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Sample records for bacterial fungal parasitic

  1. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Bacterial, fungal and parasitic contamination of cockroaches in public hospitals of Hamadan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, A; Tavacol, P; Mahjub, H

    2007-06-01

    To determine the possible role of cockroaches in dissemination of medically important microorganisms, a study was carried out in public hospitals and residential areas of Hamadan city, west of Iran. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. The total number of Blattella germanica collected from hospitals were 133 as the case group. The cockroaches collected from residential areas were 45 as the control group. A total of 178 cockroaches were collected, over a period of two years (133 from hospitals; and 45 from residential areas) in Hamadan. Medically important microorganisms were isolated from external and internal surfaces using standard methods. In the case group, 130 out of 133 (98%) Blattella germanica showed contamination with high bacterial load (more than 1 x 10(3)) whereas only 2 out of 45 (4.45%) cockroaches of the control group were carrying medically important bacteria with high bacterial load. Bacteriological examinations revealed that almost all test cockroaches had at least one of the following microorganisms either in their body surface or digestive tract. Enterobacter (22.6%), Klebsiela (21%), Enterococcus (17.3%), Staphylococcus (16.5%), Esherichia coli and Streptococcus (8.3%), Pseudomonas (3%), and also Shigella, Haemophilus and group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus each less than 1%. In addition the results showed (74.4.%) of test cockroaches harboured fungi-Candida (48.9%), Mucor (10.5%), Aspergillus niger (7.5%), Rhizopus (4.5) and also Penicillium and Aspergillus fumigans each 1.5%. Some parasitic worms of medical importance were also isolated from the test cockroaches, but carriage rates were low. The data from this study emphasise the importance of cockroaches as potential vectors of medically important microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria and fungi in hospital environments.

  3. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  4. Specialized fungal parasites reduce fitness of their lichen hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinero, Sonia; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2018-01-25

    Understanding to what extent parasites affect host fitness is a focus of research on ecological interactions. Fungal parasites usually affect the functions of vascular plants. However, parasitic interactions comprising effects of fungal parasites on the fitness of lichen hosts are less well known. This study assesses the effects of the abundance of two highly specialized gall-forming fungi on growth of their two respective lichen hosts and tests whether these fungal parasites reduce lichen fitness. The relative biomass and thallus area growth rates, and change in specific thallus mass of Lobaria pulmonaria and L. scrobiculata were compared between lichens with and without galls of the lichenicolous fungi Plectocarpon lichenum and P. scrobiculatae, cultivated in a growth chamber for 14 d. By estimating the thallus area occupied by the galls, it was also assessed whether growth rates varied with effective photosynthetic lichen surface area. Plectocarpon galls significantly reduced relative growth rates of the lichen hosts. Growth rates decreased with increasing cover of parasitic galls. The presence of Plectocarpon-galls per se, not the reduced photosynthetic thallus surface due to gall induction, reduced relative growth rates in infected hosts. Specific thallus mass in the hosts changed in species-specific ways. This study shows that specialized fungal parasites can reduce lichen fitness by reducing their growth rates. Higher parasite fitness correlated with lower host fitness, supporting the view that these associations are antagonistic. By reducing hosts' growth rates, these parasites in their symptomatic life stage may affect important lichen functions. This fungal parasite-lichen study widens the knowledge on the ecological effects of parasitism on autotrophic hosts and expands our understanding of parasitic interactions across overlooked taxonomic groups. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All

  5. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications. PMID:28690593

  6. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  7. Bacterial - Fungal Interactions: ecology, mechanisms and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, A; Bonito, G; Uehling, J; Paoletti, M; Becker, M; Bindschedler, S; Hacquard, S; Hervé, V; Labbé, J; Lastovetsky, O A; Mieszkin, S; Millet, L J; Vajna, B; Junier, P; Bonfante, P; Krom, B P; Olsson, S; Elsas, J D van; Wick, L Y

    2018-02-19

    Fungi and bacteria are found living together in a wide variety of environments. Their interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. A large number of fungal and bacterial families are engaged in complex interactions that lead to critical behavioural shifts of the microorganisms ranging from mutualism to pathogenicity. The importance of bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology has led to the emergence of a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field that combines highly diverse approaches including molecular biology, genomics, geochemistry, chemical and microbial ecology, biophysics and ecological modelling. In this review, we discuss most recent advances that underscore the roles of BFI across relevant habitats and ecosystems. A particular focus is placed on the understanding of BFI within complex microbial communities and in regards of the metaorganism concept. We also discuss recent discoveries that clarify the (molecular) mechanisms involved in bacterial-fungal relationships, and the contribution of new technologies to decipher generic principles of BFI in terms of physical associations and molecular dialogues. Finally, we discuss future directions for researches in order to catalyse a synergy within the BFI research area and to resolve outstanding questions.

  8. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  9. Effeciency of fungal and bacterial biocontrol organisms for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal and bacterial biocontrol organisms with known activity against soil borne fungal pathogens were tested for their efficacy in controlling Fusarium wilt of tomato in the screen house. The trial tested five organisms (Trichoderma virile, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium oxalicum, Bacilius subtilis and Pseudomonas ...

  10. Fungal parasitism: life cycle, dynamics and impact on cyanobacterial blooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Gerphagnon

    Full Text Available Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids. However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes, spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by "mechanistic fragmentation" following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing.

  11. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaphake, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Whether in private practice or in a zoologic setting, veterinarians of the exotic animal persuasion are asked to work on amphibians. Veterinarians are able to evaluate amphibians thoroughly for medical issues, with infectious diseases at the forefront. Until quite recently, many infectious diseases were unknown or even misdiagnosed as being caused by opportunistic secondary organisms. Although Batrachochytrium dendrobates and viral diseases are in the forefront of research for amphibians, parasitic and bacterial diseases often present secondarily and, occasionally, even as the primary cause. Full diagnostic workups, when possible, can be critical in determining all the factors involved in morbidity and mortality issues in amphibians.

  12. Physico-chemical and microbiological profile of bacterial and fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    This study examined the physico-chemical and microbiological profile of bacterial and fungal isolates of Ikpoba River between February 2013 and March 2013. The mean bacterial count for upstream water sample obtained in February was 2 × 102 ±1 cfu/ml while 1.09 × 104 ±3.6 was the count for treated industrial effluent ...

  13. Models of Caenorhabditis elegans infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jennifer R; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2008-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model host for studying the relationship between the animal innate immune system and a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Extensive genetic and molecular tools are available in C. elegans, facilitating an in-depth analysis of host defense factors and pathogen virulence factors. Many of these factors are conserved in insects and mammals, indicating the relevance of the nematode model to the vertebrate innate immune response. Here, we describe pathogen assays for a selection of the most commonly studied bacterial and fungal pathogens using the C. elegans model system.

  14. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Prospective study. Tuscany. 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi.

  15. Analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure in replant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High quality DNA is the basis of analyzing bacterial and fungal community structure in replant strawberry rhizosphere soil with the method of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DNA of soil microorganisms was extracted from the rhizosphere soil of strawberries planted in different replanted years (0, two, ...

  16. The Bacterial and Fungal inhibitory effect of extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Welcome

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... (2007) and. McCutcheon et al. (1994) that most plants that exhibit anti- bacterial properties are also usually anti-fungal. Studies of. Chipley and Uriah (1980) have also shown that the phenolic compounds, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid inhibited the. Fusarium species (Ja Kim et al., 2006; Harrison et al.,.

  17. Blue light (470 nm) effectively inhibits bacterial and fungal growth

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    The activity of blue light (470nm) alone on (1) bacterial viability, and (2) with a food grade photosensitizer on filamentous fungal viability, was studied. Suspensions of the bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM), Bacillus atrophaeus (BA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) were prepared and aliquo...

  18. A Survey of Bacterial and Fungal Oppurtunistic Infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial pathogens were isolated using Blood and Chocolate agar plates and identified biochemically except the Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) which was tested in all the HIV positive samples by Ziehl Neelson staining technique. The fungal pathogens were isolated using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) with antibiotics and ...

