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Sample records for bacterial gill endosymbiont

  1. The transcriptome of Bathymodiolus azoricus gill reveals expression of genes from endosymbionts and free-living deep-sea bacteria.

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    Egas, Conceição; Pinheiro, Miguel; Gomes, Paula; Barroso, Cristina; Bettencourt, Raul

    2012-08-01

    Deep-sea environments are largely unexplored habitats where a surprising number of species may be found in large communities, thriving regardless of the darkness, extreme cold, and high pressure. Their unique geochemical features result in reducing environments rich in methane and sulfides, sustaining complex chemosynthetic ecosystems that represent one of the most surprising findings in oceans in the last 40 years. The deep-sea Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field, located in the Mid Atlantic Ridge, is home to large vent mussel communities where Bathymodiolus azoricus represents the dominant faunal biomass, owing its survival to symbiotic associations with methylotrophic or methanotrophic and thiotrophic bacteria. The recent transcriptome sequencing and analysis of gill tissues from B. azoricus revealed a number of genes of bacterial origin, hereby analyzed to provide a functional insight into the gill microbial community. The transcripts supported a metabolically active microbiome and a variety of mechanisms and pathways, evidencing also the sulfur and methane metabolisms. Taxonomic affiliation of transcripts and 16S rRNA community profiling revealed a microbial community dominated by thiotrophic and methanotrophic endosymbionts of B. azoricus and the presence of a Sulfurovum-like epsilonbacterium.

  2. Endosymbiont-dependent host reproduction maintains bacterial-fungal mutualism.

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    Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Monajembashi, Shamci; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Hertweck, Christian

    2007-05-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts play essential roles for many organisms, and thus specialized mechanisms have evolved during evolution that guarantee the persistence of the symbiosis during or after host reproduction. The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus represents a unique example of a mutualistic life form in which a fungus harbors endobacteria (Burkholderia sp.) for the production of a phytotoxin. Here we report the unexpected observation that in the absence of endosymbionts, the host is not capable of vegetative reproduction. Formation of sporangia and spores is restored only upon reintroduction of endobacteria. To monitor this process, we succeeded in GFP labeling cultured endosymbionts. We also established a laserbeam transformation technique for the first controlled introduction of bacteria into fungi to observe their migration to the tips of the aseptate hyphae. The persistence of this fungal-bacterial mutualism through symbiont-dependent sporulation is intriguing from an evolutionary point of view and implies that the symbiont produces factors that are essential for the fungal life cycle. Reproduction of the host has become totally dependent on endofungal bacteria, which in return provide a highly potent toxin for defending the habitat and accessing nutrients from decaying plants. This scenario clearly highlights the significance for a controlled maintenance of this fungal-bacterial symbiotic relationship.

  3. The Transcriptome of Bathymodiolus azoricus Gill Reveals Expression of Genes from Endosymbionts and Free-Living Deep-Sea Bacteria

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    Raul Bettencourt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea environments are largely unexplored habitats where a surprising number of species may be found in large communities, thriving regardless of the darkness, extreme cold, and high pressure. Their unique geochemical features result in reducing environments rich in methane and sulfides, sustaining complex chemosynthetic ecosystems that represent one of the most surprising findings in oceans in the last 40 years. The deep-sea Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field, located in the Mid Atlantic Ridge, is home to large vent mussel communities where Bathymodiolus azoricus represents the dominant faunal biomass, owing its survival to symbiotic associations with methylotrophic or methanotrophic and thiotrophic bacteria. The recent transcriptome sequencing and analysis of gill tissues from B. azoricus revealed a number of genes of bacterial origin, hereby analyzed to provide a functional insight into the gill microbial community. The transcripts supported a metabolically active microbiome and a variety of mechanisms and pathways, evidencing also the sulfur and methane metabolisms. Taxonomic affiliation of transcripts and 16S rRNA community profiling revealed a microbial community dominated by thiotrophic and methanotrophic endosymbionts of B. azoricus and the presence of a Sulfurovum-like epsilonbacterium.

  4. Experimental infection of plants with an herbivore-associated bacterial endosymbiont influences herbivore host selection behavior.

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    Thomas Seth Davis

    Full Text Available Although bacterial endosymbioses are common among phloeophagous herbivores, little is known regarding the effects of symbionts on herbivore host selection and population dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that plant selection and reproductive performance by a phloem-feeding herbivore (potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli is mediated by infection of plants with a bacterial endosymbiont. We controlled for the effects of herbivory and endosymbiont infection by exposing potato plants (Solanum tuberosum to psyllids infected with "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" or to uninfected psyllids. We used these treatments as a basis to experimentally test plant volatile emissions, herbivore settling and oviposition preferences, and herbivore population growth. Three important findings emerged: (1 plant volatile profiles differed with respect to both herbivory and herbivory plus endosymbiont infection when compared to undamaged control plants; (2 herbivores initially settled on plants exposed to endosymbiont-infected psyllids but later defected and oviposited primarily on plants exposed only to uninfected psyllids; and (3 plant infection status had little effect on herbivore reproduction, though plant flowering was associated with a 39% reduction in herbivore density on average. Our experiments support the hypothesis that plant infection with endosymbionts alters plant volatile profiles, and infected plants initially recruited herbivores but later repelled them. Also, our findings suggest that the endosymbiont may not place negative selection pressure on its host herbivore in this system, but plant flowering phenology appears correlated with psyllid population performance.

  5. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae

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    Salathé Rahel M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m. Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host

  6. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m). Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow) also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host individuals. PMID:23006795

  7. Hard ticks and their bacterial endosymbionts (or would be pathogens)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahantarig, A.; Trinachartvanit, W.; Baimai, V.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2013), s. 419-428 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii * Francisella-like endosymbionts * vector Ambylomma americanum * fever group Rickettsiae * Dermacentor and ersoni * spotted fever * borne pathogens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2013

  8. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea

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    Urban Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas], found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families. Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained was supported by statistical tests of

  9. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea).

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    Urban, Julie M; Cryan, Jason R

    2012-06-14

    Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas) are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas]), found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA) of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families). Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies) in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained) was supported by statistical tests of codiversification. Codiversification tests also

  10. Idiosyncratic Genome Degradation in a Bacterial Endosymbiont of Periodical Cicadas.

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    Campbell, Matthew A; Łukasik, Piotr; Simon, Chris; McCutcheon, John P

    2017-11-20

    When a free-living bacterium transitions to a host-beneficial endosymbiotic lifestyle, it almost invariably loses a large fraction of its genome [1, 2]. The resulting small genomes often become stable in size, structure, and coding capacity [3-5], as exemplified by Sulcia muelleri, a nutritional endosymbiont of cicadas. Sulcia's partner endosymbiont, Hodgkinia cicadicola, similarly remains co-linear in some cicadas diverged by millions of years [6, 7]. But in the long-lived periodical cicada Magicicada tredecim, the Hodgkinia genome has split into dozens of tiny, gene-sparse circles that sometimes reside in distinct Hodgkinia cells [8]. Previous data suggested that all other Magicicada species harbor complex Hodgkinia populations, but the timing, number of origins, and outcomes of the splitting process were unknown. Here, by sequencing Hodgkinia metagenomes from the remaining six Magicicada and two sister species, we show that each Magicicada species harbors Hodgkinia populations of at least 20 genomic circles. We find little synteny among the 256 Hodgkinia circles analyzed except between the most closely related cicada species. Gene phylogenies show multiple Hodgkinia lineages in the common ancestor of Magicicada and its closest known relatives but that most splitting has occurred within Magicicada and has given rise to highly variable Hodgkinia gene dosages among species. These data show that Hodgkinia genome degradation has proceeded down different paths in different Magicicada species and support a model of genomic degradation that is stochastic in outcome and nonadaptive for the host. These patterns mirror the genomic instability seen in some mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ancient bacterial endosymbionts of insects: Genomes as sources of insight and springboards for inquiry.

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    Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2017-09-15

    Ancient associations between insects and bacteria provide models to study intimate host-microbe interactions. Currently, a wealth of genome sequence data for long-term, obligately intracellular (primary) endosymbionts of insects reveals profound genomic consequences of this specialized bacterial lifestyle. Those consequences include severe genome reduction and extreme base compositions. This minireview highlights the utility of genome sequence data to understand how, and why, endosymbionts have been pushed to such extremes, and to illuminate the functional consequences of such extensive genome change. While the static snapshots provided by individual endosymbiont genomes are valuable, comparative analyses of multiple genomes have shed light on evolutionary mechanisms. Namely, genome comparisons have told us that selection is important in fine-tuning gene content, but at the same time, mutational pressure and genetic drift contribute to genome degradation. Examples from Blochmannia, the primary endosymbiont of the ant tribe Camponotini, illustrate the value and constraints of genome sequence data, and exemplify how genomes can serve as a springboard for further comparative and experimental inquiry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Molecular diversity of bacterial endosymbionts associated with dagger nematodes of the genus Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) reveals a high degree of phylogenetic congruence with their host.

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    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Prieto, Pilar; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts have been detected in some groups of plant-parasitic nematodes, but few cases have been reported compared to other groups in the phylum Nematoda, such as animal-parasitic or free-living nematodes. This study was performed on a wide variety of plant-parasitic nematode families and species from different host plants and nematode populations. A total of 124 nematode populations (previously identified morphologically and molecularly) were screened for the presence of potential bacterial endosymbionts using the partial 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. Potential bacterial endosymbionts were only detected in nematode species belonging to the genus Xiphinema and specifically in the X. americanum group. Fifty-seven partial 16S rRNA sequences were obtained from bacterial endosymbionts in this study. One group of sequences was closely related to the genus 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter' (19 bacterial endosymbiont sequences were associated with seven nematode host species, including two that have already been described and three unknown bacterial endosymbionts). The second bacterial endosymbiont group (38 bacterial endosymbiont sequences associated with six nematode species) was related to the family Burkholderiaceae, which includes fungal and soil-plant bacterial endosymbionts. These endosymbionts were reported for the first time in the phylum Nematoda. Our findings suggest that there is a highly specific symbiotic relationship between nematode host and bacterial endosymbionts. Overall, these results were corroborated by a phylogeny of nematode host and bacterial endosymbionts that suggested that there was a high degree of phylogenetic congruence and long-term evolutionary persistence between hosts and endosymbionts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The incidence of bacterial endosymbionts in terrestrial arthropods.

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    Weinert, Lucy A; Araujo-Jnr, Eli V; Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Welch, John J

    2015-05-22

    Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria are found in many terrestrial arthropods and have a profound influence on host biology. A basic question about these symbionts is why they infect the hosts that they do, but estimating symbiont incidence (the proportion of potential host species that are actually infected) is complicated by dynamic or low prevalence infections. We develop a maximum-likelihood approach to estimating incidence, and testing hypotheses about its variation. We apply our method to a database of screens for bacterial symbionts, containing more than 3600 distinct arthropod species and more than 150 000 individual arthropods. After accounting for sampling bias, we estimate that 52% (CIs: 48-57) of arthropod species are infected with Wolbachia, 24% (CIs: 20-42) with Rickettsia and 13% (CIs: 13-55) with Cardinium. We then show that these differences stem from the significantly reduced incidence of Rickettsia and Cardinium in most hexapod orders, which might be explained by evolutionary differences in the arthropod immune response. Finally, we test the prediction that symbiont incidence should be higher in speciose host clades. But while some groups do show a trend for more infection in species-rich families, the correlations are generally weak and inconsistent. These results argue against a major role for parasitic symbionts in driving arthropod diversification. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic context drives transcription of insertion sequences in the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia wVulC.

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    Cerveau, Nicolas; Gilbert, Clément; Liu, Chao; Garrett, Roger A; Grève, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-06-10

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA pieces that are present in almost all the living world at variable genomic density. Due to their mobility and density, TEs are involved in a large array of genomic modifications. In eukaryotes, TE expression has been studied in detail in several species. In prokaryotes, studies of IS expression are generally linked to particular copies that induce a modification of neighboring gene expression. Here we investigated global patterns of IS transcription in the Alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia wVulC, using both RT-PCR and bioinformatic analyses. We detected several transcriptional promoters in all IS groups. Nevertheless, only one of the potentially functional IS groups possesses a promoter located upstream of the transposase gene, that could lead up to the production of a functional protein. We found that the majority of IS groups are expressed whatever their functional status. RT-PCR analyses indicate that the transcription of two IS groups lacking internal promoters upstream of the transposase start codon may be driven by the genomic environment. We confirmed this observation with the transcription analysis of individual copies of one IS group. These results suggest that the genomic environment is important for IS expression and it could explain, at least partly, copy number variability of the various IS groups present in the wVulC genome and, more generally, in bacterial genomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterisation of the gill mucosal bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species: a reservoir of bacterial diversity in coral reef ecosystems.

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    Reverter, Miriam; Sasal, Pierre; Tapissier-Bontemps, N; Lecchini, D; Suzuki, M

    2017-06-01

    While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7-5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C. ornatissimus having the most similar bacterial communities, which differed significantly from C. vagabundus and C. reticulatus. The core bacterial community of all species consisted of mainly Proteobacteria followed by Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Chaetodonlunulatus and C. ornatissimus bacterial communities were mostly dominated by Gammaproteobacteria with Vibrio as the most abundant genus. Chaetodonvagabundus and C. reticulatus presented similar abundances of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, which were well represented by Acinetobacter and Paracoccus, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that different fish species present specific bacterial assemblages. Finally, as mucus layers are nutrient hotspots for heterotrophic bacteria living in oligotrophic environments, such as coral reef waters, the high bacterial diversity found in butterflyfish gill mucus might indicate external fish mucus surfaces act as a reservoir of coral reef bacterial diversity. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Implication of the Bacterial Endosymbiont Rickettsia spp. in Interactions of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

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    Kliot, Adi; Cilia, Michelle; Czosnek, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. We report here that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies, altered TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions. A B. tabaci strain infected with Rickettsia acquired more TYLCV from infected plants, retained the virus longer, and exhibited nearly double the transmission efficiency compared to an uninfected B. tabaci strain with the same genetic background. Temporal and spatial antagonistic relationships were discovered between Rickettsia and TYLCV within the whitefly. In different time course experiments, the levels of virus and Rickettsia within the insect were inversely correlated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of Rickettsia-infected midguts provided evidence for niche exclusion between Rickettsia and TYLCV. In particular, high levels of the bacterium in the midgut resulted in higher virus concentrations in the filter chamber, a favored site for virus translocation along the transmission pathway, whereas low levels of Rickettsia in the midgut resulted in an even distribution of the virus. Taken together, these results indicate that Rickettsia, by infecting the midgut, increases TYLCV transmission efficacy, adding further insights into the complex association between persistent plant viruses, their insect vectors, and microorganism tenants that reside within these insects. IMPORTANCE Interest in bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and many aspects of their host biology in agricultural and human health systems has been increasing. A recent and relevant studied example is the influence of Wolbachia on dengue virus transmission by mosquitoes. In parallel with our recently studied whitefly-Rickettsia-TYLCV system, other studies have shown that dengue virus levels in the mosquito vector are inversely correlated with

  17. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of heme synthesis genes in trypanosomatids and their bacterial endosymbionts.

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    João M P Alves

    Full Text Available It has been known for decades that some insect-infecting trypanosomatids can survive in culture without heme supplementation while others cannot, and that this capability is associated with the presence of a betaproteobacterial endosymbiont in the flagellate's cytoplasm. However, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remained obscure. In this work, we sequence and phylogenetically analyze the heme pathway genes from the symbionts and from their hosts, as well as from a number of heme synthesis-deficient Kinetoplastida. Our results show that the enzymes responsible for synthesis of heme are encoded on the symbiont genomes and produced in close cooperation with the flagellate host. Our evidence suggests that this synergistic relationship is the end result of a history of extensive gene loss and multiple lateral gene transfer events in different branches of the phylogeny of the Trypanosomatidae.

  18. Hamiltonella defensa, genome evolution of protective bacterial endosymbiont from pathogenic ancestors.

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    Degnan, Patrick H; Yu, Yeisoo; Sisneros, Nicholas; Wing, Rod A; Moran, Nancy A

    2009-06-02

    Eukaryotes engage in a multitude of beneficial and deleterious interactions with bacteria. Hamiltonella defensa, an endosymbiont of aphids and other sap-feeding insects, protects its aphid host from attack by parasitoid wasps. Thus H. defensa is only conditionally beneficial to hosts, unlike ancient nutritional symbionts, such as Buchnera, that are obligate. Similar to pathogenic bacteria, H. defensa is able to invade naive hosts and circumvent host immune responses. We have sequenced the genome of H. defensa to identify possible mechanisms that underlie its persistence in healthy aphids and protection from parasitoids. The 2.1-Mb genome has undergone significant reduction in size relative to its closest free-living relatives, which include Yersinia and Serratia species (4.6-5.4 Mb). Auxotrophic for 8 of the 10 essential amino acids, H. defensa is reliant upon the essential amino acids produced by Buchnera. Despite these losses, the H. defensa genome retains more genes and pathways for a variety of cell structures and processes than do obligate symbionts, such as Buchnera. Furthermore, putative pathogenicity loci, encoding type-3 secretion systems, and toxin homologs, which are absent in obligate symbionts, are abundant in the H. defensa genome, as are regulatory genes that likely control the timing of their expression. The genome is also littered with mobile DNA, including phage-derived genes, plasmids, and insertion-sequence elements, highlighting its dynamic nature and the continued role horizontal gene transfer plays in shaping it.

  19. Cospeciation in the triplex symbiosis of termite gut protists (Pseudotrichonympha spp.), their hosts, and their bacterial endosymbionts.

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    Noda, S; Kitade, O; Inoue, T; Kawai, M; Kanuka, M; Hiroshima, K; Hongoh, Y; Constantino, R; Uys, V; Zhong, J; Kudo, T; Ohkuma, M

    2007-03-01

    A number of cophylogenetic relationships between two organisms namely a host and a symbiont or parasite have been studied to date; however, organismal interactions in nature usually involve multiple members. Here, we investigated the cospeciation of a triplex symbiotic system comprising a hierarchy of three organisms -- termites of the family Rhinotermitidae, cellulolytic protists of the genus Pseudotrichonympha in the guts of these termites, and intracellular bacterial symbionts of the protists. The molecular phylogeny was inferred based on two mitochondrial genes for the termites and nuclear small-subunit rRNA genes for the protists and their endosymbionts, and these were compared. Although intestinal microorganisms are generally considered to have looser associations with the host than intracellular symbionts, the Pseudotrichonympha protists showed almost complete codivergence with the host termites, probably due to strict transmissions by proctodeal trophallaxis or coprophagy based on the social behaviour of the termites. Except for one case, the endosymbiotic bacteria of the protists formed a monophyletic lineage in the order Bacteroidales, and the branching pattern was almost identical to those of the protists and the termites. However, some non-codivergent evolutionary events were evident. The members of this triplex symbiotic system appear to have cospeciated during their evolution with minor exceptions; the evolutionary relationships were probably established by termite sociality and the complex microbial community in the gut.

  20. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in gill filaments of the lucinid Codakia orbiculata (Montagu, 1808) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during bacterial decolonization and recolonization.

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    Elisabeth, Nathalie H; Gustave, Sylvie D D; Gros, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    The shallow-water bivalve Codakia orbiculata which harbors gill-endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria can lose and acquire its endosymbionts throughout its life. Long-term starvation and recolonization experiments led to changes in the organization of cells in the lateral zone of gill filaments. This plasticity is linked to the presence or absence of gill-endosymbionts. Herein, we propose that this reorganization can be explained by three hypotheses: (a) a variation in the number of bacteriocytes and granule cells due to proliferation or apoptosis processes, (b) a variation of the volume of these two cell types without modification in the number, and (c) a combination of both number and cell volume variation. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed cell reorganization in terms of proliferation and apoptosis in adults submitted to starvation and returned to the field using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and structural analyses. We observed that cell and tissue reorganization in gills filaments is due to a variation in cell relative abundance that maybe associated with a variation in cell apparent volume and depends on the environment. In fact, bacteriocytes mostly multiply in freshly collected and newly recolonized individuals, and excess bacteriocytes are eliminated in later recolonization stages. We highlight that host tissue regeneration in gill filaments of this symbiotic bivalve can occur by both replication of existing cells and division of undifferentiated cells localized in tissular bridges, which might be a tissue-specific multipotent stem cell zone. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Short- and long-term evolutionary dynamics of bacterial insertion sequences: insights from Wolbachia endosymbionts.

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    Cerveau, Nicolas; Leclercq, Sébastien; Leroy, Elodie; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Transposable elements (TE) are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Long-term TE evolution can readily be reconstructed in eukaryotes, thanks to many degraded copies constituting genomic fossil records of past TE proliferations. By contrast, bacterial genomes usually experience high sequence turnover and short TE retention times, thereby obscuring ancient TE evolutionary patterns. We found that Wolbachia bacterial genomes contain 52-171 insertion sequence (IS) TEs. IS account for 11% of Wolbachia wRi, which is one of the highest IS genomic coverage reported in prokaryotes to date. We show that many IS groups are currently expanding in various Wolbachia genomes and that IS horizontal transfers are frequent among strains, which can explain the apparent synchronicity of these IS proliferations. Remarkably, >70% of Wolbachia IS are nonfunctional. They constitute an unusual bacterial IS genomic fossil record providing direct empirical evidence for a long-term IS evolutionary dynamics following successive periods of intense transpositional activity. Our results show that comprehensive IS annotations have the potential to provide new insights into prokaryote TE evolution and, more generally, prokaryote genome evolution. Indeed, the identification of an important IS genomic fossil record in Wolbachia demonstrates that IS elements are not always of recent origin, contrary to the conventional view of TE evolution in prokaryote genomes. Our results also raise the question whether the abundance of IS fossils is specific to Wolbachia or it may be a general, albeit overlooked, feature of prokaryote genomes.

  2. Transmission rates of the bacterial endosymbiont, Neorickettsia risticii, during the asexual reproduction phase of its digenean host, Plagiorchis elegans, within naturally infected lymnaeid snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Stephen E; Tkach, Vasyl V; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2013-10-22

    Neorickettsia are obligate intracellular bacterial endosymbionts of digenean parasites present in all lifestages of digeneans. Quantitative information on the transmission of neorickettsial endosymbionts throughout the complex life cycles of digeneans is lacking. This study quantified the transmission of Neorickettsia during the asexual reproductive phase of a digenean parasite, Plagiorchis elegans, developing within naturally parasitized lymnaeid pond snails. Lymnaea stagnalis snails were collected from 3 ponds in Nelson County, North Dakota and screened for the presence of digenean cercariae. Cercariae were identified to species by PCR and sequencing of the 28S rRNA gene. Neorickettsia infections were initially detected using nested PCR and sequencing of a partial 16S rRNA gene of pooled cercariae shed from each parasitized snail. Fifty to 100 single cercariae or sporocysts were isolated from each of six parasitized snails and tested for the presence of Neorickettsia using nested PCR to estimate the efficiency at which Neorickettsia were transmitted to cercariae during asexual development of the digenean. A total of 616 L. stagnalis were collected and 240 (39%) shed digenean cercariae. Of these, 18 (8%) were Neorickettsia-positive. Six Neorickettsia infections were selected to determine the transmission efficiency of Neorickettsia from mother to daughter sporocyst and from daughter sporocyst to cercaria. The prevalence of neorickettsiae in cercariae varied from 11 to 91%. The prevalence of neorickettsiae in sporocysts from one snail was 100%. Prevalence of Neorickettsia infection in cercariae of Plagiorchis elegans was variable and never reached 100%. Reasons for this are speculative, however, the low prevalence of Neorickettsia observed in some of our samples (11 to 52%) differs from the high prevalence of other, related bacterial endosymbionts, e.g. Wolbachia in Wolbachia-dependent filariid nematodes, where the prevalence among progeny is universally 100

  3. Flavobacterium branchiophilum and F. succinicans associated with bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), and manipulated environmental conditions to promote bacterial gill disease (BGD). For each episode of BGD, gill tissue was sampling from affected fish, unaffected fish within the same WRAS, and...

  4. Evidence for the presence of a bacterial endosymbiont in the pecan scab pathogen Venturia effusa (basyonym: Fusicladium effusum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, E G; Grauke, L J; Stanford, R L; Thompson, T E

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether Venturia effusa, the causative fungal agent of pecan scab, harbours a bacterial symbiont. Venturia effusa isolates were maintained on potato dextrose agar amended with antibiotics (chloramphenicol (100 μg ml -1 ) and tetracycline 100 (μg ml -1 )). Genomic DNA extracted from mycelia was used to target eubacterial 16S rDNA. A 1·4-kbp PCR amplified product using 16S rDNA degenerate primers was cloned, sequenced and found to have 99% identities with Actinobacteria representatives. Attempts to culture the detected bacteria apart from the fungus following agitation and fungal cell lysis were unsuccessful using standard bacteriological media under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Fungal structures were visualized using scanning electron microscopy and putative bacterial formations associated with the fungal mycelia were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using 16S rDNA oligonucleotides illuminated spores and portions of the hyphae. This is the first report to provide both molecular microbiological and microscopic evidence in support of the hypothesis that V. effusa harbours endosymbiotic bacteria. Findings from this research contribute fundamental information regarding the biology of the fungus that may ultimately lead to identifying a target of the pathogen for use in management and/or avoidance strategies. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Screening for bacterial DNA in the hard tick Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodidae from Socotra Island (Yemen: detection of Francisella-like endosymbiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montagna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-four adult ticks collected from livestock on Socotra Island (Yemen were identified as Hyalomma marginatum using traditional morphological characteristics. Morphological identification was confirmed for all the collected specimens using a molecular approach targeting a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA. All the specimens were examined for the presence of tick-borne pathogens and the tick endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii using polymerase chain reaction. Three specimens out of the 34 analyzed tested positive to the presence of Francisella spp. leading to the first detection of these bacteria in H. marginatum on Socotra Island. The phylogenetic analyses conducted on a 660 bp fragment of the ribosomal gene 16S rRNA of Francisella spp. (including F. philomiragia as outgroup, the four subspecies of F. tularensis and the Francisella-like endosymbiont of ticks confirm that the newly detected Francisella strains cluster into the Francisella-like endosymbionts of ticks. Interestingly, the detected Francisella-like endosymbiont, shows a different genotype to that previously isolated from H. marginatum collected in Bulgaria. No specimen was positive for the presence of Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi or M. mitochondrii.

  6. Histopathological and bacterial study of skin and gill of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Valenciennes 1844) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooyandeh, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Ali; Khara, Hossein; Pajand, Zabihollah

    2016-09-01

    The gill histology and bacterial load of skin of the grass carp juveniles were investigated in relation to various concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in five treatments (for copper sulfate: 1, 1.94, 3.71, 7.07 and 15 mg/l and for potassium permanganate: 0.25, 0.52, 1.91, 2.27 and 5 mg/l) with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting product was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to results, the lowest bacterial load (CFU/g) of skin was observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 0.25 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P permanganate. In this regard, the highest histological damages were observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate and 5 mg/l potassium permanganate respectively. Our results showed that low dosage of potassium permanganate has best effect on reducing of bacterial load of skin with lowest adverse effects on gill tissue.

  7. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J López-Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  8. Evolutionary Convergence and Nitrogen Metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, Primary Endosymbiont of the Cockroach Blattella germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Maria J.; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state. PMID:19911043

  9. Paulinella chromatophora – rethinking the transition from endosymbiont to organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C.M. Nowack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes co-opted photosynthetic carbon fixation from prokaryotes by engulfing a cyanobacterium and stably integrating it as a photosynthetic organelle (plastid in a process known as primary endosymbiosis. The sheer complexity of interactions between a plastid and the surrounding cell that started to evolve over 1 billion years ago, make it challenging to reconstruct intermediate steps in organelle evolution by studying extant plastids. Recently, the photosynthetic amoeba Paulinella chromatophora was identified as a much sought-after intermediate stage in the evolution of a photosynthetic organelle. This article reviews the current knowledge on this unique organism. In particular it describes how the interplay of reductive genome evolution, gene transfers, and trafficking of host-encoded proteins into the cyanobacterial endosymbiont contributed to transform the symbiont into a nascent photosynthetic organelle. Together with recent results from various other endosymbiotic associations a picture emerges that lets the targeting of host-encoded proteins into bacterial endosymbionts appear as an early step in the establishment of an endosymbiotic relationship that enables the host to gain control over the endosymbiont.

  10. Kentomonas gen. n., a New Genus of Endosymbiont-containing Trypanosomatids of Strigomonadinae subfam. n

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Kostygov, A.Y.; Kraeva, N.; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, A.; Tesařová, Martina; Grybchuk, D.; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 6 (2014), s. 825-838 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Kentomonas * Trypanosomatidae * bacterial endosymbionts * phylogeny Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.045, year: 2014

  11. Comparative genomics of a plant-parasitic nematode endosymbiont suggest a role in nutritional symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial mutualists can increase the biochemical capacity of animals. Highly co-evolved nutritional mutualists do this by synthesizing nutrients missing from the host's diet. Genomics tools have recently advanced the study of these partnerships. Here we examined the endosymbiont Xiphinematobacter (...

  12. Inter-Population Variability of Endosymbiont Densities in the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Gill, Torrence A; Hoffmann, Mark; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S

    2016-05-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is an insect pest capable of transmitting Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening in North America. D. citri also harbors three endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, and Candidatus Profftella armatura, which may influence D. citri physiology and fitness. Although genomic researches on these bacteria have been conducted, much remains unclear regarding their ecology and inter-population variability in D. citri. The present work examined the densities of each endosymbiont in adult D. citri sampled from different populations using quantitative PCR. Under field conditions, the densities of all three endosymbionts positively correlated with each other, and they are associated with D. citri gender and locality. In addition, the infection density of CLas also varied across populations. Although an analysis pooling D. citri from different populations showed that CLas-infected individuals tended to have lower endosymbiont densities compared to uninfected individuals, the difference was not significant when the population was included as a factor in the analysis, suggesting that other population-specific factors may have stronger effects on endosymbiont densities. To determine whether there is a genetic basis to the density differences, endosymbiont densities between aged CLas-negative females of two D. citri populations reared under standardized laboratory conditions were compared. Results suggested that inter-population variability in Wolbachia infection density is associated with the genotypes of the endosymbiont or the host. Findings from this work could facilitate understanding of D. citri-bacterial associations that may benefit the development of approaches for managing citrus greening, such as prevention of CLas transmission.

  13. Population dynamics and growth rates of endosymbionts during Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Liviidae) ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Fabio Cleisto Alda; da Silva, Edney Pereira; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis

    2014-11-01

    The infection density of symbionts is among the major parameters to understand their biological effects in host-endosymbionts interactions. Diaphorina citri harbors two bacteriome-associated bacterial endosymbionts (Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Candidatus Profftella armatura), besides the intracellular reproductive parasite Wolbachia. In this study, the density dynamics of the three endosymbionts associated with the psyllid D. citri was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) at different developmental stages. Bacterial density was estimated by assessing the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene for Carsonella and Profftella, and of the ftsZ gene for Wolbachia. Analysis revealed a continuous growth of the symbionts during host development. Symbiont growth and rate curves were estimated by the Gompertz equation, which indicated a negative correlation between the degree of symbiont-host specialization and the time to achieve the maximum growth rate (t*). Carsonella densities were significantly lower than those of Profftella at all host developmental stages analyzed, even though they both displayed a similar trend. The growth rates of Wolbachia were similar to those of Carsonella, but Wolbachia was not as abundant. Adult males displayed higher symbiont densities than females. However, females showed a much more pronounced increase in symbiont density as they aged if compared to males, regardless of the incorporation of symbionts into female oocytes and egg laying. The increased density of endosymbionts in aged adults differs from the usual decrease observed during host aging in other insect-symbiont systems.

  14. An endosymbiont positively modulates ornithine decarboxylase in host trypanosomatids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frossard, Mariana Lins; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Matta, Renato Augusto da; Souza, Wanderley de; Garcia de Mello, Fernando; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado

    2006-01-01

    Summary: Some trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia deanei, are endosymbiont-containing species. Aposymbiotic strains are obtained after antibiotic treatment, revealing interesting aspects of this symbiotic association. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) promotes polyamine biosynthesis and contributes to cell proliferation. Here, we show that ODC activity is higher in endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids than in aposymbiotic cells, but isolated endosymbionts did not display this enzyme activity. Intriguingly, expressed levels of ODC were similar in both strains, suggesting that ODC is positively modulated in endosymbiont-bearing cells. When the aposymbiotic strain was grown in conditioned medium, obtained after cultivation of the endosymbiont-bearing strain, cellular proliferation as well as ODC activity and localization were similar to that observed in the endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids. Furthermore, dialyzed-heated medium and trypsin treatment reduced ODC activity of the aposymbiont strain. Taken together, these data indicate that the endosymbiont can enhance the protozoan ODC activity by providing factors of protein nature, which increase the host polyamine metabolism

  15. Host specificity and coevolution of Flavobacteriaceae endosymbionts within the siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollants, Joke; Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; De Clerck, Olivier; Willems, Anne

    2013-06-01

    The siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis harbors complex intracellular bacterial communities. Previous studies demonstrated that certain species form close, obligate associations with Flavobacteriaceae. A predominant imprint of host evolutionary history on the presence of these bacteria suggests a highly specialized association. In this study we elaborate on previous results by expanding the taxon sampling and testing for host-symbiont coevolution Therefore, we optimized a PCR protocol to directly and specifically amplify Flavobacteriaceae endosymbiont 16S rRNA gene sequences, which allowed us to screen a large number of algal samples without the need for cultivation or surface sterilization. We analyzed 146 Bryopsis samples, and 92 additional samples belonging to the Bryopsidales and other orders within the class Ulvophyceae. Results indicate that the Flavobacteriaceae endosymbionts are restricted to Bryopsis, and only occur within specific, warm-temperate and tropical clades of the genus. Statistical analyses (AMOVA) demonstrate a significant non-random host-symbiont association. Comparison of bacterial 16S rRNA and Bryopsis rbcL phylogenies, however, reveal complex host-symbiont evolutionary associations, whereby closely related hosts predominantly harbor genetically similar endosymbionts. Bacterial genotypes are rarely confined to a single Bryopsis species and most Bryopsis species harbored several Flavobacteriaceae, obscuring a clear pattern of coevolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular diagnosis of Wolbachia endosymbiont from Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Wolbachia 16S rDNA gene. PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank showed high similarity with 16S rDNA gene of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. Key words: Wolbachia, Iranian scorpion, 16S rDNA gene, Hemiscorpius lepturus.

  17. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Paredes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii. Our results indicate that S. poulsonii exerts protection against two distantly related wasp species, Leptopilina boulardi and Asobara tabida. S. poulsonii-mediated protection against parasitoid wasps takes place at the pupal stage and is not associated with an increased cellular immune response. In this work, we provide three important observations that support the notion that S. poulsonii bacteria and wasp larvae compete for host lipids and that this competition underlies symbiont-mediated protection. First, lipid quantification shows that both S. poulsonii and parasitoid wasps deplete D. melanogaster hemolymph lipids. Second, the depletion of hemolymphatic lipids using the Lpp RNA interference (Lpp RNAi construct reduces wasp success in larvae that are not infected with S. poulsonii and blocks S. poulsonii growth. Third, we show that the growth of S. poulsonii bacteria is not affected by the presence of the wasps, indicating that when S. poulsonii is present, larval wasps will develop in a lipid-depleted environment. We propose that competition for host lipids may be relevant to endosymbiont-mediated protection in other systems and could explain the broad spectrum of protection provided.

  18. Pathogenic bacteriumVibrio harveyi: an endosymbiont in the marine parasitic ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ying; WANG Jun; MAO Yong; LIU Min; CHEN Ruanni; SU Yongquan; KE Qiaozhen; HAN Kunhuang; ZHENG Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi, known as a pathogenic bacterium caused severe secondary bacterial infections of the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, was identified as an endosymbiont in the marine parasitic ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans. Meta 16S sequencing method was used to identify the bacterial flora in C. irritans, and V. harveyi was isolated via culture-dependent method.Vibrio harveyi was observed in cytoplasm of C. irritans at the stage of tomont both by transmission electron microscopy and by Fluorescencein situ hybridization; no signal, however, was detected in nucleus area. The relationship betweenV. harveyi and C. irritans and the role of endosymbioticV. harveyi inC. irritans merit further investigation.

  19. Two Bacterial Genera, Sodalis and Rickettsia, Associated with the Seal Louse Proechinophthirus fluctus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Julie M.; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Sweet, Andrew D.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly 10% to 15% of insect species host heritable symbiotic bacteria known as endosymbionts. The lice parasitizing mammals rely on endosymbionts to provide essential vitamins absent in their blood meals. Here, we describe two bacterial associates from a louse, Proechinophthirus fluctus, which is an obligate ectoparasite of a marine mammal. One of these is a heritable endosymbiont that is not closely related to endosymbionts of other mammalian lice. Rather, it is more closely related to endosymbionts of the genus Sodalis associated with spittlebugs and feather-chewing bird lice. Localization and vertical transmission of this endosymbiont are also more similar to those of bird lice than to those of other mammalian lice. The endosymbiont genome appears to be degrading in symbiosis; however, it is considerably larger than the genomes of other mammalian louse endosymbionts. These patterns suggest the possibility that this Sodalis endosymbiont might be recently acquired, replacing a now-extinct, ancient endosymbiont. From the same lice, we also identified an abundant bacterium belonging to the genus Rickettsia that is closely related to Rickettsia ricketsii, a human pathogen vectored by ticks. No obvious masses of the Rickettsia bacterium were observed in louse tissues, nor did we find any evidence of vertical transmission, so the nature of its association remains unclear. IMPORTANCE Many insects are host to heritable symbiotic bacteria. These heritable bacteria have been identified from numerous species of parasitic lice. It appears that novel symbioses have formed between lice and bacteria many times, with new bacterial symbionts potentially replacing existing ones. However, little was known about the symbionts of lice parasitizing marine mammals. Here, we identified a heritable bacterial symbiont in lice parasitizing northern fur seals. This bacterial symbiont appears to have been recently acquired by the lice. The findings reported here provide insights

  20. Particle effects on fish gills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Cao; Kania, Per W.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Particles composed of inorganic, organic and/or biological materials occur in both natural water bodies and aquaculture facilities. They are expected to affect fish health through a direct chemical, mechanical and biological interaction with gills during ventilation but the nature of the reactions...... and the relative importance of mechanical versus chemical and biological stimulation are unknown. The present work presents an immune gene expression method for evaluation of gill disturbance and sets a baseline for the mechanical influence on fish gills of chemically inert spherical particles. The method may...... be applied to investigate particle impact at different combinations of temperature, fish size, water quality and particle composition. Spherical polystyrene particles (diameters 0.2 μm, 1 μm, 20 μm, 40 μm and 90 μm) were adopted as the particle model and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings...

  1. Gilles Trachez (1969-2012)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    We are deeply saddened to announce the death of our friend and colleague Gilles Trachez. A senior technician in electro-mechanics, and at CERN since 1992, Gilles was a unique example of vibrant energy, with a broad smile and a hearty laugh even when facing utmost difficulties.   Gilles put vigour, flexibility and creativity at the service of the development of the superconducting magnets for the LHC, and in practice all main LHC magnets contain a part of his work. He followed critical contracts for the supply of magnet shells and laminations, and we have fond memories of the visits to a supplier in the Basque region of Spain, ending, after long working days, in happy evenings spent in the local ‘sidreria’. Similarly, we recall long nights spent designing and assembling a polymerization oven to provide an urgent solution for the insulation of the LHC dipole cold bores. Gilles always had a smile on his face, and never hesitated to help a colleague. In the same spirit, he ...

  2. Mutation exposed: a neutral explanation for extreme base composition of an endosymbiont genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernegreen, Jennifer J; Funk, Daniel J

    2004-12-01

    The influence of neutral mutation pressure versus selection on base composition evolution is a subject of considerable controversy. Yet the present study represents the first explicit population genetic analysis of this issue in prokaryotes, the group in which base composition variation is most dramatic. Here, we explore the impact of mutation and selection on the dynamics of synonymous changes in Buchnera aphidicola, the AT-rich bacterial endosymbiont of aphids. Specifically, we evaluated three forms of evidence. (i) We compared the frequencies of directional base changes (AT-->GC vs. GC-->AT) at synonymous sites within and between Buchnera species, to test for selective preference versus effective neutrality of these mutational categories. Reconstructed mutational changes across a robust intraspecific phylogeny showed a nearly 1:1 AT-->GC:GC-->AT ratio. Likewise, stationarity of base composition among Buchnera species indicated equal rates of AT-->GC and GC-->AT substitutions. The similarity of these patterns within and between species supported the neutral model. (ii) We observed an equivalence of relative per-site AT mutation rate and current AT content at synonymous sites, indicating that base composition is at mutational equilibrium. (iii) We demonstrated statistically greater equality in the frequency of mutational categories in Buchnera than in parallel mammalian studies that documented selection on synonymous sites. Our results indicate that effectively neutral mutational pressure, rather than selection, represents the major force driving base composition evolution in Buchnera. Thus they further corroborate recent evidence for the critical role of reduced N(e) in the molecular evolution of bacterial endosymbionts.

  3. Mao-Gilles Stabilization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Originally, the Mao-Gilles stabilization algorithm was designed to compensate the non-rigid deformations due to atmospheric turbulence. Given a sequence of frames affected by atmospheric turbulence, the algorithm uses a variational model combining optical flow and regularization to characterize the static observed scene. The optimization problem is solved by Bregman Iteration and the operator splitting method. The algorithm is simple, efficient, and can be easily generalized for different sce...

  4. Mao-Gilles Stabilization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Gilles

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Originally, the Mao-Gilles stabilization algorithm was designed to compensate the non-rigid deformations due to atmospheric turbulence. Given a sequence of frames affected by atmospheric turbulence, the algorithm uses a variational model combining optical flow and regularization to characterize the static observed scene. The optimization problem is solved by Bregman Iteration and the operator splitting method. The algorithm is simple, efficient, and can be easily generalized for different scenarios involving non-rigid deformations.

  5. Gilles Sauvage (1939-2010)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Gilles Sauvage, a physicist from LAPP-Annecy working with ATLAS, passed away on 21 April 2010.   We will always remember Gilles’ smile. Gilles Sauvage was deeply involved in many generations of experiments at CERN as he followed the evolution of the field at the energy forefront. He started with the LAL-Orsay group in the WA2 Hyperon experiment at the SPS West Area, where he worked from 1976 to 1979. With the same group he was then a founding member of the UA2 Collaboration at the SPS p-pbar Collider, in which he was active throughout the duration of the experiment. He then moved to LAPP-Annecy in 1986 and joined first the L3 group at LEP, making important contributions to the construction, calibration, installation and commissioning of the BGO crystal calorimeter. Later, in the mid-1990s, Gilles joined ATLAS and led the LAPP-Annecy group through the intense period of the construction of one third of the ATLAS LAr barrel electromagnetic calorimeter modules at LAPP, and followed hands-o...

  6. Phylogeography of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and its primary endosymbiont, 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii': an evolutionary approach to host-endosymbiont interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Lu, Jinming; Beattie, George Ac; Islam, Mohammad R; Om, Namgay; Dao, Hang T; Van Nguyen, Liem; Zaka, Syed M; Guo, Jun; Tian, Mingyi; Deng, Xiaoling; Tan, Shunyun; Holford, Paul; He, Yurong; Cen, Yijing

    2018-03-25

    In insects, little is known about the co-evolution between their primary endosymbionts and hosts at the intraspecific level. This study examined co-diversification between the notorious agricultural pest Diaphorina citri and its primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbiont), 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' at the population level. Maximum likelihood, haplotype network, principal components and Bayesian clustering identified three lineages for D. citri and its P-endosymbiont: a Western clade containing individuals from Pakistan, Bhutan (Phuentsholing), Vietnam (Son La), USA, Myanmar and China (Ruili, Yunnan); a Central clade, with accessions originating from Southwest China, Bhutan (Tsirang) and Bangladesh; and an Eastern clade containing individuals from Southeast Asia, and East and South China. A more diverse genetic structure was apparent in the host mitochondrial DNA than their P-endosymbionts; however, the two sets of data were strongly congruent. This study provides evidence for the co-diversification of D. citri and its P-endosymbiont during the migration from South Asia to East and Southeast Asia. We also suggest that the P-endosymbiont may facilitate investigations into the genealogy and migration history of the host. The biogeography of D. citri and its P-endosymbiont indicated that D. citri colonized and underwent a secondary dispersal from South Asia to East and Southeast Asia. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The price of protection: a defensive endosymbiont impairs nymph growth in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybourne, Daniel J; Bos, Jorunn I B; Valentine, Tracy A; Karley, Alison J

    2018-05-24

    Bacterial endosymbionts have enabled aphids to adapt to a range of stressors, but their effects in many aphid species remain to be established. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus), is an important pest of cereals worldwide and has been reported to form symbiotic associations with Serratia symbiotica and Sitobion miscanthi L-type Symbiont endobacteria, although the resulting aphid phenotype has not been described. This study presents the first report of R. padi infection with the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Individuals of R. padi were sampled from populations in Eastern Scotland, UK, and shown to represent seven R. padi genotypes based on the size of polymorphic microsatellite markers; two of these genotypes harboured H. defensa. In parasitism assays, survival of H. defensa-infected nymphs following attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani (Viereck) was five-fold higher than for uninfected nymphs. Aphid genotype was a major determinant of aphid performance on two Hordeum species, a modern cultivar of barley H. vulgaris and a wild relative H. spontaneum, although aphids infected with H. defensa showed 16% lower nymph mass gain on the partially-resistant wild relative compared with uninfected individuals. These findings suggest that deploying resistance traits in barley will favour the fittest R. padi genotypes, but symbiont-infected individuals will be favoured when parasitoids are abundant, although these aphids will not achieve optimal performance on a poor quality host plant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Unrelated facultative endosymbionts protect aphids against a fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Piotr; van Asch, Margriet; Guo, Huifang; Ferrari, Julia; Godfray, H Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The importance of microbial facultative endosymbionts to insects is increasingly being recognized, but our understanding of how the fitness effects of infection are distributed across symbiont taxa is limited. In the pea aphid, some of the seven known species of facultative symbionts influence their host's resistance to natural enemies, including parasitoid wasps and a pathogenic fungus. Here we show that protection against this entomopathogen, Pandora neoaphidis, can be conferred by strains of four distantly related symbionts (in the genera Regiella, Rickettsia, Rickettsiella and Spiroplasma). They reduce mortality and also decrease fungal sporulation on dead aphids which may help protect nearby genetically identical insects. Pea aphids thus obtain protection from natural enemies through association with a wider range of microbial associates than has previously been thought. Providing resistance against natural enemies appears to be a particularly common way for facultative endosymbionts to increase in frequency within host populations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. The Rickettsia Endosymbiont of Ixodes pacificus Contains All the Genes of De Novo Folate Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, James; Mortazavi, Bobak; Laurent, Timothy; Deason, Jeff; Thephavongsa, Khanhkeo; Zhong, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and other arthropods often are hosts to nutrient providing bacterial endosymbionts, which contribute to their host’s fitness by supplying nutrients such as vitamins and amino acids. It has been detected, in our lab, that Ixodes pacificus is host to Rickettsia species phylotype G021. This endosymbiont is predominantly present, and 100% maternally transmitted in I. pacificus. To study roles of phylotype G021 in I. pacificus, bioinformatic and molecular approaches were carried out. MUMmer genome alignments of whole genome sequence of I. scapularis, a close relative to I. pacificus, against completely sequenced genomes of R. bellii OSU85-389, R. conorii, and R. felis, identified 8,190 unique sequences that are homologous to Rickettsia sequences in the NCBI Trace Archive. MetaCyc metabolic reconstructions revealed that all folate gene orthologues (folA, folC, folE, folKP, ptpS) required for de novo folate biosynthesis are present in the genome of Rickettsia buchneri in I. scapularis. To examine the metabolic capability of phylotype G021 in I. pacificus, genes of the folate biosynthesis pathway of the bacterium were PCR amplified using degenerate primers. BLAST searches identified that nucleotide sequences of the folA, folC, folE, folKP, and ptpS genes possess 98.6%, 98.8%, 98.9%, 98.5% and 99.0% identity respectively to the corresponding genes of Rickettsia buchneri. Phylogenetic tree constructions show that the folate genes of phylotype G021 and homologous genes from various Rickettsia species are monophyletic. This study has shown that all folate genes exist in the genome of Rickettsia species phylotype G021 and that this bacterium has the genetic capability for de novo folate synthesis. PMID:26650541

  10. The complete genome of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901: an intracellular endosymbiont of marine wood-boring bivalves (shipworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce C Yang

    Full Text Available Here we report the complete genome sequence of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901. T. turnerae is a marine gamma proteobacterium that occurs as an intracellular endosymbiont in the gills of wood-boring marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms. This species is the sole cultivated member of an endosymbiotic consortium thought to provide the host with enzymes, including cellulases and nitrogenase, critical for digestion of wood and supplementation of the host's nitrogen-deficient diet. T. turnerae is closely related to the free-living marine polysaccharide degrading bacterium Saccharophagus degradans str. 2-40 and to as yet uncultivated endosymbionts with which it coexists in shipworm cells. Like S. degradans, the T. turnerae genome encodes a large number of enzymes predicted to be involved in complex polysaccharide degradation (>100. However, unlike S. degradans, which degrades a broad spectrum (>10 classes of complex plant, fungal and algal polysaccharides, T. turnerae primarily encodes enzymes associated with deconstruction of terrestrial woody plant material. Also unlike S. degradans and many other eubacteria, T. turnerae dedicates a large proportion of its genome to genes predicted to function in secondary metabolism. Despite its intracellular niche, the T. turnerae genome lacks many features associated with obligate intracellular existence (e.g. reduced genome size, reduced %G+C, loss of genes of core metabolism and displays evidence of adaptations common to free-living bacteria (e.g. defense against bacteriophage infection. These results suggest that T. turnerae is likely a facultative intracellular ensosymbiont whose niche presently includes, or recently included, free-living existence. As such, the T. turnerae genome provides insights into the range of genomic adaptations associated with intracellular endosymbiosis as well as enzymatic mechanisms relevant to the recycling of plant materials in marine environments and the production

  11. Degenerative minimalism in the genome of a psyllid endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M A; Baumann, L; Thao, M L; Moran, N A; Baumann, P

    2001-03-01

    Psyllids, like aphids, feed on plant phloem sap and are obligately associated with prokaryotic endosymbionts acquired through vertical transmission from an ancestral infection. We have sequenced 37 kb of DNA of the genome of Carsonella ruddii, the endosymbiont of psyllids, and found that it has a number of unusual properties revealing a more extreme case of degeneration than was previously reported from studies of eubacterial genomes, including that of the aphid endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola. Among the unusual properties are an exceptionally low guanine-plus-cytosine content (19.9%), almost complete absence of intergenic spaces, operon fusion, and lack of the usual promoter sequences upstream of 16S rDNA. These features suggest the synthesis of long mRNAs and translational coupling. The most extreme instances of base compositional bias occur in the genes encoding proteins that have less highly conserved amino acid sequences; the guanine-plus-cytosine content of some protein-coding sequences is as low as 10%. The shift in base composition has a large effect on proteins: in polypeptides of C. ruddii, half of the residues consist of five amino acids with codons low in guanine plus cytosine. Furthermore, the proteins of C. ruddii are reduced in size, with an average of about 9% fewer amino acids than in homologous proteins of related bacteria. These observations suggest that the C. ruddii genome is not subject to constraints that limit the evolution of other known eubacteria.

  12. Nutritional upgrading for omnivorous carpenter ants by the endosymbiont Blochmannia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Martin J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function in nutritional upgrading of host resources by the bacterium. Thus, the strongly reduced genome of the endosymbiont retains genes for all subunits of a functional urease, as well as those for biosynthetic pathways for all but one (arginine of the amino acids essential to the host. Results Nutritional upgrading by Blochmannia was tested in 90-day feeding experiments with brood-raising in worker-groups on chemically defined diets with and without essential amino acids and treated or not with antibiotics. Control groups were fed with cockroaches, honey water and Bhatkar agar. Worker-groups were provided with brood collected from the queenright mother-colonies (45 eggs and 45 first instar larvae each. Brood production did not differ significantly between groups of symbiotic workers on diets with and without essential amino acids. However, aposymbiotic worker groups raised significantly less brood on a diet lacking essential amino acids. Reduced brood production by aposymbiotic workers was compensated when those groups were provided with essential amino acids in their diet. Decrease of endosymbionts due to treatment with antibiotic was monitored by qRT-PCR and FISH after the 90-day experimental period. Urease function was confirmed by feeding experiments using 15N-labelled urea. GC-MS analysis of 15N-enrichment of free amino acids in workers revealed significant labelling of the non-essential amino acids alanine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, as well as of the essential amino acids methionine and phenylalanine. Conclusion Our results show that endosymbiotic Blochmannia nutritionally upgrade the diet of C. floridanus hosts to provide essential amino acids, and that it may also play a role in nitrogen recycling

  13. Predicting the Proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and Their Respective Endosymbionts Reveals New Aspects of the Trypanosomatidae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Martins, Allan Cezar de Azevedo; de Souza, Silvana Sant’Anna; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; Silva, Rosane; Klein, Cecilia Coimbra; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; de Lima Cunha, Oberdan; Ciapina, Luciane Prioli; Brocchi, Marcelo; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Machado, Carlos Renato; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Probst, Christian Macagnan; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Gradia, Daniela Fiori; Pavoni, Daniela Parada; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Marchini, Fabricio Klerynton; Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela Flávia; Wagner, Glauber; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Elias, Maria Carolina; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Sagot, Marie-France; Pereira, Maristela; Stoco, Patrícia H.; de Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; Ürményi, Turán P.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism

  14. Predicting the proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and their respective endosymbionts reveals new aspects of the trypanosomatidae family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Machado Motta

    Full Text Available Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis, respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine

  15. Gilles Jobin Collide@CERN - Strangels Intervention

    CERN Multimedia

    Gregory Batardon

    2012-01-01

    STRANGELS Cie Gilles Jobin. Site specific choreographic intervention inside the CERN's library. Three strangels on a migration to another dimension rest at the CERN's library. Strangels need food for thoughts. Do not pay attention to them they are only strangels. Dancers : Ruth Childs, Susana Panadès Diaz, Gilles Jobin

  16. Consequences of reductive evolution for gene expression in an obligate endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Jennifer L; Dunbar, Helen E; Wolfinger, Russell D; Moran, Nancy A

    2003-06-01

    The smallest cellular genomes are found in obligate symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria living within eukaryotic hosts. In comparison with large genomes of free-living relatives, these reduced genomes are rearranged and have lost most regulatory elements. To test whether reduced bacterial genomes incur reduced regulatory capacities, we used full-genome microarrays to evaluate transcriptional response to environmental stress in Buchnera aphidicola, the obligate endosymbiont of aphids. The 580 genes of the B. aphidicola genome represent a subset of the 4500 genes known from the related organism, Escherichia coli. Although over 20 orthologues of E. coli heat stress (HS) genes are retained by B. aphidicola, only five were differentially expressed after near-lethal heat stress treatments, and only modest shifts were observed. Analyses of upstream regulatory regions revealed loss or degradation of most HS (sigma32) promoters. Genomic rearrangements downstream of an intact HS promoter yielded upregulation of a functionally unrelated and an inactivated gene. Reanalyses of comparable experimental array data for E. coli and Bacillus subtilis revealed that genome-wide differential expression was significantly lower in B. aphidicola. Our demonstration of a diminished stress response validates reports of temperature sensitivity in B. aphidicola and suggests that this reduced bacterial genome exhibits transcriptional inflexibility.

