydroxyl group to hydrogen bond the deoxy interface water molecules, result in sharply altered functional properties. We have determined the high resolution (1.6-1. 8 A) crystal structures of these two mutants in both the deoxygenated and CO-liganded states. These structures show minimal protein structural changes relative to the same native derivatives, despite greater than 40-fold increases in oxygen affinity. In the deoxy state of both mutants two water molecules at the periphery of the water cluster are lost, and the remaining cluster water molecules are destabilized. The CO-liganded structures show key differences between the two mutants including a more optimal interface packing involving Ile72 that acts to stabilize its high affinity (R) state. This additional stabilization allows rationalization of its lowered cooperativity within the context of a two-state model. These studies support a key role of ordered water in cooperative functioning and illustrate how subtle structural alterations can result in significantly altered functional properties in an allosteric molecule. Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  17. A Molecular Genetic Basis Explaining Altered Bacterial Behavior in Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bacterial behavior has been observed to change during spaceflight. Higher final cell counts enhanced biofilm formation increased virulence and reduced susceptibility...

  18. Altered Bacterial Profiles in Saliva from Adults with Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Fiehn, N-E; Nielsen, C H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed ...... of commensal microbial communities are involved in the shift from oral health to tooth decay. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel....... using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray technology. Samples from 174 individuals with dental caries and 447 from a control cohort were compared using frequency and levels of identified bacterial taxa/clusters as endpoints. Differences at taxon/cluster level were analyzed using Mann......-Whitney's test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles. A reduced bacterial diversity was observed in samples from subjects with dental caries. Five bacterial taxa (Veillonella parvula, Veillonella atypica...

  19. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Jeremiah A.; Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    phenotype. We chose three bacterial strains that differed in predicted metabolic capabilities, plant hormone production and metabolism, and secondary metabolite synthesis. We inoculated each bacterial strain on a single genotype of Populus trichocarpa and measured the response of plant growth related traits......Plant traits, such as root and leaf area, influence how plants interact with their environment and the diverse microbiota living within plants can influence plant morphology and physiology. Here, we explored how three bacterial strains isolated from the Populus root microbiome, influenced plant...... (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates) and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light-Asat, and saturating CO2-Amax). Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf...

  20. Alterations in Hemoglobin and Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D are Related Before and After Weight Loss Independent of African Admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon; Fernandez, Jose R; Gower, Barbara A; Hunter, Gary R

    2017-02-01

    African American (AA) and European American (EA) women often exhibit differences in hemoglobin (Hb) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], both of which can be altered by calorie restriction leading to weight loss. Given these known differences, it is of clinical interest to examine the potential for race-specific, adverse responses to weight loss. Sixty-four overweight (BMI 27-29.9 kg/m 2 ), premenopausal women consumed a standardized, very-low calorie diet to reduce BMI weight loss, Hb decreased (AA, -0.5 ± 0.7 vs. EA, -0.4 ± 0.6; p = .48) to a similar extent among races. Conversely, 25(OH)D increased (AA, 43.4 ± 14.0 vs. EA 68.2 ± 24.3; p weight loss, participants with the largest increase in serum 25(OH)D exhibited the smallest decrease in Hb. Future research should clarify the optimal degree of calorie restriction to stimulate weight loss while mitigating the potential risk of anemia associated with dieting efforts.

  1. Solution-active structural alterations in liganded hemoglobins C (beta6 Glu --> Lys) and S (beta6 Glu --> Val).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, R E; Juszczak, L J; Fataliev, N A; Friedman, J M; Nagel, R L

    1999-05-14

    Based upon existing crystallographic evidence, HbS, HbC, and HbA have essentially the same molecular structure. However, important areas of the molecule are not well defined crystallographically (e.g. the N-terminal nonhelical portion of the alpha and beta chains), and conformational constraints differ in solution and in the crystalline state. Over the years, our laboratory and others have provided evidence of conformational changes in HbS and, more recently, in HbC. We now present data based upon allosteric perturbation monitored by front-face fluorescence, ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and oxygen equilibrium studies that confirm and significantly expand previous findings suggesting solution-active structural differences in liganded forms of HbS and HbC distal to the site of mutation and involving the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding pocket. The liganded forms of these hemoglobins are of significant interest because HbC crystallizes in the erythrocyte in the oxy form, and oxy HbS exhibits increased mechanical precipitability and a high propensity to oxidize. Specific findings are as follows: 1) differences in the intrinsic fluorescence indicate that the Trp microenvironments are more hydrophobic for HbS > HbC > HbA, 2) ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy detects alterations in Tyr hydrogen bonding, in Trp hydrophobicity at the alpha1beta2 interface (beta37), and in the A-helix (alpha14/beta15) of both chains, 3) displacement by inositol hexaphosphate of the Hb-bound 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonate (the fluorescent 2,3-diphosphoglycerate analog) follows the order HbA > HbS > HbC, and 4) oxygen equilibria measurements indicate a differential allosteric effect by inositol hexaphosphate for HbC approximately HbS > HbA.

  2. Impact of Membrane Phospholipid Alterations in Escherichia coli on Cellular Function and Bacterial Stress Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlett, Veronica W; Mallampalli, Venkata K P S; Karlstaedt, Anja; Dowhan, William; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Margolin, William; Vitrac, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to sense and rapidly adapt to challenging and ever-changing environmental conditions. The ability to alter membrane lipid composition, a key component of the cellular envelope, is crucial for bacterial survival and adaptation in response to environmental stress. However, the precise roles played by membrane phospholipids in bacterial physiology and stress adaptation are not fully elucidated. The goal of this study was to define the role of membrane phospholipids in adaptation to stress and maintenance of bacterial cell fitness. By using genetically modified strains in which the membrane phospholipid composition can be systematically manipulated, we show that alterations in major Escherichia coli phospholipids transform these cells globally. We found that alterations in phospholipids impair the cellular envelope structure and function, the ability to form biofilms, and bacterial fitness and cause phospholipid-dependent susceptibility to environmental stresses. This study provides an unprecedented view of the structural, signaling, and metabolic pathways in which bacterial phospholipids participate, allowing the design of new approaches in the investigation of lipid-dependent processes involved in bacterial physiology and adaptation. IMPORTANCE In order to cope with and adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, bacteria have to sense and quickly respond to fluctuating conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of systematic and controlled alterations in bacterial phospholipids on cell shape, physiology, and stress adaptation. We provide new evidence that alterations of specific phospholipids in Escherichia coli have detrimental effects on cellular shape, envelope integrity, and cell physiology that impair biofilm formation, cellular envelope remodeling, and adaptability to environmental stresses. These findings hold promise for future antibacterial therapies that target bacterial lipid biosynthesis

  3. Biofilm growth alters regulation of conjugation by a bacterial pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laura; Barnes, Aaron; Dunny, Gary; Chatterjee, Anushree; Hu, Wei-Shou; Yarwood, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Conjugation is an important mode of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, enhancing the spread of antibiotic resistance. In clinical settings, biofilms are likely locations for antibiotic resistance transfer events involving nosocomial pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis. Here we demonstrate that growth in biofilms alters the induction of conjugation by a sex pheromone in E. faecalis. Mathematical modeling suggested that a higher plasmid copy number in biofilm cells would enhance a switch-like behavior in the pheromone response of donor cells with a delayed, but increased response to the mating signal. Alterations in plasmid copy number, and a bimodal response to induction of conjugation in populations of plasmid-containing donor cells were both observed in biofilms, consistent with the predictions of the model. The pheromone system may have evolved such that donor cells in biofilms are only induced to transfer when they are in extremely close proximity to potential recipients in the biofilm community. These results may have important implications for development of chemotherapeutic agents to block resistance transfer and treat biofilm-related clinical infections. PMID:21843206

  4. Impervious Surfaces Alter Soil Bacterial Communities in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinhong; Dou, Xiaolin; Li, Juanyong; Li, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete), permeable pavement (bricks with round holes), shrub coverage ( Buxus megistophylla Levl. ), lawns ( Festuca elata Keng ex E. Alexeev ), and roadside trees ( Sophora japonica Linn. ) in Beijing, to explore the response of bacteria to impervious surfaces. The soil bacterial communities were addressed by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We found that Proteobacteria , Actinobacteria , Acidobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Chloroflexi , and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla in urban soils. Soil from impervious surfaces presented a lower bacterial diversity, and differed greatly from other types of land cover. Soil bacterial diversity was predominantly affected by Zn, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil moisture content (SMC). The composition of the bacterial community was similar under shrub coverage, roadside trees, and lawns, but different from beneath impervious surfaces and permeable pavement. Variance partitioning analysis showed that edaphic properties contributed to 12% of the bacterial community variation, heavy metal pollution explained 3.6% of the variation, and interaction between the two explained 33% of the variance. Together, our data indicate that impervious surfaces induced changes in bacterial community composition and decrease of bacterial diversity. Interactions between edaphic properties and heavy metals were here found to change the composition of the bacterial community and diversity

  5. Impervious Surfaces Alter Soil Bacterial Communities in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhong Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete, permeable pavement (bricks with round holes, shrub coverage (Buxus megistophylla Levl., lawns (Festuca elata Keng ex E. Alexeev, and roadside trees (Sophora japonica Linn. in Beijing, to explore the response of bacteria to impervious surfaces. The soil bacterial communities were addressed by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We found that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla in urban soils. Soil from impervious surfaces presented a lower bacterial diversity, and differed greatly from other types of land cover. Soil bacterial diversity was predominantly affected by Zn, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and soil moisture content (SMC. The composition of the bacterial community was similar under shrub coverage, roadside trees, and lawns, but different from beneath impervious surfaces and permeable pavement. Variance partitioning analysis showed that edaphic properties contributed to 12% of the bacterial community variation, heavy metal pollution explained 3.6% of the variation, and interaction between the two explained 33% of the variance. Together, our data indicate that impervious surfaces induced changes in bacterial community composition and decrease of bacterial diversity. Interactions between edaphic properties and heavy metals were here found to change the composition of the bacterial community and

  6. Hemoglobin (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called ... exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance ...

  7. Vizantin inhibits bacterial adhesion without affecting bacterial growth and causes Streptococcus mutans biofilm to detach by altering its internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shoji; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohshima, Hayato; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2016-11-11

    An ideal antibiofilm strategy is to control both in the quality and quantity of biofilm while maintaining the benefits derived from resident microflora. Vizantin, a recently developed immunostimulating compound, has also been found to have antibiofilm property. This study evaluated the influence on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sulfated vizantin and biofilm development following bacterial adhesion on a hydroxyapatite disc coated with sulfated vizantin. Supplementation with sulfated vizantin up to 50 μM did not affect either bacterial growth or biofilm formation, whereas 50 μM sulfated vizantin caused the biofilm to readily detach from the surface. Sulfated vizantin at the concentration of 50 μM upregulated the expression of the gtfB and gtfC genes, but downregulated the expression of the gtfD gene, suggesting altered architecture in the biofilm. Biofilm development on the surface coated with sulfated vizantin was inhibited depending on the concentration, suggesting prevention from bacterial adhesion. Among eight genes related to bacterial adherence in S. mutans, expression of gtfB and gtfC was significantly upregulated, whereas the expression of gtfD, GbpA and GbpC was downregulated according to the concentration of vizantin, especially with 50 μM vizantin by 0.8-, 0.4-, and 0.4-fold, respectively. These findings suggest that sulfated vizantin may cause structural degradation as a result of changing gene regulation related to bacterial adhesion and glucan production of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hemoglobin electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003639.htm Hemoglobin electrophoresis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen in the blood. Hemoglobin electrophoresis measures the levels of the different types of ...

  9. Carbon nanomaterials alter plant physiology and soil bacterial community composition in a rice-soil-bacterial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Ma, Chuanxin; Zhang, Zetian; Song, Youhong; Cao, Weidong; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Guopeng; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Liming; Xing, Baoshan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity effects of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), namely fullerene (C 60 ), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), on a mini-ecosystem of rice grown in a loamy potted soil. We measured plant physiological and biochemical parameters and examined bacterial community composition in the CNMs-treated plant-soil system. After 30 days of exposure, all the three CNMs negatively affected the shoot height and root length of rice, significantly decreased root cortical cells diameter and resulted in shrinkage and deformation of cells, regardless of exposure doses (50 or 500 mg/kg). Additionally, at the high exposure dose of CNM, the concentrations of four phytohormones, including auxin, indoleacetic acid, brassinosteroid and gibberellin acid 4 in rice roots significantly increased as compared to the control. At the high exposure dose of MWCNTs and C 60 , activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in roots increased significantly. High-throughput sequencing showed that three typical CNMs had little effect on shifting the predominant soil bacterial species, but the presence of CNMs significantly altered the composition of the bacterial community. Our results indicate that different CNMs indeed resulted in environmental toxicity to rice and soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere and suggest that CNMs themselves and their incorporated products should be reasonably used to control their release/discharge into the environment to prevent their toxic effects on living organisms and the potential risks to food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical Predictors of Malaria, Acute Bacterial Meningitis and Treatment Outcomes among Febrile Children Admitted with Altered Mental Status in Northwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumanne, Shakilu; Meda, John; Hokororo, Adolfine; Leshabari, Kelvin

    2017-11-30

    Malaria and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are the leading infectious causes of febrile encephalopathy in malaria endemic settings. The clinical distinction of the two conditions is complicated by overlap in clinical features. To determine the clinical predictors for malaria, ABM and treatment outcome in febrile children aged 2 months to 12 years with altered mentation at two tertiary hospitals in Northwestern Tanzania. Prospective study of 103 children to document demographic data and physical examination findings, such as level of consciousness and meningeal irritations. Laboratory results for cerebrospinal fluid, hemoglobin, malaria and HIV were also evaluated. Age >60 months and hemoglobin ≤5 g/dl were independent predictors of malaria; (p = 0.013 and 0.004, respectively). HIV infection was the only predictor of meningitis, p = 0.037, and mortality was high if the diagnosis was unconfirmed. Children with febrile encephalopathy are more likely to have malaria than ABM if they have severe anemia. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Altered functionality of anti-bacterial antibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lamontagne

    Full Text Available Using comparative glycoproteomics, we have previously identified a glycoprotein that is altered in both amount and glycosylation as a function of liver cirrhosis. The altered glycoprotein is an agalactosylated (G0 immunoglobulin G molecule (IgG that recognizes the heterophilic alpha-gal epitope. Since the alpha gal epitope is found on gut enterobacteria, it has been hypothesized that anti-gal antibodies are generated as a result of increased bacterial exposure in patients with liver disease.The N-linked glycosylation of anti-gal IgG molecules from patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined and the effector function of anti-bacterial antibodies from over 100 patients examined. In addition, markers of microbial exposure were determined.Surprisingly, the subset of agalactosylated anti-gal antibodies described here, was impaired in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis and inhibited the complement-mediated destruction of common gut bacteria. In an analysis of serum from more than 100 patients with liver disease, we have shown that those with increased levels of this modified anti-gal antibody had increased levels of markers of bacterial exposure.Anti-gal antibodies in patients with liver cirrhosis were reduced in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis of target cells. As bacterial infection is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial products such as LPS are thought to play a major role in the development and progression of liver fibrosis, this finding has many clinical implications in the etiology, prognosis and treatment of liver disease.

  12. Supplemental Dietary Inulin of Variable Chain Lengths Alters Intestinal Bacterial Populations in Young Pigs123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jannine K.; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M.; Miller, Dennis D.; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits. PMID:20980641

  13. Co-inheritance of the rare β hemoglobin variants Hb Yaounde, Hb Görwihl and Hb City of Hope with other alterations in globin genes: impact in genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Margherita; Passarello, Cristina; Leto, Filippo; Cassarà, Filippo; Cannata, Monica; Maggio, Aurelio; Giambona, Antonino

    2015-04-01

    Nearly 1183 different molecular defects of the globin genes leading to hemoglobin variants have been identified (http://globin.bx.psu.edu) over the past decades. The purpose of this study was to report three cases, never described in the literature, of co-inheritance of three β hemoglobin variants with other alterations in globin genes and to evaluate the clinical significance to conduct an appropriate genetic counseling. We report the molecular study performed in three probands and their families, sampling during the screening program conducted at the Laboratory for Molecular Prenatal Diagnosis of Hemoglobinopathies at Villa Sofia-Cervello Hospital in Palermo, Italy. This work allowed us to describe the co-inheritance of three rare β hemoglobin variants with other alterations in globin genes: the β hemoglobin variant Hb Yaounde [β134(H12)Val>Ala], found for the first time in combination with ααα(anti3.7) arrangement, and the β hemoglobin variants Hb Görwihl [β5(A2)Pro>Ala] and Hb City of Hope [β69(E13)Gly>Ser], found both in association with β(0) -thalassemia. The present work emphasizes the importance of a careful evaluation of the hematological data, especially in cases of atypical hematological parameters, to carry out an adequate and complete molecular study and to formulate an appropriate genetic counseling for couples at risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Altered host cell-bacteria interaction due to nanoparticle interaction with a bacterial biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Tara D; Lindler, Heidi; McNealy, Tamara L

    2013-02-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) use in everyday applications creates the potential for NPs to enter the environment where, in aquatic systems, they are likely to settle on substrates and interact with microbial communities. Legionella pneumophila biofilms are found as part of microbial communities in both natural and man-made environments, especially in man-made cooling systems. The bacterium is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. Legionella requires a host cell for replication in the environment, and amoebae commonly serve as this host cell. Our previous work demonstrated significant changes in Legionella biofilm morphology after exposure to 0.7 μg/L gold NPs (AuNPs). Here, we investigate how these morphology changes alter host-bacteria interactions using Acanthamoeba polyphaga as a model. Host-bacteria-NP interactions are affected by NP characteristics. Biofilms exposed to 4- and 18-nm, citrate-capped, spherical AuNPs significantly altered the grazing ability of A. polyphaga, which was not observed in biofilms exposed to 24-nm polystyrene beads. Uptake and replication of NP-exposed planktonic L. pneumophila within A. polyphaga were not altered regardless of NP size or core chemistry. Nanomaterial effects on the interaction of benthic organisms and bacteria may be directly or, as shown here, indirectly dependent on bacterial morphology. NP contamination therefore may alter interactions in a normal ecosystem function.

  15. Choice of bacterial growth medium alters the transcriptome and phenotype of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jessica M A; Richmond, Grace E; Bailey, Andrew M; Ivens, Al; Piddock, Laura J V

    2013-01-01

    The type of bacterial culture medium is an important consideration during design of any experimental protocol. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of medium choice on bacterial gene expression and physiology by comparing the transcriptome of Salmonella enterica SL1344 after growth in the widely used LB broth or the rationally designed MOPS minimal medium. Transcriptomics showed that after growth in MOPS minimal media, compared to LB, there was increased expression of 42 genes involved in amino acid synthesis and 23 genes coding for ABC transporters. Seven flagellar genes had decreased expression after growth in MOPS minimal medium and this correlated with a decreased motility. In both MOPS minimal medium and MEM expression of genes from SPI-2 was increased and the adhesion of S. Typhimurium to intestinal epithelial cells was higher compared to the levels after growth in LB. However, SL1344 invasion was not significantly altered by growth in either MOPs minimal media or MEM. Expression of SPI-2 was also measured using chromosomal GFP reporter fusions followed by flow cytometry which showed, for the first time, that the reduction in SPI-2 transcript after growth in different media related to a reduction in the proportion of the bacterial population expressing SPI-2. These data highlight the profound differences in the global transcriptome after in vitro growth in different media and show that choice of medium should be considered carefully during experimental design, particularly when virulence related phenotypes are being measured.

  16. Soil fungal:bacterial ratios are linked to altered carbon cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish A. Malik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite several lines of observational evidence, there is a lack of consensus on whether higher fungal:bacterial (F:B ratios directly cause higher soil carbon (C storage. We employed RNA sequencing, protein profiling and isotope tracer techniques to evaluate whether differing F:B ratios are associated with differences in C storage. A mesocosm 13C labeled foliar litter decomposition experiment was performed in two soils that were similar in their physico-chemical properties but differed in microbial community structure, specifically their F:B ratio (determined by PLFA analyses, RNA sequencing and protein profiling; all three corroborating each other. Following litter addition, we observed a consistent increase in abundance of fungal phyla; and greater increases in the fungal dominated soil; implicating the role of fungi in litter decomposition. Litter derived 13C in respired CO2 was consistently lower, and residual 13C in bulk SOM was higher in high F:B soil demonstrating greater C storage potential in the fungal:bacterial dominated soil. We conclude that in this soil system, the increased abundance of fungi in both soils and the altered C cycling patterns in the fungal:bacterial dominated soils highlight the significant role of fungi in litter decomposition and indicate that F:B ratios are linked to higher C storage potential.

  17. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Semenov, Alexander V; Sørensen, Søren J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chiA genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes.

  18. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  19. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielak, Anna; Cretoiu, Mariana; Semenov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected...... by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our......Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment...

  20. Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Akihiro; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Simpson, Rodney T; Moore, John C

    2014-01-01

    The pool of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Arctic is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. This large quantity of SOC accumulated over millennia due to slow rates of decomposition relative to net primary productivity. Decomposition is constrained by low temperatures and nutrient concentrations, which limit soil microbial activity. We investigated how nutrients limit bacterial and fungal biomass and community composition in organic and mineral soils within moist acidic tussock tundra ecosystems. We sampled two experimental arrays of moist acidic tussock tundra that included fertilized and non-fertilized control plots. One array included plots that had been fertilized annually since 1989 and the other since 2006. Fertilization significantly altered overall bacterial community composition and reduced evenness, to a greater degree in organic than mineral soils, and in the 1989 compared to the 2006 site. The relative abundance of copiotrophic α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria was higher in fertilized than control soils, and oligotrophic Acidobacteria were less abundant in fertilized than control soils at the 1989 site. Fungal community composition was less sensitive to increased nutrient availability, and fungal responses to fertilization were not consistent between soil horizons and sites. We detected two ectomycorrhizal genera, Russula and Cortinarius spp., associated with shrubs. Their relative abundance was not affected by fertilization despite increased dominance of their host plants in the fertilized plots. Our results indicate that fertilization, which has been commonly used to simulate warming in Arctic tundra, has limited applicability for investigating fungal dynamics under warming.

  1. Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Akihiro; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simpson, Rodney T.; Moore, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The pool of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Arctic is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. This large quantity of SOC accumulated over millennia due to slow rates of decomposition relative to net primary productivity. Decomposition is constrained by low temperatures and nutrient concentrations, which limit soil microbial activity. We investigated how nutrients limit bacterial and fungal biomass and community composition in organic and mineral soils within moist acidic tussock tundra ecosystems. We sampled two experimental arrays of moist acidic tussock tundra that included fertilized and non-fertilized control plots. One array included plots that had been fertilized annually since 1989 and the other since 2006. Fertilization significantly altered overall bacterial community composition and reduced evenness, to a greater degree in organic than mineral soils, and in the 1989 compared to the 2006 site. The relative abundance of copiotrophic α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria was higher in fertilized than control soils, and oligotrophic Acidobacteria were less abundant in fertilized than control soils at the 1989 site. Fungal community composition was less sensitive to increased nutrient availability, and fungal responses to fertilization were not consistent between soil horizons and sites. We detected two ectomycorrhizal genera, Russula and Cortinarius spp., associated with shrubs. Their relative abundance was not affected by fertilization despite increased dominance of their host plants in the fertilized plots. Our results indicate that fertilization, which has been commonly used to simulate warming in Arctic tundra, has limited applicability for investigating fungal dynamics under warming. PMID:25324836

  2. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  3. Hemoglobin C disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...

  4. The Biochemistry of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb’s functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  5. THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF VITREOSCILLA HEMOGLOBIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  6. Bacterial-like PPP protein phosphatases: novel sequence alterations in pathogenic eukaryotes and peculiar features of bacterial sequence similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerk, David; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

    2013-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation is a widespread modification affecting the great majority of eukaryotic cellular proteins, and whose effects influence nearly every cellular function. Protein phosphatases are increasingly recognized as exquisitely regulated contributors to these changes. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family comprises enzymes, which catalyze dephosphorylation at serine and threonine residues. Nearly a decade ago, "bacterial-like" enzymes were recognized with similarity to proteins from various bacterial sources: SLPs (Shewanella-like phosphatases), RLPHs (Rhizobiales-like phosphatases), and ALPHs (ApaH-like phosphatases). A recent article from our laboratory appearing in Plant Physiology characterizes their extensive organismal distribution, abundance in plant species, predicted subcellular localization, motif organization, and sequence evolution. One salient observation is the distinct evolutionary trajectory followed by SLP genes and proteins in photosynthetic eukaryotes vs. animal and plant pathogens derived from photosynthetic ancestors. We present here a closer look at sequence data that emphasizes the distinctiveness of pathogen SLP proteins and that suggests that they might represent novel drug targets. A second observation in our original report was the high degree of similarity between the bacterial-like PPPs of eukaryotes and closely related proteins of the "eukaryotic-like" phyla Myxococcales and Planctomycetes. We here reflect on the possible implications of these observations and their importance for future research.

  7. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  8. High-grain diets altered rumen fermentation and epithelial bacterial community and resulted in rumen epithelial injuries of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyang; Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of high-grain diets on the rumen fermentation, epithelial bacterial community, morphology of rumen epithelium, and local inflammation of goats during high-grain feeding. Twelve 8-month-old goats were randomly assigned to two different diets, a hay diet or a high-grain diet (65% grain, HG). At the end of 7 weeks of treatment, samples of rumen content and rumen epithelium were collected. Rumen pH was lower (P diets altered the rumen epithelial bacterial community, with an increase in the proportion of genus Prevotella and a decrease in the relative abundance of the genera Shuttleworthia and Fibrobacteres. PICRUSt analysis suggested that the HG-fed group had a higher (P bacterial community which were induced by HG feeding may result in the damage and local inflammation in the rumen epithelium, warranting further study of rumen microbial-host interactions in the HG feeding model.

  9. Mercury alters the bacterial community structure and diversity in soil even at concentrations lower than the guideline values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Subashchandrabose, Suresh Ramraj; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of inorganic mercury (Hg) on bacterial community and diversity in different soils. Three soils-neutral, alkaline and acidic-were spiked with six different concentrations of Hg ranging from 0 to 200 mg kg -1 and aged for 90 days. At the end of the ageing period, 18 samples from three different soils were investigated for bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties. Illumina MiSeq-based 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing revealed the alteration in the bacterial community between un-spiked control soils and Hg-spiked soils. Among the bacterial groups, Actinobacteria (22.65%) were the most abundant phyla in all samples followed by Proteobacteria (21.95%), Bacteroidetes (4.15%), Firmicutes (2.9%) and Acidobacteria (2.04%). However, the largest group showing increased abundance with higher Hg doses was the unclassified group (45.86%), followed by Proteobacteria. Mercury had a considerable negative impact on key soil functional bacteria such as ammonium oxidizers and nitrifiers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that among the measured soil properties, Hg had a major influence on bacterial community structure. Furthermore, nonlinear regression analysis confirmed that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial alpha diversity in lower organic carbon containing neutral and alkaline soils, whereas in acidic soil with higher organic carbon there was no significant correlation. EC 20 values obtained by a nonlinear regression analysis indicated that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial diversity in concentrations lower than several guideline values.

  10. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  11. Radioimmunochemical characterization of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya: unique antigenic determinants located on hybrid hemoglobins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garver, F.A.; Altay, G.; Baker, M.M.; Gravely, M.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits to the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins, which contain hybrid delta-β non-α-chains, and to hemoglobin Kenya, which has a hybrid γ-β non-α-chain. By using a sensitive radioimmunoassay technique, the absorbed antisera were shown to contain an antibody population that was specific for the hybrid hemoglobin and did not cross-react with normal hemoglobins. However, with the absorbed Lepore-specific antisera, the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins were antigenically indistinguishable from each other, suggesting that antibodies are not produced to the primary structural differences which define the three non-α-chains of the Lepore hemoglobins. These studies demonstrate that the non-α-subunits of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya possess unique antigenic determinant sites, evidently resulting from an altered polypeptide conformation

  12. Degradation of human hemoglobin by Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Min; Nagata, Hideki; Shizukuishi, Satoshi; Wu, Jun-Zheng

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the ability of Prevotella intermedia, an obligate anaerobic rod, to degrade human hemoglobin was determined by SDS-PAGE and the degradation was quantified by scanning densitometry. Both bacterial cells and culture supernatants degraded hemoglobin. The hemoglobin degradation by P. intermedia was time-dependent, heat sensitive, pH related and was not influenced by iron restriction. Inhibition studies demonstrated that a cysteine protease might be involved in hemoglobin degradation and this protease might require metal ions for its activity and it might be thiol-requiring and trypsin-inducible. The results indicate that P. intermedia is capable to release heme from hemoglobin, hence provide a source of iron for its proliferation.

  13. Chronic N-amended soils exhibit an altered bacterial community structure in Harvard Forest, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi A. Turlapati; Rakesh Minocha; Premsai S. Bhiravarasa; Louise S. Tisa; William K. Thomas; Subhash C. Minocha

    2013-01-01

    At the Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, the impact of 20 years of annual ammonium nitrate application to the mixed hardwood stand on soil bacterial communities was studied using 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes was done using DNA extracted from 30 soil samples (three treatments x two horizons x five subplots) collected from untreated (...

  14. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, but Not Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichen Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF, chemical fertilizer (CF, organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF and organic fertilizer (OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen–fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with organic fertilizer application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR versus sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the Alpha- and Beta- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil

  15. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  16. Does penile tourniquet application alter bacterial adhesion to rat urethral cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boybeyi-Turer, Ozlem; Kacmaz, Birgul; Arat, Esra; Atasoy, Pınar; Kisa, Ucler; Gunal, Yasemin Dere; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal; Soyer, Tutku

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of penile tourniquet (PT) application on bacterial adhesion to urothelium. Fifty-six rats were allocated into control group (CG), sham group (SG), PT group (PTG). No intervention was applied in CG. A 5mm-length urethral repair was performed in SG and PTG. In PTG, a 10-min duration of PT was applied during the procedure and the tissue oxygenation monitor was used to adjust the same degree of ischemia in all subjects. Samples were examined for wound healing parameters and tissue levels of inflammatory markers, eNOS, e-selectin, and ICAM-1antibodies. The adhesion of Escherichia coli to urothelium was investigated with in vitro adhesion assay. Inflammation was higher and wound healing was worse in SG than CG and in PTG in comparison to CG and SG (pcaused endothelial corruption and prevented cell proliferation in cell culture. The PT application does not improve wound healing and increases bacterial adhesion molecules in penile tissue. The in vitro assays showed that PT causes severe endothelial damage and inhibits endothelial cell proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative study of the effect of BPA and its selected analogues on hemoglobin oxidation, morphological alterations and hemolytic changes in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćczak, Aneta; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to provoke many deleterious impacts on human health, and thus it is now successively substituted by BPA analogues, whose effects have been poorly investigated. Up to now, only one study has been realized to assess the effect of BPA on human erythrocytes, which showed its significant hemolytic and oxidative potential. Moreover, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of BPA analogues on red blood cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of BPA and its selected analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hemolytic and morphological changes and hemoglobin oxidation (methemoglobin formation) of human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with different bisphenols concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500μg/ml for 1, 4 and 24h. The compounds examined caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes with BPAF exhibiting the strongest effect. All bisphenols examined caused methemoglobin formation with BPA inducing the strongest oxidative potential. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all bisphenols (excluding BPS) induced significant changes in erythrocytes size. Changes in red blood cells shape were conducted using phase contrast microscopy. It was noticed that BPA and BPAF induced echinocytosis, BPF caused stomatocytosis, while BPS did not provoke significant changes in shape of red blood cells. Generally, the results showed that BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production, exhibited significantly lower disturbance of erythrocyte functions than BPA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protecting the herd: the remarkable effectiveness of the bacterial meningitis polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in altering transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, David S

    2011-01-01

    Interrupting human-to-human transmission of the agents (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) of bacterial meningitis by new capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PPCVs) has proven to be a remarkable (and unanticipated) contributor to vaccine effectiveness. Herd immunity accounts for ∼50% of the protection by meningococcal serogroup C PPCVs, pneumococcal PPCV7, and H. influenzae b PPCVs. Nasopharyngeal carriage can be reduced ≥75% for vaccine serotypes; the decrease in carriage is correlated with disease reduction in unvaccinated individuals, and the impact of herd immunity lasts for years. Based on these data, models for using herd immunity in vaccine-based prevention strategies are underway for control of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the immunologic basis of herd immunity and impact on microbial biology need more study, protecting the unvaccinated by altering pathogen transmission dynamics is a powerful effect of PPCVs and increasingly important in vaccine introduction, implementation, and evaluation strategies.

  20. Hemoglobin Variants in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Raymond A.

    1965-04-22

    Variability among mammalian hemoglobins was observed many years ago (35). The chemical basis for differences among hemoglobins from different species of mammals has been studied by several investigators (5, 11, 18, 48). As well as interspecies differences, hemoglobin variants are frequently found within a species of mammals (2, 3, 7, 16) The inheritance of these intraspecies variants can be studied, and pedigrees indicate that the type of hemoglobin synthesized in an individual is genetically controlled (20). Several of the variant human hemoglobins are f'unctionally deficient (7, 16). Such hemoglobin anomalies are of basic interest to man because of the vital role of hemoglobin for transporting oxygen to all tissues of the body.

  1. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-10-14

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host.

  2. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Vlisidou, Isabella; Amos, Matthew R; Yang, Guowei; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Potter, Ursula J; Joyce, Susan A; Ciche, Todd A; Jenkins, A Toby A; Bagby, Stefan; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Waterfield, Nicholas R

    2010-05-12

    Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28 degrees C) and human (37 degrees C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of EPS properties. Despite

  3. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Susan A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C and human (37°C temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect

  4. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Robert T

    2010-05-12

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of

  5. The Hemoglobin E Thalassemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Weatherall, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE) is an extremely common structural hemoglobin variant that occurs at high frequencies throughout many Asian countries. It is a β-hemoglobin variant, which is produced at a slightly reduced rate and hence has the phenotype of a mild form of β thalassemia. Its interactions with different forms of α thalassemia result in a wide variety of clinical disorders, whereas its coinheritance with β thalassemia, a condition called hemoglobin E β thalassemia, is by far the most common severe form of β thalassemia in Asia and, globally, comprises approximately 50% of the clinically severe β-thalassemia disorders. PMID:22908199

  6. Hemoglobins, programmed cell death and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert D; Huang, Shuanglong; Stasolla, Claudio

    2013-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a universal process in all multicellular organisms. It is a critical component in a diverse number of processes ranging from growth and differentiation to response to stress. Somatic embryogenesis is one such process where PCD is significantly involved. Nitric oxide is increasingly being recognized as playing a significant role in regulating PCD in both mammalian and plant systems. Plant hemoglobins scavenge NO, and evidence is accumulating that events that modify NO levels in plants also affect hemoglobin expression. Here, we review the process of PCD, describing the involvement of NO and plant hemoglobins in the process. NO is an effector of cell death in both plants and vertebrates, triggering the cascade of events leading to targeted cell death that is a part of an organism's response to stress or to tissue differentiation and development. Expression of specific hemoglobins can alter this response in plants by scavenging the NO, thus, interrupting the death process. Somatic embryogenesis is used as a model system to demonstrate how cell-specific expression of different classes of hemoglobins can alter the embryogenic process, affecting hormone synthesis, cell metabolite levels and genes associated with PCD and embryogenic competence. We propose that plant hemoglobins influence somatic embryogenesis and PCD through cell-specific expression of a distinct plant hemoglobin. It is based on the premise that both embryogenic competence and PCD are strongly influenced by cellular NO levels. Increases in cellular NO levels result in elevated Zn(2+) and reactive-oxygen species associated with PCD, but they also result in decreased expression of MYC2, a transcription factor that is a negative effector of indoleacetic acid synthesis, a hormone that positively influences embryogenic competence. Cell-specific hemoglobin expression reduces NO levels as a result of NO scavenging, resulting in cell survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  7. Long-term nickel exposure altered the bacterial community composition but not diversity in two contrasting agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Nickel pollution imposes deleterious effects on soil ecosystem. The responses of soil microorganisms to long-term nickel pollution under field conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to elucidate the impacts of long-term nickel pollution on soil bacterial communities in two contrasting agricultural soils. Our results found that the soil microbial biomass carbon consistently decreased along the nickel gradients in both soils. Nickel pollution selectively favored or impeded the prevalence of several dominant bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes displayed sensitivity. Despite the apparent shifts in the bacterial community composition, no clear tendency in the bacterial diversity and abundance was identified along the nickel gradients in either soil. Collectively, we provide evidence that long-term nickel pollution shifted the soil bacterial communities, resulting in the decrease of microbial biomass although the bacterial diversity was not significantly changed.

  8. Exposure to bacterial signals does not alter pea aphids' survival upon a second challenge or investment in production of winged offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ter Braak

    Full Text Available Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections.

  9. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Christensen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms.The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates.The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  10. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ana B; Herman, Joseph L; Elphick, Maurice R; Kober, Kord M; Janies, Daniel; Linchangco, Gregorio; Semmens, Dean C; Bailly, Xavier; Vinogradov, Serge N; Hoogewijs, David

    2015-01-01

    Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms. The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates. The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  11. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  12. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tousheh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested for filtration. Materials and methods: Although there are data for bacterial toxin as a filter, here we used Agrobacterial hem to induce nano pore in the heme structure using point mutation. Results: Investigations showed that three amino acids leucine 76, alanine 83 and histidine 80 are important for pore formation in Agrobacterium hemoglobin. A point mutation on leucine 76 to glycine, histidine 80 to asparagine and alanine 83 to lysine step by step led to create the nano pore 0.7- 0.8 nm in the globin. Discussion and conclusion: These mutations in bacterial hemoglobin increase the stability when mutation is with it’s at pH7. This mutation decreases the aliphatic index however increase the stability index.

  13. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Rana; Thukral, Anubhav; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC) turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods...

  14. Trema and parasponia hemoglobins reveal convergent evolution of oxygen transport in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturms, Ryan; Kakar, Smita; Trent, James; Hargrove, Mark S

    2010-05-18

    All plants contain hemoglobins that fall into distinct phylogenetic classes. The subset of plants that carry out symbiotic nitrogen fixation expresses hemoglobins that scavenge and transport oxygen to bacterial symbiotes within root nodules. These "symbiotic" oxygen transport hemoglobins are distinct in structure and function from the nonoxygen transport ("nonsymbiotic") Hbs found in all plants. Hemoglobins found in two closely related plants present a paradox concerning hemoglobin structure and function. Parasponia andersonii is a nitrogen-fixing plant that expresses a symbiotic hemoglobin (ParaHb) characteristic of oxygen transport hemoglobins in having a pentacoordinate ferrous heme iron, moderate oxygen affinity, and a relatively rapid oxygen dissociation rate constant. A close relative that does not fix nitrogen, Trema tomentosa, expresses hemoglobin (TremaHb) sharing 93% amino acid identity to ParaHb, but its phylogeny predicts a typical nonsymbiotic hemoglobin with a hexacoordinate heme iron, high oxygen affinity, and slow oxygen dissociation rate constant. Here we characterize heme coordination and oxygen binding in TremaHb and ParaHb to investigate whether or not two hemoglobins with such high sequence similarity are actually so different in functional behavior. Our results indicate that the two proteins resemble nonsymbiotic hemoglobins in the ferric oxidation state and symbiotic hemoglobins in the ferrous oxidation state. They differ from each other only in oxygen affinity and oxygen dissociation rate constants, two factors key to their different functions. These results demonstrate distinct mechanisms for convergent evolution of oxygen transport in different phylogenetic classes of plant hemoglobins.

  15. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  16. Increases in mean annual temperature do not alter soil bacterial community structure in tropical montane wet forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Selmants; Karen L. Adair; Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Egbert Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacteria play a key role in regulating terrestrial biogeochemical cycling and greenhouse gas fluxes across the soil-atmosphere continuum. Despite their importance to ecosystem functioning, we lack a general understanding of how bacterial communities respond to climate change, especially in relatively understudied ecosystems like tropical montane wet...

  17. Zinc source and concentration altered physiological responses of beef heifers during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on the immune response to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (255+/-15 kg) were subjected to a 30d period of Zn depletion, then randomly assigned to one ...

  18. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Protecting the Herd: The Remarkable Effectiveness of the Bacterial Meningitis Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines in Altering Transmission Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Interrupting human-to-human transmission of the agents (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) of bacterial meningitis by new capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PPCVs) has proven to be a remarkable (and unanticipated) contributor to vaccine effectiveness. Herd immunity accounts for ∼50% of the protection by meningococcal serogroup C PPCVs, pneumococcal PPCV7, and H. influenzae b PPCVs. Nasopharyngeal carriage can be reduced ≥75% for vacc...