  19. Metals affect soil bacterial and fungal functional diversity differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Niklińska, Maria; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2008-03-01

    Heavy metals can cause a decrease in the taxonomic diversity of soil communities. Because of functional redundancy, it remains unclear to what extent different functions performed by the soil microbial communities may be affected by pollution. We studied the impact of metal contamination on soil bacterial and fungal functional diversity, active microbial biomass, and soil respiration rate. Soil samples were collected from 39 sites along three forest and five meadow pollution transects near an abandoned Pb/Zn smelter in Avonmouth (UK) and Ni smelter in Clydach (UK), in a Cu mining and smelting region near Glogów (Poland), and in a Zn/Pb mining and smelting region near Olkusz (Poland). Biolog GN2 and SFN2 plates were used to study the bacterial and fungal functional diversity, which subsequently was expressed as Shannon's diversity index (H'). The active microbial biomass was measured as substrate-induced respiration. We found that the bacterial functional diversity significantly decreased, whereas the fungal functional diversity slightly increased, with increasing metal concentration. We also observed a slight negative effect of metal pollution on the active microbial biomass. No relationship was found between metal contamination and total soil respiration rate. This suggests a higher sensitivity of bacterial functional diversity as an indicator for the effects of metal pollution compared with overall soil respiration. All microbial parameters were affected by nutrient concentrations and/or soil pH.

  20. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H W; Adams, Aaron S; Scott, Jarrod J; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F; Klepzig, Kier D; Currie, Cameron R

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes. The cultivation of fungi for food is a behavior that has evolved independently in ants, beetles, and termites and has enabled many species of these insects to become ecologically important and widely distributed herbivores and forest pests. Although the primary fungal cultivars of these insects have been studied for decades, comparatively little is known of their bacterial microbiota. In this study, we show that diverse fungus-growing insects are associated with a common bacterial community composed of the

  1. Adaptations in bacterial and fungal communities to termite fungiculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria

    Nearly 30 MYA, a subfamily of termites, Macrotermitinae, started an obligate mutualistic relationship with the basidiomycete fungus Termitomyces. Fungus-growing termites maintain the ectosymbiont in optimal growth conditions and Termitomyces provides the food source and an external plant decompos......Nearly 30 MYA, a subfamily of termites, Macrotermitinae, started an obligate mutualistic relationship with the basidiomycete fungus Termitomyces. Fungus-growing termites maintain the ectosymbiont in optimal growth conditions and Termitomyces provides the food source and an external plant...... in the bacterial and fungal communities. To do this, we used pyrosequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridisation, light and confocal microscopy, enzymatic assays, chemical extractions, in vitro assays, and feeding experiments in this thesis work to elucidate these predicted changes in fungus-growing termite...... in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. However, gut microbiotas remained distinct from those of termites after Termitomyces-feeding, indicating that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions...

  2. Bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically removed lung cancer samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toloudi Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical and experimental data suggest an association between the presence of bacterial and/or fungal infection and the development of different types of cancer, independently of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. This has also been postulated for the development of lung cancer, however the prevalence and the exact species of the bacteria and fungi implicated, have not yet been described. Aim To determine the presence of bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically extracted samples of patients with lung cancer. Materials and methods In this single-center prospective, observational study, tissue samples were surgically extracted from 32 consecutive patients with lung cancer, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to identify the presence of bacteria and fungi strains. Results The analysis of the electrophoresis data pointed out diversity between the samples and the strains that were identified. Mycoplasma strains were identified in all samples. Strains that appeared more often were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis and Bacillus strains, followed in descending frequency by Chlamydia, Candida, Listeria, and Haemophilus influenza. In individual patients Legionella pneumophila and Candida tropicalis were detected. Conclusions A diversity of pathogens could be identified in surgically extracted tissue samples of patients with lung cancer, with mycoplasma strains being present in all samples. These results point to an etiologic role for chronic infection in lung carcinogenesis. Confirmation of these observations and additional studies are needed to further characterize the etiologic role of inflammation in lung carcinogenesis.

  3. Bioremediation of MGP soils with mixed fungal and bacterial cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.J.B.; Fletcher, M.A.; Avila, O.I.; Munnecke, D.M.; Callanan, J.; Yunker, S.

    1995-01-01

    This culture selection study examines the degradation of polycyclic automatic hydrocarbon (PAH) by a number of brown- and white-rot fungi and bacterial cultures for the treatment of coal tar wastes. Cultures were screened for naphthalene degradation in shake flasks, and selected organisms were then examined for their ability to degrade a mixture of PAHs in aqueous culture. PAH degradation in the presence of the surfactant, TWEEN 80, was examined for some cultures. Many of the organisms were observed to be resistant to greater than 10 mg/L free cyanide. Solid substrate growth conditions were optimized for the selected fungal cultures in preparation for manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil microcosm experiments. The fungi generally produced more biomass under conditions of acidic to neutral pH, incubation at 30 C with 90% moisture saturation, and with granulated corncobs or alfalfa pellets supplied as a lignocellulosic substrate. Of the cultures screened, nine fungal cultures were selected based on their ability to degrade at least 40% of naphthalene, fluorene, or benzo(a)pyrene in 2 weeks or less. A bacterial culture capable of degrading 30 mg/L of naphthalene in 1 week was also selected, and the cultures were examined further in PAH-degradation studies in contaminated soils

  4. pathogenic intestinal parasites and bacterial agents in solid wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-03-01

    Mar 1, 2003 ... INTRODUCTION. Refuse, soil, animal waste and sewage sludge are common sources of manure, used to fertilize agriculture. fie1ds(1-3). Studies have revealed the incidence and distribution of many pathogenic intestinal parasites and bacterial agents from refuse which infect both man and animals(4-6).

  5. Algal-fungal interactions in the marine ecosystem: Symbiosis to parasitism

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    are to be maintained in dual cultures. Therefore, the physiology of host-parasite interactions and molecular biological studies pose great challenges. Seasonality of disease incidence The fungal infections would affect the seasonal occurrence of their host which... in terrestrial plant parasites. Extracellular release of soluble substances by healthy algae has been reported (Fogg, 1971). However, in the aquatic milieu, chances of dilution of such factors exist and thus it will be challenging to investigate the lowest...

  6. Changes of bacterial and fungal community compositions during vermicomposting of vegetable wastes by Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Chen, Xuemin; Fu, Xiaoyong

    2013-12-01

    Changes of bacterial and fungal community during vermicomposting of vegetable wastes by hatchling, juvenile and adult Eisenia foetida were investigated through analysis of the extracted bacterial 16S rDNA and fungal 18S rDNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing. After 60days of composting, significantly lower values of microbial activity and bacterial and fungal densities were revealed in the products of composting with earthworms than in the control (without earthworms). PCR-DGGE images showed vermicomposting significantly enhanced the diversities of bacterial and fungal communities. However, for their structures, sequencing results revealed that, compared to the control where the bacterial Firmicutes were predominant, in the composts with earthworms, the bacterial Bacteroidetes and Actinomycetes, and the fungal Sordariomycetes were found dominant. In addition, some beneficial species of bacteria and fungi against pathogens were also isolated from the vermicomposting products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developed Fungal-Bacterial Biofilms as A Novel Tool for Bioremoval of Hexavelant Chromium from Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herath, Lasantha; Rajapaksha, R. M. A. U.; Vithanage, M.

    2014-01-01

    Remediation measures for hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] are required for a safe environment. As a recent development in microbiology, bacterial biofilms are being studied as effective bioremediation agents. When bacteria are in fungal surface-attached biofilm mode, they are called fungal-bacterial ......Remediation measures for hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] are required for a safe environment. As a recent development in microbiology, bacterial biofilms are being studied as effective bioremediation agents. When bacteria are in fungal surface-attached biofilm mode, they are called fungal...

  8. Seasonal effect on the bacterial and fungal population of an oilfield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal effect on the bacterial and fungal populations of an oilfield wastewater – polluted soil was investigated for a period of 12 months. Many bacterial and fungal species were present in the soil and the wastewater of the area investigated. Some of the organisms occurred in both the soil and oilfield wastewater while ...

  9. Gamma irradiation inactivates honey bee fungal, microsporidian, and viral pathogens and parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations are currently facing unsustainable losses due to a variety of factors. Colonies are challenged with brood pathogens, such as the fungal agent of chalkbrood disease, the microsporidian gut parasite Nosema sp., and several viruses. These pathogens may be ...