  17. Maintenance of algal endosymbionts in Paramecium bursaria: a simple model based on population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Sosuke; Fujiwara, Kenji; Tamura, Takuro

    2016-09-01

    Algal endosymbiosis is widely distributed in eukaryotes including many protists and metazoans, and plays important roles in aquatic ecosystems, combining phagotrophy and phototrophy. To maintain a stable symbiotic relationship, endosymbiont population size in the host must be properly regulated and maintained at a constant level; however, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of algal endosymbionts are still largely unknown. Here we investigate the population dynamics of the unicellular ciliate Paramecium bursaria and its Chlorella-like algal endosymbiont under various experimental conditions in a simple culture system. Our results suggest that endosymbiont population size in P. bursaria was not regulated by active processes such as cell division coupling between the two organisms, or partitioning of the endosymbionts at host cell division. Regardless, endosymbiont population size was eventually adjusted to a nearly constant level once cells were grown with light and nutrients. To explain this apparent regulation of population size, we propose a simple mechanism based on the different growth properties (specifically the nutrient requirements) of the two organisms, and based from this develop a mathematical model to describe the population dynamics of host and endosymbiont. The proposed mechanism and model may provide a basis for understanding the maintenance of algal endosymbionts. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genetic diversity of Diaphorina citri and its endosymbionts across east and south-east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Xu, Changbao; Tian, Mingyi; Deng, Xiaoling; Cen, Yijing; He, Yurong

    2017-10-01

    Diaphorina citri is the vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the most widespread pathogen associated huanglongbing, the most serious disease of citrus. To enhance our understanding of the distribution and origin of the psyllid, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structures of 24 populations in Asia and one from Florida based on the mtCOI gene. Simultaneously, genetic diversity and population structures of the primary endosymbiont (P-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' and secondary endosymbiont (S-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Profftella armatura' of D. citri were determined with the housekeeping genes. AMOVA analysis indicated that populations of D. citri and its endosymbionts in east and south-east Asia were genetically distinct from populations in Pakistan and Florida. Furthermore, P-endosymbiont populations displayed a strong geographical structure across east and south-east Asia, while low genetic diversity indicated the absence of genetic structure among the populations of D. citri and its S-endosymbiont across these regions. The 'Ca. C. ruddii' is more diverse and structured than the D. citri and the 'Ca. P. armatura' across east and south-east Asia. Multiple introductions of the psyllid have occurred in China. Management application for controlling the pest is proposed based on the genetic information of D. citri and its endosymbionts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Direct and indirect plant defenses are not suppressed by endosymbionts of a specialist root herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect endosymbionts influence many important metabolic and developmental processes of their host. It has been speculated that they may also help to manipulate and suppress plant defenses to the benefit of herbivores. Recently, endosymbionts of the root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera have ...

  20. Antibiotic treatment leads to the elimination of Wolbachia endosymbionts and sterility in the diplodiploid collembolan Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingcombe Rachel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia is an extremely widespread bacterial endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes that causes a variety of reproductive peculiarities. Parthenogenesis is one such peculiarity but it has been hypothesised that this phenomenon may be functionally restricted to organisms that employ haplodiploid sex determination. Using two antibiotics, tetracycline and rifampicin, we attempted to eliminate Wolbachia from the diplodiploid host Folsomia candida, a species of springtail which is a widely used study organism. Results Molecular assays confirmed that elimination of Wolbachia was successfully achieved through continuous exposure of populations (over two generations and several weeks to rifampicin administered as 2.7% dry weight of their yeast food source. The consequence of this elimination was total sterility of all individuals, despite the continuation of normal egg production. Conclusion Microbial endosymbionts play an obligatory role in the reproduction of their diplodiploid host, most likely one in which the parthenogenetic process is facilitated by Wolbachia. A hitherto unknown level of host-parasite interdependence is thus recorded.

  1. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria ursi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Wisconsin black bears (Ursus americanus) and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Michelle L; Bain, Odile; Fischer, Kerstin; Fischer, Peter U; Kumar, Sanjay; Foster, Jeremy M

    2010-04-01

    Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode of American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) that is vectored by black flies (Simuliidae) in many parts of the United States. In northwestern Wisconsin, the prevalence of microfilaremic bears during the fall hunting season was 21% (n = 47). Unsheathed blood microfilariae from Wisconsin bears possess characters consistent with the original description of D. ursi, as do adult worms observed histologically and grossly. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the Wolbachia endosymbiont in the hypodermis and lateral cords of an adult female D. ursi. Amplification of wsp, gatB, coxA, fbpA, and ftsZ bacterial sequences from parasite DNA confirmed the presence of Wolbachia, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene groups the endosymbiont with Wolbachia from D. immitis and D. repens. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ursi 5s rDNA sequence confirms the morphological observations grouping this parasite as a member of Dirofilaria, and within the Dirofilaria - Onchocerca clade of filarial nematodes. This is the first report of Wolbachia characterization and molecular phylogeny information for D. ursi.

  2. Survey of endosymbionts in the Diaphorina citri metagenome and assembly of a Wolbachia wDi draft genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Saha

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, the Asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. Sequencing of the D. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. To corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rDNA amplification, raw reads from the D. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference genome sequences. Results of the read mapping provided the most support for Wolbachia and an enteric bacterium most similar to Salmonella. Wolbachia-derived reads were extracted using the complete genome sequences for four Wolbachia strains. Reads were assembled into a draft genome sequence, and the annotation assessed for the presence of features potentially involved in host interaction. Genome alignment with the complete sequences reveals membership of Wolbachia wDi in supergroup B, further supported by phylogenetic analysis of FtsZ. FtsZ and Wsp phylogenies additionally indicate that the Wolbachia strain in the Florida D. citri isolate falls into a sub-clade of supergroup B, distinct from Wolbachia present in Chinese D. citri isolates, supporting the hypothesis that the D. citri introduced into Florida did not originate from China.

  3. Survey of endosymbionts in the Diaphorina citri metagenome and assembly of a Wolbachia wDi draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Surya; Hunter, Wayne B; Reese, Justin; Morgan, J Kent; Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Huang, Hong; Lindeberg, Magdalen

    2012-01-01

    Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. Sequencing of the D. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. To corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rDNA amplification, raw reads from the D. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference genome sequences. Results of the read mapping provided the most support for Wolbachia and an enteric bacterium most similar to Salmonella. Wolbachia-derived reads were extracted using the complete genome sequences for four Wolbachia strains. Reads were assembled into a draft genome sequence, and the annotation assessed for the presence of features potentially involved in host interaction. Genome alignment with the complete sequences reveals membership of Wolbachia wDi in supergroup B, further supported by phylogenetic analysis of FtsZ. FtsZ and Wsp phylogenies additionally indicate that the Wolbachia strain in the Florida D. citri isolate falls into a sub-clade of supergroup B, distinct from Wolbachia present in Chinese D. citri isolates, supporting the hypothesis that the D. citri introduced into Florida did not originate from China.

  4. The histones of the endosymbiont alga of Peridinium balticum (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, P J; Morris, R L; Zweidler, A

    1988-01-01

    The histones of the endosymbiont nucleus of the binucleate dinoflagellate Peridinium balticum were characterized by amino acid analysis and peptide mapping, and compared to calf thymus histones. Using these and various other criteria we have identified two H1-like histones as well as the highly conserved histones H3 and H4. A 13,000 dalton component in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) gels can be separated into two components in Triton-containing gels. We suggest that these histones (HPb1 and HPb2) correspond to the vertebrate histones H2A and H2B, respectively.

  5. AmiD Is a Novel Peptidoglycan Amidase in Wolbachia Endosymbionts of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Wilmes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia endobacteria are obligate intracellular bacteria with a highly reduced genome infecting many arthropod and filarial species, in which they manipulate arthropod reproduction to increase their transmission and are essential for nematode development and survival. The Wolbachia genome encodes all enzymes required for the synthesis of the cell wall building block lipid II, although a peptidoglycan-like structure has not been detected. Despite the ability to synthesize lipid II, Wolbachia from arthropods and nematodes have only a subset of genes encoding enzymes involved in the periplasmic processing of lipid II and peptidoglycan recycling, with arthropods having two more than nematodes. We functionally analyzed the activity of the putative cell wall hydrolase AmiD from the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster, an enzyme not encoded by the nematode endobacteria. Wolbachia AmiD has Zn2+-dependent amidase activity and cleaves intact peptidoglycan, monomeric lipid II and anhydromuropeptides, substrates that are generated during bacterial growth. AmiD may have been maintained in arthropod Wolbachia to avoid host immune recognition by degrading cell wall fragments in the periplasm. This is the first description of a wolbachial lipid II processing enzyme putatively expressed in the periplasm.

  6. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Simultaneous Evaluation of Life Cycle Dynamics between a Host Paramecium and the Endosymbionts of Paramecium bursaria Using Capillary Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2016-08-17

    Endosymbioses are driving forces underlying cell evolution. The endosymbiosis exhibited by Paramecium bursaria is an excellent model with which to study symbiosis. A single-cell microscopic analysis of P. bursaria reveals that endosymbiont numbers double when the host is in the division phase. Consequently, endosymbionts must arrange their cell cycle schedule if the culture-condition-dependent change delays the generation time of P. bursaria. However, it remains poorly understood whether endosymbionts keep pace with the culture-condition-dependent behaviors of P. bursaria, or not. Using microscopy and flow cytometry, this study investigated the life cycle behaviors occurring between endosymbionts and the host. To establish a connection between the host cell cycle and endosymbionts comprehensively, multivariate analysis was applied. The multivariate analysis revealed important information related to regulation between the host and endosymbionts. Results show that dividing endosymbionts underwent transition smoothly from the division phase to interphase, when the host was in the logarithmic phase. In contrast, endosymbiont division stagnated when the host was in the stationary phase. This paper explains that endosymbionts fine-tune their cell cycle pace with their host and that a synchronous life cycle between the endosymbionts and the host is guaranteed in the symbiosis of P. bursaria.

  8. Manipulation of arthropod sex determination by endosymbionts : Diversity and molecular mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W. -J.; Vavre, F.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Arthropods exhibit a large variety of sex determination systems both at the chromosomal and molecular level. Male heterogamety, female heterogamety, and haplodiploidy occur frequently, but partially different genes are involved. Endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium, Rickettsia, and

  9. Genetic variability of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its secondary endosymbionts in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ragab, Alaa I.

    2013-05-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex has been well documented as one of the most economically important emergent plant virus vectors, through serious feeding damage to its broad range of plant hosts and transmission of plant viruses to important agricultural crops. It has been shown to have associations with endosymbionts which have significant effects on the insect fitness. The purpose of this study was to provide information for the biotype and secondary endosymbiont distribution for B. tabaci populations in the relatively unstudied Arabian peninsula. The geographical localization and variation in endosymbiont populations across the region were identified using a sequence-driven analysis of the population genetics of the secondary endosymbiont. Live field specimens were collected from 22 different locations in the region and preserved in 70% ethanol for genetic studies. Previously established procedures were used to extract and purify total insect DNA from 24-30 individual whiteflies for each location (Frohlich et al., 1999; Chiel et al., 2007). Specimens were subjected to PCR amplification using the respective 16S rDNAprimers for the Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Wolbachia to amplify endosymbiont DNA. PCR was run with primers for the highly conserved whitefly mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for biotyping. Samples were sequenced using the Sanger method and the data analyzed to correlate the presence, prevalence and geographical distribution of endosymbionts in B. tabaci. Phylogenies 5 were constructed to track evolutionary differences amongst the endosymbionts and insects and how they have influenced the evolution of the regional populations. Samples were characterized by differences in the genomes and endosymbionts of common whitefly ‘biotypes’ that have different host plant preferences, vector capacities and insecticide resistance characteristics. It was found that the B biotype is the predominant haplotype, with no evidence of

  10. Gill damage, metallothionein gene expression and metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and sediment samples from each site, together with fish muscle and gills, were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for Li, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, ... Keywords: anthropogenic impacts, bioaccumulation, biomarkers, histopathology, rivers, sediments, toxic effects

  11. Learning to Teach--Gill's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gill; Rowland, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Gill Hatch was a very fine mathematician. Indeed, following her undergraduate studies in Cambridge in the late 1950s, she was one of the elite who went on to the notoriously difficult Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. In this article, the author describes the autobiographical accounts of Hatch during her teaching career in teacher education, as…

  12. Histopathological evaluation of Oreochromis mossambicus gills and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oreochromis mossambicus were sampled from a semi-intensively managed polyculture earthen pond in Bagauda, Nigeria for histopathological changes in the gills and liver as early warning signs of pond water pollution. Pond water was sourced from nearby Bagauda dam through a single 28 inches water pipe.

  13. Endozoicomonas dominates the gill and intestinal content microbiomes of Mytilus edulis from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, William B.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Adams, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, Linnaeus 1758 from southern Barnegat Bay, New Jersey were examined to determine the make-up of the normal blue mussel microbiome. Sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from gill and intestinal content microbiomes using the Illumina® MiSeq platform yielded 1,276,161 paired end sequence reads from the gill libraries and 1,092,333 paired end sequence reads from the intestinal content libraries. General bioinformatic analyses were conducted with the open-source packages Qiime and Mothur. Phylotype assignments to the genus level were made using the commercial One Codex platform. This resulted in 1,697,852 gill and 988,436 intestinal content sequences being classified to genus. A majority of these (67.6% and 37.2% respectively) were assigned to a single operational taxonomic unit (Mytilus edulis Symbiont, MeS) that has homologies with other recently described Endozoicomonas pathogens and symbionts of marine invertebrates. MeS shares 98% identity with an uncultured bacterium from the gill tissue of an invasive indo-Pacific oyster and with HQE1 and HQE2 isolated from the sea squirt, Styela clava. Other than MeS, most of the detected bacterial species are known from marine sediments and seawater.

  14. Serratia symbiotica from the aphid Cinara cedri: a missing link from facultative to obligate insect endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Lamelas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequencing of Buchnera aphidicola BCc from the aphid Cinara cedri, which is the smallest known Buchnera genome, revealed that this bacterium had lost its symbiotic role, as it was not able to synthesize tryptophan and riboflavin. Moreover, the biosynthesis of tryptophan is shared with the endosymbiont Serratia symbiotica SCc, which coexists with B. aphidicola in this aphid. The whole-genome sequencing of S. symbiotica SCc reveals an endosymbiont in a stage of genome reduction that is closer to an obligate endosymbiont, such as B. aphidicola from Acyrthosiphon pisum, than to another S. symbiotica, which is a facultative endosymbiont in this aphid, and presents much less gene decay. The comparison between both S. symbiotica enables us to propose an evolutionary scenario of the transition from facultative to obligate endosymbiont. Metabolic inferences of B. aphidicola BCc and S. symbiotica SCc reveal that most of the functions carried out by B. aphidicola in A. pisum are now either conserved in B. aphidicola BCc or taken over by S. symbiotica. In addition, there are several cases of metabolic complementation giving functional stability to the whole consortium and evolutionary preservation of the actors involved.

  15. Endosymbiont-based immunity in Drosophila melanogaster against parasitic nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Frazer, Joanna; Banga, Ashima; Pruitt, Katherine; Harsh, Sneh; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively). We find that the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma promotes the survival of larvae in response to infection with S. carpocapsae symbiotic nematodes, but not against axenic nematodes. We also find that Wolbachia numbers are reduced in Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic compared to symbiotic nematodes, and they are also reduced in Spiroplasma-containing compared to Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic nematodes. We further show that S. carpocapsae axenic nematode infection induces the Toll pathway in the absence of Wolbachia, and that symbiotic nematode infection leads to increased phenoloxidase activity in D. melanogaster larvae devoid of endosymbionts. Finally, infection with either type of nematode alters the metabolic status and the fat body lipid droplet size in D. melanogaster larvae containing only Wolbachia or both endosymbionts. Our results suggest an interaction between Wolbachia endosymbionts with the immune response of D. melanogaster against infection with the entomopathogenic nematodes S. carpocapsae. Results from this study indicate a complex interplay between insect hosts, endosymbiotic microbes and pathogenic organisms.

  16. Population genomics of the Wolbachia endosymbiont in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Richardson

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria, commonly found in arthropods, which are able to manipulate the reproduction of their host in order to maximise their transmission. The evolutionary history of endosymbionts like Wolbachia can be revealed by integrating information on infection status in natural populations with patterns of sequence variation in Wolbachia and host mitochondrial genomes. Here we use whole-genome resequencing data from 290 lines of Drosophila melanogaster from North America, Europe, and Africa to predict Wolbachia infection status, estimate relative cytoplasmic genome copy number, and reconstruct Wolbachia and mitochondrial genome sequences. Overall, 63% of Drosophila strains were predicted to be infected with Wolbachia by our in silico analysis pipeline, which shows 99% concordance with infection status determined by diagnostic PCR. Complete Wolbachia and mitochondrial genomes show congruent phylogenies, consistent with strict vertical transmission through the maternal cytoplasm and imperfect transmission of Wolbachia. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals that the most recent common ancestor of all Wolbachia and mitochondrial genomes in D. melanogaster dates to around 8,000 years ago. We find evidence for a recent global replacement of ancestral Wolbachia and mtDNA lineages, but our data suggest that the derived wMel lineage arose several thousand years ago, not in the 20th century as previously proposed. Our data also provide evidence that this global replacement event is incomplete and is likely to be one of several similar incomplete replacement events that have occurred since the out-of-Africa migration that allowed D. melanogaster to colonize worldwide habitats. This study provides a complete genomic analysis of the evolutionary mode and temporal dynamics of the D. melanogaster-Wolbachia symbiosis, as well as important resources for further analyses of the impact of Wolbachia on host biology.

  17. Host-Symbiont Cospeciation of Termite-Gut Cellulolytic Protists of the Genera Teranympha and Eucomonympha and their Treponema Endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Satoko; Shimizu, Daichi; Yuki, Masahiro; Kitade, Osamu; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2018-03-29

    Cellulolytic flagellated protists inhabit the hindgut of termites. They are unique and essential to termites and related wood-feeding cockroaches, enabling host feeding on cellulosic matter. Protists of two genera in the family Teranymphidae (phylum Parabasalia), Eucomonympha and Teranympha, are phylogenetically closely related and harbor intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria from the genus Treponema. In order to obtain a clearer understanding of the evolutionary history of this triplex symbiotic relationship, the molecular phylogenies of the three symbiotic partners, the Teranymphidae protists, their Treponema endosymbionts, and their host termites, were inferred and compared. Strong congruence was observed in the tree topologies of all interacting partners, implying their cospeciating relationships. In contrast, the coevolutionary relationship between the Eucomonympha protists and their endosymbionts was more complex, and evidence of incongruence against cospeciating relationships suggested frequent host switches of the endosymbionts, possibly because multiple Eucomonympha species are present in the same gut community. Similarities in the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences of the endosymbionts were higher among Teranympha spp. (>99.25% and >97.2%, respectively), whereas those between Teranympha and Eucomonympha were lower (<97.1% and <91.9%, respectively). In addition, the endosymbionts of Teranympha spp. formed a phylogenetic clade distinct from those of Eucomonympha spp. Therefore, the endosymbiont species of Teranympha spp., designated here as "Candidatus Treponema teratonymphae", needs to be classified as a species distinct from the endosymbiont species of Eucomonympha spp.

  18. Establishment and maintenance of aphid endosymbionts after horizontal transfer is dependent on host genotype

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parker, B. J.; McLean, A. H. C.; Hrček, Jan; Gerardo, N. M.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2017), č. článku 20170016. ISSN 1744-9561 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : endosymbionts * horizontal transfer * pea aphid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.089, year: 2016 http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/13/5/20170016.long

  19.  Serial replacement of diatom endosymbiont in two freshwater dinoflagellates, Peridiniopsis spp., (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Y.; Hansen, Gert; Fujita, D.

    2008-01-01

    Two freshwater armoured dinoflagellates, Peridiniopsis cf. kevei from Japan and Peridiniopsis penardii from Japan and Italy, were examined by means of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Morphological studies indicated that the two dinoflagellates had similar type of cellular......-harbouring dinoflagellates. On the contrary, the phylogenetic analyses based on plastid-encoded rbcL and nuclear-encoded SSU rDNA of the endosymbionts included the endosymbiont of these two freshwater dinoflagellates in the Thalassiosira/Skeletonema-clade (Centrales), whereas the endosymbionts of other diatom...

  20. Distribution of bacteria and associated minerals in the gill chamber of the vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and related biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, M.; Le Bris, N.; Compere, P.; Gaill, F.

    2004-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafauna of some mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields. This species harbors a rich bacterial epibiosis inside its gill chamber. At the Rainbow vent field, the epibionts are associated with iron oxide deposits. Investigation of both bacteria and minerals by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDX) shows the occurrence of three distinct compartments in the gill chamber: (1) the lower pre-branchial chamber, housing bacteria, but devoid of minerals, (2) the "true" branchial chamber that contains the gills and remains free of both bacteria and minerals, and (3) the upper pre-branchial chamber housing the main ectosymbiotic bacterial community and associated iron oxides. According to our chemical and temperature data, abiotic iron oxidation appears to be kinetically inhibited in the environment of the shrimps and this would explain the lack of iron oxide deposits in the first two areas. We propose that, in the third area, iron oxidation is microbially promoted. The discrepancy between the spatial distribution of bacteria and minerals suggests that different bacterial metabolisms are involved in the two compartments. A possible explanation lies in the modification of physico-chemical conditions downstream of the gills, that would reduce the oxygen content and favor the development of bacterial iron-oxidizers in this Fe II-rich environment. A potential role of such iron-oxidizing symbionts in the shrimp diet is suggested. This would be unusual for hydrothermal ecosystems, where most previously described symbioses rely on sulphide or methane as an energy source.

  1. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets

    OpenAIRE

    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  2. Cultured branchial epithelia from freshwater fish gills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood; PÄRt

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a method for the primary culture of gill epithelial cells from freshwater rainbow trout on permeable supports, polyethylene terephthalate membranes ('filter inserts'). Primary cultures of gill cells (6-9 days in Leibowitz L-15 culture medium plus foetal bovine serum and glutamine) are trypsinized and the cells seeded onto the inserts. After 6 days of growth with L-15 medium on both surfaces (approximately isotonic to trout plasma), the cells form a tight epithelium as judged from a progressive rise in transepithelial resistance which reaches a stable plateau for a further 6 days, as long as L-15 exposure is continued on both surfaces. The cultured epithelium (approximately 8 µm thick) typically consists of 2-4 overlapping cell layers organized as in the lamellae in vivo, with large intercellular spaces, multiple desmosomes and putative tight junctions. The cells appear to be exclusively pavement-type cells with an apical surface glycocalyx, an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum, no selective DASPEI staining and relatively few mitochondria. Transepithelial resistance (approximately 3.5 k cm2), permeability to a paracellular marker (polyethylene glycol-4000; 0.17x10(-6) cm s-1) and unidirectional flux of Na+ and Cl- (approximately 300 nmol cm-2 h-1) all appear realistic because they compare well with in vivo values; net fluxes of Na+ and Cl- are zero. The preparation acidifies the apical medium, which accumulates a greater concentration of ammonia. Upon exposure to apical freshwater, resistance increases six- to elevenfold and a basolateral-negative transepithelial potential (TEP) develops as in vivo. These responses occur even when mannitol is used to prevent changes in apical osmotic pressure. Net Na+ and Cl- loss rates are low over the first 12 h (-125 nmol cm-2 h-1) but increase substantially by 48 h. The elevated resistance and negative TEP gradually attenuate but remain significantly higher than pre-exposure values after 48 h of apical

  3. Gilles Deleuze and the contemporary biopolitical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a research on Gilles Deleuze’s contribution to the contemporary biopolitical debate. To begin with, we analyze his interpretation of Foucault’s conception of biopolitics, especially the vitalist matrix of his reading, and we examine its impact on the distinction between “biopower” and “biopolitics” according to certain authors (Lazzarato, Negri, Revel. We then reveal the presence of deleuzian notions in other perspectives (the “impersonal” in Esposito, the “society of control” in Negri. Finally, we propose renewing the fundamental tensions of the debate on Life, Politics, Language and the Condition of Man, based on concepts elaborated by Deleuze

  4. Adrian E. Gill 1937”1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Allan J.

    On April 19, Adrian Gill, FRS, my former thesis advisor and distinguished friend, died suddenly of cancer. My sadness and disbelief are more strongly felt because the life of this gifted and generous man ended so early.Born in Melbourne, Australia, Adrian was granted his Ph.D. at Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., in 1963. After a year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, Mass.), he returned to Cambridge in Britain, where he spent most of the rest of his life. In 1984, he left Cambridge to become director and cofounder of the Hooke Institute in Oxford, U.K. During his career he enjoyed many summers working in the United States.

  5. Apple snails and their endosymbionts bioconcentrate heavy metals and uranium from contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Israel A; Arribére, María A; Almonacid, Andrea V; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2012-09-01

    The differential ability of apple snail tissues, endosymbionts, and eggs to bioaccumulate several metals (Sb, As, Ba, Br, Zn, Cr, Fe, Hg, Se, and U) was investigated. Metal concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis in several tissues, endosymbionts, and eggs from mature apple snails cultured in either drinking water or reconstituted water (prepared with American Society for Testing and Materials type I water). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in the midgut gland were found for Ba, Zn, Se, As, U, Br, and Hg (in decreasing order), while the highest in the kidney were for Ba, Br, and Hg. The foot showed the highest BCFs for Ba, Hg, Br, and Se (in decreasing order). Calcified tissues (uterus, shell) and eggs showed low BCFs, except for Ba. Both C corpuscles and gland tissue showed statistically higher BCFs than K corpuscles for Ba, Fe, U, Br, and Sb. The concentration of most of the studied elements was significantly lower in tissues and endosymbionts obtained from snails cultured in reconstituted water instead of drinking water. Snails cultured in reconstituted water and then exposed or not to Hg, As, and U (at the maximum contaminant level allowed by the US Environmental Protection Agency) also resulted in high levels accumulated in midgut gland, endosymbionts and kidney. Our findings suggest that the midgut gland (and the symbionts contained therein), the kidney, and the foot of Pomacea canaliculata may be useful bioindicators of Hg, As and U pollution in freshwater bodies and that the unrestricted use of ampullariid snails as human and animal food must be considered with caution.

  6. Evolutionary relationship between dinoflagellates bearing obligate diatom endosymbionts: insight into tertiary endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Y; Dacks, J B; Doolittle, W F; Watanabe, K I; Ohama, T

    2000-11-01

    The marine dinoflagellates Peridinium balticum and Peridinium foliaceum are known for bearing diatom endosymbionts instead of peridinin-containing plastids. While evidence clearly indicates that their endosymbionts are closely related, the relationship between the host dinoflagellate cells is not settled. To examine the relationship of the two dinoflagellates, the DNA sequences of nuclear small-subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNA) from Peridinium balticum, Peridinium foliaceum and one other peridinin-containing species, Peridinium bipes, were amplified, cloned and sequenced. While phylogenetic analyses under simple models of nucleotide substitution weakly support the monophyly of Peridinium balticum and Peridinium foliaceum, analyses under more sophisticated models significantly increased the statistical support for this relationship. Combining these results with the similarity between the two endosymbionts, it is concluded that (i) the two hosts have the closest sister relationship among dinoflagellates tested, (ii) the hypothesis that the diatom endosymbiosis occurred prior to the separation of the host cells is most likely to explain their evolutionary histories, and (iii) phylogenetic inferences under complex nucleotide evolution models seem to be able to compensate significant rate variation in the two SSU rDNA.

  7. Insect Sex Determination Manipulated by Their Endosymbionts: Incidences, Mechanisms and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Narita, Satoko; Watanabe, Masaya

    2012-02-10

    The sex-determining systems of arthropods are surprisingly diverse. Some species have male or female heterogametic sex chromosomes while other species do not have sex chromosomes. Most species are diploids but some species, including wasps, ants, thrips and mites, are haplodiploids (n in males; 2n in females). Many of the sexual aberrations, such as sexual mosaics, sex-specific lethality and conversion of sexuality, can be explained by developmental defects including double fertilization of a binucleate egg, loss of a sex chromosome or perturbation of sex-determining gene expression, which occur accidentally or are induced by certain environmental conditions. However, recent studies have revealed that such sexual aberrations can be caused by various groups of vertically-transmitted endosymbiotic microbes such as bacteria of the genera Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Spiroplasma and Cardinium, as well as microsporidian protists. In this review, we first summarize the accumulated data on endosymbiont-induced sexual aberrations, and then discuss how such endosymbionts affect the developmental system of their hosts and what kinds of ecological and evolutionary effects these endosymbionts have on their host populations.

  8. Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Salmon Gill Pox Virus transmit horizontally in Atlantic salmon held in fresh water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Gjessing, M; Solheim, H T; Litlabø, A; Gjevre, A-G; Kristoffersen, A B; Powell, M D; Colquhoun, D J

    2017-10-01

    Elucidation of the role of infectious agents putatively involved in gill disease is commonly hampered by the lack of culture systems for these organisms. In this study, a farmed population of Atlantic salmon pre-smolts, displaying proliferative gill disease with associated Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Atlantic salmon gill pox virus (SGPV) infections, was identified. A subpopulation of the diseased fish was used as a source of waterborne infection towards a population of naïve Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. Ca. B. cysticola infection became established in exposed naïve fish at high prevalence within the first month of exposure and the bacterial load increased over the study period. Ca. P. salmonis and SGPV infections were identified only at low prevalence in exposed fish during the trial. Although clinically healthy, at termination of the trial the exposed, naïve fish displayed histologically visible pathological changes typified by epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial inflammation with associated bacterial inclusions, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization to contain Ca. B. cysticola. The results strongly suggest that Ca. B. cysticola infections transmit directly from fish to fish and that the bacterium is directly associated with the pathological changes observed in the exposed, previously naïve fish. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. McGill's Integrated Civil and Common Law Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Yves-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of McGill University Faculty of Law. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  10. Household economic modelsof gill net fishermen at Madura strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primyastanto, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this research was to analyze household economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait. 30 families of gillnet fishermenwere used for purposive sampling. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative (regression analysis). Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to analyze research and compare to factors that affecting household economic models of gill net fishermen family. Research results showed tha thousehold economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was production value level or fishermen revenue at sea was strongly influenced byp roduction asset production, education level, fuel, and work flow. Work flow rate of fishermen families affected by asset production, non fisheries workflow and number of male workforce. Non fishing income level was strongly influenced by non-fishery business assets, number of family members owned andnon-fishing work flow. Spending levels of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was affected by fishing income, non-fishing income, fishermen wife education and fishermen family members.

  11. The Symptomatology and Diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Arthur; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The symptomatology of 34 patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome was described in detail. The purpose was to clarify the diagnostic criteria for Tourette's syndrome by describing the type, variety, and frequency of symptoms in this illness. (Author)

  12. Morphofunctional description of mucous cells in the gills of the Arapaimidae Arapaima gigas (Cuvier) during its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C A; da Costa, O T F; Duncan, W L P; Fernandes, M N

    2018-05-07

    The gill structure of the Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1829) shows ontogenetic changes during development, particularly due the transition from the aquatic to the obligatory air breathing mode of respiration. However, three main cell types can be found in the gills: mitochondrial rich cells, pavement cells and mucous cells (MCs). The MCs are involved in the secretory pathway. The functions of the secreted molecules include mechanical protection of epithelia, protection against parasites and bacterial infection, and role on ion regulation. In this study, we analysed mucous cell location and mucous cell type, based on pH, during the development of A. gigas. Using samples obtained from the environment, gills were collected and fixed in buffered solution. Histological techniques for the identification of MCs were performed Alcian Blue (AB) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS+ and AB+ cells in the whole filament in all examined fish. In animals less than 50 g, few MCs were present, and no differences were observed in AB+ and PAS+ cells. In animals weighing close to 500 g, more PAS+ cells than AB+ cells were observed, and in animals that weighed more than 1,000 g, more AB+ cells than PAS+ cells were observed. These observations may be a result of the ontogenetic changes in the gill epithelia, which can change the osmorespiratory compromise in ion regulation functions as well the glycosaminoglycans secreted by PAS cells, which in large animals can play a role in the protection against parasites and bacterial infection. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Bacterial diversity of bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems in two cicada species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhou; Wang, Dandan; He, Hong; Wei, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Cicadas form intimate symbioses with bacteria to obtain nutrients that are scarce in the xylem fluid they feed on. The obligate symbionts in cicadas are purportedly confined to specialized bacteriomes, but knowledge of bacterial communities associated with cicadas is limited. Bacterial communities in the bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems of two cicada species (Platypleura kaempferi and Meimuna mongolica) were investigated using different methods, and the bacterial diversity and distribution patterns of dominant bacteria in different tissues were compared. Within each species, the bacterial communities of testes are significantly different from those of bacteriomes and ovaries. The dominant endosymbiont Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is found not only in the bacteriomes and reproductive organs, but also in the "filter chamber + conical segment" of both species. The transmission mode of this endosymbiont in the alimentary canal and its effect on physiological processes merits further study. A novel bacterium of Rhizobiales, showing ~80% similarity to Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, is dominant in the bacteriomes and ovaries of P. kaempferi. Given that the genome of H. cicadicola exhibits rapid sequence evolution, it is possible that this novel bacterium is a related endosymbiont with beneficial trophic functions similar to that of H. cicadicola in some other cicadas. Failure to detect H. cicadicola in M. mongolica suggests that it has been subsequently replaced by another bacterium, a yeast or gut microbiota which compensates for the loss of H. cicadicola. The distribution of this novel Rhizobiales species in other cicadas and its identification require further investigation to help establish the definition of the bacterial genus Candidatus Hodgkinia and to provide more information on sequence divergence of related endosymbionts of cicadas. Our results highlight the complex bacterial communities of cicadas, and are informative for

  14. Bacterial diversity of bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems in two cicada species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zheng

    Full Text Available Cicadas form intimate symbioses with bacteria to obtain nutrients that are scarce in the xylem fluid they feed on. The obligate symbionts in cicadas are purportedly confined to specialized bacteriomes, but knowledge of bacterial communities associated with cicadas is limited. Bacterial communities in the bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems of two cicada species (Platypleura kaempferi and Meimuna mongolica were investigated using different methods, and the bacterial diversity and distribution patterns of dominant bacteria in different tissues were compared. Within each species, the bacterial communities of testes are significantly different from those of bacteriomes and ovaries. The dominant endosymbiont Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is found not only in the bacteriomes and reproductive organs, but also in the "filter chamber + conical segment" of both species. The transmission mode of this endosymbiont in the alimentary canal and its effect on physiological processes merits further study. A novel bacterium of Rhizobiales, showing ~80% similarity to Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, is dominant in the bacteriomes and ovaries of P. kaempferi. Given that the genome of H. cicadicola exhibits rapid sequence evolution, it is possible that this novel bacterium is a related endosymbiont with beneficial trophic functions similar to that of H. cicadicola in some other cicadas. Failure to detect H. cicadicola in M. mongolica suggests that it has been subsequently replaced by another bacterium, a yeast or gut microbiota which compensates for the loss of H. cicadicola. The distribution of this novel Rhizobiales species in other cicadas and its identification require further investigation to help establish the definition of the bacterial genus Candidatus Hodgkinia and to provide more information on sequence divergence of related endosymbionts of cicadas. Our results highlight the complex bacterial communities of cicadas, and

  15. Extraction and metabolism of circulating catecholamines by the trout gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekvasil, N.P.; Olson, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Extraction and metabolism of [3H]-norepinephrine (NE) and [3H]epinephrine (E) by the respiratory (efferent branchial) and filamental (venous) vasculature of the trout gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch technique in which outflow from the two circulations was separated. Deaminated and O-methylated metabolites in the effluent were identified by ion-exchange chromatography. Metabolism by tissue homogenates was also measured. Gill homogenates deaminate catecholamines (CAs) faster than homogenates of liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle; branchial O-methylation was comparable to that of liver and kidney. The perfused gill extracted 60% of a NE pulse and 47% of an E pulse. During continuous CA perfusion the gill removed greater than 30% of the NE from the circulation through extraction and metabolism; only 7% of the E was removed. The gill venous system extracts and metabolizes more CAs than the efferent. NE is the preferred substrate for extraction and metabolism. A mechanism is proposed whereby high circulating CA levels, common during stress, are maintained through CA-induced reduction in venous blood flow. After the stress is alleviated, CA levels begin to fall, flow to the venous pathway increases, and the rate of inactivation of circulating CAs increases

  16. The evolutionary development of plant-feeding insects and their nutritional endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Isabel H; Hansen, Allison K

    2017-12-01

    Herbivorous insects have evolved diverse mechanisms enabling them to feed on plants with suboptimal nutrient availability. Low nutrient availability negatively impacts insect herbivore development and fitness. To overcome this obstacle numerous insect lineages have evolved intimate associations with nutritional endosymbionts. This is especially true for insects that specialize on nitrogen-poor substrates, as these insects are highly dependent on intracellular symbionts to provide nitrogen lacking in their insect host's diet. Emerging evidence in these systems suggest that the symbiont's and/or the insect's biosynthetic pathways are dynamically regulated throughout the insect's development to potentially cope with the insect's changing nutritional demands. In this review, we evaluate the evolutionary development of symbiotic insect cells (bacteriocytes) by comparing and contrasting genes and mechanisms involved in maintaining and regulating the nutritional symbiosis throughout insect development in a diversity of insect herbivore-endosymbiont associations. With new advances in genome sequencing and functional genomics, we evaluate to what extent nutritional symbioses are shaped by (i) the regulation of symbiont titer, (ii) the regulation of insect symbiosis genes, and (iii) the regulation of symbiont genes. We discuss how important these mechanisms are for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins across insect life stages in divergent insect-symbiont systems. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research to further elucidate the evolutionary development of bacteriocytes and the impact of these nutritional symbioses on insect-plant interactions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8-100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds.

  18. Systematics of a kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu (Dinophyceae), and its cryptomonad endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuang; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Huan; Cheng, Yingyin; Liu, Guoxiang; Hu, Zhengyu

    2013-01-01

    New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta), and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed.

  19. Systematics of a kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu (Dinophyceae, and its cryptomonad endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xia

    Full Text Available New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta, and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed.

  20. First report of endosymbionts in Dreissena polymorpha from the brackish Curonian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Chuševė

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first results of a parasitological study ofDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels from the brackishCuronian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea. Zebra mussels were collected monthlyfrom May to October 2011 from a site near the mouth of the River Nemunas.Three types of endosymbionts were found in the mantle cavity andvisceral mass of the molluscs during dissections, i.e. thecommensal ciliate Conchophthirus acuminatus and parasitic ciliateOphryoglena sp., and rarely encountered, unidentified nematodes.The abundances of C. cuminatus and Ophryoglena sp.were positively associated with host shell length and watertemperature, but no effect of water salinity was detected.As the endosymbionts are either highly host-specific to zebra mussels(C. acuminatus and Ophryoglena sp. or are probablyfree-living organisms that inadvertently infect the molluscs (nematodes,we conclude that the presence of D. polymorpha in theCuronian Lagoon does not pose any serious parasitologicalrisk to native biota. We emphasize, however, that this conclusionshould be treated with caution as it is based on a study conductedonly at a single location. Our work extends the currentlyscarce records of D. polymorpha parasites and commensals frombrackish waters, and adds to a better understanding of the ecologicalimpact this highly invasive mollusc causes in the areas it has invaded.

  1. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  2. Genetikken bag Gilles de laTourettes syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, L.; Debes, Nanette Mol

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led to the di......Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led...

  3. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event : field evidence of acclimatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A. M.; Berkelmans, R.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Mieog, J. C.; Sinclair, W.

    2008-01-01

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of

  4. ´Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii´, an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sassera, D.; Beninati, T.; Bandi, C.; Bouman, Edwin Arien Poul; Sacchi, L.; Fabbi, M.; Lo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 11 (2006), s. 2535-2540 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * endosymbiont * intramitochondrial Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.662, year: 2006

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Francisella-like endosymbionts detected in two species of Amblyomma from snakes in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sumrandee, C.; Hirunkanokpun, S.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Baimai, V.; Trinachartvanit, W.; Ahantarig, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2014), s. 29-32 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Francisella-like endosymbiont * Amblyomma varanense * Amblyomma helvolum * snake * Thailand Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  6. Genomic insight into the host-endosymbiont relationship of Endozoicomonas montiporae CL-33T with its coral host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Yan eDing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial genus Endozoicomonas was commonly detected in healthy corals in many coral-associated bacteria studies in the past decade. Although it is likely to be a core member of coral microbiota, little is known about its ecological roles. To decipher potential interactions between bacteria and their coral hosts, we sequenced and investigated the first culturable endozoicomonal bacterium from coral, the E. montiporae CL-33T. Its genome had potential sign of ongoing genome erosion and gene exchange with its host. Testosterone degradation and type III secretion system are commonly present in Endozoicomonas and may have roles to recognize and deliver effectors to their hosts. Moreover, genes of eukaryotic ephrin ligand B2 are present in its genome; presumably, this bacterium could move into coral cells via endocytosis after binding to coral’s Eph receptors. In addition, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine triphosphatase and isocitrate lyase are possible type III secretion effectors that might help coral to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and promote gluconeogenesis, especially under stress conditions. Based on all these findings, we inferred that E. montiporae was a facultative endosymbiont that can recognize, translocate, communicate and modulate its coral host.

  7. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and disruptive behavior disorders: prevalence, associations, and explanation of the relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary M; Cavanna, Andrea E; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and conduct disorder (CD) are both heterogeneous childhood onset conditions, and although patients with CD have been described in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome cohorts, little is known about the etiology of CD in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or of the interrelationships. A cohort of 578 consecutive patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome was assessed using standard assessment protocols. A total of 13.5% of participants had only Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, whereas the rest had associated comorbidities and psychopathology. CD occurred in 14.5% of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome probands. These findings suggest that CD is not an integral part of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome but rather that CD in the context of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is related to the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as, and importantly, a family history of aggressive and violent behavior and forensic encounters.

  8. Genetics Coupled to Quantitative Intact Proteomics Links Heritable Aphid and Endosymbiont Protein Expression to Circulative Polerovirus Transmission▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, M.; Tamborindeguy, C.; Fish, T.; Howe, K.; Thannhauser, T. W.; Gray, S.

    2011-01-01

    Yellow dwarf viruses in the family Luteoviridae, which are the causal agents of yellow dwarf disease in cereal crops, are each transmitted most efficiently by different species of aphids in a circulative manner that requires the virus to interact with a multitude of aphid proteins. Aphid proteins differentially expressed in F2 Schizaphis graminum genotypes segregating for the ability to transmit Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) were identified using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled to either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem mass spectrometry or online nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 50 protein spots, containing aphid proteins and proteins from the aphid's obligate and maternally inherited bacterial endosymbiont, Buchnera, were identified as differentially expressed between transmission-competent and refractive aphids. Surprisingly, in virus transmission-competent F2 genotypes, the isoelectric points of the Buchnera proteins did not match those in the maternal Buchnera proteome as expected, but instead they aligned with the Buchnera proteome of the transmission-competent paternal parent. Among the aphid proteins identified, many were involved in energy metabolism, membrane trafficking, lipid signaling, and the cytoskeleton. At least eight aphid proteins were expressed as heritable, isoelectric point isoform pairs, one derived from each parental lineage. In the F2 genotypes, the expression of aphid protein isoforms derived from the competent parental lineage aligned with the virus transmission phenotype with high precision. Thus, these isoforms are candidate biomarkers for CYDV-RPV transmission in S. graminum. Our combined genetic and DIGE approach also made it possible to predict where several of the proteins may be expressed in refractive aphids with different barriers to transmission. Twelve proteins were predicted to act in the hindgut of the aphid

  9. Genetics coupled to quantitative intact proteomics links heritable aphid and endosymbiont protein expression to circulative polerovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, M; Tamborindeguy, C; Fish, T; Howe, K; Thannhauser, T W; Gray, S

    2011-03-01

    Yellow dwarf viruses in the family Luteoviridae, which are the causal agents of yellow dwarf disease in cereal crops, are each transmitted most efficiently by different species of aphids in a circulative manner that requires the virus to interact with a multitude of aphid proteins. Aphid proteins differentially expressed in F2 Schizaphis graminum genotypes segregating for the ability to transmit Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) were identified using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled to either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem mass spectrometry or online nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 50 protein spots, containing aphid proteins and proteins from the aphid's obligate and maternally inherited bacterial endosymbiont, Buchnera, were identified as differentially expressed between transmission-competent and refractive aphids. Surprisingly, in virus transmission-competent F2 genotypes, the isoelectric points of the Buchnera proteins did not match those in the maternal Buchnera proteome as expected, but instead they aligned with the Buchnera proteome of the transmission-competent paternal parent. Among the aphid proteins identified, many were involved in energy metabolism, membrane trafficking, lipid signaling, and the cytoskeleton. At least eight aphid proteins were expressed as heritable, isoelectric point isoform pairs, one derived from each parental lineage. In the F2 genotypes, the expression of aphid protein isoforms derived from the competent parental lineage aligned with the virus transmission phenotype with high precision. Thus, these isoforms are candidate biomarkers for CYDV-RPV transmission in S. graminum. Our combined genetic and DIGE approach also made it possible to predict where several of the proteins may be expressed in refractive aphids with different barriers to transmission. Twelve proteins were predicted to act in the hindgut of the aphid

  10. Matter in Motion: The Educational Materialism of Gilles Deleuze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically examines the materialism that Gilles Deleuze espouses in his oeuvre to the benefit of educational theory. In "Difference and Repetition", he presented transcendental empiricism by underwriting Kant with realism (Deleuze, 1994). Later, in "Capitalism & Schizophrenia I & II" that were co-written with Felix Guattari (1984, 1988)…

  11. Seasonal abundance, distribution, and catch per unit effort using gill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch per unit effort was obtained for the fish of the Sundays .... Methods. Catch per unit effort (numbers and weight/net) of fish in the estuary was obtained from 55 .... Table 1 CPUE (number and mass) of fish caught monthly using gill-net over 12·h periods with 55 nettings at .... The abundance of some other species may.

  12. Long-Term Outcome of Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Videotapes recorded 1978 through 1991 of 56 children (ages 8 to 14 with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS were reviewed and 31 of the patients (28 men and 3 women, age>20 years were recruited for a second videotape and in-person assessment at Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s Movement Disorder Center, Chicago, IL.

  13. Structural Connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Centre de Reference National Maladie Rare ‘Syndrome Gilles de la Tourette’ and Sorbonne University report white matter abnormalities in the pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus in a group of 49 adults with Tourette syndrome (TS.

  14. A case of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome is an uncommon illness associated with repetitive un-voluntary abnormal movements and utterance. It is often associated with other psychiatric morbidities. Management requires awareness of this uncommon illness, keen observation, relevant evaluation, and combination of pharmacology and psychotherapy for an optimal outcome. This case is brought out here for florid presentation and nuances of management.

  15. Psychological Aspects of Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Hildreth Youkilis; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the psychopathological features that may underlie or accompany Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. Univariate analyses indicated that Tourette subjects scored higher on the following scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: Schizophrenia, Depression, Psychopathic Deviate, Psychasthenia and Hypochondriasis. The results…

  16. Identifying the Child with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna J.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and obsessive-compulsive behaviors). It describes the nature of the disorder, treatment, and service provision (evaluation and assessment and the Individual Education Plan). (DB)

  17. Genetikken bag Gilles de laTourettes syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Debes, Nanette Mol

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led...

  18. Third intervention of Gilles Jobin and Collide@CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Everything you wanted to know about contemporary dance but were afraid to ask. - 4 September 2012 at 4 p.m. in the Council Chamber -   A subjective and personal presentation of the recent history of contemporary dance by Gilles Jobin, Collide@CERN choreographer in residence.

  19. Histopathological biomarkers and genotoxicity in gill and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the degree of DNA damage was measured using the comet assay. To indicate the severity of water pollution at the two sites, physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were investigated. Gill damage, including lamellar cell hyperplasia and aneurysm, was observed in the fish samples from the ...

  20. Genetic diversity of Wolbachia endosymbionts in Culex quinquefasciatus from Hawai`i, Midway Atoll, and Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Watcher-Weatherwax, William; Lapointe, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Incompatible insect techniques are potential methods for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus and avian disease transmission in Hawai‘i without the use of pesticides or genetically modified organisms. The approach is based on naturally occurring sperm-egg incompatibilities within the Culex pipiens complex that are controlled by different strains of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wPip). Incompatibilities can be unidirectional (crosses between males infected with strain A and females infected with strain B are fertile, while reciprocal crosses are not) or bidirectional (reciprocal crosses between sexes with different wPip strains are infertile). The technique depends on release of sufficient numbers of male mosquitoes infected with an incompatible wPip strain to suppress mosquito populations and reduce transmission of introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and Avipoxvirus in native forest bird habitats. Both diseases are difficult to manage using more traditional methods based on removal and treatment of larval habitats and coordination of multiple approaches may be needed to control this vector. We characterized the diversity of Wolbachia strains in C. quinquefasciatus from Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, Midway Atoll, and American Samoa with a variety of genetic markers to identify compatibility groups and their distribution within and between islands. We confirmed the presence of wPip with multilocus sequence typing, tested for local genetic variability using 16 WO prophage genes, and identified similarities to strains from other parts of the world with a transposable element (tr1). We also tested for genetic differences in ankyrin motifs (ank2 and pk1) which have been used to classify wPip strains into five worldwide groups (wPip1–wPip5) that vary in compatibility with each other based on experimental crosses. We found a mixture of both widely distributed and site specific genotypes based on presence or absence of WO prophage and transposable

  1. Amoebal endosymbiont Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Bn9 can grow in immortal human epithelial HEp-2 cells at low temperature; an in vitro model system to study chlamydial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Chikayo; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shinji; Matsuo, Junji; Ishida, Kasumi; Yamazaki, Sumire; Oguri, Satoshi; Shouji, Natsumi; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Yimin; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Ancient chlamydiae diverged into pathogenic and environmental chlamydiae 0.7-1.4 billion years ago. However, how pathogenic chlamydiae adapted to mammalian cells that provide a stable niche at approximately 37 °C, remains unknown, although environmental chlamydiae have evolved as endosymbionts of lower eukaryotes in harsh niches of relatively low temperatures. Hence, we assessed whether an environmental chlamydia, Parachlamydia Bn9, could grow in human HEp-2 cells at a low culture temperature of 30 °C. The assessment of inclusion formation by quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the numbers of bacterial inclusion bodies and the transcription level of 16SrRNA significantly increased after culture at 30 °C compared to at 37 °C. Confocal microscopy showed that the bacteria were located close to HEp-2 nuclei and were actively replicative. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed replicating bacteria consisting of reticular bodies, but with a few elementary bodies. Cytochalasin D and rifampicin inhibited inclusion formation. Lactacystin slightly inhibited bacterial inclusion formation. KEGG analysis using a draft genome sequence of the bacteria revealed that it possesses metabolic pathways almost identical to those of pathogenic chlamydia. Interestingly, comparative genomic analysis with pathogenic chlamydia revealed that the Parachlamydia similarly possess the genes encoding Type III secretion system, but lacking genes encoding inclusion membrane proteins (IncA to G) required for inclusion maturation. Taken together, we conclude that ancient chlamydiae had the potential to grow in human cells, but overcoming the thermal gap was a critical event for chlamydial adaptation to human cells.

  2. Classification of endosymbiont Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in opiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muhamad Azmi; Zuki, Ameyra Aman; Yusof, Suhana; Othman, Nurul Wahida; Zain, Badrul Munir Md; Yaakop, Salmah

    2018-04-01

    Endosymbiont Wolbachia has always been a hot topic of discussion among entomologists and microbiologists as it can manipulate the reproductive system of their arthropod hosts. In this study, a total of 10 sequences which consist of concatenate data from three genetic markers of Wolbachia (groEL, gltA, and wsp) were obtained from opiine wasps from five localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Among the 10 sequences, six were isolated from Fopius arisanus, one from F. vandenboschi, and three from Psyttalia sp. SY2013. Based on Neighbour-Joining (NJ) analysis of the concatenate data and genetic distances, four variants of Wolbachia have been successfully identified. Our data thus provide an insight on Wolbachia infections in oriental insects as Wolbachia research is still considered as in early stage in Malaysia.

  3. Insect symbiosis: derivation of yeast-like endosymbionts within an entomopathogenic filamentous lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, S O; Noda, H; Blackwell, M

    2001-06-01

    Yeast-like endosymbionts (YLSs) of insects often are restricted to specific hosts and are essential to the host's survival. For example, in planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae), endosymbionts function in sterol utilization and nitrogen recycling for the hosts. Our study, designed to investigate evolutionary changes in the YLS lineage involved in the planthopper association, strongly suggests an origin of the YLSs from within the filamentous ascomycetes (Euascomycetes), not the true yeasts (Saccharomycetes), as their morphology might indicate. During divergence of the planthopper YLSs, dramatic changes would have occurred in the insect-fungus interaction and the fungal morphology that have previously been undescribed in filamentous ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees were based on individual and combined data sets of 2.6 kb of the nuclear small- and large-subunit ribosomal RNA genes for YLSs from three rice planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata lugens, and Sogatella furcifera) compared with 56 other fungi. Parsimony analysis placed the planthopper YLSs within Cordyceps (Euascomycetes: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), a genus of filamentous insects and a few fungal pathogenic ascomycetes. Another YLS species restricted to the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci (Homoptera: Aphididae) was a sister taxon to the planthopper YLSS: Filamentous insect pathogens (Metarhizium and Beauveria) specific to the same species of insect hosts as the YLSs also formed lineages within the Clavicipitaceae, but these were distinct from the clade comprising YLS species. Trees constrained to include the YLSs in families of the Hypocreales other than the Clavicipitaceae were rejected by the Kishino-Hasegawa test. In addition, the results of this study support a hypothesis of two independent origins of insect-associated YLSs from among filamentous ascomycetes: the planthopper YLSs in the Clavicipitaceae and the YLSs associated with anobiid beetles (Symbiotaphrina species). Several lineages of

  4. Bacterial Infections across the Ants: Frequency and Prevalence of Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Asaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kautz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts are common across insects, but we often lack a deeper knowledge of their prevalence across most organisms. Next-generation sequencing approaches can characterize bacterial diversity associated with a host and at the same time facilitate the fast and simultaneous screening of infectious bacteria. In this study, we used 16S rRNA tag encoded amplicon pyrosequencing to survey bacterial communities of 310 samples representing 221 individuals, 176 colonies and 95 species of ants. We found three distinct endosymbiont groups—Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales, Spiroplasma (Firmicutes: Entomoplasmatales, and relatives of Asaia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rhodospirillales—at different infection frequencies (at the ant species level: 22.1%, 28.4%, and 14.7%, resp. and relative abundances within bacterial communities (1.0%–99.9%. Spiroplasma was particularly enriched in the ant genus Polyrhachis, while Asaia relatives were most prevalent in arboreal ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex. While Wolbachia and Spiroplasma have been surveyed in ants before, Asaia, an acetic acid bacterium capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, has received much less attention. Due to sporadic prevalence across all ant taxa investigated, we hypothesize facultative associations for all three bacterial genera. Infection patterns are discussed in relation to potential adaptation of specific bacteria in certain ant groups.