  20. Temperature increases from 55 to 75 C in a two-phase biogas reactor result in fundamental alterations within the bacterial and archaeal community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Antje [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik; Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technischen Umweltschutz; Nolte, Christine; Schoenberg, Mandy; Klocke, Michael [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik

    2012-10-15

    Agricultural biogas plants were operated in most cases below their optimal performance. An increase in the fermentation temperature and a spatial separation of hydrolysis/acetogenesis and methanogenesis are known strategies in improving and stabilizing biogas production. In this study, the dynamic variability of the bacterial and archaeal community was monitored within a two-phase leach bed biogas reactor supplied with rye silage and straw during a stepwise temperature increase from 55 to 75 C within the leach bed reactor (LBR), using TRFLP analyses. To identify the terminal restriction fragments that were obtained, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed. Above 65 C, the bacterial community structure changed from being Clostridiales-dominated toward being dominated by members of the Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, and Thermotogales orders. Simultaneously, several changes occurred, including a decrease in the total cell count, degradation rate, and biogas yield along with alterations in the intermediate production. A bioaugmentation with compost at 70 C led to slight improvements in the reactor performance; these did not persist at 75 C. However, the archaeal community within the downstream anaerobic filter reactor (AF), operated constantly at 55 C, altered by the temperature increase in the LBR. At an LBR temperature of 55 C, members of the Methanobacteriales order were prevalent in the AF, whereas at higher LBR temperatures Methanosarcinales prevailed. Altogether, the best performance of this two-phase reactor was achieved at an LBR temperature of below 65 C, which indicates that this temperature range has a favorable effect on the microbial community responsible for the production of biogas. (orig.)

  1. Mechanisms of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. VII. Hemoglobin does not inhibit clearance of Escherichia coli from the peritoneal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Barke, R.A.; Lee, J.T. Jr.; Condie, R.M.; Humphrey, E.W.; Simmons, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Hemoglobin has been shown to be a potent adjuvant in experimental Escherichia coli peritonitis, although a satisfactory mechanistic rationale is still obscure. Hemoglobin has been thought to impair intraperitoneal neutrophil function, delay clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by the normal absorptive mechanisms, or directly enhance bacterial growth. Using highly purified stroma-free hemoglobin (SFHgb), we have largely discounted any direct effect of hemoglobin on peritoneal white blood cell function. In the present study, we confirmed that uncontrolled proliferation of bacteria takes place in the presence of hemoglobin in the peritoneal cavity. Nonviable 5-iododeoxyuridine 125 I-labelled bacteria were then used to directly study peritoneal clearance kinetics, eliminating the problem of bacterial growth. SFHgb had no influence on the removal of intraperitoneal bacteria. The rate of bloodstream appearance of radiolabel was similar with or without intraperitoneal SFHgb. Thus, SFHgb does not prevent clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by interfering with normal host clearance mechanisms. SFHgb may act as a bacterial growth adjuvant, either by serving as a bacterial nutrient or by suitably modifying the environment so that extensive bacterial proliferation can occur. The latter hypothesis appears to be an area in which investigation concerning the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin may prove most fruitful

  2. Regulation of host hemoglobin binding by the Staphylococcus aureus Clp proteolytic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Allison J; Reniere, Michelle L; Ingmer, Hanne; Frees, Dorte; Skaar, Eric P

    2013-11-01

    Protein turnover is a key process for bacterial survival mediated by intracellular proteases. Proteolytic degradation reduces the levels of unfolded and misfolded peptides that accumulate in the cell during stress conditions. Three intracellular proteases, ClpP, HslV, and FtsH, have been identified in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consistent with their crucial role in protein turnover, ClpP, HslV, and FtsH affect a number of cellular processes, including metabolism, stress responses, and virulence. The ClpP protease is believed to be the principal degradation machinery in S. aureus. This study sought to identify the effect of the Clp protease on the iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system, which extracts heme-iron from host hemoglobin during infection and is critical to S. aureus pathogenesis. Inactivation of components of the Clp protease alters abundance of several Isd proteins, including the hemoglobin receptor IsdB. Furthermore, the observed changes in IsdB abundance are the result of transcriptional regulation, since transcription of isdB is decreased by clpP or clpX inactivation. In contrast, inactivation of clpC enhances isdB transcription and protein abundance. Loss of clpP or clpX impairs host hemoglobin binding and utilization and results in severe virulence defects in a systemic mouse model of infection. These findings suggest that the Clp proteolytic system is important for regulating nutrient iron acquisition in S. aureus. The Clp protease and Isd complex are widely conserved in bacteria; therefore, these data reveal a novel Clp-dependent regulation pathway that may be present in other bacterial pathogens.

  3. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0–20 cm soil layer vertically and 0–30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and particularly Ca2+ were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  4. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  5. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  6. Hemoglobin e syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichinsky, Elliott

    2007-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is one of the world's most common and important mutations. It results in a heterogeneous group of disorders whose phenotype range from asymptomatic to severe. Hb E trait and Hb EE are mild disorders. The combination of Hb E and Hb S (Hb SE) results in a sickle cell disease syndrome similar to sickle beta(+) thalassemia. It is important to distinguish Hb E disorders diagnostically because of this marked difference in clinical course among different genotypes. Screening tests, including hemoglobin electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), may suggest other mutations, unless one is familiar with the findings. E beta-thalassemia, the most serious form of E syndromes, affects a million people worldwide and is increasing in North America. Its phenotype ranges from mild anemia to severe transfusion-dependent thalassemia major. Several genetic modifiers affect the phenotype, including the type of beta-thalassemia mutation, Hb F levels, and co-inheritance of alpha-thalassemia. However, the cause of the phenotypic variability is largely unknown. A prospective natural history study of E beta-thalassemia in Sri Lanka suggests that environmental modifiers are prognostically important. The clinical course of E beta-thalassemia is punctuated by acute and chronic complications that may cause serious morbidity and mortality. Recent studies indicate these patients are at high risk for thromboembolism secondary to a hypercoagulable state increased by splenectomy. Morbidity from iron overload in nontransfused patients secondary to increased gastrointestinal iron absorption is common. Cardiopulmonary disease, including pulmonary hypertension, requires ongoing monitoring and is secondary to iron overload, thromboembolism, and hemolysis-induced nitric oxide deficiency. These patients are excellent candidates for Hb F-modulating agents because moderate changes in hemoglobin may result in marked improvement in phenotype. Recent studies with

  7. Expression of fully functional tetrameric human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, S.J.; Looker, D.L.; Roehrich, J.M.; Cozart, P.E.; Durfee, S.L.; Tedesco, J.L.; Stetler, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis genes encoding the human α- and β-globin polypeptides have been expressed from a single operon in Escherichia coli. The α- and β-globin polypeptides associate into soluble tetramers, incorporate heme, and accumulate to >5% of the total cellular protein. Purified recombinant hemoglobin has the correct stoichiometry of α- and β-globin chains and contains a full complement of heme. Each globin chain also contains an additional methionine as an extension to the amino terminus. The recombinant hemoglobin has a C 4 reversed-phase HPLC profile essentially identical to that of human hemoglobin A 0 and comigrates with hemoglobin A 0 on SDS/PAGE. The visible spectrum and oxygen affinity are similar to that of native human hemoglobin A 0 . The authors have also expressed the α- and β-globin genes separately and found that the expression of the α-globin gene alone results in a marked decrease in the accumulation of α-globin in the cell. Separate expression of the β-globin gene results in high levels of insoluble β-globin. These observations suggest that the presence of α- and β-globin in the same cell stabilizes α-globin and aids the correct folding of β-globin. This system provides a simple method for expressing large quantities of recombinant hemoglobin and allows facile manipulation of the genes encoding hemoglobin to produce functionally altered forms of this protein

  8. Tissue-associated bacterial alterations in rectal carcinoma patients revealed by 16S rRNA community profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Maltez Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls. Samples were collected during exploratory colonoscopy (non-cancer group or during surgery for tumor excision (rectal-cancer group. High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4-V5 region was conducted on the Ion PGM platform, reads were filtered using Qiime and clustered using UPARSE. We observed significant increases in species richness and diversity in rectal cancer samples, evidenced by the total number of OTUs and the Shannon and Simpson indexes. Enterotyping analysis divided our cohort into two groups, with the majority of rectal cancer samples clustering into one enterotype, characterized by a greater abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea. At the phylum level, rectal-cancer samples had increased abundance of candidate phylum OD1 (also known as Parcubacteria whilst non-cancer samples had increased abundance of Planctomycetes. At the genera level, rectal-cancer samples had higher abundances of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrio and Odoribacter whereas non-cancer samples had higher abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus and Bacillus. Two Bacteroides fragilis OTUs were more abundant among rectal-cancer patients seen through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, whose presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and enrichment verified

  9. Host genetic background influences the response to the opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection altering cell-mediated immunity and bacterial replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Maura; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Rossi, Giacomo; Cigana, Cristina; De Fino, Ida; Iraqi, Fuad A; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s) may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in the control of P

  10. Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital shedding among HIV-1-infected women in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Kirkcaldy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We investigated whether abnormal vaginal flora, including bacterial vaginosis (BV, are associated with detection of cervical HIV-1 RNA among HIV-infected women in Mozambique. Methods. We obtained clinical data and vaginal specimens from HIV-infected women registering for their first visit at one of two HIV care clinics in Mozambique. We compared women with detectable cervical HIV viral load (≥40 copies/ml with women with undetectable cervical HIV. Results. We enrolled 106 women. Women with abnormal vaginal flora (intermediate Nugent scores, 4 - 6 were more likely to have detectable cervical HIV RNA then women with normal vaginal flora (adjusted odds ratio 7.2 (95% confidence interval 1.8 - 29.1, adjusted for CD4 count. Women with BV had a non-significantly higher likelihood of detectable cervical HIV than women with normal flora. Conclusions. Abnormal vaginal flora were significantly associated with cervical HIV expression. Further research is needed to confirm this relationship.

  11. Water-limiting conditions alter the structure and biofilm-forming ability of bacterial multispecies communities in the alfalfa rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bogino

    Full Text Available Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect. The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices.

  12. High-grain diet feeding altered the composition and functions of the rumen bacterial community and caused the damage to the laminar tissues of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y

    2018-03-19

    In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.

  13. The Bacterial Second Messenger Cyclic di-GMP Regulates Brucella Pathogenesis and Leads to Altered Host Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mike; Harms, Jerome S; Marim, Fernanda M; Armon, Leah; Hall, Cherisse L; Liu, Yi-Ping; Banai, Menachem; Oliveira, Sergio C; Splitter, Gary A; Smith, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic debilitating disease significantly impacting global health and prosperity. Much remains to be learned about how Brucella spp. succeed in sabotaging immune host cells and how Brucella spp. respond to environmental challenges. Multiple types of bacteria employ the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) to coordinate responses to shifting environments. To determine the role of c-di-GMP in Brucella physiology and in shaping host-Brucella interactions, we utilized c-di-GMP regulatory enzyme deletion mutants. Our results show that a ΔbpdA phosphodiesterase mutant producing excess c-di-GMP displays marked attenuation in vitro and in vivo during later infections. Although c-di-GMP is known to stimulate the innate sensor STING, surprisingly, the ΔbpdA mutant induced a weaker host immune response than did wild-type Brucella or the low-c-di-GMP guanylate cyclase ΔcgsB mutant. Proteomics analysis revealed that c-di-GMP regulates several processes critical for virulence, including cell wall and biofilm formation, nutrient acquisition, and the type IV secretion system. Finally, ΔbpdA mutants exhibited altered morphology and were hypersensitive to nutrient-limiting conditions. In summary, our results indicate a vital role for c-di-GMP in allowing Brucella to successfully navigate stressful and shifting environments to establish intracellular infection. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of bio-catalysis of heme extraction from hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipov, Serzhan; Rafikova, Olga; Kurnikova, Maria G; Rafikov, Ruslan

    2017-04-01

    Red blood cell hemolysis in sickle cell disease (SCD) releases free hemoglobin. Extracellular hemoglobin and its degradation products, free heme and iron, are highly toxic due to oxidative stress induction and decrease in nitric oxide availability. We propose an approach that helps to eliminate extracellular hemoglobin toxicity in SCD by employing a bacterial protein system that evolved to extract heme from extracellular hemoglobin. NEAr heme Transporter (NEAT) domains from iron-regulated surface determinant proteins from Staphylococcus aureus specifically bind free heme as well as facilitate its extraction from hemoglobin. We demonstrate that a purified NEAT domain fused with human haptoglobin β-chain is able to remove heme from hemoglobin and reduce heme content and peroxidase activity of hemoglobin. We further use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to resolve molecular pathway of heme transfer from hemoglobin to NEAT, and to elucidate molecular mechanism of such heme transferring process. Our study is the first of its kind, in which simulations are employed to characterize the process of heme leaving hemoglobin and subsequent rebinding with a NEAT domain. Our MD results highlight important amino acid residues that facilitate heme transfer and will guide further studies for the selection of best NEAT candidate to attenuate free hemoglobin toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Gamma Radiation and Some Natural Products in Alteration of Bacterial Outer Membrane Porins Permeability for Uptake of Certain Antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bastawisy, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane permeability is the first step involved in resistance of bacteria to an antibiotic. The bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that constitute porins play role in the definition of intrinsic resistance in Gram negative bacilli that is altered under antibiotic pressure. It has been noted that the response to prolonged exposure to increasing levels of antibiotic cause major changes in the permeability of the bacterium due to down regulation of porins and over expression of efflux pumps. In this study a total of 92 bacterial isolates of different species were isolated from different sites of cancer and non cancer patients; the microorganisms were identified using API system. The susceptibility test was carried out for all the isolates to detect the multidrug resistant isolates; from this test eleven strains were selected for further studies. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the eleven strains against some selected antibiotics acting on the inhibition of cell wall synthesis before and after in vitro gamma irradiation was carried out. The obtained results showed a clear increase in the number of resistant isolates after irradiation as compared to those before irradiation. The efficacy of the citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus paradise, Citrus reticulate and Citrus sinensis) was tested to improve the performance of the tested antibiotics by increasing its permeability through the porin channels. The dried crushed citrus fruits peels were decontaminated by gamma irradiation at 700 Gray; then the aqueous extract of the citrus fruits were prepared to test its antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial strains. The obtained results revealed that the aqueous extracts of different citrus fruits peels did not show any antibacterial activities against six bacterial isolates (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus 44, Enterbacter cloacae 51, Escherichia coli 52, Pseudomonas fluorescens 64, Klebsiella pneumoniae 78 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 90). Therefore, these six

  16. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between Type D Personality, affective symptoms and hemoglobin levels in chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, N.; Pelle, A.J.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore,

  18. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  19. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  20. Qualitative Alterations of Bacterial Metabolome after Exposure to Metal Nanoparticles with Bactericidal Properties: A Comprehensive Workflow Based on (1)H NMR, UHPLC-HRMS, and Metabolic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimitakos, Theodoros G; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2016-09-02

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have proven to be more toxic than bulk analogues of the same chemical composition due to their unique physical properties. The NPs, lately, have drawn the attention of researchers because of their antibacterial and biocidal properties. In an effort to shed light on the mechanism through which the bacteria elimination is achieved and the metabolic changes they undergo, an untargeted metabolomic fingerprint study was carried out on Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria species. The (1)H NMR spectroscopy, in conjunction with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRMS) and an unsophisticated data processing workflow were implemented. The combined NMR/HRMS data, supported by an open-access metabolomic database, proved to be efficacious in the process of assigning a putative annotation to a wide range of metabolite signals and is a useful tool to appraise the metabolome alterations, as a consequence of bacterial response to NPs. Interestingly, not all the NPs diminished the intracellular metabolites; bacteria treated with iron NPs produced metabolites not present in the nonexposed bacteria sample, implying the activation of previously inactive metabolic pathways. In contrast, copper and iron-copper NPs reduced the annotated metabolites, alluding to the conclusion that the metabolic pathways (mainly alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism) were hindered by the interactions of NPs with the intracellular metabolites.

  1. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in blacks. ... a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people who ...

  2. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  3. [Hemoglobin variants in Colombian patients referred to discard hemoglobinopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Gómez Gutiérrez, Alberto; Duarte, Yurani; Amazo, Constanza; Manosalva, Clara; Chila M, Lorena; Casas-Gómez, María Consuelo; Briceño Balcázar, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen transport is altered in hemoglobinopathies. To study the distribution of hemoglobinopathies in Andean subjects without African ancestry. We analyzed blood samples of 1,407 subjects aged 18 to 59 years (58% females), living in the central Andean region of Colombia, referred to discard hemoglobinopathies. The frequency and type of hemoglobinopathy was established by capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 34.5% and higher among females. The structural variants found were: AS-heterozygous hemoglobin (8.1%), homozygous SS (3.7%), heterozygous SC (2.2%), AC heterozygotes (0.5%) and heterozygous AE (0.3%). Quantitative variants found were Hb A-Beta thalassemia (13.91%) and Hb H (0.06%), Beta-thalassemia heterozygotes C (0.88%), S-Beta thalassemia heterozygotes (6.07%) and compound heterozygous SC/Beta thalassemia (0.25%), with a persistence of fetal hemoglobin 0. Composite thalassemia was also found in 31%. All techniques showed good correlation and capillary electrophoresis demonstrated a greater detection of hemoglobin variants. The frequency of hemoglobin variants in the analyzed population was high, which is an important public health indicator. The most common hemoglobin variant was HbA/Increased structural Hb A2 and the mos frequent structural hemoglobinopathy was sickle cell trait. Capillary electrophoresis can discern any Hb variants present in the population.

  4. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  5. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...... and rhabdomyolysis), specific high capacity scavenging systems have evolved in the mammalian organism. Two major systems, which essentially function in a similar way by means of a circulating latent plasma carrier protein that upon ligand binding is recognized by a receptor, are represented by a) the hemoglobin...

  6. Differences in fungal and bacterial physiology alter soil carbon and nitrogen cycling: synthesizing effects of microbial community structure using the Fungi and Bacteria (FAB) model. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, C.; Hawkes, C. V.; Waring, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    Most biogeochemical models of soil carbon and nitrogen cycling include a simplified representation of the soil microbial community as a single pool, despite good evidence that shifts in the composition or relative abundance of microbial taxa can affect process rates. Incorporating a more realistic depiction of the microbial community in these models may increase their predictive accuracy, but this must be balanced against the feasibility of modeling the enormous diversity present in soil. We propose that explicitly including two major microbial functional groups with distinct physiologies, fungi and bacteria, will improve model predictions. To this end, we created the fungi and bacteria (FAB) model, building off previous enzyme-driven biogeochemical models that explicitly represent microbial physiology. We compared this model to a complementary biogeochemical model that does not include microbial community structure (';single-pool'). We also performed a cross-ecosystem meta-analysis of fungi-to-bacteria ratios to determine if model predictions of community structure matched empirical data. There were large differences in process rates and pool sizes between the single-pool and FAB models. In the FAB model, inorganic N pools were reduced by 5-95% depending on the soil C:N ratio due to bacterial immobilization of fungal mineralization products. This nitrogen subsidy also increased microbial biomass at some C:N ratios. Although there were changes in some components of respiration, particularly overflow respiration, there was no net effect of community structure on total respiration fluxes. The FAB model predicted a breakpoint in the relationship between the ratio of fungi to bacteria and soil C:N, after which the fungi-to-bacteria ratio should begin to increase. Break-point analysis of the meta-analysis data set revealed a consistent pattern and matched the slope of the change in F:B with soil C:N, but not the precise breakpoint. We argue that including microbial

  7. Characteristic emission in glutaraldehyde polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Wang Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobin with different modifications has been investigated using spectroscopic techniques. A new emission at around 371 nm has been observed under excitation of 305 nm from glutaraldehyde polymerized human hemoglobin. Intensity and peak position of the emission are dependent on both oxidation state and ligand environment and the emission has been identified from the hemoglobin oligomer.

  8. Early Administration of Probiotics Alters Bacterial Colonization and Limits Diet-Induced Gut Dysfunction and Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Richard H.; Siggers, Jayda; Boye, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Following preterm birth, bacterial colonization and interal formula feeding predispose neonates to gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocilitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal inflammatory disease. We hypothesized that administration of probiotics would beneficially influence early bacterial...... colonization, thereby reducing the susceptibility to formula-induced gut atrophy, dysfunction, and NEC. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were provided total parenteral nutrition (1.5 d) followed by enteral feeding (2d) with porcine colosstrum (COLOS; n= 5), formula (FORM; n = 9), or formula with probiotics...

  9. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic...... engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell...... protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported...

  10. Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells dying earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Anemia (various types) Bleeding from digestive tract or bladder, heavy menstrual periods Chronic kidney disease Bone marrow being unable to produce new red ...

  11. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism.

  12. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  13. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  14. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  15. The Reaction of Oxy Hemoglobin with Nitrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hathazi, Denisa; Scurtu, Florina; Bischin, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    -peroxynitrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support this latter assignment. The reaction allows for differentiating between the reactivities of various chemically modified hemoglobins, including candidates for blood substitutes. Polymerization of hemoglobin slows the nitrite-induced oxidation, in sharp...... contrast to oxidative-stress type reactions which are generally accelerated, not inhibited. Sheep hemoglobin is found to be distinctly more resistant to reaction with nitrite compared to bovine Hb, at large nitrite concentrations (stopped-flow experiments directly observing the oxy + nitrite reaction...

  16. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; Barber, Larry B.; Aiken, George R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  17. Ex vivo proteomics of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 reveal that FabG affects fatty acid composition to alter bacterial growth fitness in the chicken gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Keiko; Murakami, Satoshi; Tachibana, Masato; Kurazono, Hisao; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of foodborne gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Here we performed ex vivo proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 81-176 in chicken, a main reservoir for human infection. At 0, 1 and 4 weeks post-infection (p.i.) with the GFP-expressing 81-176 strain, inocula were recovered from chicken ceca by cell sorting using flow cytometry. iTRAQ-coupled 2D-LC-MS/MS analyses that detected 55 C. jejuni proteins, among which either 3 (FabG, HydB, CJJ81176_0876) or 7 (MscS, CetB, FlhF, PurH, PglJ, LpxC, Icd) proteins exhibited >1.4-fold-increased expression at 1 or 4 week(s) p.i. compared with those at 0 weeks p.i., respectively. Deletion of the fabG gene clearly decreased the proportion of bacterial unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and chicken colonization. The UFA proportion of the parental strain was not altered when grown at 42 °C. These findings suggest that FabG might play a pivotal role in UFA production, linked to bacterial adaptation in the poultry host. To our knowledge, this is the first example of ex vivo C. jejuni proteomics, in which fatty acid metabolism might affect bacterial adaptation to the chicken host. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement in pediatric trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mark Leo; Maxwell, Angela C; Manning, Lisa; Jacobs, Jonathan D; Bachier-Rodriguez, Marielena; Feliz, Alexander; Williams, Regan F

    2016-12-01

    Hemorrhage is a major cause of preventable death secondary to traumatic injury. Diagnosis often requires multiple blood draws, which are psychologically stressful in pediatric patients. The Pronto device is a pulse co-oximeter that measures the total hemoglobin level using multiple wavelengths of light. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the noninvasive hemoglobin measurements relative to current invasive and point of care testing methods in pediatric trauma patients. We performed a prospective observational trial involving patients younger than 17 years presenting to a Level I pediatric trauma center. Following admission, blood was sampled from each patient for testing using an i-Stat device (point-of-care hemoglobin) and a complete blood count within our core laboratory (invasive hemoglobin). Noninvasive hemoglobin analysis was performed within 15 minutes of phlebotomy. Data were evaluated using Spearman correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Over 2 years, 114 patients had attempted noninvasive hemoglobin measurements, with a success rate of 89%. Mean ± SD age was 9.2 ± 5.1 years. Ninety percent of admissions were for blunt injury, 3% penetrating, 5% near drowning, and 1% burns. Mean invasive hemoglobin was 12.6 ± 1.9 g/dL, mean point-of-care hemoglobin was 12.2 ± 2.0 g/dL, and mean noninvasive hemoglobin was 12.3 ± 1.6 g/dL. Noninvasive hemoglobin values were strongly correlated with both invasive and point of care measurements (R = 0.672 and R = 0.645, respectively; p venipuncture, noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring may be a valuable adjunct in the initial evaluation and monitoring of pediatric trauma patients. Diagnostic test study, level II.

  19. Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bacterial Keratitis Sections What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ... Lens Care Bacterial Keratitis Treatment What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Bacteriana? ...

  20. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  2. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hemoglobin ... Análisis de sangre: hemoglobina A1c What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  3. Hemoglobin Values During Pregnancy | Leffler | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that the iron turnover in expectant mothers is up to three times that of an average adult. This is reflected in lower hemoglobin levels. The study showed that hemoglobin levels can be maintained by taking Bio-Strath®, provided that the patients' diet contains adequate fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean ...

  4. Determination of Human Hemoglobin Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Atef M M; Ibrahim, Fatma A A; Abd El-Latif, Noha A; Aziz, Samir W; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A; Elalfy, Mohsen S

    2015-01-01

    The levels of the inactive hemoglobin (Hb) pigments [such as methemoglobin (metHb), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) and sulfohemoglobin (SHb)] and the active Hb [in the oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) form] as well as the blood Hb concentration in healthy non pregnant female volunteers were determined using a newly developed multi-component spectrophotometric method. The results of this method revealed values of SHb% in the range (0.0727-0.370%), metHb% (0.43-1.0%), HbCO% (0.4-1.52%) and oxyHb% (97.06-98.62%). Furthermore, the results of this method revealed values of blood Hb concentration in the range (12.608-15.777 g/dL). The method is highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible.

  5. Biological variability of glycated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Federica; Dolci, Alberto; Mosca, Andrea; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-11

    The measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has a pivotal role in monitoring glycemic state in diabetic patients. Furthermore, the American Diabetes Association has recently recommended the use of HbA(1c) for diabetes diagnosis, but a clear definition of the clinically allowable measurement error is still lacking. Information on biological variability of the analyte can be used to achieve this goal. We systematically reviewed the published studies on the biological variation of HbA(1c) to check consistency of available data in order to accurately define analytical goals. The nine recruited studies were limited by choice of analytic methodology, population selection, protocol application and statistical analyses. There is an urgent need to determine biological variability of HbA(1c) using a specific and traceable assay, appropriate protocol and appropriate statistical evaluation of data. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  7. Spin Label Studies of the Hemoglobin-Membrane Interaction During Sickle Hemoglobin Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon Dieguez, Jose E.; Rodi, Pablo; Lores Guevara, Manuel A.; Gennaro, Ana Maria

    2009-12-01

    An enhanced hemoglobin-membrane association has been previously documented in Sickle Cell Anemia. However, it is not known how this interaction is modified during the hemoglobin S polymerization process. In this work, we use a model of reconstituted erythrocytes from ghost membranes whose cytoskeleton proteins had been previously labeled with the 4-maleimido Tempo spin label, and that were subsequently resealed with hemoglobin S or A solutions. Using EPR spectroscopy, we studied the time dependence of the spectral W/S parameter, indicative of the conformational state of cytoskeleton proteins (mainly spectrin) under spontaneous deoxygenation, with the aim of detecting the eventual effects due to hemoglobin S polymerization. The differences observed in the temporal behaviour of W/S in erythrocytes reconstituted with both hemoglobins were considered as experimental evidence of an increment in hemoglobin S-membrane interaction, as a result of the polymerization process of hemoglobin S under spontaneous deoxygenation. (author)

  8. Myeloid cell sirtuin-1 expression does not alter host immune responses to Gram-negative endotoxemia or Gram-positive bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Crotty Alexander

    Full Text Available The role of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1 in innate immunity, and in particular the influence of SIRT1 on antimicrobial defense against infection, has yet to be reported but is important to define since SIRT1 inhibitors are being investigated as therapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer, Huntington's disease, and autoimmune diseases. Given the therapeutic potential of SIRT1 suppression, we sought to characterize the role of SIRT1 in host defense. Utilizing both pharmacologic methods and a genetic knockout, we demonstrate that SIRT1 expression has little influence on macrophage and neutrophil antimicrobial functions. Myeloid SIRT1 expression does not change mortality in gram-negative toxin-induced shock or gram-positive bacteremia, suggesting that therapeutic suppression of SIRT1 may be done safely without suppression of myeloid cell-specific immune responses to severe bacterial infections.

  9. Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Giardine (Belinda); J. Borg (Joseph); E. Viennas (Emmanouil); C. Pavlidis (Cristiana); K. Moradkhani (Kamran); P. Joly (Philippe); M. Bartsakoulia (Marina); C. Riemer (Cathy); W. Miller (Webb); G. Tzimas (Giannis); H. Wajcman (Henri); R.C. Hardison (Ross); G.P. Patrinos (George)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHbVar (http://globin.bx.psu.edu/hbvar) is one of the oldest and most appreciated locus-specific databases launched in 2001 by a multi-center academic effort to provide timely information on the genomic alterations leading to hemoglobin variants and all types of thalassemia and

  10. Soil-covered strategy for ecological restoration alters the bacterial community structure and predictive energy metabolic functions in mine tailings profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2017-03-01

    Native soil amendment has been widely used to stabilize mine tailings and speed up the development of soil biogeochemical functions before revegetation; however, it remains poorly understood about the response of microbial communities to ecological restoration of mine tailings with soil-covered strategy. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in mine tailings during ecological restoration of two revegetation strategies (directly revegetation and native soil covered) with different plant species. The mine tailings were covered by native soils as thick as 40 cm for more than 10 years, and the total nitrogen, total organic carbon, water content, and heavy metal (Fe, Cu, and Zn) contents in the 0-40 cm intervals of profiles were changed. In addition, increased microbial diversity and changed microbial community structure were also found in the 10-40 cm intervals of profiles in soil-covered area. Soil-covered strategy rather than plant species and soil depth was the main factor influencing the bacterial community, which explained the largest portion (29.96%) of the observed variation. Compared directly to revegetation, soil-covered strategy exhibited the higher relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria and the lower relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. PICRUSt analysis further demonstrated that soil-covered caused energy metabolic functional changes in carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism. Given all these, the soil-covered strategy may be used to fast-track the establishment of native microbial communities and is conducive to the rehabilitation of biogeochemical processes for establishing native plant species.

  11. Mutations in the control of virulence sensor gene from Streptococcus pyogenes after infection in mice lead to clonal bacterial variants with altered gene regulatory activity and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Mayfield

    Full Text Available The cluster of virulence sensor (CovS/responder (CovR two-component operon (CovRS regulates ∼15% of the genes of the Group A Streptococcal pyogenes (GAS genome. Bacterial clones containing inactivating mutations in the covS gene have been isolated from patients with virulent invasive diseases. We report herein an assessment of the nature and types of covS mutations that can occur in both virulent and nonvirulent GAS strains, and assess whether a nonvirulent GAS can attain enhanced virulence through this mechanism. A group of mice were infected with a globally-disseminated clonal M1T1 GAS (isolate 5448, containing wild-type (WT CovRS (5448/CovR+S+, or less virulent engineered GAS strains, AP53/CovR+S+ and Manfredo M5/CovR+S+. SpeB negative GAS clones from wound sites and/or from bacteria disseminated to the spleen were isolated and the covS gene was subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Numerous examples of inactivating mutations were found in CovS in all regions of the gene. The mutations found included frame-shift insertions and deletions, and in-frame small and large deletions in the gene. Many of the mutations found resulted in early translation termination of CovS. Thus, the covS gene is a genomic mutagenic target that gives GAS enhanced virulence. In cases wherein CovS- was discovered, these clonal variants exhibited high lethality, further suggesting that randomly mutated covS genes occur during the course of infection, and lead to the development of a more invasive infection.

  12. Moessbauer study of hemoglobin of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aiguo; Ni Xinbo; Cai Yingwen; Zhang Guilin; Zhang Hongde; Ge Yongxin

    2000-01-01

    The hemoglobins from normal adults (Gly-Hb 5%), people infected with diabetes (Gly-Hb 10%) and serious diabetics (Gly-Hb 15%) were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at liquid nitrogen temperature. All the experimental spectra of hemoglobin are composed of three doublets corresponding to oxy-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) and low-spin hemo-chrome (Ls-Hemo) respectively. It is found that Oxy-Hb is decreasing but Deoxy-hb increasing for diabetes. Experimental results also indicate that the line-width of Moessbauer spectra of Oxy-Hb for diabetics is narrower than that for normal adults, showing that while Fe on Oxy-Hb exists in pile-up of some similar states for normal adults, but it becomes in single state for serious diabetes

  13. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  14. Low affinity PEGylated hemoglobin from Trematomus bernacchii, a model for hemoglobin-based blood substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Conjugation of human and animal hemoglobins with polyethylene glycol has been widely explored as a means to develop blood substitutes, a novel pharmaceutical class to be used in surgery or emergency medicine. However, PEGylation of human hemoglobin led to products with significantly different oxygen binding properties with respect to the unmodified tetramer and high NO dioxygenase reactivity, known causes of toxicity. These recent findings call for the biotechnological development of stable, low-affinity PEGylated hemoglobins with low NO dioxygenase reactivity. Results To investigate the effects of PEGylation on protein structure and function, we compared the PEGylation products of human hemoglobin and Trematomus bernacchii hemoglobin, a natural variant endowed with a remarkably low oxygen affinity and high tetramer stability. We show that extension arm facilitated PEGylation chemistry based on the reaction of T. bernacchii hemoglobin with 2-iminothiolane and maleimido-functionalyzed polyethylene glycol (MW 5000 Da) leads to a tetraPEGylated product, more homogeneous than the corresponding derivative of human hemoglobin. PEGylated T. bernacchii hemoglobin largely retains the low affinity of the unmodified tetramer, with a p50 50 times higher than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Moreover, it is still sensitive to protons and the allosteric effector ATP, indicating the retention of allosteric regulation. It is also 10-fold less reactive towards nitrogen monoxide than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Conclusions These results indicate that PEGylated hemoglobins, provided that a suitable starting hemoglobin variant is chosen, can cover a wide range of oxygen-binding properties, potentially meeting the functional requirements of blood substitutes in terms of oxygen affinity, tetramer stability and NO dioxygenase reactivity. PMID:22185675

  15. Computational Electronic Structure of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachiyo, Teepanis; Rodriguez, Jorge H.

    2003-03-01

    Hemoglobin is an oxygen transporting protein whereby O2 binds reversibly to an iron-porphyrin active site. Upon binding of O2 the iron-porphyrin complex undergoes subtle structural rearrangements with a concomitant change from the ferrous (deoxyhemoglobin) to the ferric (oxyhemoglobin) oxidation states. We have studied the electronic structure of oxyhemoglobin within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). A geometrical model based on the X-ray crystallographic structure was fully optimized utilizing all-electron basis sets and gradient-corrected exchange correlation density functionals. As suggested by experiment, assuming that the molecular ground state was a singlet, the calculations showed an ``incipient" open-shell electronic structure. There was a very small but finite amount of spin density at the iron site and a spin density of equal magnitude but opposite sign localized on O_2. The bonding between Fe and O2 was dominated by two pairs of electrons nominally occupying d orbitals of Fe or π orbitals of O_2. However, strong electron delocalization was predicted between iron and dioxygen consistent with the incipient open-shell singlet configuration of the active site. Upon binding to iron, the bond length of O2 increased as compared to that of the free ligand due to weaker interaction among the two oxygens. Simulations of the binding process were carried out which show that the orientation of O2 with respect to the porphyrin plane follows a specific trend which minimizes the overall electronic energy. Finally, our calculations found a ``side-on" geometry, where both oxygens bind to Fe, as a stable but excited state configuration.

  16. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  17. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hemoglobin polypeptide chains). The hemoglobin determination may be made by methods such as electrophoresis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7440 - Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system. 864....7440 Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system. (a) Identification. An electrophoretic hemoglobin... hemoglobin types as an aid in the diagnosis of anemia or erythrocytosis (increased total red cell mass) due...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. 864.7470 Section... Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A glycosylated hemoglobin assay is a device used to measure the glycosylated hemoglobins (A1a, A1b, and A1c) in a patient's blood by a column chromatographic...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2 assay. (a) Identification. A hemoglobin A2 assay is a device used to determine the hemoglobin A2 content...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864... hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents... hemoglobin types. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60618, Sept. 12, 1980] ...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section... blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device consisting or... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not include...

  3. 21 CFR 864.5620 - Automated hemoglobin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated hemoglobin system. 864.5620 Section 864....5620 Automated hemoglobin system. (a) Identification. An automated hemoglobin system is a fully... hemoglobin content of human blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60601, Sept...

  4. Evaluation of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma Patients with Low Hemoglobin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Medhat; Abdelhamid, Bassant; Zakaria, Dina; Dayem, Omnia Abd El; Rady, Ashraf; Fawzy, Maher; Hasanin, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Bleeding is a leading cause of death among trauma patients. Delayed assessment of blood hemoglobin level might result in either unnecessary blood transfusion in nonindicated patients or delayed blood transfusion in critically bleeding patients. In this study, we evaluate the precision of noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring in trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels. We included trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels (less than 8 g/dL) scheduled for surgical intervention. Blood samples were obtained on admission and after each blood unit with concomitant measurement of serum hemoglobin using radical-7 Masimo device. The change in blood hemoglobin after every transfused blood unit was also assessed by both methods (change in noninvasive Masimo hemoglobin [Delta-Sp-Hb] and change in laboratory hemoglobin [Delta-Lab-Hb]). The precision of Masimo hemoglobin level (Sp-Hb) compared with Laboratory hemoglobin level (Lab-Hb) was determined using both Bland-Altman and Pearson correlation analyses. One hundred eighty-four time-matched samples were available for final analysis. Bland-Altman analysis showed excellent accuracy of Sp-Hb compared with Lab-Hb with mean bias of 0.12 g/dL and limits of agreement between -0.56 g/dL and 0.79 g/dL. Excellent correlation was reported between both measures with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.872. Excellent agreement was also reported between both Delta-Sp-Hb and Delta-Lab-Hb with mean bias of -0.05 and limits of agreement from -0.62 to 0.51 CONCLUSIONS:: Sp-Hb showed accurate precision in both absolute values and trend values compared with Lab-Hb measurement in trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels.

  5. Multiple T state conformations in a fish hemoglobin. Carbon monoxide binding to hemoglobin of Thunnus thynnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R J; Neckameyer, W S; Gibson, Q H

    1981-05-10

    The blood of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) contains four hemoglobin components separable by chromatography on diethylaminoethylcellulose. These components are stable and functionally identical in their reactions with carbon monoxide. At low pH they remain in the T state even when liganded, and show two kinetic components in binding and in dissociation, with rates of 1) 1.2 microM-1 s-1 and 0.095 s-1 and 2) 0.013 microM-1 s-1 and 0.195 s-1, respectively, at pH 6, 20 degrees C, 0.1 m KPi. These components have difference spectra separated by more than 2 nm and are present in equal amounts. After CO has bound, there is a conformation change to an altered T state, in terms of the model of Monod et al. (Monod, J., Wyman, J., and Changeux, J. P. (1965) J. Mol. Biol. 12, 88-118), with a half-time of 65 s. At equilibrium, one-third of the slow kinetic component is changed into the new conformer, which binds CO at a rate of 0.14 microM-1 s-1.

  6. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  7. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  8. Heme degradation upon production of endogenous hydrogen peroxide via interaction of hemoglobin with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, N; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Fotouhi, L; Yousefinejad, S; Shourian, M; Hosseinzadeh, R; Sheibani, N; Habibi-Rezaei, M

    2014-04-05

    In this study the hemoglobin heme degradation upon interaction with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated using UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, multivariate curve resolution analysis, and chemiluminescence method. Our results showed that heme degradation occurred during interaction of hemoglobin with SDS producing three fluorescent components. We showed that the hydrogen peroxide, produced during this interaction, caused heme degradation. In addition, the endogenous hydrogen peroxide was more effective in hemoglobin heme degradation compared to exogenously added hydrogen peroxide. The endogenous form of hydrogen peroxide altered oxyHb to aquamethemoglobin and hemichrome at low concentration. In contrast, the exogenous hydrogen peroxide lacked this ability under same conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  10. Multispectroscopic and calorimetric studies on the binding of the food colorant tartrazine with human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2016-11-15

    Interaction of the food colorant tartrazine with human hemoglobin was studied using multispectroscopic and microcalorimetric techniques to gain insights into the binding mechanism and thereby the toxicity aspects. Hemoglobin spectrum showed hypochromic changes in the presence of tartrazine. Quenching of the fluorescence of hemoglobin occurred and the quenching mechanism was through a static mode as revealed from temperature dependent and time-resolved fluorescence studies. According to the FRET theory the distance between β-Trp37 of hemoglobin and bound tartrazine was evaluated to be 3.44nm. Synchronous fluorescence studies showed that tartrazine binding led to alteration of the microenvironment around the tryptophans more in comparison to tyrosines. 3D fluorescence and FTIR data provided evidence for conformational changes in the protein on binding. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the binding led to significant loss in the helicity of hemoglobin. The esterase activity assay further complemented the circular dichroism data. Microcalorimetric study using isothermal titration calorimetry revealed the binding to be exothermic and driven largely by positive entropic contribution. Dissection of the Gibbs energy change proposed the protein-dye complexation to be dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. Negative heat capacity change also corroborated the involvement of hydrophobic forces in the binding process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  12. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  13. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs

  14. [Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Ćirković, Ivana; Arsić, Biljana; Garalejić, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  15. Bacterial Proteasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab, Jordan B; Darwin, K Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology.