  10. Insight into tradeoff between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ake Olson; Andrea Aerts; Fred Asiegbu; Lassaad Belbahri; Ourdia Bouzid; Anders Broberg; Bjorn Canback; Pedro M. Coutinho; Dan Cullen; Kerstin Dalman; Giuliana Deflorio; Linda T.A. van Diepen; Christophe Dunand; Sebastien Duplessis; Mikael Durling; Paolo Gonthier; Jane Grimwood; Carl Gunnar Fossdal; David Hansson; Bernard Henrissat; Ari Hietala; Kajsa Himmelsrand; Dirk Hoffmeister; Nils Hogberg; Timothy Y. James; Magnus Karlsson; Annegret Kohler; Ursula Kues; Yong-Hwan Lee; Yao-Cheng Lin; Marten Lind; Erika Lindquist; Vincent Lombard; Susan Lucas; Karl Lunden; Emmanuelle Morin; Claude Murat; Jongsun Park; Tommaso Raffaello; Pierre Rouze; Asaf Salamov; Jeremy Schmutz; Halvor Solheim; Jerry Stahlberg; Heriberto Velez; Ronald P. deVries; Ad Wiebenga; Steve Woodward; Igor Yakovlev; Matteo Garbelotto; Francis Martin; Igor V. Grigoriev; Jan. Stenlid

    2012-01-01

    • Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. • We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript...

  11. Bioprospecting bacterial and fungal volatiles for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Maffei, Massimo E

    2015-04-01

    Current agricultural practice depends on a wide use of pesticides, bactericides, and fungicides. Increased demand for organic products indicates consumer preference for reduced chemical use. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel sustainable strategies for crop protection and enhancement that do not rely on genetic modification and/or harmful chemicals. An increasing body of evidence indicates that bacterial and fungal microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) might provide an alternative to the use of chemicals to protect plants from pathogens and provide a setting for better crop welfare. It is well known that MVOCs can modulate the physiology of plants and microorganisms and in this Opinion we propose that MVOCs can be exploited as an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and sustainable strategy for agricultural practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in the work environment of cleaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning services are carried out in almost all sectors and branches of industry. Due to the above, cleaners are exposed to various harmful biological agents, depending on the tasks performed and the commercial sector involved. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of cleaning workers to biological agents based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne microflora. Material and methods: A six-stage Andersen sampler was used to collect bioaerosols during the cleaning activities in different workplaces, including schools, offices, car services, healthy services and shops. Standard Petri dishes filled with blood trypticase soy agar and malt extract agar were used for bacterial and fungal sampling, respectively. Results: The bioaerosol concentration values obtained during testing of selected workposts of cleaners were lower than the Polish recommended threshold limit values for microorganisms concentrations in public service. The most prevalent bacterial species in studied places were Gram-positive cocci (mainly of genera Micrococcus, Staphylococcus and endospore-forming Gram-positive rods (mainly of genera Bacillus. Among the most common fungal species were those from genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The size distribution analysis revealed that bioaerosols present in the air of workposts at shops, schools and car services may be responsible for nose and eye mucosa irritation and allergic reactions in the form of asthma or allergic inflammation in the cleaning workers. Conclusions: The study shows that occupational activities of cleaning workers are associated with exposure to airborne biological agents classified into risk groups, 1. and 2., according to their level of infection risk, posing respiratory hazard. Med Pr 2015;66(6:779–791

  13. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Community Dynamics by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) Metabarcoding during Flax Dew-Retting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemiel, Christophe; Grec, Sébastien; Hawkins, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Flax dew-retting is a key step in the industrial extraction of fibers from flax stems and is dependent upon the production of a battery of hydrolytic enzymes produced by micro-organisms during this process. To explore the diversity and dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities involved in this process we applied a high-throughput sequencing (HTS) DNA metabarcoding approach (16S rRNA/ITS region, Illumina Miseq) on plant and soil samples obtained over a period of 7 weeks in July and August 2014. Twenty-three bacterial and six fungal phyla were identified in soil samples and 11 bacterial and four fungal phyla in plant samples. Dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes (bacteria) and Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota (fungi) all of which have been previously associated with flax dew-retting except for Bacteroidetes and Basidiomycota that were identified for the first time. Rare phyla also identified for the first time in this process included Acidobacteria, CKC4, Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and TM6 (bacteria), and Chytridiomycota (fungi). No differences in microbial communities and colonization dynamics were observed between early and standard flax harvests. In contrast, the common agricultural practice of swath turning affects both bacterial and fungal community membership and structure in straw samples and may contribute to a more uniform retting. Prediction of community function using PICRUSt indicated the presence of a large collection of potential bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing backbones and side-chains of cell wall polysaccharides. Assignment of functional guild (functional group) using FUNGuild software highlighted a change from parasitic to saprophytic trophic modes in fungi during retting. This work provides the first exhaustive description of the microbial communities involved in flax dew-retting and will provide a valuable benchmark in future studies aiming to evaluate

  14. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Community Dynamics by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS Metabarcoding during Flax Dew-Retting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Djemiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax dew-retting is a key step in the industrial extraction of fibers from flax stems and is dependent upon the production of a battery of hydrolytic enzymes produced by micro-organisms during this process. To explore the diversity and dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities involved in this process we applied a high-throughput sequencing (HTS DNA metabarcoding approach (16S rRNA/ITS region, Illumina Miseq on plant and soil samples obtained over a period of 7 weeks in July and August 2014. Twenty-three bacterial and six fungal phyla were identified in soil samples and 11 bacterial and four fungal phyla in plant samples. Dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes (bacteria and Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota (fungi all of which have been previously associated with flax dew-retting except for Bacteroidetes and Basidiomycota that were identified for the first time. Rare phyla also identified for the first time in this process included Acidobacteria, CKC4, Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and TM6 (bacteria, and Chytridiomycota (fungi. No differences in microbial communities and colonization dynamics were observed between early and standard flax harvests. In contrast, the common agricultural practice of swath turning affects both bacterial and fungal community membership and structure in straw samples and may contribute to a more uniform retting. Prediction of community function using PICRUSt indicated the presence of a large collection of potential bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing backbones and side-chains of cell wall polysaccharides. Assignment of functional guild (functional group using FUNGuild software highlighted a change from parasitic to saprophytic trophic modes in fungi during retting. This work provides the first exhaustive description of the microbial communities involved in flax dew-retting and will provide a valuable benchmark in future studies aiming

  15. Eye-banking risk factors for fungal endophthalmitis compared with bacterial endophthalmitis after corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sohela S; Wilhelmus, Kirk R

    2005-04-01

    To track the relative frequency and explore possible risk factors of fungal compared with bacterial endophthalmitis after corneal transplantation. Case-comparison study nested in a surveillance registry. We examined, among recipients who underwent surgery from January 1991 through December 2003, demographic and eye-banking characteristics of postkeratoplasty endophthalmitis cases that were reported to the Eye Bank Association of America by US eye banks. Potential predictors of fungal compared with bacterial endophthalmitis were examined using multiple logistic regression. Of 234 reported cases of postkeratoplasty endophthalmitis reported by US eye bank, 46 cases (19.7%) were fungal, and 130 cases (55.6%) were bacterial. Concordant cultures of the residual donor corneoscleral rim or preservation medium occurred significantly more often with fungal than bacterial endophthalmitis (P = .009). After the introduction of Optisol-GS, the odds of bacterial relative to fungal endophthalmitis decreased by 77% (95% confidence interval, 44% - 91%). After adjustment for the preservation method and other eye-banking variables, the odds of fungal endophthalmitis was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.6 - 7.4) times that of bacterial endophthalmitis, when donor corneal preservation was 4 days or longer. The frequency of postkeratoplasty bacterial endophthalmitis compared with fungal endophthalmitis fell after widespread use of a corneal preservation medium supplemented with gentamicin and streptomycin. Further improvements in corneal preservation procedures are needed.