  5. Enhanced habit formation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Cécile; Salvador, Alexandre; Valabrègue, Romain; Roze, Emmanuel; Palminteri, Stefano; Vidailhet, Marie; de Wit, Sanne; Robbins, Trevor; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

    2016-02-01

    Tics are sometimes described as voluntary movements performed in an automatic or habitual way. Here, we addressed the question of balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioural control in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and formally tested the hypothesis of enhanced habit formation in these patients. To this aim, we administered a three-stage instrumental learning paradigm to 17 unmedicated and 17 antipsychotic-medicated patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and matched controls. In the first stage of the task, participants learned stimulus-response-outcome associations. The subsequent outcome devaluation and 'slip-of-action' tests allowed evaluation of the participants' capacity to flexibly adjust their behaviour to changes in action outcome value. In this task, unmedicated patients relied predominantly on habitual, outcome-insensitive behavioural control. Moreover, in these patients, the engagement in habitual responses correlated with more severe tics. Medicated patients performed at an intermediate level between unmedicated patients and controls. Using diffusion tensor imaging on a subset of patients, we also addressed whether the engagement in habitual responding was related to structural connectivity within cortico-striatal networks. We showed that engagement in habitual behaviour in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome correlated with greater structural connectivity within the right motor cortico-striatal network. In unmedicated patients, stronger structural connectivity of the supplementary motor cortex with the sensorimotor putamen predicted more severe tics. Overall, our results indicate enhanced habit formation in unmedicated patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Aberrant reinforcement signals to the sensorimotor striatum may be fundamental for the formation of stimulus-response associations and may contribute to the habitual behaviour and tics of this syndrome. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on

  6. A screen for bacterial endosymbionts in the model organisms Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, Callosobruchus maculatus, and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Sara L; Fricke, Claudia; Martin, Oliver Y

    2015-04-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are extremely widespread amongst the arthropods and can have a large influence over the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. Undetected infections could thus confound the results of a wide range of studies that focus on aspects of host behavior, reproduction, fitness, and degrees of reproductive isolation. This potential problem has already been underlined by work investigating the incidence of Wolbachia infections in stocks of the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Here we survey a range of lab stocks of further commonly used model arthropods, focusing especially on the flour beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum, the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus and related species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Bruchidae). These species are widespread stored product pests so knowledge of infections with symbionts further has potential use in informing biocontrol measures. Beetles were assessed for infection with 3 known microbial reproductive parasites: Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma. Infections with some of these microbes were found in some of the lab stocks studied, although overall infections were relatively rare. The consequences of finding infections in these or other species and the type of previous studies likely to be affected most are discussed. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Gilles Jobin Final residency lecture - Collision between dance and physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Doser, Michael; Dimou, Maria; Jobin, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    CERN, the Republic and Canton of Geneva, and the City of Geneva are delighted to invite you to the final public lecture about collisions between dance and physics by the first winner of Collide@CERN Geneva, the choreographer Gilles Jobin. The event marks the end of his residency and will be held at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 6th November at 1800. Doors open at 17.30 Programme 18.00 - Opening address by Rolf-Dieter Heuer, CERN Director General, Ariane Koek, CERN Cultural Specialist, Sami Kanaan, Administrative Councilor in charge of the Department of Culture and Sport of the City of Geneva, and Charles Beer, Vice President of the State Council in charge of the Department of Education, Culture and Sport. 18.30 - Presentation by Gilles Jobin (Switzerland) of his residency experience at CERN with live demonstrations with his dancers 19.15 - Discussion on CERN as a Place of Collisions and Interventions between Dance and Physics with Gilles Jobin (Switzerland) and CERN scientists Maria Dimo...

  8. Reynolds number effects on gill pumping mechanics in mayfly nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey; Kiger, Ken

    2006-11-01

    Mayfly nymphs have an entirely aquatic life stage in which they frequently inhabit stagnant water. Nymphs have the capability to generate a ventilation current to compensate for the low oxygen level of the water by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that typically line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The characteristic Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 5 to 100 depending on age and species. The assumption that the system maintains optimal energetic efficiency leads to the prediction that animals transition from rowing to flapping mechanisms with increasing Re, while possibly utilizing a squeeze mechanism to a greater extent at lower Re. To investigate this hypothesis, we capture the motion of the gills through 3D imaging to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the stroke patterns. PIV is utilized to assess flow rates and viscous dissipation. The effectiveness of the ventilation mechanism at each size has important consequences for the range of oxygen levels, and hence the habitat range, that can be tolerated by that size.

  9. Famous people with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Francesco; Servo, Serena; Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio

    2009-12-01

    Virtually no neurologist nor psychiatrist today can be unaware of the diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Although the eponymous description by Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette was published in 1885, familiarity with this syndrome has been achieved only recently. In this article, the two most renown accounts of exceptional individuals retrospectively diagnosed with GTS are critically analyzed: British lexicographer Samuel Johnson and Austrian musician Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In both cases, clinical descriptions have been retrieved from written documents predating Gilles de la Tourette's original publication. The case for Samuel Johnson having GTS is strong, mainly based on Boswell's extensive biographical account. Johnson was reported to have a great range of tics and compulsions, including involuntary utterances, repetitive ejaculations, and echo-phenomena. On the other hand, there is circumstantial evidence that Mozart may have had hyperactivity, restlessness, sudden impulses, odd motor behaviors, echo/palilalia, love of nonsense words, and scatology, the latter being documented in autograph letters ("coprographia"). However, the evidence supporting the core features of GTS, i.e., motor and vocal tics, is rather inconsistent. Thus, GTS seems to be an implausible diagnosis in Mozart's medical history and completely unrelated to his undisputed musical genius.

  10. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  11. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.M; Berkelmans, R; van Oppen, M.J.H; Mieog, J.C; Sinclair, W

    2008-01-01

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthellae they harbour and, when multiple types are present, the relative abundance of types can be experimentally manipulated to increase the thermal limits of individual corals. Although the potential...

  12. Pathological glutamatergic neurotransmission in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Gerasch, Sarah; García-García, Isabel; Lampe, Leonie; Pampel, André; Anwander, Alfred; Near, Jamie; Möller, Harald E; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a hereditary, neuropsychiatric movement disorder with reported abnormalities in the neurotransmission of dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Spatially focalized alterations in excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurochemical ratios within specific functional subdivisions of the basal ganglia, may lead to the expression of diverse motor and non-motor features as manifested in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Current treatment strategies are often unsatisfactory thus provoking the need for further elucidation of the underlying pathophysiology. In view of (i) the close spatio-temporal synergy exhibited between excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurotransmitter systems; (ii) the crucial role played by glutamate (Glu) in tonic/phasic dopaminergic signalling; and (iii) the interdependent metabolic relationship exhibited between Glu and GABA via glutamine (Gln); we postulated that glutamatergic signalling is related to the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. As such, we examined the neurochemical profile of three cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical regions in 37 well-characterized, drug-free adult patients and 36 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects via magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T. To interrogate the influence of treatment on metabolite concentrations, spectral data were acquired from 15 patients undergoing a 4-week treatment with aripiprazole. Test-retest reliability measurements in 23 controls indicated high repeatability of voxel localization and metabolite quantitation. We report significant reductions in striatal concentrations of Gln, Glu + Gln (Glx) and the Gln:Glu ratio, and thalamic concentrations of Glx in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in comparison to controls. ON-treatment patients exhibited no significant metabolite differences when compared to controls but significant increases in striatal Glu and Glx, and trends for increases in striatal Gln and thalamic Glx compared to baseline

  13. Variations in Endosymbiont Infection Between Buprofezin-Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongteng; Liu, Xiangdong; Guo, Huifang

    2018-06-01

    The endosymbionts Wolbachia and Rickettsia have been shown to be correlated with the insecticide resistance of mosquito and whitefly. The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, harbours many species of endosymbionts, and has developed a high resistance to buprofezin in China. In this study, we examined the species and the infection incidences of endosymbionts in a buprofezin-resistant (BR) strain, a buprofezin-susceptible (BS) strain, and the BR strain after exposure to buprofezin, and we also investigated the change in buprofezin susceptibility after removal of Wolbachia from the BR strain. The results showed that Wolbachia infection incidences were 100% in both the BR and BS strains, but the Wolbachia density in the BR strain was significantly higher than that in the BS strain. There were no significant differences in Arsenophonus infection incidence between the two strains. However, the infection incidence of Serratia and double infection incidence of Serratia + Wolbachia in the BR strain were significantly higher than that in the BS strain. After the BR strain was exposed to 1200 mg/L buprofezin, the infection incidence of Arsenophonus in the surviving individuals increased, and the infection rate of Serratia did not differ, but the double infection incidence of Serratia + Wolbachia decreased. And when a Wolbachia-infected line originating from the BR strain was cleared of Wolbachia, its susceptibility to buprofezin increased. The results suggest that Serratia and Wolbachia infection might improve the buprofezin resistance of SBPH.

  14. Assessment of respiratory and ion transport potential of Penaeus japonicus gills in response to environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. ABDEL-MOHSEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to pinpoint the respiratory and ion transport potential of gills of Penaeus japonicus living in Abu-Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt. Our results revealed clear histological impairments in gill structure. These alterations were mainly represented by the presence of large vacuoles in gill axis and gill lamellae. In addition, narrow, disrupted gill lamellae with wavy cuticle and shrunk pillar cells were detected. Moreover, some cells clearly showed pyknosis. Gill ultrastructure also showed abnormal chromatin condensation inside the nucleus. Obvious alterations in the typical shape and structure of mitochondria were observed. Noticeably, the main characteristics of ion regulating gill epithelium were absent thus suggesting a low ion transport activity of P. japonicus gills. Statistically, this was further proved by the significantly higher activity levels of respiratory enzymes, namely, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH compared to those of the ion transport enzymes, namely, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA in gills and haemolymph. SDH activity levels were higher than the corresponding levels of LDH in gills and its own level in haemolymph, indicating a contradictory effect of pollution on respiratory enzyme activity levels.

  15. Analysis of Inter-Individual Bacterial Variation in Gut of Cicada Meimuna mongolica (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenting; Nan, Xiaoning; Zheng, Zhou; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial community plays a crucial role in the nutrition, development, survival, and reproduction of insects. When compared with other insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, the habitats of cicada nymphs and adults are totally different. However, little is known about the differences in the gut bacterial communities in the nymphs and adults within any cicada species. The diversity of bacteria in the gut of nymphs and adults of both genders of Meimuna mongolica (Distant) was studied using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method. Few inter-individual variations among gut microbiota were observed, suggesting that M. mongolica typically harbors a limited and consistent suite of bacterial species. Bacteria in the genera Pseudomonas and Enterobacter were the predominant components of the gut microflora of M. mongolica at all life stages. Bacteria of Pantoea, Streptococcus, and Uruburuella were also widespread in the cicada samples but at relatively lower concentrations. The relative stability and similarity of the PCR-DGGE patterns indicate that all individuals of this cicada species harbor a characteristic bacterial community which is independent from developmental stages and genders. Related endosymbionts that could be harbored in bacteromes of cicadas were not detected in any gut samples, which could be related to the cicada species and the distribution of these endosymbionts in the cicada cavity, or due to some of the possible limitations of PCR-DGGE community profiling. It is worthwhile to further address if related cicada endosymbiont clades distribute in the alimentary canals and other internal organs through diagnostic PCR using group-specific primer sets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. ACUTE TOXICITY OF METALS: NICKEL AND ZINC TO PARAMECIUM BURSARIA AND ITS ENDOSYMBIONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Zagata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Paramecium bursaria is an unicellular organism, widely distributed in the freshwater environment, where heavy metals are common contaminants. The ciliates, also including Paramecium bursaria, are a very abundant group in aquatic ecosystems, what makes them effective biological indicators of water pollutants. Paramecium bursaria is the only Paramecium which has evolved a mutualistic relationship with algae and it harbors these endosymbionts in its own cytoplasm. The algae are also very effective bioindicators of some pollutants because of their ability to biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two metals’ compounds: nickel chloride (NiCl2 and zinc chloride (ZnCl2 to Paramecium bursaria and its endosymbionts. The ciliates were incubated in solutions with 5x10-8 to 5x10-2g/dm3 of NiCl2 and with 5x10-8 to 5x10-2g/dm3 of ZnCl2, at the temperature of 180C, in the light/dark conditions (12L/12D. Microscopic observations of cell divisions rate, cell shape changes as well as the swimming behavior, were conducted after 24, 48, 72 and 120 hours of incubation in the tested solutions and were compared to the control sample. Microscopic observations revealed the lethal doses for both compounds, for nickel chloride 5x10-5g/dm3 and for zinc chloride 5x10-3. These observations also revealed that in lesser concentrations than the lethal one, the slowdown and characteristic movements occur after metal addition. The PEA measurements of Fv/Fm parameter were carried out within 4 days, the first one after 24 hours of incubations. The results of this investigation has given us a view of a fluorescence efficiency by revealing that both compounds solutions can have the stimulating effect on Photosystem II, because the lowest fluorescence efficiency was measured in control samples.

  17. Francisella-Like Endosymbionts and Rickettsia Species in Local and Imported Hyalomma Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagi, Tal; Klement, Eyal; Perlman, Gidon; Lustig, Yaniv; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2017-09-15

    Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are hosts for Francisella -like endosymbionts (FLE) and may serve as vectors of zoonotic disease agents. This study aimed to provide an initial characterization of the interaction between Hyalomma and FLE and to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Rickettsia in these ticks. Hyalomma marginatum , Hyalomma rufipes , Hyalomma dromedarii , Hyalomma aegyptium , and Hyalomma excavatum ticks, identified morphologically and molecularly, were collected from different hosts and locations representing the distribution of the genus Hyalomma in Israel, as well as from migratory birds. A high prevalence of FLE was found in all Hyalomma species (90.6%), as well as efficient maternal transmission of FLE (91.8%), and the localization of FLE in Malpighian tubules, ovaries, and salivary glands in H. marginatum Furthermore, we demonstrated strong cophylogeny between FLE and their host species. Contrary to FLE, the prevalence of Rickettsia ranged from 2.4% to 81.3% and was significantly different between Hyalomma species, with a higher prevalence in ticks collected from migratory birds. Using ompA gene sequences, most of the Rickettsia spp. were similar to Rickettsia aeschlimannii , while a few were similar to Rickettsia africae of the spotted fever group (SFG). Given their zoonotic importance, 249 ticks were tested for Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection, and all were negative. The results imply that Hyalomma and FLE have obligatory symbiotic interactions, indicating a potential SFG Rickettsia zoonosis risk. A further understanding of the possible influence of FLE on Hyalomma development, as well as on its infection with Rickettsia pathogens, may lead to novel ways to control tick-borne zoonoses. IMPORTANCE This study shows that Francisella -like endosymbionts were ubiquitous in Hyalomma , were maternally transmitted, and cospeciated with their hosts. These findings imply that the interaction between FLE and Hyalomma is of an obligatory

  18. Comparative genomics of Wolbachia and the bacterial species concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Maren Ellegaard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of host-specialization to speciation processes in obligate host-associated bacteria is well known, as is also the ability of recombination to generate cohesion in bacterial populations. However, whether divergent strains of highly recombining intracellular bacteria, such as Wolbachia, can maintain their genetic distinctness when infecting the same host is not known. We first developed a protocol for the genome sequencing of uncultivable endosymbionts. Using this method, we have sequenced the complete genomes of the Wolbachia strains wHa and wNo, which occur as natural double infections in Drosophila simulans populations on the Seychelles and in New Caledonia. Taxonomically, wHa belong to supergroup A and wNo to supergroup B. A comparative genomics study including additional strains supported the supergroup classification scheme and revealed 24 and 33 group-specific genes, putatively involved in host-adaptation processes. Recombination frequencies were high for strains of the same supergroup despite different host-preference patterns, leading to genomic cohesion. The inferred recombination fragments for strains of different supergroups were of short sizes, and the genomes of the co-infecting Wolbachia strains wHa and wNo were not more similar to each other and did not share more genes than other A- and B-group strains that infect different hosts. We conclude that Wolbachia strains of supergroup A and B represent genetically distinct clades, and that strains of different supergroups can co-exist in the same arthropod host without converging into the same species. This suggests that the supergroups are irreversibly separated and that barriers other than host-specialization are able to maintain distinct clades in recombining endosymbiont populations. Acquiring a good knowledge of the barriers to genetic exchange in Wolbachia will advance our understanding of how endosymbiont communities are constructed from vertically and horizontally

  19. How conserved are the bacterial communities associated with aphids? A detailed assessment of the Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using 16S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E L; Daniell, T J; Wishart, J; Hubbard, S F; Karley, A J

    2012-12-01

    Aphids harbor a community of bacteria that include obligate and facultative endosymbionts belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae along with opportunistic, commensal, or pathogenic bacteria. This study represents the first detailed analysis of the identity and diversity of the bacterial community associated with the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that the community of bacteria associated with B. brassicae was diverse, with at least four different bacterial community types detected among aphid lines, collected from widely dispersed sites in Northern Britain. The bacterial sequence types isolated from B. brassicae showed little similarity to any bacterial endosymbionts characterized in insects; instead, they were closely related to free-living extracellular bacterial species that have been isolated from the aphid gut or that are known to be present in the environment, suggesting that they are opportunistic bacteria transmitted between the aphid gut and the environment. To quantify variation in bacterial community between aphid lines, which was driven largely by differences in the proportions of two dominant bacterial orders, the Pseudomonales and the Enterobacteriales, we developed a novel real-time (Taqman) qPCR assay. By improving our knowledge of aphid microbial ecology, and providing novel molecular tools to examine the presence and function of the microbial community, this study forms the basis of further research to explore the influence of the extracellular bacterial community on aphid fitness, pest status, and susceptibility to control by natural enemies.

  20. Dietary saccharides and sweet tastants have differential effects on colonization of Drosophila oocytes by Wolbachia endosymbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Camacho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in Drosophila melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants. Confocal imaging of D. melanogaster oocytes showed that food enriched in dietary galactose, lactose, maltose and trehalose elevated Wolbachia titer. However, oocyte Wolbachia titers were unaffected by exposure to the sweet tastants lactulose, erythritol, xylitol, aspartame and saccharin as compared to the control. Oocyte size was generally non-responsive to the nutrient-altered diets. Ovary size, however, was consistently smaller in response to all sugar- and sweetener-enriched diets. Furthermore, most dietary sugars administered in tandem with dietary yeast conferred complete rescue of oocyte titer suppression by yeast. All diets dually enriched in yeast and sugar also rescued yeast-associated ovary volume changes. This indicates oocyte colonization by Wolbachia to be a nutritionally sensitive process regulated by multiple mechanistic inputs.

  1. Effects of trace metal concentrations on the growth of the coral endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Barra Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirement of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of S. kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe >> Cu/Zn/Mn >> Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal interreplacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment.

  2. Induction of Maltose Release by Light in the Endosymbiont Chlorella variabilis of Paramecium bursaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Aika; Takahashi, Fumio; Kasahara, Masahiro; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2016-11-01

    The endosymbiotic green algae of Paramecium bursaria are known to release a photosynthate to the host cells. The endosymbiont Chlorella variabilis F36-ZK isolated in Japan releases maltose under acidic conditions, and such release requires both light and low pH. However, whether photosynthate release is due to light sensing by photoreceptors or is merely a consequence of active photosynthesis is unclear. Herein, we studied the effect of light on maltose release from C. variabilis F36-ZK; we measured maltose release using a combination of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone derivative and 14 C-tracer methods. Blue (450nm) or red (around 600nm) light was most effective to stimulate maltose release. This suggests that the photosynthetic pathway probably participates in maltose release, because the effective wavelength corresponds to the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll. Furthermore, maltose release was slightly affected by addition of a photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, but was abolished by another inhibitor of photosynthesis, 2,5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, suggesting that electron flow through photosystem I may be more involved in maltose release. Interestingly, starving F36-ZK cells cultured under prolonged dark conditions did not release maltose but retained their photosynthetic capacity. Our results thus show that maltose release is regulated by light and cellular conditions in endosymbiotic Chlorella. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Plant-mediated horizontal transmission of Rickettsia endosymbiont between different whitefly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Han; Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Li, Shao-Jian; Lv, Ning; Shi, Pei-Qiong; Chen, Xiao-Sheng; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2017-12-01

    A growing number of studies have revealed the presence of closely related endosymbionts in phylogenetically distant arthropods, indicating horizontal transmission of these bacteria. Here we investigated the interspecific horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between two globally invasive whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and B. tabaci MED, via cotton plants. We found both scattered and confined distribution patterns of Rickettsia in these whiteflies. After entering cotton leaves, Rickettsia was restricted to the leaf phloem vessels and could be taken up by both species of the Rickettsia-free whitefly adults, but only the scattered pattern was observed in the recipient whiteflies. Both the relative quantity of Rickettsia and the efficiency of transmitting Rickettsia into cotton leaves were significantly higher in MEAM1 females than in MED females. The retention time of Rickettsia transmitted from MEAM1 into cotton leaves was at least 5 days longer than that of MED. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gltA genes confirmed that the Rickettsia extracted from the donor MEAM1, the cotton leaves, the recipient MEAM1 and the recipient MED were all identical. We conclude that cotton plants can mediate horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between different insect species, and that the transmission dynamics of Rickettsia vary with different host whitefly species. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sobre la cultura hipermoderna: entrevista a Gilles Lipovetsky

    OpenAIRE

    Cejudo Córdoba, Rafael; Montero Ariza, María del Mar; Ruiz Sánchez, José Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Esta entrevista a Gilles Lipovetsky (París, 1944) aborda varias cuestiones acerca del consumo cultural en la sociedad actual. La obra de Lipovetsky es difícil de categorizar en un solo ámbito de conocimiento. Podría decirse de él que es un intelectual «híbrido» puesto que sus intereses oscilan entre el análisis social y la filosofía, atendiendo al lado paradójico de los acontecimientos mediante la atención prestada a asuntos poco frecuentes en el pensamiento político y ético. Algunos...

  5. The gill microbiota of invasive and indigenous Spondylus oysters from the Mediterranean Sea and northern Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roterman, Yahala Rina; Benayahu, Yehuda; Reshef, Lea; Gophna, Uri

    2015-12-01

    The gill tissue of bivalve mollusks hosts rich symbiotic microbial communities that may contribute to the animal's metabolism. Spondylus spinosus is an invasive oyster that has become highly abundant along the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) coastline, but is scarce in the northern Red Sea (NRS), its indigenous region. The composition and seasonal dynamics of the gill microbial communities of S. spinosus were examined in both regions, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Additionally, two Red Sea Spondylus species, S. avramsingeri and S. pickeringae, were investigated using the same approach. Significant differences were found between microbial communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the three NRS species. Bacteria from the family Hahellaceae dominated the communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the NRS S. avramsingeri, oysters that are dominant in their habitat, yet were rare in the NRS S. spinosus and S. pickeringae, which are only seldom encountered. Bacterial communities of EMS S. spinosus were more similar to those of NRS S. spinosus than to those of other NRS Spondylus species, indicating that either part of the microbiota had co-invaded with their host into the Mediterranean Sea, or that there are species-specific selective constraints on microbial composition. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Redox-Stratified Bacterial Communities in Sediments Associated with Multiple Lucinid Bivalve Species: Implications for Symbiosis in Changing Coastal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, A. T.; Fortier, C. M.; Long, B.; Kokesh, B. S.; Lim, S. J.; Campbell, B. J.; Anderson, L. C.; Engel, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Lucinids, chemosymbiotic marine bivalves, occupy strong redox gradient habitats, including the rhizosphere of coastal seagrass beds and mangrove forests in subtropical to tropical ecosystems. Lucinids and their sulfide-oxidizing gammaproteobacterial endosymbionts, which are acquired from the environment, provide a critical ecosystem service by removing toxic reduced sulfur compounds from the surrounding environment, and lucinids may be an important food source to economically valuable fisheries. The habitats of Phacoides pectinatus, Stewartia floridana, Codakia orbicularis, Ctena orbiculata, and Lucina pensylvanica lucinids in Florida and San Salvador in The Bahamas were evaluated in comprehensive malacological, microbiological, and geochemical surveys. Vegetation cover included different seagrass species or calcareous green macroalgae. All sites were variably affected by anthropogenic activities, as evidenced by visible prop scars in seagrass beds, grain size distributions atypical of low energy environments (i.e., artificial fill or dredge material from nearby channels), and high levels of pyrogenic hydrocarbon compounds in sediment indicative of urbanization impact. Where present, lucinid population densities frequently exceeded 2000 individuals per cubic meter, and were typically more abundant underlying seagrass compared to unvegetated, bare sand. Dissolved oxygen and sulfide levels varied from where lucinids were recovered. The sediment bacterial communities from classified 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the diversity of putative anaerobic groups increased with sediment depth, but putative aerobes, including of Gammaproteobacteria related to the lucinid endosymbionts, decreased with depth. Where multiple seagrass species co-occurred, retrieved bacterial community compositions correlated to overlying seagrass species, but diversity differed from bare sand patches, including among putative free-living endosymbiont groups. As such, continued sea

  7. Oxidative stress responses in gills of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Kiki Syaputri; Novianty, Zahra; Saputri, Miftahul Rohmah; Irawan, Bambang; Soegianto, Agoes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the impact of different salinities on the levels of CAT, GSH and MDA of the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was treated by exposure to salinities concentration 0 ‰, 5 ‰ and 10 ‰. Research models were weakened and sacrificed, then took the left and right sides of the gills. The result of gills homogenity was centrifuged for supernatan, then supernatan was proceed with testing levels of CAT, GSH and MDA by ELISA assay methods. The levels of CAT in gills were significantly higher at 10 ‰ than at 5 ‰ and 0 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills were significantly higher at 0 ‰ than 5 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills at 5 ‰ and 10 ‰ salinities were not significantly different. The levels of MDA in gills at salinity 10 ‰ and 5 ‰ were higher than in control gills at 0 ‰ salinities. This occurs because the salinity of 10 ‰ salinity was optimal for live of fish tilapia. In conclusion, salinity impact the increasing of CAT, GSH, and MDA levels in gills of Nile tilapia.

  8. Morphological and biochemical variations in the gills of 12 aquatic air-breathing anabantoid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Chung-Ping; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2011-01-01

    All fish species in the Anabantoidei suborder are aquatic air-breathing fish. These species have an accessory air-breathing organ, called the labyrinth organ, in the branchial cavity and can engulf air at the surface of the water to assist in gas exchange. It is therefore necessary to examine the extent of gill modification among anabantoid fish species and the potential trade-offs in their function. The experimental hypothesis that we aimed to test is whether anabantoid fishes have both morphological and functional variations in the gills among different species. We examined the gills of 12 species from three families and nine genera of Anabantoidei. Though the sizes of the fourth gill arch in three species of Trichogaster were reduced significantly, not all anabantoid species had morphological and functional variations in the gills. In these three species, the specific enzyme activity and relative protein abundance of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were significantly higher in the anterior gills as compared with the posterior gills and the labyrinth organ. The relative abundance of cytosolic carbonic anhydrase, an indicator of gas exchange, was found to be highest in the labyrinth organ. The phylogenetic distribution of the fourth gill's morphological differentiation suggests that these variations are lineage specific, which may imply a phylogenetic influence on gill morphology in anabantoid species.

  9. Lagrangian approach to understanding the origin of the gill-kinematics switch in mayfly nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabreyrie, R; Balaras, E; Abdelaziz, K; Kiger, K

    2014-12-01

    The mayfly nymph breathes under water through an oscillating array of plate-shaped tracheal gills. As the nymph grows, the kinematics of these gills change abruptly from rowing to flapping. The classical fluid dynamics approach to consider the mayfly nymph as a pumping device fails in giving clear reasons for this switch. In order to shed some light on this switch between the two distinct kinematics, we analyze the problem under a Lagrangian viewpoint. We consider that a good Lagrangian transport that effectively distributes and stirs water and dissolved oxygen between and around the gills is the main goal of the gill motion. Using this Lagrangian approach, we are able to provide possible reasons behind the observed switch from rowing to flapping. More precisely, we conduct a series of in silico mayfly nymph experiments, where body shape, as well as gill shapes, structures, and kinematics are matched to those from in vivo. In this paper, we show both qualitatively and quantitatively how the change of kinematics enables better attraction, confinement, and stirring of water charged of dissolved oxygen inside the gills area. We reveal the attracting barriers to transport, i.e., attracting Lagrangian coherent structures, that form the transport skeleton between and around the gills. In addition, we quantify how well the fluid particles are stirred inside the gills area, which by extension leads us to conclude that it will increase the proneness of molecules of dissolved oxygen to be close enough to the gills for extraction.

  10. Filter feeding mechanics of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix regarding porous gill rakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, David; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Cohen, Karly; Hernandez, Particia; Leftwich, Megan C.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is a filter-feeding fish known to feed upon algal-growth in lakes, rivers, and aquacultures. The filter-feeding process centers on sponge-like membranes located in the carp's pharynx supported by fused gill rakers (GRs), which can efficiently strain suspended food particles as small as 4 µm without clogging. Guided by the anatomy of the silver carp, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of GRs, and video of the silver carp feeding, we have hypothesized that the filtration mechanism involves a pump-based biological function to capture food particles within the GRs. Dye visualization experiments were performed on a silver carp cadaver head, an excised GR sample, and on a scaled GR in vitro model - the Artificial Gill Raker (AGR). Measurements are performed for the AGR using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and penetration pressure monitoring with a biologically-inspired pumping mechanism. The role of mucus in the retention and capture of food particles has also been explored through rheological measurements, and further experimentation is planned. Our motivation stems from the potential to develop bioinspired industrial-scale filtration technologies ranging from wastewater treatment to filtration in the food industry. supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  11. Older medical students' performances at McGill University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, D; Kristian, M; Mitchell, N

    1998-01-01

    To compare admission data and academic performances of medical students younger and older than 25, and to qualify older students' experiences and perceptions in medical school. The authors reviewed 1988-1991 data for applications to the McGill University Faculty of Medicine. Data included GPAs and MCAT scores, as well as ratings for reference letters, autobiographical statements, and interviews. For those same years, the authors measured students' academic performances in the preclinical and clinical years. The authors compared the data by students' age: "younger" students, aged 17 to 24; and "older" students, aged 25 and above. All enrolled students took the Derogatis Stress Profile, and the older students participated in focus groups. The older applicants had lower GPAs and MCAT scores, but higher interview and reference letter ratings. For older accepted students, basic science course scores were lower than those of younger students, but clinical scores did not differ significantly between the groups. The two groups had similar stress levels, although older students tested lower in driven behavior, relaxation potential, attitude posture, and hostility. In focus groups, the older students spoke of learning style differences, loss of social support, and loss of professional identity. Different scores in admission criteria suggest that McGill uses different standards to select older medical students. Older students admitted under different criteria, however, do just as well as do younger students by their clinical years. A broad-based study of admission criteria and outcomes for the older student population is warranted.

  12. Characterization of copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, M.G. [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Zanotto, F.P., E-mail: fzanotto@usp.br [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, Sao Paulo 04044-020 (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is dependent of calcium. •Copper transport mechanism is ATP-dependent. •Transport was monitored second by second during 300 s. -- Abstract: The branchial epithelium of crustaceans is exposed to the environment and is the first site affected by metal pollution. The aim of this work was to characterize copper (Cu) transport using a fluorescent dye, Phen Green, in gill cells of a hypo-hyper-regulator mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The results showed that added extracellular CuCl{sub 2} (0, 0.025, 0.150, 0.275, 0.550 and 1.110 μM) showed typical Michaelis–Menten transport for Cu in anterior and posterior gill cells (V{sub max} for anterior and posterior gills: 0.41 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.27 intracellular Cu in μM × 22.10{sup 4} cells{sup −1} × 300 s{sup −1} respectively and K{sub m} values: 0.44 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.13 μM, respectively). Intracellular Cu was significantly higher for posterior gill cells compared to anterior gill cells, suggesting differential accumulation for each gill type. Extracellular Ca at 20 mM decreased cellular Cu transport for both anterior and posterior gill cells. Nifedipine and verapamil, calcium channel inhibitors from plasma membrane, decreased Cu transport and affected K{sub m} for both gills. These results could be due to a competition between Cu and Ca. Amiloride, a Na/Ca exchanger inhibitor, as well as bafilomycin, a proton pump inhibitor, caused a decrease of intracellular Cu compared to control. Ouabain and KB-R 7943, acting on Na homeostasis, similarly decreased intracellular Cu in both gill cells. Besides that, gill cells exposed to ATP and Cu simultaneously, showed an increase in intracellular copper, which was inhibited by vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPase. These results suggest either the presence of a Cu-ATPase in crab gill cells, responsible for Cu influx, or the effect of a change in electrochemical membrane potential that

  13. Characterization of copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá, M.G.; Zanotto, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is dependent of calcium. •Copper transport mechanism is ATP-dependent. •Transport was monitored second by second during 300 s. -- Abstract: The branchial epithelium of crustaceans is exposed to the environment and is the first site affected by metal pollution. The aim of this work was to characterize copper (Cu) transport using a fluorescent dye, Phen Green, in gill cells of a hypo-hyper-regulator mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The results showed that added extracellular CuCl 2 (0, 0.025, 0.150, 0.275, 0.550 and 1.110 μM) showed typical Michaelis–Menten transport for Cu in anterior and posterior gill cells (V max for anterior and posterior gills: 0.41 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.27 intracellular Cu in μM × 22.10 4 cells −1 × 300 s −1 respectively and K m values: 0.44 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.13 μM, respectively). Intracellular Cu was significantly higher for posterior gill cells compared to anterior gill cells, suggesting differential accumulation for each gill type. Extracellular Ca at 20 mM decreased cellular Cu transport for both anterior and posterior gill cells. Nifedipine and verapamil, calcium channel inhibitors from plasma membrane, decreased Cu transport and affected K m for both gills. These results could be due to a competition between Cu and Ca. Amiloride, a Na/Ca exchanger inhibitor, as well as bafilomycin, a proton pump inhibitor, caused a decrease of intracellular Cu compared to control. Ouabain and KB-R 7943, acting on Na homeostasis, similarly decreased intracellular Cu in both gill cells. Besides that, gill cells exposed to ATP and Cu simultaneously, showed an increase in intracellular copper, which was inhibited by vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPase. These results suggest either the presence of a Cu-ATPase in crab gill cells, responsible for Cu influx, or the effect of a change in electrochemical membrane potential that could also drive Cu to the gill cell

  14. The microbial community of Ophrydium versatile colonies: endosymbionts, residents, and tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Margulis, L.

    1995-01-01

    Ophrydium versatile is a sessile peritrichous ciliate (Kingdom Protoctista, class Oligohymenophora, order Peritrichida, suborder Sessilina) that forms green, gelatinous colonies. Chlorophyll a and b impart a green color to Ophrydium masses due to 400-500 Chlorella-like endosymbionts in each peritrich. Ophrydium colonies, collected from two bog wetlands (Hawley and Leverett, Massachusetts) were analyzed for their gel inhabitants. Other protists include ciliates, mastigotes, euglenids, chlorophytes, and heliozoa. Routine constituents include from 50-100,000 Nitzschia per ml of gel and at least four other diatom genera (Navicula, Pinnularia, Gyrosigma, Cymbella) that may participate in synthesis of the gel matrix. Among the prokaryotes are filamentous and coccoid cyanobacteria, large rod-shaped bacteria, at least three types of spirochetes and one unidentified Saprospira-like organism. Endosymbiotic methanogenic bacteria, observed using fluorescence microscopy, were present in unidentified hypotrichous ciliates. Animals found inside the gel include rotifers, nematodes, and occasional copepods. The latter were observed in the water reservoir of larger Ophrydium masses. From 30-46% of incident visible radiation could be attenuated by Ophrydium green jelly masses in laboratory observations. Protargol staining was used to visualize the elongate macronuclei and small micronucleus of O. versatile zooids and symbiotic algal nuclei. Electron microscopic analysis of the wall of the Chlorella-like symbiont suggests that although the Ophrydium zooids from British Columbia harbor Chlorella vulgaris, those from Hawley Bog contain Graesiella sp. The growth habit in the photic zone and loose level of individuation of macroscopic Ophrydium masses are interpretable as extant analogs of certain Ediacaran biota: colonial protists in the Vendian fossil record.

  15. Glucose-Induced Trophic Shift in an Endosymbiont Dinoflagellate with Physiological and Molecular Consequences1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkerson, Robert E.; Clowez, Sophie; Onishi, Masayuki; Cleves, Phillip A.; Pringle, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium and its cnidarian hosts (e.g. corals, sea anemones) are the foundation of coral-reef ecosystems. Carbon flow between the partners is a hallmark of this mutualism, but the mechanisms governing this flow and its impact on symbiosis remain poorly understood. We showed previously that although Symbiodinium strain SSB01 can grow photoautotrophically, it can grow mixotrophically or heterotrophically when supplied with Glc, a metabolite normally transferred from the alga to its host. Here we show that Glc supplementation of SSB01 cultures causes a loss of pigmentation and photosynthetic activity, disorganization of thylakoid membranes, accumulation of lipid bodies, and alterations of cell-surface morphology. We used global transcriptome analyses to determine if these physiological changes were correlated with changes in gene expression. Glc-supplemented cells exhibited a marked reduction in levels of plastid transcripts encoding photosynthetic proteins, although most nuclear-encoded transcripts (including those for proteins involved in lipid synthesis and formation of the extracellular matrix) exhibited little change in their abundances. However, the altered carbon metabolism in Glc-supplemented cells was correlated with modest alterations (approximately 2x) in the levels of some nuclear-encoded transcripts for sugar transporters. Finally, Glc-bleached SSB01 cells appeared unable to efficiently populate anemone larvae. Together, these results suggest links between energy metabolism and cellular physiology, morphology, and symbiotic interactions. However, the results also show that in contrast to many other organisms, Symbiodinium can undergo dramatic physiological changes that are not reflected by major changes in the abundances of nuclear-encoded transcripts and thus presumably reflect posttranscriptional regulatory processes. PMID:29217594

  16. Ixodes pacificus Ticks Maintain Embryogenesis and Egg Hatching after Antibiotic Treatment of Rickettsia Endosymbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlovs, Andre H.; Li, Jinze; Cheng, Du; Zhong, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that causes a variety of diseases in humans and other mammals and associates with a diverse group of arthropods. Although Rickettsia appears to be common in ticks, most Rickettsia-tick relationships remain generally uncharacterized. The most intimate of these associations is Rickettsia species phylotype G021, a maternally and transstadially transmitted endosymbiont that resides in 100% of I. pacificus in California. We investigated the effects of this Rickettsia phylotype on I. pacificus reproductive fitness using selective antibiotic treatment. Ciprofloxacin was 10-fold more effective than tetracycline in eliminating Rickettsia from I. pacificus, and quantitative PCR results showed that eggs from the ciprofloxacin-treated ticks contained an average of 0.02 Rickettsia per egg cell as opposed to the average of 0.2 in the tetracycline-treated ticks. Ampicillin did not significantly affect the number of Rickettsia per tick cell in adults or eggs compared to the water-injected control ticks. We found no relationship between tick embryogenesis and rickettsial density in engorged I. pacificus females. Tetracycline treatment significantly delayed oviposition of I. pacificus ticks, but the antibiotic’s effect was unlikely related to Rickettsia. We also demonstrated that Rickettsia-free eggs could successfully develop into larvae without any significant decrease in hatching compared to eggs containing Rickettsia. No significant differences in the incubation period, egg hatching rate, and the number of larvae were found between any of the antibiotic-treated groups and the water-injected tick control. We concluded that Rickettsia species phylotype G021 does not have an apparent effect on embryogenesis, oviposition, and egg hatching of I. pacificus. PMID:25105893

  17. Convulsive Tic Disorder Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Guinon and Grasset on the Phenomenology and Psychopathology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Robertson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette gained eponymous fame when he described nine cases of multiple tics, coprolalia and echolalia, and later he, Guinon and Grasset were the first to document the psychopathology of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. In particular, they noted the association between obsessional thoughts and behaviours and the tic disorder. In this paper we present the first English translations of their works referring to the psychopathology, comparing and contrasting their ideas to current concepts.

  18. Gill rakers in six teleost species: influence of feeding habit and body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gottlieb Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the structure of the gill rakers of Parapimelodus valenciennis and Parapimelodus nigribarbis (planktivorous, Serrasalmus maculatus and Hoplias malabaricus (piscivorous, Iheringichthys labrosus (benthophagous and Hypostomus commersonii (detritivorous and related it with the body size and feeding habits of these species. The species of Parapimelodus and H. commersonii showed long, filiform and closely spaced gill rakers, similar to those of species that use the gill rakers as a filter to assist in the retention of small particles. The widely spaced gill rakers of I. labrosus probably allow the retention of insect larvae, but not particles of inorganic matter. In H. malabaricus and S. maculatus the gill rakers are most likely related to prey capture and swallowing, as observed in other piscivorous species. In general, gill raker length and the distance between gill rakers have a positive relationship with fish length. The gill rakers show adaptations related to the diet of the fish, but morphological variation may occur even between species whose feeding habits are the same.

  19. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  20. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  1. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Holwerda, D.A.; Van der Mast, C.A.; Zandee, D.I.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular toxicity of cadmium was studied in the gill tissue of the sea mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to cadmium chloride at 50 or 250 microgram Cd/L for short periods. Then the gills were excised and incubated with 35-S-methionine or cysteine for 4 hr. Uptake of radiolabeled amino acids by the isolated gills was not affected by Cd, whereas the incorporation of label was significantly decreased after Cd exposure. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill proteins. It revealed that the expression of particular proteins was differently altered by Cd. One dimensional gel analysis by 35-S-cysteine labeled gill proteins demonstrated that Cd induced, in a concentration dependent manner, a cysteine-rich protein with a molecular weight of approximately 13 kDa, consisting of two isomers with low isoelectric points

  2. Salinity Regulates Claudin mRNA and Protein Expression in the Teleost Gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Baltzegar, David A; Ozden, Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    The teleost gill carries out NaCl uptake in fresh water (FW) and NaCl excretion in seawater (SW). This transformation with salinity requires close regulation of ion transporter capacity and epithelial permeability. This study investigates the regulation of tight junctional claudins during salinity...... was localized deep in the FW gill filament, whereas staining was found apically in SW gill. Claudin 4-like proteins are localized predominantly in the filament outer epithelial layer and staining appears more intense in gill of FW versus SW fish. Additionally, tilapia claudin 28a and 30 genes were characterized......, and mRNA expression was found to increase during FW acclimation. These studies are the first to detect putative claudin proteins in teleosts and show their localization and regulation with salinity in gill epithelium. The data indicate that claudins may be important in permeability changes associated...

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of inflammatory cells and cell cycle proteins in the gills of Loma salmonae infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, M. D.; Yousaf, M. N.; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidial gill diseases particularly those caused by Loma salmonae incur significant economic losses to the salmonid aquaculture industry. The gill responses to infection include the formation of xenomas and the acute hyperplastic inflammatory responses once the xenomas rupture releasing inf...

  4. Characterization of cadmium plasma membrane transport in gills of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, P.; Custódio, M.R.; Zanotto, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd 2+ gill cell transport, a non-essential toxic metal, was characterized in a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. • Cd 2+ enter gill cells through Ca 2+ channels and is dependent of intracellular Ca 2+ levels. • Route of entry in gill cells also involves a Cd 2+ /Ca 2+ (2Na) exchanger. • Cd transport depends on Na + /K + -ATPase and gill cell electrochemical gradient. • Vanadate inhibits gill Cd 2+ transport and ouabain increase gill Cd 2+ transport. - Abstract: Membrane pathway for intracellular cadmium (Cd 2+ ) accumulation is not fully elucidated in many organisms and has not been studied in crab gill cells. To characterize membrane Cd 2+ transport of anterior and posterior gill cells of Ucides cordatus, a hypo-hyper-regulating crab, a change in intracellular Cd 2+ concentration under various experimental conditions was examined by using FluoZin, a fluorescent probe. The membrane Cd 2+ transport was estimated by the augmentation of FluoZin fluorescence induced by extracellular application of CdCl 2 and different inhibitors. Addition of extracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) to the cells affected little the fluorescence of FluoZin, confirming that Cd 2+ was the main ion increasing intracellular fluorescence. Ca 2+ channels blockers (nimodipine and verapamil) decreased Cd 2+ influx as well as vanadate, a Ca 2+ -ATPase blocker. Chelating intracellular Ca 2+ (BAPTA) decreased Cd 2+ influx in gill cells, while increasing intracellular Ca 2+ (caffeine) augmented Cd influx. Cd 2+ and ATP added at different temporal conditions were not effective at increasing intracellular Cd 2+ accumulation. Ouabain (Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor) increased Cd 2+ influx probably through a change in intracellular Na and/or a change in cell membrane potential. Routes of Cd 2+ influx, a non-essential metal, through the gill cell plasma membrane of crabs are suggested

  5. The deconstruction of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome

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    Rowan Voirrey Sandle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present deconstruction of Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome introduces this complex disorder using an existential paradigm. An analysis of the history of constructed reason and power highlights the assumptions of ‘disorder’ that infiltrate society and serves to critique predisposed thought with reference to Tourette’s. The review considers the representationalist theory of language and concepts within psychiatric discourse. A brief analysis of previous case studies shows Tourettic energy as part of the individual ‘self’ and introduces a comparison of Tourettic movement to more mutual human experience, such as music and poetry. Past research that explores preventative social interaction is introduced, which show positive advancements in treatment by challenging the conventions of internal etiology and which highlights the importance of reducing attached stigma.

  6. GILLES CLÉMENT: MANIFIESTO DEL TERCER PAISAJE

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    Iñigo García-Odiaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El pequeño libro que contiene el Manifiesto del Tercer Paisaje de Gilles Clément, parece intentar ocultar en la sencillez de su edición la revolución teórica y práctica que va desgranando el texto. Teórica por que centra la mirada sobre unos territorios abandonados, inciertos y desdibujados que el autor es capaz de clasificar, determinar y analizar. Y práctica porque planteadas las virtudes de estos territorios ocultos, apuesta por su confirmación y mantenimiento de forma precisa. Finalmente sólo cabe preguntarse si estas mismas reflexiones que Clément centra en el paisaje, no son también un camino posible para entender algunos de los interrogantes que plantea la ciudad contemporánea.

  7. Gills scanning images of the seawater fish Eugerres brasilianus (Gerreidae

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    Daura Regina Eiras-Stofella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The gills of the adult fish, Eugerres brasilianus (Gerreidae were analyzed in a scanning electron microscope. The stratified epithelium was uniform on all parts of the branchial arch. Concentric microridges were present on cells that form this epithelium and were mainly observed in the primary lamellae and pharyngeal region where mucous cells were also abundant. The ultrastructural features of E. brasilianus gills indicated that this was not a filtering species, and that the feeding habit included mainly the intake of small organisms. The results presently obtained agreed with other literature data which determined the feeding habit of this species by means of stomach content analysis and other aspects.Peixes adultos da espécie Eugerres brasilianus (Gerreidae tiveram suas brânquias analisadas em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O epitélio de revestimento é uniforme em todas as porções dos arcos. É formado por células com micropregas concêntricas principalmente nas lamelas primárias e na região faríngea, locais onde são abundantes as células que secretam muco. A caracterização ultra-estrutural das brânquias de E. brasilianus indica que a espécie não é filtradora e que em sua alimentação deve predominar a ingestão de pequenos organismos. Esses resultados estão de acordo com os dados da literatura que determinam o hábito alimentar da espécie através de análises de conteúdo estomacal e outros aspectos.

  8. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  9. Comparison of closely related, uncultivated Coxiella tick endosymbiont population genomes reveals clues about the mechanisms of symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Castro Gordillo, Juan; Mahagna, Mustafa; Gottlieb, Yuval; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the symbiotic interaction between Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLE) and their tick hosts is challenging due to lack of isolates and difficulties in tick functional assays. Here we sequenced the metagenome of a CLE population from wild Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (CRs) and compared it to the previously published genome of its close relative, CLE of R. turanicus (CRt). The tick hosts are closely related sympatric species, and their two endosymbiont genomes are highly similar with only minor differences in gene content. Both genomes encode numerous pseudogenes, consistent with an ongoing genome reduction process. In silico flux balance metabolic analysis (FBA) revealed the excess production of L-proline for both genomes, indicating a possible proline transport from Coxiella to the tick. Additionally, both CR genomes encode multiple copies of the proline/betaine transporter, proP gene. Modelling additional Coxiellaceae members including other tick CLE, did not identify proline as an excreted metabolite. Although both CRs and CRt genomes encode intact B vitamin synthesis pathway genes, which are presumed to underlay the mechanism of CLE-tick symbiosis, the FBA analysis indicated no changes for their products. Therefore, this study provides new testable hypotheses for the symbiosis mechanism and a better understanding of CLE genome evolution and diversity. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Killing Effects of an Isolated Serratia marcescens KH-001 on Diaphorina citri via Lowering the Endosymbiont Numbers

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    Wei Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is the most devastating citrus disease worldwide, and suppression of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri is regarded as an effective method to inhibit the spread of HLB. In this study, we isolated a strain named as Serratia marcescens KH-001 from D. citri nymphs suffering from disease, and evaluated its killing effect on D. citri via toxicity test and effect on microbial community in D. citri using high-throughput sequencing. Our results indicated that S. marcescens KH-001 could effectively kill 83% of D. citri nymphs, while the fermentation products of S. marcescens KH-001 only killed 40% of the D. citrinymphs. High-throughput sequencing results indicated that the S. marcescens KH-001 increased the OTU numbers from 62.5 (PBS buffer to 81.5, while significantly lowered the Shannon index compared with Escherichia coli DH5α (group E (p < 0.05. OTU analysis showed that the S. marcescens KH-001 had significantly reduced the relative abundance of endosymbionts Wolbachia, Profftella, and Carsonella in group S compared with that in other groups (p < 0.05. Therefore, the direct killing effect of the fermentation products of S. marcescens KH-001 and the indirect effect via reducing the numbers of endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Profftella, and Carsonella of D. citri endow S. marcescens KH-001 a sound killing effect on D. citri. Further work need to do before this strain is used as a sound biological control agents.

  11. Bacterial microflora of roach (Rutilus rutilus caught in the Driksna river in Latvia

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    Alina Kluga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fish products are a food group with a high nutritional value, however, the fish may contains a variety of microorganisms, which may cause foodborne infection outbreaks in humans after consumption. The aim of the present study was to identify the bacterial microflora of skin, gill and gut of roach caught in river. Altogether, nine roach (Rutilus rutilus samples were collected from fishermen from Driksna river in Latvia. Skin, gills and gut samples were investigated for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae. Pooled skin, muscles and internal organ samples were examined for presence of pathogens – Salmonella spp., Listeria spp. and Yersinia spp. in accordance with ISO standards. Identification of bacterial species was performed with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper. TBC ranged from 1.96 to 5.16 log10 CFU g-1, coliforms from 0 to 3.66 log10 CFU g-1 and Enterobacteriaceae from 0 to 4.16 log10 CFU g-1 in roach skin, gills and gut samples. The highest counts of TBC, coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae was found in roach gills and gut samples, while there were no significant differences between the TBC in skin, gills and gut (p<0.05. Rahnella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant bacteria identified in fish skin, gills and gut. These microorganisms promote the development of deterioration processes of fish meat, and also can be associated with human infections. Salmonella spp., Listeria spp. and Yersinia spp. were not detected in fish samples, however, the presence of potential human pathogens - Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in roach samples was observed.

  12. The Bacterial Microflora of Fish, Revised

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    B. Austin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate about whether or not muscle is actually sterile. Using traditional culture-dependent techniques, the numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations generally reflect those of the surrounding water. More modern culture-independent approaches have permitted the recognition of previously uncultured bacteria. The role of the organisms includes the ability to degrade complex molecules (therefore exercising a potential benefit in nutrition, to produce vitamins and polymers, and to be responsible for the emission of light by the light-emitting organs of deep-sea fish. Taxa, including Pseudomonas, may contribute to spoilage by the production of histamines in fish tissue.

  13. Diversity of algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) in octocorals: the roles of geography and host relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oppen, M J H; Mieog, J C; Sánchez, C A; Fabricius, K E

    2005-07-01

    The presence, genetic identity and diversity of algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium) in 114 species from 69 genera (20 families) of octocorals from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the far eastern Pacific (EP) and the Caribbean was examined, and patterns of the octocoral-algal symbiosis were compared with patterns in the host phylogeny. Genetic analyses of the zooxanthellae were based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. In the GBR samples, Symbiodinium clades A and G were encountered with A and G being rare. Clade B zooxanthellae have been previously reported from a GBR octocoral, but are also rare in octocorals from this region. Symbiodinium G has so far only been found in Foraminifera, but is rare in these organisms. In the Caribbean samples, only Symbiodinium clades B and C are present. Hence, Symbiodinium diversity at the level of phylogenetic clades is lower in octocorals from the Caribbean compared to those from the GBR. However, an unprecedented level of ITS1 diversity was observed within individual colonies of some Caribbean gorgonians, implying either that these simultaneously harbour multiple strains of clade B zooxanthellae, or that ITS1 heterogeneity exists within the genomes of some zooxanthellae. Intracladal diversity based on ITS should therefore be interpreted with caution, especially in cases where no independent evidence exists to support distinctiveness, such as ecological distribution or physiological characteristics. All samples from EP are azooxanthellate. Three unrelated GBR taxa that are described in the literature as azooxanthellate (Junceella fragilis, Euplexaura nuttingi and Stereonephthya sp. 1) contain clade G zooxanthellae, and their symbiotic association with zooxanthellae was confirmed by histology. These corals are pale in colour, whereas related azooxanthellate species are brightly coloured. The evolutionary loss or gain of zooxanthellae may have altered the light sensitivity of the host tissues, requiring the

  14. Brugia malayi gene expression in response to the targeting of the Wolbachia endosymbiont by tetracycline treatment.

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    Elodie Ghedin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Brugia malayi, like most human filarial parasite species, harbors an endosymbiotic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia. Elimination of the endosymbiont leads to sterilization of the adult female. Previous biochemical and genetic studies have established that communication with its endobacterium is essential for survival of the worm.We used electron microscopy to examine the effects of antibiotic treatment on Wolbachia cell structure. We have also used microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses to examine the regulation of the B. malayi transcripts altered in response to the anti-Wolbachia treatment. Microscopy of worms taken from animals treated with tetracycline for 14 and 21 days (14 d and 21 d demonstrated substantial morphologic effects on the Wolbachia endobacterium by 14 d and complete degeneration of the endobacterial structures by 21 d. We observed upregulation of transcripts primarily encoding proteins involved in amino acid synthesis and protein translation, and downregulation of transcripts involved in cuticle biosynthesis after both 7 d and 14 d of treatment. In worms exposed to tetracycline in culture, substantial effects on endobacteria morphology were evident by day 3, and extensive death of the endobacteria was observed by day 5. In a detailed examination of the expression kinetics of selected signaling genes carried out on such cultured worms, a bimodal pattern of regulation was observed. The selected genes were upregulated during the early phase of antibiotic treatment and quickly downregulated in the following days. These same genes were upregulated once more at 6 days post-treatment.Upregulation of protein translation and amino acid synthesis may indicate a generalized stress response induced in B. malayi due to a shortage of essential nutrients/factors that are otherwise supplied by Wolbachia. Downregulation of transcripts involved in cuticle biosynthesis perhaps reflects a disruption in the normal embryogenic program. This is

  15. Intraspecific variation in gill morphology of juvenile Nile perch, Lates niloticus, in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jaclyn A.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated intraspecific variation in fish gill size that relates to variation in dissolved oxygen (DO) availability across habitats. In Lake Nabugabo, East Africa, ecological change over the past 12 years has coincided with a shift in the distribution of introduced Nile perch such that a larger proportion of the population now inhabits waters in or near wetland ecotones where DO is lower than in open waters of the lake. In this study, we compared gill size of juvenile Nile perch between wetland and exposed (open-water) habitats of Lake Nabugabo in 2007, as well as between Nile perch collected in 1996 and 2007. For Nile perch of Lake Nabugabo [<20 cm total length (TL)], there was a significant habitat effect on some gill traits. In general, fish from wetland habitats were characterized by a longer total gill filament length and average gill filament length than conspecifics from exposed habitats. Nile perch collected from wetland areas in 2007 had significantly larger gills (total gill filament length) than Nile perch collected in 1996, but there was no difference detected between Nile perch collected from exposed sites in 2007 and conspecifics collected in 1996.