  16. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...... measurement as a method of risk assessment among blood donors....

  17. Rheological Variations among Nigerians with Different Hemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Hemorheological determinants such as whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration (PFC) were measured with standard methods. We recorded a relatively unchanged whole blood viscosities in subjects with various hemoglobin genotypes (AA, AS and SS; P>0.05, ...

  18. Comparative immunology of Galapagos iguana hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P J; Rand, C S

    1975-09-01

    The antigenic properties of the major hemoglobin component of the Galapgaos iguanas were studied using second-approximation qualitative and quantitative immunochemical techniques. Phylogenetic distances, relative to the Galapagos marine iguana. Amblyrhynchus cristatus, were established on the basis of immunological cross-reactions.

  19. Kadar Hemoglobin dan Kecerdasan Intelektual Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Kusmiyati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas sumber daya manusia dipengaruhi oleh inteligensi anak. Skor kecerdasan intelektual yang tidak menetap pada usia tertentu dapat berubah karena faktor genetik, gizi, dan lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual anak. Penelitian observasional dengan desain potong lintang ini dilakukan pada populasi siswa kelas VI Sekolah Dasar Negeri Giwangan Yogyakarta, tahun 2013. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode simple random sampling terhadap 37 sampel siswa. Instrumen untuk mengukur kecerdasan intelektual dengan Cultural Fair Intelligence Quotient Test yang dirancang untuk meminimalkan pengaruh kultural dengan memperhatikan prosedur evaluasi, instruksi, konten isi, dan respons peserta. Tes dilakukan oleh Biro Psikologi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta, kadar hemoglobin diukur menggunakan Portable Hemoglobin Digital Analyzer Easy Touch secara digital.Variabel luar indeks massa tubuh diukur langsung menggunakan parameter tinggi badan dan berat badan. Analisis menggunakan uji regresi linier. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan indeks massa tubuh tidak berhubungan dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,052. Anemia berhubungan cukup dengan kecerdasan anak (r = 0,491 dan berpola positif, semakin tinggi kadar hemoglobin semakin tinggi kecerdasan intelektual anak. Nilai koefisien determinasi 0,241 menerangkan bahwa 24,1% variasi anemia cukup baik untuk menjelaskan variabel kecerdasan intelektual. Ada hubungan antara kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,002. Quality of human resources is influenced by the child’s intelligent. Intelligence Quotient (IQ score will not settle at a certain age and can change due to genetic factors, nutrition, and the environment. The objective is known relationship of anemia with IQ to child. Method of observational study with cross sectional design. Population are students of class VI elementary school of Giwangan Yogyakarta in

  20. Hemoglobin mRNA Changes in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vanni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin is the major protein found in erythrocytes, where it acts as an oxygen carrier molecule. In recent years, its expression has been reported also in neurons and glial cells, although its role in brain tissue remains still unknown. Altered hemoglobin expression has been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated hemoglobin mRNA levels in brains of patients affected by variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, iCJD, sCJD, respectively and in different genetic forms of prion diseases (gPrD in comparison to Alzheimer's disease (AD subjects and age-matched controls.Methods: Total RNA was obtained from the frontal cortex of vCJD (n = 20, iCJD (n = 11, sCJD (n = 23, gPrD (n = 30, and AD (n = 14 patients and age-matched controls (n = 30. RT-qPCR was performed for hemoglobin transcripts HBB and HBA1/2 using four reference genes for normalization. In addition, expression analysis of the specific erythrocyte marker ALAS2 was performed in order to account for blood contamination of the tissue samples. Hba1/2 and Hbb protein expression was then investigated with immunofluorescence and confocal microscope analysis.Results: We observed a significant up-regulation of HBA1/2 in vCJD brains together with a significant down-regulation of HBB in iCJD. In addition, while in sporadic and genetic forms of prion disease hemoglobin transcripts did not shown any alterations, both chains display a strong down-regulation in AD brains. These results were confirmed also at a protein level.Conclusions: These data indicate distinct hemoglobin transcriptional responses depending on the specific alterations occurring in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the initial site of misfolding event (central nervous system vs. peripheral tissue—together with specific molecular and conformational features of the pathological agent of the disease—seem to dictate the peculiar

  1. Hemoglobin mRNA Changes in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Silvia; Zattoni, Marco; Moda, Fabio; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Haïk, Stéphane; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Ironside, James W; Carmona, Margarita; Ferrer, Isidre; Kovacs, Gabor G; Legname, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Background: Hemoglobin is the major protein found in erythrocytes, where it acts as an oxygen carrier molecule. In recent years, its expression has been reported also in neurons and glial cells, although its role in brain tissue remains still unknown. Altered hemoglobin expression has been associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated hemoglobin mRNA levels in brains of patients affected by variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, iCJD, sCJD, respectively) and in different genetic forms of prion diseases (gPrD) in comparison to Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects and age-matched controls. Methods: Total RNA was obtained from the frontal cortex of vCJD ( n = 20), iCJD ( n = 11), sCJD ( n = 23), gPrD ( n = 30), and AD ( n = 14) patients and age-matched controls ( n = 30). RT-qPCR was performed for hemoglobin transcripts HBB and HBA1/2 using four reference genes for normalization. In addition, expression analysis of the specific erythrocyte marker ALAS2 was performed in order to account for blood contamination of the tissue samples. Hba1/2 and Hbb protein expression was then investigated with immunofluorescence and confocal microscope analysis. Results: We observed a significant up-regulation of HBA1/2 in vCJD brains together with a significant down-regulation of HBB in iCJD. In addition, while in sporadic and genetic forms of prion disease hemoglobin transcripts did not shown any alterations, both chains display a strong down-regulation in AD brains. These results were confirmed also at a protein level. Conclusions: These data indicate distinct hemoglobin transcriptional responses depending on the specific alterations occurring in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the initial site of misfolding event (central nervous system vs. peripheral tissue)-together with specific molecular and conformational features of the pathological agent of the disease-seem to dictate the peculiar hemoglobin

  2. Non-symbiotic hemoglobin and its relation with hypoxic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Riquelme

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today we know that several types of hemoglobins exist in plants. The symbiotic hemoglobins were discovered in 1939 and are only found in nodules of plants capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric N. Another class, called non-symbiotic hemoglobin, was discovered 32 yr ago and is now thought to exist throughout the plant kingdom, being expressed in different organs and tissues. Recently the existence of another type of hemoglobin, called truncated hemoglobin, was demonstrated in plants. Although the presence of hemoglobins is widespread in the plant kingdom, their role has not yet been fully elucidated. This review discusses recent findings regarding the role of plant hemoglobins, with special emphasis on their relationship to plants adaptation to hypoxia. It also discusses the role of nitric oxide in plant cells under hypoxic conditions, since one of the functions of hemoglobin appears to be modulating nitric oxide levels in the cells.

  3. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  4. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Rezende Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. METHODS: βS allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. RESULTS: The following alpha chain variants were found: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5 Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13 Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2 Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5 Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. CONCLUSION: Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  5. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  6. Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Schechter, Alan N.; Shelhamer, James H.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Conway, Deirdre A.; Hrinczenko, Borys W.; Nichols, James S.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Ognibene, Frederick P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation has been reported to increase the oxygen affinity of sickle cell erythrocytes. Also, proposed allosteric mechanisms for hemoglobin, based on S-nitrosation of β-chain cysteine 93, raise the possibilty of altering the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease by inhibiting polymerization or by increasing NO delivery to the tissue. We studied the effects of a 2-hour treatment, using varying concentrations of inhaled NO. Oxygen affinity, as measured by P50, did not respo...

  7. Bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosdrecht, van M.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it

  8. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  9. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Sarpong, Nimako; Dekker, Denise; Idriss, Ali; May, Juergen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2011-04-21

    In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin). Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p < 0.001). The Bland and Altman's limit of agreement was -0.389 - 0.644 g/dl with the mean difference being 0.127 (95% CI: 0.102-0.153) and a non-significant difference in variability between the two measurements (p = 0.843). After adjusting to assess the effect of other possible confounders such as sex, age and category of person, there was no

  10. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  11. Radio-ligand immunoassay for human hemoglobin variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, J.; Pettis, P.K.; Miller, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative method is described for the individual assay of human hemoglobin variants occurring singly or in mixture. The hemoglobin to be assayed is bound to specific antibody; the immune complex is attached to protein A-containing S. aureus and removed from the mixture. The hemoglobin thus isolated is quantified by its ability to bind radiolabeled haptoglobin. The technique is accurate and distinguishes among the 4 hemoglobins tested, namely Hb A, S, C and F. It has the advantage over conventional radioimmunoassay that a single probe, radiolabeled haptoglobin, is needed for the specific assay of any hemoglobin. (Auth.)

  12. Free heme and sickle hemoglobin polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunova, Veselina V.

    This work investigates further the mechanism of one of the most interesting of the protein self-assembly systems---the polymerization of sickle hemoglobin and the role of free heme in it. Polymerization of sickle hemoglobin is the primary event in the pathology of a chronic hemolytic condition called sickle cell anemia with complex pathogenesis, unexplained variability and symptomatic treatment. Auto-oxidation develops in hemoglobin solutions exposed to room temperature and causes release of ferriheme. The composition of such solutions is investigated by mass spectrometry. Heme dimers whose amount corresponds to the initial amounts of heme released from the protein are followed. Differences in the dimer peak height are established for hemoglobin variants A, S and C and depending on the exposure duration. The effects of free heme on polymerization kinetics are studied. Growth rates and two characteristic parameters of nucleation are measured for stored Hb S. After dialysis of polymerizing solutions, no spherulites are detected at moderately high supersaturation and prolonged exposure times. The addition of 0.16-0.26 mM amounts of heme to dialyzed solutions leads to restoration of polymerization. The measured kinetic parameters have higher values compared to the ones before dialysis. The amount of heme in non-dialyzed aged solution is characterized using spectrophotometry. Three methods are used: difference in absorbance of dialyzed and non-dialyzed solutions, characteristic absorbance of heme-albumin complex and absorbance of non-dialyzed solutions with added potassium cyanide. The various approaches suggest the presence of 0.12 to 0.18 mM of free ferriheme in such solutions. Open questions are whether the same amounts of free heme are present in vivo and whether the same mechanism operates intracellulary. If the answer to those questions is positive, then removal of free heme from erythrocytes can influence their readiness to sickle.

  13. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

  14. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  15. Small angle X-ray scattering on concentrated hemoglobin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, M.; Damaschun, G.; Mueller, J.J.; Ruckpaul, K.

    1978-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine the intermolecular structure and interaction potentials in oxi-and deoxi-hemoglobin solutions. The pair correlation function obtained by the ZERNICKE-PRINS equation characterizes the intermolecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules. The intermolecular structure is concentration dependent. The hemoglobin molecules have a 'short range order structure' with a range of about 4 molecule diameters at 324 g/l. The potential functions of the hemoglobin-hemoglobin interaction have been determined on the basis of fluid theories. Except for the deoxi-hemoglobin solution having the concentration 370 g/l, the pair interaction consists in a short repulsion and a weak short-range attraction against kT. The potential minimum is between 1.2 - 1.5 nm above the greatest hemoglobin diameter. (author)

  16. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  17. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriss Ali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. Method EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Results Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p Conclusion Hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method is comparable to that determined by the other methods. The HemoCue photometer is therefore recommended for use as on-the-spot device for determining hemoglobin in resource poor setting.

  18. Homeothermic fish and hemoglobin: primary structure of the hemoglobin from bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, Scromboidei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, K; Oberthür, W; Braunitzer, G

    1987-07-01

    Some fish are warm-bodied, e.g. the bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), which has a muscle temperature 12-17 degrees C higher than its environment. This endothermy is achieved by aerobic metabolism and conserved by means of a heat-exchanger system. The hemoglobins of bluefin tuna are adapted to these conditions by their endothermic oxygenation, thus contributing to the preservation of the body energy. This is a new and so far unique property of tuna hemoglobin. The primary structure of the alpha and beta chains of bluefin tuna hemoglobins is presented. The sequence was determined after enzymatic and chemical cleavages of the chains and sequencing of the peptides in gas- and liquid-phase sequencers. The alpha chains consists of 143 residues and are N-terminally acetylated. The beta chains have 146 amino acids and show two ambiguities at positions 140 and 142. The alpha chains differ from the human alpha chains in 65 amino-acid residues, the beta chains in 76. The hemoglobins of bluefin tuna, carp and man are compared and their different physiological properties are discussed in relation to the sequence data. From the primary structure of tuna hemoglobins, it is possible to propose a molecular basis for their peculiar endothermic transition from the T to the R structure.

  19. A Moessbauer study of hemoglobin in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamorano-Ulloa, R.; Yee-Madeira, H.; Flores-Llamas, H.; Perez-Ramirez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of concentrated hemoglobin (Hb) of normal subjects and six patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) were studied at 300deg K and 77 K. PNH is a very rate autoimmune hematological disease. The possibility of structural alterations of Hb induced by, or as part of the altered PNH-red cell membrane was the objective of this study. The Moessbauer parameters of the Hb of the normal subjects, both at 300 K and at 77 K, are identical to values previously reported. The PNH-Hb spectra show clear differences. They are wider and more asymmetric. At 77 K, an extra doublet grows in with an isomer shift of 0.425 mm/sec. and a quadrupolar splitting of 1.951 mm/sec. The other two doublets have δ's and ΔQ's slightly, but significantly, different from the corresponding values for normal Hb. These results are rationalized in terms of a population of Hb molecules with structures varying very slightly in a narrow range. The spread in structures manifests itself in a wider and more asymmetric Moessbauer spectrum. (orig.)

  20. Hemoglobin genetics: recent contributions of GWAS and gene editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elenoe C.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2016-01-01

    The β-hemoglobinopathies are inherited disorders resulting from altered coding potential or expression of the adult β-globin gene. Impaired expression of β-globin reduces adult hemoglobin (α2β2) production, the hallmark of β-thalassemia. A single-base mutation at codon 6 leads to formation of HbS (α2βS2) and sickle cell disease. While the basis of these diseases is known, therapy remains largely supportive. Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy. Patients with elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) as adults exhibit reduced symptoms and enhanced survival. The β-globin gene locus is a paradigm of cell- and developmental stage-specific regulation. Although the principal erythroid cell transcription factors are known, mechanisms responsible for silencing of the γ-globin gene were obscure until application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we review findings in the field. GWAS identified BCL11A as a candidate negative regulator of γ-globin expression. Subsequent studies have established BCL11A as a quantitative repressor. GWAS-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms lie within an essential erythroid enhancer of the BCL11A gene. Disruption of a discrete region within the enhancer reduces BCL11A expression and induces HbF expression, providing the basis for gene therapy using gene editing tools. A recently identified, second silencing factor, leukemia/lymphoma-related factor/Pokemon, shares features with BCL11A, including interaction with the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase repressive complex. These findings suggest involvement of a common pathway for HbF silencing. In addition, we discuss other factors that may be involved in γ-globin gene silencing and their potential manipulation for therapeutic benefit in treating the β-hemoglobinopathies. PMID:27340226

  1. Site mutations disrupt inter-helical H-bonds (alpha14W-alpha67T and beta15W-beta72S) involved in kinetic steps in the hemoglobin R-->T transition without altering the free energies of oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Simplaceanu, Virgil; Ho, Nancy T; Shen, Tong-Jian; Wang, Daojing; Spiro, Thomas G; Ho, Chien

    2003-01-01

    Three recombinant mutant hemoglobins (rHbs) of human normal adult hemoglobin (Hb A), rHb (alphaT67V), rHb (betaS72A), and rHb (alphaT67V, betaS72A), have been constructed to test the role of the tertiary intra-subunit H-bonds between alpha67T and alpha14W and between beta72S and beta15W in the cooperative oxygenation of Hb A. Oxygen-binding studies in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer at 29 degrees C show that rHb (alphaT67V), rHb (betaS72A), and rHb (alphaT67V, betaS72A) exhibit oxygen-binding properties similar to those of Hb A. The binding of oxygen to these rHbs is highly cooperative, with a Hill coefficient of approximately 2.8, compared to approximately 3.1 for Hb A. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies show that rHb (alphaT67V), rHb (betaS72A), rHb (alphaT67V, betaS72A), and Hb A have similar quaternary structures in the alpha(1)beta(2) subunit interfaces. In particular, the inter-subunit H-bonds between alpha42Tyr and beta99Asp and between beta37Trp and alpha94Asp are maintained in the mutants in the deoxy form. There are slight perturbations in the distal heme pocket region of the alpha- and beta-chains in the mutants. A comparison of the exchangeable 1H resonances of Hb A with those of these three rHbs suggests that alpha67T and beta72S are H-bonded to alpha14W and beta15W, respectively, in the CO and deoxy forms of Hb A. The absence of significant free energy changes for the oxygenation process of these three rHbs compared to those of Hb A, even though the inter-helical H-bonds are abolished, indicates that these two sets of H-bonds are of comparable strength in the ligated and unligated forms of Hb A. Thus, the mutations at alphaT67V and betaS72A do not affect the overall energetics of the oxygenation process. The preserved cooperativity in the binding of oxygen to these three mutants also implies that there are multiple interactions involved in the oxygenation process of Hb A.

  2. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  3. Modifiers of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity as sensitizers of tumors to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.; Wood, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A powerful mechanism in the control of oxygen delivery to tissues is the allosteric modification of hemoglobin. Increased or decreased release of oxygen can be achieved by altering the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. Several studies have shown that tumor radiosensitivity is dependent on this relationship. The authors studied affinity changes produced in two distinctly different ways. Tumor bearing mice were given isovolemic exchange blood transfusions with the blood from donor mice which had been exposed to abnormal oxygen tensions, leading to increased or slightly decreased levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) in their blood. When the recipient mice were irradiated, those receiving the blood with higher 2,3 DPG levels showed greater tumor sensitivity to radiation. An alternative strategy is the use of drugs which directly alter hemoglobin/oxygen affinity. The authors studied three antihyperlipoproteinemia drugs, all of which have produced markedly reduced affinities in vivo. Preliminary data indicate that the radiosensitization produced by at least one of these compounds is less than would have been expected from the 2,3 DPG experiments

  4. Hemoglobin allostery: new views on old players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Adriana Erica; Bellelli, Andrea; Brunori, Maurizio

    2013-05-13

    Proteins are dynamic molecular machines whose structure and function are modulated by environmental perturbations and natural selection. Allosteric regulation, discovered in 1963 as a novel molecular mechanism of enzymatic adaptation [Monod, Changeux & Jacob (1963). J. Mol. Biol.6, 306-329], seems to be the leit motiv of enzymes and metabolic pathways, enabling fine and quick responses toward external perturbations. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen transporter of all vertebrates, has been for decades the paradigmatic system to test the validity of the conformational selection mechanism, the conceptual innovation introduced by Monod, Wyman and Changeux. We present hereby the results of a comparative analysis of structure, function and thermodynamics of two extensively investigated hemoglobins: human HbA and trout HbI. They represent a unique and challenging comparison to test the general validity of the stereochemical model proposed by Perutz. Indeed both proteins are ideal for the purpose being very similar yet very different. In fact, T-HbI is a low-ligand-affinity cooperative tetrameric Hb, insensitive to all allosteric effectors. This remarkable feature, besides being physiologically sound, supports the stereochemical model, given that the six residues identified in HbA as responsible for the Bohr and the 2,3-di-phosphoglycerate effects are all mutated. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of HbA and T-HbI allows unveiling the molecular mechanism whereby the latter has a lower O2 affinity. Moreover, the energetic balance sheet shows that the salt bridges breaking upon allosteric quaternary transition are important yet insufficient to account for the free energy of heme-heme interactions in both hemoglobins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction of thyroid hormone and hemoglobin: nature of the interaction and effect of hemoglobin on thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.J.; Yoshida, K.; Schoenl, M.

    1980-01-01

    Gel filtration of human erythrocyte (RBC) lysate incubated with labeled thyroxine (Tu) or triiodothyronine (Tt) revealed co-elution of a major iodothyronine-binding fraction (R-2) and hemoglobin. Solutions of purified human hemoglobin and Tt also showed co-elution of hormone and hemoglobin. Because hematin and protoporphyrin were shown to bind labeled Tt, the oxygen-binding site on hemoglobin was excluded as the site of iodothyronine-hemoglobin interaction. Analysis of hormone binding by heme and globin moieties showed Tt binding to be limited to the heme fraction. Addition of excess unlabeled Tt to hemoglobin or heme incubated with labeled Tt indicated 75% to 90% of hormone binding was poorly dissociable. These observations suggested that the presence of hemoglobin in RBC lysate or in serum could influence the measurement of Tu and Tt by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Subsequent studies of the addition to serum of human hemoglobin revealed a significant reduction in Tt and Tu detectable by RIA in the presence of this protein. The effect was influenced by the concentration of hemoglobin and by duration and temperature of incubations of hemoglobin and serum prior to RIA

  6. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  7. Hemichrome formation during hemoglobin Zurich denaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, M.A.; Costa, F.F.; Botura, C.; Baffa, O.

    1988-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)spectrum of hemoglobin Zurich, after oxidation, storage and heating, showed several absorption derives in the high field region (g ≅ 2) which are indicative of hemichrome formation. Characteristic visible spectra of hemichromes were observed for oxidized Hb Zurich and for its spontaneous precipitate. The proportional increase of EPR signals at g ≅ 2 and decrease at g = 6.37, the constant ratio of absorbance at 540 nm to 280 nm during heating, and the similarity of this ratio for spontaneously precipitated HbA and for Hb Zurich indicate that heme is not lost during the first steps of Hb Zurich denaturation. (author) [pt

  8. Constraints on mutational pathways of hemoglobin evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Amit; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    , if the functional effects of mutations depend on the sequential order in which they occur, then evolution may be more likely to follow some pathways (those involving onotonic increases in fitness) rather than others (those involving low-fitness intermediates). Here we report an experimental analysis of multiple...... amino acid substitutions that occurred during an evolutionary reduction in hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity in nightjars (nocturnal birds in the family Caprimulgidae).We selected nightjar Hbs for experimental study because ancestral sequence reconstructions indicated that the evolved reduction in Hb-O2...

  9. Methods for examination of antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Zhang Yadong; Bu Fengrong; Zhang Jingang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To choose and establish the methods for examination of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin in order to offer the reference for evaluating the antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin against human. Methods: Antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin was examined for hypersensitivity, cell-mediated immunity reaction, humoral immunity reaction and cross-reaction of antigen. Results: The rabbit and guinea pig did not give rise to hypersensitivity. In immunized rabbits, the level of serum total IgG was normal, but the level of serum specific IgG was high. The examination of B lymphocytes showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in comparison with control. Cross-reaction of antigen proved that bovine hemoglobin had cross-reaction with human hemoglobin. Suggesting that they may be homologous, the level of the serum specific antibody is high in the immunized animal. According to the immunology theories, the polymerized hemoglobin has antigenicity. (authors)

  10. Characterization of hemoglobin-benzo[a]pyrene adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were supplemented with human Hb (0.2 mM heme) and [ 3 H]BP (1 μM). After a 24-h incubation, the medium was removed and subjected to cation-exchange liquid chromatography (CM-Sepharose) to resolve hemoglobins from serum proteins in the medium. The BP-treated Hb was subjected to analysis in each of three column chromatographic systems established for isolation and characterization of human hemoglobin and its genetic and post-translationally modified variants. Results demonstrate that hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts can be resolved from native hemoglobin by established conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, suggesting the basis for development of general approaches for isolating and characterizing hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts. The results also suggest the basis for a model system in which adducts between carcinogens and human hemoglobin are formed in cultures of mammalian cells or tissues

  11. Studies on radiation induced changes in bovine hemoglobin type A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdzieczak, J.; Duda, W.; Leyko, W.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin are presented. Aqueous solutions/1%/of HbO 2 were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 1 to 4 Mrad. Isoelectric focusing indicated change of the charge of irradiated hemoglobin. The isoelectric point of hemoglobin was displaced towards more acid values with increasing doses, up from 1 Mrad. Fingerprint analysis and peptide column chromatography of irradiated hemoglobin demonstrated disturbances increasing with the dose. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Trp, His, Pro and Tyr residues were destroyed or modified following irradiation. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad the irradiated solutions of hemoglobin showed a decrease of heme-heme interaction and an increase of affinity for oxygen. Differences observed in oxygen-dissociation curves seem to be correlated with the radiation induced destruction of amino acid residues which are responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (auth.)

  12. Impact of Mean Cell Hemoglobin on Hb A1c-Defined Glycemia Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Segade, Santiago; Garcia, Javier Rodriguez; García-López, José M; Gude, Francisco; Casanueva, Felipe F; Rs-Alonso, Santiago; Camiña, Félix

    2016-12-01

    Several hematological alterations are associated with altered hemoglobin A 1c (Hb A 1c ). However, there have been no reports of their influence on the rates of exceeding standard Hb A 1c thresholds by patients for whom Hb A 1c determination is requested in clinical practice. The initial data set included the first profiles (complete blood counts, Hb A 1c , fasting glucose, and renal and hepatic parameters) of all adult patients for whom such a profile was requested between 2008 and 2013 inclusive. After appropriate exclusions, 21844 patients remained in the study. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic, hematological, and biochemical variables excluded from the predictors. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) correlated negatively with Hb A 1c . Fasting glucose, MCH, and age emerged as predictors of Hb A 1c in a stepwise regression that discarded sex, hemoglobin, MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum creatinine, and liver disease. Mean Hb A 1c in MCH interdecile intervals fell from 6.8% (51 mmol/mol) in the lowest (≤27.5 pg) to 6.0% (43 mmol/mol) in the highest (>32.5 pg), with similar results for MCV. After adjustment for fasting glucose and other correlates of Hb A 1c , a 1 pg increase in MCH reduced the odds of Hb A 1c -defined dysglycemia, diabetes and poor glycemia control by 10%-14%. For at least 25% of patients, low or high MCH or MCV levels are associated with increased risk of an erroneous Hb A 1c -based identification of glycemia status. Although causality has not been demonstrated, these parameters should be taken into account in interpreting Hb A 1c levels in clinical practice. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  13. Separation of myoglobin and hemoglobin in isolated perfused pig heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Robert; Hiller, Michael; Trinks, Tobias; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2001-10-01

    For the quantitative determination of hemoglobin concentration in heart muscle it is important to distinguish between myoglobin and hemoglobin, two dyes with very similar optical absorption properties. With an isolated perfused pig heart model and EMPHO II SSK we measured tissue spectra in the visible range before and after adding erythrocytes to the perfusate. By calculating light intensity differences we were able to show spatial hemoglobin distribution in heart muscle.

  14. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  15. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  16. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  17. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    , the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...

  18. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that coats the walls of the vagina Vaginal discharge with an unpleasant or fishlike odor Vaginal pain or itching Burning during urination Doctors are unsure of the incubation period for bacterial vaginosis. How Is the Diagnosis Made? Your child’s pediatrician can make the diagnosis ...

  19. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  20. A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Randie R; Roberts, William L

    2009-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used routinely to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, as HbA1c is related directly to risks for diabetic complications. The accuracy of HbA1c methods can be affected adversely by the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants or elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The effect of each variant or elevated HbF must be examined with each specific method. The most common Hb variants worldwide are HbS, HbE, HbC, and HbD. All of these Hb variants have single amino acid substitutions in the Hb beta chain. HbF is the major hemoglobin during intrauterine life; by the end of the first year, HbF falls to values close to adult levels of approximately 1%. However, elevated HbF levels can occur in certain pathologic conditions or with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In a series of publications over the past several years, the effects of these four most common Hb variants and elevated HbF have been described. There are clinically significant interferences with some methods for each of these variants. A summary is given showing which methods are affected by the presence of the heterozygous variants S, E, C, and D and elevated HbF. Methods are divided by type (immunoassay, ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity, other) with an indication of whether the result is artificially increased or decreased by the presence of a Hb variant. Laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of their method with respect to these interferences. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Heme Synthesis and Acquisition in Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choby, Jacob E; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-28

    Bacterial pathogens require the iron-containing cofactor heme to cause disease. Heme is essential to the function of hemoproteins, which are involved in energy generation by the electron transport chain, detoxification of host immune effectors, and other processes. During infection, bacterial pathogens must synthesize heme or acquire heme from the host; however, host heme is sequestered in high-affinity hemoproteins. Pathogens have evolved elaborate strategies to acquire heme from host sources, particularly hemoglobin, and both heme acquisition and synthesis are important for pathogenesis. Paradoxically, excess heme is toxic to bacteria and pathogens must rely on heme detoxification strategies. Heme is a key nutrient in the struggle for survival between host and pathogen, and its study has offered significant insight into the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other...... components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated...

  3. Bacterial lipases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, meaning a sharp increase in lipase activity observed when the substrate starts to form an emulsion, thereby presenting to the enzyme an interfacial area. As a consequence, the kinetics of a lipase rea...

  4. Determinants of hemoglobin level in adolescence students at Gaza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Hemoglobin (Hb) level could be affected by different interfering factors that include nutritional, socio-demographical, economical, and habitual determinant factors. The present study was designed to identify possible factors that could affect the hemoglobin level in adolescence students (14-22 years) at Gaza Strip, ...

  5. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; de Joode, Maarten; Buma, Wybren Jan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2)) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions of

  6. Haptoglobin radioassay based on binding to solid-phase hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, D.C.; Reed, R.A.; Peacock, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    A specific and sensitive assay for haptoglobin based on binding to an easily prepred Sepharose-bound hemoglobin reagent is described. The assay is suitable for directly determining radiolabeled amino acid incorporation into haptoglobin in several liver cell systems in vitro and can be adapted to measure unlabeled free haptoglobin in plasma samples regardlss of the presence of the haptoglobin--hemoglobin complex

  7. Biphasic Oxidation of Oxy-Hemoglobin in Bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, R.H.; de Bruin, D.M.; de Joode, M.; Buma, W.J.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions

  8. Fetal hemoglobin during infancy and in sickle cell adults | Edoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fetal hemoglobin has been implicated in the modulation of sickle cell crisis though it is functional during infancy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the waning time of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and its persistence in later life. Method: Ninety infants aged 0-12 months, admitted at hospital, were ...

  9. Relationship of Hemoglobin to Arterial Oxygen Desaturation during Aeromedical Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    pulse rate, and non-invasive hemoglobin were measured every 5 seconds and recorded to electronic memory . Patient demographics and physiologic data...Figure Page 1 Hypoxia levels...rate, and non-invasive hemoglobin were measured every 5 seconds and recorded to electronic memory . Patient demographics and physiologic data were

  10. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  11. Molecular evolution of hemoglobins of Antarctic fishes (Notothenioidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, W.T.; Beintema, J.J; D Avino, R.; Tamburrini, M.; di Prisco, G.

    1997-01-01

    Amino acid sequences of alpha- and beta-chains of human hemoglobin and of hemoglobins of coelacanth and 24 teleost fish species, including 11 antarctic and two temperate Notothenioidei, were analyzed using maximum parsimony. Trees were derived for the alpha- and beta-chains separately and for

  12. state hybrid hemoglobins as revealed by optical, EPR and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ion environment: Species 1, a five-coordinated Cu2+ complex with strong proximal histidine bond and spe- cies 2, a four-coordinated complex without any covalent linkage with Nε F8-histidine. Keywords. Hybrid hemoglobin; –SH reactivity study; EPR; subunit heterogeneity. 1. Introduction. Hemoglobin (Hb) is one of the ...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  14. A thermodynamical measure of cooperativity: application to hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacchieri, S.G.; Ferreira, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the heat requirements for dioxygen exchange is made for hemoglobin and myoglobin, the latter taken as the prototype of the vertebrate hemoglobin's ancestor. it is shown that cooperativity manifests itself also in terms of energy utilization. (Author) [pt

  15. Conformational changes in hemoglobin triggered by changing the iron charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, S.; Achterhold, K.; Ortalli, I.; Parak, F. G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the hemoglobin conformational changes induced by changing the iron charge have been studied and compared with Myoglobin. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to follow the change of the iron conformation. In order to compare the conformational relaxation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, and to study a possible influence of the quaternary structure, an intermediate metastable state of hemoglobin has been created by low temperature X-ray irradiation of methemoglobin. The irradiation reduces the Fe(III) of the heme groups to Fe(II) Low Spin, where the water is still bound on the sixth coordination. Heating cycles performed at temperatures from 140 K to 200 K allow the molecules to overcome an activation energy barrier and to relax into a stable conformation such as deoxy-hemoglobin or carboxy-hemoglobin, if CO is present. Slightly different structures (conformational substates) reveal themselves as a distribution of energy barriers (ΔG). The distribution of the activation energy, for the decay of the Fe(II) Low Spin intermediate, has been fitted with a Gaussian. For comparison, published myoglobin data were re-analysed in the same way. The average energy value at characteristic temperature is very similar in case of myoglobin and hemoglobin. The larger Gaussian energy distribution for myoglobin with respect to hemoglobin shows that more conformational substates are available. This may be caused by a larger area exposed to water. In hemoglobin, part of the surface of the chains is not water accessible due to the quaternary structure.

  16. GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN AND FRUCTOSAMINE IN DOGS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olair Carlos Beltrame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM commonly occurs in dogs, and the laboratorial confirmation is carried out by glycemia test. The diagnosis and monitoring in humans is made by glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. The objective of this study was to diagnose DM in 19 dogs, by evaluating seric glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. Six dogs with DM and treated with insulin were assisted during a twelve-month period, by means of the same blood analysis, until the death (three dogs or glycemic control (three dogs. Glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine increased in all dogs with DM, and dogs that did not survive presented higher glycated hemoglobin and seric glucose values than those that survived at the last evaluation. The results showed the importance of evaluating glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine in dogs with DM to diagnose and control treatment effectiveness.

  17. Effects of therapeutic touch on blood hemoglobin and hematocrit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movaffaghi, Zahra; Hasanpoor, Morteza; Farsi, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Poory; Abrishami, Fatemeh

    2006-03-01

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is a widely used complementary therapy. This study investigated the effects of TT on hemoglobin and hematocrit level in students who were basically healthy. The volunteers with a hemoglobin level less than 12 grams per deciliter (g/dl) were randomly assigned to three groups of TT, mimic therapeutic touch (MT), and control. Blood samples were collected before the first treatment and again a week after the last one and measurements were taken. TT increased the level of hemoglobin (.99 .13 g/dl) and hematocrit (2.82 .43%) significantly. MT also increased the level of hemoglobin (.55 .11 g/dl) and hematocrit (2.75 .44%) significantly. No significant changes were found in the control group. TT increased hemoglobin more effectively than MT (p< .05). Significant changes of both variables in TT and MTgroups suggest that more careful precision might be needed while selecting individuals as sham therapists in further experiments.

  18. Radiation - induced changes in the optical properties of hemoglobin molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S; El-Marakby, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adult male albino rats were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation from Cs-137 source. Hemoglobin samples were analyzed 24 hrs after irradiation. The UV-visible spectrum of hemoglobin molecule was measured in the range 200 to 700 nm. The overall spectrum of the hemoglobin molecule showed hypochromicity that increased with dose increase. To investigate the effect of radiation on the hemoglobin molecule, different parameters of the spectrum were calculated: molar absorption coefficient, absorption cross section, transition dipole moment , dipole length, the optical energy gap and activation energy for each characteristic peak. The obtained results revealed that the radiation effect can induce rearrangement of the transition dipole moments and change molecular energy levels of the hemoglobin molecule

  19. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  20. Imaging the effect of hemoglobin on properties of RBCs using common-path digital holographic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, M.; Shah, H.; Trivedi, V.; Mahajan, S.; Chhaniwal, V.; Leitgeb, R.; Javidi, B.; Anand, A.

    2017-07-01

    Adequate supply of oxygen to the body is the most essential requirement. In vertebrate species this function is performed by Hemoglobin contained in red blood cells. The mass concentration of the Hb determines the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Thus it becomes necessary to determine its concentration in the blood, which helps in monitoring the health of a person. If the amount of Hb crosses certain range, then it is considered critical. As the Hb constitutes upto 96% of red blood cells dry content, it would be interesting to examine various physical and mechanical parameters of RBCs which depends upon its concentration. Various diseases bring about significant variation in the amount of hemoglobin which may alter certain parameters of the RBC such as surface area, volume, membrane fluctuation etc. The study of the variations of these parameters may be helpful in determining Hb content which will reflect the state of health of a human body leading to disease diagnosis. Any increase or decrease in the amount of Hb will change the density and hence the optical thickness of the RBCs, which affects the cell membrane and thereby changing its mechanical and physical properties. Here we describe the use of lateral shearing digital holographic microscope for quantifying the cell parameters for studying the change in biophysical properties of cells due to variation in hemoglobin concentration.

  1. Effect of Multiple Mutations in the Hemoglobin- and Hemoglobin-Haptoglobin-Binding Proteins, HgpA, HgpB, and HgpC, of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Daniel J.; Whitby, Paul W.; Jin, Hongfan; Ren, Zhen; Stull, Terrence L.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth and can utilize hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin as heme sources. We previously identified two hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins, HgpA and HgpB, in H. influenzae HI689. Insertional mutation of hgpA and hgpB, either singly or together, did not abrogate the ability to utilize or bind either hemoglobin or the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. A hemoglobin affinity purification method was used to isolate a protein of approxi...

  2. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, R.A.; Stratton, L.P.; Hawley, D.K.; Effron, K.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F 1 offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of α-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient α-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an α-thalassemia similar to human α-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with α-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining β-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 β-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC β-chain gene. (author)

  3. Propofol Enhances Hemoglobin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Cui, Guiyun; Li, Wenlu; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaoying; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Xiang, Shuanglin; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-04-01

    It has been increasingly suggested that propofol protects against hypoxic-/ischemic-induced neuronal injury. As evidenced by hemorrhage-induced stroke, hemorrhage into the brain may also cause brain damage. Whether propofol protects against hemorrhage-induced brain damage remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of propofol on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity in cultured mouse cortical neurons. Neurons were prepared from the cortex of embryonic 15-day-old mice. Hemoglobin was used to induce cytotoxicity in the neurons. The neurons were then treated with propofol for 4 hours. Cytotoxicity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Caspase-3 activation was examined by Western blot analysis. Finally, the free radical scavenger U83836E was used to examine the potential involvement of oxidative stress in propofol's effects on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. We found that treatment with hemoglobin induced cytotoxicity in the neurons. Propofol enhanced hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. Specifically, there was a significant difference in the amount of lactate dehydrogenase release between hemoglobin plus saline (19.84% ± 5.38%) and hemoglobin plus propofol (35.79% ± 4.41%) in mouse cortical neurons (P = 0.00058, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U test, n = 8 in the control group or the treatment group). U83836E did not attenuate the enhancing effects of propofol on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity in the neurons, and propofol did not significantly affect caspase-3 activation induced by hemoglobin. These data suggested that caspase-3 activation and oxidative stress might not be the underlying mechanisms by which propofol enhanced hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, these data suggested that the neuroprotective effects of propofol would be dependent on the condition of the brain injury, which will need to be confirmed in future studies. These results from our current proof-of-concept study should promote more research in vitro and in

  4. Histopathologic Study Following Administration of Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin in the Normovolemic Rat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudolph, Alan

    1995-01-01

    ... bovine hemoglobin in the normovolemic rat. We have also examined the administration of the liposome vehicle, tetrameric bovine hemoglobin, and liposome encapsulated bovine hemoglobin that had been lyophilized with 300 mM trehalose...