  16. Previous encapsulation response enhances within individual protection against fungal parasite in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-12-01

    Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, T B; Cursons, R T; Sherwan, J F; Rose, P R

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Microbial corneal infection is the most serious complication of contact lens wear. Contact lens cases are a recognised potential source of pathogens associated with corneal ulcers. METHODS--This survey established the incidence of protozoal, bacterial, and fungal contact lens case contamination in 101 asymptomatic daily wear cosmetic contact lens wearers from a domiciliary contact lens practice. RESULTS--Eighty two (81%) contact lens cases were found to be contaminated, with 19 (19%) sterile. Of all contact lens cases, 78 (77%) grew bacteria, 24 (24%) fungi, and 20 (20%) protozoa. Acanthamoeba spp were isolated from eight (8%) contact lens cases. Fifty six (55%) contact lens cases yielded mixed bacterial contamination. This is the first contact lens case survey in which hydrogen peroxide disinfection was the major method of contact lens disinfection (75% of subjects) and no home made saline was used. All the contaminating organisms were shown to possess the enzyme catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. The polymicrobial nature of the biofilms found in many contact lens cases is illustrated electron micrographically. CONCLUSION--Based on data from this and previous studies, the authors conclude with recommendations for contact lens wearers: (1) regular scrubbing of contact lens case interior to disrupt biofilms; (2) exposure of contact lens case to very hot water (> or = 70 degrees C) will kill Acanthamoeba contaminants; (3) allow contact lens case to air dry between uses; (4) if hydrogen peroxide disinfection is preferred, use a two step system; (5) replace contact lens case regularly. Images PMID:7626578

  18. Evaluation of fungal laccase immobilized on natural nanostructured bacterial cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eChen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of using native bacterial nanocellulose (BC as a carrier for laccase immobilization. BC was synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which was statically cultivated in a mannitol-based medium and was freeze-dried to form BC sponge after purification. For the first time, fungal laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on the native nanofibril network-structured BC sponge through physical adsorption and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The properties including morphologic and structural features of the BC as well as the immobilized enzyme were thoroughly investigated. It was found that enzyme immobilized by cross-linking exhibited broader pH operation range of high catalytic activity as well as higher running stability compared to free and adsorbed enzyme. Using ABTS as substrate, the optimum pH value was 3.5 for the adsorption-immobilized laccase and 4.0 for the crosslinking-immobilized laccase. The immobilized enzyme retained 69% of the original activity after being recycled 7 times. Novel applications of the BC-immobilized enzyme tentatively include active packaging, construction of biosensors, and establishment of bioreactors.

  19. Bacterial and Fungal Proteolytic Enzymes: Production, Catalysis and Potential Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues

    2017-09-01

    Submerged and solid-state bioprocesses have been extensively explored worldwide and employed in a number of important studies dealing with microbial cultivation for the production of enzymes. The development of these production technologies has facilitated the generation of new enzyme-based products with applications in pharmaceuticals, food, bioactive peptides, and basic research studies, among others. The applicability of microorganisms in biotechnology is potentiated because of their various advantages, including large-scale production, short time of cultivation, and ease of handling. Currently, several studies are being conducted to search for new microbial peptidases with peculiar biochemical properties for industrial applications. Bioprospecting, being an important prerequisite for research and biotechnological development, is based on exploring the microbial diversity for enzyme production. Limited information is available on the production of specific proteolytic enzymes from bacterial and fungal species, especially on the subgroups threonine and glutamic peptidases, and the seventh catalytic type, nonhydrolytic asparagine peptide lyase. This gap in information motivated the present study about these unique biocatalysts. In this study, the biochemical and biotechnological aspects of the seven catalytic types of proteolytic enzymes, namely aspartyl, cysteine, serine, metallo, glutamic, and threonine peptidase, and asparagine peptide lyase, are summarized, with an emphasis on new studies, production, catalysis, and application of these enzymes.

  20. Fungal networks shape dynamics of bacterial dispersal and community assembly in cheese rind microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanchen; Kastman, Erik K; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Wolfe, Benjamin E

    2018-01-23

    Most studies of bacterial motility have examined small-scale (micrometer-centimeter) cell dispersal in monocultures. However, bacteria live in multispecies communities, where interactions with other microbes may inhibit or facilitate dispersal. Here, we demonstrate that motile bacteria in cheese rind microbiomes use physical networks created by filamentous fungi for dispersal, and that these interactions can shape microbial community structure. Serratia proteamaculans and other motile cheese rind bacteria disperse on fungal networks by swimming in the liquid layers formed on fungal hyphae. RNA-sequencing, transposon mutagenesis, and comparative genomics identify potential genetic mechanisms, including flagella-mediated motility, that control bacterial dispersal on hyphae. By manipulating fungal networks in experimental communities, we demonstrate that fungal-mediated bacterial dispersal can shift cheese rind microbiome composition by promoting the growth of motile over non-motile community members. Our single-cell to whole-community systems approach highlights the interactive dynamics of bacterial motility in multispecies microbiomes.

  1. Fungal-bacterial interactions and their relevance to oral health: linking the clinic and the bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Patricia I; Strausbaugh, Linda D; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing has accelerated knowledge on the oral microbiome. While the bacterial component of oral communities has been extensively characterized, the role of the fungal microbiota in the oral cavity is largely unknown. Interactions among fungi and bacteria are likely to influence oral health as exemplified by the synergistic relationship between Candida albicans and oral streptococci. In this perspective, we discuss the current state of the field of fungal-bacterial interactions in the context of the oral cavity. We highlight the need to conduct longitudinal clinical studies to simultaneously characterize the bacterial and fungal components of the human oral microbiome in health and during disease progression. Such studies need to be coupled with investigations using disease-relevant models to mechanistically test the associations observed in humans and eventually identify fungal-bacterial interactions that could serve as preventive or therapeutic targets for oral diseases.

  2. Fungal-bacterial interactions and their relevance to oral health: linking the clinic and the bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I Diaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing has accelerated knowledge on the oral microbiome. While the bacterial component of oral communities has been extensively characterized, the role of the fungal microbiota in the oral cavity is largely unknown. Interactions among fungi and bacteria are likely to influence oral health as exemplified by the synergistic relationship between Candida albicans and oral streptococci. In this perspective, we discuss the current state of the field of fungal-bacterial interactions in the context of the oral cavity. We highlight the need to conduct longitudinal clinical studies to simultaneously characterize the bacterial and fungal components of the human oral microbiome in health and during disease progression. Such studies need to be coupled with investigations using disease-relevant models to mechanistically test the associations observed in humans and eventually identify fungal-bacterial interactions that could serve as preventive or therapeutic targets for oral diseases.

  3. Acanthamoeba, fungal, and bacterial keratitis: a comparison of risk factors and clinical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Jeena; Lalitha, Prajna; Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Das, Manoranjan; D’Silva, Sean S.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Borkar, Durga S.; Esterberg, Elizabeth J.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Keenan, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine risk factors and clinical signs that may differentiate between bacterial, fungal, and acanthamoeba keratitis among patients presenting with presumed infectious keratitis. Design Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Methods We examined the medical records of 115 patients with laboratory-proven bacterial keratitis, 115 patients with laboratory-proven fungal keratitis, and 115 patients with laboratory-proven acanthamoeba keratitis seen at Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, from 2006–2011. Risk factors and clinical features of the three organisms were compared using multinomial logistic regression. Results Of 95 patients with bacterial keratitis, 103 patients with fungal keratitis, and 93 patients with acanthamoeba keratitis who had medical records available for review, 287 (99%) did not wear contact lenses. Differentiating features were more common for acanthamoeba keratitis than for bacterial or fungal keratitis. Compared to patients with bacterial or fungal keratitis, patients with acanthamoeba keratitis were more likely to be younger and to have a longer duration of symptoms, and to have a ring infiltrate or disease confined to the epithelium. Conclusions Risk factors and clinical examination findings can be useful for differentiating acanthamoeba keratitis from bacterial and fungal keratitis. PMID:24200232

  4. Acanthamoeba, fungal, and bacterial keratitis: a comparison of risk factors and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Jeena; Lalitha, Prajna; Prajna, N Venkatesh; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Das, Manoranjan; D'Silva, Sean S; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Borkar, Durga S; Esterberg, Elizabeth J; Lietman, Thomas M; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2014-01-01

    To determine risk factors and clinical signs that may differentiate between bacterial, fungal, and acanthamoeba keratitis among patients presenting with presumed infectious keratitis. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. We examined the medical records of 115 patients with laboratory-proven bacterial keratitis, 115 patients with laboratory-proven fungal keratitis, and 115 patients with laboratory-proven acanthamoeba keratitis seen at Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, from 2006-2011. Risk factors and clinical features of the 3 organisms were compared using multinomial logistic regression. Of 95 patients with bacterial keratitis, 103 patients with fungal keratitis, and 93 patients with acanthamoeba keratitis who had medical records available for review, 287 (99%) did not wear contact lenses. Differentiating features were more common for acanthamoeba keratitis than for bacterial or fungal keratitis. Compared to patients with bacterial or fungal keratitis, patients with acanthamoeba keratitis were more likely to be younger and to have a longer duration of symptoms, and to have a ring infiltrate or disease confined to the epithelium. Risk factors and clinical examination findings can be useful for differentiating acanthamoeba keratitis from bacterial and fungal keratitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial and fungal keratitis in Upper Egypt: In vitro screening of enzymes, toxins and antifungal activity

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    Abdullah A Gharamah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work was conducted to study the ability of bacterial and fungal isolates from keratitis cases in Upper Egypt to produce enzymes, toxins, and to test the isolated fungal species sensitivity to some therapeutic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients clinically diagnosed to have microbial keratitis were investigated. From these cases, 37 bacterial isolates and 25 fungal isolates were screened for their ability to produce extra-cellular enzymes in solid media. In addition, the ability of fungal isolates to produce mycotoxins and their sensitivity to 4 antifungal agents were tested. Results: Protease, lipase, hemolysins, urease, phosphatase, and catalase were detected respectively in 48.65%, 37.84%, 59.46%, 43.24%, 67.57%, and 100% out of 37 bacterial isolates tested. Out of 25 fungal isolates tested during the present study, 80% were positive for protease, 84% for lipase and urease, 28% for blood hemolysis, and 100% for phosphatase and catalase enzymes. Thirteen fungal isolates were able to produce detectable amounts of 7 mycotoxins in culture medium (aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2, sterigmatocystin, fumagillin, diacetoxyscirpenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and trichodermin. Among the antifungal agents tested in this study, terbinafine showed the highest effect against most isolates in vitro. Conclusion: In conclusion, the ability of bacterial and fungal isolates to produce extracellular enzymes and toxins may be aid in the invasion and destruction of eye tissues, which, in turn, lead to vision loss.