  16. Expression of aquaporin 3 in gills of the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): Effects of seawater acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Sato, J. Denry; Shaw, Joseph R.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine fish, such as the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), are constantly and rapidly exposed to changes in salinity. Although ion transport in killifish gills during acclimation to increased salinity has been studied extensively, no studies have examined the role of aquaglyceroporin 3 (AQP3), a water, glycerol, urea, and ammonia transporter, during acclimation to increased salinity in this sentinel environmental model organism. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that transfer from freshwater to seawater decreases AQP3 gene and protein expression in the gill of killifish. Transfer from freshwater to seawater decreased AQP3 mRNA in the gill after 1 day, but had no effect on total gill AQP3 protein abundance as determined by western blot. Quantitative confocal immunocytochemistry confirmed western blot studies that transfer from freshwater to seawater did not change total AQP3 abundance in the gill; however, immunocytochemistry revealed that the amount of AQP3 in pillar cells of secondary lamellae decreased in seawater fish, whereas the amount of AQP3 in mitochondrion rich cells (MRC) in primary filaments of the gill increased in seawater fish. This response of AQP3 expression is unique to killifish compared to other teleosts. Although the role of AQP3 in the gill of killifish has not been completely elucidated, these results suggest that AQP3 may play an important role in the ability of killifish to acclimate to increased salinity. PMID:22193757

  17. Hydrodynamic resistance and flow patterns in the gills of a tilapine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, James A

    2013-07-15

    The gills of teleost fishes are often discussed as an archetypal counter-current exchange system, capable of supporting the relatively high metabolic rates of some fishes despite the low oxygen solubility of water. Despite an appreciation for the physiology of exchange at the gills, many questions remain regarding the hydrodynamical basis of ventilation in teleost fishes. In this study, the hydrodynamic resistance and flow fields around the isolated gills of a tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, were measured as a function of the applied pressure head. At ventilatory pressures typical of a fish at rest, the hydrodynamic resistance of the gills was nearly constant, the flow was laminar, shunting of water around the gills was essentially absent, and the distribution of water flow was relatively uniform. However, at the higher pressures typical of an active or stressed fish, some of these qualities were lost. In particular, at elevated pressures there was a decrease in the hydrodynamic resistance of the gills and substantial shunting of water around the gills. These effects suggest mechanical limits to maximum aerobic performance during activity or under adverse environmental conditions.

  18. On the structure of fish gill, with special reference to its absorptive and excretory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, Mikio

    1981-01-01

    The gill of fish is not only the respiratory organ, but also the absorptive and excretory one of various substances, such as pesticides, anesthetics and minerals including radionuclides. Branchial absorption of Ca, Cr, Zn, Sr and Hg, and dieldrin (a pesticide) has been demonstrated by the gill-perfusion experiments using eel and rainbow trout. Also, branchial excretion of Cl, Ca and Sr has been ascertained by the same method using eel. Therefore, the gill is an important organ in relation to the accumulation and metabolism of radionuclides in fishes. Compared with the kidney, another excretory organ in fish, the structure of fish gill is rather simple. Histologically, the gill lamella, main functional portion of gill, is enveloped with simple squamous epithelium on each side. Between these two thin layers, pilaster cells and lacuna of branchial capillary are recognized as tissue components. In the gills of marine fishes, well-developed salt-secreting cells are detectable at the basal area of gill lamella. The cytoplasm of these cells are acidophilic and abundant in mitochondria and tubular endoplasmic reticulum. The cells are also called chloride cells and said to be involved in the extra-renal excretion of Na and Cl took in by marine fishes. The important problem is whether the salt-secreting cells in marine fishes are also concerned with the branchial excretion of another minerals such as Ca, Sr, I and so on, or these minerals are excreted across the ordinal epithelial cells of gill lamella. To elucidate this, detailed investigatios are awaited with interest. (author)

  19. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Torre, Camilla; Balbi, Teresa; Grassi, Giacomo; Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Smerilli, Arianna; Guidi, Patrizia; Canesi, Laura; Nigro, Marco; Monaci, Fabrizio; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Rocco, Lucia; Focardi, Silvano; Monopoli, Marco; Corsi, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO 2 modulate CdCl 2 cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced CdCl 2 -induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl 2 was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO 2 , CdCl 2 , alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO 2 alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO 2 reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO 2 and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO 2 in sea water media

  20. Evolution of the branchiostegal membrane and restricted gill openings in Actinopterygian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Stacy C; Near, Thomas J; Bemis, William E

    2015-06-01

    A phylogenetic survey is a powerful approach for investigating the evolutionary history of a morphological characteristic that has evolved numerous times without obvious functional implications. Restricted gill openings, an extreme modification of the branchiostegal membrane, are an example of such a characteristic. We examine the evolution of branchiostegal membrane morphology and highlight convergent evolution of restricted gill openings. We surveyed specimens from 433 families of actinopterygians for branchiostegal membrane morphology and measured head and body dimensions. We inferred a relaxed molecular clock phylogeny with branch length estimates based on nine nuclear genes sampled from 285 species that include all major lineages of Actinopterygii. We calculated marginal state reconstructions of four branchiostegal membrane conditions and found that restricted gill openings have evolved independently in at least 11 major actinopterygian clades, and the total number of independent origins of the trait is likely much higher. A principal component analysis revealed that fishes with restricted gill openings occupy a larger morphospace, as defined by our linear measurements, than do fishes with nonrestricted openings. We used a decision tree analysis of ecological data to determine if restricted gill openings are linked to certain environments. We found that fishes with restricted gill openings repeatedly occur under a variety of ecological conditions, although they are rare in open-ocean pelagic environments. We also tested seven ratios for their utility in distinguishing between fishes with and without restricted gill openings, and we propose a simple metric for quantifying restricted gill openings (RGO), defined as a ratio of the distance from the ventral midline to the gill opening relative to half the circumference of the head. Functional explanations for this specialized morphology likely differ within each clade, but its repeated evolution indicates a need

  1. Medical Genetics at McGill: The History of a Pioneering Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Christopher; Weisz, George; Tone, Andrea; Cambrosio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The McGill Group in Medical Genetics was formed in 1972, supported by the Medical Research Council and successor Canadian Institutes for Health Research until September 2009, making it the longest active biomedical research group in the history of Canada. We document the history of the McGill Group and situate its research within a broader history of medical genetics. Drawing on original oral histories with the Group's members, surviving documents, and archival materials, we explore how the Group's development was structured around epistemological trends in medical genetics, policy choices made by research agencies, and the development of genetics at McGill University and its hospitals.

  2. Improved resolution of reef-coral endosymbiont (Symbiodinium species diversity, ecology, and evolution through psbA non-coding region genotyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C LaJeunesse

    Full Text Available Ribosomal DNA sequence data abounds from numerous studies on the dinoflagellate endosymbionts of corals, and yet the multi-copy nature and intragenomic variability of rRNA genes and spacers confound interpretations of symbiont diversity and ecology. Making consistent sense of extensive sequence variation in a meaningful ecological and evolutionary context would benefit from the application of additional genetic markers. Sequences of the non-coding region of the plastid psbA minicircle (psbA(ncr were used to independently examine symbiont genotypic and species diversity found within and between colonies of Hawaiian reef corals in the genus Montipora. A single psbA(ncr haplotype was recovered in most samples through direct sequencing (~80-90% and members of the same internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2 type were phylogenetically differentiated from other ITS2 types by substantial psbA(ncr sequence divergence. The repeated sequencing of bacterially-cloned fragments of psbA(ncr from samples and clonal cultures often recovered a single numerically common haplotype accompanied by rare, highly-similar, sequence variants. When sequence artifacts of cloning and intragenomic variation are factored out, these data indicate that most colonies harbored one dominant Symbiodinium genotype. The cloning and sequencing of ITS2 DNA amplified from these same samples recovered numerically abundant variants (that are diagnostic of distinct Symbiodinium lineages, but also generated a large amount of sequences comprising PCR/cloning artifacts combined with ancestral and/or rare variants that, if incorporated into phylogenetic reconstructions, confound how small sequence differences are interpreted. Finally, psbA(ncr sequence data from a broad sampling of Symbiodinium diversity obtained from various corals throughout the Indo-Pacific were concordant with ITS lineage membership (defined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis screening, yet exhibited

  3. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  4. Effects of co-occurring Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts on the Drosophila immune response against insect pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokal, Upasana; Yadav, Shruti; Atri, Jaishri; Accetta, Julia; Kenney, Eric; Banks, Katherine; Katakam, Akash; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-02-09

    Symbiotic interactions between microbes and animals are common in nature. Symbiotic organisms are particularly common in insects and, in some cases, they may protect their hosts from pathogenic infections. Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts naturally inhabit various insects including Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. Therefore, this symbiotic association is considered an excellent model to investigate whether endosymbiotic bacteria participate in host immune processes against certain pathogens. Here we have investigated whether the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma endosymbionts in D. melanogaster adult flies affects the immune response against the virulent insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens and against non-pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. We found that D. melanogaster flies carrying no endosymbionts, those carrying both Wolbachia and Spiroplasma, and those containing Wolbachia only had similar survival rates after infection with P. luminescens or Escherichia coli bacteria. However, flies carrying both endosymbionts or Wolbachia only contained higher numbers of E. coli cells at early time-points post infection than flies without endosymbiotic bacteria. Interestingly, flies containing Wolbachia only had lower titers of this endosymbiont upon infection with the pathogen P. luminescens than uninfected flies of the same strain. We further found that the presence of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in D. melanogaster up-regulated certain immune-related genes upon infection with P. luminescens or E. coli bacteria, but it failed to alter the phagocytic ability of the flies toward E. coli inactive bioparticles. Our results suggest that the presence of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in D. melanogaster can modulate immune signaling against infection by certain insect pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. Results from such studies are important for understanding the molecular basis of the interactions between endosymbiotic bacteria of insects

  5. [Morphological differentiations of the gills of two Gymnocypris przewa-lskii subspecies in different habitats and their functional adaptations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-Yi; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhang, Cun-Fang; Tang, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Kai

    2013-08-01

    Gill morphologies of two subspecies of Gymnocypris przewalskii (Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii and Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihonensis) in different habitats were analyzed under scanning electron microscope. Results indicated that G. p. przewalskii had numerous long and dense-lined gill rakers while G. p. ganzihonensis had few short and scatter-lined gill rakers. There were no significant differences in distance between gill filaments (DBF) and distance gill lamella (DBL) between the two subspecies, but gill filaments of G. p. przewalskii were longer than in G. p. ganzihonensis. The electron microscopic study indicated that the pavement epithelium cells of G. p. przewalskii were well defined as irregular ovals, but were hexagonal in G. p. ganzihonensis. Moreover, G. p. przewalskii had more chloride cells than G. p. ganzihonensis, and mucous cells were only found on the surface of gill filaments of G. p. przewalskii. The morphological differences between the two subspecies of G. przewalskii are adaptations to their corresponding diets and habitats.

  6. Bacterial community in Haemaphysalis ticks of domesticated animals from the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Jing-Jing; Chen, Fezshin; Kho, Kai Ling; Ahmad Shanizza, Azzy Iyzati; Lim, Fang-Shiang; Tan, Kim-Kee; Chang, Li-Yen; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors in the transmission of many important infectious diseases in human and animals. Ticks can be readily found in the semi-forested areas such as the settlements of the indigenous people in Malaysia, the Orang Asli. There is still minimal information available on the bacterial agents associated with ticks found in Malaysia. We performed a survey of the bacterial communities associated with ticks collected from domestic animals found in two Orang Asli villages in Malaysia. We collected 62 ticks, microscopically and molecularly identified as related to Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Bacterial 16s rRNA hypervariable region (V6) amplicon libraries prepared from the tick samples were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. We detected a total of 392 possible bacterial genera after pooling and sequencing 20 samples, indicating a diverse bacterial community profile. Dominant taxa include the potential tick endosymbiont, Coxiella. Other dominant taxa include the tick-associated pathogen, Rickettsia, and environmental bacteria such as Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas. Other known tick-associated bacteria were also detected, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsiella and Wolbachia, albeit at very low abundance. Specific PCR was performed on selected samples to identify Rickettsia and Coxiella. Sequence of Rickettsia felis, which causes spotted fever in human and cats, was identified in one sample. Coxiella endosymbionts were detected in three samples. This study provides the baseline knowledge of the microbiome of ticks in Malaysia, focusing on tick-associated bacteria affecting the Orang Asli communities. The role of the herein found Coxiella and Rickettsia in tick physiology or disease transmission merits further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  7. [Did Mozart Suffer from Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Sánchez, Leonardo; Botero-Meneses, Juan Sebastián; Vergara-Méndez, Laura Daniela; Pachón, Natalia; Martínez, Arianna; Ramírez, Santiago

    The personal and private lives of great men and women in history, like writers, painters and musicians, have been the subject of great interest for many years. A clear example of this is the vast scrutiny is cast over the famous composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. What may have started as curiosity, rapidly evolved into extensive research, as the answers about the musician's legendary talent may lie in the details of his life (his childhood, his relationships, his quirks and his mannerisms). It is usually up to historians, anthropologists or philosophers to delve into the pages of old books, trying to grasp answers and clues. However, for some time, Physicians have sought their own part in solving the puzzle. The long told hypothesis regarding Mozart's diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome will be examined. Could all of the peculiarities and oddities of the genius be caused by a neurological disorder? Or was this musical genius just an eccentric brilliant man?. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Altered intrahemispheric structural connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS is a common developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by tics and frequent psychiatric comorbidities, often causing significant disability. Tic generation has been linked to disturbed networks of brain areas involved in planning, controlling and execution of actions, particularly structural and functional disorders in the striatum and cortico–striato–thalamo–cortical loops. We therefore applied structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to characterize changes in intrahemispheric white matter connectivity in cortico-subcortical circuits engaged in motor control in 15 GTS patients without psychiatric comorbidities. White matter connectivity was analyzed by probabilistic fiber tractography between 12 predefined cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Connectivity values were combined with measures of clinical severity rated by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS. GTS patients showed widespread structural connectivity deficits. Lower connectivity values were found specifically in tracts connecting the supplementary motor areas (SMA with basal ganglia (pre-SMA–putamen, SMA–putamen and in frontal cortico-cortical circuits. There was an overall trend towards negative correlations between structural connectivity in these tracts and YGTSS scores. Structural connectivity of frontal brain networks involved in planning, controlling and executing actions is reduced in adult GTS patients which is associated with tic severity. These findings are in line with the concept of GTS as a neurodevelopmental disorder of brain immaturity.

  9. Motor-cortical interaction in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Franzkowiak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS increased activation of the primary motor cortex (M1 before and during movement execution followed by increased inhibition after movement termination was reported. The present study aimed at investigating, whether this activation pattern is due to altered functional interaction between motor cortical areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 10 GTS-patients and 10 control subjects performed a self-paced finger movement task while neuromagnetic brain activity was recorded using Magnetoencephalography (MEG. Cerebro-cerebral coherence as a measure of functional interaction was calculated. During movement preparation and execution coherence between contralateral M1 and supplementary motor area (SMA was significantly increased at beta-frequency in GTS-patients. After movement termination no significant differences between groups were evident. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data suggest that increased M1 activation in GTS-patients might be due to increased functional interaction between SMA and M1 most likely reflecting a pathophysiological marker of GTS. The data extend previous findings of motor-cortical alterations in GTS by showing that local activation changes are associated with alterations of functional networks between premotor and primary motor areas. Interestingly enough, alterations were evident during preparation and execution of voluntary movements, which implies a general theme of increased motor-cortical interaction in GTS.

  10. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  11. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  12. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  13. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  14. Antioxidant responses in gills and digestive gland of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) under lead exposure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Gauns, M.; Mujawar, M.W.A.; Ansari, Z.A.

    madrasensis against lead (Pb) exposure under laboratory conditions. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and oxidative damage parameter lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in the gills...

  15. The beach-seine and gill-net fisheries are South Africa's oldest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Previous works on the South African gill-net and beach-seine ... catch and effort between four different regions along the South ... evaluate participation in and management of the ... mesh on the West Coast and the Southern and Eastern.

  16. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: A Review and Implications for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Laurie A.; Barber, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a disorder characterized by multiple involuntary motor and verbal tics. This review covers the history, symptoms, diagnostic criteria, past and present treatments, associated disorders, and various educational techniques. (Author/DB)

  17. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from THEODORE N. GILL from 19541116 to 19541210 (NODC Accession 9700149)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, nutrients, and other data were collected from bottle and net casts in South Atlantic from the Theodore N. Gill from 16 November 1954 to 10 December...

  18. Ferréol Gilles, Vieille-Marchiset Gilles, Dir., Loisirs, sports et sociétés. Regards croisés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Seca

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution, coordonnée par Gilles Ferréol et Gilles Vieille-Marchiset, s’inscrit dans le cadre général de la sociologie des loisirs et de la culture. Elle s’orga­nise en une introduction et en onze chapitres, répartis en deux parties (cinq pour la pre­mière et six pour la seconde. Quinze auteurs, enseignants et chercheurs, spécialisés principalement dans le domaine des activités physiques et sportives, y participent. Outre la dimension internationale du volume (contributeurs suisses,...

  19. The effect of acidity on gill variations in the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster lalius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Climate change affects organisms that inhabit not only in aerial but also in aquatic environments by making water more hypoxic and acidic. In the past, we evaluated morphological and functional variations in the gills of 12 species of aquatic air-breathing fishes. The aim of the present study is to examine the degree of gill modification in the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster lalius, in response to acidic stress. This provides a link between the ecological and physiological studies. We evaluated the changes in morphology and function of the gills, labyrinth organ, and kidney when the fish were subjected to acidic water and deionized water (DW). In the first experiment, fish were sampled at 1, 2, 4, and 7 days after acidic treatment. Apparent morphological modification was observed on day 4 and recovery was noted on day 7. Protein expression and enzyme activity of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (VHA) and the protein expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) of the 1st and 4th gill arches both increased in the 4-day and 7-day acidic groups while the enzyme activity of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) decreased. In the second experiment, fish were tested for changes in the 1st and 4th gill arches and kidney after exposure to DW and acidic water for 4days. The gill structure of the fish in the DW was not different from that of the control group (fresh water). The protein expression and enzyme activity of the VHA of the 1st and 4th gill arches increased in both the DW and acidic groups for 4 days. We found a decrease in the protein expression of NKA in the kidney and in the enzyme activity of NKA in the 1st and 4th gill arches in the DW and acidic groups. From these results, we suggest that T. lalius exhibited significantly different ionic regulation and acid-base regulatory abilities in the DW and acidic groups in the 1st and 4th gill arches and kidney. The responses of the gills in T. lalius were different from those fish that show apparent morphological

  20. Functional characterization and localization of a gill-specific claudin isoform in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Morten Buch; Yu, Alan S L; Li, Jiahua

    2012-01-01

    Claudins are the major determinants of paracellular epithelial permeability in multicellular organisms. In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), we previously found that mRNA expression of the abundant gill-specific claudin 30 decreases during seawater (SW) acclimation, suggesting that this claudin i...... that claudin 30 functions as a cation barrier between pavement cells in the gill and also has a general role in cell-cell adhesion in deeper layers of the epithelium....

  1. Life science experiments during parabolic flight: The McGill experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, D. G. D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past twelve years, members of the Aerospace Medical Research Unit of McGill University have carried out a wide variety of tests and experiments in the weightless condition created by parabolic flight. This paper discusses the pros and cons of that environment for the life scientist, and uses examples from the McGill program of the types of activities which can be carried out in a transport aircraft such as the NASA KC-135.

  2. GillesPy: A Python Package for Stochastic Model Building and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, John H.; Drawert, Brian; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    GillesPy is an open-source Python package for model construction and simulation of stochastic biochemical systems. GillesPy consists of a Python framework for model building and an interface to the StochKit2 suite of efficient simulation algorithms based on the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA). To enable intuitive model construction and seamless integration into the scientific Python stack, we present an easy to understand, action-oriented programming interface. Here, we descr...

  3. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Goodacre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  4. Holocephalan embryos provide evidence for gill arch appendage reduction and opercular evolution in cartilaginous fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. Andrew; Rawlinson, Kate A.; Bell, Justin; Lyon, Warrick S.; Baker, Clare V. H.; Shubin, Neil H.

    2011-01-01

    Chondrichthyans possess endoskeletal appendages called branchial rays that extend laterally from their hyoid and gill-bearing (branchial) arches. Branchial ray outgrowth, like tetrapod limb outgrowth, is maintained by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. In limbs, distal endoskeletal elements fail to form in the absence of normal Shh signaling, whereas shortened duration of Shh expression correlates with distal endoskeletal reduction in naturally variable populations. Chondrichthyans also exhibit natural variation with respect to branchial ray distribution—elasmobranchs (sharks and batoids) possess a series of ray-supported septa on their hyoid and gill arches, whereas holocephalans (chimaeras) possess a single hyoid arch ray-supported operculum. Here we show that the elongate hyoid rays of the holocephalan Callorhinchus milii grow in association with sustained Shh expression within an opercular epithelial fold, whereas Shh is only transiently expressed in the gill arches. Coincident with this transient Shh expression, branchial ray outgrowth is initiated in C. milii but is not maintained, yielding previously unrecognized vestigial gill arch branchial rays. This is in contrast to the condition seen in sharks, where sustained Shh expression corresponds to the presence of fully formed branchial rays on the hyoid and gill arches. Considered in light of current hypotheses of chondrichthyan phylogeny, our data suggest that the holocephalan operculum evolved in concert with gill arch appendage reduction by attenuation of Shh-mediated branchial ray outgrowth, and that chondrichthyan branchial rays and tetrapod limbs exhibit parallel developmental mechanisms of evolutionary reduction. PMID:21220324

  5. Histological observation and occurrence of apoptosis in the gill from estuary Amazon fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Nunes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sciades herszbergii is a fish species commomly know as "blue catfish" and is one the most important natural resources an estuary in the Amazon region. In this study histological observations and apoptosis analysis was made in a gill tissue of the S. herszbergii from two environments: I, away from pollution sources and; II, waste from industry, the last one was used to relate the health status of the fishes in the environmental. Gill fragments were fixed 4% paraformaldehyde solution for 24 h and submitted for histological routine processing for embedding in paraffin. Sections of 7 μm were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for analysis under light microscopy. For immunohistochemycal analyses gill sections were incubated in the primary polyclonal antibody anti-caspase 3, made in rabbit. Slides were revealed using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. The results showed the type and level of lesions were verified between two study sites. A variety of severe damages were observed in specimens including aneurysms, epithelial lifting, and intense hyperplasia, specially on the site II. Apoptosis analyses also revealed injuries in the gill tissue of specimens from these two sites. While on site I only few specimens showed mild changes in gill tissues and rare apoptosis marking. These results suggest the gill histological and immunohistochemical analysis are a good biomarker, and the specie S. herszbergii could be used as a bioindicator for environmental monitoring.

  6. Angiotensin extraction by trout tissues in vivo and metabolism by the perfused gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.R.; Kullman, D.; Narkates, A.J.; Oparil, S.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma clearance and tissue accumulation of 125I-angiotensin I, [Asp1, Ile5]ANG I, and [14C]sucrose, an inert volume reference, were measured after a bolus injection into the dorsal aorta of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Retention and metabolism of ANG I to angiotensin II (ANG II) and their constituent 1-4 peptide by the gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch preparation in which outflow from the respiratory and central filamental (venous) pathways was separated. Clearance of ANG I from plasma is multiexponential, reflecting dilution and tissue extraction. Liver, bile, gonads, corpuscles of Stannius, and white skeletal muscle accumulate more 125I than 14C; gill tissue accumulates less 125I than 14C. ANG I and II are retained by the perfused gill longer than the inert vascular marker sucrose, even though the distribution volumes of the former are less. The gill respiratory pathway converts ANG I to ANG II whereas the venous pathway metabolizes either ANG I or II to the 1-4 peptide and other metabolites. The gill respiratory pathway is in series with the systemic vasculature, has a large blood-cell contact area, and, like the mammalian lung, is ideally suited to activate ANG I. The gill venous pathway is in parallel with the systemic vasculature and removes ANG II from the circulation. During stress, elevated plasma catecholamines may reduce venous perfusion and thereby help maintain elevated circulating ANG II levels through reduced venous metabolism

  7. Gill remodelling during terrestrial acclimation reduces aquatic respiratory function of the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Andy J; Cooper, Chris A; Wright, Patricia A

    2012-11-15

    The skin-breathing amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus experiences rapid environmental changes when moving between water- and air-breathing, but remodelling of respiratory morphology is slower (~1 week). We tested the hypotheses that (1) there is a trade-off in respiratory function of gills displaying aquatic versus terrestrial morphologies and (2) rapidly increased gill ventilation is a mechanism to compensate for reduced aquatic respiratory function. Gill surface area, which varied inversely to the height of the interlamellar cell mass, was increased by acclimating fish for 1 week to air or low ion water, or decreased by acclimating fish for 1 week to hypoxia (~20% dissolved oxygen saturation). Fish were subsequently challenged with acute hypoxia, and gill ventilation or oxygen uptake was measured. Fish with reduced gill surface area increased ventilation at higher dissolved oxygen levels, showed an increased critical partial pressure of oxygen and suffered impaired recovery compared with brackish water control fish. These results indicate that hyperventilation, a rapid compensatory mechanism, was only able to maintain oxygen uptake during moderate hypoxia in fish that had remodelled their gills for land. Thus, fish moving between aquatic and terrestrial habitats may benefit from cutaneously breathing oxygen-rich air, but upon return to water must compensate for a less efficient branchial morphology (mild hypoxia) or suffer impaired respiratory function (severe hypoxia).

  8. Ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum with reference to ionic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarial, M S; Wilkins, J H

    2003-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, has been examined using conventional transmission electron microscopy to elucidate its role in ionic transport. Four cell types are identified in the gill filament and primary gill bar epithelium. These are granular, ciliated, Leydig and basal cells. A fifth cell type, the flat mitochondria-rich cell is only found in the gill bar epithelium. The predominant granular cells display microvilli at their surface and their cytoplasm contains abundant mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, vesicles and PAS+ secretory granules that are extruded at the surface, which along with secretions from the Leydig cells form a mucous coat. The granular cells are joined apically by junctional complexes consisting of zonulae occludens, zonulae adherens and desmosomes. The lateral membranes of granular cells enclose large intercellular spaces that are closed at the apical ends but remain open at the basal ends adjoining capillaries. In AgNO3-treated axolotl, the gills become darkly stained, the silver grains penetrate apical membranes and appear in the cytoplasm, accumulating near the lateral membranes and also enter the intercellular spaces. These findings are consistent with the dual role of the gill epithelium in mucus production and active ionic transport.

  9. Development and characterization of two cell lines from gills of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, Mona C.; Aamelfot, Maria; Batts, William N.; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Dale, Ole B.; Thoen, Even; Weli, Simon C.; Winton, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., causes big losses in the salmon farming industry. Until now, tools to cultivate microorganisms causing gill disease and models to study the gill responses have been lacking. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of two cell lines from the gills of Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon gill cell ASG-10 consisted of cells staining for cytokeratin and e-cadherin and with desmosomes as seen by transmission electron microscopy suggesting the cells to be of epithelial origin. These structures were not seen in ASG-13. The cell lines have been maintained for almost 30 passages and both cell lines are fully susceptible to infection by infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), Atlantic salmon reovirus TS (TSRV) and Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). While infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) did not cause visible CPE, immunofluorescent staining revealed a sub-fraction of cells in both the ASG-10 and ASG-13 lines may be permissive to infection. ASG-10 is able to proliferate and migrate to close scratches in the monolayer within seven days in vitro contrary to ASG-13, which does not appear to do have the same proliferative and migratory ability. These cell lines will be useful in studies of gill diseases in Atlantic salmon and may represent an important contribution for alternatives to experimental animals and studies of epithelial–mesenchymal cell biology.

  10. Analysis of Species, Subgroups, and Endosymbionts of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) From Southwestern Cotton Fields in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karut, Kamil; Mete Karaca, M; Döker, Ismail; Kazak, Cengiz

    2017-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important insect pests worldwide including Turkey. Although there are substantial data regarding species composition of Turkish B. tabaci populations, the situation is still not clear and further investigations are needed. Therefore, in this study, species and subgroups of B. tabaci collected from cotton fields in southwestern part of Turkey (Antalya, Aydın, Denizli, and Muğla) were determined using microsatellite analysis, AluI-based mtCOI polymerase chain reaction-random length polymorphism, and sequencing. Secondary endosymbionts were also determined using diagnostic species-specific PCR. Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED) Q1, and MED Q2 were the species and subgroups found in this study. The MED species (85.3%) were found to be more dominant than MEAM1. Species status of B. tabaci varied depending on the location. Although all samples collected from Aydın were found to be Q1, three species and subgroups were found in Muğla. Secondary endosymbionts varied according to species and subgroups. Arsenophonus was found only from Q2, while Hamiltonella was detected in MEAM1 and Q1. In addition, high Rickettsia and low Wolbachia infections were detected in MEAM1 and Q1 populations, respectively. In conclusion, for the first time, we report the presence and symbiotic communities of Q1 from Turkey. We also found that the symbiont complement of the Q1 is more congruent with Q1 from Greece than other regions of the world, which may have some interesting implications for movement of this invasive subgroup. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Endosymbiont interference and microbial diversity of the Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis, in San Diego County, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Gurfield

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, is found throughout California and can harbor agents that cause human diseases such as anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and rickettsiosis 364D. Previous studies have demonstrated that nonpathogenic endosymbiotic bacteria can interfere with Rickettsia co-infections in other tick species. We hypothesized that within D. occidentalis ticks, interference may exist between different nonpathogenic endosymbiotic or nonendosymbiotic bacteria and Spotted Fever group Rickettsia (SFGR. Using PCR amplification and sequencing of the rompA gene and intergenic region we identified a cohort of SFGR-infected and non-infected D. occidentalis ticks collected from San Diego County. We then amplified a partial segment of the 16S rRNA gene and used next-generation sequencing to elucidate the microbiomes and levels of co-infection in the ticks. The SFGR R. philipii str. 364D and R. rhipicephali were detected in 2.3% and 8.2% of the ticks, respectively, via rompA sequencing. Interestingly, next generation sequencing revealed an inverse relationship between the number of Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLE 16S rRNA sequences and Rickettsia 16S rRNA sequences within individual ticks that is consistent with partial interference between FLE and SFGR infecting ticks. After excluding the Rickettsia and FLE endosymbionts from the analysis, there was a small but significant difference in microbial community diversity and a pattern of geographic isolation by distance between collection locales. In addition, male ticks had a greater diversity of bacteria than female ticks and ticks that weren’t infected with SFGR had similar microbiomes to canine skin microbiomes. Although experimental studies are required for confirmation, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that FLEs and, to a lesser extent, other bacteria, interfere with the ability of D. occidentalis to be infected with

  12. Genome scan for linkage to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, C.L.; Livingston, J.; Williamson, R. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a familial, neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by chronic, intermittent motor and vocal tics. In addition to tics, affected individuals frequently display symptoms such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or obsessive compulsive disorder. Genetic analyses of family data have suggested that susceptibility to the disorder is most likely due to a single genetic locus with a dominant mode of transmission and reduced penetrance. In the search for genetic linkage for TS, we have collected well-characterized pedigrees with multiple affected individuals on whom extensive diagnostic evaluations have been done. The first stage of our study is to scan the genome systematically using a panel of uniformly spaced (10 to 20 cM), highly polymorphic, microsatellite markers on 5 families segregating TS. To date, 290 markers have been typed and 3,660 non-overlapping cM of the genome have been excluded for possible linkage under the assumption of genetic homogeneity. Because of the possibility of locus heterogeneity overall summed exclusion is not considered tantamount to absolute exclusion of a disease locus in that region. The results from each family are carefully evaluated and a positive lod score in a single family is followed up by typing closely linked markers. Linkage to TS was examined by two-point analysis using the following genetic model: single autosomal dominant gene with gene frequency .003 and maximum penetrance of .99. An age-of-onset correction is included using a linear function increasing from age 2 years to 21 years. A small rate of phenocopies is also incorporated into the model. Only individuals with TS or CMT according to DSM III-R criteria were regarded as affected for the purposes of this summary. Additional markers are being tested to provide coverage at 5 cM intervals. Moreover, we are currently analyzing the data non-parametrically using the Affected-Pedigree-Member Method of linkage analysis.

  13. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of cadmium plasma membrane transport in gills of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, P.; Custódio, M.R. [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, #101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Zanotto, F.P., E-mail: fzanotto@usp.br [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, #101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biofísica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, São Paulo 04044-020 (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd{sup 2+} gill cell transport, a non-essential toxic metal, was characterized in a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. • Cd{sup 2+} enter gill cells through Ca{sup 2+} channels and is dependent of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. • Route of entry in gill cells also involves a Cd{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} (2Na) exchanger. • Cd transport depends on Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and gill cell electrochemical gradient. • Vanadate inhibits gill Cd{sup 2+} transport and ouabain increase gill Cd{sup 2+} transport. - Abstract: Membrane pathway for intracellular cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) accumulation is not fully elucidated in many organisms and has not been studied in crab gill cells. To characterize membrane Cd{sup 2+} transport of anterior and posterior gill cells of Ucides cordatus, a hypo-hyper-regulating crab, a change in intracellular Cd{sup 2+} concentration under various experimental conditions was examined by using FluoZin, a fluorescent probe. The membrane Cd{sup 2+} transport was estimated by the augmentation of FluoZin fluorescence induced by extracellular application of CdCl{sub 2} and different inhibitors. Addition of extracellular calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) to the cells affected little the fluorescence of FluoZin, confirming that Cd{sup 2+} was the main ion increasing intracellular fluorescence. Ca{sup 2+} channels blockers (nimodipine and verapamil) decreased Cd{sup 2+} influx as well as vanadate, a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase blocker. Chelating intracellular Ca{sup 2+} (BAPTA) decreased Cd{sup 2+} influx in gill cells, while increasing intracellular Ca{sup 2+} (caffeine) augmented Cd influx. Cd{sup 2+} and ATP added at different temporal conditions were not effective at increasing intracellular Cd{sup 2+} accumulation. Ouabain (Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor) increased Cd{sup 2+} influx probably through a change in intracellular Na and/or a change in cell membrane potential. Routes of Cd{sup 2+} influx, a non-essential metal, through the

  15. Respiratory toxicity of cyanobacterial aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 in the zebrafish gill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, De Lu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Si Yi [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Jian Kun [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hu, Chun Xiang, E-mail: cxhu@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yong Ding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxin causes physiological and histological changes in zebrafish gills. • Changes in gill enzymes (ALT, AST) and ultrastructure demonstrate injury. • Reduced AChE and MAO activity suggest altered neurotransmitter inactivation. - Abstract: Aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae are frequently identified in eutrophic waterbodies worldwide. These toxins severely endanger environmental safety and human health due to the production of paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs). Although the molecular mechanisms of aphantoxin neurotoxicity have been studied, many questions remain to be resolved such as in vivo alterations in branchial histology and neurotransmitter inactivation induced by these neurotoxins. Aphantoxins extracted from a naturally isolated strain of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The basic components of the isolated aphantoxins identified were gonyautoxin 1 (GTX1), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), and neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), which comprised 34.04, 21.28, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was administrated 5.3 or 7.61 mg STX equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) of the A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins by intraperitoneal injection. Histological alterations and changes in neurotransmitter inactivation in the gills of zebrafish were investigated for 24 h following exposure. Aphantoxin exposure significantly increased the activities of gill alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and resulted in histological alterations in the gills during the first 12 h of exposure, indicating the induction of functional and structural damage. Gill acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities were inhibited significantly, suggesting an alteration of neurotransmitter inactivation in zebrafish gills. The observed alterations in gill structure and function followed a time- and dose-dependent pattern. The results demonstrate that

  16. Host specificity and coevolution of Flavobacteriaceae endosymbionts within the siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hollants, J.; Leliaert, F.; Verbruggen, H.; De Clerck, O.; Willems, A.

    2013-01-01

    The siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis harbors complex intracellular bacterial communities. Previous studies demonstrated that certain species form close, obligate associations with Flavobacteriaceae. A predominant imprint of host evolutionary history on the presence of these bacteria suggests a highly specialized association. In this study we elaborate on previous results by expanding the taxon sampling and testing for host–symbiont coevolution Therefore, we optimized a PCR protocol to directl...

  17. Histopathological and bacterial study of Persian sturgeon fry, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi, Batol; Khara, Hossein; Pazhan, Zabiyollah; Shenavar, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Persian sturgeon frys were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in order to the evaluation of their impacts on bacterial load of skin, gill and surrounding water and also the histopathological alternations of gill tissue. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in 4 (for copper sulfate: 0.07, 0.14, 026 and 0.5 mg/l) and 5 (for potassium permanganate: 0.07, 0.14, 026, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) treatments with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting drug was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to our results, a range of histopathological alternations were observed in gills tissue including mucus coagulation and secretion, hyperplasia, lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, thickening of secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of supporter cartilage, clubbing of gill lamellae and sliming of primary lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. The bacterial load (CFU/g) of gill, skin and surrounding water was lower in 0.07 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 1 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P permanganate have disinfecting effects on bacterial load of gill, skin and surrounding water, although this is along with some histopathological alternations. Also, it seems that the copper sulfate has higher disinfecting power than potassium permanganate.

  18. Claudin-8d is a cortisol-responsive barrier protein in the gill epithelium of trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2017-10-01

    The influence of claudin (Cldn) 8 tight junction (TJ) proteins on cortisol-mediated alterations in gill epithelium permeability was examined using a primary cultured trout gill epithelium model. Genes encoding three Cldn-8 proteins ( cldn-8b, -8c and -8d ) have been identified in trout and all are expressed in the model gill epithelium. Cortisol treatment 'tightened' the gill epithelium, as indicated by increased transepithelial resistance (TER) and reduced paracellular [ 3 H]polyethylene glycol (MW 400 Da; PEG-400) flux. This occurred in association with elevated cldn-8d mRNA abundance, but no alterations in cldn-8b and -8c mRNA abundance were observed. Transcriptional knockdown (KD) of cldn-8d inhibited a cortisol-induced increase in Cldn-8d abundance and reduced the 'epithelium tightening' effect of cortisol in association with increased paracellular PEG-400 flux. Under simulated in vivo conditions (i.e. apical freshwater), cldn-8d KD hindered a cortisol-mediated reduction in basolateral to apical Na + and Cl - flux (i.e. reduced the ability of cortisol to mitigate ion loss). However, cldn-8d KD did not abolish the tightening effect of cortisol on the gill epithelium. This is likely due, in part, to the effect of cortisol on genes encoding other TJ proteins, which in some cases appeared to exhibit a compensatory response. Data support the idea that Cldn-8d is a barrier protein of the gill epithelium TJ that contributes significantly to corticosteroid-mediated alterations in gill epithelium permeability. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Comparative microanatomical structure of gills and skin of remainers and skippers from Gunung Kidul intertidal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rizka Apriani; Sukiya

    2017-08-01

    One type of adaptation needed in fish that live in Intertidal Zone is morphological adaptation. When the tide is low, oxygen circulation in this area is limited, causing tidepools that occurred during this time hypoxic for species that live inside. This research aimed to study the microanatomical structure of respiratory organ of two group of fish that live in intertidal zone and to investigate whether skin of these species can be used as respiratory surface to overcome hypoxic condition. Two species of fish (Bathygobiusfuscus of remainers group and Blenniellabilitonensis of skippers, respectively), were caught and sacrificed, then gills and skin of them were harvested. The organs then undergone further processing for microanatomical preparation with paraffin method and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Microanatomical structure of gills and skin analyzed descriptively. Gills were observed to study whether additional structure is presence and modification (in structure of epithelial cells and/or the length of secondary lamelae) is occurred as part of morphological change to absorb more oxygen during low tide. In skin, the thickness of epidermal layers were measured and the number of blood capillaries were counted to investigate whether it can also be used as additional respiratory surface. Quantitative data of skin and gills were statistically analyzed using Student's T-test. Results showed that there were no differences in gills structure between remainers and skippers. Additional structure in gills were absent in both species. However, quantitative measurements in skin showed that skippers have less layers of epidermal cells and high number of blood capillaries compared to remainers' skin. This results indicated that skippers were able to use their skin as additional respiratory surface outside gills.

  20. Gills as morphological biomarkers in extensive and intensive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) production technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzyżewska-Worotyńska, Emilia; Szarek, Józef; Babińska, Izabella; Gulda, Dominika

    2017-11-06

    We investigated environmental impacts on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at fish farms with either extensive technology, in a flow-through system (FTS, n = 3), or intensive technology, in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS, n = 3). All fish were fed the same rations. Fish were caught in spring and autumn (body mass, 501-750 g) from these six farms. We performed macroscopic (intact fish) and microscopic (gills stained with haematoxylin/eosin) examinations. Lesions were categorised based on the type and location of structural abnormalities. The histopathological index (HAI) was calculated, and each lesion was scored. Fish reared in FTS or RAS were compared for the prevalence of morphological lesions. Gill epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia comprised 73% (RAS) to 79% (FTS) of all morphological abnormalities. In spring and autumn, lesions comprised, respectively, 11 and 18% (FTS) and 16 and 10% (RAS) mucous and chloride cell abnormalities and 8 and 4% (FTS) and 10 and 3% (RAS) blood vessel abnormalities. Diffuse, irreversible gill lesions were observed sporadically in all fish. Gill epithelium received the most exposure to environmental pathogens. HAIs indicated that normal gill architecture and minor lesions predominated in all fish. However, among trout caught in spring, moderate and extensive changes in gills occurred more commonly with RAS (34%) than with FTS (17%). Trout caught in autumn displayed no great differences. These results indicated that FTS prepared fish better than RAS for wintering. Moreover, we showed that gills were an excellent biomarker for analysing the impact of extensive and intensive production environments on rainbow trout.

  1. Cellular and humoral factors involved in the response of rainbow trout gills to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Moonika Marana; Kania, Per Walter; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth

    2011-01-01

    a significant down-regulating effect on genes incoding IgT, IgM, CD4, CD8, IFN-g, IL-8 and IL-22 in all groups. Immunohistochemistry, using monoclonal antibodies to detect cellular markers, demonstrated active involvement of CD8, MHC II, IgT and IgM positive cells in gill tissue. Putative T-cells (CD8 positive...... cells) were detected in the intraepithelial lymphoid tissue located at the base of gill filaments and in hyperplastic gill tissue but following infection a clear efflux of these cells was detected. MHC II positive cells were distributed across the gill filaments and accumulated in hyperplastic tissue...... in gill arterioles and the lamellar capillaries. The present work indicates an intensive activity and specialized function of immune cells (B-cells, T-cells and macrophages) and humoral elements such as immunoglobulins IgT and IgM which are orchestrated by cytokines in gill tissue reacting against I...

  2. Morphology of gills of the seawater fish Cathorops spixii (Agassiz (Ariidae by scanning and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura R. Eiras-Stofella

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Gills of the seawater fish Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829 were submitted to routine processing for observation in scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The wrinkled surface of the gill filaments showed well-defined cellular ultrastructures. Microridges on cellular surface were projected over all gill structures, including respiratory lamellae. Chloride cells were usually at primary lamellae. Some rodlet cells were found. Mucous secretory cells were uncommon at all parts of the gill arches. The pharyngeal region of the gill arches showed a lot of taste buds but no spines. There were small and strong rakers. Such morphology is indicative of fishes that swallow small food but do not have filtering habits. At the ultrastructural level the gills of C. spixii presented the typical morphological pattern of Teleostei fishes.

  3. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid...

  4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The cause of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), a chronic motor and vocal tic disorder of childhood onset, remains unknown. Abnormalities in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits presumably play an important role in the pathophysiology underlying the involuntary tics. The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a noninvasive and painless tool to examine the excitability of several different circuits in the human motor cortex has advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology. Motor thresholds are similar in GTS and healthy subjects; in the resting state, recruitment of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) above threshold is more gradual in patients than controls. In contrast, recruitment of MEPs during preactivation is similar in both groups, as is the duration of the cortical silent period. This suggests that the distribution of excitability in the corticospinal system in patients at rest is different to that in healthy individuals. Importantly, correlation analysis showed that reduced levels of excitability at rest relate, in pure GTS patients, to video ratings of complex tics, and hand and finger tics, with less excitability predicting fewer tics. The correlations disappear for measures made during voluntary activation. This suggests that this is an adaptive response to abnormal basal ganglia-motor cortex inputs in an effort to reduce unwanted movements, a notion supported by electroencephalography-coherence studies that show increased cortico-cortical coupling. Compared to the healthy control group, short intracortical inhibition (SICI) thresholds are similar. However, above-threshold SICI recruitment and sensory afferent inhibition (SAI), a paradigm to examine sensory motor integration, are reduced in patients. This is consistent with the suggestion that reduced excitability of cortical inhibition is one factor that contributes to the difficulty that patients have in suppressing involuntary tics. In addition the reduced SAI indicates that impaired

  5. [Dante's Inferno and the McGill Pain Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, N; Marcolongo, R

    2007-01-01

    To study the images which depict the damned's sufferings in Dante's Inferno, in their expression of the several meanings of "pain", the semantics of "pain" in the poem has been analyzed, eventually trying to determine whether the organization of punishments of Inferno may somehow mirror a disability scale. A detailed analysis of the text was carried out, which proved a valuable tool for interpreting the organization of punishments as a possible disability scale. The semantics of pain in the Divine Comedy was studied through all the forms of the pain descriptors (included the archaic terminological forms) from the Italian version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MGPQ) by Maiani and Sanavio. In Dante's Inferno a classification of pain is provided, based on the experience of sufferings; Dante's images seem not only instrumental to investigating the sensorial but also the affective and intellectual spheres by introducing a number of characters and describing the impact of punishment onto their souls. Our research highlighted that 46 out of 78 terms from the MGPQ are present in Inferno, though with different forms; the Groups the MGPQ is divided into are also represented with the exception of Group XII, the most frequently detected being Groups XIII-which studies the fear-related sensations in the emotional sphere - XIV, XIX and XX. The great attention emerges that Dante devoted to describing simple sensorial experiences as well as the way punishments affected the soul. As a whole, the terms pertaining to the sensorial sphere are the most frequently encountered. The lack of motion which increases circle after circle in Hell, well matches the progressing physical and psychological impairment caused by some invalidating diseases. Noticeably, Dante created such a complex system centuries before the studies were released on the impact of pain and its quantitative and mostly qualitative definition. In conclusion, this interpretation suggests that the writing on the door to

  6. The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary May

    2012-10-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterised by multiple motor and one or more vocal/phonic tics. GTS was once thought to be rare, but many relatively recent studies suggest that the prevalence is about 1% of the worldwide community, apart from in Sub-Saharan Black Africa. Comorbidity and coexistent psychopathology are common, occurring in about 90% of clinical cohorts and individuals in the community. The most common comorbidities are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, and disorder, and autistic spectrum disorders, while the most common coexisting psychopathologies are depression, anxiety and behavioural disorders such as oppositional defiant and conduct disorder. There has been an increasing amount of evidence to show that the quality of life in young people is reduced when compared with normative data or healthy control populations. It is widely accepted that most cases of GTS are inherited, but the genetic mechanisms appear much more complex than previously understood, as evidenced by many recent studies; indeed, there have been suggestions of 'general neurodevelopmental genes' which affect the brain development after which the 'specific GTS gene(s)' may further affect the phenotype. Other aetiopathogenetic suggestions have included environmental factors such as neuro-immunological factors, infections, prenatal and peri-natal difficulties and androgen influences. Few studies have addressed aetiology and phenotype, but initial results are exciting. The search for endophenotypes has followed subsequently. Intriguing neuroanatomical and brain circuitry abnormalities have now been suggested in GTS; the most evidence is for cortical thinning and a reduction in the size of the caudate nucleus. Thorough assessment is imperative and multidisciplinary management is the ideal. Treatment should be 'symptom targeted', and in mild cases, psycho-education and reassurance for the patient and the family may be sufficient

  7. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbe, Yulia; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset syndrome characterized by the presence and persistence of motor and vocal tics. A dysfunction of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in this syndrome has been supported by convergent data from neuro-pathological, electrophysiological as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Here, we addressed the question of structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We specifically tested the hypothesis that deviant brain development in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome could affect structural connectivity within the input and output basal ganglia structures and thalamus. To this aim, we acquired data on 49 adult patients and 28 gender and age-matched control subjects on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We used and further implemented streamline probabilistic tractography algorithms that allowed us to quantify the structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks. To further investigate the microstructure of white matter in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, we also evaluated fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity in these pathways, which are both sensitive to axonal package and to myelin ensheathment. In patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to control subjects, we found white matter abnormalities in neuronal pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Specifically, striatum and thalamus had abnormally enhanced structural connectivity with primary motor and sensory cortices, as well as paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area and parietal cortices. This enhanced connectivity of motor cortex positively correlated with severity of tics measured by the Yale Global Tics Severity Scale and was not influenced by current medication status, age or gender of patients. Independently of the severity of tics, lateral and medial orbito

  8. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Torre, Camilla [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Balbi, Teresa [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Grassi, Giacomo [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Smerilli, Arianna [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Guidi, Patrizia [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Canesi, Laura [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Nigro, Marco [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Monaci, Fabrizio [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Scarcelli, Vittoria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Rocco, Lucia [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Focardi, Silvano [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Monopoli, Marco [Centre for BioNanoInteractions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin (Ireland); Corsi, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.corsi@unisi.it [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} modulate CdCl{sub 2} cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced CdCl{sub 2}-induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO{sub 2} alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO{sub 2} and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO{sub 2} in sea water media.

  9. Pharyngeal cavity and the gills are the target organ for the repellent action of pardaxin in shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primor, N

    1985-05-15

    Pardaxin, an active principle of the repellent secretion of the Red Sea flatfish, Pardachirus marmoratus, elicited severe struggling, mouth paralysis, and transient increase in urea leakage from the gills only when administered to the medium bathing the shark's pharyngeal cavity and gills. An apparatus was constructed which prevents a mixing of the outflow from shark's gills with water bathing its surface skin. It is concluded that in sharks the gills and/or the pharyngeal cavity are the target organ for the repellent action of pardaxin.

  10. Tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Wu, Xiangtian; Li, Yundong; Xie, Lingtian

    2013-04-15

    Fish take up fluoride directly from water and are susceptible to fluoride contamination of their environment. In this study, we examined the tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to fluoride. Carp were exposed to a range of aqueous fluoride (35-124 mg/L) and sampled at 30, 60 and 90 days. The accumulation of fluoride in the tissues increased with the level and duration of exposure. Steady state was not achieved under the experimental conditions. The gills accumulated the highest levels of fluoride followed by the liver>brain>kidney>muscle>intestine. A dose-dependent inhibition was observed for the enzyme activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the gills after the fish were exposed for 90 days. Also, accumulation of fluoride was associated with the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and a dose-dependent stimulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the gill tissues, suggesting that fluoride promoted oxidative stress in the fish. Microscopic examinations revealed injuries to gill tissues and chloride cells, with the severity of injury increasing with exposure concentration. These results suggest that chronic exposure to elevated concentrations of fluoride may induce toxicity in the common carp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Implications for osmorespiratory compromise by anatomical remodeling in the gills of Arapaima gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cleverson Agner; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; da Costa, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira; Duncan, Wallice Paxiuba

    2013-10-01

    The gill structure of the Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas, an obligatory air breather, was investigated during its transition from water breathing to the obligatory air breathing modes of respiration. The gill structure of A. gigas larvae is similar to that of most teleost fish; however, the morphology of the gills changes as the fish grow. The main morphological changes in the gill structure of a growing fish include the following: (1) intense cell proliferation in the filaments and lamellae, resulting in increasing epithelial thickness and decreasing interlamellar distance; (2) pillar cell system atrophy, which reduces the blood circulation through the lamellae; (3) the generation of long cytoplasmic processes from the epithelial cells into the intercellular space, resulting in continuous and sinuous paracellular channels between the epithelial cells of the filament and lamella that may be involved in gas, ion, and nutrient transport to epithelial cells; and (4) intense mitochondria-rich cell (MRC) proliferation in the lamellar epithelium. All of these morphological changes in the gills contribute to a low increase of the respiratory surface area for gas exchange and an increase in the water-blood diffusion distance increasing their dependence on air-breathing as fish developed. The increased proliferation of MRCs may contribute to increased ion uptake, which favors the regulation of ion content and pH equilibrium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ontogeny and paleophysiology of the gill: new insights from larval and air-breathing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Colin J; Rombough, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    There are large changes in gill function during development associated with ionoregulation and gas exchange in both larval and air-breathing fish. Physiological studies of larvae indicate that, contrary to accepted dogma but consistent with morphology, the initial function of the gill is primarily ionoregulatory and only secondarily respiratory. In air-breathing fish, as the gill becomes progressively less important in terms of O(2) uptake with expansion of the air-breathing organ, it retains its roles in CO(2) excretion, ion exchange and acid-base balance. The observation that gill morphology and function is strongly influenced by ionoregulatory needs in both larval and air-breathing fish may have evolutionary implications. In particular, it suggests that the inability of the skin to maintain ion and acid-base balance as protovertebrates increased in size and became more active may have been more important in driving gill development than O(2) insufficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrastructure (SEM of the gills of Prochilodus Scrofa Steindachner (Pisces, Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura Regina Eiras-Stofella

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills arches of the freshwater fish Prochilodus scrofa Steindachner, 1881 (Lt= 8.0-12.4cm were removed to be analyzed in a scanning electron microscope. The morphology of the superficial structures of the gill filaments and pharyngeal region of the gills arches was discussed and related to their functional aspects. A great quantity of mucous secretory cells and of microridges, along with the pavement cell surface of the primary lamellae and branchial pharyngeal region, indicate the existence of a protection strategy of the respiratory lamellae. The chloride cells are abundant, specially on the distal portion of the primary lamellae, and bring out the osmo regulatory capacity of this species. This fish seems not to be a filtering one according to: its short and simple gill rakers; presence of several taste buds turned towards the mouth opening; evidence of spines on the external side of the arches and an abundant secretion of mucous in the pharyngeal region. This species probably selects the food to be swallowed through its chemical receptors and retains it with the help of spines and mucous secretion this way protecting the gills filaments against the rubbing of particles over them.