  5. Diffusion coefficients of oxygen and hemoglobin as obtained simultaneously from photometric determination of the oxygenation of layers of hemoglobin solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J. A.; Kreuzer, F.; van Wely, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygenation of layers of deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions after a sudden exposure to a gas containing oxygen at a partial pressure P1 has been studied by a photometric method. Layer thicknesses varied between 50 and 250 micron, hemoglobin concentrations between 0.1 and 0.34kg/l, and oxygen

  6. Isoelectric focusing purity criteria and 1H NMR detectable spectroscopic heterogeneity in the major isolated monomer hemoglobins from Glycera dibranchiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinidis, I.; Satterlee, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Three major monomeric hemoglobins have been isolated from the erythrocytes of Glycera dibranchiata. Their importance to structure-function studies of heme proteins lies in the fact that they have been shown to possess an exceptional amino acid substitution. In these proteins, the E-7 position is occupied by leucine rather than the more common distal histidine. This substitution alters the polarity of the heme ligand binding environment compared to myoglobin. Due to this, the G. dibranchiata monomer hemoglobins are attracting much attention. However, until now no purity criterion has been developed. Here the authors demonstrate that, for all of the Glycera momomer hemoglobins, multiple line patterns are shown on high-voltage isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels. Most of these lines are shown to be a consequence of heme-related phenomena and can be understood on the basis of changes in oxidation and ligation state of the heme iron. The multiple line pattern does not indicate significant impurities in the monomer hemoglobin preparation. The multiple line patterns on IEF gels disappear when gels of the apoproteins alone are focused. Single bands occur in this case for all of the monomer hemoglobins except component II, which displays two bands, one major and one minor. The minor band is found to be a modified apoprotein form. It is sensitive to apoprotein handling prior to focusing and depends upon whether the IEF gel is prefocused or not. From this analysis, IEF is shown to be a valuable purity criterion, and the purity of our monomer hemoglobin component II preparation is 97% one globin. The NMR results show that two types of spectroscopic heterogeneity are also present in component II, and these are unrelated to the protein purity

  7. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... movement is powered by insertional polymerization of ParM. Consistently, we find that segregating plasmids are positioned at the ends of extending ParM filaments. Thus, the process of R1 plasmid segregation in E. coli appears to be mechanistically analogous to the actin-based motility operating...

  8. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Navraj S; Van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture. Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored. There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative Day 5 Hb levels (pmeasurement, DHS patients had lower hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p=0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-hour postoperative period (D0 to Day 1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at Day 2. Relying on the Day 1 hemoglobin level could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring.

  9. Using the MWC model to describe heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin is a classical model allosteric protein. Research on hemoglobin parallels the development of key cooperativity and allostery concepts, such as the ‘all-or-none’ Hill formalism, the stepwise Adair binding formulation and the concerted Monod-Wymann-Changuex (MWC) allosteric model. While it is clear that the MWC model adequately describes the cooperative binding of oxygen to hemoglobin, rationalizing the effects of H+, CO2 or organophosphate ligands on hemoglobin-oxygen saturation using the same model remains controversial. According to the MWC model, allosteric ligands exert their effect on protein function by modulating the quaternary conformational transition of the protein. However, data fitting analysis of hemoglobin oxygen saturation curves in the presence or absence of inhibitory ligands persistently revealed effects on both relative oxygen affinity (c) and conformational changes (L), elementary MWC parameters. The recent realization that data fitting analysis using the traditional MWC model equation may not provide reliable estimates for L and c thus calls for a re-examination of previous data using alternative fitting strategies. In the current manuscript, we present two simple strategies for obtaining reliable estimates for MWC mechanistic parameters of hemoglobin steady-state saturation curves in cases of both evolutionary and physiological variations. Our results suggest that the simple MWC model provides a reasonable description that can also account for heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin. The results, moreover, offer a general roadmap for successful data fitting analysis using the MWC model. PMID:28793329

  10. Individualized anemia management reduces hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaweda, Adam E; Aronoff, George R; Jacobs, Alfred A; Rai, Shesh N; Brier, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA doses guided by the Smart Anemia Manager algorithm (treatment) or by a standard protocol (control). Dose recommendations, performed on a monthly basis, were validated by an expert physician anemia manager. The primary outcome was the percentage of hemoglobin concentrations between 10 and 12 g/dl over the follow-up period. A total of 258 of 356 (72.5%) hemoglobin concentrations were between 10 and 12 g/dl in the treatment group, compared with 208 of 336 (61.9%) in the control group; 42 (11.8%) hemoglobin concentrations were hemoglobin concentrations were >12 g/dl in the treatment group compared with 46 (13.4%) in the control group. The median ESA dosage per patient was 2000 IU/wk in both groups. Five participants received 6 transfusions (21 U) in the treatment group, compared with 8 participants and 13 transfusions (31 U) in the control group. These results suggest that individualized ESA dosing decreases total hemoglobin variability compared with a population protocol-based approach. As hemoglobin levels are declining in hemodialysis patients, decreasing hemoglobin variability may help reduce the risk of transfusions in this population.

  11. Temperature-dependent enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, A.; Wells, R.M.G.; Weber, Roy E.

    1997-01-01

    literature data for the enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins derives from the use of the nonintegrated (linearized) form of the van't Hoff equation over different temperature ranges. The general assumption that a low heat of oxygenation in hemoglobins from polar animals represents......The effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobins of three cold-adapted Antarctic fish species, Dissostichus mawsoni, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus, sp., has been investigated under different pH values and buffer conditions. A clear non linear van't Hoff plot...

  12. The Manufacture and Study of Hemoglobin-Saline Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-25

    hemoglobin solution to maintain oxygen transport is dependent upon hemoglobin concentration ([ HbJ ) and hemoglobin-oxygen affinity (P50). We previously...PO2. The purpose of this report is to study the ! . 15 quantitative relationships between [ HbJ , P50 1 and PO 2 during exchange transfusion (ET) with...consumption (V02), cardiac output (C.O.). [ HbJ , P501 Pa02’ and PO2 were obtained from baseline to 0 hematocrit. Since PO 2 is a function of C.O., [ HbJ

  13. Biophysical basis of hypoxic radioprotection by deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.T.; Hill, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Perfusion with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin provides an effective method for inducing hypoxic radioprotection of normal tissues during radiation treatment of tumors. In this study, the dependence of P50, the half-saturation pressure of oxygen binding to dextran-hemoglobin, was analyzed as a function of solution temperature and pH. The variation of attainable radioprotection with P50, and with the amount of collateral blood entering into the perfused region, was calculated. Upon perfusion of canine gracilis muscle with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin, a rapid onset of extensive venous hypoxia was observed

  14. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobin genes of Casuarina glauca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen-Lyon, K; Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo

    1995-01-01

    Casuarina glauca has a gene encoding hemoglobin (cashb-nonsym). This gene is expressed in a number of plant tissues. Casuarina also has a second family of hemoglobin genes (cashb-sym) expressed at a high level in the nodules that Casuarina forms in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the actinomycete...... of the Casuarina gene. The finding that the nonsymbiotic Casuarina gene is also correctly expressed in L. corniculatus suggests to us that a comparable non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene will be found in legume species. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb...

  15. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiar, U.J.; Khan, Y.; Nisar, R.

    2007-01-01

    To Study the Relationship between Maternal Hemoglobin and Perinatal outcome in a cohort of 860 pregnant women and to highlight the importance of antenatal care regarding maternal health and fetal outcome. All Singleton pregnancies delivering at Pakistan Railway Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2004 to December 2005 that fulfilled the required criteria were included. Out of the 860 patients, 402 were anemic (<11gm/dl) and 458 were non anemic. Perinatal outcome included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low apgr scores and intrauterine fetal deaths. Risk of preterm and Low birth weight among anemic women was 3.4 and 1.8 times more than non anaemic women. The neonates of anemic woman also had 1.7 times increased risk of having low apgr scores at 1 min. Among anemic women there was 2.2 times greater risk of intrauterine fetal death than the non-anemic women. Regular antenatal care from first trimester has a vital role in assessing and managing maternal anemia timely and it directly affects the perinatal outcome. The patients with anemia have also higher risk of having low birth weight, preterm births and intra uterine fetal death. (author)

  16. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  17. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  18. Site-selective glycosylation of hemoglobin on Cys beta93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalong; Bhatt, Veer S; Sun, Guoyong; Wang, Peng G; Palmer, Andre F

    2008-11-19

    In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a novel glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) with high oxygen affinity as a potential Hb-based oxygen carrier. Site-selective glycosylation of bovine Hb was achieved by conjugating a lactose derivative to Cys 93 on the beta subunit of Hb. LC-MS analysis indicates that the reaction was quantitative, with no unmodified Hb present in the reaction product. The glycosylation site was identified by chymotrypsin digestion of the glycosylated bovine Hb followed with LC-MS/MS and from the X-ray crystal structure of the glycosylated Hb. The chemical conjugation of the lactose derivative at Cys beta93 yields an oxygen carrier with a high oxygen affinity (P(50) of 4.94 mmHg) and low cooperativity coefficient (n) of 1.20. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) coupled with multiangle static light scattering (MASLS) was used to measure the absolute molecular weight of the glycosylated Hb. AFFFF-MASLS analysis indicates that glycosylation of Hb significantly altered the alpha(2)beta(2)-alphabeta equilibrium compared to native Hb. Subsequent X-ray analysis of the glycosylated Hb crystal showed that the covalently linked lactose derivative is sandwiched between the beta(1) and alpha(2) (and hence by symmetry the beta(2) and alpha(1)) subunits of the tetramer, and the interaction between the saccharide and amino acid residues located at the interface is apparently stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions. The resultant structural analysis of the glycosylated Hb helps to explain the shift in the alpha(2)beta(2)-alphabeta equilibrium in terms of the hydrogen bonding interactions at the beta(1)alpha(2)/beta(2)alpha(1) interface. Taken together, all of these results indicate that it is feasible to site-specifically glycosylate Hb. This work has great potential in developing an oxygen carrier with defined chemistry that can target oxygen delivery to low pO(2) tissues and organs.

  19. IR Spectra of Different O2-Content Hemoglobin from Computational Study: Promising Detector of Hemoglobin Variant in Medical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Su-Qin; Chen, Tu-Nan; Ji, Guang-Fu; Wang, En-Ren

    2017-06-01

    IR spectra of heme and different O 2 -content hemoglobin were studied by the quantum computation method at the molecule level. IR spectra of heme and different O 2 -content hemoglobin were quantificationally characterized from 0 to 100 THz. The IR spectra of oxy-heme and de-oxy-heme are obviously different at the frequency regions of 9.08-9.48, 38.38-39.78, 50.46-50.82, and 89.04-91.00 THz. At 24.72 THz, there exists the absorption peak for oxy-heme, whereas there is not the absorption peak for de-oxy-heme. Whether the heme contains Fe-O-O bond or not has the great influence on its IR spectra and vibration intensities of functional groups in the mid-infrared area. The IR adsorption peak shape changes hardly for different O 2 -content hemoglobin. However, there exist three frequency regions corresponding to the large change of IR adsorption intensities for containing-O 2 hemoglobin in comparison with de-oxy-hemoglobin, which are 11.08-15.93, 44.70-50.22, and 88.00-96.68 THz regions, respectively. The most differential values with IR intensity of different O 2 -content hemoglobin all exceed 1.0 × 10 4  L mol -1  cm -1 . With the increase of oxygen content, the absorption peak appears in the high-frequency region for the containing-O 2 hemoglobin in comparison with de-oxy-hemoglobin. The more the O 2 -content is, the greater the absorption peak is at the high-frequency region. The IR spectra of different O 2 -content hemoglobin are so obviously different in the mid-infrared region that it is very easy to distinguish the hemoglobin variant by means of IR spectra detector. IR spectra of hemoglobin from quantum computation can provide scientific basis and specific identification of hemoglobin variant resulting from different O 2 contents in medical diagnosis.

  20. Novel subunit structure observed for noncooperative hemoglobin from Urechis caupo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolatkar, P R; Meador, W E; Stanfield, R L; Hackert, M L

    1988-03-05

    Tetrameric hemoglobin from the "fat innkeeper" worm Urechis caupo possesses a novel subunit arrangement having an "inside out" quaternary structure in that the G/H helices are located on the outer surface of the tetramer. A 5-A resolution crystal structure reveals that although the individual subunits are beta-like, having a distinct D helix and the general myoglobin fold, the subunit contacts are very different from those previously observed for hemoglobins. Furthermore, the hemoglobin from U. caupo is also quite different from the unusual hemoglobin tetramer from clam which also has its G/H helices on the outer surface but with the hemes in close proximity through E-F helical contacts (Royer, W. E., Jr., Love, W. E., and Fenderson, F. F. (1985) Nature 316, 277-280).

  1. 21 CFR 866.5470 - Hemoglobin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurements of free hemoglobin aid in the diagnosis of various hematologic disorders, such as sickle cell anemia, Fanconi's anemia (a rare inherited disease), aplastic anemia (bone marrow does not produce enough...

  2. Hemoglobin as a factor in the control of tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood has been shown to have a market effect on the radiosensitivity of human and animal tumors. Experimental studies in mice indicate that radiosensitivity is influenced by a change in the hemoglobin level rather than by the absolute concentration. This dependence may be exploited to therapeutic advantage. Recent studies of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity have shown that the concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) affects tumor sensitivity to X-rays. Increased 2,3 DPG levels increase radiosensitivity in several mouse tumors. The time dependence of this effect remains to be established. The effective application of these effects in man may depend on the development of drugs which produce changes in hemoglobin affinity without the need for blood transfusions. Several drugs are currently being investigated

  3. Hemoglobin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topics/anemia/atrisk Scherber RM, Mesa R. Elevated Hemoglobin or Hematocrit Level. JAMA [Internet]. 2016 May [cited 2017 Feb 1]; 315(20):2225-26. Available from: ... Health Topics Anemia Blood Count Tests ...

  4. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-01-01

    Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis. This scavenging system counteracts the potentially harmful oxidative and NO......-scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high......-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles playing a crucial role in the innate immunity against certain trypanosome parasites. Recent studies have elucidated this fairly sophisticated immune defense mechanism that takes advantage of a trypanosomal haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor evolved to supply the parasite with heme...

  5. Individualized Anemia Management Reduces Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gaweda, Adam E.; Aronoff, George R.; Jacobs, Alfred A.; Rai, Shesh N.; Brier, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA ...

  6. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  7. GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN AND FRUCTOSAMINE IN DOGS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Olair Carlos Beltrame; Rosangela Locatelli-Dittrich; Luciane Maria Laskoski; Lia Fordiani Lenati Patricio; Nina da Cunha Medeiros; Marília Oliveira Koch

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) commonly occurs in dogs, and the laboratorial confirmation is carried out by glycemia test. The diagnosis and monitoring in humans is made by glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. The objective of this study was to diagnose DM in 19 dogs, by evaluating seric glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. Six dogs with DM and treated with insulin were assisted during a twelve-month period, by means of the same blood analysis, until the death...

  8. EPR studies of cooperative binding of Cu (II) to hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, S.R.W.; Tabak, M.

    1983-07-01

    The investigation of the relative affinities of the two pairs of hemoglobin copper sites by monitoring the EPR spectra of the complexes formed by the reaction of copper with deoxyhemoglobin is reported. A model in which two sites are assumed to accept copper ions in a noncooperative way is not able to predict the experimental results. Thus it is conclude that the binding of these ions to hemoglobin is a cooperative phenomenon. (Author) [pt

  9. Comparative study of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzischek, D A; Tanseco, F V

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of variations in technique on measurements of hemoglobin level done at the bedside and to compare these results with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. In accordance with hospital policy, procedure, and protocol, various techniques were used to obtain samples of capillary and venous blood and of blood from arterial and central venous catheters. Levels of hemoglobin were measured at the bedside and in the laboratory, and the results were compared. The Johns Hopkins Hospital adult postanesthesia care unit. A total of 187 blood samples were obtained from 62 adults who had undergone general surgery. Group I comprised 20 subjects with capillary and venous blood samples. Group II comprised 21 subjects with arterial blood samples. Group III comprised 21 subjects with central venous blood samples. The results showed that the amount of blood to be discarded before obtaining samples of arterial and central venous blood need not be any larger than double the dead space of the catheter, and that shaking the blood sample for 10 seconds was sufficient to mix the sample before measurement of hemoglobin levels. Results of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin level were comparable. Bedside measurement of hemoglobin increases efficiency in patient care, decreases risk of blood-transmitted infection for staff, and decreases cost to the patient. However, the persons who perform the assay must be responsible in adhering to the standard of practice to minimize errors in the measurements.

  10. Cell volume regulation in hemoglobin CC and AA erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, L.R.; Orringer, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Swelling hemoglobin CC erythrocytes stimulates a ouabain-insensitive K flux that restores original cell volume. Studies were performed with the K analog, 86 Rb. This volume regulatory pathway was characterized for its anion dependence, sensitivity to loop diuretics, and requirement for Na. The swelling-induced K flux was eliminated if intracellular chloride was replaced by nitrate and both swelling-activated K influx and efflux were partially inhibited by 1 mM furosemide or bumetanide. K influx in swollen hemoglobin CC cells was not diminished when Na in the incubation medium was replaced with choline, indicating Na independence of the swelling-induced flux. Identical experiments with hemoglobin AA cells also demonstrated a swelling-induced increase in K flux, but the magnitude and duration of this increase were considerably less than that seen with hemoglobin CC cells. The increased K flux in hemoglobin AA cells was likewise sensitive to anion replacement and to loop diuretics and did not require the presence of Na. These data indicate that a volume-activated K pathway with similar transport characteristics exists in both hemoglobin CC and AA red cells

  11. Concordance between Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Equivalent and Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in CKD Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadi Wirawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the correlation and the concordance between reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr as well as to obtain the cut-off value of RET-He as the target of iron supplementation in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: a cross-sectional study was performed using K3EDTA-anticoagulated peripheral blood samples collected from 106 CKD patients undergoing routine hemodialysis. The samples were then analyzed using both Sysmex XN-2000 and Siemens ADVIA 2120i for RET-He and CHr analysis. Results: a very strong correlation (r=0.91; p<0.0001 and a good concordance were found between RET-He and CHr with mean bias of 0.5 pg. The diagnostic concordance was 96.23%. The cut-off value of RET-He 29.2 pg was obtained from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve with CHr as the gold standard. At this cut-off point, the sensitivity and specificity to assess the target of iron supplementation in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis were 95.5% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion: the study shows a good correlation and concordance between RET-He and CHr in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  12. Resonance Raman evidence for the mechanism of the allosteric control of O2-binding in a cobalt-substituted monomeric insect hemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, H.M.; Yu, N.T.; Gersonde, K.

    1987-01-01

    The substitution of iron for cobalt in the monomeric insect hemoglobin CTT (Chironomus thummi thummi) III does not alter the Bohr effect for O2-binding. The cobalt substitution in this hemoglobin allows us to identify not only the O-O and Co-O2 stretching mode but also the Co-O-O bending mode by resonance Raman spectroscopy. The assignments were made via 16O2/18O2 isotope exchange. The modes associated with the Co-O-O moiety are pH-dependent. These pH-induced changes of the resonance Raman sp...

  13. MicroRNA-15a and -16-1 act via MYB to elevate fetal hemoglobin expression in human trisomy 13

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Vijay G.; Menne, Tobias F.; Šćepanović, Danilo; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Ji, Peng; Kim, Jinkuk; Thiru, Prathapan; Orkin, Stuart H.; Lander, Eric S.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2011-01-01

    Many human aneuploidy syndromes have unique phenotypic consequences, but in most instances it is unclear whether these phenotypes are attributable to alterations in the dosage of specific genes. In human trisomy 13, there is delayed switching and persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and elevation of embryonic hemoglobin in newborns. Using partial trisomy cases, we mapped this trait to chromosomal band 13q14; by examining the genes in this region, two microRNAs, miR-15a and -16-1, appear as t...

  14. Comparison of Hemoglobin Levels Before and After Hemodialysis and Their Effects on Erythropoietin Dosing and Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sagheb; Fallahzadeh; Moaref; Fallahzadeh; Dormanesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin levels measured after hemodialysis, as compared to hemoglobin levels measured before hemodialysis, are suggested to be a more accurate reflection of the hemoglobin levels between hemodialysis sessions, and to be a better reference point for adjusting erythropoietin dosing. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin levels before and after hemodialysis, to calculate the required erythropoie...

  15. The primary structure of the hemoglobin of Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus, Carnivora) and structural comparison to other hemoglobin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, O; Braunitzer, G; Göltenboth, R

    1987-05-01

    The complete primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the hemoglobin of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) is presented. After cleavage of the heme-protein link and chain separation by RP-HPLC, amino-acid sequences were determined by Edman degradation in liquid- and gas-phase sequenators. An interesting result of this work is the demonstration that the hemoglobin of Malayan Sun Bear is identical to the hemoglobins of Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) and Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus tibetanus). The paper gives an updated table of identical hemoglobin chains from different species. This paper may be considered as a compilation of work on the genetic relationship of Pandas.

  16. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  17. BACTERIAL PLASMIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

  18. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  19. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins ha...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  20. Structural transition temperature of hemoglobins correlates with species' body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerlin, Kay Frank Thorsten; Kasischke, Nicole; Digel, Ilya; Maggakis-Kelemen, Christina; Temiz Artmann, Aysegül; Porst, Dariusz; Kayser, Peter; Linder, Peter; Artmann, Gerhard Michael

    2007-12-01

    Human red blood cells (RBCs) exhibit sudden changes in their biophysical properties at body temperature (T (B)). RBCs were seen to undergo a spontaneous transition from blockage to passage at T (C) = 36.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C, when the temperature dependency of RBC-passages through 1.3 mum narrow micropipettes was observed. Moreover, concentrated hemoglobin solutions (45 g/dl) showed a viscosity breakdown between 36 and 37 degrees C. With human hemoglobin, a structural transition was observed at T (B) as circular dichroism (CD) experiments revealed. This leads to the assumption that a species' body temperature occupies a unique position on the temperature scale and may even be imprinted in the structure of certain proteins. In this study, it was investigated whether hemoglobins of species with a T (B) different from those of human show temperature transitions and whether those were also linked to the species' T (B). The main conclusion was drawn from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and CD experiments. It was observed that such structural temperature transitions did occur in hemoglobins from all studied species and were correlated linearly (slope 0.81, r = 0.95) with the species' body temperature. We presumed that alpha-helices of hemoglobin were able to unfold more readily around T (B). alpha-helical unfolding would initiate molecular aggregation causing RBC passage and viscosity breakdown as mentioned above. Thus, structural molecular changes of hemoglobin could determine biophysical effects visible on a macroscopic scale. It is hypothesized that the species' body temperature was imprinted into the structure of hemoglobins.

  1. Selection of aptamers specific for glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin using on-chip SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-I; Wu, Ching-Chu; Yang, Ching-Hsuan; Chang, Ko-Wei; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Shiesh, Shu-Chu

    2015-01-21

    Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reflecting average glucose concentrations over the past three months are fundamental for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment of diabetes. It has been hypothesized that aptamers, which are single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that demonstrate high affinity to a large variety of molecules ranging from small drugs, metabolites, or proteins, could be used for the measurement of HbA1c. Aptamers are selected through an in vitro process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and they can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low costs. This study therefore aimed to select HbA1c- and hemoglobin (Hb)-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers using an on-chip SELEX protocol. A microfluidic SELEX chip was developed to continuously and automatically carry out multiple rounds of SELEX to screen specific aptamers for HbA1c and Hb. HbA1c and Hb were first coated onto magnetic beads. Following several rounds of selection and enrichment with a randomized 40-mer DNA library, specific oligonucleotides were selected. The binding specificity and affinity were assessed by competitive and binding assays. Using the developed microfluidic system, the incubation and partitioning times were greatly decreased, and the entire process was shortened dramatically. Both HbA1c- and Hb-specific aptamers selected by the microfluidic system showed high specificity and affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.6 ± 3.0 nM and 7.3 ± 2.2 nM for HbA1c and Hb, respectively). With further refinements in the assay, these aptamers may replace the conventional antibodies for in vitro diagnostics applications in the near future.

  2. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F.; Ikenberg, H.; Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  3. The refractive index of human hemoglobin in the visible range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhernovaya, O; Tuchin, V; Sydoruk, O; Douplik, A

    2011-01-01

    Because the refractive index of hemoglobin in the visible range is sensitive to the hemoglobin concentration, optical investigations of hemoglobin are important for medical diagnostics and treatment. Direct measurements of the refractive index are, however, challenging; few such measurements have previously been reported, especially in a wide wavelength range. We directly measured the refractive index of human deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin for nine wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm for the hemoglobin concentrations up to 140 g l -1 . This paper analyzes the results and suggests a set of model functions to calculate the refractive index depending on the concentration. At all wavelengths, the measured values of the refractive index depended on the concentration linearly. Analyzing the slope of the lines, we determined the specific refraction increments, derived a set of model functions for the refractive index depending on the concentration, and compared our results with those available in the literature. Based on the model functions, we further calculated the refractive index at the physiological concentration within the erythrocytes of 320 g l -1 . The results can be used to calculate the refractive index in the visible range for arbitrary concentrations provided that the refractive indices depend on the concentration linearly.

  4. Pattern of cavities in globins: the case of human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Carmelinda; Miele, Adriana E; Draghi, Federica; Johnson, Kenneth A; Sciara, Giuliano; Brunori, Maurizio; Vallone, Beatrice

    2009-12-01

    Our aim is to shed light on the conservation of potential ligand docking sites that play an important role in ligand dynamics of globins by using the technique of filling internal cavities naturally present in hemoglobin and myoglobin with xenon atoms. In particular, we present the high resolution structures of the Xe-adduct of deoxygenated wild type human hemoglobin and a quadruple mutant (L(B10)Y and H(E7)Q in alpha and beta chains). For the sake of comparison we also determined under the same experimental conditions the xenon complex of wild type sperm whale myoglobin. The analysis revealed that the number and position of Xe binding cavities are different in the alpha and beta subunits, the latter being more similar to myoglobin. Notably, no proximal Xe docking site was detected in hemoglobin, at variance with myoglobin. The pattern of internal cavities accessibility and affinity for xenon suggests a different role for the dynamics of ligand migration in the two types of hemoglobin chains as compared to myoglobin. The number and position of hydrophobic cavities in hemoglobin are briefly discussed also in comparison with the data available for other members of the globin superfamily.

  5. Obtaining antimicrobial peptides by controlled peptic hydrolysis of bovine hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adje, Estelle Yaba; Balti, Rafik; Kouach, Mostafa; Dhulster, Pascal; Guillochon, Didier; Nedjar-Arroume, Naïma

    2011-08-01

    Under standard conditions, the peptides and specially the active peptides were obtained from either the denatured hemoglobin that all structures are completely modified or either the native hemoglobin where all structures are intact. In these conditions, antibacterial peptides were isolated from a very complex peptidic hydrolysate which contains more than one hundred peptides having various sizes and characteristics, involving a complex purification process. The new hydrolysis conditions were obtained by using 40% methanol, 30% ethanol, 20% propanol or 10% butanol. These conditions, where only the secondary structure of hemoglobin retains intact, were followed in order to enrich the hydrolyzed hemoglobin by active peptides or obtain new antibacterial peptides. In these controlled peptic hydrolysis of hemoglobin, a selective and restrictive hydrolysate contained only 29 peptides was obtained. 26 peptides have an antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Listeria innocua, and Escherichia coli with MIC from 187.1 to 1 μM. Among these peptides, 13 new antibacterial peptides are obtained only in these new hydrolysis conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of LAXS Profile of Hemoglobin from Irradiated Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.S.; Elshemey, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS) and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were exposed to gamma rays, at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV-visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of 2 peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1st peak, recorded at 4.65O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 0.526 nm-1), is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 1.189 nm-1), appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  7. Biophysical Monitoring and dose response characteristics of irradiated hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, W.M; Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using LAXS and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were irradiated at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV- visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1 s t peak, recorded at 4.65 o , is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5 o , appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  8. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  9. S1 nuclease analysis of α-globin gene expression in preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease after transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helder, J.; Deisseroth, A.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of α-globin gene transcriptional activity rarely occurs as an acquired abnormality during the evolution of myeloproliferative disease or preleukemia. To test whether the mutation responsible for the loss of α-globin gene expression (hemoglobin H disease) in these patients is linked with the α-globin genes on chromosome 16, the authors transferred chromosome 16 from preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease to mouse erythroleukemia cells and measured the transcriptional activity of the human α-globin genes. After transfer to mouse erythroleukemia cells, the expression of human α-globin genes from the peripheral blood or marrow cells of preleukemic patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease was similar to that of human α-globin genes transferred to mouse erythroleukemia cells from normal donors. These data showed that factor(s) in the mouse erythroleukemia cell can genetically complement the α-globin gene defect in these preleukemia patients with acquired hemoglobin H disease and suggest that altered expression of a gene in trans to the α-globin gene may be responsible for the acquisition of hemoglobin H disease in these patients

  10. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...... lines develop normally. However, when AHb2 knockout is combined with AHb1 silencing, seedlings die at an early vegetative stage suggesting that the two 3-on-3 hemoglobins, AHb1 and AHb2, together play an essential role for normal development of Arabidopsis seedlings. In conclusion, these results...

  11. Mastomys (rodentia: muridae) species distinguished by hemoglobin pattern differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C B; Krebs, J W; Johnson, K M

    1983-05-01

    Hemoglobin electrophoresis patterns were found to be reliable markers for distinguishing two species of Mastomys in Sierra Leone having 32 and 38 chromosomes. All 32-chromosome animals exhibited a single hemoglobin pattern, whereas those with 38-chromosomes had four distinguishable patterns. Both karyotypes were present throughout Sierra Leone. The 38-chromosome species was more prevalent in the Guinea savanna zone to the north, while the 32-chromosome species was most dominant in human-modified high forest areas of the eastern and southern parts of the country. In almost all situations the 32-chromosome species was more common in houses than in bush habitats; the reverse was true for Mastomys having 38 chromosomes. Analysis of hemoglobin patterns thus becomes useful for species identification, and is necessary to understand the roles of the different Mastomys forms as reservoirs of human diseases, such as Lassa fever in West Africa.

  12. Nitric oxide in plants: the roles of ascorbate and hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Wang

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia.

  13. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  14. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  15. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Nagra, Navraj; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture.Methods: Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored.Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative D...

  16. Is Routine Ordering of Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Justifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, David J.

    1966-01-01

    In order to assess the value of routine simultaneous hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, paired determinations in the following groups were studied: (1) 360 consecutive pairs from the hematology laboratory, (2) 95 pairs on general medical patients, (3) 43 pairs on 10 patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and (4) 62 pairs on 10 patients with burns. These values were plotted on scatter diagrams. In the 560 pairs only three disparate determinations were found. It is concluded that, in most clinical situations, determination of the hemoglobin or the hematocrit as a screening procedure provides as much useful information as the simultaneous determination of both. PMID:5296947

  17. Respiratory properties of blood and hemoglobin solutions from the piranha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, S.C.; Weber, Roy E.; Powers, D.

    1979-01-01

    1. Respiratory properties of piranha blood are distinguished from those of other fish primarily by the high CO2 buffering capacity (?HCO3/-?pH= 19.6mmol/l for oxygenated blood and 39.1 mmol/l for deoxygenated blood). 2. The concentration of nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) and the half-saturation t......) lowered the oxygen affinity of purified hemoglobin solutions, accounting for the size-dependent correlation ofP50 and NTP concentration in whole blood. 5. While similar in concentration in red cells, GTP is more potent than ATP as an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin function....

  18. Bacterial Cell Surface Damage Due to Centrifugal Compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, Brandon W.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Centrifugal damage has been known to alter bacterial cell surface properties and interior structures, including DNA. Very few studies exist on bacterial damage caused by centrifugation because of the difficulty in relating centrifugation speed and container geometry to the damage caused. Here, we

  19. [Effect of hydroxyurea on hemoglobin S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aurora Felíu; Eberle, Silvia Eandi; Sciuccati, Gabriela; Bonduel, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have determined the laboratory alterations, clinical efficacy and toxicity profile associated with hydroxyurea (HU) therapy in patients with severe sickle cell anemia. We report the efficacy of HU treatment in the prevention of vaso-occlusive crises in an 11-years-old boy with severe sickle cell disease. The number of vaso-occlusive crises, hospital days and blood transfusions in the year before HU treatment were compared with the same parameters at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 72 months of treatment. A decrease in the frequency of vaso-occlusive crises, blood transfusions and days spent in hospital were demonstrated during the HU treatment period compared to the same period before hand. The clinical and laboratory response to HU was dramatic in this severely affected patient, allowing him a normal schooling and social life. The adverse effects observed were not serious and reversed after transient discontinuation of HU. We conclude that long-term chronic treatment with HU for seriously ill sickle cell patients appears feasible, and devoid of any major toxicity.

  20. Site-specific semisynthetic variant of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefta, S.A.; Lyle, S.B.; Busch, M.R.; Harris, D.E.; Matthew, J.B.; Gurd, F.R.N.

    1988-01-01

    A single round of Edman degradation was employed to remove the NH 2 -terminal valine from isolated α chains of human hemoglobin. Reconstitution of normal β chains with truncated or substituted α chains was used to form truncated (des-Val 1 -α1) and substituted ([[1- 13 C]Gly 1 ]α1) tetrameric hemoglobin analogs. Structural homology of the analogs with untreated native hemoglobin was established by using several spectroscopic and physical methods. Functional studies indicate that the reconstituted tetrameric protein containing des-Val 1 -α chains has a higher affinity for oxygen, is less influenced by chloride ions or 2,3-biphosphoglycerate, and shows lower cooperativity than native hemoglobin. These results confirm the key functional role of the α-chain NH 2 terminus in mediating cooperative oxygen binding across the dimer interface. The NH 2 -terminal pK/sub 1/2/ value was determined for the [ 13 C]glycine-substituted analog to be 7.46 +/- 0.09 at 15 0 C in the carbon monoxide-liganded form. This value, measured directly by 13 C NMR, agrees with the determination made by the less-direct 13 CO 2 method and confirms the role of this residue as a contributor to the alkaline Bohr effect; however, it is consistent with the presence of an NH 2 -terminal salt bridge to the carboxylate of Arg-141 of the α chain in the liganded form

  1. A Review on hematology and hemoglobin of fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of hematological parameters of fish living in natüre helps to recognize population and to determinate of pollutants in the aquatic environment. In this review, hematological parameters of fish, fish hemoglobin and the Bohr effect were given information.

  2. [Solid phase reaction of hemoglobin with spillover hydrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, Iu A; Dadaian, A K; Ziganshin, R Kh; Borisov, Iu A; Kozik, V S; Dorokhova, E M; Vas'kovskiĭ, B V; Miasoedov, N F

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of high-temperature solid-state catalytic isotope exchange (HSCIE) between bovine hemoglobin and spillover hydrogen (SH) was studied. It was shown that, in the field of subunit contact, there is a significant decrease in ability for hydrogen exchange by SH. A comparison of the distribution of the isotope label in the hemoglobin alpha-subunit was carried out for the HSCIE reaction with the hemoglobin complex and with the free alpha-subunit. To this end, enzymatic hydrolysis of protein under the action of trypsin was carried out. The separation of tritium-labeled tryptic peptides was achieved by HPLC. Changes in availability of polypeptide chain fragments caused by complex formation were calculated using a molecular model. The formation of the protein complex was shown to lead to a decrease in the ability of fragments of alpha-subunits MFLSFPTTK (A(32-40)) and VDPVNFK (A(93-99)) for hydrogen replacement by tritium by almost an order of magnitude; hence, their availability to water (1.4 A) twice decreased on the average. The decrease in ability to an exchange of hydrogen by spillover tritium on the formation of hemoglobin complex was shown to be connected with a reduction in availability of polypeptide chain fragments participating in spatial interactions of subunits with each other. Thus, the HSCIE reaction can be used not only for the preparative obtaining of tritium-labeled compounds, but also for determining the contact area in the formation of protein complexes.

  3. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  4. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of /sup 59/Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of /sup 59/Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in /sup 59/Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models.

  5. A Microplate Assay for the Determination of Hemoglobin Concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frenchik, Michael D; McFaul, Steve J; Tsonev, Latchezar I

    2004-01-01

    ... (NaOH), and converts all hemoglobin species, including COHb, to AHD within 5 min. Both protocols are carried out in cuvettes, and are, therefore, time intensive and difficult to manage when many samples are quantified. This impedes acquisition of triplicate values for each sample necessary to improve accuracy and determine statistical significance.

  6. Mountain Cycling Ultramarathon Effects on Inflammatory and Hemoglobin Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Isanete; Matos, Andreia; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Gil, Ângela; Cardoso, Carlos; Sardinha, Luís B; Bicho, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze the cumulative physiological burden of repetitive, strenuous exercise held during mountain cycling ultramarathon on regulatory mechanisms of hemoglobin degradation. Fifty-five nonprofessional athletes (mean age, 44.8 ± 7.1 yr) participating in a 9-consecutive-day mountain cycling ultramarathon (TransPortugal) underwent anthropometric, hematological, and biochemical assessments before and immediately after the race. Participants were further stratified as completers (nine courses) or noncompleters and were divided according to the time they took to complete the race. The heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) functional genetic polymorphism and haptoglobin (HP) phenotypic variants were also analyzed. Total leukocytes, neutrophil count, and monocyte count increased, whereas decreases in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin were found between pre- and postultramarathon. Circulating haptoglobin (Hp) was increased, whereas its soluble receptor (sCD163) decreased. Athletes who completed all nine courses presented with increased leukocyte, neutrophil, and erythrocyte counts, as well as hemoglobin, red cell distribution width, total bilirubin, and total cholesterol levels. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and Hp decreased in comparison with noncompleters. HMOX1 and HP genetic polymorphisms were associated with biochemical profile, notably with Hp levels. Analysis of covariance showed a significant effect of HP phenotype in Hp circulating levels at the end of race and on the magnitude of variation from pre- to postrace. Present findings support a comodulatory influence of genetic- and exercise-associated factors on resulting inflammatory and hemoglobin catabolic marker Hp after highly demanding endurance exercise.

  7. Myth or reality : Hematocrit and hemoglobin differ in trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Hendriks, Herman G. D.; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Background: Estimating blood loss in trauma patients usually involves the determination of hematocrit (Ht) or hemoglobin (Hb). However, in trauma patients, a poorly substantiated habit exists to determine both Ht and Hb in assessing acute blood loss. This suggests that Ht and Hb provide different

  8. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of human hemoglobin at multiple sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, R.; McManus, M.; Garrick, L.; McDonald, M.J.; Bunn, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    The most abundant minor hemoglobin component of human hemolysate is Hb A1c, which has glucose bound to the N-terminus of the beta chain by a ketoamine linkage. Hb A1c is formed slowly and continuously throughout the 120 day lifespan of the red cell. It can be synthesized in vitro by incubating purified hemoglobin with 14C-glucose. Other minor components, Hb A1a1 and Hb A1a2 are adducts of sugar phosphates at the N-terminus of the beta chain. Hb A1b contains an unidentified nonphosphorylated sugar at the beta N-terminus. In addition, a significant portion of the major hemoglobin component (Hb Ao) is also glycosylated by a glucose ketoamine linkage at other sites on the molecule, including the N-terminus of the alpha chain and the epsilon-amino group of several lysine residues on both the alpha and the beta chains. The results indicate that the interaction of glucose and hemoglobin is rather nonspecific and suggests that other proteins are modified in a similar fashion

  9. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  10. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) has multisystemic manifestations and is associated with severe morbidity and high mortality. It commonly ... Key words: Hemoglobin level, sickle cell anemia, socioeconomic class. Date of Acceptance: ..... prominent in the presence of a chronic disease such as SCA. The study revealed ...

  11. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched controls that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Social class was assessed using educational attainment and occupation of parents. Hemoglobin concentration was determined using the ...

  12. Relationships between hemoglobin A1c and spot glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c is the most acceptable measure of chronic glycemia. It is not widely available and/or affordable in Nigeria. The mean of the monthly fasting plasma glucose (MFPG) of the preceding 3 months is often used as surrogate for assessing chronic glycemia. Objective: To determine the ...

  13. Routine hemoglobin electrophoresis for pediatric surgery day case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HBE) is a part of the preoperative routine requested by anesthetists. However, the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy in the population is low. This study aims to determine the clinical risk factors for hemoglobinopathies and propose clinical guidelines for preoperative screening of ...

  14. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  15. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  16. The Relationship Between Hemoglobin Level and Intellectual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Nancy

    In a study to learn whether or not poor nutrition, as indicated by low hemoglobin levels, affects intelligence and behavior, 113 Head Start children in Missoula, Montana took part. Group testing with the Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test and individual testing with the Wechsler and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  17. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of 59 Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of 59 Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in 59 Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models

  18. Bacterial strategies of resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hwang-Soo; Fu, Chih-Iung; Otto, Michael

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a key component of the host's innate immune system, targeting invasive and colonizing bacteria. For successful survival and colonization of the host, bacteria have a series of mechanisms to interfere with AMP activity, and AMP resistance is intimately connected with the virulence potential of bacterial pathogens. In particular, because AMPs are considered as potential novel antimicrobial drugs, it is vital to understand bacterial AMP resistance mechanisms. This review gives a comparative overview of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strategies of resistance to various AMPs, such as repulsion or sequestration by bacterial surface structures, alteration of membrane charge or fluidity, degradation and removal by efflux pumps.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Hemoglobin Roanne [alpha 94(G1) Asp-->Glu]: a variant of the alpha 1 beta 2 interface with an unexpected high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, J; Kiger, L; Francina, A; Hanny, P; Szymanowicz, A; Blouquit, Y; Promé, D; Galactéros, F; Delaunay, J; Wajcman, H

    1995-01-05

    In hemoglobin (Hb) Roanne, the aspartate residue alpha 94(G1) is replaced by a glutamic acid. This residue plays a key role in the structural changes affecting the alpha 1 beta 2 contact area during the deoxy- to oxy-state transition in the hemoglobin molecule. Aspartate alpha 94(G1) is involved in several contacts both in the deoxy- and oxy-structures. The most important of those is a hydrogen bond with asparagine beta 102 (G4), stabilizing the oxygenated structure. Alteration of this contact usually leads to a decrease in oxygen affinity. Hb Roanne is the first example in which an increased oxygen affinity was found as a result of a structural modification at this position. Functional data suggested that the mechanisms responsible for this altered property are a destabilisation of the T-structure and a modification of the allosteric equilibrium.