  6. Integrating chytrid fungal parasites into plankton ecology: research gaps and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Thijs; Alacid, Elisabet; Berger, Stella A; Bourne, Elizabeth C; Gerphagnon, Mélanie; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Gsell, Alena S; Ibelings, Bas W; Kagami, Maiko; Küpper, Frithjof C; Letcher, Peter M; Loyau, Adeline; Miki, Takeshi; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Rasconi, Serena; Reñé, Albert; Rohrlack, Thomas; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor; Schmeller, Dirk S; Scholz, Bettina; Seto, Kensuke; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Sukenik, Assaf; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Van den Wyngaert, Silke; Van Donk, Ellen; Wolinska, Justyna; Wurzbacher, Christian; Agha, Ramsy

    2017-10-01

    Chytridiomycota, often referred to as chytrids, can be virulent parasites with the potential to inflict mass mortalities on hosts, causing e.g. changes in phytoplankton size distributions and succession, and the delay or suppression of bloom events. Molecular environmental surveys have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of chytrids across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. As a result, scientific interest towards fungal parasites of phytoplankton has been gaining momentum in the past few years. Yet, we still know little about the ecology of chytrids, their life cycles, phylogeny, host specificity and range. Information on the contribution of chytrids to trophic interactions, as well as co-evolutionary feedbacks of fungal parasitism on host populations is also limited. This paper synthesizes ideas stressing the multifaceted biological relevance of phytoplankton chytridiomycosis, resulting from discussions among an international team of chytrid researchers. It presents our view on the most pressing research needs for promoting the integration of chytrid fungi into aquatic ecology. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Centralized Drinking Water Treatment Operations Shape Bacterial and Fungal Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Vikram, Amit; Casson, Leonard; Bibby, Kyle

    2017-07-05

    Drinking water microbial communities impact opportunistic pathogen colonization and corrosion of water distribution systems, and centralized drinking water treatment represents a potential control for microbial community structure in finished drinking water. In this article, we examine bacterial and fungal abundance and diversity, as well as the microbial community taxonomic structure following each unit operation in a conventional surface water treatment plant. Treatment operations drove the microbial composition more strongly than sampling time. Both bacterial and fungal abundance and diversity decreased following sedimentation and filtration; however, only bacterial abundance and diversity was significantly impacted by free chlorine disinfection. Similarly, each treatment step was found to shift bacterial and fungal community beta-diversity, with the exception of disinfection on the fungal community structure. We observed the enrichment of bacterial and fungal taxa commonly found in drinking water distribution systems through the treatment process, for example, Sphingomonas following filtration and Leptospirillium and Penicillium following disinfection. Study results suggest that centralized drinking water treatment processes shape the final drinking water microbial community via selection of community members and that the bacterial community is primarily driven by disinfection while the eukaryotic community is primarily controlled by physical treatment processes.

  8. Monitoring the Bacterial and Fungal Biota of Eleven Tobacco Grades Stored at Three Different Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villemur R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco as many other plants has its own microbiota. There are very few studies determining the evolution of this microbiota during tobacco storage, which may affect the quality of tobacco. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE were used to determine changes in the microbiota of tobacco during the aging of eleven different tobacco grades stored at three different locations for twelve months. The microbial fraction of these tobacco grades was extracted, and the bacterial 16S and the fungal 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA sequences were PCR amplified before being segregated by DGGE. The bacterial complexity of the tobacco grades was represented by DGGE migrating banding profiles that varied between 20 and 30 bands. Some variations in the banding profiles were observed between the tobacco grades, but overall no substantial changes occurred in the bacterial population of the different grades during their storage at different locations. Most of the fungal DGGE profiles were identical and had only one dominating band related to the genus Aspergillus. Bacterial and fungal isolates were also derived from the microbial fractions of the tobacco, and part of their respective 16S and 18S rDNA sequences were determined. Bacterial isolates belonged to Bacillales and gamma Protobacteria. Fungal isolates belonged to the genus Aspergillus. Our results showed that the bacterial and fungal biota of tobacco are relatively stable throughout 12 months storage time.

  9. A review of foodborne bacterial and parasitic zoonoses in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Bryant, J E

    2013-12-01

    Vietnam has experienced unprecedented economic and social development in recent years, and the livestock sector is undergoing significant transformations. Although food animal production is still dominated by small-scale 'backyard' enterprises with mixed crop-livestock or livestock-aquatic systems, there is a trend towards more intensive and vertically integrated operations. Changes in animal production, processing and distribution networks for meat and animal products, and the shift from wet markets to supermarkets will undoubtedly impact food safety risks in Vietnam in unforeseen and complex ways. Here, we review the available published literature on bacterial and parasitic foodborne zoonoses (FBZ) in Vietnam. We report on clinical disease burden and pathogen prevalence in animal reservoirs for a number of important FBZ, and outline opportunities for future research.

  10. Mate Finding, Sexual Spore Production, and the Spread of Fungal Plant Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Frédéric M; Castella, François; Doli, Valentin; Marçais, Benoît; Ravigné, Virginie; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Sexual reproduction and dispersal are often coupled in organisms mixing sexual and asexual reproduction, such as fungi. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of mate limitation on the spreading speed of fungal plant parasites. Starting from a simple model with two coupled partial differential equations, we take advantage of the fact that we are interested in the dynamics over large spatial and temporal scales to reduce the model to a single equation. We obtain a simple expression for speed of spread, accounting for both sexual and asexual reproduction. Taking Black Sigatoka disease of banana plants as a case study, the model prediction is in close agreement with the actual spreading speed (100 km per year), whereas a similar model without mate limitation predicts a wave speed one order of magnitude greater. We discuss the implications of these results to control parasites in which sexual reproduction and dispersal are intrinsically coupled.

  11. Fungal endophytes of the obligate parasitic dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium americanum (Santalaceae) act antagonistically in vitro against the native fungal pathogen Cladosporium (Davidiellaceae) of their host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lyssa L; Ross Friedman, Cynthia M; Phillips, Lori A

    2012-12-01

    Endophytic fungi likely occur in all plants, yet little is known about those of parasitic plants, despite their potential to influence parasite success. Arceuthobium americanum is a parasitic angiosperm that greatly compromises the North American timber industry. We hypothesized that (1) A. americanum hosts fungal endophytes, and (2) these endophytes help A. americanum resist infection by fungal pathogens. • Healthy A. americanum stem and fruit tissues were differentially stained for cellulose and chitin and visualized using fluorescence microscopy. Stem sections (sterilized vs. unsterilized) and seeds were incubated on agar plates to cultivate fungi, both to extract DNA for ITS rDNA sequencing and to observe interactions with native fungi from unsterilized specimens. • Aside from xylem vessel elements, fungal structures were observed in all tissues, including those of the embryo. The ITS sequences of fungi cultured from internal tissues closely matched those of the known endophytes Phoma, Sydowia, and Phacidiopycnis, while those of surface organisms closely matched Cladosporium spp. Cultured fungi from internal tissues (putative endophytes) inhibited the growth of the surface organisms without affecting the other endophytes. • Fungal communities are established in A. americanum stems as well as in fruits and seeds, suggesting vertical transmission. These internally derived fungi act antagonistically toward fungi with pathogenic tendencies. As such, native mistletoe endophytes might protect A. americanum against fungal pathogens in nature. In the future, manipulation of endophytes might be a component of mistletoe control programs.