  14. Ribosomal RNA analysis indicates a benthic pennate diatom ancestry for the endosymbionts of the dinoflagellates Peridinium foliaceum and Peridinium balticum (Pyrrhophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnick, J M; Kooistra, W H; Wellbrock, U; Medlin, L K

    1997-01-01

    The establishment of chloroplasts as cellular organelles in the dinoflagellate, heterokont (stramenopile), haptophyte, and cryptophyte algae is widely accepted to have been the result of secondary endosymbiotic events, that is, the uptake of a photosynthetic eukaryote by a phagotrophic eukaryote. However, the circumstances that promote such associations between two phylogenetically distinct organisms and result in the integration of their genomes to form a single functional photosynthetic cell is unclear. The dinoflagellates Peridinium foliaceum and Peridinium balticum are unusual in that each contains a membrane-bound eukaryotic heterokont endosymbiont. These symbioses have been interpreted, through data derived from ultrastructural and biochemical investigations, to represent an intermediate stage of secondary endosymbiotic chloroplast acquisition. In this study we have examined the phylogenetic origin of the P. foliaceum and P. balticum heterokont endosymbionts through analysis of their nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate both endosymbionts are pennate diatoms belonging to the family Bacillariaceae. Since members of the Bacillariaceae are usually benthic, living on shallow marine sediments, the manner in which establishment of a symbiosis between a planktonic flagellated dinoflagellate and a bottom-dwelling diatom is discussed. In particular, specific environmentally-associated life strategy stages of the host and symbiont, coupled with diatom food preferences by the dinoflagellate, may have been vital to the formation of this association.

  15. Differences in Bacterial Population in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbum Fry after Transfer from Incubator to Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum fry from a commercial freshwater hatchery, along with important water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, was analysed. Samples for bacteriological analysis were taken from gill, heart and kidney, from the third to the eighth week after hatching. Pure bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, with Gram staining and biochemical tests. For final identification, the APILAB Plus programme (bioMérieux, France was used. The bacterial populations of rainbow trout fry changed depending on age. Most of the bacterial colonies were cultured from the gills (64.4 %, rather than the heart (21.8 % and kidney (13.8 %. The bacterial community of fry gills from an incubator was composed mostly of Gram-positive bacteria such as Renibacterium salmoninarum, Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After the transfer of fry from incubator into the pools the Gram-negative bacteria increased in number and became the dominant microflora of rainbow trout fry and comprised more than 95 % of its bacterial flora. Flavibacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram-negative genera in fry in the incubator, whereas Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were the main isolates from rainbow trout fry until the end of the experiment.

  16. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  17. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Mast, C.A. van der; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35 s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  18. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health.

  19. The mussel filter–pump – present understanding, with a re-examination of gill preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Funch, Peter; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2015-01-01

    Filter feeding in mussels is a secondary adaptation where the gills have become W-shaped and greatly enlarged, acting as the mussel filter–pump. Water pumping and particle capture in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, have been studied over many years. Here, we give a short status of the present...... understanding of ciliary structure and function of the mussel filter–pump, supplemented with new photo-microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of gill preparations. Pumping rate (filtration) and pressure to maintain flow have been extensively studied so the power delivered by the mussel pump......-pumping cilia so that continuous feeding with a ‘minimal scaled’ pump is cheaper than discontinuous feeding with a correspondingly larger pump. According to the present view, the pump proper is the beating lateral cilia (lc) on the gill filaments and particle capture is accomplished by the action...

  20. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  1. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  2. Antioxidant deficit in gills of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) exposed to chlorodinitrobenzene increases menadione toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Arl, Miriam; Sacchet, Cássia Lopes; Engel, Cristiano Severino; Danielli, Naissa Maria; Mello, Danielle Ferraz; Brocardo, Caroline; Maris, Angelica Francesca; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in antioxidant defenses decrease cellular protection against oxidative stress and jeopardize cellular homeostasis. To knock down the antioxidant defenses of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, animals were pre-treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and further challenged with pro-oxidant menadione (MEN). CDNB pre-treatment (10 μM for 18 h) was able to consume cellular thiols in gills, decreasing GSH (53%) and decrease protein thiols (25%). CDNB pre-treatment also disrupted glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activity in the gills, but likewise strongly induced glutathione S-transferase activity (270% increase). Surprisingly, hemocyte viability was greatly affected 24 h after CDNB removal, indicating a possible vulnerability of the oyster immune system to electrophilic attack. New in vivo approaches were established, allowing the identification of higher rates of GSH–CDNB conjugate export to the seawater and enabling the measurement of the organic peroxide consumption rate. CDNB-induced impairment in antioxidant defenses decreased the peroxide removal rate from seawater. After showing that CDNB decreased gill antioxidant defenses and increased DNA damage in hemocytes, oysters were further challenged with 1 mM MEN over 24 h. MEN treatment did not affect thiol homeostasis in gills, while CDNB pre-treated animals recovered GSH and PSH to the control level after 24 h of depuration. Interestingly, MEN intensified GSH and PSH loss and mortality in CDNB-pre-treated animals, showing a clear synergistic effect. The superoxide-generating one-electron reduction of MEN was predominant in gills and may have contributed to MEN toxicity. These results support the idea that antioxidant-depleted animals are more susceptible to oxidative attack, which can compromise survival. Data also corroborate the idea that gills are an important detoxifying organ, able to dispose of organic peroxides, induce phase II enzymes, and efficiently export GSH

  3. Antioxidant deficit in gills of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) exposed to chlorodinitrobenzene increases menadione toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Arl, Miriam [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Sacchet, Cassia Lopes [Universidade do Oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Engel, Cristiano Severino; Danielli, Naissa Maria; Mello, Danielle Ferraz [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Brocardo, Caroline [Universidade do Oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Maris, Angelica Francesca [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Dafre, Alcir Luiz, E-mail: alcir@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-02-15

    Disturbances in antioxidant defenses decrease cellular protection against oxidative stress and jeopardize cellular homeostasis. To knock down the antioxidant defenses of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, animals were pre-treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and further challenged with pro-oxidant menadione (MEN). CDNB pre-treatment (10 {mu}M for 18 h) was able to consume cellular thiols in gills, decreasing GSH (53%) and decrease protein thiols (25%). CDNB pre-treatment also disrupted glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activity in the gills, but likewise strongly induced glutathione S-transferase activity (270% increase). Surprisingly, hemocyte viability was greatly affected 24 h after CDNB removal, indicating a possible vulnerability of the oyster immune system to electrophilic attack. New in vivo approaches were established, allowing the identification of higher rates of GSH-CDNB conjugate export to the seawater and enabling the measurement of the organic peroxide consumption rate. CDNB-induced impairment in antioxidant defenses decreased the peroxide removal rate from seawater. After showing that CDNB decreased gill antioxidant defenses and increased DNA damage in hemocytes, oysters were further challenged with 1 mM MEN over 24 h. MEN treatment did not affect thiol homeostasis in gills, while CDNB pre-treated animals recovered GSH and PSH to the control level after 24 h of depuration. Interestingly, MEN intensified GSH and PSH loss and mortality in CDNB-pre-treated animals, showing a clear synergistic effect. The superoxide-generating one-electron reduction of MEN was predominant in gills and may have contributed to MEN toxicity. These results support the idea that antioxidant-depleted animals are more susceptible to oxidative attack, which can compromise survival. Data also corroborate the idea that gills are an important detoxifying organ, able to dispose of organic peroxides, induce phase II enzymes, and efficiently export GSH

  4. Molecular detection and immunological localization of gill Na+/H+ exchanger in the dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborne, James B; Choe, Keith P; Morrison-Shetlar, Alison I; Weakley, Jill C; Havird, Justin; Freiji, Abe; Evans, David H; Edwards, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    The dogfish (Squalus acanthias) can make rapid adjustments to gill acid-base transfers to compensate for internal acidosis/alkalosis. Branchial Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) has been postulated as one mechanism driving the excretion of H+ following acidosis. We have cloned gill cDNA that includes an open reading frame coding for a 770-residue protein most homologous (approximately 71%) to mammalian NHE2. RT-PCR revealed NHE2 transcripts predominantly in gill, stomach, rectal gland, intestine, and kidney. In situ hybridization with an antisense probe against NHE2 in gill sections revealed a strong mRNA signal from a subset of interlamellar and lamellae cells. We developed dogfish-specific polyclonal antibodies against NHE2 that detected a approximately 70-kDa protein in Western blots and immunologically recognized branchial cells having two patterns of protein expression. Cytoplasmic and apical NHE2 immunoreactivity were observed in cells coexpressing basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase. Other large ovoid cells more generally staining for NHE2 also were strongly positive for basolateral H+-ATPase. Gill mRNA levels for NHE2 and H+-ATPase did not change following systemic acidosis (as measured by quantitative PCR 2 h after a 1- or 2-meq/kg acid infusion). These data indicate that posttranslational adjustments of NHE2 and other transport systems (e.g., NHE3) following acidosis may be of importance in the short-term pH adjustment and net branchial H+ efflux observed in vivo. NHE2 may play multiple roles in the gills, involved with H+ efflux from acid-secreting cells, basolateral H+ reabsorption for pHi regulation, and in parallel with H+-ATPase for the generation of HCO3(-) in base-secreting cells.

  5. Histological alterations in gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles exposed to ammonia and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Fabrício Martins; Rönnau, Milton; Sponchiado, Dircelei; Forneck, Sandra Carla; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Ballester, Eduardo Luis Cupertino

    2017-06-01

    Aquaculture has shown great growth in the last decades. Due to the restrictions on water use, production systems are becoming increasingly more intensive, raising concerns about the production water quality. Macrobrachium amazonicum is among the freshwater prawn species with favorable characteristics for production and possibility of intensification. Nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitrite affect the health of aquatic organisms since they quickly reach toxic concentrations. These compounds can also cause damage to the gill structure, leading to hypoxia in tissues, affecting acid-base balance, osmoregulation (salt absorption) and ammonia excretion, decreasing the immune capacity of the animal and, in extreme cases, cause death. The aim of this study was to assess histological changes in the gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles subjected to different concentrations of total ammonia and nitrite. The prawns were subjected to different concentrations of those compounds and their gills were removed and preserved for histological analysis. The gills were assessed for changes according to the Organ Index (I org ) and, for each change, an importance factor (w) was attributed according to the degree of reversibility and applied according to the degree of extension or frequency of the damage. The damage to the gills in the treatments with 100% mortality, both for ammonia and nitrite, corresponded to the high occurrence of progressive, regressive, circulatory, and inflammation damages. The other treatments (which caused less mortality) had mainly inflammation and regressive damages, whose occurrence increased according to the increase in ammonia and nitrite concentration. The histological analysis confirmed that the higher the total ammonia and nitrite concentrations, the larger the damages caused to the gill structure and that lower nitrite concentrations caused similar damages to those caused by higher total ammonia concentrations, which reflects the lower

  6. The distribution of mitochondria-rich cells in the gills of air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Chen; Sung, Wen-Ting

    2003-01-01

    Respiration and ion regulation are the two principal functions of teleostean gills. Mainly found in the gill filaments of fish, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) proliferate to increase the ionoregulatory capacity of the gill in response to osmotic challenges. Gill lamellae consist mostly of pavement cells, which are the major site of gas exchange. Although lamellar MRCs have been reported in some fish species, there has been little discussion of which fish species are likely to have lamellar MRCs. In this study, we first compared the number of filament and lamellar MRCs in air-breathing and non-air-breathing fish species acclimated to freshwater and 5 g NaCl L(-1) conditions. An increase in filament MRCs was found in both air-breathing and non-air-breathing fish acclimated to freshwater. Lamellar MRCs were found only in air-breathing species, but the number of lamellar MRCs did not change significantly with water conditions, except in Periophthalmus cantonensis. Next, we surveyed the distribution of MRCs in the gills of 66 fish species (including 29 species from the previous literature) from 12 orders, 28 families, and 56 genera. Our hypothesis that lamellar MRCs are more likely to be found in air-breathing fishes was supported by a significant association between the presence of lamellar MRCs and the mode of breathing at three levels of systematic categories (species, genus, and family). Based on this integrative view of the multiple functions of fish gills, we should reexamine the role of MRCs in freshwater fish.

  7. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  8. Collide@CERN: exclusive open rehearsal of Gilles Jobin's last piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Collide@CERN and Gilles Jobin, artist in residency at CERN, present an exclusive open rehearsal of his last piece SPIDER GALAXIES Tuesday 31 July 2012 - A new piece created to open new territories of the mind - Join us in Restaurant 1 from 4 p.m. (next to the Glass Box Restaurant) With this piece, the body turns into matter, which is complete, spatial and sensual. Come and see Gilles Jobin and his dancers. With a score by Cristian Vogel and Carla Scaletti invoking sound particles, while Daniel Demont disperses the spectrum. Protean, infinitely large or infinitesimal, such are the Spider Galaxies.    

  9. GillesPy: A Python Package for Stochastic Model Building and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, John H; Drawert, Brian; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    GillesPy is an open-source Python package for model construction and simulation of stochastic biochemical systems. GillesPy consists of a Python framework for model building and an interface to the StochKit2 suite of efficient simulation algorithms based on the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA). To enable intuitive model construction and seamless integration into the scientific Python stack, we present an easy to understand, action-oriented programming interface. Here, we describe the components of this package and provide a detailed example relevant to the computational biology community.

  10. Detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    There are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern United States, which include: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. The black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. We investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). Eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in Louisiana from June 2010 to March 2011. All 4 common human-biting tick species were represented. Each tick was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting select bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Bacterial DNA was detected in 62% of ticks (n=53). Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of an emerging spotted fever group rickettsiosis, was identified in 66% of A. maculatum, 28% of D. variabilis, and 11% of I. scapularis. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, was detected in 2 I. scapularis, while one A. americanum was positive for Borrelia bissettii, a putative human pathogen. The rickettsial endosymbionts Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, rickettsial endosymbiont of I. scapularis, and Rickettsia amblyommii were detected in their common tick hosts at 21%, 39%, and 60%, respectively. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp., and Babesia microti. This is the first reported detection of R. parkeri in vector ticks in Louisiana; we also report the novel association of R. parkeri with I. scapularis. Detection of both R. parkeri and B. burgdorferi in their respective vectors in Louisiana demands further investigation to determine potential for human exposure to these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Generalist dinoflagellate endosymbionts and host genotype diversity detected from mesophotic (67-100 m depths coral Leptoseris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahng Samuel E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesophotic corals (light-dependent corals in the deepest half of the photic zone at depths of 30 - 150 m provide a unique opportunity to study the limits of the interactions between corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. We sampled Leptoseris spp. in Hawaii via manned submersibles across a depth range of 67 - 100 m. Both the host and Symbiodinium communities were genotyped, using a non-coding region of the mitochondrial ND5 intron (NAD5 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2, respectively. Results Coral colonies harbored endosymbiotic communities dominated by previously identified shallow water Symbiodinium ITS2 types (C1_ AF333515, C1c_ AY239364, C27_ AY239379, and C1b_ AY239363 and exhibited genetic variability at mitochondrial NAD5. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to examine genetic diversity in corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates sampled at the limits of the depth and light gradients for hermatypic corals. The results reveal that these corals associate with generalist endosymbiont types commonly found in shallow water corals and implies that the composition of the Symbiodinium community (based on ITS2 alone is not responsible for the dominance and broad depth distribution of Leptoseris spp. The level of genetic diversity detected in the coral NAD5 suggests that there is undescribed taxonomic diversity in the genus Leptoseris from Hawaii.

  12. Stage-Specific Transcriptome and Proteome Analyses of the Filarial Parasite Onchocerca volvulus and Its Wolbachia Endosymbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Cotton, James A.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Grote, Alexandra; Harsha, Bhavana; Holroyd, Nancy; Mhashilkar, Amruta; Molina, Douglas M.; Randall, Arlo Z.; Shandling, Adam D.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Ghedin, Elodie; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv). In so doing, we have identified stage-specific pathways important to the parasite’s adaptation to its human host during its early development. Further, we generated a protein array that, when screened with well-characterized human samples, identified novel diagnostic biomarkers of O. volvulus infection and new potential vaccine candidates. This immunomic approach not only demonstrates the power of this postgenomic discovery platform but also provides additional tools for onchocerciasis control programs. PMID:27881553

  13. CYP1A inhibition in fish gill filaments: A novel assay applied on pharmaceuticals and other chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijer, Kristina; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunstroem, Bjoern [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Brandt, Ingvar, E-mail: ingvar.brandt@ebc.uu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-31

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was originally developed as a biomarker for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction by Ah-receptor agonists in water. In this study, the assay was adapted to measure inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish gill filaments ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using gill arch filaments from {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF)-exposed three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Candidate CYP1A inhibitors were added to the assay buffer. Nine selected pharmaceuticals and five known or suspected CYP1A-modulating chemicals were examined with regard to their ability to reduce EROD activity in gill filaments. Ellipticine, a well characterized CYP1A inhibitor, was the most effective inhibitor of the compounds tested. At a concentration in the assay buffer of 1 {mu}M the antifungal azoles ketoconazole, miconazole and bitertanol, and the plant flavonoid acacetin reduced gill EROD activity by more than 50%, implying IC50 values below 1 {mu}M. These compounds have previously been shown to inhibit EROD activity in liver microsomes from fish and mammals at similar concentrations. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the gill EROD activity by 39% at 10 {mu}M. It is concluded that the modified gill filament EROD assay is useful to screen for waterborne pollutants that inhibit catalytic CYP1A activity in fish gills.

  14. CYP1A inhibition in fish gill filaments: A novel assay applied on pharmaceuticals and other chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijer, Kristina; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunstroem, Bjoern; Brandt, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was originally developed as a biomarker for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction by Ah-receptor agonists in water. In this study, the assay was adapted to measure inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish gill filaments ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using gill arch filaments from β-naphthoflavone (βNF)-exposed three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Candidate CYP1A inhibitors were added to the assay buffer. Nine selected pharmaceuticals and five known or suspected CYP1A-modulating chemicals were examined with regard to their ability to reduce EROD activity in gill filaments. Ellipticine, a well characterized CYP1A inhibitor, was the most effective inhibitor of the compounds tested. At a concentration in the assay buffer of 1 μM the antifungal azoles ketoconazole, miconazole and bitertanol, and the plant flavonoid acacetin reduced gill EROD activity by more than 50%, implying IC50 values below 1 μM. These compounds have previously been shown to inhibit EROD activity in liver microsomes from fish and mammals at similar concentrations. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the gill EROD activity by 39% at 10 μM. It is concluded that the modified gill filament EROD assay is useful to screen for waterborne pollutants that inhibit catalytic CYP1A activity in fish gills.

  15. Reliability of the Danish version of the McGill ingestive skills assessment for observation-based measures during meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Lambert, Heather C; Faber, Jens

    2012-01-01

    To establish measurement equivalence in terms of reliability of the Danish version of the Canadian McGill ingestive skills assessment (MISA) for use by occupational therapists.......To establish measurement equivalence in terms of reliability of the Danish version of the Canadian McGill ingestive skills assessment (MISA) for use by occupational therapists....

  16. Local and systemic humoral immune response in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under a natural amoebic gill disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-López, Mar; Espinosa Ruiz, Cristóbal; Rodger, Hamish D; O'Connor, Ian; MacCarthy, Eugene; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-07-01

    Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the protozoan parasite Neoparamoeba perurans, is one of the most significant infectious diseases for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. The present study investigated the humoral immune response (both local in gill mucus and systemic in serum) of farmed Atlantic salmon naturally infected with N. perurans in commercial sea pens, at two different stages of the disease and after freshwater treatment. Parameters analysed included activity of immune related enzymes (i.e. lysozyme, peroxidase, protease, anti-protease, esterase, alkaline phosphatase), IgM levels, and the terminal carbohydrate profile in the gill mucus. Overall, greater variations between groups were noted in the immune parameters determined in gill mucus than the equivalent in the serum. In gill mucus, IgM levels and peroxidase, lysozyme, esterase and protease activities were decreased in fish showing longer exposure time to the infection and higher disease severity, then showed a sequential increase after treatment. Results obtained highlight the capacity of gills to elicit a local response to the infection, indicate an impaired immune response at the later stages of the disease, and show partial reestablishment of the host immune status after freshwater treatment. In addition to providing data on the humoral response to AGD, this study increases knowledge on gill mucosal humoral immunity, since some of the parameters were analysed for the first time in gill mucus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface ultrastructure of the gill filaments and the secondary lamellae of the catfish, Rita rita, and the carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Surface ultrastructures of gill filaments and secondary lamellae of Rita rita and Cirrhinus mrigala, inhabiting different ecological habitat, were investigated to unravel adaptive modifications. R. rita is a sluggish, bottom dwelling carnivorous catfish, which inhabits regions of river with accumulations of dirty water. It retains its viability for long time if taken out of water. C. mrigala is an active bottom dwelling Indian major carp, which lives in relatively clean water and dies shortly after taken out of water. In R. rita, gill septa between gill filaments are reduced. Microridges on epithelial cells covering gill filaments are often continuous and arranged concentrically. Secondary lamellae are extensive. The epithelium appears corrugated, show irregular elevations and shallow depressions, and microridges on epithelial cells appear fragmented. In C. mrigala, in contrast, the gill septa are extensive. Microridges on epithelial cells covering gill filaments are fragmented. Secondary lamellae are less extensive. The epithelium appears smooth and microridges on epithelial cells are relatively inconspicuous. These differences have been considered adaptive modification in relation to habit and ecological niches inhabited by two fish species. Presence of mucous goblet cells on gill filaments is discussed in relation to their functions including precipitation of the sediments and preventing clogging of gill filaments. Infrequent mucous goblet cells in the epithelium of secondary lamellae in two fish species are considered an adaptation, minimizing thickness of the epithelium to reduce barrier between blood and water for favoring gasses exchange with increased efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The Gut Commensal Microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster Is Modified by the Endosymbiont Wolbachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Rama K; Fast, Eva M; Guo, Rong; Schultz, Michaela J; Vaisman, Natalie; Ortiz, Luis; Bybee, Joanna; Slatko, Barton E; Frydman, Horacio M

    2017-01-01

    Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria and the gut microbiome have independently been shown to affect several aspects of insect biology, including reproduction, development, life span, stem cell activity, and resistance to human pathogens, in insect vectors. This work shows that Wolbachia bacteria, which reside mainly in the fly germline, affect the microbial species present in the fly gut in a lab-reared strain. Drosophila melanogaster hosts two main genera of commensal bacteria- Acetobacter and Lactobacillus . Wolbachia -infected flies have significantly reduced titers of Acetobacter . Sampling of the microbiome of axenic flies fed with equal proportions of both bacteria shows that the presence of Wolbachia bacteria is a significant determinant of the composition of the microbiome throughout fly development. However, this effect is host genotype dependent. To investigate the mechanism of microbiome modulation, the effect of Wolbachia bacteria on Imd and reactive oxygen species pathways, the main regulators of immune response in the fly gut, was measured. The presence of Wolbachia bacteria does not induce significant changes in the expression of the genes for the effector molecules in either pathway. Furthermore, microbiome modulation is not due to direct interaction between Wolbachia bacteria and gut microbes. Confocal analysis shows that Wolbachia bacteria are absent from the gut lumen. These results indicate that the mechanistic basis of the modulation of composition of the microbiome by Wolbachia bacteria is more complex than a direct bacterial interaction or the effect of Wolbachia bacteria on fly immunity. The findings reported here highlight the importance of considering the composition of the gut microbiome and host genetic background during Wolbachia -induced phenotypic studies and when formulating microbe-based disease vector control strategies. IMPORTANCE Wolbachia bacteria are intracellular bacteria present in the microbiome of a large fraction of insects

  19. Pederin-type pathways of uncultivated bacterial symbionts: analysis of o-methyltransferases and generation of a biosynthetic hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katrin; Engeser, Marianne; Blunt, John W; Munro, Murray H G; Piel, Jörn

    2009-03-04

    The complex polyketide pederin is a potent antitumor agent isolated from Paederus spp. rove beetles. We have previously isolated a set of genes from a bacterial endosymbiont that are good candidates for pederin biosynthesis. To biochemically study this pathway, we expressed three methyltransferases from the putative pederin pathway and used the partially unmethylated analogue mycalamide A from the marine sponge Mycale hentscheli as test substrate. Analysis by high-resolution MS/MS and NMR revealed that PedO regiospecifically methylates the marine compound to generate the nonnatural hybrid compound 18-O-methylmycalamide A with increased cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first biochemical evidence that invertebrates can obtain defensive complex polyketides from bacterial symbionts.

  20. Combined effects of silver nanoparticles and mercury on gill histopathology of zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the combined effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs and Hg2+ on the gill histopathology of zebrafish (Danio rerio under the controlled conditions. Methods: In this study, one non-lethal concentration of Ag NPs (0.1 mg/L, six concentrations of Hg2+ (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L, and six mixture concentrations of Ag NPs and Hg2+ (0.1 plus 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/L were used as the control group. After 4 days of exposure, samples were prepared for gill histology. Results: The results showed that notable damages were observed in aneurism, such as vacuolation of secondary lamella, fusion, hypertrophy, mucus secretion and necrosis. Moreover, our findings indicated that the Hg2+ and Ag NPs alone led to shorter secondary lamella length and smaller lamellae’s diameter of gills compared to the mixture of Ag NPs and Hg2+. However, the extent of damages in gill tissues after exposure to mixture of Ag NPs and Hg2+ was lower than Hg2+ ions and Ag NPs. Conclusions: It appears that the presence of Ag NPs can potentially reduce the toxicity of Hg2+ ions. However, to assess the toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles in presence of pollutants, further studies should be encouraged.

  1. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome—A Case Report from Guyana in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eapen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome from Guyana in South America is presented. The patient had a positive family history as well as coprolalia, echolalia, and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The family history and cross-cultural similarity emphasise the biological factors in the aetiology of the syndrome.

  2. Structural Changes in the Somatosensory System Correlate with Tic Severity in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomalla, Gotz; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Jonas, Melanie; Baumer, Tobias; Biermann-Ruben, Katja; Hummel, Friedhelm; Gerloff, Christian; Muller-Vahl, Kirsten; Schnitzler, Alfons; Orth, Michael; Munchau, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Previous structural MRI studies have identified regional abnormalities in grey matter, especially in the basal ganglia. These findings are consistent with the assumption of alterations in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and…

  3. Abnormal CT scan in a patient with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, M.; Boris, P.; Gadegaard Hansen, L.

    1986-07-01

    In a 28-year-old woman, who presented multiple muscular and vocal tics, typical of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, CT scans revealed a large porencephalic cyst in the right hemisphere involving the right basal ganglia, as well as contrast enhancement in the region of the left basal ganglia.

  4. Abnormal CT scan in a patient with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer, M.; Boris, P.; Gadegaard Hansen, L.

    1986-01-01

    In a 28-year-old woman, who presented multiple muscular and vocal tics, typical of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, CT scans revealed a large porencephalic cyst in the right hemisphere involving the right basal ganglia, as well as contrast enhancement in the region of the left basal ganglia. (orig.)

  5. Tiques e síndrome de Gilles de la Tourette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Pitágoras de Mattos

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revisam a literatura a propósito dos tiques e da síndrome de Gilles de la Tourette, abordando os aspectos históricos, etiopatogênicos, neuropatológicos, semiológicos, clínicos e terapêuticos.

  6. Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl), juveniles and adult Metynnis orinocensis were exposed for 96 h to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 40 g L-1 of salt. Food intake, behaviour, opercular frequency (OF), mortality, body weight and gill microscopic alterations were evaluated. Behavioural changes...

  7. The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown mussel, Perna perna. MA Gregory' ... exhibit many of the characteristics which are widely sought in sentinel ... tion surveys (Gardner, Connell, Eagle, Moldan, Oliff, Orren ..... From the undifferentiated cell/lateral cell interface to the cen- .... amorphous material.

  8. Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome in Childhood: A Guide for School Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Abbe L.; Carter, Alice S.

    1997-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS) is considered a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. With some cases, a variety of neurocognitive, social, and emotional difficulties are present. Describes core features of GTS and highlights how symptoms and their features may interfere with school functioning. School…

  9. IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... English · Français ... at the annual conference of McGill University's Institute for the Study ... women's autonomy, voice, and well-being in the household, at work, ... ISID has also tackled how to measure women's economic empowerment by reviewing the various approaches used in GrOW research projects.

  10. Isolation and characterization of bioactive fungi from shark Carcharodon carcharias' gill with biopharmaceutical prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Han, Jinyuan; Feng, Yan; Mu, Jun; Bao, Haiyan; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, little was known about the fungi found in shark gills and their biomedicinal potential. In this article, we described the isolation, bioactivity, diversity, and secondary metabolites of bioactive fungi from the gill of a shark ( Carcharodon carcharias). A total of 115 isolates were obtained and grown in 12 culture media. Fifty-eight of these isolates demonstrated significant activity in four antimicrobial, pesticidal, and cytotoxic bioassay models. Four randomly selected bioactive isolates inhibited human cancer cell proliferation during re-screening. These active isolates were segregated into 6 genera using the internal transcribed spacer-large subunit (ITS-LSU) rDNA-sequence BLAST comparison. Four genera, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Chaetomium were the dominant taxa. A phylogenic tree illustrated their intergenera and intragenera genetic diversity. HPLC-DAD-HRMS analysis and subsequent database searching revealed that nine representative strains produced diverse bioactive compound profiles. These results detail the broad range of bioactive fungi found in a shark's gills, revealing their biopharmaceutical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing shark gill fungi and their bioactivity.

  11. Aquatic gilled mushrooms: Psathyrella fruiting in the Rogue River in southern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jonathan L; Coffan, Robert A; Southworth, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    A species of Psathyrella (Basidiomycota) with true gills has been observed fruiting underwater in the clear, cold, flowing waters of the upper Rogue River in Oregon. Fruiting bodies develop and mature in the main channel, where they are constantly submerged, and were observed fruiting over 11 wk. These mushrooms develop underwater, not on wood recently washed into the river. Substrates include water-logged wood, gravel and the silty riverbed. DNA sequences of the ITS region and a portion of the ribosomal large subunit gene place this fungus in Psathyrella sensu stricto near P. atomata, P. fontinalis and P. superiorensis. Morphological characters distinguish the underwater mushroom from previously described species. Fruiting bodies have long fibrillose stipes with small diameter caps. Immature stages have a thin veil that is soon lost. Gills lack reddish edges. Cystidia are ventricose with subacute apices. Spores were observed as wedge-shape rafts released into gas pockets below the caps. Underwater gills and ballistospores indicate a recent adaptation to the stream environment. This particular river habitat combines the characteristics of spring-fed flows and cold, aerated water with woody debris in shallow depths on a fine volcanic substrate. Based on molecular and morphological evidence we conclude that the underwater mushrooms are a new species, Psathyrella aquatica. This report adds to the biodiversity of stream fungi that degrade woody substrates. The underwater environment is a new habitat for gilled mushrooms.

  12. Three Cases of Palatal Tics and Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizzo, Renata; Cath, Danielle; Pavone, Piero; Tijssen, Marina; Robertson, Mary M.

    Five patients with palatal tics and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome have been previously reported. Little is known about the characteristics of palatal tics given that there are so few reports. On one hand, palatal tics may be rare. Alternatively, they may be less well recognized than repetitive eye

  13. Three Cases of Palatal Tics and Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Cath, Danielle; Pavone, Piero; Tijssen, Marina; Robertson, Mary M

    2015-08-01

    Five patients with palatal tics and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome have been previously reported. Little is known about the characteristics of palatal tics given that there are so few reports. On one hand, palatal tics may be rare. Alternatively, they may be less well recognized than repetitive eye blinking or sniffing, which are both obvious and, therefore, more often reported. We describe 3 patients with palatal tics and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We also review the 5 patients reported in the literature and explore whether there are characteristic features among this group of 8 cases. The 8 patients had the following features: (1) Personal history of other multiple motor/vocal tics, (2) the presence of typical Gilles de la Tourette syndrome comorbidities, (3) positive family history of tics and/or Gilles de la Tourette syndrome comorbidities, (4) the presence of audible "ear clicks," (5) younger age at onset (2 years). We suggest that palatal tics are underreported. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Association of AADAC Deletion and Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Riff Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic influence where copy number variations are suggested to play a role in disease pathogenesis. In a previous small-scale copy number variation study of a GTS cohort (n = 111), recurrent exon...

  15. Hydrodynamic pumping by serial gill arrays in the mayfly nymph Centroptilum triangulifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Kiger, Ken T; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2010-10-01

    Aquatic nymphs of the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer produce ventilatory flow using a serial array of seven abdominal gill pairs that operates across a Reynolds numbers (Re) range from 2 to 22 during ontogeny. Net flow in small animals is directed ventrally and essentially parallel to the stroke plane (i.e. rowing), but net flow in large animals is directed dorsally and essentially transverse to the stroke plane (i.e. flapping). Detailed flow measurements based on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) ensemble-correlation analysis revealed that the phasing of the gills produces a time-dependent array of vortices associated with a net ventilatory current, a fluid kinematic pattern, here termed a 'phased vortex pump'. Absolute size of vortices does not change with increasing animal size or Re, and thus the vortex radius (R(v)) decreases relative to inter-gill distance (L(is)) during mayfly growth. Given that effective flapping in appendage-array animals requires organized flow between adjacent appendages, we hypothesize that rowing should be favored when L(is)/R(v)1. Significantly, the rowing-to-flapping transition in Centroptilum occurs at Re∼5, when the mean dynamic inter-gill distance equals the vortex radius. This result suggests that the Re-based rowing-flapping demarcation observed in appendage-array aquatic organisms may be determined by the relative size of the propulsive mechanism and its self-generated vortices.

  16. Stereological estimation of surface area and barrier thickness of fish gills in vertical sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Oscar T F; Pedretti, Ana Carolina E; Schmitz, Anke; Perry, Steven F; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2007-01-01

    Previous morphometric methods for estimation of the volume of components, surface area and thickness of the diffusion barrier in fish gills have taken advantage of the highly ordered structure of these organs for sampling and surface area estimations, whereas the thickness of the diffusion barrier has been measured orthogonally on perpendicularly sectioned material at subjectively selected sites. Although intuitively logical, these procedures do not have a demonstrated mathematical basis, do not involve random sampling and measurement techniques, and are not applicable to the gills of all fish. The present stereological methods apply the principles of surface area estimation in vertical uniform random sections to the gills of the Brazilian teleost Arapaima gigas. The tissue was taken from the entire gill apparatus of the right-hand or left-hand side (selected at random) of the fish by systematic random sampling and embedded in glycol methacrylate for light microscopy. Arches from the other side were embedded in Epoxy resin. Reference volume was estimated by the Cavalieri method in the same vertical sections that were used for surface density and volume density measurements. The harmonic mean barrier thickness of the water-blood diffusion barrier was calculated from measurements taken along randomly selected orientation lines that were sine-weighted relative to the vertical axis. The values thus obtained for the anatomical diffusion factor (surface area divided by barrier thickness) compare favourably with those obtained for other sluggish fish using existing methods.

  17. Theohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of Koi cyprinus carpio in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a single pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring 16....

  18. Thelohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of koi Cyprinus carpio in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a singly pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring, 1...

  19. Attenuation of UV-B exposure-induced inflammation by abalone hypobranchial gland and gill extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Jungudomjaroen, Sumon; Akter Mitu, Shahida; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Sobhon, Prasert; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a known causative factor for many skin complications such as wrinkles, black spots, shedding and inflammation. Within the wavelengths 280‑320 nm, UV-B can penetrate to the epidermal level. This investigation aimed to test whether extracts from the tropical abalone [Haliotis asinina (H. asinina)] mucus-secreting tissues, the hypobranchial gland (HBG) and gills, were able to attenuate the inflammatory process, using the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Cytotoxicity of abalone tissue extracts was determined using an AlamarBlue viability assay. Results showed that HaCaT cells could survive when incubated in crude HBG and gill extracts at concentrations between abalone extract from both the HBG and gill (0, 0.1, 2.5, 5 µg/ml). A significant increase in cell viability was observed (P2.5 µg/ml extract showed a significant decrease in intensity for COX‑2, phospho‑p38 and phospho‑SPK/JNK. The present study demonstrated that abalone extracts from the HGB and gill can attenuate inflammatory proteins triggered by UV-B. Hence, the contents of abalone extract, including cellmetabolites and peptides, may provide new agents for skin anti‑inflammation, preventing damage due to UV-B.

  20. NHE3 in an ancestral vertebrate: primary sequence, distribution, localization, and function in gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Keith P; Kato, Akira; Hirose, Shigehisa; Plata, Consuelo; Sindic, Aleksandra; Romero, Michael F; Claiborne, J B; Evans, David H

    2005-11-01

    In mammals, the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is expressed with Na+/K+-ATPase in renal proximal tubules, where it secretes H+ and absorbs Na+ to maintain blood pH and volume. In elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and stingrays), the gills are the dominant site of pH and osmoregulation. This study was conducted to determine whether epithelial NHE homologs exist in elasmobranchs and, if so, to localize their expression in gills and determine whether their expression is altered by environmental salinity or hypercapnia. Degenerate primers and RT-PCR were used to deduce partial sequences of mammalian NHE2 and NHE3 homologs from the gills of the euryhaline Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina). Real-time PCR was then used to demonstrate that mRNA expression of the NHE3 homolog increased when stingrays were transferred to low salinities but not during hypercapnia. Expression of the NHE2 homolog did not change with either treatment. Rapid amplification of cDNA was then used to deduce the complete sequence of a putative NHE3. The 2,744-base pair cDNA includes a coding region for a 2,511-amino acid protein that is 70% identical to human NHE3 (SLC9A3). Antisera generated against the carboxyl tail of the putative stingray NHE3 labeled the apical membranes of Na+/K+-ATPase-rich epithelial cells, and acclimation to freshwater caused a redistribution of labeling in the gills. This study provides the first NHE3 cloned from an elasmobranch and is the first to demonstrate an increase in gill NHE3 expression during acclimation to low salinities, suggesting that NHE3 can absorb Na+ from ion-poor environments.

  1. Type IV carbonic anhydrase is present in the gills of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, K M; Bayaa, M; Kenney, L; McNeill, B; Perry, S F

    2007-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical studies have provided indirect evidence for a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform, similar to mammalian type IV CA, in the gills of dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This CA isoform is linked to the plasma membrane of gill epithelial cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and oriented toward the plasma, such that it can catalyze the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions. The present study directly tested the hypothesis that CA IV is present in dogfish gills in a location amenable to catalyzing plasma HCO(3)(-) dehydration. Homology cloning techniques were used to assemble a 1,127 base pair cDNA that coded for a deduced protein of 306 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this protein was a type IV CA. For purposes of comparison, a second cDNA (1,107 base pairs) was cloned from dogfish blood; it encoded a deduced protein of 260 amino acids that was identified as a cytosolic CA through phylogenetic analysis. Using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, mRNA expression for the dogfish type IV CA was detected in gill tissue and specifically localized to pillar cells and branchial epithelial cells that flanked the pillar cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody raised against rainbow trout type IV CA revealed a similar pattern of CA IV immunoreactivity and demonstrated a limited degree of colocalization with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity. The presence and localization of a type IV CA isoform in the gills of dogfish is consistent with the hypothesis that branchial membrane-bound CA with an extracellular orientation contributes to CO(2) excretion in dogfish by catalyzing the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions.

  2. Regulation of gill claudin paralogs by salinity, cortisol and prolactin in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Breves, Jason P; Rabeneck, D Brett; Trubitt, Rebecca T; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    In euryhaline teleosts, reorganization of gill tight junctions during salinity acclimation involves dynamic expression of specific claudin (Cldn) paralogs. We identified four transcripts encoding Cldn tight junction proteins in the tilapia gill transcriptome: cldn10c, cldn10e, cldn28a and cldn30. A tissue distribution experiment found cldn10c and cldn10e expression levels in the gill to be 100-fold higher than any other tissues examined. cldn28a and cldn30 levels in the gill were 10-fold greater than levels in other tissues. Expression of these genes in Mozambique tilapia was examined during acclimation to fresh water (FW), seawater (SW), and in response to hormone treatments. Transfer of tilapia from FW to SW elevated cldn10c and cldn10e, while cldn28a and cldn30 were stimulated following transfer from SW to FW. In hypophysectomized tilapia transferred to FW, pituitary extirpation induced reduced expression of cldn10c, cldn10e and cldn28a; these effects were mitigated equally by either prolactin or cortisol replacement. In vitro experiments with gill filaments showed that cortisol stimulated expression of all four cldns examined, suggesting a direct action of cortisol in situ. Our data indicate that elevated cldn10c and cldn10e expression is important during acclimation of tilapia to SW possibly by conferring ion specific paracellular permeability. On the other hand, expression of cldn28a and cldn30 appears to contribute to reorganization of branchial epithelium during FW acclimation. Hormone treatment experiments showed that particular FW- and SW-induced cldns are controlled by cortisol and prolactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparisons of host mitochondrial, nuclear and endosymbiont bacterial genes reveal cryptic fig wasp species and the effects of Wolbachia on host mtDNA evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasp species usually display a highly specific one-to-one association. However, more and more studies have revealed that the "one-to-one" rule has been broken. Co-pollinators have been reported, but we do not yet know how they evolve. They may evolve from insect speciation induced or facilitated by Wolbachia which can manipulate host reproduction and induce reproductive isolation. In addition, Wolbachia can affect host mitochondrial DNA evolution, because of the linkage between Wolbachia and associated mitochondrial haplotypes, and thus confound host phylogeny based on mtDNA. Previous research has shown that fig wasps have the highest incidence of Wolbachia infection in all insect taxa, and Wolbachia may have great influence on fig wasp biology. Therefore, we look forward to understanding the influence of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA evolution and speciation in fig wasps. Results We surveyed 76 pollinator wasp specimens from nine Ficus microcarpa trees each growing at a different location in Hainan and Fujian Provinces, China. We found that all wasps were morphologically identified as Eupristina verticillata, but diverged into three clades with 4.22-5.28% mtDNA divergence and 2.29-20.72% nuclear gene divergence. We also found very strong concordance between E. verticillata clades and Wolbachia infection status, and the predicted effects of Wolbachia on both mtDNA diversity and evolution by decreasing mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusions Our study reveals that the pollinating wasp E. verticillata on F. microcarpa has diverged into three cryptic species, and Wolbachia may have a role in this divergence. The results also indicate that Wolbachia strains infecting E. verticillata have likely resulted in selective sweeps on host mitochondrial DNA.

  4. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook James M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306 of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may

  5. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M; Berkelmans, R; van Oppen, M J H; Mieog, J C; Sinclair, W

    2008-06-22

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthellae they harbour and, when multiple types are present, the relative abundance of types can be experimentally manipulated to increase the thermal limits of individual corals. Although the potential exists for this to translate into substantial thermal acclimatization of coral communities, to date there is no evidence to show that this takes place under natural conditions. In this study, we show field evidence of a dramatic change in the symbiont community of Acropora millepora, a common and widespread Indo-Pacific hard coral species, after a natural bleaching event in early 2006 in the Keppel Islands (Great Barrier Reef). Before bleaching, 93.5% (n=460) of the randomly sampled and tagged colonies predominantly harboured the thermally sensitive Symbiodinium type C2, while the remainder harboured a tolerant Symbiodinium type belonging to clade D or mixtures of C2 and D. After bleaching, 71% of the surviving tagged colonies that were initially C2 predominant changed to D or C1 predominance. Colonies that were originally C2 predominant suffered high mortality (37%) compared with D-predominant colonies (8%). We estimate that just over 18% of the original A. millepora population survived unchanged leaving 29% of the population C2 and 71% D or C1 predominant six months after the bleaching event. This change in the symbiont community structure, while it persists, is likely to have substantially increased the thermal tolerance of this coral population. Understanding the processes that underpin the temporal changes in symbiont communities is key to assessing the acclimatization potential of reef corals.

  6. Genome sequence of the endosymbiont Rickettsia peacockii and comparison with virulent Rickettsia rickettsii: identification of virulence factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick F Felsheim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia peacockii, also known as the East Side Agent, is a non-pathogenic obligate intracellular bacterium found as an endosymbiont in Dermacentor andersoni ticks in the western USA and Canada. Its presence in ticks is correlated with reduced prevalence of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. It has been proposed that a virulent SFG rickettsia underwent changes to become the East Side Agent. We determined the genome sequence of R. peacockii and provide a comparison to a closely related virulent R. rickettsii. The presence of 42 chromosomal copies of the ISRpe1 transposon in the genome of R. peacockii is associated with a lack of synteny with the genome of R. rickettsii and numerous deletions via recombination between transposon copies. The plasmid contains a number of genes from distantly related organisms, such as part of the glycosylation island of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genes deleted or mutated in R. peacockii which may relate to loss of virulence include those coding for an ankyrin repeat containing protein, DsbA, RickA, protease II, OmpA, ScaI, and a putative phosphoethanolamine transferase. The gene coding for the ankyrin repeat containing protein is especially implicated as it is mutated in R. rickettsii strain Iowa, which has attenuated virulence. Presence of numerous copies of the ISRpe1 transposon, likely acquired by lateral transfer from a Cardinium species, are associated with extensive genomic reorganization and deletions. The deletion and mutation of genes possibly involved in loss of virulence have been identified by this genomic comparison. It also illustrates that the introduction of a transposon into the genome can have varied effects; either correlating with an increase in pathogenicity as in Francisella tularensis or a loss of pathogenicity as in R. peacockii and the recombination enabled by multiple transposon copies can cause significant deletions in some genomes while not in others.

  7. Neuropeptides and nitric oxide synthase in the gill and the air-breathing organs of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Giacomo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2006-05-01

    Anatomical and histochemical studies have demonstrated that the bulk of autonomic neurotransmission in fish gill is attributed to cholinergic and adrenergic mechanisms (Nilsson. 1984. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, editors. Fish physiology, Vol. XA. Orlando: Academic Press. p 185-227; Donald. 1998. In: Evans DH, editor. The physiology of fishes, 2nd edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p 407-439). In many tissues, blockade of adrenergic and cholinergic transmission results in residual responses to nerve stimulation, which are termed NonAdrenergic, NonCholinergic (NANC). The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) has provided a basis for explaining many examples of NANC transmissions with accumulated physiological and pharmacological data indicating its function as a primary NANC transmitter. Little is known about the NANC neurotransmission, and studies on neuropeptides and NOS (Nitric Oxide Synthase) are very fragmentary in the gill and the air-breathing organs of fishes. Knowledge of the distribution of nerves and effects of perfusing agonists may help to understand the mechanisms of perfusion regulation in the gill (Olson. 2002. J Exp Zool 293:214-231). Air breathing as a mechanism for acquiring oxygen has evolved independently in several groups of fishes, necessitating modifications of the organs responsible for the exchange of gases. Aquatic hypoxia in freshwaters has been probably the more important selective force in the evolution of air breathing in vertebrates. Fishes respire with gills that are complex structures with many different effectors and potential control systems. Autonomic innervation of the gill has received considerable attention. An excellent review on branchial innervation includes Sundin and Nilsson's (2002. J Exp Zool 293:232-248) with an emphasis on the anatomy and basic functioning of afferent and efferent fibers of the branchial nerves. The chapters by Evans (2002. J Exp Zool 293:336-347) and Olson (2002) provide new challenges about a variety of

  8. The bacterial diversity associated with bacterial diseases on Mud Crab (Scylla serrata Fab.) from Pemalang Coast, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjito; Desrina; Haditomo, AHC; Budi Prayitno, S.

    2018-05-01

    Bacterial disease is a problem in mud crab culture in Pemalang, Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to find out the bacteria associated with bacterial diseases on mud crab based on the molecular approach. Exploratory methods were conducted in this reserach. Twenty two bacteria (SJP 01 – SJP 22) were isolated from carapace and gills and hepathopancreas of moribound mud crab with TCBS and TSA medium. Based on rep PCR, five isolates (SJP 01, SJP 02, SJP 04, SJP 10 and SJP 11) were choosen for further investigation. Result from 16S rDNA sequence analysis, SJP 01, SJP 02, SJP 04, SJP 10 and SJP 11 were closely related to Exiguobacterium sp. ZJ2505 (99%), V. harveyi strain NCIMB1280 (98%), V. alginolyticus strain ATCC 17749(98%.), B. marisflavi strain TF-11 (97%) and E. aestuarii strain TF-16 (99%) respectively.

  9. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na 2 CO 3 and CaCl 2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Graphical abstract: Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by using extract components of croaker gill as adjust control agent. The results indicate that yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph when its concentration is low. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. With the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Highlights: • Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate

  10. SEM study of the effects of crude oil on the gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies on the effects of crude oil on the gills are scanty. Recently, researchers studied the effect of crude oil on the air breathing organs of striped gourami using scanning electron microscope and observed mucous cell hyperplasia coupled with telangiectasis in the epithelia of air breathing organs. The present investigation has been undertaken to study crude oil toxicity by observing the morphological changes occurring in the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus at SEM level. Since the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs function in two different media, a comparative account for their sensitivity to crude oil solutions would be informative

  11. Distribution of Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2012-06-01

    A population of the gill parasite Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Hesse, 1878) was studied on one of its sparid fish hosts, the blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich), off the coast of Madeira Island, Portugal, northeast Atlantic. Very high infection levels of this copepod were detected, with no significant seasonal differences. Abundance was negatively correlated with fish size. There were significant differences in the distribution of this copepod among the gill arches of the host, which seem to be best explained by differences in water flow within the gill habitat.

  12. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and/or Flavobacterium psychrophilum on the gills of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Buchmann, K.

    2015-01-01

    The immune response and morphological changes in the gills of rainbow trout fry after immersion in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Flavobacterium psychrophilum or combined exposure were examined. The gills were sampled 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after exposure, and the regulation of expression of the following...... with gene expression. Although pretreatment with H2O2 before immersion in F. psychrophilum did not significantly alter the amount of bacteria found in the gill, the immune response was influenced: exposure to F. psychrophilum resulted in a negative correlation with expression of IL‐17c1, MHC I and MHC II...

  13. Uptake of uranium in Atlantic salmon gills following exposure experiments demonstrated by SR-XRF tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, O.C.; Cagno, S.; Brit Salbu, H.C.T. [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Vanmeert, F.; Nuyts, G.; Janssens, K. [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Alfeld, M.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron - DESY (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide as well as a heavy metal that can be found in elevated concentrations (mg/L) in the aquatic environment and therefore may pose a risk to aquatic organisms including fish. The major challenges in monitoring the fate of U in complex media, such as soils, sediments and water are to identify mobile and bioavailable U species, interactions with environmental components, transfer to organisms via sorption to surfaces and across membranes, and the internal distribution of target organs. As part of a larger study, U accumulation in gills and internal organs (e.g. liver) as well as mortality of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) were studied as a function of U concentration as well as pH of the exposure water. As Atlantic salmon does not ingest freshwater, the major pathway for uptake of U in the liver is hypothesized to be by transfer across the gills. However, to our best knowledge, active uptake of U within gill filaments has never been proven. In the present work, we demonstrate that following 96 hours exposure of 6 mg U/l in freshwater at pH 7 and 1 mg U/l at pH 5, U was actively taken up in the Atlantic Salmon gill filaments. The internal distribution of U within exposed organisms was visualized using μXRF/μXRD two-dimensional scanning and XRF/XRD tomography at the microprobe end-station of the PETRA III P06 beamline. The recently developed and highly efficient Maia detector array was successfully employed to record extended high-resolution element-specific maps of the tissue samples. First, conventional 2D μXRF/μXRD mapping allowed to identify the axial planes in the samples actually containing U. On the same samples, higher resolution virtual cross-sections were obtained (18 keV, 0.6 μm beam size) by means of μXRF/μXRD tomography of the planes in which U was encountered. The results proved that U not only adheres to the external boundary of the fish gills, but it is also taken up via gills. The results of this work

  14. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  15. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Glenney, Gavin W; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Blazer, Vicki S

    2012-04-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1-15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0-9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya , although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2-12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0-11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai . The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum , which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected bass, a

  16. Role of antimicrobial peptides in controlling symbiotic bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergaert, P

    2018-04-25

    Covering: up to 2018 Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been known for well over three decades as crucial mediators of the innate immune response in animals and plants, where they are involved in the killing of infecting microbes. However, AMPs have now also been found to be produced by eukaryotic hosts during symbiotic interactions with bacteria. These symbiotic AMPs target the symbionts and therefore have a more subtle biological role: not eliminating the microbial symbiont population but rather keeping it in check. The arsenal of AMPs and the symbionts' adaptations to resist them are in a careful balance, which contributes to the establishment of the host-microbe homeostasis. Although in many cases the biological roles of symbiotic AMPs remain elusive, for a number of symbiotic interactions, precise functions have been assigned or proposed to the AMPs, which are discussed here. The microbiota living on epithelia in animals, from the most primitive ones to the mammals, are challenged by a cocktail of AMPs that determine the specific composition of the bacterial community as well as its spatial organization. In the symbiosis of legume plants with nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria, the host deploys an extremely large panel of AMPs - called nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides - that drive the bacteria into a terminally differentiated state and manipulate the symbiont physiology to maximize the benefit for the host. The NCR peptides are used as tools to enslave the bacterial symbionts, limiting their reproduction but keeping them metabolically active for nitrogen fixation. In the nutritional symbiotic interactions of insects and protists that have vertically transmitted bacterial symbionts with reduced genomes, symbiotic AMPs could facilitate the integration of the endosymbiont and host metabolism by favouring the flow of metabolites across the symbiont membrane through membrane permeabilization.

  17. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  18. Impact of ontogenetic changes in branchial morphology on gill function in Arapaima gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R J; Brauner, C J; Wang, Y X; Richards, J G; Patrick, M L; Xi, W; Matey, V; Val, A L

    2010-01-01

    Soon after hatching, the osteoglossid fish Arapaima gigas undergoes a rapid transition from a water breather to an obligate air breather. This is followed by a gradual disappearance of gill lamellae, which leaves smooth filaments with a reduced branchial diffusion capacity due to loss of surface area, and a fourfold increase in diffusion distance. This study evaluated the effects these changes have on gill function by examining two size classes of fish that differ in gill morphology. In comparison to smaller fish (approximately 67.5 g), which still have lamellae, larger fish (approximately 724.2 g) without lamellae took up a slightly greater percentage of O2 across the gills (30.1% vs. 23.9%), which indicates that the morphological changes do not place limitations on O2 uptake in larger fish. Both size groups excreted similar percentages of CO2 across the gills (85%-90%). However, larger fish had higher blood PCO2 (26.51.9 vs. 16.51.5 mmHg) and HCO3(-) (40.2 +/- 2.9 vs. 33.6 +/- 4.5 mmol L(-1)) concentrations and lower blood pH (7.58 +/- 0.01 vs. 7.70 +/- 0.04) than did smaller fish, despite having lower mass-specific metabolisms, suggesting a possible diffusion limitation for CO2 excretion in larger fish. With regard to ion regulation, rates of diffusive Na+ loss were about 3.5 times higher in larger fish than they were in smaller fish, despite the lowered branchial diffusion capacity, and rates of Na+ uptake were higher by about the same amount despite 40% lower activity of branchial Na+/K+-ATPase. Kinetic analysis of Na uptake revealed an extremely low-affinity (K(m) = 587.9 +/- 169.5 micromol L(-1)), low-capacity (J(max) = 265.7 +/- 56.8 nmol g(-1) h(-1)) transport system. These data may reflect a general reduction in the role of the gills in ion balance. Renal Na+/K+-ATPase activity was 5-10 times higher than Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gills, and urine: plasma ratios for Na+ and Cl(-) were very low (0.001-0.005) relative to that of other fish, which

  19. LDH ACTIVITY IN COPPER INTOXICATION OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO GILLS AND INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA TEODORESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathological effects of two sublethal concentrations (100 μg/l and 250 μg/l of copper (CuSO4x5H2O on goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio were studied for 7,14 and 21 days. The specific activity of LDH in gills and intestine, two target organs that uptake the metal from the water were assayed. In gills at 100 μg Cu2+/l the specific activity of LDH was gradually decreasing, while in the intestine, after 7 days of exposure, the enzymatic activity was distinct significantly increased. LDH activity demonstrated a hypoxic condition and a stimulation of glycolysis. In the both organs ,the 250 μg Cu2+/l concentration generated a decrease of LDH specific activity after 7 days followed by an increase of this after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Histologically, the modifications are, generally, directly correlated with the toxicant dose and exposure time.