  20. Genetic hemoglobin disorders rather than iron deficiency are a major predictor of hemoglobin concentration in women of reproductive age in rural prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Devlin, Angela M; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is common in Cambodian women. Potential causes include micronutrient deficiencies, genetic hemoglobin disorders, inflammation, and disease. We aimed to investigate factors associated with anemia (low hemoglobin concentration) in rural Cambodian women (18-45 y) and to investigate the relations between hemoglobin disorders and other iron biomarkers. Blood samples were obtained from 450 women. A complete blood count was conducted, and serum and plasma were analyzed for ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), folate, vitamin B-12, retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1 acid glycoprotein (AGP). Hemoglobin electrophoresis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence and type of genetic hemoglobin disorders. Overall, 54% of women had a genetic hemoglobin disorder, which included 25 different genotypes (most commonly, hemoglobin E variants and α(3.7)-thalassemia). Of the 420 nonpregnant women, 29.5% had anemia (hemoglobin 8.3 mg/L), hemoglobin disorders, respectively. There was no biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency (RBP 5 mg/L) and 26% (AGP >1 g/L) of nonpregnant women, respectively. By using an adjusted linear regression model, the strongest predictors of hemoglobin concentration were hemoglobin E homozygous disorder and pregnancy status. Other predictors were 2 other heterozygous traits (hemoglobin E and Constant Spring), parity, RBP, log ferritin, and vitamin B-12. Multiple biomarkers for anemia and iron deficiency were significantly influenced by the presence of hemoglobin disorders, hence reducing their diagnostic sensitivity. Further investigation of the unexpectedly low prevalence of IDA in Cambodian women is warranted. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Isolation of antibodies specific to sickle hemoglobin by affinity chromatography using a synthetic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.S.; Curd, J.G.; Eastlake, A.; Furie, B.; Schechter, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    Antibodies to hemoglobin have been studied with a radioimmunoassay which employs [ 14 C]carbamylated (= carbamoylated) hemoglobin S. An antiserum raised against hemoglobin S, which initially discriminated poorly between hemoglobins S and A, was fractionated by absorption to a column of Sepharose to which a synthetic peptide corresponding to the first 13 amino-acid residues of the β chain of sickle hemoglobin had been covalently bound. A subpopulation of the antiserum was eluted from this column with 4 M guanidine . HCl. These antibodies showed binding to hemoglobin S but not to hemoglobin A and this interaction could be inhibited by the synthetic peptide. These antibodies, of demonstrated fine structural specificity, may be useful in the detection of sickle hemoglobin and in the study of its structure in solution

  2. The subunit structure of the extracellular hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, Marcio H.L.; Naves, Cristiani F.; Xavier, Luciana P.; Santoro, Marcelo M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata was purified to homogeneity by a two step purification protocol using a gel filtration column (Superose 6 HR/Pharmacia ) followed by an anion exchange chromatography (MONO-Q Sepharose/Pharmacia). The dissociation products were analysed by a 5 - 15 % Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-PAGE) giving a band of 270 K Daltons and a band of 180 K Daltons after reduction with β-mercaptoethanol. The same profile was obtained in a 3.5 % Agarose gel electrophoresis containing SDS (SDS-AGE) showing additional bands of higher molecular weight. These bands were proposed to be monomers, dimers and trimers and, after reduction in a Bidimensional SDS-AGE, the proposed monomers and dimers were decomposed in two and four bands that were interpreted as 1 - 4 chains. The hemoglobin was digested by four different proteases ( Thrombin, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Subtilisin ) showing several equivalent fragments with molecular weights multiples of its minimum molecular weight ( 17.7 K Daltons). The circular dichroism spectrum of the protein showed a characteristic high α-helix content. We proposed that this hemoglobin is a pentamer of approx. 360 K Daltons subunits each formed by two 180 K Daltons chains linked in pairs by disulfide bridges and each of these chains comprises ten Heme binding domains. These data were compared to other Planorbidae extracellular hemoglobins. Up to now, the quaternary structure of this hemoglobin (shape and disposition of the subunits) is unknown. It is intended to elucidate its structure by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering in Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (LNLS). (author)

  3. [Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of human exposure to selected xenobiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Bożena

    2015-06-12

    In the living and working environments more and more new substances of anthropogenic origin exerting toxic properties appear. Simultaneously, the evaluation of human exposure is assessed. For many years adducts of hemoglobin (Hb) have been useful markers of the exposure of humans to various xenobiotics. These adducts are also termed biologically effective dose biomarkers. This paper focuses on a review of literature, mainly from the years 2010-2014, which refers to the hemoglobin adducts of toxic compounds with electrophilic properties. In the interactions of xenobiotics with hemoglobin, groups such as thiol, amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl of this hemoprotein are involved. These combinations occur most often in the reaction of xenobiotics with an N-terminal amino group of valine in Hb, imidazole nitrogen of histidine and cysteine sulfhydryl β93. Hb adducts are characterized by high availability, a long period of occurrence (up to 120 days) in the circulatory system, and high durability, and they have contact with all cells of the body. The measurement of hemoglobin adducts can be potentially used in the assessment of exposure to many xenobiotics such as acrylamide; substances present in tobacco smoke, e.g. benzo(α)pyrene and benzanthracene, ethylene oxide, aryl amines; and substances used on a large scale in industry such as glycidol and naphthalene and its derivatives. Recently the possibility of determination of hemoglobin adducts with estrogen metabolites has been postulated as indicators informing about heightened risk of breast cancer. Protein adducts are used as an alternative to DNA adducts for different classes of electrophilic substances.

  4. Hemoglobin Kinetics and Long-term Prognosis in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-López, Carles; Lupón, Josep; de Antonio, Marta; Zamora, Elisabet; Domingo, Mar; Santesmases, Javier; Troya, Maria-Isabel; Boldó, Maria; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    The influence of hemoglobin kinetics on outcomes in heart failure has been incompletely established. Hemoglobin was determined at the first visit and at 6 months. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria (hemoglobin < 13g/dL for men and hemoglobin < 12g/dL for women). Patients were classified relative to their hemoglobin values as nonanemic (both measurements normal), transiently anemic (anemic at the first visit but not at 6 months), newly anemic (nonanemic initially but anemic at 6 months), or permanently anemic (anemic in both measurements). A total of 1173 consecutive patients (71.9% men, mean age 66.8±12.2 years) were included in the study. In all, 476 patients (40.6%) were considered nonanemic, 170 (14.5%) had transient anemia, 147 (12.5%) developed new-onset anemia, and 380 (32.4%) were persistently anemic. During a follow-up of 3.7±2.8 years after the 6-month visit, 494 patients died. On comprehensive multivariable analyses, anemia (P < .001) and the type of anemia (P < .001) remained as independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Compared with patients without anemia, patients with persistent anemia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.30-2.03; P < .001) and new-onset anemia (HR = 1.39; 95%CI, 1.04-1.87, P = .03) had higher mortality, and even transient anemia showed a similar trend, although without reaching statistical significance (HR = 1.31; 95%CI, 0.97-1.77, P = .075). Anemia, especially persistent and of new-onset, and to a lesser degree, transient anemia, is deleterious in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Gamma-interferon alters globin gene expression in neonatal and adult erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.A.; Perrine, S.P.; Antognetti, G.; Perlmutter, D.H.; Emerson, S.G.; Sieff, C.; Faller, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of gamma-interferon on fetal hemoglobin synthesis by purified cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors was studied with a radioligand assay to measure hemoglobin production by BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Coculture with recombinant gamma-interferon resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decrease in fetal hemoglobin production by neonatal and adult, but not fetal, BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Accumulation of fetal hemoglobin by cord blood BFU-E-derived erythroblasts decreased up to 38.1% of control cultures (erythropoietin only). Synthesis of both G gamma/A gamma globin was decreased, since the G gamma/A gamma ratio was unchanged. Picograms fetal hemoglobin per cell was decreased by gamma-interferon addition, but picograms total hemoglobin was unchanged, demonstrating that a reciprocal increase in beta-globin production occurred in cultures treated with gamma-interferon. No toxic effect of gamma-interferon on colony growth was noted. The addition of gamma-interferon to cultures resulted in a decrease in the percentage of HbF produced by adult BFU-E-derived cells to 45.6% of control. Fetal hemoglobin production by cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors, was not significantly affected by the addition of recombinant GM-CSF, recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), recombinant IL-2, or recombinant alpha-interferon. Although fetal progenitor cells appear unable to alter their fetal hemoglobin program in response to any of the growth factors added here, the interaction of neonatal and adult erythroid progenitors with gamma-interferon results in an altered expression of globin genes

  6. Study of Hemoglobin in Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Diet in Obese Women with risk of cardiac Problem in Lucknow city

    OpenAIRE

    shyam vinay sharma; sciddhartha koonwar; virendra atam; Uma Singh; M L Patel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hemoglobin level and pattern of food intake is closely associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases. The cardiovascular diseases are primarily may be due to altered lipid profile which is depend on type and pattern of food intake. Association of vegetarian and non-vegetarianisms in obese women is controversial. Method: The study was conducted on vegetarianism and non-vegetarianism obese female. A total of 55 subjects were enrolled (35 cases and 20 control) for the study. The ...

  7. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P hemoglobin dissociation curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated. Conclusion MR imaging

  8. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  9. Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors involved in renal clearance of hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gburek, Jakub; Verroust, Pierre J; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    The kidney is the main site of hemoglobin clearance and degradation in conditions of severe hemolysis. Herein it is reported that megalin and cubilin, two epithelial endocytic receptors, mediate the uptake of hemoglobin in renal proximal tubules. Both receptors were purified by use of hemoglobin...

  10. 21 CFR 864.8165 - Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit....8165 Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement. (a) Identification. A calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement is a device that approximates whole blood, red blood cells, or a...

  11. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  12. Evaluation of non cyanide methods for hemoglobin estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemoglobincyanide method (HiCN method for measuring hemoglobin is used extensively worldwide; its advantages are the ready availability of a stable and internationally accepted reference standard calibrator. However, its use may create a problem, as the waste disposal of large volumes of reagent containing cyanide constitutes a potential toxic hazard. Aims and Objective: As an alternative to drabkin`s method of Hb estimation, we attempted to estimate hemoglobin by other non-cyanide methods: alkaline hematin detergent (AHD-575 using Triton X-100 as lyser and alkaline- borax method using quarternary ammonium detergents as lyser. Materials and Methods: The hemoglobin (Hb results on 200 samples of varying Hb concentrations obtained by these two cyanide free methods were compared with a cyanmethemoglobin method on a colorimeter which is light emitting diode (LED based. Hemoglobin was also estimated in one hundred blood donors and 25 blood samples of infants and compared by these methods. Statistical analysis used was Pearson`s correlation coefficient. Results: The response of the non cyanide method is linear for serially diluted blood samples over the Hb concentration range from 3gm/dl -20 gm/dl. The non cyanide methods has a precision of + 0.25g/dl (coefficient of variation= (2.34% and is suitable for use with fixed wavelength or with colorimeters at wavelength- 530 nm and 580 nm. Correlation of these two methods was excellent (r=0.98. The evaluation has shown it to be as reliable and reproducible as HiCN for measuring hemoglobin at all concentrations. The reagents used in non cyanide methods are non-biohazardous and did not affect the reliability of data determination and also the cost was less than HiCN method. Conclusions: Thus, non cyanide methods of Hb estimation offer possibility of safe and quality Hb estimation and should prove useful for routine laboratory use. Non cyanide methods is easily incorporated in hemobloginometers

  13. Correlation between Hemoglobin Level, Attention and Working Memory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatin Aliya Indrina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention and working memory functions have important roles in daily activities. Normal level of hemoglobin is required for optimum attention and working memory functions. This study aims to analyze the correlation between hemoglobin level, attention, and working memory scores in medical students who attended Atlas Medical Pioneer (AMP Basic Program XXI. Methods: The total population sample for this cross-sectional study included 27 males and 19 females. The hemoglobin level was meassured by using cyanmethemoglobin method. Digit Symbol Test, Digit Span Forward and Backward Test, Trail Making Test A and B, and Stroop Test were used to assess attention and working memory scores. The study was conducted from September to November 2012 in Jatinangor campus of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran and Clinical Pathology Laboratory of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. The correlation analysis was performed using computer. Results: The correlation between hemoglobin level in males and attention on Trail Making Test A score was (r=0.144 (p=0.474. While the correlations with theTrail-Making Test B and Stroop Test scores were (r=0.332 (0.091, and (r=-0.320 (p=-0.103, respectively. For females, the correlations with the Trail Making Test A, Trail Making Test B, and Stroop Test scores were (r=0.121 (p=0.622, (r=-0.232 (p=0.338, and (r=0.137 (p=0.576, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation between hemoglobin level and the working memory on Digit Symbol Test, Digit Span Forward Test, and Digit Span Backward Test scores for-males were (r=0.256 (p=0.197, (r=0.419 (p=0.029, and (r=0.113 (p=0.576, respectively. For-females, the same correlations were (r=0.412 (p=0.080, (r=-0.299 (p=0.213, and (r=-0.028 (p=0.909, respectively. The only test that showed statistically significant result was Digit Span Forward Test in males. Conclusions: There is evident of weak correlation between hemoglobin level, attention, and working memory scores in

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of reptilian hemoglobins: trees, rates, and divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorr, T A; Mable, B K; Kleinschmidt, T

    1998-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among reptiles were examined using previously published and newly determined hemoglobin sequences. Trees reconstructed from these sequences using maximum-parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum-likelihood algorithms were compared with a phylogenetic tree of Amniota, which was assembled on the basis of published morphological data. All analyses differentiated alpha chains into alphaA and alphaD types, which are present in all reptiles except crocodiles, where only alphaA chains are expressed. The occurrence of the alphaD chain in squamates (lizards and snakes only in this study) appears to be a general characteristic of these species. Lizards and snakes also express two types of beta chains (betaI and betaII), while only one type of beta chain is present in birds and crocodiles. Reconstructed hemoglobin trees for both alpha and beta sequences did not yield the monophyletic Archosauria (i.e., crocodilians + birds) and Lepidosauria (i.e., Sphenodon + squamates) groups defined by the morphology tree. This discrepancy, as well as some other poorly resolved nodes, might be due to substantial heterogeneity in evolutionary rates among single hemoglobin lineages. Estimation of branch lengths based on uncorrected amino acid substitutions and on distances corrected for multiple substitutions (PAM distances) revealed that relative rates for squamate alphaA and alphaD chains and crocodilian beta chains are at least twice as high as those of the rest of the chains considered. In contrast to these rate inequalities between reptilian orders, little variation was found within squamates, which allowed determination of absolute evolutionary rates for this subset of hemoglobins. Rate estimates for hemoglobins of lizards and snakes yielded 1.7 (alphaA) and 3.3 (beta) million years/PAM when calibrated with published divergence time vs. PAM distance correlates for several speciation events within snakes and for the squamate left and right arrow sphenodontid

  15. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  16. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua hemoglobin genes: multiplicity and polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamperl A Kurt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin (Hb polymorphism, assessed by protein gel electrophoresis, has been used almost exclusively to characterize the genetic structure of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua populations and to establish correlations with phenotypic traits such as Hb oxygen binding capacity, temperature tolerance and growth characteristics. The genetic system used to explain the results of gel electrophoresis entails the presence of one polymorphic locus with two major alleles (HbI-1; HbI-2. However, vertebrates have more than one gene encoding Hbs and recent studies have reported that more than one Hb gene is present in Atlantic cod. These observations prompted us to re-evaluate the number of Hb genes expressed in Atlantic cod, and to perform an in depth search for polymorphisms that might produce relevant phenotypes for breeding programs. Results Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs led to the identification of nine distinct Hb transcripts; four corresponding to the α Hb gene family and five to the β Hb gene family. To gain insights about the Hb genes encoding these transcripts, genomic sequence data was generated from heterozygous (HbI-1/2 parents and fifteen progeny; five of each HbI type, i.e., HbI-1/1, HbI-1/2 and HbI-2/2. β Hb genes displayed more polymorphism than α Hb genes. Two major allele types (β1A and β1B that differ by two linked non-synonymous substitutions (Met55Val and Lys62Ala were found in the β1 Hb gene, and the distribution of these β1A and β1B alleles among individuals was congruent with that of the HbI-1 and HbI-2 alleles determined by protein gel electrophoresis. RT-PCR and Q-PCR analysis of the nine Hb genes indicates that all genes are expressed in adult fish, but their level of expression varies greatly; higher expression of almost all Hb genes was found in individuals displaying the HbI-2/2 electrophoretic type. Conclusion This study indicates that more Hb genes are present and expressed in adult

  17. Improvements in or relating to antibodies active against human hemoglobin Asub(1C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, J.; Cerami, A.; Koenig, R.J.; Pettis, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for preparing an antibody against human hemoglobin Asub(1c) which is substantially free of cross-reactivity against the human hemoglobins A 0 , Asub(1a) and Asub(1b). The antibodies are collected from cats, goats or sheep following injections of purified hemoglobin Asub(1c) antigen since these animals do not naturally produce hemoglobin Asub(1c). A radioimmunoassay method is also described whereby these antibodies are used to determine the quantity of hemoglobin Asub(1c) in blood samples. This is a useful technique in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. (U.K.)

  18. Concurrent measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellik, Yuva; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, a multitude of analytical methods for measuring antioxidant activity of plant extracts has been developed. However, when using methods to determine hemoglobin released from human erythrocytes treated with ginger extracts, we found hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher than in untreated control samples. This suggests in the presence of antioxidants that measuring hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to determine hemolysis. We show concurrent measurement of erythrocyte concentration and hemoglobin is essential in such assays, and describe a new protocol based on simultaneous measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr) in the detection of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrechaga Igartua, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Escanero, Jesús F

    2017-09-01

    Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration within the reference interval does not exclude iron deficiency (ID): individuals with normal stores lose iron during a long period before their Hb falls below of the level that is defined as anemia. The process entails a decrease of storage iron, shown by serum ferritin below reference range, followed by iron depletion, eventually leading to iron restricted erythropoiesis; consequence of an imbalance between erythropoietic iron requirements and too low supply is a reduction of Hb synthesis in reticulocytes. We study the potential utility of mean reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr), reported by CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics) analyzer, in the detection of ID in non-anemic adults. 207 patients with Hb within the reference range were enrolled. ID was defined as Hb>120g/L (women), >130g/L (men) and serum ferritin iron deficient adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-11-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity.

  1. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion....... The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood...

  2. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels considered as mild anemia (9 g/dL 0.05, nor with socioeconomic or demographic characteristics (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of anemia was low and classified as a mild health problem, preventive nutrition education involving the dissemination of healthy eating habits in schools and encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods are strongly recommended.

  3. Hemoglobin-oxygen-carbon monoxide equilibria with the MWC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senozan, N M; DeVore, J A; Lesniewski, E K

    1998-11-16

    Fractional saturation equations for the Monod, Wyman and Changeux model are derived for the case of two distinct ligands bonding to a host molecule with four ligand sites and two conformational states. A variety of useful graphical studies can be derived from these equations when applied to normal human hemoglobin with O2 and CO as ligands. For example, the oxygen transport capability of hemoglobin can be assessed at different environmental CO levels and the concentrations of various liganded species can be displayed as a function of fractional saturation with oxygen. In addition, the CO pressure in the tissue, PCOtissue, can be calculated as a function of the tissue oxygen pressure, PO2tissue, at different environmental levels of CO. In an environment of a given CO concentration, PCOtissue decreases with PO2tissue until a minimum is reached. Further decrease in PO2tissue results in a fairly steep rise in PCOtissue.

  4. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Guttormsen, Anne B; Karlsson, Sari; Johansson, Pär I; Aneman, Anders; Vang, Marianne L; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Nibro, Helle L; Rasmussen, Bodil S; Lauridsen, Johnny R M; Nielsen, Jane S; Oldner, Anders; Pettilä, Ville; Cronhjort, Maria B; Andersen, Lasse H; Pedersen, Ulf G; Reiter, Nanna; Wiis, Jørgen; White, Jonathan O; Russell, Lene; Thornberg, Klaus J; Hjortrup, Peter B; Müller, Rasmus G; Møller, Morten H; Steensen, Morten; Tjäder, Inga; Kilsand, Kristina; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Sjøbø, Brit; Bundgaard, Helle; Thyø, Maria A; Lodahl, David; Mærkedahl, Rikke; Albeck, Carsten; Illum, Dorte; Kruse, Mary; Winkel, Per; Perner, Anders

    2014-10-09

    Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay. The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood (interquartile range, 0 to 3) and the higher-threshold group received a median of 4 units (interquartile range, 2 to 7). At 90 days after randomization, 216 of 502 patients (43.0%) assigned to the lower-threshold group, as compared with 223 of 496 (45.0%) assigned to the higher-threshold group, had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.44). The results were similar in analyses adjusted for risk factors at baseline and in analyses of the per-protocol populations. The numbers of patients who had ischemic events, who had severe adverse reactions, and who required life support were similar in the two intervention groups. Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion at a lower threshold; the latter group received fewer transfusions. (Funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and others; TRISS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01485315.).

  5. A retrospective study on fourteen year hemoglobin genotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This suggests the possibility of many other residents in the capital city of Ondo state carrying the abnormal forms of hemoglobin genotype, and calling for more efforts in the area of genetic counseling. The gene frequencies of A, S, and C were 0.91, 0.08 and 0.01, respectively. The prevalence of HbAA in this study has been ...

  6. Hemoglobin Status and Externalizing Behavioral Problems in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Still considered one of the most prevalent nutritional problems in the world, anemia has been shown in many studies to have deleterious effects on neurobehavioral development. While most research efforts have focused on investigating the effects of anemia on social and emotional development of infants by using a cross-sectional design, research is still needed to investigate whether early childhood anemia, beyond infantile years, is linked with behavioral problems. Objective: This study assessed whether (1 hemoglobin (Hb levels in early childhood are associated with externalizing behavior; and (2 this relationship is confounded by social adversity. Methods: Hemoglobin levels were taken from children (N = 98 of the China Jintan Cohort Study at age 4 years, and externalizing behaviors (attention and aggression were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (ASEBA-CBCL at age 6 years (mean age 5.77 ± 0.39 years old. Results: Compared with other children in the sample, children with relatively lower Hb levels at age 4 had more behavioral problems in both attention and aggression at age 6, independent of social adversity. For boys, this association was significant for attention problems, which did not interact with social adversity. For girls, the association was significant for aggression, which interacted with social adversity. While girls on average exhibited higher social adversity than boys, the main effect of Hb was only significant in girls with low social adversity. Conclusions: These results indicate that there is an inverse association between hemoglobin levels and later behavioral problems. Findings of this study suggest that regular monitoring of children’s hemoglobin levels and appropriate intervention may help with early identification of behavioral problems.

  7. Energetics of subunit assembly and ligand binding in human hemoglobin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ackers, G K

    1980-01-01

    An extensive and self-consistent set of thermodynamic properties has recently been established for the coupled processes of subunit assembly and ligand binding (oxygen and protons) in human hemoglobin. The resulting thermodynamic values permit a consideration of the possible sources of energetic terms accounting for stability of the tetrameric quaternary structures at different stages of ligation, and of the possible sources of cooperative energy. The analysis indicates that: (a) The change i...

  8. Site-Selective Glycosylation of Hemoglobin on Cys β93

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yalong; Bhatt, Veer S.; Sun, Guoyong; Wang, Peng G.; Palmer, Andre F.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a novel glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) with high oxygen affinity as a potential Hb-based oxygen carrier. Site-selective glycosylation of bovine Hb was achieved by conjugating a lactose derivative to Cys 93 on the β subunit of Hb. LC-MS analysis indicates that the reaction was quantitative, with no unmodified Hb present in the reaction product. The glycosylation site was identified by chymotrypsin digestion of the glycosylated bovin...

  9. The hemoglobin system of the serpent eel Ophisurus serpens: structural and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Barbara; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Messana, Irene; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Castagnola, Massimo; Iavarone, Federica; Coluccia, Elisabetta; Giardina, Bruno; Olianas, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    The hemoglobin system of the serpent eel Ophisurus serpens was structurally and functionally characterized with the aim of comparing it to the hemoglobin system of other fish species, as oxygen loading under the severe habitat conditions experienced by O. serpens could have necessitated specific adaptation mechanisms during evolution. The hemoglobin system of O. serpens includes one cathodic and four anodic components. The molecular mass of the α and β chains of the cathodic component as well as the 2 α and 4 β of the anodic components were determined. Analysis of the intact α and β chains from cathodic hemoglobin and their proteolytic digestion products by high-resolution MS and MS/MS experiments resulted in 92 and 95 % sequence coverage of the α and β globins, respectively. The oxygen binding properties of both hemoglobin components were analyzed with respect to their interactions with their physiological effectors. Stripped cathodic hemoglobin displayed the highest oxygen affinity among Anguilliformes with no significant effect of pH on O2-affinity. In the presence of both chloride and organic phosphates, O2-affinity was strongly reduced, and cooperativity was enhanced; moreover, cathodic hemoglobin contains two indistinguishable GTP-binding sites. Stripped anodic hemoglobins exhibited both low O2-affinity and low cooperativity and a larger Bohr effect than cathodic hemoglobin. The cathodic hemoglobin of O. serpens and the corresponding component of Conger conger share the greatest structural and functional similarity among hemoglobin systems of Anguilliformes studied to date, consistent with their phylogenetic relationship.

  10. Can noninvasive hemoglobin measurement reduce the need for preoperative venipuncture in pediatric outpatient surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruifeng; Svensen, Christer H; Li, Husong; Xu, Ximou; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Liu, Huacheng; Li, Yanrong; Shangguan, Wangning; Lian, Qingquan

    2017-11-01

    Noninvasive measurements of hemoglobin in the pediatric perioperative setting could be helpful to avoid venipunctures in children. The present study aims to evaluate this by using a noninvasive device for hemoglobin determination. We compared noninvasively obtained hemoglobin with laboratory hemoglobin concentrations in children during their preoperative assessment. In an observational study, 122 nonanemic children (age 4.2 ± 1.6 years) who were scheduled to undergo different surgical procedures under general anesthesia were included. In their preoperative preparations, single invasive blood samples for laboratory hemoglobin concentrations were routinely taken following hospital policy and compared to simultaneous noninvasive determinations of hemoglobin. A preoperative invasive value ≤9 g/dL would have caused cancelation of surgery and implied further investigations. A Bland-Altman plot showed that the average difference between noninvasively obtained hemoglobin and laboratory hemoglobin concentration was -0.44 g/dL (bias) with a standard deviation of the mean bias of 1.04 g/dL. A hemoglobin error grid showed that the noninvasive device could identify almost all invasive hemoglobin values >9 g/dL. In total, there were 4 false-positive values where noninvasively obtained hemoglobin observations were below while the paired invasive values were above 9 g/dL. The data in this pediatric setting suggest that the device may eliminate the need for venipuncture in nonanemic children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Molten globule of hemoglobin proceeds into aggregates and advanced glycated end products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Iram

    Full Text Available Conformational alterations of bovine hemoglobin (Hb upon sequential addition of glyoxal over a range of 0-90% v/v were investigated. At 20% v/v glyoxal, molten globule (MG state of Hb was observed by altered tryptophan fluorescence, high ANS binding, existence of intact heme, native-like secondary structure as depicted by far-UV circular dichroism (CD and ATR-FTIR spectra as well as loss in tertiary structure as confirmed by near-UV CD spectra. In addition, size exclusion chromatography analysis depicted that MG state at 20% v/v glyoxal corresponded to expanded pre-dissociated dimers. Aggregates of Hb were detected at 70% v/v glyoxal. These aggregates of Hb had altered tryptophan environment, low ANS binding, exposed heme, increased β-sheet secondary structure, loss in tertiary structure, enhanced thioflavin T (ThT fluorescence and red shifted Congo Red (CR absorbance. On incubating Hb with 30% v/v glyoxal for 0-20 days, advanced glycation end products (AGEs were detected on day 20. These AGEs were characterised by enhanced tryptophan fluorescence at 450 nm, exposure of heme, increase in intermolecular β-sheets, enhanced ThT fluorescence and red shift in CR absorbance. Comet assay revealed aggregates and AGEs to be genotoxic in nature. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the amorphous structure of aggregates and branched fibrils of AGEs. The transformation of α-helix to β-sheet usually alters the normal protein to amyloidogenic resulting in a variety of protein conformational disorders such as diabetes, prion and Huntington's.

  12. Effect of ethanol of the radiation sensitivity of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of oxy-, deoxy-, and methemoglobin (HbOs, Hbbj, and MetHb) in water solutions containing 0.2 M ethanol and in ethanol-free solutions was compared. Radiation sensitivity was estimated on the basis of changes in absorbance at the Soret band (a = 430 nm for deoxyhemoglobin), changes in the absorbance ration Avqv/Avwt determined after conversion of irradiated preparations to methemoglobin, and changes in the value of parameters describing the reaction of hemoglobin oxygenation. The protection coefficient p of hemoglobin by ethanol (ratio of a change in the absence of ethanol to that in its presence) calculated from changes in absorbance at the Soret band equaled about 1.5 at a 4-Mrad dose in all bases except MetHb irradiated in air for which p was much higher (about 3.2). The protection coefficient p' calculated from Dtx values for changes in Avchemically bondv/Avwt equaled 2.2 for HbOs, and 2.8 for MetHb for preparations irradiated in air; p' = 1.7 for Hbbj and 1.8 for MetHb for preparations irradiated under argon. On the basis of these results, the role of /sup ./OH radicals and oxygen in the radiation damage of hemoglobin is discussed

  13. Chronic mountain sickness, optimal hemoglobin, and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Enrique; Spielvogel, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    For the male inhabitants of La Paz, Bolivia (3200-4100 m), and other high altitude regions in America and Asia, chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a major health problem. Since CMS was first described by Carlos Monge in the Peruvian Andes in 1925, numerous research papers have been devoted to this topic, but many unanswered questions still exist with respect to the beginning of the disease and its cause(s). The experience with CMS has shown that an excessively high hemoglobin concentration is not favorable for high altitude acclimatization, and the hypothesis of theoretically "optimal" hematocrit and "optimal" hemoglobin has been made. The calculated optimal hemoglobin concentration of 14.7 g/dL for resting men in the Andes is discussed as theoretical and not applicable in real life. The most frequent congenital and acquired heart diseases are discussed, such as patent ductus, atrial septum defect, ventricle septum defect among congenital heart diseases and the still very frequent rheumatic valve cardiopathies and Chagas disease as acquired cardiopathies. Among the typical acquired heart diseases of the high altitude dweller, special attention is given to chronic cor pulmonale as a consequence of severe CMS with pulmonary hypertension.

  14. [Anemia and hemoglobin diseases in patients with migration background].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, S; Dickerhoff, R

    2014-02-01

    Among the German population with migration background there are probably 150 000-200 000 carriers of thalassemia (α und β) and sickle cell disease, respectively, who have no or little symptoms. Compared to neighboring countries the number of sickle cell (1000-1500) and thalassemia patients (500-600) in Germany is rather low. This may explain the fact that hemoglobin diseases are not yet considered a public health problem in Germany. With optimal care 85-90 % of children with sickle cell disease and 100 % of children with thalassemia reach adulthood. In order to increase awareness for patients with hemoglobin diseases we discuss the most pertinent disease manifestations of adult patients and point out possibilities to obtain information. Specialists in regional centers should be addressed for acute management problems. Up to now it is difficult for many adult sickle cell and thalassemia patients to find a physician well enough informed and experienced to take over the care of their complex disease. Many adult patients are still taken care of by pediatricians. Urgently needed are reference centers with experience in management of hemoglobin diseases who are qualified for training hematologists and who can assure the transition of these patients from pediatrics to adult medical care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Modifier genes in Mendelian disorders: the example of hemoglobin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Vijay G; Lettre, Guillaume; Orkin, Stuart H; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2010-12-01

    The disorders of hemoglobin, including sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia, are the most common "Mendelian" genetic diseases in the world. Numerous studies have demonstrated the complexity in making genotype-phenotype correlations in both SCD and β-thalassemia. Indeed, patients with exactly the same set of pathogenic globin mutations can have dramatically variable clinical courses. We discuss natural history studies that have attempted to delineate the factors responsible for the variability among the numerous clinical complications noted in these diseases. We then discuss, in depth, two well characterized ameliorating factors in the β-hemoglobin disorders, concomitant α-thalassemia, and elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). We use the study of HbF regulation to illustrate how important insights into the genetic modifiers in Mendelian diseases can be achieved through the study of such factors. We finally go on to discuss future avenues of research that may allow us to gain further insight into the poorly understood clinical heterogeneity of this fascinating set of common genetic diseases. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Evaluation of two methods to measure hemoglobin concentration among women with genetic hemoglobin disorders in Cambodia: a method-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Janmohamed, Amynah; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-02-20

    Genetic hemoglobin (Hb) E variants are common in Cambodia and result in an altered and unstable Hb molecule. We evaluated two methods to measure Hb concentration among individuals with and without Hb variants using a hemoglobinometer (HemoCue) and a hematology analyzer (Sysmex XT-1800i). We determined the bias and concordance between the methods among 420 Cambodian women (18-45 y). Bias and concordance appeared similar between methods among women with no Hb disorders (n=195, bias=2.5, ρc=0.68), women with Hb E variants (n=133, bias=2.5, ρc=0.78), and women with other Hb variants (n=92, bias=2.7, ρc=0.73). The overall bias was 2.6g/l, resulting in a difference in anemia prevalence of 11.5% (41% using HemoCue and 29.5% using Sysmex, p<0.001). Based on visual interpretation of the concordance plots, the HemoCue device appears to underestimate Hb concentrations at lower Hb concentrations and to overestimate Hb concentrations at higher Hb concentrations (in comparison to the Sysmex analyzer). Bias and concordance were similar across groups, suggesting the two methods of Hb measurement were comparable. We caution field staff, researchers and policy makers in the interpretation of data and the impact that bias between methods can have on anemia prevalence rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contribution of a mutational hot spot to hemoglobin adaptation in high-altitude Andean house wrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Spencer C; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Benham, Phred M; Chavez, Andrea N; Cheviron, Zachary A; Storz, Jay F; Witt, Christopher C

    2015-11-10

    A key question in evolutionary genetics is why certain mutations or certain types of mutation make disproportionate contributions to adaptive phenotypic evolution. In principle, the preferential fixation of particular mutations could stem directly from variation in the underlying rate of mutation to function-altering alleles. However, the influence of mutation bias on the genetic architecture of phenotypic evolution is difficult to evaluate because data on rates of mutation to function-altering alleles are seldom available. Here, we report the discovery that a single point mutation at a highly mutable site in the β(A)-globin gene has contributed to an evolutionary change in hemoglobin (Hb) function in high-altitude Andean house wrens (Troglodytes aedon). Results of experiments on native Hb variants and engineered, recombinant Hb mutants demonstrate that a nonsynonymous mutation at a CpG dinucleotide in the β(A)-globin gene is responsible for an evolved difference in Hb-O2 affinity between high- and low-altitude house wren populations. Moreover, patterns of genomic differentiation between high- and low-altitude populations suggest that altitudinal differentiation in allele frequencies at the causal amino acid polymorphism reflects a history of spatially varying selection. The experimental results highlight the influence of mutation rate on the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution by demonstrating that a large-effect allele at a highly mutable CpG site has promoted physiological differentiation in blood O2 transport capacity between house wren populations that are native to different elevations.

  18. Hemoglobin interactions with αB crystallin: a direct test of sensitivity to protein instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler J W Clark

    Full Text Available As a small stress response protein, human αB crystallin, detects protein destabilization that can alter structure and function to cause self assembly of fibrils or aggregates in diseases of aging. The sensitivity of αB crystallin to protein instability was evaluated using wild-type hemoglobin (HbA and hemoglobin S (HbS, the glutamate-6-valine mutant that forms elongated, filamentous aggregates in sickling red blood cells. The progressive thermal unfolding and aggregation of HbA and HbS in solution at 37°C, 50°C and 55°C was measured as increased light scattering. UV circular dichroism (UVCD was used to evaluate conformational changes in HbA and HbS with time at the selected temperatures. The changes in interactions between αB crystallin and HbA or HbS with temperature were analyzed using differential centrifugation and SDS PAGE at 37°C, 50°C and 55°C. After only 5 minutes at the selected temperatures, differences in the aggregation or conformation of HbA and HbS were not observed, but αB crystallin bound approximately 6% and 25% more HbS than HbA at 37°C, and 50°C respectively. The results confirmed (a the remarkable sensitivity of αB crystallin to structural instabilities at the very earliest stages of thermal unfolding and (b an ability to distinguish the self assembling mutant form of HbS from the wild type HbA in solution.

  19. Comparison of the binding of the dyes Sudan II and Sudan IV to bovine hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haoyu; Xia, Qing; Liu, Rutao, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2014-04-15

    Sudan dyes are widely used in industry, and sometimes illegally used as food additives despite their potential toxicity. In this work, the interactions of Sudan II and Sudan IV with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) were investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, resonance light scattering (RLS), UV–vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular modeling techniques. Binding of Sudan dyes to BHb could cause static quenching of the fluorescence, indicating changes in the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues. The binding constants estimated for Sudan II and IV were 1.84×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1} and 2.54×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1}, respectively, at 293 K (20 °C). Each protein molecule bound one Sudan molecule approximately. Sudan II and IV were held at the hydrophobic cavity of BHb mainly by hydrophobic interaction. The decrease of α-helix and the increase of β-sheet seen in the CD spectra revealed a conformational alteration of the protein. From all the results, we conclude that Sudan IV has a stronger impact on the structure and function of BHb than that of Sudan II. -- Highlights: • Spectroscopic results show interaction details of Sudan II and IV with BHb. • The interaction of BHb with Sudan dyes is spontaneous with a 1:1 stoichiometry. • Sudan II and IV are located at the hydrophobic cavity of the BHb, and form complexes via hydrophobic interaction. • A stronger influence of bovine hemoglobin is caused by Sudan IV than that of Sudan II.

  20. Modeling hemoglobin and hemoglobin:haptoglobin complex clearance in a non-rodent species–pharmacokinetic and therapeutic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Boretti, Felicitas S.; Baek, Jin Hyen; Palmer, Andre F.; Schaer, Dominik J.; Buehler, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Haptoglobin (Hp) prevents hemoglobin (Hb) extravasation and attenuates Hb induced tissue oxidation and vasoconstriction. Small animal models such as mouse, rat and guinea pig appear to demonstrate proof-of-concept for Hb neutralization by Hp in diverse pre-clinical conditions. However, these species differ significantly from humans in the clearance of Hb:Hp and demonstrate long persistence of circulating Hb:Hp complexes. Objective: The focus of this study is to understand Hb:Hp...

  1. A Molecular Genetic Basis Explaining Altered Bacterial Behavior in Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Zea

    Full Text Available Bacteria behave differently in space, as indicated by reports of reduced lag phase, higher final cell counts, enhanced biofilm formation, increased virulence, and reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. These phenomena are theorized, at least in part, to result from reduced mass transport in the local extracellular environment, where movement of molecules consumed and excreted by the cell is limited to diffusion in the absence of gravity-dependent convection. However, to date neither empirical nor computational approaches have been able to provide sufficient evidence to confirm this explanation. Molecular genetic analysis findings, conducted as part of a recent spaceflight investigation, support the proposed model. This investigation indicated an overexpression of genes associated with starvation, the search for alternative energy sources, increased metabolism, enhanced acetate production, and other systematic responses to acidity-all of which can be associated with reduced extracellular mass transport.