  12. Fungal corneal ulcer and bacterial orbital cellulitis occur as complications of bacterial endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Chul; Kim, Man Soo; Kang, Nam Yeo

    2013-03-01

    To report a case of fungal corneal ulcer and bacterial orbital cellulitis as complications of bacterial endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. A 51-year-old man underwent anterior chamber irrigation and aspiration in the left eye one day after cataract surgery because of bacterial endophthalmitis. Marked lid swelling with purulent discharge was developed after 5 days. Slit lamp examination showed generalized corneal ulcer and pus in the total anterior chamber. A computerized tomography scan showed left retrobulbar fat stranding with thickened optic disc. Streptococcus pneumonia was cultured from corneal scraping, vireous, and subconjunctival pus. The patient improved gradually with antibiotics treatments, but the corneal ulcer did not fully recover 2 months after cataract surgery. Candida albicans was detected in repetitive corneal culture. After antifungal and antibacterial therapy, the corneal epithelium had healed, but phthisis bulbi had developed. Fungal corneal ulcer and bacterial orbital cellulitis can occur as complications of endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient.

  13. Bacterial-Fungal Interactions: Hyphens between Agricultural, Clinical, Environmental, and Food Microbiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey-Klett, P.; Burlinson, P.; Deveau, A.; Barret, M.; Tarkka, M.; Sarniguet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Bacteria and fungi can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. These bacterial-fungal interactions often result in changes to the pathogenicity or the nutritional influence of one or both partners toward plants or animals (including humans). They can also result in unique contributions to biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological processes. Thus, the interactions between bacteria and fungi are of central importance to numerous biological questions in agriculture, forestry, environmental science, food production, and medicine. Here we present a structured review of bacterial-fungal interactions, illustrated by examples sourced from many diverse scientific fields. We consider the general and specific properties of these interactions, providing a global perspective across this emerging multidisciplinary research area. We show that in many cases, parallels can be drawn between different scenarios in which bacterial-fungal interactions are important. Finally, we discuss how new avenues of investigation may enhance our ability to combat, manipulate, or exploit bacterial-fungal complexes for the economic and practical benefit of humanity as well as reshape our current understanding of bacterial and fungal ecology. PMID:22126995

  14. Bacterial and Fungal Community Structures in Loess Plateau Grasslands with Different Grazing Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Chen, Xianjiang; Hou, Fujiang; Wu, Yanpei; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-01-01

    The Loess Plateau of China is one of the most fragile ecosystems worldwide; thus, human production activities need to be conducted very cautiously. In this study, MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was applied to assess the relationship between bacterial and fungal community structures and changes in vegetation and soil physical and chemical properties induced by grazing, in four grasslands with different levels of grazing intensity (0, 2.67, 5.33, and 8.67 sheep/ha) in the semiarid region of the Loess Plateau. The relative abundances of the bacterial community in the grasslands with 2.67 and 5.33 sheep/ha were significantly higher than those in grasslands with 0 and 8.67 sheep/ha, and the fungal diversity was significantly lower for grasslands with 2.67 sheep/ha than for the other grasslands. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that plant biomass, nitrate, and total nitrogen have significant effects on bacterial community structure, whereas nitrate and total nitrogen also significantly affect fungal community structure. Variation partitioning showed that soil and plant characteristics influence the bacterial and fungal community structures; these characteristics explained 51.9 and 52.9% of the variation, respectively. Thus, bacterial and fungal community structures are very sensitive to grazing activity and change to different extents with different grazing intensities. Based on our findings, a grazing intensity of about 2.67 sheep/ha is considered the most appropriate in semiarid grassland of the Loess Plateau.

  15. Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Community Composition in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, J. B.; Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Fahey, D. W.; Fierer, N.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for significant microbial influences on atmospheric chemistry, cloud condensation, and ice nuclei concentrations, with known health impacts, yet we have a limited understanding of the types, abundances, and spatiotemporal dynamics of bacteria and fungi in the atmosphere. Here we use culture-independent molecular approaches, including targeted gene sequencing and quantitative PCR, to characterize bacterial and fungal community composition and abundance in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present results from 32 air samples, collected via vacuum filtration at 10 m and 250 m on the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower (Erie, CO) between November 2013 and April 2014. Samples were collected at night, and each sample was integrated over consecutive nights for approximately two weeks. Significant temporal shifts in bacterial and fungal community composition were observed over the course of the study, corresponding to changing bacterial and fungal concentrations. Within the same sampling time periods, bacterial and fungal communities from the near-surface atmosphere (10 m) were generally similar to those aloft (250 m), although coupled temporal and altitudinal effects were observed in some cases, particularly for fungi. Overall, our results indicate that bacterial and fungal communities exhibit minimal vertical stratification throughout the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer but show a high degree of variability on two-week timescales. This study paves the way for further research into the connections between boundary layer microbiology, atmospheric dynamics, emissions, and local meteorology.

  16. The Clinical Differentiation of Bacterial and Fungal Keratitis: A Photographic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmon, Cyril; Porco, Travis C.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Prajna, Lalitha; Das, Mano Ranjan; Kumar, J. Arun; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Margolis, Todd P.; Whitcher, John P.; Jeng, Bennie H.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Chan, Matilda F.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical signs of infectious keratitis can be used to identify the causative organism. Methods. Eighty photographs of eyes with culture-proven bacterial keratitis or smear-proven fungal keratitis were randomly selected from 2 clinical trials. Fifteen cornea specialists from the F. I. Proctor Foundation and the Aravind Eye Care System assessed the photographs for prespecified clinical signs of keratitis, and they identified the most likely causative organism. Results. Clinicians were able to correctly distinguish bacterial from fungal etiology 66% of the time (P < 0.001). The Gram stain, genus, and species were accurately predicted 46%, 25%, and 10% of the time, respectively. The presence of an irregular/feathery border was associated with fungal keratitis, whereas a wreath infiltrate or an epithelial plaque was associated with bacterial keratitis. Conclusions. Cornea specialists correctly differentiated bacterial from fungal keratitis more often than chance, but in fewer than 70% of cases. More specific categorization led to less successful clinical distinction. Although certain clinical signs of infectious keratitis may be associated with a bacterial or fungal etiology, this study highlights the importance of obtaining appropriate microbiological testing during the initial clinical encounter. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00324168.) PMID:22395880

  17. Preclinical testing of radiopharmaceuticals for novel applications in HIV, bacterial and fungal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.; Garg, G.; Dadachova, E.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics, antifungal and antiviral medications have traditionally been used in the management of infections. Due to widespread emergence of resistance to antimicrobial medications, and their side effects, there is a growing need for alternative approaches for management of such conditions. Antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens are on the rise. A cure has not been achieved for viral infections like AIDS, while fungal and parasitic infections are constant threats to the health of general public. The incidence of opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals like HIV patients, patients receiving high dose steroids, chemotherapy patients, and organ transplant recipients is on the rise. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has the potential to be a suitable and viable therapeutic modality in the arena of infection management. Provided the target-associated antigen is expressed by the target cells and minimally or not expressed by other tissues, selective targeting of radiation to target sites can be theoretically accomplished with relative sparing normal tissues from radiation exposure. In our laboratory we successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of RIT for treating infectious diseases. We targeted murine cryptococcosis with a mAb to the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan labeled with Bismuth-213 (213Bi) or Rhenium-188 (188Re). We subsequently extended the applicability of RIT for treating bacterial and viral infections. One of the advantages of using RIT to treat infections as opposed to cancer is that, in contrast to tumor cells, cells expressing microbial antigens are antigenically very different from host tissues and thus provide the potential for exquisite specificity and low cross-reactivity. Ever increasing incidence of infectious pathologies, exhaustion of antimicrobial possibilities and rising drug resistance calls for use of alternative and novel therapeutic options and we believe RIT is the need of the hour to combat these

  18. Biotechnological approaches to develop bacterial chitinases as a bioshield against fungal diseases of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeraja, Chilukoti; Anil, Kondreddy; Purushotham, Pallinti; Suma, Katta; Sarma, Pvsrn; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Podile, Appa Rao

    2010-09-01

    Fungal diseases of plants continue to contribute to heavy crop losses in spite of the best control efforts of plant pathologists. Breeding for disease-resistant varieties and the application of synthetic chemical fungicides are the most widely accepted approaches in plant disease management. An alternative approach to avoid the undesired effects of chemical control could be biological control using antifungal bacteria that exhibit a direct action against fungal pathogens. Several biocontrol agents, with specific fungal targets, have been registered and released in the commercial market with different fungal pathogens as targets. However, these have not yet achieved their full commercial potential due to the inherent limitations in the use of living organisms, such as relatively short shelf life of the products and inconsistent performance in the field. Different mechanisms of action have been identified in microbial biocontrol of fungal plant diseases including competition for space or nutrients, production of antifungal metabolites, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinases and glucanases. This review focuses on the bacterial chitinases that hydrolyze the chitinous fungal cell wall, which is the most important targeted structural component of fungal pathogens. The application of the hydrolytic enzyme preparations, devoid of live bacteria, could be more efficacious in fungal control strategies. This approach, however, is still in its infancy, due to prohibitive production costs. Here, we critically examine available sources of bacterial chitinases and the approaches to improve enzymatic properties using biotechnological tools. We project that the combination of microbial and recombinant DNA technologies will yield more effective environment-friendly products of bacterial chitinases to control fungal diseases of crops.