  20. Evidence for the presence of an endosymbiont in the Pecan Scab pathogen Venturia effusa (basyonym: Fusicladium effusum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To determine whether Venturia effusa (basyonym: Fusicladium effusum) the causative fungal agent of Pecan Scab harbors a bacterial symbiont. Methods and Results: Beginning with monoconidial isolates, V. effusa was maintained on potato dextrose agar amended with antibiotics (chloramphenicol 10...

  1. “Candidatus Gortzia shahrazadis”, a Novel Endosymbiont of Paramecium multimicronucleatum and a Revision of the Biogeographical Distribution of Holospora-Like Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Valentina; Fokin, Sergei I.; Castelli, Michele; Basuri, Charan K.; Nitla, Venkatamahesh; Verni, Franco; Sandeep, Bhagavatula V.; Kalavati, Chaganti; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Holospora spp. and “Candidatus Gortzia infectiva”, known as Holospora-like bacteria (HLB), are commonly found as nuclear endosymbionts of ciliates, especially the Paramecium genus. HLB are related by phylogenetic relationships, morphological features, and life-cycles, which involve two alternating morphotypes: reproductive and infectious forms (RF, IF). In this paper we describe a novel species belonging to the “Ca. Gortzia” genus, detected in P. multimicronucleatum, a ciliate for which infection by an HLB has not been reported, discovered in India. This novel endosymbiont shows unusual and surprising features with respect to other HLB, such as large variations in IF morphology and the occasional ability to reproduce in the host cytoplasm. We propose the name of “Candidatus Gortzia shahrazadis” for this novel HLB. Moreover, we report two additional species of HLB from Indian Paramecium populations: “Ca. Gortzia infectiva” (from P. jenningsi), and H. obtusa (from P. caudatum); the latter is the first record of Holospora from a tropical country. Although tropical, we retrieved H. obtusa at an elevation of 706 m corresponding to a moderate climate not unlike conditions where Holospora are normally found, suggesting the genus Holospora does exist in tropical countries, but restricted to higher elevations. PMID:27867371

  2. “Candidatus Gortzia shahrazadis”, a novel endosymbiont of Paramecium multimicronucleatum and a revision of the biogeographical distribution of Holospora-like bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Serra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Holospora spp. and Candidatus Gortzia infectiva, known as Holospora-like bacteria (HLB, are commonly found as nuclear endosymbionts of ciliates, especially the Paramecium genus. HLB are related by phylogenetic relationships, morphological features, and life cycles, which involve two alternating morphotypes: reproductive and infectious forms (RF, IF. In this paper we describe a novel species belonging to the Ca. Gortzia genus, detected in P. multimicronucleatum, a ciliate for which infection by an HLB has not been reported, discovered in India. This novel endosymbiont shows unusual and surprising features with respect to other HLB, such as large variations in IF morphology and the occasional ability to reproduce in the host cytoplasm. We propose the name of Candidatus Gortzia shahrazadis for this novel HLB . Moreover, we report two additional species of HLB from Indian Paramecium populations: Ca. Gortzia infectiva (from P. jenningsi, and H. obtusa (from P. caudatum; the latter is the first record of Holospora from a tropical country. Although tropical, we retrieved H. obtusa at an elevation of 706 m. corresponding to a moderate climate not unlike conditions where Holospora are normally found, suggesting the genus Holospora does exist in tropical countries, but restricted to higher elevations.

  3. Semiótica e Comunicação em Gilles Deleuze: uma perspectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to indicate, following mainly some exceropts from the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze works during the 60´s, paths to determinate a semiotics, a communication, as well as for the ascertainment of the bonds between them, which, hypothetically, are configured in terms of reciprocal presupposition, of correlation. These three determinations – semiotics, communicant ontology and their crossings – seem to circunscribe the basis of what we would call, more widely, a philosophy of communication.

  4. Toward a Multifactorial Conception of the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Persistent Chronic Tic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Marc E.; O?Connor, Kieron

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent giant leaps in understanding Gilles de la Tourette?s syndrome (now Tourette Disorder in the DSM 5), accurate multi-modal description, rigorous assessment procedures, and the improvement of evidence-based treatment currently pose a considerable challenge. In this context, the current special edition aims to elaborate three important dimensions in Tourette Disorder. Firstly, the effective characterization and etiological basis of the disorder are reviewed, since such characteriza...

  5. New data on aetiology of nodular gill disease in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Kostka, Martin; Wortberg, F.; Nardy, E.; Pecková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : nodular gill disease * aetiological study * amoebae * Naegleria sp. * fish diseases * aquaculture * Oncorhynchus mykiss Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  6. Interhemispheric motor networks are abnormal in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Kroeger, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Brain imaging has shown altered corpus callosum (CC) morphology in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Yet it is unclear whether these morphological changes are associated with altered interhemispheric interactions. Here, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with di...... in control subjects but not in patients. Our combined TMS-DTI approach demonstrates abnormal functional interhemispheric connectivity in GTS accompanied by an altered structure-function relationship in the motor CC....

  7. L-alanine uptake in membrane vesicles from Mytilus edulis gills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajor, A.M.; Wright, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that gills from M. edulis can accumulate L-alanine from seawater by a saturable process specific for α-neutral amino acids. This uptake occurs against chemical gradients in excess of 10 6 to 1. To further characterize this uptake, membrane vesicles were prepared from M. edulis gill tissue by differential centrifugation. Enrichments of putative enzyme markers (relative to that in combined initial fractions) were as follows: γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, 25-30x; Alkaline Phosphatase, 5-6x; K + -dependent para-Nitrophenyl Phosphatase, 3-5x; Succinate Dehydrogenase 0.1-0.2x. These results suggest that the preparation is enriched in plasma membranes, although histochemical studies will be needed to verify this. The time course of 14 C-L-alanine uptake in the presence of inwardly-directed Na + gradient showed a transient overshoot (3-5 fold) at 10 minutes which decreased to equilibrium after six hours. The size of the overshoot and early uptake rates depended on the size of the inwardly-directed Na + gradient. No overshoot was seen in the presence of inwardly-directed gradients of LiCl or choline-Cl, or with equilibrium concentrations NaCl or mannitol. A reduced overshoot was seen with a gradient of NaSCN. A small overshoot was seen with an inwardly-directed gradient of KCl. Transport of L-alanine included saturable and diffusive components. Uptake of 6 μM L-alanine was inhibited more than 80% by 100 μM α-zwitterionic amino acids (alanine, leucine, glycine); by 30 to 75% by proline, aspartate and lysine; and less than 20% by a β-amino acid, taurine. The results of these experiments agree with those from intact gill studies and support the hypothesis that L-alanine is transported into gill epithelial cells by a secondary active transport process involving Na +

  8. Histopathology of the gill and liver tissues of the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of the heavy metal, lead (Pb) on the gill and liver of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. One hundred and sixty (160) fingerlings of the fish were exposed to continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (0.006 mg/l and 0.008 mg/l) of lead for a period of ...

  9. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Alabama Cooperative of Fish & Wildlife Research Unit

    2001-07-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9-7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  10. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.; Lee, L.E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times

  11. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9–7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  12. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Lee, L.E.J. [Wilfred Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times.

  13. Lead concentrations in fresh water, muscle, gill and liver of catla catla (hamilton) from keenjhar lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, A.L.; Sahato, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study of the abundance and distribution of lead in water and freshwater fish Catla catla (Ham.) from Keenjhar Lake was conducted during January 2003 to December 2005. The lead content was determined in water and in muscle, gill and liver tissue of Catla catla (Ham.) by using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead concentrations in water samples were in the range of 0.076 and 0.225 macro g L-1 during the years of 2003, 2004 and 2005. The lead concentrations in the tissues of Catla catla (Ham.) varied, with liver > gill > muscle. The concentrations in muscle, gill and liver were in the range of 0.7-2.39 micro g g/sub -1/, 0.74-2.25 micro g g/sub -1/ and 0.89-2.68 micro g g/sub -1/ (dry weight) during 2003, 2004 and 2005. 9.87 % did not exceed the UK limit of 1.0 micro g g/sub -1/ (1979), 45.67 % were lower than the (USFDA) level of 1.3 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1997) and remaining 44.46 % were well below than 4.88 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1990). The levels in the water samples were also below the permissible level of less then 50 micro g L/sub -1/ recommended by (WHO 1984). (author)

  14. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in a patient with 47(XXX) syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappedi, Matteo; de Vincenzi, Silvia; Dolci, Roberta; De Luca, Sara; Bejor, Maurizio

    2011-11-05

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a comorbidity between Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and 47 (XXX) syndrome. The clinical picture of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome is well described, while 47 (XXX) syndrome is much more rare and has a broader spectrum of possible phenotypic presentations. An Italian Caucasian girl was referred at the age of 11 to our Rehabilitation Center for anxiety and learning difficulties. The girl had already been diagnosed as having 47(XXX) syndrome; she had some rather typical features of the chromosomal abnormality, but she also showed a high level of anxiety and the presence of motor and vocal tics. When an accurate history was taken, a diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome emerged. The possible interaction between peculiar features of these two syndromes in terms of neuropsychological and affective functioning is both interesting for the specific case and to hypothesize models of rehabilitation for patients with one or both syndromes. Executive functions are specifically reduced in both syndromes, therefore it might be hard to discriminate the contribution of each one to the general impairment; the same applies to anxiety. Moreover, mental retardation (with a significantly lower verbal cognitive functioning) poses relevant problems when suggesting cognitive behavioral or psychoeducational rehabilitative approaches.

  15. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in a patient with 47(XXX syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappedi Matteo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a comorbidity between Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and 47 (XXX syndrome. The clinical picture of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome is well described, while 47 (XXX syndrome is much more rare and has a broader spectrum of possible phenotypic presentations. Case presentation An Italian Caucasian girl was referred at the age of 11 to our Rehabilitation Center for anxiety and learning difficulties. The girl had already been diagnosed as having 47(XXX syndrome; she had some rather typical features of the chromosomal abnormality, but she also showed a high level of anxiety and the presence of motor and vocal tics. When an accurate history was taken, a diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome emerged. Conclusions The possible interaction between peculiar features of these two syndromes in terms of neuropsychological and affective functioning is both interesting for the specific case and to hypothesize models of rehabilitation for patients with one or both syndromes. Executive functions are specifically reduced in both syndromes, therefore it might be hard to discriminate the contribution of each one to the general impairment; the same applies to anxiety. Moreover, mental retardation (with a significantly lower verbal cognitive functioning poses relevant problems when suggesting cognitive behavioral or psychoeducational rehabilitative approaches.

  16. A clinical study of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, A J; Robertson, M; Trimble, M R; Murray, N M

    1984-01-01

    The clinical features of 53 British-born patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome are described. The mean age at onset of body tics was seven years and for vocalisations 11 years. Coprolalia was present in 39%, copropraxia in 21%, echolalia in 46% and echopraxia in 21%. Complicated antics and mannerisms were also common, often involving the compulsive touching of objects or self-injurious behaviour. Forty-six per cent of cases had a family history of tics in a single close relative and in two individuals a further member of the family had Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Focal dystonia was present in four patients who had never received neuroleptics drugs and chorea was seen in two other untreated patients. In three patients acoustic startle consistently induced brief eye blink followed by a whole body jerk or jump. Rapid repetitive movements of the hands increased the frequency and severity of tics in 13 patients, but the performance of mental arithmetic under time pressure had a much more unpredictable effect. Electroencephalographic abnormalities occurred in eight (13%) but no definite CT brain scan abnormalities were detected. The incidence of left handedness did not differ from that in the general population and no evidence to suggest organic impairment was found on neuropsychological testing. This study provides no support for the notion that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system but provides some evidence for heterogeneity. PMID:6582230

  17. New insights into gill chemoreception: receptor distribution and roles in water and air breathing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K

    2012-12-01

    The location (gills, oro-branchial cavity or elsewhere) and orientation (external (water) or internal (blood) sensing) of the receptors involved in reflex changes in each of the different components of the cardiorespiratory response (breathing frequency, breath amplitude, heart rate, systemic vascular resistance) to hypoxia and hypercarbia are highly variable between species of water and air breathing fish. Although not universal, the receptors involved in eliciting changes in heart rate and breathing frequency in response to hypoxia and hypercarbia tend to be restricted exclusively to the gills while those producing increases in breath amplitude are more wide spread, frequently also being found at extrabranchial sites. The distribution of the chemoreceptors sensitive to CO(2) in the gills involved in producing ventilatory responses tend to be more restricted than that of the O(2)-sensitive chemoreceptors and the specific location of the receptors involved in the various components of the cardiorespiratory response can vary from those of the O(2)-sensitive chemoreceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gill monogenean communities on three commercially important sparid fish in Omani waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of polyopisthocotylean monogeneans on the gills of three commercially important species of sparid caught in Omani coastal waters close to the city port of Muscat were determined and compared. Throughout May 2012 to April 2013, infections on bi-weekly samples of the soldier seabream, Argyrops filamentosus (Valenciennes, 1830, the king soldier seabream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål, 1775, and, the silver seabream, Rhabdosargus sabra were evaluated. From a total of 200 specimens (standard length of 26–52 cm, caught by line angling or by traps, at least three species of gill monogenean, namely Omanicotyle [Bivagina] heterospina, Heteromicrocotyla sp. and Microcotyle sp., were commonly encountered. Silver bream, which was infected by all three monogeneans, bore the highest infections (100% prevalence; mean intensity of 20.14 ± 0.92 parasites fish-1, whilst the soldier bream, which was infected only by O. heterospina had the lowest levels of infection (of the three sparids with 63.8% prevalence; mean intensity 5.8 ± 0.17 parasites fish-1. Comments on the distribution of monogeneans on each host are provided but to what extent this is influenced by water current speeds passing through the buccal and opercular cavities, gill morphology, parasite size, and / or the morphology and efficiency of the parasite’s attachment apparatus requires establishing and forms the basis of ongoing investigations.

  19. Fish gill responses to pollutants from oil sands mining-associated waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.E.J.; Willfang, S.; Lamb, M.P.; Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    The processing of Athabasca Deposit oil sands results in large amounts of liquid wastes associated with oil sand tailings. In addition to containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these waste waters are high in salinity and naphthenic acids which may be toxic to aquatic biota and their effects must be clarified. This study presents a suite of tests for in-depth and quick analysis of tailings water toxicity and contributes to the assessment of environmental risk. Yellow perch, fathead minnows, and rainbow trout were exposed to reclamation ponds where both in vivo and in vitro evaluation of crude and individual naphthenic acids and salts were conducted to examine their effect on fish gills which are very susceptible to contaminants. The fish exposed to the reclamation ponds showed higher incidence of gill pathological changes than control fish in Mildred Lake, a reservoir lake whose waters are diverted for use in oil sands extraction. Notable gill histopathological changes were observed when fish were exposed in vivo to sulfate/chloride salts and to abietic acid. Changes in membrane integrity, lysosomal activity and general morphology were observed when fished were exposed in vitro to salts, commercial napthenic acids or crude naphthenic extracts from the reclamation ponds

  20. Gill ATPase activity in Procambarus clarkii as an indicator of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain))

    1989-06-01

    Lake Albufera and the surrounding rice field waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues, including heavy metals, from the many urban and waste waters of this area. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii have a high resistance to toxic effects of heavy metals. The sublethal effects of heavy metals on gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates have been extensively studied. Some metabolic disturbances and histologic damages have been reported, as well as osmoregulation alterations. However, little work has been done about the effect of heavy metals on Na,K and Mg-ATPases of freshwater invertebrate gills. Na,K-ATPase is the prime mediator of ion transport across cellular membranes and plays a central role in whole body ion regulation in marine and estuarine animals. Na,K-ATPase has been reviewed and assessed as a potentially useful indicator of pollution stress in aquatic animals. The purpose of this study is look for the relation, if any, between crayfish gill ATP-ase activity changes and metal exposure in laboratory. This find would allow the authors to assay this potential indicator in the field.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation of the gill rakers of gizzard shad and silver carp in three Midwestern rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleser, Liza R.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Howard, David R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of invasive Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin may be possible by better understanding the feeding abilities of this population. Food collection for filter-feeding fishes, such as Silver Carp, is influenced by the species-specific structure of their gill rakers. To investigate structural variation in gill rakers of Silver Carp, the morphology of gill rakers was quantified and compared with that of a native filter-feeding fish species which may compete with Silver Carp for food resources, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Intra- and interspecies variation of gill rakers was examined in both species collected from three locations among four months. Interspecies analysis indicated the size of pores in gill rakers of Silver Carp were much larger than the interraker spacings of Gizzard Shad (95% CI ranged from 80.69 to 185.75 μm versus 16.72 to 47.36 μm, respectively). Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Silver Carp was related to the overall size of fish and occurred only among sites where dissimilar sizes of fish were collected. This suggested the size of particles filtered by Silver Carp may be dependent upon ontogenic development rather than phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial or temporal factors. Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Gizzard Shad occurred among site and monthly sampling data; however, variation was only attributable to overall size of fish for monthly sampling data. This suggested ontogeny may influence the filter-feeding ability of this species within a habitat. However, variation noted among sites, which was not attributable to size of fish, may indicate gill rakers are phenotypically plastic among Gizzard Shad populations of various river systems of the upper Mississippi River basin.

  2. Decreased Volume of the Cerebral Ventricles on CT Images in Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Regeur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate the volume of the ventricular system comprising lateral plus third ventricles in patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome on computed tomographic (CT scannings using unbiased stereological principles and to compare that volume with a control group. We found a significantly reduced ventricular volume in 24 patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS compared with 28 controls.

  3. Differential Gene Expression in Liver, Gill, and Olfactory Rosettes of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) After Acclimation to Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Maryoung, Lindley A.; Lavado, Ramon; Bammler, Theo K.; Gallagher, Evan P.; Stapleton, Patricia L.; Beyer, Richard P.; Farin, Federico M.; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most Pacific salmonids undergo smoltification and transition from freshwater to saltwater, making various adjustments in metabolism, catabolism, osmotic, and ion regulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are largely unknown. In the present study, we acclimated coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to four different salinities and assessed gene expression through microarray analysis of gills, liver, and olfactory rosettes. Gills are involved in osmotic regulation, liver play...

  4. Gill and lung ventilation responses to steady-state aquatic hypoxia and hyperoxia in the bullfrog tadpole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N H; Burggren, W W

    1982-02-01

    Gill ventilation frequency (fG), the pressure amplitude (PBC) and stroke volume (VS) of buccal ventilation cycles, the frequency of air breaths (fL), water flow over the gills (VW), gill oxygen uptake (MGO2), oxygen utilization (U), and heart frequency (fH) have been measured in unanaesthetized, air breathing Rana catesbeiana tadpoles (stage XVI-XIX). The animals were unrestrained except for ECG leads or cannulae, and were able to surface voluntarily for air breathing. They were subjected to aquatic normoxia, hyperoxia and three levels of aquatic hypoxia, and their respiratory responses recorded in the steady state. The experiments were performed at 20 +/- 0.5 degrees C. In hyperoxia there was an absence of air breathing, and fG, PBC and VW fell from the normoxic values, while U increased, resulting in no significant change in MGO2. Animals in normoxia showed a very low fL which increased in progressively more hypoxic states. VW increased from the normoxic value in mild hypoxia (PO2 = 96 +/- 2 mm Hg), but fell, associated with a reduction in PBC, in moderate (PO2 = 41 +/- 1 mm Hg) and severe (PO2 = 21 +/- 3 mm Hg) hypoxia in the presence of lung ventilation. Gill MGO2 was not significantly different from the normoxic value in mild hypoxia but fell in moderate hypoxia, while in severe hypoxia oxygen was lost to the ventilating water from the blood perfusing the gills. There was no significant change in fH from the normoxic value in either hypoxia or hyperoxia. These data indicate, that in the bimodally breathing bullfrog tadpole, aquatic PO2 exerts a strong control over both gill and lung ventilation. Furthermore, there is an interaction between gill and lung ventilation such that the onset of a high frequency of lung ventilation in moderate and severe hypoxia promotes a suppression of gill ventilation cycles.

  5. Morphology of gill rakers and their ecological function in feeding of the Antarctic fish Notothenia neglecta Nybelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Sant'Anna Rios

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Notothenia neglecta, endemic to the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, is basically carnivorous with a wide dietary spectrum. In order to evaluate the gill rakers' morphology and histological features of gill structures in relation to their feeding habits, specimens were obtained at Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands. Their stomach content was identified and measured and the pharyngobranchial apparatus was studied macro and microscopically. The morphology of the gill rakers and the sizes of prey that are present in the stomach of N. neglecta characterize this species as piscivorous but also able to capture other small prey. Gill rakers provided with sharp villiform denticles improve the retention of fish. At the anterior row, gill rakers are flexible and without denticles, allowing continuous breathing during slow ingestion of large prey. Food is selected by size. The distance between gill rakers allows the retention of amphipods, bivalves and gastropods if bigger than 0.17% of the predator standard length. Food is also selected chemically by taste buds and isolated chemical-sensorial cells. Goblet cells produce mucus that covers the preys with a smooth layer, avoiding scratching of the mucosa during ingestion of food and promoting aggregation of smaller food items. N. neglecta is an active feeder that uses different detection and selection mechanisms to survive in an environment where the food composition varies during the year.

  6. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  7. Distinct hormonal regulation of Na+,K+-ATPase genes in the salmonid gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    the a1a (freshwater (FW) isoform) and the a1b  seawater (SW) isoform) by cortisol, Gh, prolactin (Prl) and Igf 1. Injection with cortisol into FW salmon increased a1a expression, while Gh had no effect. Conversely, both cortisol and Gh stimulated a1b expression, and a significant synergy was observed....... igf1 expression was increased by Gh in both gill and liver, and inhibited by cortisol in the liver. Gill Igf1 and Gh receptor expression increased in response to cortisol. Injection with Prl into SW salmon compromised their hypo-osmoregulatory performance, selectively reduced the expression of the a1b...... isoform and decreased enzymatic NaC,KC-atpase activity in the gill. Cortisol and Prl reduced gill and liver igf1 expression, and both hormones stimulated gill Igf1 receptor expression. In a short-term experiment with incubation of FW gill cell suspensions, cortisol stimulated a1a and a1b expression, while...

  8. Transcriptomic responses in rainbow trout gills upon infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Carolina; Castro, Rosario; Fischer, Uwe; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that even though the fin bases constitute the main portal of entry of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an important number of chemokine genes are up-regulated in the gills upon bath exposure to the virus. Because chemokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes through the action of specific chemokine receptors, in the current study, we have studied the transcription of several immune genes in response to a VHSV bath infection in the gills, focusing both on chemokine receptor genes and on genes characteristic of distinct leukocyte populations such as IgM, IgD, IgT, CD4, CD8, perforin and MHC-II. We have studied the response to the virus in naïve fish as well as in fish that had been previously intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with a VHSV DNA vaccine. Additionally, we have sorted both IgM(+) and CD8(+) cells from the gills of naïve and infected animals to study some of these up-regulated genes in specific leukocyte populations. Our results indicate that despite the low replication level, VHSV provokes an up-regulation of IgM, IgT, CD3 and perforin transcription together with the up-regulation of CCR7, CCR9, CXCR3B and CXCR4 mRNA levels. Interestingly, MHC-II mRNA was up-regulated and CCR7 was down-modulated in IgM(+) cells from infected gills, whereas perforin, CCR7 and CXCR4 mRNA levels were higher in sorted CD8(+) cells from infected animals. Surprisingly, when fish had been previously injected with either the empty plasmid or the VHSV DNA vaccine, these up-regulations in immune gene transcription were no longer observed. Our results point to the gills as an important site for innate and acquired viral defense. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic transcriptomic profiles of zebrafish gills in response to zinc supplementation

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    Cunningham Phil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary zinc supplementation may help to promote growth, boost the immune system, protect against diabetes, and aid recovery from diarrhoea. We exploited the zebrafish (Danio rerio gill as a unique vertebrate ion transporting epithelium model to study the time-dependent regulatory networks of gene-expression leading to homeostatic control during zinc supplementation. This organ forms a conduit for zinc uptake whilst exhibiting conservation of zinc trafficking components. Results Fish were maintained with either zinc supplemented water (4.0 μM and diet (2023 mg zinc kg-1 or water and diet containing Zn2+ at 0.25 μM and 233 mg zinc kg-1, respectively. Gill tissues were harvested at five time points (8 hours to 14 days and transcriptome changes analysed in quintuplicate using a 16 K microarray with results anchored to gill Zn2+ influx and whole body nutrient composition (protein, carbohydrate, lipid, elements. The number of regulated genes increased up to day 7 but declined as the fish acclimated. In total 525 genes were regulated (having a fold-change more than 1.8 fold change and an adjusted P-value less than 0.1 which is controlling a 10% False discovery rate, FDR by zinc supplementation, but little overlap was observed between genes regulated at successive time-points. Many genes displayed cyclic expression, typical for homeostatic control mechanisms. Annotation enrichment analysis revealed strong overrepresentation of "transcription factors", with specific association evident with "steroid hormone receptors". A suite of genes linked to "development" were also statistically overrepresented. More specifically, early regulation of genes was linked to a few key transcription factors (e.g. Mtf1, Jun, Stat1, Ppara, Gata3 and was followed by hedgehog and bone morphogenic protein signalling. Conclusions The results suggest that zinc supplementation reactivated developmental pathways in the gill and stimulated stem cell

  10. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 μg l -1 Cd (as Cd(NO 3 ) 2 · 4H 2 O) in moderately hard (140 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 ), alkaline (95 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 , pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U Crit ), routine O 2 consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC 50 values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 μg l -1 exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive 109 Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in acclimated fish. Acclimated trout internalized less 109 Cd than control fish, but

  11. Detection of Spiroplasma and Wolbachia in the bacterial gonad community of Chorthippus parallelus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, P; Hernández-Pérez, M; Bella, J L

    2013-07-01

    We have recently detected the endosymbiont Wolbachia in multiple individuals and populations of the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus (Orthoptera: acrididae). This bacterium induces reproductive anomalies, including cytoplasmic incompatibility. Such incompatibilities may help explain the maintenance of two distinct subspecies of this grasshopper, C. parallelus parallelus and C. parallelus erythropus, which are involved in a Pyrenean hybrid zone that has been extensively studied for the past 20 years, becoming a model system for the study of genetic divergence and speciation. To evaluate whether Wolbachia is the sole bacterial infection that might induce reproductive anomalies, the gonadal bacterial community of individuals from 13 distinct populations of C. parallelus was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments and sequencing. The study revealed low bacterial diversity in the gonads: a persistent bacterial trio consistent with Spiroplasma sp. and the two previously described supergroups of Wolbachia (B and F) dominated the gonad microbiota. A further evaluation of the composition of the gonad bacterial communities was carried out by whole cell hybridization. Our results confirm previous studies of the cytological distribution of Wolbachia in C. parallelus gonads and show a homogeneous infection by Spiroplasma. Spiroplasma and Wolbachia cooccurred in some individuals, but there was no significant association of Spiroplasma with a grasshopper's sex or with Wolbachia infection, although subtle trends might be detected with a larger sample size. This information, together with previous experimental crosses of this grasshopper, suggests that Spiroplasma is unlikely to contribute to sex-specific reproductive anomalies; instead, they implicate Wolbachia as the agent of the observed anomalies in C. parallelus.

  12. A livre improvisação musical e a filosofia de Gilles Deleuze The free musical improvisation and the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Luiz Moraes Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos a improvisação passou a figurar como um tema cada vez mais presente nos ambientes acadêmicos e hoje é considerada uma importante linha de pesquisa. A nossa reflexão sobre a livre improvisação, além de se apoiar em nossas experiências práticas, tem como uma das suas principais referências a obra do filósofo francês Gilles Deleuze de quem são emprestados conceitos fundamentais tais como, estratificação, território, plano de consistência, molaridade e molecularidade, corpo sem órgãos, ritmo, meios e ritornelo. Neste artigo, originalmente publicado no número 49, vol. 1 da revista Perspectives of New Music, trataremos de mostrar de que forma estes conceitos nos auxiliam a pensar e fundamentar a livre improvisação musical conforme a concebemos em nossos trabalhos práticos e teóricos.Recently, improvisation has been integrated as a theme increasingly present in scholarly environments and it is now considered as an important line of research. Our thinking about free improvisation, besides relying on our practical experience, has the work of French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a central reference from which we borrow key concepts such as stratification, territory, plan of consistency, molarity and molecularity, body without organs, rhythm, means and refrain. In this article, originally published in Perspectives of New Music, number 49, v.1, we will try to show how these concepts help us think and support the free musical improvisation as we conceive it in our practical and theoretical work.

  13. The characterization and manipulation of the bacterial microbiome of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Katie A; Gall, Cory A; Mason, Katheen L; Scoles, Glen A; Brayton, Kelly A

    2015-12-10

    In North America, ticks are the most economically impactful vectors of human and animal pathogens. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae), transmits Rickettsia rickettsii and Anaplasma marginale to humans and cattle, respectively. In recent years, studies have shown that symbiotic organisms are involved in a number of biochemical and physiological functions. Characterizing the bacterial microbiome of D. andersoni is a pivotal step towards understanding symbiont-host interactions. In this study, we have shown by high-throughput sequence analysis that the composition of endosymbionts in the midgut and salivary glands in adult ticks is dynamic over three generations. Four Proteobacteria genera, Rickettsia, Francisella, Arsenophonus, and Acinetobacter, were identified as predominant symbionts in these two tissues. Exposure to therapeutic doses of the broad-spectrum antibiotic, oxytetracycline, affected both proportions of predominant genera and significantly reduced reproductive fitness. Additionally, Acinetobacter, a free-living ubiquitous microbe, invaded the bacterial microbiome at different proportions based on antibiotic treatment status suggesting that microbiome composition may have a role in susceptibility to environmental contaminants. This study characterized the bacterial microbiome in D. andersoni and determined the generational variability within this tick. Furthermore, this study confirmed that microbiome manipulation is associated with tick fitness and may be a potential method for biocontrol.

  14. Antibiotic-induced change of bacterial communities associated with the copepod Nitocra spinipes.

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    Anna Edlund

    Full Text Available Environmental pressures, such as physical factors, diet and contaminants may affect interactions between microbial symbionts and their multicellular hosts. Despite obvious relevance, effects of antimicrobial contaminants on host-symbiont relations in non-target aquatic organisms are largely unknown. We show that exposure to antibiotics had negative effects on survival and juvenile development of the copepod Nitocra spinipes and caused significant alterations in copepod-associated bacterial communities. The significant positive correlations between indices of copepod development and bacterial diversity indicate that disruption of the microflora was likely to be an important factor behind retarded juvenile development in the experimental animals. Moreover, as evidenced by ribotype distribution in the bacterial clone libraries, the exposure to antibiotics caused a shift in dominance from Betaproteobacteria to Cardinium bacteria; the latter have been shown to cause reproductive manipulations in various terrestrial arthropods. Thus, in addition to providing evidence that the antibiotic-induced perturbation of the microbial community associates with reductions in fitness-related traits of the host, this study is the first record of a copepod serving as a host for endosymbiotic Cardinium. Taken together, our results suggest that (1 antimicrobial substances and possibly other stressors can affect micobiome and symbiont-mediated interactions in copepods and other hosts, and (2 Cardinium endosymbionts may occur in other copepods and affect reproduction of their hosts.

  15. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernández, Juan; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol is the main biomarker of physiological stress in fish. It is usually measured in plasma, which requires blood collection. Though cortisol is produced in the anterior kidney, it can diffuse easily through cell membranes due to its lipophilic nature. Taking advantage of that, some non-invasive techniques have been developed to measure cortisol directly in the water from fish-holding tanks, in skin mucus or in scales. In this study, we explored the possibility to analyze fish cortisol from gill filaments as a reliable acute stress marker. Our results show that gill cortisol levels correlate well with plasma cortisol levels in both rainbow trout and zebrafish exposed or not to an acute stress protocol. Measuring cortisol in gill filaments increases the available possibilities for stress assessment in fish. Although this approach should yet be tested for its use with other stressors, it has several advantages: In relatively large fish (i.e. above 30 g) gill cortisol levels could be measured in vivo. Sampling of gill biopsies is very fast and easy, and the procedure does not induce stress if properly performed, making it an ideal option for in vivo stress assessment. In small fish, the use of gill tissue to measure cortisol has important technical advantages with respect to the current methods using whole-body homogenates. Gill homogenates could be used directly for ELISA cortisol analysis, avoiding the need of tedious and expensive cortisol extraction protocols, and, since no organic solvent is required, contributing for a more environmentally friendly analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endosymbionts in paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, Masahiro; Kodama, Yuuki

    2012-05-01

    Paramecium species are extremely valuable organisms to enable experiments for the reestablishment of endosymbiosis. This is investigated in two different systems, the first with Paramecium caudatum and the endonuclear symbiotic bacterium Holospora species. Although most endosymbiotic bacteria cannot grow outside the host cell as a result of their reduced genome size, Holospora species can maintain their infectivity for a limited time. We found that an 89-kDa periplasmic protein has an important function for Holospora's invasion into the target nucleus, and that Holospora alters the host gene expression; the host thereby acquires resistance against various stresses. The second system is the symbiosis between P. bursaria and symbiotic Chlorella. Alga-free P. bursaria and the algae retain the ability to grow without a partner. Consequently, endosymbiosis between the aposymbiotic host cells and the symbiotic algae can be reestablished easily by mixing them. We now found four checkpoints for the reestablishment of the endosymbiosis between P. bursaria and the algae. The findings in the two systems provide excellent opportunities for us to elucidate not only infection processes but also to assess the associations leading to eukaryotic cell evolution. This paper summarizes recent progresses on reestablishment of the primary and the secondary endosymbiosis in Paramecium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Topographical Mapping of the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Microbiome Reveals a Diverse Bacterial Community with Antifungal Properties in the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Liam; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Tacchi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of wild and farmed aquatic vertebrates face the threat of many aquatic pathogens, including fungi. These surfaces are colonized by diverse symbiotic bacterial communities that may contribute to fight infection. Whereas the gut microbiome of teleosts has been extensively studied using pyrosequencing, this tool has rarely been employed to study the compositions of the bacterial communities present on other teleost mucosal surfaces. Here we provide a topographical map of the mucosal microbiome of an aquatic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we revealed novel bacterial diversity at each of the five body sites sampled and showed that body site is a strong predictor of community composition. The skin exhibited the highest diversity, followed by the olfactory organ, gills, and gut. Flectobacillus was highly represented within skin and gill communities. Principal coordinate analysis and plots revealed clustering of external sites apart from internal sites. A highly diverse community was present within the epithelium, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy and pyrosequencing. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that two Arthrobacter sp. skin isolates, a Psychrobacter sp. strain, and a combined skin aerobic bacterial sample inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia australis and Mucor hiemalis, two important aquatic fungal pathogens. These results underscore the importance of symbiotic bacterial communities of fish and their potential role for the control of aquatic fungal diseases. PMID:26209676

  18. Local connected fractal dimension analysis in gill of fish experimentally exposed to toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, Maurizio, E-mail: mmanera@unite.it [Faculty of Biosciences, Food and Environmental Technologies, University of Teramo, Piano d’Accio, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Giari, Luisa [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); De Pasquale, Joseph A. [Morphogenyx Inc., PO Box 717, East Northport, NY 11731 (United States); Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • An objective, operator unbiased method was developed to evaluate gill pathology. • The method relies on the measure of local connected fractal dimension frequency. • Exposure classes were adequately discriminated by linear discriminant analysis. - Abstract: An operator-neutral method was implemented to objectively assess European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) gill pathology after experimental exposure to cadmium (Cd) and terbuthylazine (TBA) for 24 and 48 h. An algorithm-derived local connected fractal dimension (LCFD) frequency measure was used in this comparative analysis. Canonical variates (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to evaluate the discrimination power of the method among exposure classes (unexposed, Cd exposed, TBA exposed). Misclassification, sensitivity and specificity, both with original and cross-validated cases, were determined. LCFDs frequencies enhanced the differences among classes which were visually selected after their means, respective variances and the differences between Cd and TBA exposed means, with respect to unexposed mean, were analyzed by scatter plots. Selected frequencies were then scanned by means of LDA, stepwise analysis, and Mahalanobis distance to detect the most discriminative frequencies out of ten originally selected. Discrimination resulted in 91.7% of cross-validated cases correctly classified (22 out of 24 total cases), with sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 95.5% (1 false negative with respect to 21 really positive cases) and 75% (1 false positive with respect to 3 really negative cases). CVA with convex hull polygons ensured prompt, visually intuitive discrimination among exposure classes and graphically supported the false positive case. The combined use of semithin sections, which enhanced the visual evaluation of the overall lamellar structure; of LCFD analysis, which objectively detected local variation in complexity, without the possible bias

  19. Effects of phenol on ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The ATPase specific activities from crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout were lower than those from microsomal preparations reported in the literature. Sodium pump activity (ouabain sensitive NaK-ATPase) was demonstrable at 37/sup 0/C. An ouabain insensitive NaK-ATPase was demonstrable at temperatures below 30/sup 0/C and may represent a Na-ATPase activity reported by others. Energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C for total NaK-ATPase ws 10,500 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity had an energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C of 15,600 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity was thermally labile at temperatures in excess of 30/sup 0/C. Concentrations of Mg/sup +2/ in excess of 5 mM appeared to inhibit total NaK-ATPase activity. At 37/sup 0/C, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ exerted little, if any, stimulatory effect on ATPase activities, in spite of the fact that 37/sup 0/C was the only temperature at which sodium pump activity was demonstrable. MS-222 failed to produce any discernible changes in any of the demonstrable ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates. Total NaK-ATPase activities were more sensitive than Mg-baseline activities to in vitro inhibition by phenol. Concentrations of phenol which produce 50% inhibition in total NaK-ATPase produced only 35% inhibition in Mg-baseline activity. The nature of in vitro inhibition was uncompetitive. Sodium pump activity was unaffected by phenol at concentrations as high as 25 mM. An effort was made to demonstrate an in vivo effects of phenol on rainbow trout gill ATPase activites. An infestation of a parasite (Gyrodactilus) on the experimental fish precludes any definative assessment of in vivo effects.

  20. Local connected fractal dimension analysis in gill of fish experimentally exposed to toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa; De Pasquale, Joseph A.; Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An objective, operator unbiased method was developed to evaluate gill pathology. • The method relies on the measure of local connected fractal dimension frequency. • Exposure classes were adequately discriminated by linear discriminant analysis. - Abstract: An operator-neutral method was implemented to objectively assess European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) gill pathology after experimental exposure to cadmium (Cd) and terbuthylazine (TBA) for 24 and 48 h. An algorithm-derived local connected fractal dimension (LCFD) frequency measure was used in this comparative analysis. Canonical variates (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to evaluate the discrimination power of the method among exposure classes (unexposed, Cd exposed, TBA exposed). Misclassification, sensitivity and specificity, both with original and cross-validated cases, were determined. LCFDs frequencies enhanced the differences among classes which were visually selected after their means, respective variances and the differences between Cd and TBA exposed means, with respect to unexposed mean, were analyzed by scatter plots. Selected frequencies were then scanned by means of LDA, stepwise analysis, and Mahalanobis distance to detect the most discriminative frequencies out of ten originally selected. Discrimination resulted in 91.7% of cross-validated cases correctly classified (22 out of 24 total cases), with sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 95.5% (1 false negative with respect to 21 really positive cases) and 75% (1 false positive with respect to 3 really negative cases). CVA with convex hull polygons ensured prompt, visually intuitive discrimination among exposure classes and graphically supported the false positive case. The combined use of semithin sections, which enhanced the visual evaluation of the overall lamellar structure; of LCFD analysis, which objectively detected local variation in complexity, without the possible bias

  1. Histopathological changes in the skins and gills of some marine fishes due to parasitic isopod infestation

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    Ganapathy Rameshkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the histopathological symptoms owing to cymothoid isopod that were categorised as gross lesions. Methods: Nature of damage fish tissues and gills were taken from the parasite attachment area of infested and uninfested fishes which were cut out in fresh condition fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin. Fresh and recently preserved tissues and gills were washed in tap water and dehydrated using alcohol series. The tissues gills were then cleaned in methylbenzoate and benzene and embedded in paraffin wax. The serial sections cutting 4 to 5 m thickness, were stained with Erlich’s haematoxylin and Eosin for histopathological analysis. Results: In normal muscle tissue, the tensile strength of muscle fibers with extra cellular matrix collagen was extensively tight associated. This gave a rigid musculature pattern to the tissues. Infested fish exhibited histopathological anomalies such as tissue reactions, primarily associated with the formation of granulomas consisted of macrophages and epitheleioid cells, which were occasionally surrounded by a thin rim of fibroblasts. The infestations such as lipofibrosis, hyperaemia, haemorhagic lesions and penetration of dactylus usually pressure atrophy often accompanied by the presence of parasites. Lesions had well developed granulomas that underlined in the muscle or overlying subcutaneous tissue, form these spread to underlying organs. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the infection studies of parasite that attaches or settles on the host body, at first, causes localized inflammatory changes, but with time, assuring a different or diffused character. The changes always begin with hyperaemia in the angles between adjacent sides at the site of attachment and then move towards deeply situated area.

  2. Effects of increased CO2 on fish gill and plasma proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bresolin de Souza

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus exposed to temperatures of 12 °C (control and 18 °C (impaired growth in combination with control (400 µatm or high-CO2 water (1000 µatm for 14 weeks. The proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE followed by Nanoflow LC-MS/MS using a LTQ-Orbitrap. The high-CO2 treatment induced the up-regulation of immune system-related proteins, as indicated by the up-regulation of the plasma proteins complement component C3 and fibrinogen β chain precursor in both temperature treatments. Changes in gill proteome in the high-CO2 (18 °C group were mostly related to increased energy metabolism proteins (ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase thermostable, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, possibly coupled to a higher energy demand. Gills from fish exposed to high-CO2 at both temperature treatments showed changes in proteins associated with increased cellular turnover and apoptosis signalling (annexin 5, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1γ, receptor for protein kinase C, and putative ribosomal protein S27. This study indicates that moderate CO2-driven acidification, alone and combined with high temperature, can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health.

  3. Salinity-induced regulation of the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway in tilapia gill epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Romina; Li, Johnathon; Villarreal, Fernando; Gardell, Alison M.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway converts glucose-6-phosphate to the compatible osmolyte myo-inositol that protects cells from osmotic stress. Using proteomics, the enzymes that constitute the MIB pathway, myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1), are identified in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium. Targeted, quantitative, label-free proteomics reveals that they are both upregulated during salinity stress. Upregulation is stronger when fish are exposed to severe (34 ppt acute and 90 ppt gradual) relative to moderate (70 ppt gradual) salinity stress. IMPA1 always responds more strongly than MIPS, suggesting that MIPS is more stable during salinity stress. MIPS is N-terminally acetylated and the corresponding peptide increases proportionally to MIPS protein, while non-acetylated N-terminal peptide is not detectable, indicating that MIPS acetylation is constitutive and may serve to stabilize the protein. Hyperosmotic induction of MIPS and IMPA1 is confirmed using western blot and real-time qPCR and is much higher at the mRNA than at the protein level. Two distinct MIPS mRNA variants are expressed in the gill, but one is more strongly regulated by salinity than the other. A single MIPS gene is encoded in the tilapia genome whereas the zebrafish genome lacks MIPS entirely. The genome of euryhaline tilapia contains four IMPA genes, two of which are expressed, but only one is salinity regulated in gill epithelium. The genome of stenohaline zebrafish contains a single IMPA gene. We conclude that the MIB pathway represents a major salinity stress coping mechanism that is regulated at multiple levels in euryhaline fish but absent in stenohaline zebrafish. PMID:24072791

  4. Teratogenic processes in an embryo without gills and low yolk absorption of Zapteryx brevirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae

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    Wanessa Priscila David do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first report of morphological anomaly in embryos of Zapteryx brevirostris (Lesser guitarfish, a very common species in Brazil. The gills were absent, and the pectoral fins were not fully formed nor were they completely fused to the head. They were asymmetrical, with the larger left pectoral fin projecting more toward the head (almost at the height of the eyes. The pelvic fin was absent, making sexing impossible. The cause of the morphological deformity is uncertain, although a nutritional problem of the embryo is evoked.

  5. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  6. The pathophysiology of echopraxia/echolalia: relevance to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Ogrzal, Timo; Schnitzler, Alfons; Münchau, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Echopraxia and echolalia are subsets of imitative behavior. They are essential developmental elements in social learning. Their persistence or reemergence after a certain age, though, can be a sign of underlying brain dysfunction. Although echophenomena have been acknowledged as a typical sign in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) since its first description, their clinical significance and neural correlates are largely unknown. Here, we review the course of their scientific historical development and focus on their clinical phenomenology and differential diagnosis with a particular view to GTS. The neural basis of echophenomena will also be addressed. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. DNA damage in gill cells of Corbicula japonica exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors

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    Valentina Vladimirovna Slobodskova

    2015-06-01

    The results are presented as the percentage distribution of nuclei in the various damage classes and summarized in an index of DNA integrity or genetic damage index GDI (Cavas, Kohen, 2008: The results from our study showed significant level of DNA damage from the C. japonica which were collected from polluted sites. Unpolluted sites were described as with no or minimal DNA strand breaks. Mollusks collected at polluted areas (estuary Razdolnaya river, lagoon Tihaya showed high levels of DNA damage, GDI is equal to 3.22±0.2 and 3.11±0.7 in gills respectively. C. japonica obtained from a ‘clean’ areas (estuary Artemovka river, estuary Partizanskaya river demonstrate less high level of DNA damage destruction, GDI is equal to 0,6±0,08 and 0,71±0,12 in gills respectively. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA, a decomposition product of polyunsaturated fatty acids hydro peroxides were determined by the TBA reaction. The absorbance was read at 532 nm after removal of substances (TBARS formed was calculated by using an extinction coefficient of 1.56*105 M-1 cm -1 formed per g dry weight. C. japonica sampled at Artemovka estuary, Partizanskaya estuary, Razdolnaya estuary, Tihaya lagoon showed LPX level (3.46±0.59, 5.62±0.82, 12.85±0.52, 15.32±1.13 nmol TBARS/g dry wt in gills respectively. In conclusion, it can be noted that in the course of the experiment we found a clear relationship between the amount of DNA damage and the level of peroxidation products (MDA in the gills of bivalve C. japonica, collected from sites with varying degrees of anthropogenic load. It should be emphasized that the shellfish that live in polluted areas are likely to be in a state of oxidative stress, which is one of the causes the degradation of DNA.

  8. Jordens sång : Naturfilosofi och musik hos Gilles Deleuze

    OpenAIRE

    Dahllöv, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This essay provides a thorough reading of Gilles Deleuze’s (1925–95) philosophy of nature and the way music relates to this philosophy. It does so with regards to changes in the view of nature in 20th century science, especially in the theories of self-organisation as developed by, among others, Ilya Prigogine. Deleuze’s metaphysics is viewed in relation to these theories, and is also compared to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, which is related to classical science. The essay then investigat...

  9. Gill dimensions in near-term embryos of Amazonian freshwater stingrays (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae and their relationship to the lifestyle and habitat of neonatal pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallice Paxiúba Duncan

    Full Text Available This comparative study of gill morphometrics in near-term embryos of freshwater stingray potamotrygonids examines gill dimensions in relation to neonatal lifestyle and habitat. In embryos of the potamotrygonids Paratrygon aiereba, Plesiotrygon iwamae, Potamotrygon motoro, Potamotrygon orbignyi, and cururu ray Potamotrygon sp. the number and length of filaments, total gill surface area, mass-specific surface area, water-blood diffusion distance, and anatomical diffusion factor were analysed. In all potamotrygonids, the 3rd branchial arch possessed a larger respiratory surface than the other gill arches. Larger embryos had more gill surface area and large spiracles, which are necessary to maintain the high oxygen uptake needed due to their larger body size. However, the higher mass-specific gill surface area observed in near-term embryos may be advantageous because neonates can use hypoxic environments as refuges against predators, as well as catch small prey that inhabit the same environment. As expected from their benthic mode of life, freshwater stingrays are sluggish animals compared to pelagic fishes. However, based on gill respiratory morphometry (such as gill area, mass-specific gill area, the water-blood diffusion barrier, anatomical diffusion factor, and relative opening of the spiracle, subtypes of lifestyles can be observed corresponding to: active, intermediate, and sluggish species according to Gray's scale.

  10. Lamproglena monodi capart, 1944, attachment scheme and associatedpathology on the gills of oreochromis niloticus, with a special reference tothoracic appendages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Has an

    2008-01-01

    This work comprises a parasitological and histopathological examinationof the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, naturally infected withLamproglena monody (Crustacea: Lernaeidae). Fish specimens were collectedweekly from El-Minia Nile basin, Egypt Between April 2006 to March 2008).From a total of 420 fish examined, 96 (22.86%) were found infected.Attachment of L monodi was mainly enhanced by the armed maxillae that wereseen deeply introduced into the underlying tissues reaching the axialcartilage the gill filament. The maxillipeds were not involved in theattachment to the gill epithelium. Histological changes were restricted onlyto the free ends of gill filament, where copepods were found attached; thecentral and basal parts appeared normal and their gill lamellae remainedintact. Deep and shallow lesions associated sometimes with compressed orexfoliated hyperplastic epithelium were encountered in front of cephalothoraxand around oral apparatus of the parasite. In slight and moderate infectionsgill lamellae showed partial fusion. In many cases of heavy infection, theattacked area of gill filaments was eroded through. The cephalothorax wassometimes found in a deep cavity of the proliferated epithelium that wasinfiltrated by granular cells and lymphocytes. (author)

  11. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L(-1) urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L(-1) with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L(-1) mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L(-1)) to those of urea (175 mmol L(-1)), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  12. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Wood

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L−1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L−1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L−1 mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L−1 to those of urea (175 mmol L−1, urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  13. Differential Gene Expression in Liver, Gill, and Olfactory Rosettes of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) After Acclimation to Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Lavado, Ramon; Bammler, Theo K; Gallagher, Evan P; Stapleton, Patricia L; Beyer, Richard P; Farin, Federico M; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Most Pacific salmonids undergo smoltification and transition from freshwater to saltwater, making various adjustments in metabolism, catabolism, osmotic, and ion regulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are largely unknown. In the present study, we acclimated coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to four different salinities and assessed gene expression through microarray analysis of gills, liver, and olfactory rosettes. Gills are involved in osmotic regulation, liver plays a role in energetics, and olfactory rosettes are involved in behavior. Between all salinity treatments, liver had the highest number of differentially expressed genes at 1616, gills had 1074, and olfactory rosettes had 924, using a 1.5-fold cutoff and a false discovery rate of 0.5. Higher responsiveness of liver to metabolic changes after salinity acclimation to provide energy for other osmoregulatory tissues such as the gills may explain the differences in number of differentially expressed genes. Differentially expressed genes were tissue- and salinity-dependent. There were no known genes differentially expressed that were common to all salinity treatments and all tissues. Gene ontology term analysis revealed biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components that were significantly affected by salinity, a majority of which were tissue-dependent. For liver, oxygen binding and transport terms were highlighted. For gills, muscle, and cytoskeleton-related terms predominated and for olfactory rosettes, immune response-related genes were accentuated. Interaction networks were examined in combination with GO terms and determined similarities between tissues for potential osmosensors, signal transduction cascades, and transcription factors.

  14. Gill pathology in Scottish farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., associated with the microsporidian Desmozoon lepeophtherii Freeman et Sommerville, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, C G G; Richards, R H; Shinn, A P; Cox, D I

    2013-10-01

    Gill disorders have emerged in recent years as a significant problem in the production of marine-stage Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The multi-aetiological condition 'proliferative gill inflammation' (PGI) has been reported to cause heavy losses in western Norway, yet reports of Scottish cases of the disease have remained anecdotal. In the present study, histopathological material from a marine production site in the Scottish Highlands experiencing mortalities due to a seasonal gill disease with proliferative-type pathology was examined using light microscopy, special staining techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microsporidian Desmozoon lepeophtherii Freeman et Sommerville, 2009 (syn. Paranucleospora theridion) was identified by staining using a Gram Twort method and TEM associated with distinctive proliferative and necrotic pathology confined to the interlamellar Malpighian cell areas of the primary filaments. Epitheliocystis was not a feature of the gill pathology observed. It is believed this is the first report of D. lepeophtherii being identified associated with pathology in a Scottish gill disease case, and supports anecdotal reports that a disease at least partly synonymous with PGI as described by Norwegian researchers is present in Scottish aquaculture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of sodium fluoride on MAPKs signaling pathway in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Klerks, Paul; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of fluoride can cause a variety of adverse effects in fish. Previously we showed that fluoride causes injuries and apoptosis in the gills of Cyprinus carpio. In this study, the effects of fluoride on caspase-3 activity and on accumulation of proteins in the MAPKs pathways were evaluated using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry methods in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the caspase-3 activity increased with fluoride exposure level in a dose-dependent pattern Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results indicated that ERK relative activation tended to decrease as a function of fluoride exposure concentration. In contrast, relative activation of JNK increased with fluoride exposure level. Fluoride exposure did not appear to affect p38 activation. Furthermore, pretreatment of branchial cells with MAPK-specific inhibitors effectively prevented JNK induction and ERK inhibition, respectively, as well as reversed caspase-3 activity in fluoride-treated branchial cells. Our results indicate that activation of JNK and inactivation of ERK were caused by increased ROS and decreased antioxidant capacity in the gills of chronically exposed C. carpio described previously, which eventually caused the observed apoptosis in the fluoride-exposed gills and cells in C. carpio. JNK activation and ERK inactivation mechanism play a crucial role in gill impairment induced by chronic fluorosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the initial molecular and cellular events in the gill of fish chronically exposed to fluoride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahdat Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cm×30 cm×60 cm where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results: The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20 d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  17. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  18. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  19. Síndrome de Gilles de la Tourette: estudo clínico de 58 casos Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a clinical study on 58 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Fen Chien

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Gilles de la Tourette (SGT é um transtorno neuropsiquiátrico, de início na infância, caracterizado pela presença de tiques motores e vocais. Cinquenta e oito pacientes com SGT foram acompanhados clinicamente durante período de três anos. Trinta e seis pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 22 do feminino, a proporção entre os sexos foi 1,6:1. A idade dos pacientes variou de 7 a 50 anos, média 20,33 anos. A idade de início dos sintomas variou de 3 a 15 anos, sendo a média 7,81 anos. O tique motor foi o sintoma inaugural em 79% dos pacientes. Quanto aos tiques complexos, a coprolalia estava presente em 27,6%; a copropraxia em 20,1%; a palilalia em 20,1%; a ecolalia em 27,6%; e a ecopraxia em 27,6%. Em relação a manifestações associadas, 25,8% apresentavam déficit de atenção/ hiperatividade e 39,6% transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo. O fenômeno sensitivo estava presente em 54,8% dos pacientes.Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a childhood onset and is characterized by motor and vocal tics. Fifty-eight patients with GTS were evaluated during a period of three years. Thirty-six patients were male and twenty two female, with an age range of 7 to 51 years (mean 20.33 years. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1. The age of onset ranged from 3 to 15 years (mean 7.81 years. Seventy nine percent of the patients presented motor tics as the initial symptom of the disease. In terms of complex tics, coprolalia was present in 27.6% of the patients; copropraxia in 20.1%; palilalia in 20.1%; ecolalia in 27.6%; and ecopraxia in 27,6%. Associated manifestations, such as attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were present in 25.8% and 39.6%, respectively. Sensory phenomena were present in 54.8% of the patients.