  2. A Molecular Genetic Basis Explaining Altered Bacterial Behavior in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E.; Stodieck, Louis; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Klaus, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria behave differently in space, as indicated by reports of reduced lag phase, higher final cell counts, enhanced biofilm formation, increased virulence, and reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. These phenomena are theorized, at least in part, to result from reduced mass transport in the local extracellular environment, where movement of molecules consumed and excreted by the cell is limited to diffusion in the absence of gravity-dependent convection. However, to date neither empirical nor computational approaches have been able to provide sufficient evidence to confirm this explanation. Molecular genetic analysis findings, conducted as part of a recent spaceflight investigation, support the proposed model. This investigation indicated an overexpression of genes associated with starvation, the search for alternative energy sources, increased metabolism, enhanced acetate production, and other systematic responses to acidity—all of which can be associated with reduced extracellular mass transport. PMID:27806055

  3. Hemoglobin redux: combining neutron and X-ray diffraction with mass spectrometry to analyse the quaternary state of oxidized hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Timothy C; Griffith, Wendell P; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y; Guo, Jingshu; Seaver, Sean; Langan, Paul; Hanson, B Leif

    2010-11-01

    Improvements in neutron diffraction instrumentation are affording the opportunity to re-examine the structures of vertebrate hemoglobins and to interrogate proton and solvent position changes between the different quaternary states of the protein. For hemoglobins of unknown primary sequence, structural studies of cyanomethemoglobin (CNmetHb) are being used to help to resolve sequence ambiguity in the mass spectra. These studies have also provided additional structural evidence for the involvement of oxidized hemoglobin in the process of erythrocyte senescence. X-ray crystal studies of Tibetan snow leopard CNmetHb have shown that this protein crystallizes in the B state, a structure with a more open dyad, which possibly has relevance to RBC band 3 protein binding and erythrocyte senescence. R-state equine CNmetHb crystal studies elaborate the solvent differences in the switch and hinge region compared with a human deoxyhemoglobin T-state neutron structure. Lastly, comparison of histidine protonation between the T and R state should enumerate the Bohr-effect protons.

  4. Hemoglobin redux: combining neutron and X-ray diffraction with mass spectrometry to analyse the quaternary state of oxidized hemoglobins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueser, Timothy C.; Griffith, Wendell P.; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Guo, Jingshu; Seaver, Sean; Langan, Paul; Hanson, B. Leif

    2010-01-01

    X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of cyanomethemoglobin are being used to evaluate the structural waters within the dimer–dimer interface involved in quaternary-state transitions. Improvements in neutron diffraction instrumentation are affording the opportunity to re-examine the structures of vertebrate hemoglobins and to interrogate proton and solvent position changes between the different quaternary states of the protein. For hemoglobins of unknown primary sequence, structural studies of cyanomethemoglobin (CNmetHb) are being used to help to resolve sequence ambiguity in the mass spectra. These studies have also provided additional structural evidence for the involvement of oxidized hemoglobin in the process of erythrocyte senescence. X-ray crystal studies of Tibetan snow leopard CNmetHb have shown that this protein crystallizes in the B state, a structure with a more open dyad, which possibly has relevance to RBC band 3 protein binding and erythrocyte senescence. R-state equine CNmetHb crystal studies elaborate the solvent differences in the switch and hinge region compared with a human deoxyhemoglobin T-state neutron structure. Lastly, comparison of histidine protonation between the T and R state should enumerate the Bohr-effect protons

  5. Hemoglobin redux: combining neutron and X-ray diffraction with mass spectrometry to analyse the quaternary state of oxidized hemoglobins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueser, Timothy C., E-mail: timothy.mueser@utoledo.edu; Griffith, Wendell P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kovalevsky, Andrey Y. [Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Guo, Jingshu; Seaver, Sean [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Langan, Paul [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hanson, B. Leif [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of cyanomethemoglobin are being used to evaluate the structural waters within the dimer–dimer interface involved in quaternary-state transitions. Improvements in neutron diffraction instrumentation are affording the opportunity to re-examine the structures of vertebrate hemoglobins and to interrogate proton and solvent position changes between the different quaternary states of the protein. For hemoglobins of unknown primary sequence, structural studies of cyanomethemoglobin (CNmetHb) are being used to help to resolve sequence ambiguity in the mass spectra. These studies have also provided additional structural evidence for the involvement of oxidized hemoglobin in the process of erythrocyte senescence. X-ray crystal studies of Tibetan snow leopard CNmetHb have shown that this protein crystallizes in the B state, a structure with a more open dyad, which possibly has relevance to RBC band 3 protein binding and erythrocyte senescence. R-state equine CNmetHb crystal studies elaborate the solvent differences in the switch and hinge region compared with a human deoxyhemoglobin T-state neutron structure. Lastly, comparison of histidine protonation between the T and R state should enumerate the Bohr-effect protons.

  6. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    , but the identity and significance of interspecies bacterial interactions is neglected in these analyses. There is therefore an urgent need for bridging the gap between metagenomic analysis and in vitro models suitable for studies of bacterial interactions.Bacterial interactions and coadaptation are important......The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating...

  7. Current hemoglobin levels are more predictive of disease progression than hemoglobin measured at baseline in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV type 1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Blaxhult, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The role of hemoglobin levels as an independent prognostic marker of progression to AIDS and/or death in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was investigated. A total of 2,579 patients from the EuroSIDA cohort with hemoglobin, CD4 cell count, and HIV RNA viral...

  8. Clinical, hematological and genetic data of a cohort of children with hemoglobin SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo do Val Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The hemoglobin FSD is very uncommon in newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease. In the program of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the clinical course of children with hemoglobin SD was observed to be heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence (1999-2012 and to describe the natural history of a cohort of newborns with hemoglobin SD. METHODS: Isoelectric focusing was the primary method used in newborn screening. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing were used to identify mutant alleles and for haplotyping. Gap-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect alpha-thalassemia. RESULTS: Eleven cases of hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and eight of Hb S-Korle Bu were detected. Other variants with hemoglobin D mobility were not identified. All hemoglobin D-Punjab and hemoglobin Korle Bu alleles were associated with haplotype I. Among the children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab, there were four with the ßS CAR haplotype, six with the Benin haplotype, and one atypical. Results of laboratory tests for hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and hemoglobin S-Korle Bu were: hemoglobin 8.0 and 12.3 g/dL (p-value <0.001, leukocyte count 13.9 × 109/L and 10.5 × 109/L (p-value = 0.003, reticulocytes 7.5% and 1.0% (p-value <0.001, hemoglobin F concentration 16.1% and 6.9% (p-value = 0.001 and oxygen saturation 91.9% and 97% (p-value = 0.002, respectively. Only hemoglobin S/D-Punjab children had acute pain crises and needed blood transfusions or hydroxyurea. Those with the Benin ßS haplotype had higher total hemoglobin and hemoglobin F concentrations compared to the CAR haplotype. Transcranial Doppler was normal in all children. CONCLUSION: The clinical course and blood cell counts of children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab were very similar to those of hemoglobin SS children. In contrast, children with hemoglobin S-Korle Bu had clinical course and blood cell counts like children with the sickle

  9. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  10. Soft X-ray microscopy analysis of cell volume and hemoglobin content in erythrocytes infected with asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Eric; Knoechel, Christian; Dearnley, Megan; Dixon, Matthew W A; Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn; Tilley, Leann

    2012-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of human malaria, undergoes both asexual cycling and sexual differentiation inside erythrocytes. As the intraerythrocytic parasite develops it increases in size and alters the permeability of the host cell plasma membrane. An intriguing question is: how is the integrity of the host erythrocyte maintained during the intraerythrocytic cycle? We have used water window cryo X-ray tomography to determine cell morphology and hemoglobin content at different stages of asexual and sexual differentiation. The cryo stabilization preserves native structure permitting accurate analyses of parasite and host cell volumes. Absorption of soft X-rays by protein adheres to Beer-Lambert's law permitting quantitation of the concentration of hemoglobin in the host cell compartment. During asexual development the volume of the parasite reaches about 50% of the uninfected erythrocyte volume but the infected erythrocyte volume remains relatively constant. The total hemoglobin content gradually decreases during the 48h cycle but its concentration remains constant until early trophozoite stage, decreases by 25%, then remains constant again until just prior to rupture. During early sexual development the gametocyte has a similar morphology to a trophozoite but then undergoes a dramatic shape change. Our cryo X-ray tomography analysis reveals that about 70% of the host cell hemoglobin is taken up and digested during gametocyte development and the parasite eventually occupies about 50% of the uninfected erythrocyte volume. The total volume of the infected erythrocyte remains constant, apart from some reversible shrinkage at stage IV, while the concentration of hemoglobin decreases to about 70% of that in an uninfected erythrocyte. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectroscopic markers of the TR quaternary transition in human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirò, Giorgio; Cammarata, Marco; Levantino, Matteo; Cupane, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    In this work, we use a sol-gel protocol to trap and compare the R and T quaternary states of both the deoxygenated (deoxyHb) and carbonmonoxide (HbCO) derivatives of human hemoglobin. The near infrared optical absorption band III and the infrared CO stretching band are used to detect the effect of quaternary structure on the spectral properties of deoxyHb and HbCO; comparison with myoglobin allows for an assessment of tertiary and quaternary contributions to the measured band shifts. The RT transition is shown to cause a blue shift of the band III by approximately 35 cm(-1) for deoxyHb and a red shift of the CO stretching band by only approximately 0.3 cm(-1) for HbCO. This clearly shows that quaternary structure changes are transmitted to the heme pocket and that effects on deoxyHb are much larger than on HbCO, at least as far as the band energies are concerned. Experiments performed in the ample temperature interval of 300-10K show that the above quaternary structure effects are "static" and do not influence the dynamic properties of the heme pocket, at least as probed by the temperature dependence of band III and of the CO stretching band. The availability of quaternary structure sensitive spectroscopic markers and the quantitative measurement of the quaternary structure contribution to band shifts will be of considerable help in the analysis of flash-photolysis experiments on hemoglobin. Moreover, it will enable one to characterize the dynamic properties of functionally relevant hemoglobin intermediates and to study the kinetics of both the T-->R and R-->T quaternary transitions through time-resolved spectroscopy.

  12. Mass Spectra and Ion Collision Cross Sections of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Terrier, Peran; Douglas, D. J.

    2011-02-01

    Mass spectra of commercially obtained hemoglobin (Hb) show higher levels of monomer and dimer ions, heme-deficient dimer ions, and apo-monomer ions than hemoglobin freshly prepared from blood. This has previously been attributed to oxidation of commercial Hb. Further, it has been reported that that dimer ions from commercial bovine Hb have lower collision cross sections than low charge state monomer ions. To investigate these effects further, we have recorded mass spectra of fresh human Hb, commercial human and bovine Hb, fresh human Hb oxidized with H2O2, lyophilized fresh human Hb, fresh human Hb both lyophilized and chemically oxidized, and commercial human Hb oxidized with H2O2. Masses of α-monomer ions of all hemoglobins agree with the masses expected from the sequences within 3 Da or better. Mass spectra of the β chains of commercial Hb and oxidized fresh human Hb show a peak or shoulder on the high mass side, consistent with oxidation of the protein. Both commercial proteins and oxidized fresh human Hb produce heme-deficient dimers with masses 32 Da greater than expected and higher levels of monomer and dimer ions than fresh Hb. Lyophilization or oxidation of Hb both produce higher levels of monomer and dimer ions in mass spectra. Fresh human Hb, commercial human Hb, commercial bovine Hb, and oxidized commercial human Hb all give dimer ions with cross sections greater than monomer ions. Thus, neither oxidation of Hb or the difference in sequence between human and bovine Hb make substantial differences to cross sections of ions.

  13. Optoacoustic monitoring of blood hemoglobin concentration: a pilot clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Irina Y.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Brecht, Hans-Peter F.; Svensen, Christer H.; Olsson, Joel; Deyo, Donald J.; Prough, Donald S.

    2005-07-01

    The optoacoustic technique is noninvasive, has high spatial resolution, and potentially can be used to measure the total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) continuously and accurately. We performed in vitro measurements in blood and in vivo tests in healthy volunteers. Our clinical protocol included rapid infusion of intravenous saline to simulate rapid change in the [THb] during fluid therapy or surgery. Optoacoustic measurements were made from the wrist area overlying the radial artery for more than 1 h. The amplitude of the optoacoustic signal generated in the radial artery closely followed the [THb] measured directly in concurrently collected blood samples.

  14. Biochemical and Physiological Characterization of Nonsymbiotic Plant Hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva, Nélida

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hb) are usually associated with blood in humans. However, these proteins are widely distributed among living organisms. In plants the most known group are the leghemoglobins. Still, other Hbs that not participate in symbiosis are also found. They are known as nonsymbiotic Hbs (nsHbs). NsHbs are divided into class-1 and class-2. In this thesis three nsHbs from sugar beet (BvHb1-1, BvHb1-2, and BvHb2) and one class-1 nsHb from poplar (PttHb1) have been studied. Additionally, the po...

  15. Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of hemoglobin SC disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, H F; Noguchi, C T; Hofrichter, J; Schechter, G P; Schechter, A N; Eaton, W A

    1982-01-01

    Solution and cell studies were performed to ascertain why individuals with hemoglobin (Hb) SC have disease whereas those with Hb AS do not. The polymerization of deoxygenated mixtures containing sickle cell Hb (Hb S; alpha 2 beta 2(6)Glu leads to Val) and Hb C (alpha 2 beta 2(6)Glu leads to Lys) was investigated by measurements of delay times and solubilities. In mixtures containing more than 40% Hb S, polymerization takes place by the same mechanism as in solutions of Hb S alone, with no evi...

  16. Sickle Retinopathy in a Person with Hemoglobin S/New York Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, Donovan; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc; Watkins, Naomi; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    A patient who presented with sickle retinopathy and hemoglobin electrophoresis results compatible with sickle cell trait was found, on further investigation, to be a compound heterozygote with hemoglobin S and hemoglobin New York disease. This recently reported form of sickle cell disease was not previously known to cause retinopathy and surprisingly was observed in a non-Asian individual. The ophthalmological findings, the laboratory diagnosis, and possible pathophysiology of this disorder a...

  17. Quantitative analysis of composition, structure and features of hemoglobin under the influence of radiation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbanov, F.F.; Mamedov, T.G.; Abdullaev, Kh.D.; Akhmedov, N.A.; Manojlov, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The literature data on the changes in composition, structure and properties of hemoglobin under the influence of ionizing radiation in vivo are reviewed. The algorithm of calculation of damaged hemoglobin molecule percentage is proposed. Four main realizations of radiation-chemical damage are considered. By the algorithm the estimation of the damaged molecules percentage resulted from the exposure to 10 Gy is given. Hemoglobin radiation damage is considered as one of the most important mechanisms triggering radiation sickness. 11 refs

  18. Heterozygote Hemoglobin G-Coushatta as the Cause of a Falsely Decreased Hemoglobin A1C in an Ion-Exchange HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtoğlu Ayşegül Uğur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is used for the assessment of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The presence of genetic variants of hemoglobin can profoundly affect the accuracy of HbA1c measurement. Here, we report two cases of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta (HBB:c.68A>C variant that interferes in the measurement of HbA1c by a cation-exchange HPLC (CE-HPLC method. HbA1c was measured by a CE-HPLC method in a Tosoh HLC-723 G7 instrument. The HbA1c levels were 2.9% and 4%. These results alerted us to a possible presence of hemoglobinopathy. In the hemoglobin variant analysis, HbA2 levels were detected as 78.3% and 40.7% by HPLC using the short program for the Biorad Variant II. HbA1c levels were measured by an immunoturbidimetric assay in a Siemens Dimension instrument. HbA1c levels were reported as 5.5% and 5.3%. DNA mutation analysis was performed to detect the abnormal hemoglobin variant. Presence of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta variant was detected in the patients. The Hb G-Coushatta variants have an impact on the determination of glycated hemoglobin levels using CEHPLC resulting in a false low value. Therefore, it is necessary to use another measurement method.

  19. A proposal to standardize reporting units for fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G; Allison, James E; Halloran, Stephen P; Young, Graeme P

    2012-06-06

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin are replacing traditional guaiac fecal occult blood tests in population screening programs for many reasons. However, the many available fecal immunochemical test devices use a range of sampling methods, differ with regard to hemoglobin stability, and report hemoglobin concentrations in different ways. The methods for sampling, the mass of feces collected, and the volume and characteristics of the buffer used in the sampling device also vary among fecal immunochemical tests, making comparisons of test performance characteristics difficult. Fecal immunochemical test results may be expressed as the hemoglobin concentration in the sampling device buffer and, sometimes, albeit rarely, as the hemoglobin concentration per mass of feces. The current lack of consistency in units for reporting hemoglobin concentration is particularly problematic because apparently similar hemoglobin concentrations obtained with different devices can lead to very different clinical interpretations. Consistent adoption of an internationally accepted method for reporting results would facilitate comparisons of outcomes from these tests. We propose a simple strategy for reporting fecal hemoglobin concentration that will facilitate the comparison of results between fecal immunochemical test devices and across clinical studies. Such reporting is readily achieved by defining the mass of feces sampled and the volume of sample buffer (with confidence intervals) and expressing results as micrograms of hemoglobin per gram of feces. We propose that manufacturers of fecal immunochemical tests provide this information and that the authors of research articles, guidelines, and policy articles, as well as pathology services and regulatory bodies, adopt this metric when reporting fecal immunochemical test results.

  20. Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and the role of free fetal hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rocco Hansson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a leading cause of pregnancy complications and affects 3–7 % of pregnant women. This review summarizes the current knowledge of a new potential etiology of the disease, with a special focus on hemoglobin-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, we also suggest hemoglobin as a potential target for therapy. Gene and protein profiling studies have shown increased expression and accumulation of free fetal hemoglobin in the preeclamptic placenta. Predominantly due to oxidative damage to the placental barrier, fetal hemoglobin leaks over to the maternal circulation. Free hemoglobin and its metabolites are toxic in several ways; a ferrous hemoglobin (Fe2+ binds strongly to the vasodilator nitric oxide and reduces the availability of free nitric oxide, which results in vasoconstriction, b hemoglobin (Fe2+ with bound oxygen spontaneously generates free oxygen radicals and c the heme groups create an inflammatory response by inducing activation of neutrophils and cytokine production. The endogenous protein α1-microglobulin, with radical and heme binding properties, has shown both ex vivo and in vivo to have the ability to counteract free hemoglobin-induced placental and kidney damage. Oxidative stress in general, and more specifically fetal hemoglobin-induced oxidative stress, could play a key role in the pathology of preeclampsia seen both in the placenta and ultimately in the maternal endothelium.

  1. An analysis of postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients with a fractured neck of femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Navraj S; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hemoglobin level and to determine a suitable timeline for post-operative hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing fixation of femoral neck fracture. Patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n = 74, mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n = 104, mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture were included into the study. The hemoglobin level of the patients was monitored perioperatively. Analysis found a statistically and clinically significant mean drop in hemoglobin of 31.1 g/L over time from pre-operatively (D0) to day-5 post-operatively (p hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p = 0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-h post-operative period (D0 to day-1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at day-2. Relying on the day-1 hemoglobin could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused, and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring. Level IV Prognostic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preoperative Hemoglobin and Outcomes in Patients with CKD Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Sharbel; Silberman, Shuli; Tauber, Rachel; Merin, Ofer; Lifschitz, Meyer; Slotki, Itzchak; Bitran, Daniel; Fink, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Preoperative anemia adversely affects outcomes of cardiothoracic surgery. However, in patients with CKD, treating anemia to a target of normal hemoglobin has been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. We investigated the association between preoperative hemoglobin and outcomes of cardiac surgery in patients with CKD and assessed whether there was a level of preoperative hemoglobin below which the incidence of adverse surgical outcomes increases. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This prospective observational study included adult patients with CKD stages 3–5 (eGFRpreoperative hemoglobin level: preoperative hemoglobin within the normal range (men: 14–18 g/dl; women: 12–16 g/dl). Univariate analysis revealed an inverse relationship between the incidence of all adverse postoperative outcomes and hemoglobin level. Using hemoglobin as a continuous variable, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a proportionally greater frequency of all adverse postoperative outcomes per 1-g/dl decrement of preoperative hemoglobin (mortality: odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.57; Ppreoperative hemoglobinpreoperative anemia is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes in patients with CKD. Whether outcomes could be improved by therapeutically targeting higher preoperative hemoglobin levels before cardiac surgery in patients with underlying CKD remains to be determined. PMID:24993450

  3. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine

  4. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvennefors, E Charlotte E; Sampayo, Eugenia; Ridgway, Tyrone; Barnes, Andrew C; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2010-04-29

    Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS) underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine invertebrate associates. Finally, the results did not support the contention that a single

  5. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf H Bremmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2 to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb and hemichrome (HC. The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain can be used for age determination of bloodstains. In this study, we further analyze the conversion of HbO(2 to met-Hb and HC, and determine the effect of temperature and humidity on the conversion rates. METHODOLOGY: The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain, as determined by quantitative analysis of optical reflectance spectra (450-800 nm, were measured as function of age, temperature and humidity. Additionally, Optical Coherence Tomography around 1300 nm was used to confirm quantitative spectral analysis approach. CONCLUSIONS: The oxidation rate of HbO(2 in bloodstains is biphasic. At first, the oxidation of HbO(2 is rapid, but slows down after a few hours. These oxidation rates are strongly temperature dependent. However, the oxidation of HbO(2 seems to be independent of humidity, whereas the transition of met-Hb into HC strongly depends on humidity. Knowledge of these decay rates is indispensable for translating laboratory results into forensic practice, and to enable bloodstain age determination on the crime scene.

  6. Carbon monoxide reduces near-infrared spectroscopy determined 'total' hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Mads J; Sørensen, Henrik; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    to normoxia (68.9 ± 6.9%; p determined ScO2 remained unchanged during CO/O2 and O2 inhalations but oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin decreased (by 19.7 μM (median; IQR 2.8-34.8; p = .016) and 37.3 μM (30.8-46.6; p = .004), respectively) during inhalation of CO/O2 compared...... to inhalation of O2. Therefore, NIRO-200NX determined 'total' hemoglobin (sum of O2Hb and HHb) decreased (by 62.1 μM; 44.5-78.2; p = .001). In conclusion, exposure to CO did not increase MCAVmean, and neither NIRO-200NX nor INVOS-5100 detected a change in ScO2 when CO was added to inhalation of oxygen......Carbon monoxide (CO) increases middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCAVmean), but the effect of CO on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) is not detailed. In our study, 11 non-smoking subjects breathed 100% O2 through a closed circuit. A CO2 scrubber...

  7. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  8. Hemoglobinas anormais e dificuldade diagnóstica Abnormal hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Leoneli

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinas humanas, com padrão de herança definido geneticamente, apresentam variações polimórficas características dentro de nossa população, na dependência dos grupos raciais que formam cada região. Aparecem sob a forma de variantes de hemoglobinas ou talassemias, sendo mais freqüentes, no Brasil, os tipos variantes S e C e as talassemias alfa e beta, todas na forma heterozigota. Durante o ano de 1999, amostras de sangue de 506 indivíduos com anemia a esclarecer ou que já passaram por alguma triagem de hemoglobinopatias foram encaminhadas ao Centro de Referência de Hemoglobinas da UNESP, para confirmação diagnóstica e submetidas a procedimentos eletroforéticos, análises bioquímicas e citológicas, para caracterização das hemoglobinas anormais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar quais tipos de hemoglobinas anormais apresentam maior dificuldade diagnóstica. As amostras foram provenientes de 24 cidades de doze estados. Os resultados mostraram que 354 indivíduos (69,96% apresentaram hemoglobinas anormais, sendo 30 Hb AS (5,93%, 5 Hb AC (0,98%, 76 sugestivos de talassemia alfa heterozigota (15,02%, 134 sugestivos de talassemia beta heterozigota (26,48% e 109 com outras formas de hemoglobinas anormais (21,54%, que incluem variantes raras e interações de diferentes formas de talassemias e hemoglobinas variantes. Concluiu-se que, apesar da melhoria técnica oferecida atualmente e a constante formação de recursos humanos capacitados, as talassemias em sua forma heterozigota (210 indivíduos -- 41,50% são responsáveis pela maior dificuldade diagnóstica, seguido da caracterização de variantes raras e formas interativas de hemoglobinopatias (109 indivíduos -- 21,54%, sugerindo que se deve aumentar a capacidade de formação de pessoal e as informações a respeito destas alterações genéticas em nossa população.The human hemoglobins, with genetically defined inheritance patterns, have shown

  9. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  10. Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wellington Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; Ribeiro, Sanzia Bezerra; da Silva, Isabel Batista; de Araújo, Edna Maria; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006–2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients—20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype—were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region. PMID:26901212

  11. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  12. Multiwavelength pulse oximetry in the measurement of hemoglobin fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzke, Bernd; Schwider, Johannes; Lutter, Norbert O.; Engelhardt, Kai; Stork, Wilhelm

    1996-04-01

    The two wavelength design of the majority of pulse oximeters assumes only two absorbing hemoglobin fractions, oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb), and reduced hemoglobin (HHb) irrespective of the presence of methemoglobin (MetHb) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). If MetHb or COHb is present, it contributes to the pulse-added absorbance signal and will be interpreted as either HHb or O2Hb or some combination of the two. In this paper we describe a noninvasive multi-wavelength pulse oximeter measuring O2Hb, HHb, MetHb, and COHb at a specified accuracy of 1.0%. The system was designed with respect to the results of numerical simulations. It consists of 9 laserdiodes (LDs) and 7 light emitting diodes (LEDs), a 16-bit analog-digital converter (ADC) and has a sampling rate of 16 kHz. The laser didoes and LEDs were coupled into multi-mode fibers and led with a liquid lightguide to the finger clip and then the photodiode. It also presents the results of a clinical study, including a setup with a quartz tungsten halogen lamp (with fiber output) and a diode array spectrometer, a standard pulse oximeter and two in-vitro oximeters (radiometer OSM3 and radiometer ABL 520) as references.

  13. Transient ligand docking sites in Cerebratulus lacteus mini-hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pengchi; Nienhaus, Karin; Palladino, Pasquale; Olson, John S; Blouin, George; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia; Geuens, Eva; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2007-08-15

    The monomeric hemoglobin of the nemertean worm Cerebratulus lacteus functions as an oxygen storage protein to maintain neural activity under hypoxic conditions. It shares a large, apolar matrix tunnel with other small hemoglobins, which has been implicated as a potential ligand migration pathway. Here we explore ligand migration and binding within the distal heme pocket, to which the tunnel provides access to ligands from the outside. FTIR/TDS experiments performed at cryogenic temperatures reveal the presence of three transient ligand docking sites within the distal pocket, the primary docking site B on top of pyrrole C and secondary sites C and D. Site C is assigned to a cavity adjacent to the distal portion of the heme pocket, surrounded by the B and E helices. It has an opening to the apolar tunnel and is expected to be on the pathway for ligand entry and exit, whereas site D, circumscribed by TyrB10, GlnE7, and the CD corner, most likely is located on a side pathway of ligand migration. Flash photolysis experiments at ambient temperatures indicate that the rate-limiting step for ligand binding to CerHb is migration through the apolar channel to site C. Movement from C to B and iron-ligand bond formation involve low energy barriers and thus are very rapid processes in the wt protein.

  14. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria....

  15. Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Julliette M

    2012-02-03

    LPS tolerance has been the focus of extensive scientific and clinical research over the last several decades in an attempt to elucidate the sequence of changes that occur at a molecular level in tolerized cells. Tolerance to components of gram-positive bacterial cell walls such as bacterial lipoprotein and lipoteichoic acid is a much lesser studied, although equally important, phenomenon. This review will focus on cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components and examines the alterations in cell surface receptor expression, changes in intracellular signaling, gene expression and cytokine production, and the phenomenon of cross-tolerance.

  16. Bacterial infection increases risk of carcinogenesis by targeting mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A.B.; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2017-01-01

    pathways, and compares the impact of the bacterial alteration of mitochondrial function to that of cancer. Bacterial virulence factors have been demonstrated to induce mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and to modulate DNA repair pathways of the mitochondria. Furthermore, virulence factors can induce...... or impair the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The effect of bacterial targeting of mitochondria is analogous to behavior of mitochondria in a wide array of tumours, and this strongly suggests that mitochondrial targeting of bacteria is a risk factor for carcinogenesis....

  17. Bone marrow necrosis and fat embolism: an autopsy report of a severe complication of hemoglobin SC disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sickle Cell Disease encompasses a group of disorders related with the hemoglobin S and other hemoglobin genotypes. The clinical manifestation and the severity of symptoms are dependent on the specific genotype. In this setting, homozygous genotype (HbSS presents an early onset of symptoms and a low expectancy of lifetime. However, the SC genotype (HbSC, which apparently shows a less severe clinical course, may exhibit the same complications of HbSS. These complications are usually manifested late in the course of life, when compared with the HbSS patients. It is noteworthy that HbSC may present a normal hematocrit, and therefore stays unknown until the first complication, that may be disastrous. The authors report a case of an African-Descendant woman, aging 65 years, with no previous diagnosis of anemia who sought medical attention because of a thoracic back pain followed by fever and altered mental status. The clinical picture deteriorated very fast with multiple organ failure and death. The autopsy findings concluded by generalized vaso-occlusive crisis, bone marrow necrosis and bone marrow and fat embolism, mainly to the lungs and kidney. The authors call attention for the knowledge of this severe life threatening complication, mainly in a country with a high Afro-Descendant population.

  18. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  19. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  20. Bacterial Meningitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.

  1. Factitious Bacterial Meningitis Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E.; Thrupp, L.; Uchiyama, N.; Hawkins, B.; Wolvin, B.; Greene, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nonviable gram-negative bacilli were seen in smears of cerebrospinal fluid from eight infants in whom bacterial meningitis was ruled out. Tubes from commercial kits were the source of the factitious organisms. PMID:7153328

  2. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria......-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial...

  3. Enteric Helminths Promote Salmonella Coinfection by Altering the Intestinal Metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Redpath, Stephen A; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Gill, Navkiran; Brown, Eric M; van der Heijden, Joris; Brosschot, Tara P; Han, Jun; Marshall, Natalie C; Woodward, Sarah E; Valdez, Yanet; Borchers, Christoph H; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-04-15

    Intestinal helminth infections occur predominantly in regions where exposure to enteric bacterial pathogens is also common. Helminth infections inhibit host immunity against microbial pathogens, which has largely been attributed to the induction of regulatory or type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Here we demonstrate an additional 3-way interaction in which helminth infection alters the metabolic environment of the host intestine to enhance bacterial pathogenicity. We show that an ongoing helminth infection increased colonization by Salmonella independently of T regulatory or Th2 cells. Instead, helminth infection altered the metabolic profile of the intestine, which directly enhanced bacterial expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) genes and increased intracellular invasion. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which a helminth-modified metabolome promotes susceptibility to bacterial coinfection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Removal of cellular-type hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemoglobin-vesicles) from blood using centrifugation and ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromi; Sou, Keitaro; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Tsuchida, Eishun; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The hemoglobin-vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating a concentrated hemoglobin solution in a phospholipid vesicle (liposome). During or after transporting oxygen, macrophages capture HbVs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with an approximate circulation half-life of 3 days. Animal studies show transient splenohepatomegaly after large doses, but HbVs were completely degraded, and the components were excreted in a few weeks. If a blood substitute is used for emergency use until red blood cell transfusion becomes available or for temporary use such as a priming fluid for an extracorporeal circuit, then one option would be to remove HbVs from the circulating blood without waiting a few weeks for removal by the RES. Using a mixture of beagle dog whole blood and HbV, we tested the separation of HbV using a centrifugal Fresenius cell separator and an ultrafiltration system. The cell separator system separated the layers of blood cell components from the HbV-containing plasma layer by centrifugal force, and then the HbV was removed from plasma phase by the ultrafiltration system. The HbVs (250-280 nm) are larger than plasma proteins (blood cell components (> 3 µm). The size of HbVs is advantageous to be separated from the original blood components, and the separated blood components can be returned to circulation. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Central sensitization associated with low fetal hemoglobin levels in adults with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbari, Deepika S; Vaughan, Kathleen J; Roskom, Katherine; Seamon, Cassie; Diaw, Lena; Quinn, Meghan; Conrey, Anna; Schechter, Alan N; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Waclawiw, Myron A; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Belfer, Inna; Taylor, James G

    2017-10-01

    Pain is the hallmark of sickle cell anemia (SCA), presenting as recurrent acute events or chronic pain. Central sensitization, or enhanced excitability of the central nervous system, alters pain processing and contributes to the maintenance of chronic pain. Individuals with SCA demonstrate enhanced sensitivity to painful stimuli however central mechanisms of pain have not been fully explored. We hypothesized that adults with SCA would show evidence of central sensitization as observed in other diseases of chronic pain. We conducted a prospective study of static and dynamic quantitative sensory tests in 30 adults with SCA and 30 matched controls. Static thermal testing using cold stimuli showed lower pain thresholds (p=0.04) and tolerance (p=0.04) in sickle cell subjects, but not for heat. However, SCA subjects reported higher pain ratings with random heat pulses (pcentral sensitization in SCA. The association with fetal hemoglobin suggests this known SCA modifier may have a therapeutic role in modulating central sensitization. Copyright © 2017 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  6. Repeated elevational transitions in hemoglobin function during the evolution of Andean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projecto-Garcia, Joana; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Cheviron, Zachary A; Dudley, Robert; McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C; Storz, Jay F

    2013-12-17

    Animals that sustain high levels of aerobic activity under hypoxic conditions (e.g., birds that fly at high altitude) face the physiological challenge of jointly optimizing blood-O2 affinity for O2 loading in the pulmonary circulation and O2 unloading in the systemic circulation. At high altitude, this challenge is especially acute for small endotherms like hummingbirds that have exceedingly high mass-specific metabolic rates. Here we report an experimental analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) function in South American hummingbirds that revealed a positive correlation between Hb-O2 affinity and native elevation. Protein engineering experiments and ancestral-state reconstructions revealed that this correlation is attributable to derived increases in Hb-O2 affinity in highland lineages, as well as derived reductions in Hb-O2 affinity in lowland lineages. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that repeated evolutionary transitions in biochemical phenotype are mainly attributable to repeated amino acid replacements at two epistatically interacting sites that alter the allosteric regulation of Hb-O2 affinity. These results demonstrate that repeated changes in biochemical phenotype involve parallelism at the molecular level, and that mutations with indirect, second-order effects on Hb allostery play key roles in biochemical adaptation.

  7. Hemoglobin oxygen affinity in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Böning

    Full Text Available In patients with cystic fibrosis lung damages cause arterial hypoxia. As a typical compensatory reaction one might expect changes in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Therefore position (standard half saturation pressure P50st and slope (Hill's n of the O2 dissociation curve as well as the Bohr coefficients (BC for CO2 and lactic acid were determined in blood of 14 adult patients (8 males, 6 females and 14 healthy controls (6 males, 8 females. While Hill's n amounted to approximately 2.6 in all subjects, P50st was slightly increased by 1 mmHg in both patient groups (controls male 26.7 ± 0.2, controls female 27.0 ± 0.1, patients male 27.7 ± 0.5, patients female 28.0 ± 0.3 mmHg; mean and standard error, overall p<0.01. Main cause was a rise of 1-2 µmol/g hemoglobin in erythrocytic 2,3-biphosphoglycerate concentration. One patient only, clearly identified as an outlier and with the mutation G551D, showed a reduction of both P50st (24.5 mmHg and [2,3-biphosphoglycerate] (9.8 µmol/g hemoglobin. There were no differences in BCCO2, but small sex differences in the BC for lactic acid in the controls which were not detectable in the patients. Causes for the right shift of the O2 dissociation curve might be hypoxic stimulation of erythrocytic glycolysis and an increased red cell turnover both causing increased [2,3-biphosphoglycerate]. However, for situations with additional hypercapnia as observed in exercising patients a left shift seems to be a more favourable adaptation in cystic fibrosis. Additionally when in vivo PO2 values were corrected to the standard conditions they mostly lay left of the in vitro O2 dissociation curve in both patients and controls. This hints to unknown fugitive factors influencing oxygen affinity.

  8. Reactivation of fetal hemoglobin in thalassemia and sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Eridani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been recently devoted to mechanisms involved in the perinatal hemoglobin switch, as it was long ago established that the survival of fetal hemoglobin (HbF production in significant amount can reduce the severity of the clinical course in severe disorders like β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD. For instance, when β-thalassemia is associated with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH the disease takes a mild course, labeled as thalassemia intermedia. The same clinical amelioration occurs for the association between HPFH and SCD. As for the mechanism of this effect, some information has been obtained from the study of natural mutations at the human β-globin locus in patients with increased HbF, like the Corfu thalassemia mutations. Important evidence came from the discovery that drugs capable of improving the clinical picture of SCD, like decitabine ad hydroxycarbamide, are acting through the reactivation, to some extent, of HbF synthesis. The study of the mechanism of action of these compounds was followed by the identification of some genetic determinants, which promote this event. In particular, among a few genetic factors involved in this process, the most relevant appears the BCL11A gene, which is now credited to be able to silence γ-globin genes in the perinatal period by interaction with several erythroid-specific transcription factors and is actually considered as a barrier to HbF reactivation by known HbF inducing agents. Epigenetics is also a player in the process, mainly through DNA demethylation. This is certified by the recent demonstration that hypomethylating agents such as 5-azacytidine and decitabine, the first compounds used for HbF induction by pharmacology, act as irreversible inhibitors of demethyltransferase enzymes. Great interest has also been raised by the finding that several micro-RNAs, which act as negative regulators of gene expression, have been implicated in the

  9. Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Albanese, Davide; De Felice, Claudio; Donati, Claudio; Hayek, Joussef; Jousson, Olivier; Leoncini, Silvia; Pindo, Massimo; Renzi, Daniela; Rizzetto, Lisa; Stefanini, Irene; Calabrò, Antonio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-07-30

    The human gut microbiota directly affects human health, and its alteration can lead to gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammation. Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene, is commonly associated with gastrointestinal dysfunctions and constipation, suggesting a link between RTT's gastrointestinal abnormalities and the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of RTT subjects integrating clinical, metabolomics and metagenomics data to understand if changes in the gut microbiota of RTT subjects could be associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammatory status. Our findings revealed the occurrence of an intestinal sub-inflammatory status in RTT subjects as measured by the elevated values of faecal calprotectin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We showed that, overall, RTT subjects harbour bacterial and fungal microbiota altered in terms of relative abundances from those of healthy controls, with a reduced microbial richness and dominated by microbial taxa belonging to Bifidobacterium, several Clostridia (among which Anaerostipes, Clostridium XIVa, Clostridium XIVb) as well as Erysipelotrichaceae, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Eggerthella, Escherichia/Shigella and the fungal genus Candida. We further observed that alterations of the gut microbiota do not depend on the constipation status of RTT subjects and that this dysbiotic microbiota produced altered short chain fatty acids profiles. We demonstrated for the first time that RTT is associated with a dysbiosis of both the bacterial and fungal component of the gut microbiota, suggesting that impairments of MeCP2 functioning favour the establishment of a microbial community adapted to the costive gastrointestinal niche of RTT subjects. The altered production of short chain fatty acids associated with this microbiota might reinforce the constipation status of RTT

  10. Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia; Chatterjee, Ranjini

    2000-01-01

    A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

  11. Hemoglobin of the Antarctic fishes Trematomus bernacchii and Trematomus newnesi: structural basis for the increased stability of the liganded tetramer relative to human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangiacomo, L; D'Avino, R; di Prisco, G; Chiancone, E

    2001-03-13

    Hemoglobins extracted from fishes that live in temperate waters show little or no dissociation even in the liganded form, unlike human hemoglobin (HbA). To establish whether cold adaptation influences the tendency to dissociate, the dimer-tetramer association constants (L(2,4)) of the carbonmonoxy derivatives of representative hemoglobins from two Antarctic fishes, Trematomus newnesi (Hb1Tn) and Trematomus bernacchii (Hb1Tb), were determined by analytical ultracentrifugation as a function of pH in the range 6.0-8.6 and compared to HbA. HbA is more dissociated than fish hemoglobins at all pH values and in particular at pH 6.0. In contrast, both fish hemoglobins are mostly tetrameric over the whole pH range studied. The extent of hydrophobic surface area buried at the alpha(1)beta(2) interface upon association of dimers into tetramers and the number of hydrogen bonds formed are currently thought to play a major role in the stabilization of the hemoglobin tetramer. These contributions were derived from the X-ray structures of the three hemoglobins under study and found to be in good agreement with the experimentally determined L(2,4) values. pH affects oxygen binding of T. bernacchii and T. newnesi hemoglobins in a different fashion. The lack of a pH effect on the dissociation of the liganded proteins supports the proposal that the structural basis of such effects resides in the T (unliganded) structure rather than in the R (liganded) one.

  12. Contribution of electron paramagnetic resonance to the studies of hemoglobin: the nitrosylhemoglobin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemski, G.

    1995-03-01

    Since the initial work of Ingram Electron Paramagnetic Resonance contributed considerably to research in hemoglobins. Now, 40 years later some of the results of the application of EPR to nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO), are reviewed as an example of the diversity of information which this technique can provide are reviewed. (author). 34 refs, 7 figs

  13. Expression of NO scavenging hemoglobin is involved in the timing of bolting in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Jensen, Erik Østergaard

    2008-01-01

    Plants contain three classes of hemoglobin genes of which two, class 1 and class 2, have a structure similar to classical vertebrate globins. We investigated the effect of silencing the class 1 non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene, GLB1, and the effect of overexpression of GLB1 or the class 2 non-symbio...