  19. Assembly of Active Bacterial and Fungal Communities Along a Natural Environmental Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rebecca C; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Zak, Donald R; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy is thought to promote biodiversity within microbial communities, but how assembly of the active community responds to changes in environmental conditions is unclear. To measure the active and dormant communities of bacteria and fungi colonizing decomposing litter in maple forests, we targeted ribosomal genes and transcripts across a natural environmental gradient. Within bacterial and fungal communities, the active and dormant communities were phylogenetically distinct, but patterns of phylogenetic clustering varied. For bacteria, active communities were significantly more clustered than dormant communities, while the reverse was found for fungi. The proportion of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as active and the degree of phylogenetic clustering of the active bacterial communities declined with increasing pH and decreasing C/N. No significant correlations were found for the fungal community. The opposing pattern of phylogenetic clustering in dormant and active communities and the differential response of active communities to environmental gradients suggest that dormancy differentially structures bacterial and fungal communities.

  20. Bacterial endophytes from wild and ancient maize are able to suppress the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, H R; Lyons, E M; Jordan, K S; Raizada, M N

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if endophytes from wild and ancient Zea plants (corn family) have anti-fungal activities, specifically against the most important fungal pathogen (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) of creeping bentgrass, a relative of Zea, used here as a model grass. A library of 190 bacterial endophytes from wild, ancient and modern Zea plants were tested for their ability to suppress S. homoeocarpa in vitro, followed by in planta testing of candidates using greenhouse trials. Three endophytes could suppress S. homoeocarpa, originating from wild maize and an ancient Mexican landrace, consistent with our hypothesis. 16S phylogenetic analysis and BOX-PCR DNA fingerprinting suggest that the anti-fungal endophytes are distinct strains of Burkholderia gladioli. One strain (3A12) was confirmed to colonize creeping bentgrass using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging. Evans blue vitality staining demonstrated that the bacterial endophytes exhibited fungicidal activities against the pathogen. The endophytes inhibited a wide spectrum of plant-associated fungi including diverse crop pathogens. The results support the hypothesis that wild and ancient Zea genotypes host bacterial endophytes that can control fungal pathogen(s). These results suggest that wild and ancient crops may be an unexplored reservoir of anti-fungal bacterial endophytes. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Seasonal Effect on the Bacterial and Fungal Population of an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the microbial densities. llowcver, fungal counts l showed somewhat seasonahpollutant effect in two locationsv The chemical constituents of the wastewater are relatively of low toxicity and hence had no toxic effects on the soil microbial population Seasonal variations showed that the drier seasons supported large active ...

  2. Phytoplankton chytridiomycosis: fungal parasites of phytoplankton and their imprints on the food web dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Télesphore eSIME - NGANDO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is one of the earlier and common ecological interactions in the nature, occurring in almost all environments. Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recently, environmental 18S-rDNA surveys of microbial eukaryotes have unveiled major infecting agents in pelagic systems, consisting primarily of the fungal order of Chytridiales (chytrids. Chytrids are considered the earlier branch of the Eumycetes and produce motile, flagellated zoospores, characterized by a small size (2-6 µm and a single, posterior flagellum. The existence of these dispersal propagules includes chytrids within the so-called group of zoosporic fungi, which are particularly adapted to the plankton lifestyle where they infect a wide variety of hosts, including fishes, eggs, zooplankton, algae, and other aquatic fungi but primarily freshwater phytoplankton. Related ecological implications are huge because chytrids can killed their hosts, release substrates for microbial processes, and provide nutrient-rich particles as zoospores and short fragments of filamentous inedible hosts for the grazer food chain. Furthermore, based on the observation that phytoplankton chytridiomycosis preferentially impacts the larger size species, blooms of such species (e.g. filamentous cyanobacteria may not totally represent trophic bottlenecks. Besides, chytrid epidemics represent an important driving factor in phytoplankton seasonal successions. In this review, I summarize the knowledge on the diversity, community structure, quantitative importance, and functional roles of fungal chytrids, primarily those who are parasites of phytoplankton, and infer the ecological implications and potentials for the food web dynamics and properties.

  3. A comparative study of fungal and bacterial biofiltration treating a VOC mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, José M.; Hernández, Sergio; Muñoz, Raúl; Revah, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bacterial biofilter showed better EC and ΔP than fungal biofilter. ► The preferential biodegradation order was: propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene. ► Propanal partially inhibited the biodegradation of the rest of VOCs. ► The two-stage biofilter showed a higher stability than the individual units. -- Abstract: Bacterial biofilters usually exhibit a high microbial diversity and robustness, while fungal biofilters have been claimed to better withstand low moisture contents and pH values, and to be more efficient coping with hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, there are only few systematic evaluations of both biofiltration technologies. The present study compared fungal and bacterial biofiltration for the treatment of a VOC mixture (propanal, methyl isobutyl ketone-MIBK, toluene and hexanol) under the same operating conditions. Overall, fungal biofiltration supported lower elimination capacities than its bacterial counterpart (27.7 ± 8.9 vs 40.2 ± 5.4 g C m −3 reactor h −1 ), which exhibited a final pressure drop 60% higher than that of the bacterial biofilter due to mycelial growth. The VOC mineralization ratio was also higher in the bacterial bed (≈63% vs ≈43%). However, the substrate biodegradation preference order was similar for both biofilters (propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene) with propanal partially inhibiting the consumption of the rest of the VOCs. Both systems supported an excellent robustness versus 24 h VOC starvation episodes. The implementation of a fungal/bacterial coupled system did not significantly improve the VOC removal performance compared to the individual biofilter performances

  4. A comparative study of fungal and bacterial biofiltration treating a VOC mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, José M. [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Miguel Hidalgo, Delegación Álvaro Obregón (Mexico); Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Tecnología del Medio Ambiente – Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Hernández, Sergio [Departmento de Procesos e Hidráulica – Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana – Iztapalapa Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Muñoz, Raúl [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Tecnología del Medio Ambiente – Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Revah, Sergio, E-mail: srevah@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Miguel Hidalgo, Delegación Álvaro Obregón (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Bacterial biofilter showed better EC and ΔP than fungal biofilter. ► The preferential biodegradation order was: propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene. ► Propanal partially inhibited the biodegradation of the rest of VOCs. ► The two-stage biofilter showed a higher stability than the individual units. -- Abstract: Bacterial biofilters usually exhibit a high microbial diversity and robustness, while fungal biofilters have been claimed to better withstand low moisture contents and pH values, and to be more efficient coping with hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, there are only few systematic evaluations of both biofiltration technologies. The present study compared fungal and bacterial biofiltration for the treatment of a VOC mixture (propanal, methyl isobutyl ketone-MIBK, toluene and hexanol) under the same operating conditions. Overall, fungal biofiltration supported lower elimination capacities than its bacterial counterpart (27.7 ± 8.9 vs 40.2 ± 5.4 g C m{sup −3} reactor h{sup −1}), which exhibited a final pressure drop 60% higher than that of the bacterial biofilter due to mycelial growth. The VOC mineralization ratio was also higher in the bacterial bed (≈63% vs ≈43%). However, the substrate biodegradation preference order was similar for both biofilters (propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene) with propanal partially inhibiting the consumption of the rest of the VOCs. Both systems supported an excellent robustness versus 24 h VOC starvation episodes. The implementation of a fungal/bacterial coupled system did not significantly improve the VOC removal performance compared to the individual biofilter performances.