  20. Effects of cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin on gill claudin expression in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Jørgensen, Charlotte; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna

    2009-01-01

    We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression of these iso......We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression...... antagonists RU486 and spironolactone, respectively. The observed in vitro responses were blocked by RU486, suggesting the involvement of a glucocorticoid type receptor. Injections of FW salmon with cortisol increased the expression of claudin 10e, 27a, and 30 but did not affect claudin 28a and 28b...... significantly. While GH had no effect on its own, the combination of GH and cortisol reduced claudin 28b levels. Injection of SW salmon with PRL selectively increased the expression of claudin 28a but had no effect on the other examined isoforms. The data shows that FW- (27a and 30) and SW-induced (10e...

  1. Analytical developments for the speciation of uranium in zebra fish (Danio rerio) gills after exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study the cellular compartmentalization and the chelation of uranium (U) by cytosolic proteins of gill cells of the zebra fish (Danio rerio, model specie in aquatic toxicology) under different direct exposure conditions (chronic vs. acute, 20 and 250 μg.L -1 ). This study required the development of hyphenated techniques (SEC, IEF off-gel, RP-UHPLC for the separation, ICP-SFMS, ESI-FTMS/MS for the detection) with the main challenges of maintaining the non-covalent U-biomolecule interactions and enhancing sensitivity for the analysis of environmentally relevant samples. After extraction, 24% to 32% of the total U detected in the gills were present in the cytosolic fraction, in which the U distribution on the biomolecules (as a function of their MW and pI) varied depending on the exposure level. Finally, U target biomolecules mapping allowed us (i) to highlight a particular affinity of U for acidic and/or P-containing proteins and (ii) to identify 24 protein candidates for U binding. (author) [fr

  2. Adenylate cyclase activity in fish gills in relation to salt adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibbolini, M.E.; Lahlou, B.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of salt adaptation on specific adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of [α- 32 P] - ATP into [α- 32 P] - cAMP) was investigated in gill plasma membranes of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) adapted to various salinities (deionized water, DW; fresh water, FW; 3/4 sea water, 3/4 SW; sea water, SW) and in sea water adapted- mullet (Mugil sp.). Basal activity declined by a factor of 2 in trout with increasing external salinity (pmoles cAMP/mg protein/10 min: 530 in DW, 440 in FW, 340 in 3/4 SW; 250 in SW) and was very low in SW adapted-mullet: 35. The Km for ATP was similar (0.5 mM) in both FW adapted- and SW adapted- trout in either the absence (basal activity) or in the presence of stimulating agents (isoproterenol; NaF) while the Vm varied. Analysis of stimulation ratios with respect to basal levels of the enzyme showed that hormones and pharmacological substances (isoproterenol, NaF) display a greater potency in high salt than in low salt adapted- fish gills. In contrast, salt adaptation did not have any effect on the regulation of adenylate cyclase by PGE 1 . These results are interpreted in relation to the general process of osmoregulation. 27 references, 6 figures

  3. Quality of life in adults with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have used standardized QOL instruments to assess the quality of life (QOL) in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) patients. This work investigates the QOL of adult GTS patients and examines the relationships between physical and psychological variables and QOL. Methods Epidemiological investigation by anonymous national postal survey of QOL of patients of the French Association of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (AFGTS) aged 16 years or older. The clinical and QOL measures were collected by four questionnaires: a sociodemographic and GTS-related symptoms questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality Of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-26), the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), and a self-rating questionnaire on psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90), all validated in French. We used stepwise regression analysis to explicitly investigate the relationships between physical and psychological variables and QOL domains in GTS. Results Questionnaires were posted to 303 patients, of whom 167 (55%) completed and returned them. Our results, adjusted for age and gender, show that patients with GTS have a worse QOL than the general healthy population. In particular, the “Depression” psychological variable was a significant predictor of impairment in all WHOQOL-26 domains, psychological but also physical and social. Conclusions The present study demonstrates a strong relationship between QOL in GTS and psychiatric symptoms, in particular those of depression. PMID:22888766

  4. Effects of cadmium chloride on oxygen consumption and gill morphology of Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suchismita; Gupta, Abhik

    2012-11-01

    Effects of three sub lethal concentrations of cadmium chloride (0.636, 0.063 and 0.006 mg l(-1)) on oxygen consumption and gill morphology in Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus (Hamilton-Buchanan), a teleost fish, were studied. When compared to control, 0.636 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride after 7,14, 21 and 28 day exposure showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 32.98, 28.40, 23.88 and 21.69 ml hr(1) 100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively; while, 0.063 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride for the same exposure durations showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 34.28, 29.30, 28.05 and 26.47 ml hr(1)100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively. However, significant decline in the rate of oxygen consumption at 0.006 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride could be observed from 21st day of exposure. Gill tissue showed various histopathological changes including epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, mucous secretion, marked leucocyte infiltration in the epithelium after 28 days of cadmium chloride exposure.

  5. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting reservoirs contaminated with mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundage, S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Shaw-Allen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Active transport of Na + and K + for osmoregulation in fish involves gill Na + , K + -ATPase, a membrane-bound enzyme powered by hydrolysis of ATP. Na + , K + -ATPase is inhibited by many dissolved metals including Al, Cd, Cu and Hg, resulting in ionoregulatory dysfunction. However, dissolved Hg concentrations are quite low in most aquatic systems, and dietary sources are the most important contributors to Hg burdens in fish. One recent study demonstrated relationships between muscle Hg concentration and gill Na + , K + -ATPase in a marine fish, suggesting that Hg accumulated via diet can affect osmoregulation. The authors tested for such a relationship in several age-classes of a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three reservoirs. Fish from Par Pond and L Lake, on the USDOE Savannah River Site in South Carolina had relatively high Hg content: for Par Pond, muscle and liver ranged from 1.58--12.01 and 1.46--23.22 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively, and for L Lake muscle and liver ranged from 3.11--5.16 and 1.28--12.59 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively. Bass from an offsite location, Thurmond Lake, had significantly (P + , K + -ATPase activity was not evident

  6. DNA barcoding of Mobulid Ray Gill Rakers for Implementing CITES on Elasmobranch in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Wu, Zhongze; Zhang, Chunguang; Meng, Zhibin; Jiang, Zhigang; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-23

    The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has been counted on for conserving threatened marine fish since it regulates the commercial international trade of these species. Implementation of the international treaty for Mantas included on CITES Appendix II is challenging due to insufficient information on species identification and markets management. To fill the gap in such aspects, we identified five species of Mobulid rays (Mobula spps. and Manta spp) by using COI and NADH2 mtDNA markers in dried ray gill rakers from Chinese markets, namely, Mobula japonica (representing 54.8% of the sample set), M. tarapacana (14.4%), M. kuhlii (13.3%), M. thurstoni (6.4%), along with Manta birostris (11.2%; CITES Appendix II). The utilization and conservation statuses of these species were discussed. Based on combination of DNA barcodes and key morphological characters, we developed a three-step process for identifying the gill rakers of Mobulid rays which has been adopted by frontline enforcement in China. We hope that our work can serve as a foundation and basis to reinforce objectives of international treaties, regulation of consumer-driven markets, regional cooperation, and national fishery management on endangered elasmobranchs in China as well as related countries.

  7. An assay of optimal cytochrome c oxidase activity in fish gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yau-Chung; Chung, Meng-Han; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2018-07-15

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) catalyzes the terminal oxidation reaction in the electron transport chain (ETC) of aerobic respiratory systems. COX activity is an important indicator for the evaluation of energy production by aerobic respiration in various tissues. On the basis of the respiratory characteristics of muscle, we established an optimal method for the measurement of maximal COX activity. To validate the measurement of cytochrome c absorbance, different ionic buffer concentrations and tissue homogenate protein concentrations were used to investigate COX activity. The results showed that optimal COX activity is achieved when using 50-100 μg fish gill homogenate in conjunction with 75-100 mM potassium phosphate buffer. Furthermore, we compared branchial COX activities among three species of euryhaline teleost (Chanos chanos, Oreochromis mossambicus, and Oryzias dancena) to investigate differences in aerobic respiration of osmoregulatory organs. COX activities in the gills of these three euryhaline species were compared with COX subunit 4 (COX4) protein levels. COX4 protein abundance and COX activity patterns in the three species occurring in environments with various salinities increased when fish encountered salinity challenges. This COX activity assay therefore provides an effective and accurate means of assessing aerobic metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Histopathological changes induced by malathion in the gills of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmonds, C.; Dutta, H.M. (Kent State Univ., OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Malathion is a widely used broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide. Its wide use provides many occasions for its entry into aquatic environments. The presence of this chemical in the aquatic environment would adversely affect many non-target species like fish. About 50 to 90% of the absorbed malathion can be eliminated in one to three days by the fish. About 25% of malathion remained in river water after 2 wk, and 10% remained after 4 wk from the time of its entry. Respiratory distress is one of the early symptoms of pesticide poisoning. These toxicants appear to cause a loss of adhesion between the epithelial cells and the underlying pillar cell system, accompanied by a collapse of the structural integrity of the secondary lamellae. Gills are important in respiration as well as osmoregulation of the fish. Therefore it was decided to study the effects of malathion on the gills of bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Bluegills were selected for this study due to the following reasons: (1) Bluegills are more sensitive to malathion when compared to fathead minnows and goldfish. (2) They are important both as edible and game fish. (3) They are easily available and easy to maintain in the laboratory.

  9. Histochemical and structural analysis of mucous glycoprotein secreted by the gill of Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hae-Young.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were carried out to characterized various mucous cells in the gill filament, to ascertain structural characteristics of the secreted mucous glycoproteins, and to determine the ability of the gill epithelium to incorporate [ 14 C]glucosamine as a precursor in the biosynthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. Using histochemical staining techniques, mucous cells containing neutral and acidic mucins were found in the lateral region, whereas mucous cells containing primarily neutral or sulfated mucins were found in the postlateral region. Serotonin, but not dopamine, stimulated the mucous secretion. In tissues pretreated with [ 14 C]glucosamine, the secreted glycoproteins contain incorporated radiolabel. Analysis by column chromatography using Bio-Gel P-2 and P-6 shows that the secretion contains two glycoprotein populations. Glycoprotein II has a molecular weight of 2.3 x 10 4 daltons. Upon alkaline reductive borohydride cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkages of glycoprotein I, about 70% of the radiolabel was removed from the protein. Gas chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrate composition shows that the glycoproteins contains N-acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and galactose, fucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis shows that the glycoproteins are rich in serine, threonine and proline

  10. Phil Wallace and Theoretical Physics at McGill in the 1950's: A Personal Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, John David

    2010-01-01

    In 1946 Philip (Phil) Russell Wallace joined the Mathematics Department of McGill University as an Associate Professor of Applied Mathematics, apparently because A. H. S. Gillson, Dean of Arts and Science, wanted theoretical physicists to be in the Mathematics Department. He came with the dream of creating a theoretical physics group at McGill. By the spring of 1949, Phil was authorized to recruit two junior faculty in Mathematics. He hired Theodore (Ted) F. Morris from U. Toronto, who joined in September 1949, and me, who came in January 1950. The group had begun. Phil Wallace was born in Toronto in 1915 and grew up there. He entered the University of Toronto in 1933, earned a B.A. in mathematics in 1937, a M.A. in 1938, and a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1940 under Leopold Infeld. His Ph.D. thesis in general relativity was entitled 'On the relativistic equations of motion in electromagnetic theory.' In 1940 World War II had engulfed Europe and was having its effect on Canada, but the US was still at peace. L. J. Synge, Head of the Applied Mathematics Department at Toronto, told Wallace that people such as he would be needed in war work, but things were not ready quite yet. Hold yourself ready. Phil took a two-year position as lecturer in mathematics at the University of Cincinnati (1940-42); in the fall of 1942 he became a lecturer in mathematics at M.I.T. It was from there that he was recruited by Synge to join the war effort from 1943 to 1946 at N.R.C.'s Montreal Laboratory, the genesis of the Canadian Atomic Energy Project. Phil has described those heady wartime years in these pages. Much of the effort of the theoretical physicists was on nuclear reactor theory and the properties of relevant materials, such as graphite, under long and intense neutron bombardment. In late 1945 Phil was sent for four months to Bristol to learn about the properties of graphite from the esteemed N. F. Mott. This exposure led Phil to a life-long interest in graphite and in

  11. Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes in the Liver and Gills of the Killifish Aphanius Dispar (Cyprinodontidae Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiya H. Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a mycotoxin which can cause serious toxicity to animals and humans.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AFB1 in Aphanius dispar fish and measure residues in tissues after in vivo exposure. Aphanius dispar were fed diets containing 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg for 10, 20 and 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the liver and gills were dissected out and processed for light and electron microscopy. During the experiment, no external changes or unusual behavior were observed in the fish. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes in liver appeared under all four treatments: 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg. Gill tissues were affected at high doses of 100,150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg. Accumulation of AFB1 residues in liver and gill tissues was found to be related to a dose and duration of exposure.

  12. Histologic structure of red nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis nilloticus Var.) gill which is exposed to lead acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, N. R.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Fish is a water biota commonly used as the bioindicator of water pollution level. One of the animals which are recommended by EPA as the test species is red Nile Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus var). The purpose of this research is to get the value of LC50-96 hours in the toxicity test toward the fishes which are exposed to lead acetate with some details identification of the gills damage by gill histologic structure examination together with the determination of the lead concentration which caused the destruction. Sixty fish were used in the preliminary test to detect the threshold concentration (LC0-48 h); whereas 120 fish were used in the toxicity test to get the mortality level of fish up to 50% in 96 h. Finally, for treatment test, there were 80 fish which were exposed to lead acetate in the concentration of 0 ppm, 259.51 ppm, 291.94 ppm and 324.38 ppm. All the treatment tests were given for four weeks. The data were collected at the end of the 4th week, and then, the description of the fish gill histology structure was done. The histology observation of the fishes gill detected some damages in the form of edema (0% -25%), lamellar fusion (1% -75%), hyperplasia (0% -50%), epithelial lifting (0% -50%), and necrosis (0% -50%). The results indicate that administration of lead acetate accelerates moderate damage to the red Nile tilapia fish gill structure. The greatest level of damage is lamellar fusion, while the other decline damages are edema, hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, and necrosis. Furthermore, it can be concluded that LC50-96 hours value in the lead acetate toxicity test of red Nile tilapia fish is 324,38 ppm with some histologic structure damage in the gill the fishes.

  13. Gill structural change in response to turbidity has no effect on the oxygen uptake of a juvenile sparid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, H; Herbert, N A

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O 2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O 2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species ( Pagrus auratus ) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (turbidity units) for 30 days. Significant gill structural change was apparent with a progressive increase in turbidity and was quantified as a reduction in lamellar density, as well as an increase in basal hyperplasia, epithelial lifting and increased oxygen diffusion distance across the lamellae. The weight of control fish did not change throughout the experiment, but all fish exposed to turbid waters lost weight, and weight loss increased with nephelometric turbidity units, confirming that long-term turbidity exposure is detrimental to growth productivity. The growth of fish could be impacted in a variety of ways, but the specific hypothesis that structural alteration of the gills impairs O 2 uptake across the gills and limits growth fitness was not supported because there was no measurable difference in the standard metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, aerobic metabolic scope or critical oxygen saturation limit of fish measured in clear water after 30 days of exposure. Although impaired O 2 uptake as a result of structurally adjusted gills is unlikely to be the cause of poor fish growth, the exact mechanism by which growth productivity is affected in turbid conditions remains unclear and warrants further investigation.

  14. Exploring gene expression changes in the amphioxus gill after poly(I:C) challenge using digital expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Lin; Qiu, Han-Yue; Liang, Ming-Zhong; Luo, Bang; Wang, Xiu-Qiang; Chen, Jun-Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Amphioxus, a cephalochordate, is a key model animal for studying the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Recently, studies have revealed that microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles change significantly in the amphioxus gill after immune stimulation, but it remains largely unknown how gene expression responds to immune stress. Elucidating gene expression changes in the amphioxus gill will provide a deeper understanding of the evolution of gill immunity in vertebrates. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) to conduct tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses of the gills of control Branchiostoma belcheri and of those exposed to the viral mimic, poly(I:C) (pIC). Six libraries were created for the control and treatment groups including three biological replicates per group. A total of 1999 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, with 571 and 1428 DEGs showing up- or down-regulation, respectively, in the treatment group. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology (GO) terms and pathways revealed that the DEGs were primarily related to immune and defense response, apoptosis, human disease, cancer, protein metabolism, enzyme activity, and regulatory processes. In addition, eight DEGs were randomly selected to validate the RNA-seq data using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results confirmed the accuracy of the RNA-seq approach. Next, we screened eight key responding genes to examine the dynamic changes in expression levels at different time points in more detail. The results indicated that expressions of TRADD, MARCH, RNF31, NF-κb, CYP450, TNFRSF6B, IFI and LECT1 were induced to participate in the antiviral response against pIC. This study provides a valuable resource for understanding the role of the amphioxus gill in antiviral immunity and the evolution of gill immunity in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    . As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  16. A two-step approach to estimating selectivity and fishing power of research gill nets used in Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgård, Holger

    1996-01-01

    by normal distributions and could be related to mesh size in accordance with the principle of geometrical similarity. In the second step the selection parameters were estimated by a nonlinear least squares fit. The model also estimated the relative efficiency of the two capture processes and the fishing......Catches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Greenland gill-net surveys were analyzed by a two-step approach. In the initial step the form of the selection curve was identified as binormal, which was caused by fish being gilled or caught by the maxillae. Both capture processes could be described...

  17. Further validation of the Danish version of the McGill Ingestive Skills Assessment (MISA-DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims The McGill Ingestive Skill Assessment (MISA) for measuring dysphagic patients' functional performance during meals has been previously translated into Danish — the Danish McGill Ingestive Skill Assessment (MISA-DK) and this translated version validated. However, issues about......-DK was then tested using 102 videorecordings of geriatric patients' ingestive skill performance, and the data from the scale were examined using a second Rasch analysis. Results Initially, two of the six proposed subscales of the original MISA-DK failed to fit the Rasch model, and were removed. It was also necessary...

  18. Bacterial communities associated with Shinkaia crosnieri from the Iheya North, Okinawa Trough: Microbial diversity and metabolic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2018-04-01

    Shinkaia crosnieri is a galatheid crab endemic to the deep-sea hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we systematically analyzed and compared the diversity and metabolic potentials of the microbial communities in different tissues (setae, gill, and intestine) of S. crosnieri by high-throughput sequencing technology and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis based on the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene obtained 408,079 taxon tags, which covered 15 phyla, 22 classes, 32 orders, 42 families, and 25 genera. Overall, the microbial communities in all tissues were dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, of which Epsilonproteobacteria was the largest class and accounted for 85.24% of the taxon tags. In addition, 20 classes of bacteria were discovered for the first time to be associated with S. crosnieri and no archaea were detected. Comparative analysis showed that (i) bacteria from different tissues fell into different groups by β-diversity analysis, (ii) bacterial communities in intestine were similar to that in gill and much more diverse than that in setae, and the sulfur-oxidizing genus Sulfurovum was markedly enriched in intestine and gill. Furthermore, bacteria potentially involved in methane, nitrogen, and metal metabolisms were detected in all samples. The key genes of aprA/dsrA and pmoA involved in sulfate reducing and methane oxidization, respectively, were detected in the gill and gut communities for the first time, and pmoA was significantly more abundant in gill and setae than in intestine. These results provide the first comparative and relatively complete picture of the diversity and metabolic potentials of the bacteria in different tissues of S. crosnieri. These results also indicate that the composition of the microbial communities in hydrothermal fauna changes with time, suggesting the importance of environmental influence.

  19. Investigation of bacterial communities within the digestive organs of the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata provide insights into holobiont geographic clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique A Cowart

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR. Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation. To identify which hypothesis best fits, we tested whether bacterial assemblages exhibit differentiation across sites or host populations by performing a 16S rRNA metabarcoding survey on R. exoculata digestive prokaryote samples (n = 31 taken from three geochemically distinct vents across MAR: Rainbow, Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG and Logatchev. Analysis of communities across two organs (digestive tract, stomach, three molt colors (white, red, black and three life stages (eggs, juveniles, adults also provided insights into symbiont transmission mode. Examining both whole communities and operational taxonomic units (OTUs confirmed the presence of three main epibionts: Epsilonproteobacteria, Mollicutes and Deferribacteres. With these findings, we identified a clear pattern of geographic segregation by vent in OTUs assigned to Epsilonproteobacteria. Additionally, we detected evidence for differentiation among all communities associated to vents and life stages. Overall, results suggest a combination of environmental selection and vertical inheritance of some of the symbiotic lineages.

  20. Differential regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Na+,K+ -ATPase in gills of striped bass, Morone saxatilis: effect of salinity and hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen; Jensen, Lars Nørholm; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek

    2007-01-01

    -regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was stimulated by EGF but not affected by IGF-I. This study is the first to report a branchial EGF response and to demonstrate a functional ERK 1/2 pathway in the teleost gill. In conclusion, CFTR and Na(+),K(+) -ATPase are differentially regulated by salinity and hormones in gills...

  1. Effectiveness of oxytetracycline in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish (Labeo rohita, Hamilton under laboratory culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ariful Haque

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effectiveness of most widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish under artificial culture condition in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in 8 aquaria where fish in 5 aquaria were used for replication of the treatment (experimental group and fish in remaining 3 aquaria were considered as a control (Control group. OTC was fed to the fish in the experimental aquarium at the rate of 2 g/kg through diet twice daily whereas fish reared under control condition was given feed without antibiotic for 20 d and bacterial content in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish were estimated at every alternative day after onset of the experiment. Results: Rearing the fish with OTC treated feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial load in the aquarium water, gills, intestine and skin of the fish whereas the content remain unchanged or little increased in the control group. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were within the suitable range in the experimental aquarium but not in control aquaria throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: These results suggest that OTC could be a potential antibiotic to reduce the bacterial load in fish and can be used commercially for maintaining the fish health in aquarium conditions.

  2. Dynamic transcriptomic profiles of zebrafish gills in response to zinc depletion

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    Cunningham Phil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc deficiency is detrimental to organisms, highlighting its role as an essential micronutrient contributing to numerous biological processes. To investigate the underlying molecular events invoked by zinc depletion we performed a temporal analysis of transcriptome changes observed within the zebrafish gill. This tissue represents a model system for studying ion absorption across polarised epithelial cells as it provides a major pathway for fish to acquire zinc directly from water whilst sharing a conserved zinc transporting system with mammals. Results Zebrafish were treated with either zinc-depleted (water = 2.61 μg L-1; diet = 26 mg kg-1 or zinc-adequate (water = 16.3 μg L-1; diet = 233 mg kg-1 conditions for two weeks. Gill samples were collected at five time points and transcriptome changes analysed in quintuplicate using a 16K oligonucleotide array. Of the genes represented the expression of a total of 333 transcripts showed differential regulation by zinc depletion (having a fold-change greater than 1.8 and an adjusted P-value less than 0.1, controlling for a 10% False Discovery Rate. Down-regulation was dominant at most time points and distinct sets of genes were regulated at different stages. Annotation enrichment analysis revealed that 'Developmental Process' was the most significantly overrepresented Biological Process GO term (P = 0.0006, involving 26% of all regulated genes. There was also significant bias for annotations relating to development, cell cycle, cell differentiation, gene regulation, butanoate metabolism, lysine degradation, protein tyrosin phosphatases, nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism, and cellular metabolic processes. Within these groupings genes associated with diabetes, bone/cartilage development, and ionocyte proliferation were especially notable. Network analysis of the temporal expression profile indicated that transcription factors foxl1, wt1, nr5a1, nr6a1, and especially

  3. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Structures and immunolocalization of Na+, K+ -ATPase, Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 and vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase in the gills of blennies (Teleostei: Blenniidae) inhabiting rocky intertidal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, M; Komiyama, M; Yoshizawa, H; Shimizu, N; Konno, N; Matsuda, K

    2012-05-01

    The structure and immunolocalization of the ion transporters Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase (NKA), Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase (VHA) were examined in the gills of teleosts of the family Blenniidae, which inhabit rocky shores with vertical zonation in subtropical seas. These features were compared among the following species with different ecologies: the amphibious rockskipper blenny Andamia tetradactylus, the intertidal white-finned blenny Praealticus tanegasimae and the purely marine yaeyama blenny Ecsenius yaeyamaensis. Light and electron microscopic observations indicated that thick gill filaments were arranged close to each other and alternately on two hemibranches of a gill arch in the opercular space of A. tetradactylus. Many mucous cells (MC) and mitochondrion-rich cells (MRC) were present in the interlamellar regions of the gill filament. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that numerous NKA, NHE3 and some VHA were located predominantly on presumed MRCs of gill filaments and at the base of the lamellae. Analyses using serial (mirror image) sections of the gills indicated that only a few NKA immunoreactive cells (IRC) were colocalized with VHA on some MRCs in the filaments. In the gills of P. tanegasimae, NKA- and NHE3-IRCs were observed in the interlamellar region of the filaments and at the base of the lamellae. VHA-IRCs were located sparsely on the lamellae and filaments. In the gills of E. yaeyamaensis, the lamellae and filaments were thin and straight, respectively. MCs were located at the tip as well as found scattered in the interlamellar region of gill filaments. NKA-, NHE3- and VHA-IRCs were moderately frequently observed in the filaments and rarely on the lamellae. This study shows that the structure and distribution of ion transporters in the gills differ among the three blennid species, presumably reflecting their different ecologies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the

  5. Gill area, permeability and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase activity as a function of size and salinity in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiandao; Roer, Robert; Vana, Matthew; Pate, Susan; Check, Jennifer

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, extensively utilize oligohaline and freshwater regions of the estuary. With a presumptively larger surface-area-to-body weight ratio, juvenile crabs could experience osmo- and ionoregulatory costs well in excess of that of adults. To test this hypothesis, crabs ranging over three orders of magnitude in body weight were acclimated to either sea water (1,000 mOsm) or dilute sea water (150 mOsm), and gill surface area, water and sodium permeabilities (calculated from the passive efflux of 3H2O and 22Na+), gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and expression were measured. Juveniles had a relatively larger gill surface area; weight-specific gill surface area decreased with body weight. Weight-specific water and sodium fluxes also decreased with weight, but not to the same extent as gill surface area; thus juveniles were able to decrease gill permeability slightly more than adults upon acclimation to dilute media. Crabs crabs > 5 g in both posterior and anterior gills. Acclimation to dilute medium induced increased expression of Na+, K+ -ATPase and enzyme activity, but the increase was not as great in juveniles as in larger crabs. The increased weight-specific surface area for water gain and salt loss for small crabs in dilute media presents a challenge that is incompletely compensated by reduced permeability and increased affinity of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase for Na+. Juveniles maintain osmotic and ionic homeostasis by the expression and utilization of extremely high levels of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase, in posterior, as well as in anterior, gills. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Structural changes in the somatosensory system correlate with tic severity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomalla, Götz; Siebner, Hartwig R; Jonas, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Previous structural MRI studies have identified regional abnormalities in grey matter, especially in the basal ganglia. These findings are consistent with the assumption...... of white matter changes in GTS. In this study, we aimed to examine whether GTS is associated with abnormalities in white matter microstructure and whether these changes are correlated with tic severity. In a morphometric study based on diffusion tensor MRI of the whole brain, we compared brain tissue...... the groups. We also tested for a linear relationship between regional FA values and clinical scores of tic severity. Probabilistic fibre tracking was applied to characterize anatomical connectivity of those areas showing differences in regional FA. Compared with healthy controls, GTS patients showed...

  7. Evaluation of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome with [99mTc] HMPAO Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, LCTF; Santos, A. O; Juarez, B. A; Leite, H. A; Lima, M. C. L; Ramos, C. D; Camargo, E. E

    2002-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GLTS) is a disorder characterized by tics and several behavioral disturbances. Although GLTS is a relatively common disorder, little is known about its pathophysiology. Previous studies with SPECT and PET were performed in a small number of patients and have shown some discordant data. The aim of this study is to evaluate brain perfusion abnormalities in patients with GLTS and to correlate them with the clinical manifestations of the syndrome. Twenty-eight patients were submitted to brain [99mTc]-HMPAO SPECT. 82 percent of the patients had abnormal studies. The most frequent finding was perfusion abnormalities in the thalami in 16 patients (57 percent) and 85 percent of patients with hyperperfusion of one or both thalami had complex motor tics. This investigation has demonstrated that brain perfusion SPECT is able to identify cortical perfusion abnormalities, associated with clinical symptoms in patients with GLTS. These abnormalities involve the pre-frontal-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathways (Au)

  8. The Ability to Orient Attention in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Howells

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is characterised by tics, although patients also commonly present with attentional problems. This experiment aimed to ascertain whether TS patients have problems in orienting attention, via the use of a vibrotactile choice reaction time task. Participants were required to push a button in response to a faint vibration delivered to the index finger. Prior to each stimulus vibration, a pre-cue (valid, neutral or invalid was administered to the finger. The performance benefits and costs participants gained from valid and invalid precues were calculated. Contrary to our prediction TS patients did not show significantly different costs or benefits. Furthermore, both patients and controls showed an equal and increased benefit in the crossed arm posture, compared to the uncrossed. These results suggest TS patients do not generally have problems in orienting attention. In addition, in the tactile modality, both patients and controls may benefit from directed attention when difficulty levels are maximal.

  9. Estimation of sodium uptake through the gill of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardaire, E.; Avella, M.; Isaia, J.; Bornancin, M.; Mayer-Gostan, N.

    1985-01-01

    Sodium exchanges through the gill epithelia were estimated in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, using the perfused head technique. The head tissues accumulate radioactivity. In addition there exists an extrabranchial entry of sodium, which is 20 times smaller than the branchial one. The study of the evolution of venous and arterial sodium specific activities as a function of time is necessary before flux measurements are achieved. Contrary to previous studies, an uptake at the primary lamella level is demonstrated. Uptake of sodium through the secondary lamellae can be measured rapidly while at least 30 min are needed for measurement of uptake through the primary lamellae. Chloride cells of the primary lamellae contribute to about 20% of the total sodium uptake.

  10. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Théron, Michaël; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A New Acetylenic Compound and Other Bioactive Metabolites from a Shark Gill-derived Penicillium Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine chiral compounds (1−9 were isolated from the static fermentation culture of a shark gill-derived fungus Penicillium polonicum AP2T1. These compounds include a new acetylenic aromatic ether (1 , (--WA , four alkaloids ( a urantiomide C ( 2 , fructigenine A (3, cyclopenin (4 and cyclopenol (5 and four oxygenated compounds ((R-penipratynolene (6, (3S,4S-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxyl-naphthalenone (7, verrucosidin (8 and norverrucosidin (9. Their structures were elucidated by MS, NMR , optical rotation and circular dichroism (CD . In antimicrobial tests , compounds 1–4, 6 and 8–9 showed weak antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and/or Escherichia coli.Compounds 3, 8 and 9 also exhibited moderate toxicity against Artemia salina larva , and showed cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cell line HCT116.

  12. Imitation in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome--a behavioral study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Melanie; Thomalla, Götz; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Echophenomena in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) may relate to deficient processing of observed biological movements. This would be reflected in altered effects of movement observation on motor responses in these patients. We studied reaction times in 11 unmedicated GTS patients without...... in both groups, provided stimulus presentation and response initiation coincided. Healthy subjects responded faster to compatible biological than nonbiological stimuli. In contrast, GTS patients responded slower to incompatible biological than nonbiological stimuli. Patients' mean reaction time...... in experiment 2 correlated with phonic tic-frequency. Motor facilitation by observing biological movements appears to rely on concomitance of stimuli and responses in GTS patients and healthy individuals. Differing behavioral effects of movement observation in GTS might reflect altered activation of an action...

  13. Methallothionein expression on the gills and stomach of Chinese pond mussels exposed to lead (Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningsih, H.; Suryanto, A. M.; Arfiati, D.

    2018-04-01

    In freshwaters area, Pb originates from rocks (naturally), industries, and pesticides. The ability of Chinese pond mussels as biofilters to absorb heavy metal (Pb) was demonstrated in water circulation system using ten 8 cm mussels. PbNO3 (0, 10, 20, and 30 ppm) was administered into water containing mussels. Carp culture was done for 30 days, and Pb accumulation in carps was measured every week (week 0, 1, 2, and 3). The results showed that the highest Pb ion accumulation was found in the gills of mussels. The examination using hematoxylin-eosin showed that tissues were damage due to haemorrhage, cell ruptures, and cell deaths. The results of the measurement of metallothionein (MT) showed that MT molecular weight was 12.84 kDa.

  14. Kinetostatic and Inertial Conditioning of the McGill Schönflies-Motion Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cammarata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimization of the McGill Schönflies Motion Generator. Recent trends on optimum design of parallel robots led us to investigate the advantages and disadvantages derived from an optimization based on performance indices. Particularly, we optimize here two different indices: the kinematic conditioning and the inertial conditioning, pertaining to the condition number of the Jacobian matrix and to that of the generalized inertia matrix of the robot, respectively. The problem of finding the characteristic length for the robot is first investigated by means of a constrained optimization problem; then plots of the kinetostatic and the inertial conditioning indices are provided for a particular trajectory to be tracked by the moving platform of the SMG. Deep connections appear between the two indices, reflecting a correlation between kinematics and dynamics.

  15. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in special education schools: a United Kingdom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, V; Robertson, M M; Zeitlin, H; Kurlan, R

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in children with severe school problems requiring a residential facility and comparison groups of children in regular day schools, we performed direct clinical examinations for the presence of tics and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) in 20 children from a residential school for emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD); 25 children from a residential school for learning disabilities; 17 "problem" children (PC) (identified by teachers as having academic or behaviour problems) and 19 normal children (NC) selected at random (using random numbers) from a regular school. Of the EBD students, 65% were judged to have definite tics as compared with 24% of students with learning difficulties (P education and that this association is particularly robust for children with severe school problems. In these children, the presence of tics may be an indicator of an underlying dysfunction of neurological development.

  16. Investigation of SNP rs2060546 Immediately Upstream to NTN4 in a Danish Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S; Houssari, Rayan; Esserlind, Ann-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. GTS is a complex disorder, with environmental factors and several genes involved. Although variations within a few genes such as AADAC, NRXN1, SLITRK1, HDC, and IMMP2L have been...

  17. Functional analysis of the musculo-skeletal system of the gill apparatus in Heptranchias perlo (Chondrichthyes: Hexanchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukova, Nadezhda V

    2017-08-01

    Musculo-skeletal morphology is an indispensable source for understanding functional adaptations. Analysis of morphology of the branchial apparatus of Hexanchiform sharks can provide insight into aspects of their respiration that are difficult to observe directly. In this study, I compare the structure of the musculo-skeletal system of the gill apparatus of Heptranchias perlo and Squalus acanthias in respect to their adaptation for one of two respiratory mechanisms known in sharks, namely, the active two-pump (oropharyngeal and parabranchial) ventilation and the ram-jet ventilation. In both species, the oropharyngeal pump possesses two sets of muscles, one for compression and the other for expansion. The parabranchial pump only has constrictors. Expansion of this pump occurs only due to passive elastic recoil of the extrabranchial cartilages. In Squalus acanthias the parabranchial chambers are large and equipped by powerful superficial constrictors. These muscles and the outer walls of the parabranchial chambers are much reduced in Heptranchias perlo, and thus it likely cannot use this pump. However, this reduction allows for vertical elongation of outer gill slits which, along with greater number of gill pouches, likely decreases branchial resistance and, at the same time, increases the gill surface area, and can be regarded as an adaptation for ram ventilation at lower speeds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The putative mechanism of Na(+) absorption in euryhaline elasmobranchs exists in the gills of a stenohaline marine elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Keith P; Edwards, Susan L; Claiborne, James B; Evans, David H

    2007-02-01

    We recently cloned an NHE3 orthologue from the gills of the euryhaline Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina), and generated a stingray NHE3 antibody to unequivocally localize the exchanger to the apical side of epithelial cells that are rich with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (A MRC). We also demonstrated an increase in NHE3 expression when stingrays are in fresh water, suggesting that NHE3 is responsible for active Na(+) absorption. However, the vast majority of elasmobranchs are only found in marine environments. In the current study, immunohistochemistry with the stingray NHE3 antibody was used to localize the exchanger in the gills of the stenohaline marine spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). NHE3 immunoreactivity was confined to the apical side of cells with basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and was excluded from cells with high levels of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Western blots detected a single protein of 88 kDa in dogfish gills, the same size as NHE3 in stingrays and mammals. These immunological data demonstrate that the putative cell type responsible for active Na(+) absorption in euryhaline elasmobranchs is also present in stenohaline marine elasmobranchs, and suggest that the inability of most elasmobranchs to survive in fresh water is not due to a lack of the gill ion transporters for Na(+) absorption.

  19. Responses of metabolic and antioxidant enzymatic activities in gill, liver and plasma of Catla catla during methyl parathion exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Abhijith

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present investigation suggest that gill is the most sensitive organ to MP toxicity. The alterations of the enzymatic parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers for monitoring of the organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic environment. Further, MP should be used with caution in order to protect natural waters and aquatic organisms.

  20. The relationship between types and severity of repetitive behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated which categories of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without tics are experienced as most severe across the study groups and what the differences are in symptom

  1. Gill remodelling and growth rate of striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus under impact of hypoxia and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2017-01-01

    Gill morphometric and gill plasticity of the air-breathing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) exposed to different temperatures (present day 27 °C and future 33 °C) and different air saturation levels (92% and 35%) during 6 weeks were investigated using vertical sections to estimate...... the respiratory lamellae surface areas, harmonic mean barrier thicknesses, and gill component volumes. Gill respiratory surface area (SA) and harmonic mean water - blood barrier thicknesses (HM) of the fish were strongly affected by both environmental temperature and oxygen level. Thus initial values for 27 °C...... normoxic fish (12.4 ± 0.8 g) were 211.8 ± 21.6 mm2 g−1 and 1.67 ± 0.12 μm for SA and HM respectively. After 5 weeks in same conditions or in the combinations of 33 °C and/or PO2 of 55 mm Hg, this initial surface area scaled allometrically with size for the 33 °C hypoxic group, whereas branchial SA...

  2. Regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during smoltification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZURAIS D.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR transcript was investigated in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during the parr-smolt transformation. Sampling of parr and smolt fish was performed between December and July and in particular during the smoltification period occurring in spring. Quantification of GR transcripts revealed differences between the two groups in March and at the beginning of April. During these dates, the amounts of GR mRNA in parr gills were respectively three and two fold lower than those measured in smolts. In order to determine which factors are responsible for these differences, we studied the long-term effects of prolactin and Cortisol treatments on GR transcript in the gills of presmolt fish. The plasma levels of these two hormones respectively drop and rise during smoltification. Contrary to Cortisol long-term treatment which did not modify the amount of gill GR transcript, short-term treatment induced a significant decrease within 12 hours. Prolactin long-term treatment caused a significant increase of GR transcript abundance after 13 days of implant treatment. This result is unexpected with regard to those obtained in the smoltification analysis but is in agreement with previous studies performed in mammary gland revealing a positive control of PRL on GR in epithelial cells. Our data suggest that the regulation of the GR transcript during the parr-smolt transformation probably involves several hormonal factors.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a Picorna-Like Virus Associated with Gill Tissue in Clinically Normal Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Adams, Cynthia R.; Galbraith, Heather; Aunins, Aaron; Cornman, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a picorna-like virus associated with brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, gill tissue. The draft genome comprises 8,681 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains two open reading frames. It is most similar to picorna-like viruses that infect invertebrates.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of a Picorna-Like Virus Associated with Gill Tissue in Clinically Normal Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Adams, Cynthia R; Galbraith, Heather; Aunins, Aaron; Cornman, Robert S

    2017-10-12

    Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a picorna-like virus associated with brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis , gill tissue. The draft genome comprises 8,681 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains two open reading frames. It is most similar to picorna-like viruses that infect invertebrates.

  5. Nitric oxide synthase in the gill of Atlantic salmon: colocalization with and inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tipsmark, Christian K; Holmqvist, Bo

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in the gill of anadromous Atlantic salmon. Cells containing NO-producing enzymes were revealed by means of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunocytochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphor...

  6. Comet assay in gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus exposed in vivo to cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletta, G L; Gigena, F; Loteste, A; Parma, M J; Kleinsorge, E C; Simoniello, M F

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural chemicals can induce genetic alterations on aquatic organisms that have been associated with effects on growth, reproduction and population dynamics. The evaluation of DNA damage in fish using the comet assay (CA) frequently involves the utilization of erythrocytes. However, epithelial gill cells (EGC) can be more sensitive, as they are constantly dividing and in direct contact with potentially stressing compounds from the aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1) the sensitivity and suitability of epithelial gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus in response to different genotoxic agents through the application of the CA, (2) the induction of DNA damage in this cell population after in vivo exposure to cypermethrin. Baseline value of the CA damage index (DI) for EGC of juvenile P. lineatus was 144.68±5.69. Damage increased in a dose-dependent manner after in vitro exposure of EGC to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and H2O2, two known genotoxic agents. In vivo exposure of fish to cypermethrin induced a significant increase in DNA DI of EGC at 0.150μg/l (DI: 239.62±6.21) and 0.300μg/l (270.63±2.09) compared to control (150.25±4.38) but no effect was observed at 0.075μg/l (168.50±10.77). This study shows that EGC of this species are sensitive for the application of the CA, demonstrating DNA damage in response to alkylation (MMS), oxidative damage (H2O2), and to the insecticide cypermethryn. These data, together with our previous study on DNA damage induction on erythrocytes of this species, provides useful information for future work involving biomonitoring in regions where P. lineatus is naturally exposed to pesticides and other genotoxic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural mineral particles are cytotoxic to rainbow trout gill epithelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Michel

    Full Text Available Worldwide increases in fluvial fine sediment are a threat to aquatic animal health. Fluvial fine sediment is always a mixture of particles whose mineralogical composition differs depending on the sediment source and catchment area geology. Nonetheless, whether particle impact in aquatic organisms differs between mineral species remains to be investigated. This study applied an in vitro approach to evaluate cytotoxicity and uptake of four common fluvial mineral particles (quartz, feldspar, mica, and kaolin; concentrations: 10, 50, 250 mg L(-1 in the rainbow trout epithelial gill cell line RTgill-W1. Cells were exposed for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Cytotoxicity assays for cell membrane integrity (propidium iodide assay, oxidative stress (H2DCF-DA assay, and metabolic activity (MTT assay were applied. These assays were complemented with cell counts and transmission electron microscopy. Regardless of mineral species, particles ≤ 2 µm in diameter were taken up by the cells, suggesting that particles of all mineral species came into contact and interacted with the cells. Not all particles, however, caused strong cytotoxicity: Among all assays the tectosilicates quartz and feldspar caused sporadic maximum changes of 0.8-1.2-fold compared to controls. In contrast, cytotoxicity of the clay particles was distinctly stronger and even differed between the two particle types: mica induced concentration-dependent increases in free radicals, with consistent 1.6-1.8-fold-changes at the 250 mg L(-1 concentration, and a dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Kaolin caused concentration-dependent increases in cell membrane damage, with consistent 1.3-1.6-fold increases at the 250 mg L(-1 concentration. All effects occurred in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Cell numbers per se were marginally affected. Results indicate that (i. natural mineral particles can be cytotoxic to gill epithelial cells, (ii. their cytotoxic potential differs between mineral

  8. 2-DE Mapping of the Blue Mussel Gill Proteome: The Usual Suspects Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Rocher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis, L. 1758 is an ecologically important and commercially relevant bivalve. Because of its ability to bioconcentrate xenobiotics, it is also a widespread sentinel species for environmental pollution, which has been used in ecotoxicological studies for biomarker assessment. Consequently, numerous proteomics studies have been carried out in various research contexts using mussels of the genus Mytilus, which intended to improve our understanding of complex physiological processes related to reproduction, adaptation to physical stressors or shell formation and for biomarker discovery. Differential-display 2-DE proteomics relies on an extensive knowledge of the proteome with as many proteoforms identified as possible. To this end, extensive characterization of proteins was performed in order to increase our knowledge of the Mytilus gill proteome. On average, 700 spots were detected on 2-DE gels by colloidal blue staining, of which 122 different, non-redundant proteins comprising 203 proteoforms could be identified by tandem mass spectrometry. These proteins could be attributed to four major categories: (i “metabolism”, including antioxidant defence and degradation of xenobiotics; (ii “genetic information processing”, comprising transcription and translation as well as folding, sorting, repair and degradation; (iii “cellular processes”, such as cell motility, transport and catabolism; (iv “environmental information processing”, including signal transduction and signalling molecules and interaction. The role of cytoskeleton proteins, energetic metabolism, chaperones/stress proteins, protein trafficking and the proteasome are discussed in the light of the exigencies of the intertidal environment, leading to an enhanced stress response, as well as the structural and physiological particularities of the bivalve gill tissue.

  9. Hormonal regulation of aquaporin 3: opposing actions of prolactin and cortisol in tilapia gill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P; Inokuchi, Mayu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Seale, Andre P; Hunt, Bethany L; Watanabe, Soichi; Lerner, Darren T; Kaneko, Toyoji; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Aquaporins (Aqps) are expressed within key osmoregulatory tissues where they mediate the movement of water and selected solutes across cell membranes. We leveraged the functional plasticity of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium to examine how Aqp3, an aquaglyceroporin, is regulated in response to osmoregulatory demands. Particular attention was paid to the actions of critical osmoregulatory hormones, namely, prolactin (Prl), growth hormone and cortisol. Branchial aqp3 mRNA levels were modulated following changes in environmental salinity, with enhanced aqp3 mRNA expression upon transfer from seawater to freshwater (FW). Accordingly, extensive Aqp3 immunoreactivity was localized to cell membranes of branchial epithelium in FW-acclimated animals. Upon transferring hypophysectomized tilapia to FW, we identified that a pituitary factor(s) is required for Aqp3 expression in FW. Replacement with ovine Prl (oPrl) was sufficient to stimulate Aqp3 expression in hypophysectomized animals held in FW, an effect blocked by coinjection with cortisol. Both oPrl and native tilapia Prls (tPrl177 and tPrl188) stimulated aqp3 in incubated gill filaments in a concentration-related manner. Consistent with in vivo responses, coincubation with cortisol blocked oPrl-stimulated aqp3 expression in vitro Our data indicate that Prl and cortisol act directly upon branchial epithelium to regulate Aqp3 in tilapia. Thus, within the context of the diverse actions of Prl on hydromineral balance in vertebrates, we define a new role for Prl as a regulator of Aqp expression. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 {mu}g l{sup -1} Cd (as Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O) in moderately hard (140 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}), alkaline (95 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}, pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U{sub Crit}), routine O{sub 2} consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC{sub 50} values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 {mu}g l{sup -1} exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive {sup 109}Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in

  11. Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a type of vaginal infection. The vagina normally contains both healthy bacteria and unhealthy bacteria. BV occurs when more unhealthy bacteria grow than healthy bacteria. No one knows ...

  12. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  13. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  14. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    direct or indirect evidence of a compatible bacterial pathogen. Inflammation may be .... cardinal features (fever, confusion, headache and neck stiffness). .... specificity, inappropriate indications or poor sampling technique may diminish this ...

  15. Emersion behaviour underlies variation in gill morphology and aquatic respiratory function in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, A J; Tatarenkov, A; Currie, S; Earley, R L; Platek, A; Taylor, D S; Wright, P A

    2018-04-13

    Fishes acclimated to hypoxic environments often increase gill surface area to improve O 2 uptake. In some species, surface area is increased via reduction of an interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) that fills water channels between gill lamellae. Amphibious fishes, however, may not increase gill surface area in hypoxic water because these species can, instead, leave water and breathe air. To differentiate between these possibilities, we compared wild amphibious mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus from two habitats that varied in O 2 availability - a hypoxic freshwater pool versus nearly anoxic crab burrows. Fish captured from crab burrows had less gill surface area (as ILCMs were enlarged by ∼32%), increased rates of normoxic O 2 consumption and increased critical O 2 tension compared with fish from the freshwater pool. Thus, wild mangrove rivulus do not respond to near-anoxic water by decreasing metabolism or increasing O 2 extraction. Instead, fish from the crab burrow habitat spent three times longer out of water, which probably caused the observed changes in gill morphology and respiratory phenotype. We also tested whether critical O 2 tension is influenced by genetic heterozygosity, as K. marmoratus is one of only two hermaphroditic vertebrate species that can produce both self-fertilized (inbred) or out-crossed (more heterozygous) offspring. We found no evidence for inbreeding depression, suggesting that self-fertilization does not impair respiratory function. Overall, our results demonstrate that amphibious fishes that inhabit hypoxic aquatic habitats can use a fundamentally different strategy from that used by fully aquatic water-breathing fishes, relying on escape behaviour rather than metabolic depression or increased O 2 extraction ability. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Assessment of gill pathological responses in the tropical fish yellowfin seabream of Persian Gulf under mercury exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hassaninezhad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gill histomorphological alterations were used to assess the effects of chronic exposure to HgCl2 on the yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus. In this regard, 90 A. latus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of HgCl2 (10, 20, 35 and 50 μg/L for 3 weeks. Treated fish were erratic and showed respiratory distress. The most common morphological abnormalities included: filaments disorganization, increase of mucus secretion, debris and blood plaques on the filaments, losing or shortening of some filaments. The most frequent histopathological changes detected in the gills included extensive lifting of the lamellar epithelium and edema of lamellae with enlarged sub-epithelial spaces, exfoliated epithelium of lamellae, telangiectasia, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cell resulted in partial fusion of the secondary lamellae and a reduction of the water space, club shaping of gill lamellae, blood congestion. Some more severe alternations found in the gill of fish exposed to higher levels of HgCl2 (35 and 50 μg/L included lamellar aneurysm and hemorrhages with rupture of the lamellar epithelium. According to the results of the present study, mercuric chloride could cause major histomorphological changes in the gill of A. latus, decreasing its gas exchange capability. Two mercury concentrations (10 and 20 μg/L used in the present study were in agreement with the concentration of mercury in the water of different parts of Mahshahr creeks (the north of Persian Gulf (3.66 to 15 μg/L. Therefore, based on the results the presence of pathological alteration in A. latus inhibited in the natural environment (Mahshahr creeks seems to be logical.

  17. Absorption dynamics of organic chemical transport across trout gills as related to octanol-water partition coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.; Schmieder, P.; Veith, G.

    1985-01-01

    An in vivo fish preparation was used that allowed a direct measure of the transport rates of 14 different organic chemicals across the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The chemicals, all C14 labeled, were selected from five classes, encompassing a range of octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) values, from 0.23 (ethyl formate) to 7.5 (mirex). The uptake efficiency (extraction efficiency) of each chemical was determined by monitoring the inspired and expired water of trout exposed to each chemical over an exposure period of 1 to 6 hr. The mean gill extraction efficiency for all chemicals tested varied from a low of 7% to a high of 60%, extracted in a single pall of the chemical across the gills. The extraction efficiency of chemicals with log P or 1 or less were low and showed no relationship to log P. These low extraction efficiencies seen at log P of 1 and below with molecular weights below 100 were indicative of aqueous pore transport. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P values of 1 to 3 seemed to vary directly with log P, to a maximum of slightly greater than 60%, suggesting that uptake was controlled by the lipid membrane. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P of 3 to 6 was independent of log P and remained at 60%, which suggested that gill uptake was controlled by aqueous diffusion rates rather than gill membrane permeability. The mean extraction efficiency with mirex (log P . 7.5) decreased to 20%

  18. Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial symbiont, has provided a novel drug treatment for filariasis with macrofilaricidal activity, although the current gold-standard, doxycycline, is unsuitable for use in mass drug administration (MDA. The anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL Consortium aims to identify novel anti-Wolbachia drugs, compounds or combinations that are suitable for use in MDA. Development of a Wolbachia cell-based assay has enabled the screening of the approved human drug-pharmacopoeia (∼2600 drugs for a potential repurposing. This screening strategy has revealed that approved drugs from various classes show significant bacterial load reduction equal to or superior to the gold-standard doxycycline, with 69 orally available hits from different drug categories being identified. Based on our defined hit criteria, 15 compounds were then selectively screened in a Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model, 4 of which were active. These came from the tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and rifamycin classes. This strategy of repurposing approved drugs is a promising development in the goal of finding a novel treatment against filariasis and could also be a strategy applicable for other neglected tropical diseases.

  19. Identification of anti-filarial leads against aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi: combined molecular docking and molecular dynamics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amala, Mathimaran; Rajamanikandan, Sundaraj; Prabhu, Dhamodharan; Surekha, Kanagarajan; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman

    2018-02-06

    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating vector borne parasitic disease that infects human lymphatic system by nematode Brugia malayi. Currently available anti-filarial drugs are effective only on the larval stages of parasite. So far, no effective drugs are available for humans to treat filarial infections. In this regard, aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASDase) in lysine biosynthetic pathway from Wolbachia endosymbiont Brugia malayi represents an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel anti-filarial agents. In this present study, molecular modeling combined with molecular dynamics simulations and structure-based virtual screening were performed to identify potent lead molecules against ASDase. Based on Glide score, toxicity profile, binding affinity and mode of interactions with the ASDase, five potent lead molecules were selected. The molecular docking and dynamics results revealed that the amino acid residues Arg103, Asn133, Cys134, Gln161, Ser164, Lys218, Arg239, His246, and Asn321 plays a crucial role in effective binding of Top leads into the active site of ASDase. The stability of the ASDase-lead complexes was confirmed by running the 30 ns molecular dynamics simulations. The pharmacokinetic properties of the identified lead molecules are in the acceptable range. Furthermore, density functional theory and binding free energy calculations were performed to rank the lead molecules. Thus, the identified lead molecules can be used for the development of anti-filarial agents to combat the pathogenecity of Brugia malayi.