  14. Hemoglobin alpha 2 gene +861 G>A polymorphism in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder which is divided into two groups: alpha and beta. HBA1 and HBA2 are the two genes associated with alpha thalassemia. The aim of this study is to investigate abnormal hemoglobin variants of alpha globin gene in healthy abnormal hemoglobin carrying individuals with intact beta ...

  15. Hemoglobin is associated with retinal vascular fractals in type 1 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Mads; Hodgson, Lauren A B; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Yin; Grauslund, Jakob

    2014-10-01

    Retinal vascular fractal dimension, a measure of the density of the retinal vasculature, has been suggested as a marker of systemic microvascular disorders in diabetes. As hemoglobin concentration is tightly related to vascular physiology and hypoxia, the hypothesis was that hemoglobin concentration would be associated with retinal vascular fractals in a relevant population. In a cross-sectional study of 204 long-term type 1 diabetes patients from a population-based cohort, retinal digital photos were captured and graded for fractal dimension (Df) by International Retinal Imaging Software - Fractal (IRIS-Fractal). Df was calculated from a disc-centered retinal photo from the right eye. Hemoglobin concentrations were measured using routine equipment. Of 175 patients with gradable images, median age was 57.7 years and median duration of diabetes was 42 years. Median retinal Df was 1.4606 (inter-quartile range 0.0264). A positive correlation was found between hemoglobin concentration and retinal vascular Df (r = 0.23, p = 0.0018). In a multiple linear regression model, Df was associated with hemoglobin (coefficient 0.0054 per 1.0 mmol/L increase in hemoglobin, p = 0.01) and age (coefficient -0.0046 for each 10-year increase in age, p = 0.04). Hemoglobin correlated independently with retinal vascular fractals indicating a relationship between hemoglobin availability and retinal vascular structure.

  16. Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K to sodium (Na ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination.

  17. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-04-01

    Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially also with anxiety disorder has not been examined before. This study examines to which extent hemoglobin levels are associated with depression and anxiety disorders in a large cohort. The study sample consisted of 2920 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Hemoglobin levels were determined after venipuncture. Depressive and anxiety disorders were determined according to a DSM-IV-based psychiatric interview. Clinical psychiatric characteristics included the severity of depression and anxiety, the duration of symptoms, the age of onset and the antidepressant use. Higher hemoglobin levels were found in those with current depressive and/or anxiety disorders after sociodemographic adjustment and both higher, and lower hemoglobin levels were found in persons with higher depression and anxiety severity. However, after full adjustment for sociodemographics, disease indicators and lifestyle, associations were no longer significant. This cohort study showed that there is no independent association between depressive and/or anxiety disorders and hemoglobin levels or anemia status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Substitutions in woolly mammoth hemoglobin confer biochemical properties adaptive for cold tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Kevin L.; Roberts, Jason E.E.; Watson, Laura N.

    2010-01-01

    We have genetically retrieved, resurrected and performed detailed structure-function analyses on authentic woolly mammoth hemoglobin to reveal for the first time both the evolutionary origins and the structural underpinnings of a key adaptive physiochemical trait in an extinct species. Hemoglobin...

  19. Controlled safety study of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, DCLHb, in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Saxena (Ruchi); A.D. Wijnhoud (Annemarie); H. Carton; W. Hacke (Werner); M. Kaste; R.J. Przybelski; K.N. Stern; P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a purified, cell-free human hemoglobin solution. In animal stroke models its use led to a significant reduction in the extent of brain injury. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCLHb in

  20. Sildenafil Increases the p50 and Shifts the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve to the Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Shantol Sastrice; Pepple, Dagogo John

    2015-12-01

    Sildenafil (Viagra®) is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor that block the breakdown of cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) leading to relaxation of the smooth muscles of the corpus cavernous and an increase in blood flow resulting in penile erection. It is hypothesized that sildenafil will increase the release of oxygen from erythrocytes and shift the oxygen-hemoglobin curve to the right. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of varying doses of sildenafil on the p50 of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve in blood samples from eight (8) healthy adult male volunteers with normal hemoglobin HbAA. The hemox-analyzer was used to generate the p50 and the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves. The effect of different doses of sildenafil on the p50 values and shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin curve were the main outcome measures. Sildenafil caused a statistically significant increase in the p50 values and rightward shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Sildenafil caused a dose-dependent increase in the release of oxygen from the erythrocytes as shown by the increased p50 values and rightward shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Ellis SS and Pepple DJ. Sildenafil increases the p50 and shifts the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  2. Hemoglobin is associated with retinal vascular fractals in type 1 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hodgson, Lauren A B; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Retinal vascular fractal dimension, a measure of the density of the retinal vasculature, has been suggested as a marker of systemic microvascular disorders in diabetes. As hemoglobin concentration is tightly related to vascular physiology and hypoxia, the hypothesis was that hemoglobin c...

  3. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  4. Deer mouse hemoglobin exhibits a lowered oxygen affinity owing to mobility of the E helix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoguchi, Noriko; Oshlo, Jake R.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Weber, Roy E.; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F.; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    The deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, exhibits altitude-associated variation in hemoglobin oxygen affinity. To examine the structural basis of this functional variation, the structure of the hemoglobin was solved. Recombinant hemoglobin was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Recombinant hemoglobin was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The obtained orthorhombic crystal contained two subunits in the asymmetric unit. The refined structure was interpreted as the aquo-met form. Structural comparisons were performed among hemoglobins from deer mouse, house mouse and human. In contrast to human hemoglobin, deer mouse hemoglobin lacks the hydrogen bond between α1Trp14 in the A helix and α1Thr67 in the E helix owing to the Thr67Ala substitution. In addition, deer mouse hemoglobin has a unique hydrogen bond at the α1β1 interface between residues α1Cys34 and β1Ser128. PMID:23545644

  5. Hemoglobin levels and new-onset heart failure in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, IJsbrand T.; Postmus, Douwe; Voors, Adriaan A.; Brouwers, Frank P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Hillege, Hans L.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Meer, Peter

    Background In established cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF), low hemoglobin levels are associated with unfavorable outcome. Whether hemoglobin levels are associated with the development of new-onset HF in the population is unclear. This study sought to investigate the relationship

  6. Iron bioavailability of maize hemoglobin in a Caco-2 cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize is an important staple crop in many parts of the world but has low iron bioavailability, in part due to its high phytate content. Hemoglobin is a form of iron that is highly bioavailable and its bioavailability is not inhibited by phytate. We hypothesize that maize hemoglobin is a highly bioav...

  7. Hemoglobin as an important prognostic factor in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Takashi; Nagai, Yutaka; Moromizato, Hidehiko; Toita, Takafumi; Murayama, Sadayuki; Kanazawa, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine a possible association of hemoglobin with clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Seventy-five patients with Stage IB to IVA disease who were treated with CCRT were reviewed retrospectively. The mean age was 49.8 years. In the treatment, standard radiotherapy was performed accompanied by concomitant chemotherapy using cisplatin. Pre-treatment hemoglobin was defined as the earliest hemoglobin level prior to the initiation of treatment. Weekly nadir hemoglobin levels throughout treatment were averaged and used as average weekly nadir hemoglobin during treatment (AWNHg). The mean follow-up time was 28.6 months. The mean pre-treatment hemoglobin of 11.6 g/dL was significantly reduced to the mean AWNHg of 9.9 g/dL. The levels of pre-treatment hemoglobin and AWNHg were significantly associated with tumor response to treatment. The 5-year cumulative disease-free survival and overall survival rates for all 75 patients were 67.8% and 75.3%, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that AWNHg (≥9.0 versus <9.0 g/dL) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p=0.038), but pre-treatment hemoglobin was not a significant factor. AWNHg was one of the most powerful independent predictors of overall survival in patients undergoing CCRT for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  8. The impact of hemoglobin levels on patient and graft survival in renal transplant recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2008-08-27

    It remains unclear whether low hemoglobin levels are associated with increased mortality or graft loss after renal transplantation. This study assessed the relationship of hemoglobin levels with patient and graft survival in 3859 patients with functioning renal transplants more than 6-months posttransplantation.

  9. Effect of laser radiation on physicochemical and functional properties of human hemoglobin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irzhak, LI; Zotova, EA; Mamaeva, SA

    Exposure to laser radiation increases pH and isoelectric point of human hemoglobin solution, improves the acid-base properties, increases affinity for oxygen, and decreases the Bohr effect in comparison with intact hemoglobin. The mechanisms underlying these changes are discussed.

  10. Prognostic value of hemoglobin concentration in radiotherapy for cancer of supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnawski, Rafal; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the estimation of correlations between hemoglobin concentration either before or after radiotherapy and local tumor control probability for laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 847 cases of laryngeal supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation alone was performed using maximum likelihood estimations, and step-wise logistic regression. All patients were in good initial performance status (Karnofsky index >70). The minimum follow-up time was 3 years. Results: Logistic regression showed that the hemoglobin concentration after radiotherapy is an important prognostic factor. There was a very strong correlation between hemoglobin concentration and tumor local control probability. Hemoglobin concentration at the beginning of radiotherapy does not correlate with treatment outcome, but any decrease of hemoglobin during therapy is a strong prognostic factor for treatment failure. Conclusions: Although regression models with many variables may be instable, the present results suggest that hemoglobin concentration after treatment is at least as important as overall treatment time. It was not possible to find out whether the low concentration of hemoglobin is an independent cause of low TCP or whether it reflects other mechanisms that may influence both hemoglobin level and the TCP

  11. Using the Cascade Model to Improve Antenatal Screening for the Hemoglobin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah; Papadopoulos, Irena; Kelly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The inherited hemoglobin disorders constitute a major public health problem. Facilitators (experienced hemoglobin counselors) were trained to deliver knowledge and skills to "frontline" practitioners to enable them to support parents during antenatal screening via a cascade (train-the-trainer) model. Objectives of…

  12. Hemoglobin-catalyzed fluorometric method for the determination of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Lin; Li, Hua; Wang, Yi; Gou, Rong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yudong; Chen, Fengmei

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of glutathione based on the reaction catalyzed by hemoglobin was reported. The reaction product gave a highly fluorescent intensity with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 320.0 nm and 413.0 nm, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated. Results showed that low concentration glutathione enhanced the fluorescence intensity significantly. The line ranges were 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 of glutathione and 6.0 × 10-10 mol L-1-1.0 × 10-8 mol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was calculated to be 1.1 × 10-11 mol L-1. The recovery test by the standard addition method gave values in the range of 90.78%-102.20%. This method was used for the determination of glutathione in synthetic and real samples with satisfactory results.

  13. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer- dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking...... for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying - and -type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2......) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis...

  14. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of individual-participant data available from 73 prospective studies involving 294,998 participants without a known history of diabetes mellitus or CVD at the baseline assessment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Measures of risk......,840 incident fatal and nonfatal CVD outcomes (13,237 coronary heart disease and 7603 stroke outcomes) were recorded. In analyses adjusted for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors, there was an approximately J-shaped association between HbA1c values and CVD risk. The association between HbA1c values......IMPORTANCE: The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction...

  15. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe...... a protocol for expressing Hbs with low intrinsic solubilities. Since the alpha- and beta-chain Hbs of different species span a broad range of solubilities, experimental protocols that have been optimized for expressing recombinant human HbA may often prove unsuitable for the recombinant expression......-translational modifications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our protocol should prove useful for the experimental study of recombinant Hbs in many non-human animals. One of the chief advantages of our protocol is that we can express soluble recombinant Hb without co-expressing molecular chaperones, and without the need...

  16. Moessbauer studies of hemoglobin in erythrocytes exposed to neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemiec, Katarzyna; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Buczkowski, Mateusz [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics (Poland); Fornal, Maria [Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology (Poland); Pohorecki, Wladyslaw [AGH University, Faculty of Energy and Fuels (Poland); Matlak, Krzysztof; Korecki, Jozef [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Solid State Physics (Poland); Grodzicki, Tomasz [Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology (Poland); Burda, Kvetoslava, E-mail: kvetoslava.burda@fis.agh.edu.pl [AGH University, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science, Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics (Poland)

    2012-03-15

    We studied radiation effects on the stability of various states of hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBC) irradiated with a very low dose of neutron rays, 50 {mu}Gy. We investigated RBCs isolated from blood of healthy donors. Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to monitor different forms of Hb. Our results show, for the first time, that oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) are two Hb forms sensitive to such a low neutron radiation. Both Hbs change into a new Hb form (Hb{sub irr}). Additionally, OxyHb transfers into HbOH/H{sub 2}O, which under our experimental conditions is resistant to the action of neutron rays.

  17. SANS studies of interacting hemoglobin in intact erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, S.; Nossal, R.

    1988-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to investigate interaction forces between hemoglobin (Hb) molecules contained within human red cells. The scattering separately attributable to cell membranes and intracellular Hb was identified. A series of D/sub 2/O-H/sub 2/O contrast variation measurements were made in order to establish conditions for which scattering from the cell membrane is minimized (approximately 15% D/sub 2/O). Measurements then were performed to examine changes in intermolecular Hb interactions occurring when the cells are contracted or swollen by varying the ionic strength of the suspension buffer. The scattering cross-sections were fitted to structure factors computed by a mean spherical approximation, and molecular parameters thereby extracted. Oxygenation studies on normal cells were performed, and results contrasted with those of similar studies of erythrocytes obtained from sickle cell disease patients.

  18. Direct observation of intermediate ligation states of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonneaux, G.

    1988-01-01

    The 31 P NMR spectrum of partially liganded HbPMe 3 (HbAo hemoglobin) contains resonances at the normal chemical shift positions of the fully liganded species (R state), in addition to two resonances at intermediate positions. Analysis of the relative magnitude of these four peaks in the absence and in the presence of inositol hexaphosphate shows that PMe 3 binds preferentially to α chains and permits identification of the intermediate species. Plots of the fractional saturation of Hb versus the concentration of unbound PMe 3 exhibit markedly cooperative behavior as evidenced by the sigmoid nature of the binding curve and a large hill coefficient (n = 2.3). 1 H NMR studies of the high-field spectra of PMe 3 protons in HbPMe 3 are consistent with 31 P NMR results. 19 refs., 3 figs

  19. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  20. Treatment of periodontal disease in diabetics reduces glycated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, S G; Skrepcinski, F B; DeCaro, T; Robertson, D C; Ho, A W; Dunford, R G; Genco, R J

    1997-08-01

    Periodontal disease is a common infection-induced inflammatory disease among individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of treatment of periodontal disease on the level of metabolic control of diabetes. A total of 113 Native Americans (81 females and 32 males) suffering from periodontal disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were randomized into 5 treatment groups. Periodontal treatment included ultrasonic scaling and curettage combined with one of the following antimicrobial regimens: 1) topical water and systemic doxycycline, 100 mg for 2 weeks; 2) topical 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and systemic doxycycline, 100 mg for 2 weeks; 3) topical povidone-iodine and systemic doxycycline, 100 mg for 2 weeks; 4) topical 0.12% CHX and placebo; and 5) topical water and placebo (control group). Assessments were performed prior to and at 3 and 6 months after treatment and included probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque and determination of serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). After treatment all study groups showed clinical and microbial improvement. The doxycycline-treated groups showed the greatest reduction in probing depth and subgingival Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the control group. In addition, all 3 groups receiving systemic doxycycline showed, at 3 months, significant reductions (P periodontal infection and reduction of periodontal inflammation is associated with a reduction in level of glycated hemoglobin. Control of periodontal infections should thus be an important part of the overall management of diabetes mellitus patients.

  1. Pathophysiological consequences of hemolysis. Role of cell-free hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Misztal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abundant hemolysis is associated with a number of inherent and acquired diseases including sickle-cell disease (SCD, polycythemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH and drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Despite different etiopathology of hemolytic diseases, many concomitant symptoms are comparable and include e.g. hypertension, hemoglobinuria and hypercoagulation state. Studies in the last years have shown a growing list of mechanisms lying at the basis of those symptoms, in particular irreversible reaction between cell-free hemoglobin (Hb and nitric oxide (NO – endogenous vasorelaxant and anti-thrombotic agent. Saturation of protective physiological cell-free Hb-scavenging mechanisms results in accumulation of Hb in plasma and hemoglobinemia. Extensive hemoglobinemia subsequently leads to hemoglobinuria, which may cause kidney damage and development of Fanconi syndrome. A severe problem in patients with SCD and PNH is pulmonary and systemic hypertension. It may lead to circulation failure, including stroke, and it is related to abolition of NO bioavailability for vascular smooth muscle cells. Thrombotic events are the major cause of death in SCD and PNH. It ensues from lack of platelet inhibition evoked by Hb-mediated NO scavenging. A serious complication that affects patients with excessive hemolysis is erectile dysfunction. Also direct cytotoxic, prooxidant and proinflammatory effects of cell-free hemoglobin and heme compose the clinical picture of hemolytic diseases. The pathophysiological role of plasma Hb, mechanisms of its elimination, and direct and indirect (via NO scavenging deleterious effects of cell-free Hb are presented in detail in this review. Understanding the critical role of hemolysis and cell-free Hb is important in the perspective of treating patients with hemolytic diseases and to design new effective therapies in future.

  2. Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Nadelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study is to determine if HbA1c levels are a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Methods. 200 unique patients referred for liver transplantation at University of Tennessee/Methodist University Transplant Institute with a HbA1c result were included. Three glucose levels prior to the “measured” A1c (MA1c were input into an HbA1c calculator from the American Diabetes Association website to determine the “calculated” A1c (CA1c. The differences between MA1c and CA1c levels were computed. Patients were divided into three groups: group A, difference of 1.5. Results. 97 (49% patients had hemoglobin A1c of less than 5%. Discordance between calculated and measured HbA1c of >0.5% was seen in 47% (n=94. Higher level of discordance of greater than >1.5 was in 12% of patients (n=24. Hemoglobin was an independent predictor for higher discordance (odds ratio 0.77 95%, CI 0.60–0.99, and p value 0.04. HbA1c was an independent predictor of occurrence of HCC (OR 2.69 955, CI 1.38–5.43, and p value 0.008. Conclusion. HbA1c is not a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, especially in those with severe anemia.

  3. Peroxynitrite scavenging by Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobin P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Pesce, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    Truncated hemoglobins (trHb) are present in protozoa, cyanobacteria, nemertean, bacteria, algae, and plants. They are characterized by the 2-on-2 topology and are ordered in four phylogenetic groups (I or N, II or O, III or P, and IV or Q). Several functions have been attributed to trHbs including the inactivation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, permitting the survival of microorganisms in the host. Here, the kinetics of peroxynitrite scavenging by ferric Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobin P [i.e., Cj-trHbP(III)] in the absence and presence of CO 2 , between pH 6.3 and 7.9, and 25.0 °C, is reported. Mixing the Cj-trHbP(III) solution with peroxynitrite solution brings about absorption spectral changes at 302 nm reflecting the disappearance of this endogenous toxicant and cytotoxic effector against pathogens. CO 2 affects only the rate of spontaneous decay of peroxynitrite without affecting the scavenging activity of Cj-trHbP(III). Moreover, the Cj-trHbP(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite is facilitated at low pH, indicating that peroxynitrous acid is the reactive species. The high reactivity of Cj-trHbP(III) towards peroxynitrite has been ascribed to the peroxidase-like geometry of the metal center. To investigate the protective role of Cj-trHbP(III) against peroxynitrite-mediated nitration, the relative yield of nitro-L-tyrosine formed by the reaction of peroxynitrite with free L-tyrosine was determined. According to fast kinetics of peroxynitrite isomerization by Cj-trHbP(III), this 2-on-2 globin impairs L-tyrosine nitrosylation. Present data suggest that Cj-trHbP could help the survival of C. jejuni.

  4. Structure and ligand selection of hemoglobin II from Lucina pectinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavira, José A; Camara-Artigas, Ana; De Jesús-Bonilla, Walleska; López-Garriga, Juan; Lewis, Ariel; Pietri, Ruth; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Cadilla, Carmen L; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2008-04-04

    Lucina pectinata ctenidia harbor three heme proteins: sulfide-reactive hemoglobin I (HbI(Lp)) and the oxygen transporting hemoglobins II and III (HbII(Lp) and HbIII(Lp)) that remain unaffected by the presence of H(2)S. The mechanisms used by these three proteins for their function, including ligand control, remain unknown. The crystal structure of oxygen-bound HbII(Lp) shows a dimeric oxyHbII(Lp) where oxygen is tightly anchored to the heme through hydrogen bonds with Tyr(30)(B10) and Gln(65)(E7). The heme group is buried farther within HbII(Lp) than in HbI(Lp). The proximal His(97)(F8) is hydrogen bonded to a water molecule, which interacts electrostatically with a propionate group, resulting in a Fe-His vibration at 211 cm(-1). The combined effects of the HbII(Lp) small heme pocket, the hydrogen bonding network, the His(97) trans-effect, and the orientation of the oxygen molecule confer stability to the oxy-HbII(Lp) complex. Oxidation of HbI(Lp) Phe(B10) --> Tyr and HbII(Lp) only occurs when the pH is decreased from pH 7.5 to 5.0. Structural and resonance Raman spectroscopy studies suggest that HbII(Lp) oxygen binding and transport to the host bacteria may be regulated by the dynamic displacements of the Gln(65)(E7) and Tyr(30)(B10) pair toward the heme to protect it from changes in the heme oxidation state from Fe(II) to Fe(III).

  5. Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors involved in renal clearance of hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gburek, Jakub; Verroust, Pierre J; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    -Sepharose affinity chromatography of solubilized renal brush-border membranes. Apparent dissociation constants of 1.7 microM for megalin and 4.1 microM for cubilin were determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. The binding was calcium dependent in both cases. Uptake of fluorescence-labeled hemoglobin by BN......The kidney is the main site of hemoglobin clearance and degradation in conditions of severe hemolysis. Herein it is reported that megalin and cubilin, two epithelial endocytic receptors, mediate the uptake of hemoglobin in renal proximal tubules. Both receptors were purified by use of hemoglobin...... not affect the uptake. By use of immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that uptake of hemoglobin in proximal tubules of rat, mouse, and dog kidneys occurs under physiologic conditions. Studies on normal and megalin knockout mouse kidney sections showed that megalin is responsible for physiologic...

  6. γ irradiation of aqueous solutions of human hemoglobin in atmospheres of air and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchala, M.; Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Leyko, W.

    1979-01-01

    In this study, the degrees of destruction of hemoglobin irradiated in atmospheres of air and argon were compared. Hemoglobin preparations were irradiated in the forms: oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ) deoxyhemoglobin (Hb 2+ ) and methemoglobin (MetHb) applying doses of 0.5 to 5 Mrad. The degree of hemoglobin destruction was estimate on the basis of changes in the values of the absorption coefficient at the Soret band, the absorption ratio A 505 /A 563 determined after conversion of irradiated preparations into MetHb, absorption coefficinets for pyridine hemochromogen obtained from irradiated preparations, and changes in parameters characterizing the hemoglobin oxygenation reaction (log p/sub 1/2/O 2 and the Hill n coefficient). The calculated oxygen enhancement ratios S were generally higher than 1 for the parameters estimated. This indicates that the presence of oxygen during irradiation enhances hemoglobin destruction

  7. A new polyethyleneglycol-derivatized hemoglobin derivative with decreased oxygen affinity and limited toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolog, Oana; Mot, Augustin; Deac, Florina; Roman, Alina; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol is described for derivatization of hemoglobin with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via reaction of the unmodified native hemoglobin with an activated amine-reacting polyethylene glycol derivative which, unlike protocols previously described, leads to formation of a peptide bond between hemoglobin and PEG. Dioxygen binding and peroxide reactivities of the derivatized hemoglobin are examined, and found to be within reasonable limits, with the particular observation that, unlike with a few other derivatization protocols, the dioxygen affinity is slightly lower than that of native Hb. In cell culture tests (human umbilical vein epithelial cells, HUVEC), the derivatization protocol induces no toxic effect. These results show promise towards applicability for production of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes.

  8. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin protein entrapped in graphene and chitosan composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huifeng; Dai, Hong; Chen, Guonan

    2010-04-15

    A novel, biocompatible sensing strategy based on graphene and chitosan composite film for immobilizing the hemoglobin protein was firstly adopted. The direct electron transfer and bioelectrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin after incorporation into the composite film were investigated. A pair of reversible redox waves of hemoglobin was appeared, and hemoglobin could exhibit its bioelectrocatalytic activity toward H(2)O(2) in a long term. Such results indicated that graphene and chitosan composite could be a friendly biocompatible interface for immobilizing biomolecules and keeping their native structure. Furthermore, the appearance of graphene in the composite film could facilitate the electron transfer between matrix and the electroactive center of hemoglobin. Hence, this graphene and chitosan based protocol would be a promising platform for protein immobilization and biosensor preparation. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of hemoglobin variants by top-down mass spectrometry using selected diagnostic product ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Graça, Didia; Hartmer, Ralf; Jabs, Wolfgang; Beris, Photis; Clerici, Lorella; Stoermer, Carsten; Samii, Kaveh; Hochstrasser, Denis; Tsybin, Yury O; Scherl, Alexander; Lescuyer, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Hemoglobin disorder diagnosis is a complex procedure combining several analytical steps. Due to the lack of specificity of the currently used protein analysis methods, the identification of uncommon hemoglobin variants (proteoforms) can become a hard task to accomplish. The aim of this work was to develop a mass spectrometry-based approach to quickly identify mutated protein sequences within globin chain variants. To reach this goal, a top-down electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry method was developed for hemoglobin β chain analysis. A diagnostic product ion list was established with a color code strategy allowing to quickly and specifically localize a mutation in the hemoglobin β chain sequence. The method was applied to the analysis of rare hemoglobin β chain variants and an (A)γ-β fusion protein. The results showed that the developed data analysis process allows fast and reliable interpretation of top-down electron transfer dissociation mass spectra by nonexpert users in the clinical area.

  10. Phenotypic expression of HbO Indonesia in two Indian families and its interaction with sickle hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Das Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alpha globin chain variants are clinically significant since they directly influence the structure and function of the hemoglobin (Hb molecules they constitute, either in combination with normal beta globin chains or with variant beta chains, thereby altering the morbidity and mortality associated with the resultant hemoglobinopathies. We describe here two unrelated families from Madhya Pradesh who had a nondeletional alpha-chain variant, HbO Indonesia (CD116 G → A. Members of one of the two families also had coinheritance of sickle hemoglobin (HbS. Aims: The aim was to study the phenotype of HbO Indonesia and its interaction with HbS. Materials and Methods: Hb electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, covalent reverse dot blot hybridization, amplification refractory mutation system, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and direct gene sequencing were used to identify and characterize the variant Hbs. Results: The abnormal Hb moved in HbS region in Hb electrophoresis at alkaline pH but gave an abnormal peak in HPLC with a retention time (RT of 4.86–4.89 min. In two members of the family with coinheritance of HbS, it produced small additional abnormal Hb peaks (4.6% in heterozygous and 11.9% in homozygous member in HPLC with a longer RT (5.15–5.17 min possibly resulting from a combination of HbO Indonesia alpha chain with HbS beta chain. Conclusions: It appears that depending on the zygosity of HbS, HbO Indonesia would subtract a variable amount of HbS beta chain from the total pool, thereby potentially reducing the clinical severity of HbS disease. HbO Indonesia per se does not cause anemia or alter the red cell indices.

  11. Fundic atrophic gastritis in an elderly population. Effect on hemoglobin and several serum nutritional indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, S D; Russell, R M; Samloff, I M; Jacob, R A; Dallal, G E; McGandy, R B; Hartz, S C

    1986-11-01

    The ratio of pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II in the circulation decreases progressively with increasing severity of atrophic gastritis of the fundic gland mucosa. Fasting blood was obtained from 359 free-living and institutionalized elderly people (age range, 60 to 99 years). A pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio less than 2.9, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 113 (31.5%) subjects. The prevalence of atrophic gastritis increased significantly with advancing age (P less than .05). Within the atrophic gastritis group, 84 had a pepsinogen I level greater than or equal to 20 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and 29 had a pepsinogen I level less than 20 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. A significant increase in the prevalences of elevated serum gastrin levels (P less than .005), low serum vitamin B12 levels (P less than .005), circulating intrinsic factor antibody (P less than .005), and anemia (P less than .025) was observed with stepwise increases in severity of atrophic gastritis. Subjects with atrophic gastritis exhibited a lower mean serum vitamin B12 level (P less than .05) and a higher mean folate level (P less than .05), but no difference was detected in mean hemoglobin levels or serum levels of iron, ferritin, retinol or alpha-tocopherol. It is concluded that serum pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II levels can be used to determine the prevalence and severity of atrophic gastritis, that atrophic gastritis is common in an elderly population, and that atrophic gastritis is associated with vitamin B12 deficiency and anemia. Further, higher folate levels in atrophic gastritis may be related to an accumulation of 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate in serum due to vitamin B12 deficiency and/or greater folate synthesis by the intestinal flora resulting from bacterial overgrowth secondary to hypo- or achlorhydria.

  12. Simultaneous estimation of transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Abdul, Wares MD.; Ohtsu, Mizuki; Nakano, Kazuya; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    We propose a method to estimate transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the proposed method, the Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for an absorbance spectrum in the visible wavelength region (460-590 nm) is used to specify the concentrations of bilirubin (Cbil), oxygenated hemoglobin (Coh), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Cdh), and melanin (Cm). Using the absorbance spectrum calculated from the measured diffuse reflectance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are numerically deduced in advance by the Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in skin. Total hemoglobin concentration (Cth) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) are simply calculated from the oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin. In vivo animal experiments with bile duct ligation in rats demonstrated that the estimated Cbil is increased after ligation of bile duct and reaches to around 20 mg/dl at 72 h after the onset of the ligation, which corresponds to the reference value of Cbil measured by a commercially available transcutaneous bilirubin meter. We also performed in vivo experiments with rats while varying the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). Coh and Cdh decreased and increased, respectively, as FiO2 decreased. Consequently, StO2 was dramatically decreased. The results in this study indicate potential of the method for simultaneous evaluation of multiple chromophores in skin tissue.

  13. [Effect of enalapril maleate and lozartan on the size of experimental myocardial infarction, hemoglobin affinity to oxygen and various parameters of lipid peroxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsura, S V; Zinchuk, V V

    2004-01-01

    The intravenous injections of enalapril maleate (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) and losartan (0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg) produced a 22-32% decrease in the size of myocardial infarction in rats with coronary ligation. This was accompanied by inhibition of the lipid peroxidation as revealed by the MDA test and Fe2+ induced chemiluminescence. Both drugs also increased the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin in the P50 test in vitro. Enalapril did not significantly alter the MDA level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the whole human blood. In contrast, losartan reliably inhibited SOD activity.

  14. Bacterial leaching of pyritic gold ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, F.M.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Jay, W.H. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Chemical Engineering Department

    1996-12-31

    The bacterial oxidation process is well known in nature but has only recently come under investigation as a viable and relatively clean method of gold recovery from ores. However there is currently little information about the process at an atomic scale. It is known that the bacterial attack progresses preferentially along grain boundaries which is precisely where the gold has been deposited from aqueous infiltration. Samples have been obtained from the Wiluna mine in Western Australia consisting of the original ore, 2 pre-treatments, and from six successive bacterial reactors. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra taken at room temperature show only two quadrupole split doublets which can be ascribed to pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, and arsenopyrite, FeAsS. However, the presence of any superparamagnetic oxide or oxyhydroxide species would be expected to give a spectrum very similar to that of pyrite and would be undetectable in small quantities. At a temperature of 5K, a broad magnetically split sextet is observable with a mean hyperfine field of approximately 50T. This field is characteristic of magnetically ordered ferric iron surrounded by an octahedron of oxygens. The intensity and characteristics of this subspectrum alters through the series and interpretations will be given on the oxidation products of the bacterial leaching

  15. Bacterial leaching of pyritic gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, F.M.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J.; Jay, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The bacterial oxidation process is well known in nature but has only recently come under investigation as a viable and relatively clean method of gold recovery from ores. However there is currently little information about the process at an atomic scale. It is known that the bacterial attack progresses preferentially along grain boundaries which is precisely where the gold has been deposited from aqueous infiltration. Samples have been obtained from the Wiluna mine in Western Australia consisting of the original ore, 2 pre-treatments, and from six successive bacterial reactors. 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra taken at room temperature show only two quadrupole split doublets which can be ascribed to pyrite, FeS 2 , and arsenopyrite, FeAsS. However, the presence of any superparamagnetic oxide or oxyhydroxide species would be expected to give a spectrum very similar to that of pyrite and would be undetectable in small quantities. At a temperature of 5K, a broad magnetically split sextet is observable with a mean hyperfine field of approximately 50T. This field is characteristic of magnetically ordered ferric iron surrounded by an octahedron of oxygens. The intensity and characteristics of this subspectrum alters through the series and interpretations will be given on the oxidation products of the bacterial leaching

  16. Regulation of fetal hemoglobin expression during hematopoietic stem cell development and its importance in bone metabolism and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, O; Alexander, C; Brandenburg, K; Chen, Z; Heini, A; Heumann, D; Khatri, I; Mach, J P; Rietschel, E T; Tersikh, A; Ulmer, A J; Waelli, T; Yu, K; Zähringer, U; Gorczynski, R M

    2018-04-01

    We have shown that an altered tissue redox environment in mice lacking either murine beta Hemoglobin major (Hgbβ ma KO) or minor (Hgbβ mi KO) regulates inflammation. The REDOX environment in marrow stem cell niches also control differentiation pathways. We investigated osteoclastogenesis (OC)/osteoblastogenesis (OB), in bone cultures derived from untreated or FSLE-treated WT, Hgbβ ma KO or Hgbβ mi KO mice. Marrow mesenchymal cells from 10d pre-cultures were incubated on an osteogenic matrix for 21d prior to analysis of inflammatory cytokine release into culture supernatants, and relative OC:OB using (TRAP:BSP, RANKL:OPG) mRNA expression ratios and TRAP or Von Kossa staining. Cells from WT and Hgbβ ma KO mice show decreased IL-1β,TNFα and IL-6 production and enhanced osteoblastogenesis with altered mRNA expression ratios and increased bone nodules (Von Kossa staining) in vitro after in vivo stimulation of mRNA expression of fetal Hgb genes (Hgbε and Hgbβ mi ) by a fetal liver extract (FSLE). Marrow from Hgbβ mi KO showed enhanced cytokine release and preferential enhanced osteoclastogenesis relative to similar cells from WT or Hgbβ ma KO mice, with no increased osteoblastogenesis after mouse treatment with FSLE. Pre-treatment of WT or Hgbβ ma KO, but not Hgbβ mi KO mice, with other molecules (rapamycin; hydroxyurea) which increase expression of fetal Hgb genes also augmented osteoblastogenesis and decreased cytokine production in cells differentiating in vitro. Infusion of rabbit anti- Hgbε or anti- Hgbβ mi , but not anti-Hgbα or anti- Hgbβ ma into WT mice from day 13 gestation for 3 weeks led to attenuated osteoblastogenesis in cultured cells. We conclude that increased fetal hemoglobin expression, or use of agents which improve fetal hemoglobin expression, increases osteoblast bone differentiation in association with decreased inflammatory cytokine release. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hot atom labeling of myoglobin and hemoglobin and biophysical studies of oxygen and CO binding to carp hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astatke, M.

    1992-01-01

    Human Hb, the monomeric Hb of Glycera dibranchiata and horse Mb were modified by replacement of the protoheme with 2,4-dibromodeuteroheme. Following neutron capture by 79 Br and 81 Br, the locations of radioactive Br were determined. Although human Hb had approximately four times the mass and volume of the other proteins, about 9% of the activated Br was inserted into each of the three globins. These results suggest that the insertion is short-range (within 15 angstrom) and that this method could be used to label target sites in various proteins and other biological structures. Carp Hb's containing proto-, meso-, deutero- and dibromoheme were prepared. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for oxygen and CO binding were determined at Ph 6 (+IHP) (T-state, low-affinity protein) and Ph 9 (R-state, high-affinity protein). Parameters for the binding of oxygen and CO were related to the properties of the four hemes to estimate the inductive and steric factors in the ligation process. The results suggest that the steric factors are more important for the T-state than for the R-state. The T-state carp Hbs were very readily oxidized. Two new procedures were developed for the rapid determination of oxygen equilibrium isotherms for the T-state carp Hbs. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for ligation of oxygen and CO with the isolated carp α-chains were determined. Carp α-chains are the only hemoglobin chains isolated to date that can be classified as T-state. The secondary thermodynamic parameter (δH degrees) was found to be essential for classifying hemoglobins as T- or R-state

  18. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marji, S.

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  19. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm resilience poses major challenges to the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Biofilm bacteria can be considered small groups of “Special Forces” capable of infiltrating the host and destroying important components of the cellular defense system with the aim of crippling the host...... defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  20. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...

  1. Bacterial meningitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investigated. A natural model of secondary bacterial respiratory infection in naive calves was used to determine if weaning and maternal separation (WMS) significantly altered mortality when compared to calves pre-adapted (PA) to this psychological stressor. Following weaning, calves were challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica four days after a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection. Mortality doubled in WMS calves when compared to calves pre-adapted to weaning for two weeks prior to the viral respiratory infection. Similar results were observed in two independent experiments and fatal viral-bacterial synergy did not extend beyond the time of viral shedding. Virus shedding did not differ significantly between treatment groups but innate immune responses during viral infection, including IFN-γ secretion, the acute-phase inflammatory response, CD14 expression, and LPS-induced TNFα production, were significantly greater in WMS versus PA calves. These observations demonstrate that weaning and maternal separation at the time of a primary BHV-1 respiratory infection increased innate immune responses that correlated significantly with mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. PMID:22435642

  3. Responses of soil bacterial community after seventh yearly applications of composted tannery sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Rocha, Sandra Mara Barbosa; Brink, Van den Paul J.; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel; Antunes, Jadson Emanuel Lopes; Araujo, Ademir Sergio Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Composted tannery sludge (CTS) contains organic compounds and inorganic elements, mainly chromium (Cr), and its long-term application in soil can alter the bacterial structure and diversity. Thus, we used the next-generation sequencing to assess the structure and diversity of bacterial communities

  4. Development of Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin (LEH) and Studies of Hemorrhagic Shock by Use of Imaging Studies with Oxygen-15 and Other Radiotracers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William T; Goins, Beth; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2004-01-01

    .... Encapsulating hemoglobin inside a protective lipid membrane, which mimics a red blood cell, has the advantages of decreasing the toxicity of the free hemoglobin, increasing its circulation time...

  5. Correlation between Oxygen Saturation and Hemoglobin and Hematokrit Levels in Tetralogy of Fallot Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhatul Inayah Adiputri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels increase in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF but the oxygen saturation declines. Reduced hemoglobin in circulating blood as a parameter of cyanosis does not indicate rising hemoglobin due to the ‘not-working’ hemoglobins that affect the oxygen saturation. Increasing hematocrit is the result of secondary erythrocytosis caused by declining oxygen level in blood, which is related to the oxygen saturation. This study was conducted to find the correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin and hematocrite levels in TOF patients. Methods: This study was undertaken at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in the period of January 2011 to December 2012 using the cross-sectional analytic method with total sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were medical records of TOF patients diagnosed based on echocardiography that included data on oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and hematocrite. Exclusion criteria was the history of red blood transfusion. Results: Thirty medical records of TOF patiens from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung were included in this study. Due to skewed data distribution, Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrit level (r= -0.412; p=0.024 and insignificant correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin (r=-0.329; p= 0.076. Conclusions: There is a weak negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrite levels

  6. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 Inhibits the Peroxidase Activity of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Hair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin is the natural carrier of oxygen in red blood cells (RBCs. While intracellular hemoglobin provides life-sustaining oxygen transport, extracellular free hemoglobin displays toxicity due to inherent peroxidase activity generating reactive oxygen species that subsequently react with the hemoglobin molecule to produce toxic heme degradation products resulting in free radicals, oxidative stress damage, and lipid peroxidation. We have recently demonstrated that Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1 inhibits peroxidase activity of the heme-based enzyme myeloperoxidase. To elucidate whether PIC1 could inhibit peroxidase activity of hemoglobin, we evaluated the consequence of PIC1 on RBC lysates, methemoglobin, and myoglobin using tetramethylbenzidine (TMB as an oxidation target. PIC1 reversibly and dose-dependently prevented TMB oxidation to tetramethylbenzidine diimine by RBC lysates, methemoglobin, and myoglobin, having comparable activity to the inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide. PIC1 inhibited TMB oxidation of RBC lysates similar to L-cysteine suggesting that the two cysteine residues contained in PIC1 may mediate peroxidase activity. PIC1 also inhibited heme destruction by NaOCl for RBC lysates, hemoglobin, and myoglobin as assayed by preservation of the Soret absorbance peak in the presence of NaOCl and reduction in free iron release. In conclusion, PIC1 inhibits peroxidase activity of hemoglobin and myoglobin likely via an antioxidant mechanism.

  7. Association of calcium antagonist use with lower hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikrikcioglu, M A; Ozdemir, A A; Sekin, Y; Yalcin, B; Altay, M; Gundogdu, A; Erkal, S N; Kazancioglu, R; Erkoc, R

    2015-09-01

    Objective of the present study was to investigate whether calcium antagonist use is associated with lower hemoglobin levels and/or higher erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) requirement in hemodialysis patients. A total of 130 adult hemodialysis patients were classified into two groups based on calcium antagonist usage for a period of at least 3 months as calcium antagonist users and calcium antagonist non-users. The two groups were compared cross-sectionally in a retrospective manner in terms of demographics, chronic kidney disease aetiologies, Charlson's Comorbidty Index, blood pressure, type of dialysis access, interdialytic body weight gain, cardiothoracic index, complete blood count, biochemistry, regular medication use and consumption of ESA. All independent variables that were different between the groups were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Linear regression analysis with dependent variable of hemoglobin value was also performed ESA consumption and blood pressure were higher, diabetic nephropathy, doxazosin and ACE inhibitor use were more frequent, and hemoglobin was lower in the calcium antagonist users. After logistic regression analysis, diabetic nephropathy, doxazosin use, ACE inhibitor use and lower hemoglobin were associated with calcium antagonist use. After lineer regression analysis, Age, BMI, gender, predialysis creatinine value, dialysis duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, doxazosin use, diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy were not related with hemoglobin value. But, higher amount of ESA consumption, ACE inhibitor use and calcium antagonist use were significantly associated with lower hemoglobin value. CA use was associated with lower hemoglobin levels in our hemodialysis patient population.

  8. The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus-Hemoglobins and ligand-binding properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Russo

    Full Text Available A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years, the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The three hemoglobins show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, a very important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. They display identical electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra, indicating that their heme-pocket structures are identical or highly similar. The quaternary transition equilibrium between the relaxed (R and the tense (T states is more dependent on physiological allosteric effectors than in human hemoglobin, as also demonstrated in polar teleost hemoglobins. Similar to other cartilaginous fishes, we found no evidence for functional differentiation among the three isoforms. The very similar ligand-binding properties suggest that regulatory control of O2 transport may be at the cellular level and that it may involve changes in the cellular concentrations of allosteric effectors and/or variations of other systemic factors. The hemoglobins of this polar shark have evolved adaptive decreases in O2 affinity in comparison to temperate sharks.

  9. Hemoglobin system of Sparus aurata: Changes in fishes farmed under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giancarlo; D'Ascola, Angela; Campo, Giuseppe M.; Avenoso, Angela; Traina, Paola; Calatroni, Alberto; Burrascano, Emanuele; Ferlazzo, Alida; Lupidi, Giulio; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Falcioni, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain more knowledge on the stress responses of gilhead seabream (Sparus aurata) under extreme conditions, this study investigated the functional properties of the hemoglobin system and globin gene expression under hypoxia and low salinity. The oxygen affinity for the two hemoglobin components present inside the S. aurata erythrocyte was practically identical as was the influence of protons and organic phosphates (Root effect). The quantification of S. aurata hemoglobin fractions performed by HPLC and the data on gene expression of globin chains assayed by PCR indicate that under hypoxia and low salinity there is a change in the ratio between the two different hemoglobin components. The result indicating that the distinct hemoglobins present in S. aurata erythrocyte have almost identical functional properties, does not explain the adaptive response (expression change) following exposure of the animal to hypoxia or low salinity on the basis of their function as oxygen transporter. We hypothesize that other parallel biological functions that the hemoglobin molecule is known to display within the erythrocyte are involved in adaptive molecular mechanisms. The autoxidation-reduction cycle of hemoglobin could be involved in the response to particular living conditions

  10. Significant relationship between soil bacterial community structure and incidence of bacterial wilt disease under continuous cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Siyuan; Niu, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Chao; Xiao, Yunhua; Chen, Wu; Dai, Linjian; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2017-03-01

    Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles and play significant role in soil-borne disease suppression. Although continuous cropping is responsible for soil-borne disease enrichment, its effect on tobacco plant health and how soil bacterial communities change are yet to be elucidated. In this study, soil bacterial communities across tobacco continuous cropping time-series fields were investigated through high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that long-term continuous cropping could significantly alter soil microbial communities. Bacterial diversity indices and evenness indices decreased over the monoculture span and obvious variations for community structures across the three time-scale tobacco fields were detected. Compared with the first year, the abundances of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter showed a significant decrease. Besides, the abundance of the pathogen Ralstonia spp. accumulated over the monoculture span and was significantly correlated with tobacco bacterial wilt disease rate. Moreover, Pearson's correlation demonstrated that the abundance of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter, which are considered to be beneficial bacteria had significant negative correlation with tobacco bacterial wilt disease. Therefore, after long-term continuous cropping, tobacco bacterial wilt disease could be ascribed to the alteration of the composition as well as the structure of the soil microbial community.

  11. Maternal HIV status affects the infant hemoglobin level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Children, especially infants, are highly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anemia because of their rapid growth of the brain and the rest of the body. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive mothers and HIV-negative mothers and to identify the determinants of iron-deficiency anemia in infants. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar city. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Mothers were interviewed; blood samples were collected from mothers and infants to measure the hemoglobin level and anthropometric indicators were obtained from the infants using world health organization standards. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of infantile anemia. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the determinants of infant anemia. A total of 1459 infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers were included. The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers was 41.9% (95% CI: 39–44). Infantile iron-deficiency anemia was associated with maternal HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.54 [95% CI: 1.65–3.9]), stunting (AOR 3.46 [95% CI: 2.41–4.97]), low income (AOR 2.72 [95% CI: 2–3.73]), maternal malaria during pregnancy (AOR 1.81 [95% CI: 1.33–2.47]), use of cow milk before 6 month (AOR 1.82 [95% CI: 1.35–2.45]), residence (AOR 0.09 [95% CI: 0.06–0.13]), history of cough or fever 7 days preceding the survey (AOR 2.71 [95% CI: 1.99–3.69]), maternal hemoglobin (B 0.65 [95% CI: 0.61–0.68]), educational status of mother (B 0.22 [95% CI: 0.2–0.23]), age of the mother (B –0.03 [95% CI: –0.03, –0.02]), and family size (B –0.14 [95% CI: –0.18,–0.11]). PMID:27495044

  12. The Bacterial Growth Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulton, Richard J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

  13. Bacterial fingerprints across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), impose major threats to human health worldwide. Both have a ‘Jekyll & Hyde’ character, since they can be present as human commensals, but can also become harmful invasive pathogens especially

  14. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  15. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  16. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  17. Seizures Complicating Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 116 patients, 1 month to <5 years of age, admitted for bacterial meningitis, and grouped according to those with and without seizures during hospitalization, were compared in a study at Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and other centers in Taiwan.

  18. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rapid and easy-to-use test for bacterial infections. Clearly, this is a very ... detect antigens or specific antibodies, e.g. group A streptococcal antigen testing can be employed to reduce antibiotic use. Culture-based tests are often ... White blood cell count 12 000 cells/mm³; or the presence of >10% ...

  19. Bacterial Meningitis Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1995-01-01

    The neurologic, psychological, and educational outcomes of bacterial meningitis in 130 children evaluated at a mean age of 8 years, and 6 years after their meningitis, are reported from the Department of Paediatrics and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, University of Melbourne, and the Royal Children’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

  20. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study of pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene in distributive shock (PHOENIX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Privalle, Christopher T; Singer, Mervyn; Lorente, José A; Boehm, Erwin; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas; Darius, Harald; Ferrer, Ricard; Sirvent, Josep-Maria; Marx, Gernot; DeAngelo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness and safety of the hemoglobin-based nitric oxide scavenger, pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene, against placebo in patients with vasopressor-dependent distributive shock. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label study. Sixty-one participating ICUs in six European countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and United Kingdom). All patients admitted with distributive shock, defined as the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, persisting norepinephrine dependence and evidence of organ dysfunction/hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Patients were randomized to receive 0.25 mL/kg/hr pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (20 mg Hb/kg/hr) or an equal volume of placebo, infused for up to 150 hours, in addition to conventional vasopressor therapy. The study was stopped after interim analysis showed higher mortality in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group and an increased prevalence of adverse events. At this time, 377 patients had been randomized to pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (n = 183) or placebo (n = 194). Age, gender, type of patient (medical/surgical), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were similar between groups. Twenty-eight-day mortality rate was 44.3% in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group versus 37.6% in the placebo group (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.85-1.95; p = 0.227). In patients with higher organ dysfunction scores (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment > 13), mortality rates were significantly higher in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group when compared with those in placebo-treated patients (60.9% vs 39.2%; p = 0.014). Survivors who received pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene had a longer vasopressor-free time (21.3 vs 19.7 d; p = 0.035). In this randomized, controlled phase III trial in patients with vasopressor-dependent distributive shock

  1. FRET imaging of hemoglobin concentration in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Esposito

    Full Text Available During its intraerythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle Plasmodium falciparum consumes up to 80% of the host cell hemoglobin, in large excess over its metabolic needs. A model of the homeostasis of falciparum-infected red blood cells suggested an explanation based on the need to reduce the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host cell to prevent its premature lysis. Critical for this hypothesis was that the hemoglobin concentration within the host cell be progressively reduced from the trophozoite stage onwards.The experiments reported here were designed to test this hypothesis by direct measurements of the hemoglobin concentration in live, infected red cells. We developed a novel, non-invasive method to quantify the hemoglobin concentration in single cells, based on Förster resonance energy transfer between hemoglobin molecules and the fluorophore calcein. Fluorescence lifetime imaging allowed the quantitative mapping of the hemoglobin concentration within the cells. The average fluorescence lifetimes of uninfected cohorts was 270+/-30 ps (mean+/-SD; N = 45. In the cytoplasm of infected cells the fluorescence lifetime of calcein ranged from 290+/-20 ps for cells with ring stage parasites to 590+/-13 ps and 1050+/-60 ps for cells with young trophozoites and late stage trophozoite/early schizonts, respectively. This was equivalent to reductions in hemoglobin concentration spanning the range from 7.3 to 2.3 mM, in line with the model predictions. An unexpected ancillary finding was the existence of a microdomain under the host cell membrane with reduced calcein quenching by hemoglobin in cells with mature trophozoite stage parasites.The results support the predictions of the colloid-osmotic hypothesis and provide a better understanding of the homeostasis of malaria-infected red cells. In addition, they revealed the existence of a distinct peripheral microdomain in the host cell with limited access to hemoglobin molecules indicating the

  2. Blood hemoglobin level may affect radiosensitivity--preliminary results on acutely reacting normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, Michael; Bechtold, Christine; Momm, Felix; Doerr, Wolfgang; Guttenberger, Roland

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiosensitivity of acutely reacting normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Weekly scores (EORTC/RTOG criteria) for acute reactions of skin and mucosa are available for 60 patients with cancer of the head and neck undergoing a standard conventional radiotherapy. The prognostic significance of blood hemoglobin levels on the development of acute reactions is studied by multivariate analysis (Cox Proportional Hazards Model). Further, the incidence and the time to development of these reactions is looked at in cohorts of patients with different mean blood hemoglobin concentrations during radiotherapy. Patients are therefore classified into a 'severely anemic group' (hemoglobin < 11.0 g/100 mL), and into a cohort with a blood hemoglobin value equal or above 11.0 g/100 mL. Results: Normal tissue scoring and monitoring of blood hemoglobin levels allows for a detailed analysis of possible correlations. A decrease in the mean blood hemoglobin value of 1 g/100 mL predicts a reduced risk to develop a skin reaction of Grade 2 or 3 (RR = 0.9; p = 0.08; RR = 0.8; p = 0.26, respectively) or a mucosa reaction of Grade 3 (RR = 0.8; p = 0.16), independent from the radiation dose, the treatment time and from previous surgery within the radiation volume (multivariate analysis). Likewise, patients with severe anemia develop grade 3 mucositis or dermatitis less often (0%; 13%) as compared to those with blood hemoglobin concentrations equal or above 11.0 g/100 mL (21%; 19%). Skin and mucosa reactions further tend to occur later in the course of radiation. The observations are not statistically significant and possible reasons will be discussed. Conclusions: A decreased blood hemoglobin concentration may - perhaps by an impaired tissue oxygenation - reduce the radiosensitivity of normal tissue such as skin and mucosa. However, the data is preliminary and needs further confirmation

  3. Hemoglobin Concentration and Risk of Incident Stroke in Community-Living Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Bhupesh; Judd, Suzanne E; Warnock, David G; McClellan, William M; Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2016-08-01

    In previous observational studies, hemoglobin concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. However, these studies were limited by a relatively low number of stroke events, making it difficult to determine whether the association of hemoglobin and stroke differed by demographic or clinical factors. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots, we examined the association of baseline hemoglobin concentrations with incident stroke in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a cohort of black and white adults aged ≥45 years. A total of 518 participants developed stroke over a mean 7±2 years of follow-up. There was a statistically significant interaction between hemoglobin and sex (P=0.05) on the risk of incident stroke. In Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, there was no association of baseline hemoglobin concentration with incident stroke in men, whereas in women, the lowest (14.0 g/dL) quartiles of hemoglobin were associated with higher risk of stroke when compared with the second quartile (12.4-13.2 g/dL; quartile 1: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.31; quartile 2: referent; quartile 3: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.38; quartile 4: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.35). Similar results were observed in models stratified by hemoglobin and sex and when hemoglobin was modeled as a continuous variable using restricted quadratic spline regression. Lower and higher hemoglobin concentrations were associated with a higher risk of incident stroke in women. No such associations were found in men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Corticosteroids for Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is a benefit in clinical outcomes with the use of topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial comparing prednisolone sodium phosphate, 1.0%, to placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and received topical moxifloxacin for at least 48 hours before randomization. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included infiltrate/scar size, reepithelialization, and corneal perforation. Results Between September 1, 2006, and February 22, 2010, 1769 patients were screened for the trial and 500 patients were enrolled. No significant difference was observed in the 3-month BSCVA (−0.009 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% CI, −0.085 to 0.068; P = .82), infiltrate/scar size (P = .40), time to reepithelialization (P = .44), or corneal perforation (P > .99). A significant effect of corticosteroids was observed in subgroups of baseline BSCVA (P = .03) and ulcer location (P = .04). At 3 months, patients with vision of counting fingers or worse at baseline had 0.17 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (95% CI, −0.31 to −0.02; P = .03) compared with placebo, and patients with ulcers that were completely central at baseline had 0.20 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (−0.37 to −0.04; P = .02). Conclusions We found no overall difference in 3-month BSCVA and no safety concerns with adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Application to Clinical Practice Adjunctive topical corticosteroid use does not improve 3-month vision in patients with bacterial corneal ulcers. PMID:21987582

  5. Structural and functional studies of hemoglobin Moabit (alpha 86(F7) Leu-->Arg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbis, B; Tshilolo, L; Wajcman, H; Riou, J; Galactéros, F; Promé, D; Kister, J; Papassotiriou, I; Van Laethem, Y; Vertongen, F

    1997-06-01

    An abnormal hemoglobin fraction was detected on high performance liquid chromatography profile performed for the measurement of glycated hemoglobin in a 55-year-old caucasian patient. The structural and functional studies were performed by standard techniques. Separation of hemoglobins by alkaline electrophoresis and by IEF revealed a slightly more rapid fraction than does Hb S. By acid electrophoresis, no abnormal Hb fraction could be observed. Separation of globin chains by electrophoresis demonstrated an alpha-chain variant and by chromatography, a fraction which eluted between beta and gamma globin chains. Tryptic digests and amino acid analysis have demonstrated a previously described substitution of Leu-->Arg alpha 86(F7).

  6. An analysis of postoperative hemoglobin levels in patients with a fractured neck of femur

    OpenAIRE

    Navraj S. Nagra; Dmitri van Popta; Sigrid Whiteside; Edward M. Holt

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hemoglobin level and to determine a suitable timeline for post-operative hemoglobin monitoring in patients undergoing fixation of femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n = 74, mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n = 104, mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture were included into the study. The hemoglobin level of the patients was monitored pe...

  7. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed......, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants...

  8. Sickle Retinopathy in a Person with Hemoglobin S/New York Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Calder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient who presented with sickle retinopathy and hemoglobin electrophoresis results compatible with sickle cell trait was found, on further investigation, to be a compound heterozygote with hemoglobin S and hemoglobin New York disease. This recently reported form of sickle cell disease was not previously known to cause retinopathy and surprisingly was observed in a non-Asian individual. The ophthalmological findings, the laboratory diagnosis, and possible pathophysiology of this disorder are discussed. Persons diagnosed with sickle cell trait who present with symptoms of sickle cell disease may benefit from specific screening for this variant.

  9. Hemoglobin target in children with chronic kidney disease: valuable new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Motoshi

    2017-01-01

    The international guideline from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes suggests a hemoglobin target of 11 to 12 g/dl for children with chronic kidney disease. However, information to support this proposal is very limited in the pediatric population. Because of controversy, the unmet need is the establishment of an appropriate target hemoglobin level in children with chronic kidney disease. Here, Rheault and colleagues provide valuable new information, reporting the association of hemoglobin levels with cardiovascular morbidity in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hemoglobin structural dynamics as monitored by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of the heme group are now understood at a level sufficient to provide a useful monitor of several heme structural features. Some porphyrin vibrational frequencies are sensitive to Fe oxidation state, or π-electron distribution, and give insight into the electronic structure of O 2 , CO and NO hemes. Others are sensitive to Fe spin-state, via the associated geometry variation, and provide an accurate index of the porphyrin core size. When examined during the photolysis of CO-hemoglobin via short laser pulses, these frequencies indicate that conversion from low- to h+gh-spin Fe 11 takes place within 30 ps of photolysis, presumably via intersystem-crossing in the excited state, but that the subsequent relaxation of the Fe atom out of the heme plane takes longer than 20 ns, probably because of restraint by the protein. Axial ligand modes have been identified for several heme derivatives. The Fe-imidazole frequency in deoxyhemoglobin is appreciably lowered in the T quaternary structure, as determined in both static and kinetic experiments, suggesting molecular tension or proximal imidazole H-bond weakening in the T state. (author)

  11. Oxidized Hemoglobin Is Antigenic and Immunogenic in Lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Jain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemolysis-associated anemia is characteristic of diseases such as atherosclerosis, lupus, malaria, and leishmaniasis; the toxic effects of free hemoglobin (Hb have been extensively described. This study was based on the premise that release of this sequestered, inflammatory molecule can result in deleterious immunological consequences, particularly in the context of pre-existing lupus. IgG anti-Hb responses were detected in the sera of lupus patients. Lupus-prone mice exhibited heightened plasma Hb levels, and ferric (Fe3+ Hb triggered preferential release of lupus-associated cytokines from splenocytes derived from aging lupus-prone mice. Anti-Hb B cell precursor frequencies were heightened in such mice, which also expressed increased titers of anti-Hb antibodies in serum and in kidney eluates. Fe3+ Hb preferentially increased the functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs from lupus-prone mice, effects abrogated upon the inhibition of Stat3. Hb interacted with lupus-associated autoantigens extruded during apoptosis and coincubation of Hb and apoptotic blebs had additional maturation-inducing effects on lupus BMDCs. Immunization with Hb in lupus-prone mice induced antigen spreading to lupus-associated moieties; Hb-interacting autoantigens were preferentially targeted and increased complement deposition and glomerulosclerosis were observed. Hb therefore demonstrates both antigenicity and immunogenicity and triggers specific immuno-pathological effects in a lupus milieu.

  12. Diagnostic utility of glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Ferguson, D C

    1999-01-01

    Changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) concentrations, K values (% disappearance of glucose/min after an intravenous injection of 1 g/kg dextrose), and blood glucose concentrations were examined in eight cats before and during the induction of diabetes, and in four of these cats after they were placed on insulin treatment. There was a statistically significant separation of GHb, K values, and fasting blood glucose concentrations between healthy and diabetic cats. Changes in GHb correlated best with the K value and single weekly fasting glucose concentrations averaged over eight periods for each cat while diabetes was induced (R = 0.80 and 0.78, respectively); however, fasting blood glucose concentrations obtained on the day of the GHb measurement were also highly correlated (R = 0.69; P glucose concentrations obtained in insulin-treated cats at the time of insulin peak action and averaged over an 8-wk time period for each cat was less but still significant (R = 0.53; P measurements are a simple and reliable way to monitor changes in glucose control in the diabetic cat over a prolonged period.

  13. Low hemoglobin levels are associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can be fatal. Blood test variables were reviewed in search of threshold values to detect the presence of occult upper GI bleeding. The records of 1,023 patients who underwent endoscopy at the National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital from October 2014, to September 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. Of those, 95 had upper GI bleeding. One-way analysis of variance was applied to blood test variables comparing patients with and without upper GI bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was applied to detect the association of blood test parameters with upper GI bleeding, and receiver-operator characteristics were applied to establish threshold values. White blood cell count (WBC), platelet (Plt) count, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were higher, and hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) levels were lower in patients with upper GI bleeding. Logistic regression analysis showed that low Hb was significantly associated with upper GI bleeding and a Hb value of 10.8 g/dl was established as the threshold for the diagnosis. In patients with upper GI bleeding, WBC, Plt count, and BUN levels were higher and Hb and Alb levels were reduced. Hb at 10.8 g/dl was established as a threshold value to detect upper GI bleeding.

  14. Hemoglobin Expression in Nonerythroid Cells: Novel or Ubiquitous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarchana Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb is a major protein involved in transport of oxygen (O2. Red blood cells (RBCs contain maximum amount of Hb and because of their unique structure and plasticity they transport O2 to various tissues of the body at an optimal concentration. Recently, it has been reported that, apart from RBCs, Hb is also expressed by nonerythroid cells such as epithelial cells of different origin. The cells expressing Hb are from the tissues where maintenance of O2 homeostasis is of paramount importance. Hb expression has been observed in the epithelial cells from human tissues including lungs, neurons, retina, and endometrium. Our group has recently demonstrated that Hb is expressed by the cervicovaginal epithelial cells. We further showed that, apart from maintaining O2 homeostasis, Hb and the peptides derived from it play an indispensable role in the protection of vaginal epithelium by exhibiting antimicrobial activity. In this review, we discuss the significance of Hb expression in vaginal epithelial cells and its role in the recognition of pathogens thereby reducing the risk and/or severity of inflammation and/or infections and the possible mechanism by which Hb exhibits antimicrobial and antioxidative functions.

  15. Differential sensitivity of Chironomus and human hemoglobin to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, Pallavi S.; Panicker, Lata; Mohole, Madhura; Sawant, Sangeeta; Mukhopadhyaya, Rita; Nath, Bimalendu B.

    2016-01-01

    Chironomus ramosus is known to tolerate high doses of gamma radiation exposure. Larvae of this insect possess more than 95% of hemoglobin (Hb) in its circulatory hemolymph. This is a comparative study to see effect of gamma radiation on Hb of Chironomus and humans, two evolutionarily diverse organisms one having extracellular and the other intracellular Hb respectively. Stability and integrity of Chironomus and human Hb to gamma radiation was compared using biophysical techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and CD spectroscopy after exposure of whole larvae, larval hemolymph, human peripheral blood, purified Chironomus and human Hb. Sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the sequence and structural similarities or differences in the heme pockets of respective Hbs. Resistivity of Chironomus Hb to gamma radiation is remarkably higher than human Hb. Human Hb exhibited loss of heme iron at a relatively low dose of gamma radiation exposure as compared to Chironomus Hb. Unlike human Hb, the heme pocket of Chironomus Hb is rich in aromatic amino acids. Higher hydophobicity around heme pocket confers stability of Chironomus Hb compared to human Hb. Previously reported gamma radiation tolerance of Chironomus can be largely attributed to its evolutionarily ancient form of extracellular Hb as evident from the present study. -- Highlights: •Comparison of radiation tolerant Chironomus Hb and radiation sensitive Human Hb. •Amino acid composition of midge and human heme confer differential hydrophobicity. •Heme pocket of evolutionarily ancient midge Hb provide gamma radiation resistivity.

  16. Modifications of hemoglobin and myoglobin by Maillard reaction products (MRPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristos Ioannou

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with a Fraction Collector was employed to isolate Maillard reaction products (MRPs formed in model systems comprising of asparagine and monosaccharides in the 60-180°C range. The primary MRP which is detected at 60°C is important for Acrylamide content and color/aroma development in foods and also in the field of food biotechnology for controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction with temperature. The discrete fractions of the reaction products were reacted with Hemoglobin (Hb and Myoglobin (Mb at physiological conditions and the reaction adducts were monitored by UV-vis and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrophotometry. The UV-vis kinetic profiles revealed the formation of a Soret transition characteristic of a low-spin six-coordinated species and the ATR-FTIR spectrum of the Hb-MRP and Mb-MRP fractions showed modifications in the protein Amide I and II vibrations. The UV-vis and the FTIR spectra of the Hb-MRPs indicate that the six-coordinated species is a hemichrome in which the distal E7 Histidine is coordinated to the heme Fe and blocks irreversibly the ligand binding site. Although the Mb-MRPs complex is a six-coordinated species, the 1608 cm-1 FTIR band characteristic of a hemichrome was not observed.

  17. Modifications of hemoglobin and myoglobin by Maillard reaction products (MRPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Aristos; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2017-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Fraction Collector was employed to isolate Maillard reaction products (MRPs) formed in model systems comprising of asparagine and monosaccharides in the 60-180°C range. The primary MRP which is detected at 60°C is important for Acrylamide content and color/aroma development in foods and also in the field of food biotechnology for controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction with temperature. The discrete fractions of the reaction products were reacted with Hemoglobin (Hb) and Myoglobin (Mb) at physiological conditions and the reaction adducts were monitored by UV-vis and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The UV-vis kinetic profiles revealed the formation of a Soret transition characteristic of a low-spin six-coordinated species and the ATR-FTIR spectrum of the Hb-MRP and Mb-MRP fractions showed modifications in the protein Amide I and II vibrations. The UV-vis and the FTIR spectra of the Hb-MRPs indicate that the six-coordinated species is a hemichrome in which the distal E7 Histidine is coordinated to the heme Fe and blocks irreversibly the ligand binding site. Although the Mb-MRPs complex is a six-coordinated species, the 1608 cm-1 FTIR band characteristic of a hemichrome was not observed.

  18. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W

    2012-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Molecular Controls of the Oxygenation and Redox Reactions of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The broad classes of O2-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O2-binding functions. Recent Advances: The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. Critical Issues: An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. Future Directions: This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2298–2313. PMID:23198874

  20. Differential sensitivity of Chironomus and human hemoglobin to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Pallavi S. [Stress Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune, 411007 (India); Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Panicker, Lata [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mohole, Madhura; Sawant, Sangeeta [Bioinformatics Center, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Mukhopadhyaya, Rita [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@gmail.com [Stress Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune, 411007 (India)

    2016-08-05

    Chironomus ramosus is known to tolerate high doses of gamma radiation exposure. Larvae of this insect possess more than 95% of hemoglobin (Hb) in its circulatory hemolymph. This is a comparative study to see effect of gamma radiation on Hb of Chironomus and humans, two evolutionarily diverse organisms one having extracellular and the other intracellular Hb respectively. Stability and integrity of Chironomus and human Hb to gamma radiation was compared using biophysical techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and CD spectroscopy after exposure of whole larvae, larval hemolymph, human peripheral blood, purified Chironomus and human Hb. Sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the sequence and structural similarities or differences in the heme pockets of respective Hbs. Resistivity of Chironomus Hb to gamma radiation is remarkably higher than human Hb. Human Hb exhibited loss of heme iron at a relatively low dose of gamma radiation exposure as compared to Chironomus Hb. Unlike human Hb, the heme pocket of Chironomus Hb is rich in aromatic amino acids. Higher hydophobicity around heme pocket confers stability of Chironomus Hb compared to human Hb. Previously reported gamma radiation tolerance of Chironomus can be largely attributed to its evolutionarily ancient form of extracellular Hb as evident from the present study. -- Highlights: •Comparison of radiation tolerant Chironomus Hb and radiation sensitive Human Hb. •Amino acid composition of midge and human heme confer differential hydrophobicity. •Heme pocket of evolutionarily ancient midge Hb provide gamma radiation resistivity.

  1. Hypoxia and anoxia effects on alcohol dehydrogenase activity and hemoglobin content in Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Grazioli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic effects of low oxygen content on alcohol-dehydrogenase (ADH activity and hemoglobin (Hb concentration were investigated in IV-instar larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae from an Italian stream. Two series of short-term (48 h experiments were carried out: exposure to (1 progressive hypoxia (95 to 5% of oxygen saturation and (2 anoxia (at <5% of oxygen saturation. In (1, Hb amount increased with increasing oxygen depletion up to a critical value of oxygenation (about 70% of oxygen saturation. Below this percentage, the Hb amount declined to values comparable with those present in the control. The respiration rate (R remained almost constant at oxygen saturation >50% and decreased significantly only after 48 h of treatment (= <5% of oxygen saturation reaching values <100 mmolO2 gAFDW-1 h-1. ADH activity showed two phases of growth, within the first 14 h and over 18 h of exposure. Overall, we inferred that i Hb might function as short-term oxygen storage, enabling animals to delay the on-set of anaerobiosis; and ii alcoholic fermentation co-occurs for a short time with aerobic respiration, becoming the prevalent metabolic pathway below 5% of oxygen saturation (<1 mg L-1. These considerations were supported also by results from anoxia exposure (2. In such condition, larvae were visibly stressed, becoming immobile after few minutes of incubation, and ADH reached higher values than in the hypoxia treatment (2.03±0.15 UADH mg prot-1. Overall, this study showed a shift from aerobic to anaerobic activity in C. riparius larvae exposed to poorly oxygenated water with an associated alteration of ADH activity and the Hb amount. Such metabolites might be valid candidate biomarkers for the environmental monitoring of running waters.

  2. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Schjørring, S.; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from...

  3. Listeria monocytogenes transiently alters mitochondrial dynamics during infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stavru, Fabrizia; Bouillaud, Frederic; Sartori, Anna; Ricquier, Daniel; Cossart, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential and highly dynamic organelles, constantly undergoing fusion and fission. We analyzed mitochondrial dynamics during infection with the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and show that this infection profoundly alters mitochondrial dynamics by causing transient mitochondrial network fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation is specific to pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes, and it is not observed with the nonpathogenic Listeria innocua species or several ...

  4. Radiometric detection of bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Wagner Junior, H.N.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of 14 CO 2 produced by the bacterial oxidation of labelled compounds is discussed as a means of evaluating the bacterial metabolism. The following items are discussed:automated radiometric detection, types of graphs, clinical applications of the radiometric system and influential factors. Complementary studies on bacterial assimilation of substances are presented. (M.A.) [pt

  5. [Hb Burgos (α1 CD64(E13)(Asp→Asn)): a new hemoglobin variant detected during follow-up of diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Gonzalo, Félix; Martínez Nieto, Jorge; Torrejón, María José; Mayor, Luis Antonio; Velasco, Diego; González Fernández, Fernando Ataulfo; Ropero Gradilla, Paloma

    2015-01-06

    The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test by high performance liquid chromatography is a useful tool for the follow-up of diabetes mellitus patients. Some structural hemoglobin (Hb) variants are known to cause interference in the analytical measurement of HbA1c. In this study, it has been characterized a new Hb variant in 4 patients during their regular control of HbA1c. Selective α1 gene sequencing showed a mutation GAC>AAC at codon 64 within exon 2. This produces a change of aspartic acid (Asp) by asparagine (Asn) that does not produce any functional alteration so the resultant molecule behaves as a silent hemoglobinopathy. The structural Hb variants can be detected during the analysis of HbA1c and may alter its values. Though rare, this occurrence signals the need to being aware when measuring HbA1c. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered gastrointestinal (GI motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO.

  7. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    .3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P

  8. Analysis of the binding interaction in uric acid - Human hemoglobin system by spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2017-05-01

    The binding interaction between human hemoglobin and uric acid has been studied for the first time, by UV-vis absorption and steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence techniques. Characteristic effects observed for human hemoglobin intrinsic fluorescence during interaction with uric acid at neutral pH point at the formation of stacking non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes. All the calculated parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants, as well as Förster resonance energy transfer parameters confirm the existence of static quenching. The results of synchronous fluorescence measurements indicate that the fluorescence quenching of human hemoglobin originates both from Trp and Tyr residues and that the addition of uric acid could significantly hinder the physiological functions of human hemoglobin.

  9. A study on the structures of hemoglobin of diabetic patients by EXAFS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yinsong; Tan Mingguang; Zhang Guilin

    2001-01-01

    Hemoglobin was the carrier of oxygen in blood circulation. For the patients with diabetes mellitus the enhancement of glycidate hemoglobin in blood causes the decrease of oxygen transmission function. The local atomic structures of iron in hemoglobin were determined by EXAFS techniques. The relationship between diabetes mellitus and hemoglobin structures was observed. The blood samples were taken from normal people, slight and serious diabetic patients. The results show that the coordination number of iron atoms and Fe-O bond length were almost the same for the three samples. However, for the samples of serious diabetic patients the Fe-N bond length increases by about 0.002 nm, the possible reasons were the increase of deoxyhemoglobin contents in their blood

  10. Hemoglobin concentration determination based on near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2016-10-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method has been proved to be more effective than single point spectroscopy method in the experiment to predict the concentration of the Intralipid diluted solutions. However, Intralipid diluted solution is simple, cannot be the representative of turbid liquids. Blood is a natural and meaningful turbid liquid, more complicate. Hemoglobin is the major constituent of the whole blood. And hemoglobin concentration is commonly used in clinical medicine to diagnose many diseases. In this paper, near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra (NIRSRTS) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) were used to predict the hemoglobin concentration of human blood. The results showed the prediction ability for hemoglobin concentration of the proposed method is better than single point transmission spectroscopy method. This paper demonstrated the feasibility of the spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method for practical liquid composition analysis. This research provided a new thinking of practical turbid liquid composition analysis.

  11. Within-host evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals adaptation toward iron acquisition from hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Pedersen, Søren Damkiær; Khademi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    advantage in the presence of hemoglobin, thus suggesting that P. aeruginosa evolves toward iron acquisition from hemoglobin. To rule out that this adaptive trait is specific to the DK2 lineage, we inspected the genomes of additional P. aeruginosa lineages isolated from CF airways and found similar adaptive...... pressures act on the pathogens' ability to acquire iron. Here, we investigated the within-host evolution of P. aeruginosa, and we found evidence that P. aeruginosa during long-term infections evolves toward iron acquisition from hemoglobin. This adaptive strategy might be due to a selective loss of other...... iron-scavenging mechanisms and/or an increase in the availability of hemoglobin at the site of infection. This information is relevant to the design of novel CF therapeutics and the development of models of chronic CF infections....

  12. Utility of noninvasive transcutaneous measurement of postoperative hemoglobin in total joint arthroplasty patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, Michael; Wood, Kristin; Clark, Wesley; Kwon, Young-Min; Freiberg, Andrew A

    2014-11-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the clinical utility of a noninvasive transcutaneous device for postoperative hemoglobin measurement in 100 total hip and knee arthroplasty patients. A protocol to measure hemoglobin noninvasively, prior to venipuncture, successfully avoided venipuncture in 73% of patients. In the remaining 27 patients, there were a total of 48 venipunctures performed during the postoperative hospitalization period due to reasons including transcutaneous hemoglobin measurement less than or equal to 9 g/dL (19), inability to obtain a transcutaneous hemoglobin measurement (8), clinical signs of anemia (3), and noncompliance with the study protocol (18). Such screening protocols may provide a convenient and cost-effective alternative to routine venipuncture for identifying patients at risk for blood transfusion after elective joint arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. COMPARISON OF FRUCTOSAMINE AND GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN IN A NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETIC POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amini

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the clinical value of frnctosamine assay for monitoring type II diabetic patients, correlation of frnctosamine with glycosylated hemoglobin was studied. 100 patients with type II diabetes mcllitus were compared with 100 normal subjects. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, albumin and frnctosamine were measured in alt subjects. In the diabetic patients, a significant correlation was observed between fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (r = 0.64, p < 0.01 and scrum frnctosamine (r = 0.7, P < 0.01. Tlicrc was also a significant correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin and scrum frtictosmine (r = .94, I'<0.01. Frnctosamine, assay can be used as an index of diabetes control.

  14. Erythropoietin Therapy, Hemoglobin Targets, and Quality of Life in Healthy Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Robert N.; Curtis, Bryan M.; Parfrey, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The effects of different hemoglobin targets when using erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on quality of life are somewhat controversial, and predictors of change in quality of life in endstage renal disease have not been well characterized.

  15. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P. I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8......To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (Phemoglobin levels in blood are seen regularly in normal...

  16. Substitution of Fingertip Blood for Venous Blood in the Measurement of Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Following Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Thomas D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results from comparative testing indicate that fingertip blood is a valid indicator of antecubital venous hematocrit (hct) and hemoglobin (hgb), and that hct ratios determined on the Coulter counter are comparable to those found by the microhematocrit method. (MB)

  17. Action of radiation on biosynthesis of hemoglobin and some of its electrophoretic fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, N.F.; Kriklivyj, I.A.; Shur'yan, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Biosynthesis of hemoglobin and some of its electrophoretic fractions in red cells of peripheral blood and spleen of irradiated (650 R) rats has been studied. Hemoglobin synthesis is found to be most drastically inhibited in the first and second fractions on the first and eighth days after irradiation and in the fifth and sixth fractions on the eighth day (less expressed). The synthesis is restored on the twelfth day, the process under study proceeding more slowly in the above-mentioned fractions than in others. In the course of radiation sickness, the biosynthesis of certain hemoglobin fractions varies differently in the hemoglobin-synthesizing cells of peripheral blood than in the cells of spleenic erythroid series

  18. Effect of water and ethanol radicals on the protein part of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the changes in the tryptophan fluorescence in human hemoglobin induced by ·OH, e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals. Measurements of irradiated hemoglobin performed in phosphate buffer, pH 7, indicate that the processes of unfolding a protein are induced with the highest efficiency by the ·OH radicals. A destructive action of e aq - is more evident in the absence of the ·OH radicals. Fluorescence measurements carried out after incubation of irradiated hemoglobin in Gdn·HCl solution reveal the tryptophan residues destruction, which is relatively small (at 2.5 kGy maximum fluorescence decrease was about 23%) and caused by the ·OH radicals. Within the dose range, the participation of the e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals in hemoglobin tryptophan residue destruction can be neglected. (author)

  19. Diode laser irradiation of rat blood and its effect on hemoglobin and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad-El-Din, A.A.; El-Ahdaal, M.A.; Omran, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Blood was exposed to diode laser irradiation of wavelength 830 nm and maximum powe of 31.4 MW, with exposure times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Hemoglobin IR spectra and X-ray crystallography, plasma Na + , K + , Ca + +. cholesterol concentrations and viscosity were measured. There were changes in hemoglobin amide groups as well as changes in the X-ray in hemoglobin structure. Decreases in both Na concentration and plasma viscosity occurred at 15 and 30 minutes of laser exposure. On increasing time to 45 and 60 minutes, the Na concentration and viscosity were increased. K, Ca and cholesterol concentration were decreased linearly with time. Na / K ratio was increased also with time of exposure. The results have been indicated that the diode laser affect the secondary structure of hemoglobin, membranes structures and plasma

  20. Packed red blood cell transfusion causes greater hemoglobin rise at a lower starting hemoglobin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Kahn, Marc J; Soong, Wayne; Green, David; Batjer, H Hunt; Bleck, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Each unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is expected to raise circulating hemoglobin (HGB) by approximately 1 g/dL. There are few data on modifiers of this relationship other than gender and body mass index (BMI). We recorded HGB before and after PRBC transfusion in a retrospective cohort of 103 patients and a prospective cohort of 93 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the retrospective cohort, 48 of 103 patients were transfused, and in the prospective cohort, 56 of 93 patients were transfused. In both groups, lower pre-transfusion HGB was associated with a larger increase in HGB (P rise in HGB (P < 0.001) after correction for number of units of PRBCs given, gender, and BMI in repeated measures analysis. Pre-transfusion HGB explained an additional 12% of variance in the data (P < 0.001). In both cohorts, the magnitude of the effect was similar. In patients with SAH, transfusion at lower HGB leads to a greater increase in HGB. Transfusion at lower HGB may be relatively more cost-effective, and this should be balanced against any potential benefit from higher HGB in SAH. One rather than 2 units of PRBCs are likely to be sufficient for most HGB targets after SAH, especially in patients with more severe anemia.