  20. Isolation, pure culture and characterization of Serratia symbiotica sp. nov., the R-type of secondary endosymbiont of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Ahmed; Leroy, Pascal; Haubruge, Eric; Hance, Thierry; Frère, Isabelle; Destain, Jacqueline; Thonart, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    An intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the flora of a natural clone of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. The strain was able to grow freely in aerobic conditions on a rich medium containing 1 % of each of the following substrates: glucose, yeast extract and casein peptone. Pure culture was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture on the same medium and the strain was designated CWBI-2.3(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain CWBI-2.3(T) was a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria, having high sequence similarity (>99 %) with 'Candidatus Serratia symbiotica', the R-type of secondary endosymbiont that is found in several aphid species. As strain CWBI-2.3(T) ( = LMG 25624(T) = DSM 23270(T)) was the first R-type symbiont to be isolated and characterized, it was designated as the type strain of Serratia symbiotica sp. nov.

  1. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinck, Joel; Dunbar, Michael; Brown, Stephanie; Nichols, Joel; Winter, Anna; Hughes, Christopher; Playle, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 μM total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as log K Hg-gill = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as log K Hg-NOM = 18.0 with about 0.5 μmol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM

  2. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinck, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Dunbar, Michael [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Brown, Stephanie [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Nichols, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Winter, Anna [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Hughes, Christopher [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Playle, Richard C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada)]. E-mail: rplayle@wlu.ca

    2005-03-25

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 {mu}M total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as log K {sub Hg-gill} = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as log K {sub Hg-NOM} = 18.0 with about 0.5 {mu}mol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM.

  3. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Joel; Dunbar, Michael; Brown, Stephanie; Nichols, Joel; Winter, Anna; Hughes, Christopher; Playle, Richard C

    2005-03-25

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 microM total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as logK(Hg-gill) = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as logK(Hg-NOM) = 18.0 with about 0.5 micromol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM.

  4. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  5. Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2011-06-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production.

  6. Confocal microscopy as a useful approach to describe gill rakers of Asian species of carp and native filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liza R. Walleser,; D.R. Howard,; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand potential diet overlap among exotic Asian species of carp and native species of filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system, microscopy was used to document morphological differences in the gill rakers. Analysing samples first with light microscopy and subsequently with confocal microscopy, the three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Dorosoma cepedianum was more thoroughly described and illustrated than previous work with traditional microscopy techniques. The three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Ictiobus cyprinellus was described and illustrated for the first time.

  7. Ultrastructure of book gill development in embryos and first instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farley Roger D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmission electron microscope (TEM is used for the first time to study the development of book gills in the horseshoe crab. Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for homology and a common ancestry for horseshoe crab book gills and arachnid book lungs. The present developmental study and the author's recent ones of book gills (SEM and scorpion book lungs (TEM are intended to clarify early histological work and provide new ultrastructural details for further research and for hypotheses about evolutionary history and relationships. Results The observations herein are in agreement with earlier reports that the book gill lamellae are formed by proliferation and evagination of epithelial cells posterior to opisthosomal branchial appendages. A cartilage-like endoskeleton is produced in the base of the opisthosomal appendages. The lamellar precursor cells in the appendage base proliferate, migrate outward and secrete the lamellar cuticle from their apical surface. A series of external, posteriorly-directed lamellae is formed, with each lamella having a central channel for hemolymph and pillar-type space holders formed from cells of the opposed walls. This repeated, page-like pattern results also in water channels (without space holders between the sac-like hemolymph lamellae. Conclusions The developmental observations herein and in an earlier study (TEM of scorpion book lungs show that the lamellae in book gills and book lungs result from some similar activities and features of the precursor epithelial cells: proliferation, migration, alignment and apical/basal polarity with secretion of cuticle from the apical surface and the basal surface in contact with hemolymph. These cellular similarities and the resulting book-like structure suggest a common ancestry, but there are also substantial developmental differences in producing these organs for gas exchange in the different environments, aqueous

  8. Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of control O. niloticus (freshwater group was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h

  9. Horizontal gene acquisition of Liberibacter plant pathogens from a bacteriome-confined endosymbiont of their psyllid vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nakabachi

    Full Text Available he Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is a notorious agricultural pest that transmits the phloem-inhabiting alphaproteobacterial 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and allied plant pathogens, which cause the devastating citrus disease called Huanglongbing or greening disease. D. citri harbors two distinct bacterial mutualists in the symbiotic organ called bacteriome: the betaproteobacterium 'Candidatus Profftella armatura' in the syncytial cytoplasm at the center of the bacteriome, and the gammaproteobacterium 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' in uninucleate bacteriocytes. Here we report that a putative amino acid transporter LysE of Profftella forms a highly supported clade with proteins of L. asiaticus, L. americanus, and L. solanacearum. L. crescens, the most basal Liberibacter lineage currently known, lacked the corresponding gene. The Profftella-Liberibacter subclade of LysE formed a clade with proteins from betaproteobacteria of the order Burkholderiales, to which Profftella belongs. This phylogenetic pattern favors the hypothesis that the Liberibacter lineage acquired the gene from the Profftella lineage via horizontal gene transfer (HGT after L. crescens diverged from other Liberibacter lineages. K A/K S analyses further supported the hypothesis that the genes encoded in the Liberibacter genomes are functional. These findings highlight the possible evolutionary importance of HGT between plant pathogens and their insect vector's symbionts that are confined in the symbiotic organ and seemingly sequestered from external microbial populations.

  10. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marji, S.

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  11. Brad Patterson, Tom Brooking, and Jim McAloon, Unpacking the Kist: The Scots in New Zealand. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History Series, No. 2.33. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. Pp. 412. ISBN 978-0-7735-4190-0. CAD $100.00.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Gerard Brosnahan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brad Patterson, Tom Brooking, and Jim McAloon, Unpacking the Kist: The Scots in New Zealand. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History Series, No. 2.33. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. Pp. 412. ISBN 978-0-7735-4190-0. CAD $100.00.

  12. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...

  13. Gills are an initial target of zinc oxide nanoparticles in oysters Crassostrea gigas, leading to mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Delapedra, Gabriel; Mello, Danielle F.; Arl, Miriam; Schmidt, Éder C.; Meder, Fabian; Monopoli, Marco; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Bouzon, Zenilda L.; Fisher, Andrew S.; Sheehan, David; Dafre, Alcir L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnONP exposure causes an initial accumulation of zinc in gills and later in digestive gland. • Zinc burden occurs by ZnONP endocytosis or uptake of ionic zinc after dissociation. • ZnONP exposure disrupts mitochondrial ultrastructure in both tissues. • Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are major features of ZnONP acute toxicity. - Abstract: The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was investigated in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. The nanoscale of ZnONP, in vehicle or ultrapure water, was confirmed, presenting an average size ranging from 28 to 88 nm. In seawater, aggregation was detected by TEM and DLS analysis, with an increased average size ranging from 1 to 2 μm. Soluble or nanoparticulated zinc presented similar toxicity, displaying a LC 50 (96 h) around 30 mg/L. High zinc dissociation from ZnONP, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONP toxicity. To investigate mechanisms of toxicity, oysters were treated with 4 mg/L ZnONP for 6, 24 or 48 h. ZnONP accumulated in gills (24 and 48 h) and digestive glands (48 h). Ultrastructural analysis of gills revealed electron-dense vesicles near the cell membrane and loss of mitochondrial cristae (6 h). Swollen mitochondria and a more conspicuous loss of mitochondrial cristae were observed after 24 h. Mitochondria with disrupted membranes and an increased number of cytosolic vesicles displaying electron-dense material were observed 48 h post exposure. Digestive gland showed similar changes, but these were delayed relative to gills. ZnONP exposure did not greatly affect thiol homeostasis (reduced and oxidized glutathione) or immunological parameters (phagocytosis, hemocyte viability and activation and total hemocyte

  14. Temporal variations in metallothionein concentration and subcellular distribution of metals in gills and digestive glands of the oyster Crassostrea angulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Trombini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The metallothionein levels and metal concentrations in whole body, digestive gland and gills of Crassostrea angulata were analyzed in field samples collected from the River Guadalquivir estuary over several years following a mining waste spill upstream. The subcellular distribution of metals was analyzed to determine the mechanisms involved in the detoxification process. The highest metallothionein levels were reported in the digestive gland shortly after the mining contamination event. In this organ, metals are stored preferentially in the non-cytosolic fraction when increased bioaccumulation takes place. In the cytosol of the gills, metals are associated with metallothionein, whereas in the digestive gland, the distribution of metals between metallothioneins and high molecular weight proteins is similar. Metallothionein variation cannot be explained by metals alone; other abiotic factors must be taken into account. In order to use metallothionein as a metal exposure biomarker in field studies, natural variability needs to be taken into account for the correct interpretation of results.

  15. Immunochemical localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in the symbiont-containing gills of Solemya velum (Bivalvia: Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, C M; Abbott, M S; Veenhuis, M

    1988-10-01

    The distribution of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbuP(2)Case; EC 4.1.1.39) was examined by using two immunological methods in tissues of Solemya velum, an Atlantic coast bivalve containing putative chemoautotrophic symbionts. Antibodies elicited by the purified large subunit of RbuP(2)Case from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cross-reacted on immunoblots with a protein of similar molecular mass occurring in extracts of the symbiont-containing gill tissue of S. velum. No cross-reactivity was detected in symbiont-free tissue extracts. The antiserum also cross-reacted in immunoblots with proteins of Thiobacillus neapolitanus, a free-living sulfuroxidizing chemoautotroph whose RbuP(2)Case has been well characterized. In protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy studies, this antiserum consistently labeled the symbionts but not surrounding host gill tissue, indicating that the symbionts are responsible for the RbuP(2)Case activity.

  16. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillet, Sabrina; Larno, Valerie; Floriani, Magali; Devaux, Alain; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  17. Scanning electron microscopic studies of gill arches and rakers in relation to feeding habits of some fresh water fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Elsheikh

    2013-05-01

    Prominent epithelial protuberances on the gill rakers and gill arches enable the taste buds, located at their summit, to project well above the surface of the epithelium. This could increase the efficiency of the taste buds in selective sorting of palatable food. Co-occurrence of teeth and taste buds on the epi-and hypopharyngeal bones (Types I–III denotes that food processing and gestation occur simultaneously in the pharynx. Caniform, villiform and papilliform teeth on the epi- and hypopharyngeal bones of the three studied species respectively in O. niloticus, C. auratus and C. gariepinus were associated with a complex food-processing cycle. Mucous secretions, oozing through mucous cell openings, provide lubrication facilitating smooth passage of food through the pharynx.

  18. Gills are an initial target of zinc oxide nanoparticles in oysters Crassostrea gigas, leading to mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Delapedra, Gabriel; Mello, Danielle F.; Arl, Miriam [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Schmidt, Éder C. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetic, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Meder, Fabian; Monopoli, Marco [Centre for Bionano Interactions, University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo [Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Campus Garopaba, Laboratory of Histological Markers, 88495-000 Garopaba, SC (Brazil); Bouzon, Zenilda L. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetic, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Fisher, Andrew S. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, PL4 8AA Plymouth (United Kingdom); Sheehan, David [Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Dafre, Alcir L., E-mail: alcir.dafre@ufsc.br [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnONP exposure causes an initial accumulation of zinc in gills and later in digestive gland. • Zinc burden occurs by ZnONP endocytosis or uptake of ionic zinc after dissociation. • ZnONP exposure disrupts mitochondrial ultrastructure in both tissues. • Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are major features of ZnONP acute toxicity. - Abstract: The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was investigated in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. The nanoscale of ZnONP, in vehicle or ultrapure water, was confirmed, presenting an average size ranging from 28 to 88 nm. In seawater, aggregation was detected by TEM and DLS analysis, with an increased average size ranging from 1 to 2 μm. Soluble or nanoparticulated zinc presented similar toxicity, displaying a LC{sub 50} (96 h) around 30 mg/L. High zinc dissociation from ZnONP, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONP toxicity. To investigate mechanisms of toxicity, oysters were treated with 4 mg/L ZnONP for 6, 24 or 48 h. ZnONP accumulated in gills (24 and 48 h) and digestive glands (48 h). Ultrastructural analysis of gills revealed electron-dense vesicles near the cell membrane and loss of mitochondrial cristae (6 h). Swollen mitochondria and a more conspicuous loss of mitochondrial cristae were observed after 24 h. Mitochondria with disrupted membranes and an increased number of cytosolic vesicles displaying electron-dense material were observed 48 h post exposure. Digestive gland showed similar changes, but these were delayed relative to gills. ZnONP exposure did not greatly affect thiol homeostasis (reduced and oxidized glutathione) or immunological parameters (phagocytosis, hemocyte viability and activation and total

  19. Parallel in vivo monitoring of pH in gill capillaries and muscles of fishes using microencapsulated biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Borvinskaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking physiological parameters in different organs within the same organism simultaneously and in real time can provide an outstanding representation of the organism's physiological status. The state-of-the-art technique of using encapsulated fluorescent molecular probes (microencapsulated biomarkers is a unique tool that can serve as a platform for the development of new methods to obtain in vivo physiological measurements and is applicable to a broad range of organisms. Here, we describe a novel technique to monitor the pH of blood inside the gill capillaries and interstitial fluid of muscles by using microencapsulated biomarkers in a zebrafish model. The functionality of the proposed technique is shown by the identification of acidification under anesthesia-induced coma and after death. The pH in muscles reacts to hypoxia faster than that in the gill bloodstream, which makes both parameters applicable as markers of either local or bodily reactions.

  20. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Larno, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.larno@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Floriani, Magali, E-mail: magali.floriani@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [INRA, EFPA Department, 54280, Champenoux and Environmental Science Laboratory, ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  1. Toward a Multifactorial Conception of the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Persistent Chronic Tic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Marc E; O'Connor, Kieron

    2017-06-02

    Despite recent giant leaps in understanding Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (now Tourette Disorder in the DSM 5), accurate multi-modal description, rigorous assessment procedures, and the improvement of evidence-based treatment currently pose a considerable challenge. In this context, the current special edition aims to elaborate three important dimensions in Tourette Disorder. Firstly, the effective characterization and etiological basis of the disorder are reviewed, since such characterization impacts accurate assessment. Secondly, subsequent articles cover the comprehensive evaluation and assessment of tic disorders, essential for treatment planning. Thirdly, the final group of articles propose novel and innovative treatment strategies for pharmacologically and behaviorally reducing tic frequency. In the current editorial address, two main issues seem crucial to the development of interventions for Tourette disorder. Primarily, integrating new technology in treatments, while supporting cognitive and behavioral recovery through learning self-controlled strategies. Additionally, the dissemination of study results to frontline resources, needs streamlining and empirically validated treatments for tic disorders should be the subject of knowledge translation to community organizations and be more widely available to the public.

  2. A personal 35 year perspective on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: assessment, investigations, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    After having examined the definition, clinical phenomenology, comorbidity, psychopathology, and phenotypes in the first paper of this Series, here I discuss the assessment, including neuropsychology, and the effects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome with studies showing that the quality of life of patients with Tourette's syndrome is reduced and that there is a substantial burden on the family. In this paper, I review my local and collaborative studies investigating causal factors (including genetic vulnerability, prenatal and perinatal difficulties, and neuro-immunological factors). I also present my studies on neuro-imaging, electro-encephalograms, and other special investigations, which are helpful in their own right or to exclude other conditions. Finally, I also review our studies on treatment including medications, transcranial magnetic stimulation, biofeedback, target-specific botulinum toxin injections, biofeedback and, in severe refractory adults, psychosurgery and deep brain stimulation. This Review summarises and highlights selected main findings from my clinic (initially The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Queen Square and University College London, UK, and, subsequently, at St George's Hospital, London, UK), and several collaborations since 1980. As in Part 1 of this Series, I address the main controversies in the fields and the research of other groups, and I make suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New insights into gill ionocyte and ion transporter function in euryhaline and diadromous fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Junya; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Teleost fishes are able to acclimatize to seawater by secreting excess NaCl by means of specialized “ionocytes” in the gill epithelium. Antibodies against Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) have been used since 1996 as a marker for identifying branchial ionocytes. Immunohistochemistry of NKA by itself and in combination with Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter and CFTR Cl− channel provided convincing evidence that ionocytes are functional during seawater acclimation, and also revealed morphological variations in ionocytes among teleost species. Recent development of antibodies to freshwater- and seawater-specific isoforms of the NKA alpha-subunit has allowed functional distinction of ion absorptive and secretory ionocytes in Atlantic salmon. Cutaneous ionocytes of tilapia embryos serve as a model for branchial ionocytes, allowing identification of 4 types: two involved in ion uptake, one responsible for salt secretion and one with unknown function. Combining molecular genetics, advanced imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry will rapidly advance our understanding of both the unity and diversity of ionocyte function and regulation in fish osmoregulation.

  4. Modeling survival: application of the Andersen-Gill model to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Boyce, Mark S.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

     Wildlife ecologists often use the Kaplan-Meier procedure or Cox proportional hazards model to estimate survival rates, distributions, and magnitude of risk factors. The Andersen-Gill formulation (A-G) of the Cox proportional hazards model has seen limited application to mark-resight data but has a number of advantages, including the ability to accommodate left-censored data, time-varying covariates, multiple events, and discontinuous intervals of risks. We introduce the A-G model including structure of data, interpretation of results, and assessment of assumptions. We then apply the model to 22 years of radiotelemetry data for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Greater Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, USA. We used Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) and multi-model inference to assess a number of potentially useful predictive models relative to explanatory covariates for demography, human disturbance, and habitat. Using the most parsimonious models, we generated risk ratios, hypothetical survival curves, and a map of the spatial distribution of high-risk areas across the recovery zone. Our results were in agreement with past studies of mortality factors for Yellowstone grizzly bears. Holding other covariates constant, mortality was highest for bears that were subjected to repeated management actions and inhabited areas with high road densities outside Yellowstone National Park. Hazard models developed with covariates descriptive of foraging habitats were not the most parsimonious, but they suggested that high-elevation areas offered lower risks of mortality when compared to agricultural areas.

  5. SHOCK, Nonlinear Dynamic Structure Analysis, Spring and Mass Model, Runge-Kutta-Gill Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielson, V. K.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SHOCK calculates the dynamic response of a structure modeled as a spring-mass system having one or two degrees of freedom for each mass when subjected to specified environments. The code determines the behavior of each lumped mass (displacement, velocity, and acceleration for each degree of freedom) and the behavior of each spring or coupling (force, shear, moment, and displacement) as a function of time. Two types of models, axial, having one degree of freedom, and lateral, having two degrees of freedom at each mass can be processed. Damping can be included in all models and shock spectrums of responses can be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: Two methods of numerical integration of the second-order dynamic equations are provided: the Runge-Kutta-Gill method with variable step-size is recommended for highly nonlinear problems, and a variation of the Newmark-Beta method is available for use with large linear problems. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 100 masses, 200 springs or couplings. Complex arrangements of nonlinear options must be carefully checked by the user

  6. α-ENaC in bullfrog embryo: expression in cement gland, gills and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki-Aoba, Kayo; Tanaka, Kayoko; Inomata, Reiko; Jensik, Philip J; Takada, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is involved in Na(+) responses such as Na(+) absorption and salt taste. The alpha ENaC subunit (α-ENaC) is expressed in the skin of both the adult and larval (tadpole) bullfrog. α-ENaC expression in the developing bullfrog embryo has not been previously investigated. In this study, the expression of α-ENaC at various stages (Sts.) of bullfrog embryonic development is assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Bullfrog α-ENaC (α-fENaC) protein was detected by western blot in embryos at Sts. (Gosner/Shumway) 19, 21 and 25. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that α-fENaC was localized to the embryonic cement glands at St. 18 (muscular response), St. 19 (heart beat) and St. 21 (mouth open and/or cornea transparent), to the external gills at St. 21 and to the outermost cell-layer of the skin at St. 25 (operculum complete). The function(s) of ENaC in these embryonic structures remain to be elucidated.

  7. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Theron, Michael; Thomas-Guyon, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. - Highlights: → This study simulates and evaluates the toxicity of dispersant use in nearshore area. → Dispersant use toxicity is assessed through biomarkers measurement in a fish species. → Chemical dispersion of an oil slick increases the petroleum toxicity. → Dispersant use does not enhance the toxicity of a mechanically dispersed oil slick. → This work leads to conclusions concerning dispersant use policies in nearshore area. - When the meteorological conditions induce the dispersion of the oil slick (e.g. wave), the application of dispersant does not increase the toxicity of petroleum.

  8. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: Clinical Features of 75 Cases from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Micheli

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 75 cases of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS from Argentina, whose ages ranged from 6 to 55 with a mean of 20.02, were evaluated to compare findings with those reported for other countries. Mean age at onset was 7.44 years and mean overall duration of symptoms was 12.58 years; 6.7% of cases were mild, 49% moderate and 44.3% severe. Most frequent presenting motor tics were excessive blinking in 41 followed by head jerking in 16 and eye winking in six, while phonic tics included coprolalia in 28.0%, echolalia in 17.5% and palilalia in 10.8%. Abnormal perinatal events were reported in 40.5%, while positive family history for tics was present in 26.66%. Obsessive–compulsive behaviour was evident in 66% and attention deficit disorder in 16% of cases. Self-injurious behaviour comprised onychophagia in 28 patients, lip-biting in seven and self-slapping in eight cases. Almost half of our patients were initially interpreted as having a psychogenic disorder indicating that GTS in Argentina is most likely underdiagnosed. It may be concluded that the overall pattern of GTS is not dissimilar to that described for European, Asian and American populations, thus highlighting the previously recognized cross-cultural uniformity.

  9. The neural correlates of tic inhibition in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Kahl, Ursula; Brandt, Valerie; Schunke, Odette; Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Roessner, Veit; Haggard, Patrick; Münchau, Alexander; Kühn, Simone

    2014-12-01

    Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) resemble fragments of normal motor behaviour but appear in an intrusive, repetitive and context-inappropriate manner. Although tics can be voluntarily inhibited on demand, the neural correlates of this process remain unclear. 14 GTS adults without relevant comorbidities participated in this study. First, tic severity and voluntary tic inhibitory capacity were evaluated outside the scanner. Second, patients were examined with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) in two states, free ticcing and voluntary tic inhibition. Local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI-signal was analysed with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and differences between both states (free ticcingtic inhibition) were contrasted. Clinical correlations of the resulting differential ReHo parameters between both states and clinical measures of tic frequency, voluntary tic inhibition and premonitory urges were also performed. ReHo of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was increased during voluntary tic inhibition compared to free ticcing. ReHo increases were positively correlated with participants׳ ability to inhibit their tics during scanning sessions but also outside the scanner. There was no correlation with ratings of premonitory urges. Voluntary tic inhibition is associated with increased ReHo of the left IFG. Premonitory urges are unrelated to this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nickel exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in Oreochromis niloticus gills: histopathological and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, A C C; Yabuki, A T; Fontanetti, C S

    2014-11-01

    Water is an essential factor for maintaining the vital functions of living beings. Nickel is the 24th most abundant element on Earth; it is a heavy metal that is genotoxic and mutagenic in its chloride form. Due to industrial use, its concentration in surface sediments increased considerably. Fish develop characteristics that make them excellent experimental models for studying aquatic toxicology. They are particularly useful because they can alert of the potential danger of chemical substances or environmental pollution. Due to water quality impairment and because there are few published studies that relate nickel to tissue alteration, this study aimed to examine the consequences of nickel in an aquatic environment. For this analysis, individuals of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to three different concentrations of nickel dissolved in water according to the standard established by Brazilian law and compared them to a control group. After exposure, the gills were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis, ultramorphology, and histological and histochemical analysis. The results demonstrated that all the concentrations used in the experiment altered the histophysiology of the individuals exposed. In conclusion, the nickel presents a toxic potential to fish, even at the lowest concentration tested, which is equivalent to half of the concentration allowed by law. The CONAMA resolution should be revised for this parameter because of the interference of this metal in the histophysiology of the tested organism.

  11. Deep brain stimulation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: killing several birds with one stone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In patients with severe, treatment-refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) of various targets has been increasingly explored over the past 15 years. The multiplicity of surgical targets is intriguing and may be partly due to the complexity of GTS, specifically the various and frequent associated psychiatric comorbidities in this disorder. Thus, the target choice may not only be aimed at reducing tics but also comorbidities. While this approach is laudable, it also carries the risk to increase confounding factors in DBS trials and patient evaluation. Moreover, I question whether DBS should really be expected to alleviate multiple symptoms at a time. Rather, I argue that tic reduction should remain our primary objective in severe GTS patients and that this intervention may subsequently allow an improved psychotherapeutic and/or pharmacological treatment of comorbidities. Thus, I consider DBS in GTS not as a single solution for all our patients’ ailments but as a stepping stone to improved holistic care made possible by tic reduction. PMID:27746910

  12. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in a cohort of deaf people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M M; Roberts, S; Pillai, S; Eapen, V

    2015-10-01

    We present six patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) who are also deaf. TS has been observed previously, but rarely reported in deaf people, and to date, so called "unusual" phenomenology has been highlighted. TS occurs almost worldwide and in all cultures, and the clinical phenomenology is virtually identical. In our cohort of deaf patients (we suggest another culture) with TS, the phenomenology is the same as in hearing people, and as in all other cultures, with classic motor and vocal/phonic tics, as well as associated phenomena including echo-phenomena, pali-phenomena and rarer copro-phenomena. When "words" related to these phenomenon (e.g. echolalia, palilalia, coprolalia or mental coprolalia) are elicited in deaf people, they occur usually in British Sign Language (BSL): the more "basic" vocal/phonic tics such as throat clearing are the same phenomenologically as in hearing TS people. In our case series, there was a genetic predisposition to TS in all cases. We would argue that TS in deaf people is the same as TS in hearing people and in other cultures, highlighting the biological nature of the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome - A treatable condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A; Martino, D; Murphy, T

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent but does not enter into the official classification of the syndrome. In the present article, we will focus on treatment options for tics. We have reviewed the relevant literature on treatment of tics and GTS, especially in the period from 2011-2016 since the publication of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS) treatment guidelines in 2011. We present current and up-to-date approaches in psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and neurosurgery for GTS with an outlook for the upcoming years. Although many patients and health-care professionals seem to view tics and/or GTS as difficult to treat, or believe that treatment requires severe side effects with reduction in quality of life, we wish to convey that there is cause for optimism, both with regard to available treatment modalities and future therapeutic developments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Linkage studies on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: What is the strategy of choice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heutink, P.; Wetering, J.M. van de; Oostra, B.A. [Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    For a linkage study it is important to ascertain family material that is sufficiently informative. The statistical power of linkage sample can be determined via computer simulation. For complex traits uncertain parameters such as incomplete penetrance, frequency of phenocopies, gene frequency and variable expression have to be taken into account. One can either include only the most severe phenotype in the analysis or apply multiple linkage tests for a gradually broadened disease phenotype. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by multiple, intermittent motor and vocal tics. Segregation analyses suggests that GTS and milder phenotypes are caused by a single dominant gene. We report here the results of an extensive simulation study on a large set of families. We compared the effectiveness of linkage tests with only the GTS phenotype versus multiple tests that included various milder phenotypes and different gene frequencies. The scenario of multiple tests yielded superior power. Our results show that computer simulation can indicate the strategy of choice in linkage studies of multiple, complex phenotypes. 33 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Heavy metals levels in muscle, gonads and gills of Brazilian fishes using SRTXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos; Araujo, Francisco Gerson

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluated heavy metals levels in selected tissues of G. brasiliensis, O. hepsetus, H. luetkeni and H. affinis collected at the Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. The muscle analysis was performed to evaluate the possible transfer of heavy metals to human beings through fish consumption; gonads were used to study the possible transfer and/or influence of metals, through the reproductive processes, to later generations of fishes; and gills are considered the primary action site for most metals, which are absorbed through fish breathing and/or ionic exchanges. The digestion procedure of samples was performed with HNO 3 65% in Teflon bombs, with heating at about 120 deg C. The analysis, using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF), was performed at the LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory) using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV. The elements identified were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. Fe and Zn exhibited the highest concentrations in the four species investigated. Comparing the results with the Brazilian Food Legislation Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb exceeded the maximum permissible limits in fish tissues. (author)

  16. Heavy metals levels in muscle, gonads and gills of Brazilian fishes using SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Araujo, Francisco Gerson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ecologia de Peixes]. E-mail: gerson@uffrj.br

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated heavy metals levels in selected tissues of G. brasiliensis, O. hepsetus, H. luetkeni and H. affinis collected at the Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. The muscle analysis was performed to evaluate the possible transfer of heavy metals to human beings through fish consumption; gonads were used to study the possible transfer and/or influence of metals, through the reproductive processes, to later generations of fishes; and gills are considered the primary action site for most metals, which are absorbed through fish breathing and/or ionic exchanges. The digestion procedure of samples was performed with HNO{sub 3} 65% in Teflon bombs, with heating at about 120 deg C. The analysis, using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF), was performed at the LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory) using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV. The elements identified were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. Fe and Zn exhibited the highest concentrations in the four species investigated. Comparing the results with the Brazilian Food Legislation Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb exceeded the maximum permissible limits in fish tissues. (author)

  17. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome have widespread personality differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillini, Morounke O; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2015-08-30

    Only little is known about pathological personality traits in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). The aim of this study was to further investigate the prevalence of personality traits in adults with GTS. We used a variety of rating scales to assess not only personality traits, but also severity of tics, quality of life, and comorbidities (obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression), in a large group (n=50) of patients. Our major finding was that pathological personality traits are very common in patients with GTS encompassing a wide range of different personality traits, but most typically personality traits related to cluster C. Demand-anxious was the most common personality trait, while histrionic personality trait was absent. Patients' quality of life was more impaired by personality traits than comorbidities. Personality traits were more common in patients with comorbid OCD and depression, while comorbid ADHD had no influence. Our findings, therefore, corroborate the hypothesis that GTS plus OCD represents a more severe subtype of GTS, and support the assumption that OCD and depression, but not ADHD, are part of the GTS spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Revisiting Gill's Circulation. Dynamic Response to Diabatic Heating of Different Horizontal Extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo, B.; Bellon, G.

    2017-12-01

    The horizontal extent of diabatic heating associated with the MJO is thought to be crucial to its development, and the inability of GCMs to simulate the spatial, horizontal organization of clouds is considered a leading hypothesis to explain their limited capacity to simulate MJO events. This prevents the MJO large-circulation response from developing and feeding back on the development of clouds. We apply mid-tropospheric heating of different size in simple linear and non-linear models of the tropical atmosphere following Gill's seminal work on heat-induced tropical circulations. Results show that there is a scale for which the characteristic circulation {Γ c} for the vertical advection of moisture to produce the latent heat mean {Q} gives a rough estimate of the real world MJO scale. Overturning circulation flow rates above {Γ c} account for a circulation that transports more moisture than necessary to be maintained, and below {Γ c}, circulation would not transport enough moisture to maintain circulation. This dynamic scale might constrain the size of the spatially-organised convection necessary to the development of an MJO event. However, other effects are expected to modulate this scale, such as vertical advection of moisture anomalies, horizontal advection, evaporation, radiative heating, and sensible heat fluxes.

  19. Prevalence and phenomenology of eye tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Davide; Cavanna, Andrea E; Robertson, Mary M; Orth, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Eye tics seem to be common in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). We analyzed the frequency and clinical characteristics of eye tics in 212 GTS patients. Of the 212 patients, 201 (94.8 %) reported eye tics in their life-time; 166 (78.3 %) reported eye movement tics (rolling eyes up/down, eyes looking sideways, staring), and 194 (91.5 %) eyelid/eyebrow movement tics (frowning, raising eyebrows, blinking or winking). Patients with eye movement tics were younger at age of GTS onset (7.1 ± 4 years) than those without (8.9 ± 6.8; p = 0.024). Tic severity positively correlated to lifetime history of eye and/or eyelid/eyebrow movement tics. Our data confirm that eye and eyelid/eyebrow movement tics are very common in GTS, and most patients have several types of eye tics over time. Eye tic phenomenology was similar in patients with or without co-morbidity. Eye tics are therefore likely to be a core feature of GTS and should be routinely evaluated in order to strengthen the clinician's confidence in diagnosing GTS.

  20. Seasonal and PAH impact on DNA strand-break levels in gills of transplanted zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Palais, Frédéric; Geffard, Alain; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2013-06-01

    Genotoxicity endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of aquatic ecosystems. A caging study on the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha was planned to run over four seasons in the Seine River basin in order to assess whether DNA damage measured in transplanted mussels to polluted area vary according to seasonal changes. Three sites were chosen along the Seine River, one upstream from Paris and two downstream, corresponding to a chemical gradient of water contamination. The DNA strand break (comet assay) and chromosomal damage (micronucleus test) were measured in caged mussels at each site and in winter, spring and summer, along with PAH water contamination, PAH bioaccumulation, the mussel condition index (CI), the gonado-somatic index (GSI) and the filtration rate (FR). The level of DNA strand break measured in winter was low and increased in spring, concomitantly with FR and GSI. Over the same period, micronucleus (MN) frequency and PAH bioaccumulation decreased significantly in caged mussels, with both parameters positively correlated to each other. DNA strand-break levels and MN frequencies showed inter-site variations corresponding to the chemical contamination gradient. These two genotoxicity endpoints usefully complement each other in field studies. These results show that the MN test and comet assay, when applied to gill cells of caged zebra mussels, are sensitive tools for freshwater genotoxicity monitoring. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Cytochemical characterization of gill and hepatopancreatic cells of the crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura validated by cell metal transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ortega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 is a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab possessing gills for respiratory and osmoregulatory processes, separated in anterior and posterior sections. They also have hepatopancreas, which is responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients and detoxification of toxic metals. Each of these organs has specific cells that are important for in vitro studies in cell biology, ion and toxic metals transport. In order to study and characterize cells from gills and hepatopancreas, both were separated using a Sucrose Gradient (SG from 10 to 40% and cells in each gradient were characterized using the vital mitochondrial dye DASPEI (2-(4-dimethylaminostyryl-N- ethylpyridinium iodide and Trichrome Mallory's stain. Both in 20 and 40% SG for gill cells and 30% SG for hepatopancreatic cells, a greater number of cells were colored with DASPEI, indicating a larger number of mitochondria in these cells. It is concluded that the gill cells present in 20% and 40% SG are Thin cells, responsible for respiratory processes and Ionocytes responsible for ion transport, respectively. For hepatopancreatic cells, the 30% SG is composed of Fibrillar cells that possess larger number of membrane ion and nutrient transporters. Moreover, the transport of toxic metal cadmium (Cd by isolated hepatopancreatic cells was performed as a way of following cell physiological integrity after cell separation and to study differences in transport among the cells. All hepatopancreatic cells were able to transport Cd. These findings are the first step for further work on isolated cells of these important exchange epithelia of crabs, using a simple separation method and to further develop successful in vitro cell culture in crabs.

  2. Sublethal effects of copper nanoparticles on the histology of gill, liver and kidney of the Caspian roach, Rutilus rutilus caspicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Aghamirkarimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study has determined the toxicity effects of copper nanoparticles on the some vital organs such as gill, liver and kidney of Caspian Roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus. For this purpose, 120 fishes were used as experimental samples and exposed to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/L of Cu nanoparticles for 21 days, and 30 fishes assumed as the experiment control. The mean water temperature of the aquaria was 22±2 ºC, dissolved oxygen 5.2 mg/L, pH at 7±0.004 and the concentration of calcium carbonate was 270 ppm. On 7, 14 and 21 days after exposing the fishes to copper nanoparticles, three fishes were randomly selected from each aquaria, sacrificed and samples from their gill, liver and kidney were taken and fixed in cold 10 % buffered formalin. Then microscopic sections were prepared and examined by light microscope which showed histological alternations in the gill, liver and kidney tissues. Evaluation of these changes could be useful in estimating the harmful effects of copper nanoparticles. Histological alternation in gills included: hyperplasia, fusion and detachment of secondary lamellae, blood congestion in vascular axis of primary filaments, reduced secondary lamellae length and cellular degeneration. Histological changes in liver included blood congestion in the central veins, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, cellular degeneration and congestion in the blood sinusoids and necrosis of the hepatocytes. Histological changes in kidneys included glomerular shrinkage, severe degeneration in the tubules cells, interstitial tissue and glomerulus, increase in interstitial tissue cells and macrophages aggregation. The degree of damages was more intensive at higher copper nanoparticles concentrations. The result of the study showed that copper nanoparticles could cause severe damages in the vital tissues of Caspian roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus and have lethal effects for fish.

  3. An idiot savant calendrical calculator with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: implications for an understanding of the savant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, J; Ring, H A; Robertson, M M

    1993-11-01

    We describe the existence of the savant syndrome in association with Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS). The presentation of savant abilities is typical of that previously described. Similarities between autism, the disorder most characteristically associated with savants, and GTS in terms of obsessionality are noted. Previously reported psychological studies of autistic savants are briefly reviewed and, together with evidence from neuroimaging in GTS, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and autism, used to support a model of the underpinnings of savant skills.

  4. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  5. Channels, pumps, and exchangers in the gill and kidney of freshwater fishes: their role in ionic and acid-base regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S F; Shahsavarani, A; Georgalis, T; Bayaa, M; Furimsky, M; Thomas, S L Y

    2003-11-01

    In freshwater fishes, the gill and kidney are intricately involved in ionic and acid-base regulation owing to the presence of numerous ion channels, pumps, or exchangers. This review summarizes recent developments in branchial and renal ion transport physiology and presents several models that integrate epithelial ion and acid-base movements in freshwater fishes. At the gill, three cell types are potentially involved in ionic uptake: pavement cells, mitochondria-rich (MR) PNA(+) cells, and MR PNA(-) cells. The transfer of acidic or basic equivalents between the fish and its environment is accomplished largely by the gill and is appropriately regulated to correct acid-base imbalances. The kidney, while less important than the gill in overall acid or base excretion, has an essential role in regulating systemic acid-base balance by controlling HCO(3) (-) reabsorption from the filtrate. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The interbranchial lymphoid tissue of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) extends as a diffuse mucosal lymphoid tissue throughout the trailing edge of the gill filament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Alf S; Austbø, Lars; Bjørgen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    in all gill segments investigated. Numerous major histocompatibility complex class II(+) -cells were distributed uniformly throughout the filament epithelial tissue. Few Ig(+) -cells were detected. Overall, the morphological features and comparable immune gene expression of the previously described ILT......The teleost gill forms an extensive, semipermeable barrier that must tolerate intimate contact with the surrounding environment and be able to protect the body from external pathogens. The recent discovery of the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) has initiated an anatomical and functional...... investigation of the lymphoid tissue of the salmonid gill. In this article, sectioning of gill arches in all three primary planes revealed an elongation of the ILT outward along the trailing edge of the primary filament to the very distal end, a finding not previously described. This newly found lymphoid tissue...

  7. Structural lipid changes and NKA activity of gill cells´ basolateral membranes as response to increasing salinity and atrazine stressors in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L. juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Lança

    2015-12-01

    Modulation of BLM lipids associated with NKA activity seems to be the strategy adopted by gill cells of juveniles to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors and for contact/resistance to ATZ exposure.

  8. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  9. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  10. Bacterial fingerprints across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), impose major threats to human health worldwide. Both have a ‘Jekyll & Hyde’ character, since they can be present as human commensals, but can also become harmful invasive pathogens especially

  11. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  12. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  13. Citrobacter freundii impairs the phosphoryl transfer network in the gills of Rhamdia quelen: Impairment of bioenergetics homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Junior, Guerino B; Moreira, Karen Luise S; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2018-04-01

    The precise coupling of spatially separated intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-producing and ATP-consuming, catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), is a critical process in the bioenergetics of tissues with high energy demand, such as the branchial tissue. The effects of Citrobacter freundii infection on gills remain poorly understood, limited only to histopathological studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental infection by C. freundii impairs the enzymes of the phosphoryl transfer network in gills of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The CK (cytosolic and mitochondrial) and AK activities decreased in infected compared to uninfected animals, while the PK activity did not differ between groups. The gill histopathology of infected animals revealed extensive degeneration with fusion and necrosis of secondary lamellae, detachment of superficial epithelium, aneurysm, vessel congestion and inflammatory process. Based on these evidences, the inhibition and absence of an efficient communication between CK compartments caused the impairment of the branchial bioenergetics homeostasis, which was not compensated by the augmentation on branchial AK activity in an attempt to restore energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to branchial tissue in animals infected with C. freundii. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Multixenobiotic resistance in Mytilus edulis: Molecular and functional characterization of an ABCG2- type transporter in hemocytes and gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Yosra; Xuereb, Benoit; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Le Foll, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Among the cellular protection arsenal, ABC transporters play an important role in xenobiotic efflux in marine organisms. Two pumps belonging to B and C subfamily has been identified in Mytilus edulis. In this study, we investigated the presence of the third major subtype ABCG2/BCRP protein in mussel tissues. Transcript was expressed in hemocytes and with higher level in gills. Molecular characterization revealed that mussel ABCG2 transporter shares the sequence and organizational structure with mammalian and molluscan orthologs. Overall identity of the predicted amino acid sequence with corresponding homologs from other organisms was between 49% and 98%. Moreover, protein efflux activity was demonstrated using a combination of fluorescent allocrites and specific inhibitors. The accumulation of bodipy prazosin and pheophorbide A was heterogeneous in gills and hemocytes. Most of the used blockers enhanced probe accumulation at different levels, most significantly for bodipy prazosin. Moreover, Mrp classical blocker MK571 showed a polyspecificity. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that several ABC transporters contribute to MXR phenotype in the blue mussel including ABCG2 that forms an active pump in hemocytes and gills. Efforts are needed to distinguish between the different members and to explore their single function and specificity towards allocrites and chemosensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Macromolecule oxidation and DNA repair in mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) gill following exposure to Cd and Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanouil, C.; Sheehan, T.M.T.; Chipman, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of DNA and lipid was analysed in the marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) in response to exposure (10 μg/l and 200 μg/l) to cadmium (Cd) and chromium [Cr(VI)]. Concentration dependent uptake of both metals into mussel tissues was established and levels of gill ATP were not depleted at these exposure levels. DNA strand breakage in gill cells (analysed by the comet assay) was elevated by both metals, however, DNA oxidation [measured by DNA strand breakage induced by the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)] was not elevated. This was despite a statistically significant increase in both malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal - indicative of lipid peroxidation - following treatment with Cd. In contrast, both frank DNA stand breaks and FPG-induced DNA strand breaks (indicative of DNA oxidation) were increased following injection of mussels with sodium dichromate (10.4 μg Cr(VI)/mussel). The metals also showed differential inhibitory potential towards DNA repair enzyme activity with Cd exhibiting inhibition of DNA cutting activity towards an oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and Cr(VI) showing inhibition of such activity towards an oligonucleotide containing ethenoadenosine, both at 200 μg/l. The metals thus show DNA damage activity in mussel gill with distinct mechanisms involving both direct and indirect (oxidative) DNA damage, as well as impairing different DNA repair capacities. A combination of these activities can contribute to adverse effects in these organisms

  16. The interbranchial lymphoid tissue likely contributes to immune tolerance and defense in the gills of Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Ida Bergva; Austbø, Lars; Falk, Knut; Hordvik, Ivar; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2017-11-01

    Central and peripheral immune tolerance is together with defense mechanisms a hallmark of all lymphoid tissues. In fish, such tolerance is especially important in the gills, where the intimate contact between gill tissue and the aqueous environment would otherwise lead to continual immune stimulation by innocuous antigens. In this paper, we focus on the expression of genes associated with immune regulation by the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) in an attempt to understand its role in maintaining immune homeostasis. Both healthy and virus-challenged fish were investigated, and transcript levels were examined from laser-dissected ILT, gills, head kidney and intestine. Lack of Aire expression in the ILT excluded its involvement in central tolerance and any possibility of its being an analogue to the thymus. On the other hand, the ILT appears to participate in peripheral immune tolerance due to its relatively high expression of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) and other genes associated with regulatory T cells (Tregs) and immune suppression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in gill and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio and their relative sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Shyama, Soorambail K; D'Costa, Avelyno; Kadam, Samit B; Sonaye, Bhagatsingh Harisingh; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra

    2017-10-01

    The effect of radiation on the aquatic environment is of major concern in recent years. Limited data is available on the genotoxicity of gamma radiation on different tissues of aquatic organisms. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in the gill and muscle tissues and their relative sensitivity using the comet assay in the freshwater teleost fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The comet assay was optimized and validated in common carp using cyclophosphamide (CP), a reference genotoxic agent. The fish were exposed (acute) to various doses of gamma radiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10Gy) and samplings (gill and muscle tissue) were done at regular intervals (24, 48 and 72h) to assess the DNA damage. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed as indicated by an increase in % tail DNA for all doses of gamma radiation in both tissues. We also observed a dose-related increase and a time-dependent decrease of DNA damage. In comparison, DNA damage showed different sensitivity among the tissues at different doses. This shows that a particular dose may have different effects on different tissues which could be due to physiological factors of the particular tissue. Our study also suggests that the gills and muscle of fish are sensitive and reliable tissues for evaluating the genotoxic effects of reference and environmental agents, using the comet assay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The Effects of Mercury Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.A.; George, R.C.; Marshall, D.J.; Anandraj, A.; McClurg, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that changes in the surface morphology of mussel (Perna perna) gill filaments may be used to indicate the relative toxicity of pollutants in the marine environment. Healthy, adult P. perna were collected and immersed in 2 free-flow tanks. Mercury was added to seawater as it entered tank 1 to achieve a constant level of 50 μg/l -1 over 24 days. Uncontaminated seawater was circulated over the mussels in tank 2 (control) for the same period. A 25 mm 2 area of gill filament was removed from each of the 5 specimens before and after 24 days immersion in tank 2, and after immersion for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 days in tank 1. These were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The remaining soft tissues from each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 μg/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg for up to 8 days. However, from 16 to 24 days exposure there was a gradual increase in the diameters of microvilli, a depletion of abfrontal cilia, an increase in abnormal, perhaps necrotic cells and an unusual increase in the number of cilia on the lateral surfaces. These results confirm that P. perna is an efficient bio-accumulator and suggest that their gill pathomorphology may be a useful indicator of toxicity

  19. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Delu; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jian Kong; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Yongding

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aphantoxins induce respiratory dysfunction in zebrafish gills. • Changes in LDH and cellular ultrastructure indicate gill damage. • Decreased NKA and CA reflect abnormal ion transport and gas exchange. • Increased ROS and decreased T-AOC suggest oxidative stress in the gills. - Abstract: Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61 μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na"+-K"+-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24 h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12 h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish gills. The

  20. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Delu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Siyi [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Jian Kong [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hu, Chunxiang, E-mail: deluzh@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yongding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxins induce respiratory dysfunction in zebrafish gills. • Changes in LDH and cellular ultrastructure indicate gill damage. • Decreased NKA and CA reflect abnormal ion transport and gas exchange. • Increased ROS and decreased T-AOC suggest oxidative stress in the gills. - Abstract: Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61 μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24 h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12 h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish

  1. Monosynaptic connections made by the sensory neurons of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia participate in the storage of long-term memory for sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, William N.; Castellucci, Vincent F.; Hawkins, Robert D.; Kandel, Eric R.

    1985-01-01

    We have found that in the gill- and siphon- withdrawal reflex of Aplysia, the memory for short-term sensitization grades smoothly into long-term memory with increased amounts of sensitization training. One cellular locus for the storage of the memory underlying short-term sensitization is the set of monosynaptic connections between the siphon sensory cells and the gill and siphon motor neurons. We have now also found that these same monosynaptic connections participate in the storage of the m...

  2. New records of fish parasitic isopods of the gill-attaching genus Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 from the Virgin Islands, Caribbean, with description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Hadfield,Kerry; Sikkel,Paul; Smit,Nico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 are reported from the Virgin Islands. Mothocya xenobranchia Bruce, 1986 was collected from St. John Island from the gills of the Atlantic needlefish, Strongylura marina, which is a new locality record and also confirms a previously uncertain host identity. Mothocya bertlucy sp. n. is described from St. Thomas, St John and Guana Islands, from the gills of the redlip blenny, Ophioblennius macclurei, the first record of a blenny as host for a...

  3. Corticosteroids for Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is a benefit in clinical outcomes with the use of topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial comparing prednisolone sodium phosphate, 1.0%, to placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and received topical moxifloxacin for at least 48 hours before randomization. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included infiltrate/scar size, reepithelialization, and corneal perforation. Results Between September 1, 2006, and February 22, 2010, 1769 patients were screened for the trial and 500 patients were enrolled. No significant difference was observed in the 3-month BSCVA (−0.009 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% CI, −0.085 to 0.068; P = .82), infiltrate/scar size (P = .40), time to reepithelialization (P = .44), or corneal perforation (P > .99). A significant effect of corticosteroids was observed in subgroups of baseline BSCVA (P = .03) and ulcer location (P = .04). At 3 months, patients with vision of counting fingers or worse at baseline had 0.17 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (95% CI, −0.31 to −0.02; P = .03) compared with placebo, and patients with ulcers that were completely central at baseline had 0.20 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (−0.37 to −0.04; P = .02). Conclusions We found no overall difference in 3-month BSCVA and no safety concerns with adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Application to Clinical Practice Adjunctive topical corticosteroid use does not improve 3-month vision in patients with bacterial corneal ulcers. PMID:21987582

  4. Recent speciation in three closely related sympatric specialists: inferences using multi-locus sequence, post-mating isolation and endosymbiont data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Jun Xue

    Full Text Available Shifting between unrelated host plants is relatively rare for phytophagous insects, and distinct host specificity may play crucial roles in reproductive isolation. However, the isolation status and the relationship between parental divergence and post-mating isolation among closely related sympatric specialists are still poorly understood. Here, multi-locus sequence were used to estimate the relationship among three host plant-specific closely related flea beetles, Altica cirsicola, A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea (abbreviated as AC, AF and AV respectively. The tree topologies were inconsistent using different gene or different combinations of gene fragments. The relationship of AF+(AC+AV was supported, however, by both gene tree and species tree based on concatenated data. Post-mating reproductive data on the results of crossing these three species are best interpreted in the light of a well established phylogeny. Nuclear-induced but not Wolbachia-induced unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was detected in AC-AF and AF-AV but not in AC-AV, may also suggest more close genetic affinity between AC and AV. Prevalence of Wolbachia in these three beetles, and the endosymbiont in most individuals of AV and AC sharing a same wsp haplotype may give another evidence of AF+(AC+AV. Our study also suggested that these three flea beetles diverged in a relative short time (0.94 My, which may be the result of shifting between unrelated host plants and distinct host specificity. Incomplete post-mating isolation while almost complete lineage sorting indicated that effective pre-mating isolation among these three species should have evolved.

  5. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Sublethal Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles on Histopathology and Electron Microscope Ultrastructure of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio Gills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing use of nanomaterials and nanoproducts has increased the possibility of contamination of the environment, which may have adverse effects on different organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of silver nanoparticles on histopathology and gill ultrastructure of zebrafish (Danio rerio under laboratory conditions. Methods: Zebrafish were exposed to four concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.0015, 0.00375, 0.0075, and 0.015 mg/l for a period of 4 days. Gill ultrastructure and histopathological changes were studied using scanning electron microscope and haematoxylin - eosin staining. Results: Exposure to silver nanoparticles significantly (P < 0.001 increased the diameter of gill filaments and secondary lamellae, while silver nanoparticles significantly reduced the length of the secondary gills in zebrafish. Moreover, other changes such as vacuolization, dilated and clubbed tips, hyperplasia, edema, fusion, swelling of mucocytes, hypertrophy, and necrosis were observed. The effects of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish gills were dose dependent. Conclusion: Based on the adverse effects of AgNPs on zebrafish gills, silver nanoparticle solutions can be hazardous pollutants for the environment.

  6. What is the most efficient respiratory organ for the loricariid air-breathing fish Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, gills or stomach? A quantitative morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, André Luis; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric respiratory potential of gills compared to the stomach in obtaining oxygen for aerobic metabolism in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, a facultative air-breathing fish. The measurements were done using stereological methods. The gills showed greater total volume, volume-to-body mass ratio, potential surface area, and surface-to-volume ratio than the stomach. The water-blood diffusion barrier of the gills is thicker than the air-blood diffusion barrier of the stomach. Taken together, the surface area, the surface-to-volume ratio and the diffusion distance for O 2 transfer from the respiratory medium to blood yield a greater diffusing capacity for gills than for the stomach, suggesting greater importance of aquatic respiration in this species. On the other hand, water breathing is energetically more expensive than breathing air. Under severe hypoxic conditions, O 2 uptake by the stomach is more efficient than by the gills, although the stomach has a much lower diffusing capacity. Thus, P. anisitsi uses gills under normoxic conditions but the stomach may also support aerobic metabolism depending on environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Dexamethasone (DEX induces Osmotic stress transcription factor 1 (Ostf1 through the Akt-GSK3β pathway in freshwater Japanese eel gill cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Chow

    2013-03-01

    Osmosensing and osmoregulatory processes undertaken in gills of euryhaline fish are coordinated by integrative actions of various signaling molecules/transcriptional factors. Considerable numbers of studies report the hyper- and hypo-osmoregulatory functions of fish gills, by illustrating the process of gill cell remodeling and the modulation of the expression of ion channels/transporters. Comparatively mechanistic information relayed from signal integration to transcriptional regulation in mediating gill cell functions has not yet been elucidated. In this study we demonstrate the functional links from cortisol stimulation, to Akt activation, to the expression of the transcriptional factor, Ostf1. Using the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, dexamethasone (DEX, Ostf1 expression is found to be activated via glucocorticoid receptor (GR and mediated by the Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway. Pharmacological experiments using kinase inhibitors reveal that the expression of Ostf1 is negatively regulated by Akt activation. The inhibition of PI3K or Akt activities, by the specific kinase inhibitors (wortmannin, LY294002 or SH6, stimulates Ostf1 expression, while a reduction of GSK3β activity by LiCl reduces Ostf1 expression. Collectively, our report for the first time indicates that DEX can induce Ostf1 via GR, with the involvement of the Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway in primary eel gill cell cultures. The data also suggest that Ostf1 may play different roles in gill cell survival during seawater acclimation.

  8. Bacterial infec tions in travellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    namely bacterial causes of travellers' diarrhoea and skin infections, as well as .... Vaccination: protective efficacy against typhoid may be overcome by ingesting a high bacterial load. Vaccine ..... preparation such as cream sauce. Only after ...

  9. Bacterial endosymbioses of gutless tube-dwelling worms in nonhydrothermal vent habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Takeshi; Elsaied, Hosam E; Hoshii, Daiki; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Gutless tube-dwelling worms of pogonophorans (also known as frenulates) and vestimentiferans depend on primary production of endosymbiotic bacteria. The endosymbionts include thiotrophs that oxidize sulfur for autotrophic production and methanotrophs that oxidize and assimilate methane. Although most of the pogonophoran and vestimentiferan tube worms possess single thiotrophic 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) related to gamma-proteobacteria, some pogonohorans are known to bear single methanotroph species or even dual symbionts of thiotrophs and methanotrophs. The vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp. L1 shows symbiotic 16S rDNA sequences of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and epsilon-proteobacteria, varying among specimens, with RuBisCO form II gene (cbbM) sequences related to beta-proteobacteria. An unidentified pogonophoran from the world's deepest cold seep, 7326-m deep in the Japan Trench, hosts a symbiotic thiotroph based on 16S rDNA with the RuBisCO form I gene (cbbL). In contrast, a shallow-water pogonophoran (Oligobrachia mashikoi) in coastal Japan Sea has a methanotrophic 16S rDNA and thiotrophic cbbL, which may suggest the feature of type X methanotrophs. These observations demonstrate that pogonophoran and vestimentiferan worms have higher plasticity in bacterial symbioses than previously suspected