  5. Mechanisms of Bacterial (Serratia marcescens) Attachment to, Migration along, and Killing of Fungal Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Tal; Maya, Tal; Ron, Sapir; Sandovsky, Hani; Shadkchan, Yana; Kijner, Nitzan; Mitiagin, Yulia; Fichtman, Boris; Harel, Amnon; Shanks, Robert M Q; Bruna, Roberto E; García-Véscovi, Eleonora; Osherov, Nir

    2016-05-01

    We have found a remarkable capacity for the ubiquitous Gram-negative rod bacterium Serratia marcescens to migrate along and kill the mycelia of zygomycete molds. This migration was restricted to zygomycete molds and several basidiomycete species. No migration was seen on any molds of the phylum Ascomycota. S. marcescens migration did not require fungal viability or surrounding growth medium, as bacteria migrated along aerial hyphae as well.S. marcescens did not exhibit growth tropism toward zygomycete mycelium. Bacterial migration along hyphae proceeded only when the hyphae grew into the bacterial colony. S. marcescens cells initially migrated along the hyphae, forming attached microcolonies that grew and coalesced to generate a biofilm that covered and killed the mycelium. Flagellum-defective strains of S. marcescens were able to migrate along zygomycete hyphae, although they were significantly slower than the wild-type strain and were delayed in fungal killing. Bacterial attachment to the mycelium does not necessitate type 1 fimbrial adhesion, since mutants defective in this adhesin migrated equally well as or faster than the wild-type strain. Killing does not depend on the secretion of S. marcescens chitinases, as mutants in which all three chitinase genes were deleted retained wild-type killing abilities. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which S. marcescens binds to, spreads on, and kills fungal hyphae might serve as an excellent model system for such interactions in general; fungal killing could be employed in agricultural fungal biocontrol. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Soil fungal:bacterial ratios are linked to altered carbon cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish A. Malik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite several lines of observational evidence, there is a lack of consensus on whether higher fungal:bacterial (F:B ratios directly cause higher soil carbon (C storage. We employed RNA sequencing, protein profiling and isotope tracer techniques to evaluate whether differing F:B ratios are associated with differences in C storage. A mesocosm 13C labeled foliar litter decomposition experiment was performed in two soils that were similar in their physico-chemical properties but differed in microbial community structure, specifically their F:B ratio (determined by PLFA analyses, RNA sequencing and protein profiling; all three corroborating each other. Following litter addition, we observed a consistent increase in abundance of fungal phyla; and greater increases in the fungal dominated soil; implicating the role of fungi in litter decomposition. Litter derived 13C in respired CO2 was consistently lower, and residual 13C in bulk SOM was higher in high F:B soil demonstrating greater C storage potential in the fungal:bacterial dominated soil. We conclude that in this soil system, the increased abundance of fungi in both soils and the altered C cycling patterns in the fungal:bacterial dominated soils highlight the significant role of fungi in litter decomposition and indicate that F:B ratios are linked to higher C storage potential.

  7. Bacterial and fungal flora in healthy eyes of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, C; Carrier, M; Higgins, R

    1994-01-01

    Birds of prey are often affected with external ocular injuries that are routinely treated with antimicrobial agents used for small animals. The resident ocular bacterial and fungal flora is still unknown in birds of prey and this knowledge would be very useful in assessing the accuracy of treatments. In a study involving 65 raptors with healthy eyes, swabs were taken from both eyes to identify the resident bacterial and fungal flora. Fifty-five birds had a positive culture in one or both eyes. Both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were isolated, with a predominance of Staphylococcus spp., which were found in 52.3% of cultures. Only two fungal species, Aspergillus spp. and Cladosporium spp. were found. The overall results of this study are similar to previous studies carried out in humans and other animals. PMID:7866959

  8. Molecular diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in the marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarini, Michel R Z; Miqueletto, Paula B; de Oliveira, Valéria M; Sette, Lara D

    2015-02-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the diversity of bacteria and filamentous fungi of southern Atlantic Ocean marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum using cultivation-independent approaches. Fungal ITS rDNA and 18S gene analyses (DGGE and direct sequencing approaches) showed the presence of representatives of three order (Polyporales, Malasseziales, and Agaricales) from the phylum Basidiomycota and seven orders belonging to the phylum Ascomycota (Arthoniales, Capnodiales, Dothideales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Pleosporales, and Saccharomycetales). On the other hand, bacterial 16S rDNA gene analyses by direct sequencing approach revealed the presence of representatives of seven bacterial phyla (Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Lentisphaerae, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes). Results from statistical analyses (rarefaction curves) suggested that the sampled clones covered the fungal diversity in the sponge samples studied, while for the bacterial community additional sampling would be necessary for saturation. This is the first report related to the molecular analyses of fungal and bacterial communities by cultivation-independent approaches in the marine sponges D. reticulatum. Additionally, the present work broadening the knowledge of microbial diversity associated to marine sponges and reports innovative data on the presence of some fungal genera in marine samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Impact of Bacterial-Fungal Interactions on the Colonization of the Endosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Saikkonen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Research on different endophyte taxa and the related scientific disciplines have largely developed separately, and comprehensive community-level studies on bacterial and fungal interactions and their importance are lacking. Here, we discuss the transmission modes of bacteria and fungi and the

  10. Potential of combined fungal and bacterial treatment for color removal in textile wastewater

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Čeněk; Svobodová, Kateřina; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Heissenberger, A.; Fuchs, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 2 (2011), s. 879-888 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00200901; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Textile wastewater treatment * Fungal trickling filter * Mixed bacterial community Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.980, year: 2011

  11. The effect of nitrogen on disease development and gene expression in bacterial and fungal plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeijers, S.S.; Pérez-García, A.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    Successful colonisation of plants by pathogens requires efficient utilisation of nutrient resources available in host tissues. Several bacterial and fungal genes are specifically induced during pathogenesis and under nitrogen-limiting conditions in vitro. This suggests that a nitrogen-limiting

  12. Nitrogen fertilization decreases forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass in three long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Wallenstein; Steven McNulty; Ivan J. Fernandez; Johnny Boggs; William H. Schlesinger

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of N fertilization on forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass at three long-term experiments in New England (Harvard Forest, MA; Mt. Ascutney, VT; Bear Brook, ME). At Harvard Forest, chronic N fertilization has decreased organic soil microbial biomass C (MBC) by an average of 54% and substrate induced respiration (SIR) was decreased by an...

  13. Fungal parasites of algae in the waters of North-Eastern Poland with reference to the enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In tnę present work the results of investigations of the fungal parasites of algae in various types of water bodies (slough, ponds. lakes and river in North-Eastern Poland with reference to the chemical environment are presented.

  14. Dynamic environments of fungus-farming termite mounds exert growth-modulating effects on fungal crop parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katariya, Lakshya; Ramesh, Priya B; Borges, Renee M

    2017-12-13

    This study investigated for the first time the impact of the internal mound environment of fungus-growing termites on the growth of fungal crop parasites. Mounds of the termite Odontotermes obesus acted as (i) temperature and relative humidity (RH) 'stabilisers' showing dampened daily variation and (ii) 'extreme environments' exhibiting elevated RH and CO 2 levels, compared to the outside. Yet, internal temperatures exhibited seasonal dynamics as did daily and seasonal CO 2 levels. During in situ experiments under termite-excluded conditions within the mound, the growth of the crop parasite Pseudoxylaria was greater inside than outside the mound, i.e., Pseudoxylaria is 'termitariophilic'. Also, ex situ experiments on parasite isolates differing in growth rates and examined under controlled conditions in the absence of termites revealed a variable effect with fungal growth decreasing only under high CO 2 and low temperature conditions, reflecting the in situ parasite growth fluctuations. In essence, the parasite appears to be adapted to survive in the termite mound. Thus the mound microclimate does not inhibit the parasite but the dynamic environmental conditions of the mound affect its growth to varying extents. These results shed light on the impact of animal-engineered structures on parasite ecology, independent of any direct role of animal engineers. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Microbial small talk: volatiles in fungal-bacterial interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Ruth; Etalo, D.N.; de Jager, V.C.L.; Gerards, S.; Zweers, H.; De Boer, W.; Garbeva, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in the interactions between fungi and bacteria, two major groups of soil inhabiting microorganisms. Yet, most of the research has been focused on effects of bacterial volatiles on suppression of plant

  16. Plant growth-promoting activities for bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plant of Teucrium polium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Saad El-Din

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal endophytes are widespread inhabitants inside plant tissues and have been shown to assist plant growth and health. However, little is known about plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) of medicinal plants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify bacterial and fungal endophytes of Teucrium polium and to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of these endophytes. Seven bacterial endophytes were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillu...

  17. Development of a chemically defined medium for studying foodborne bacterial-fungal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Honoré, Anders Hans; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest for using natural preservatives in the food and dairy industries including the application of bacterial cultures to inhibit fungal spoilage. Several antifungal metabolites from bacteria have been identified, but their relative importance has been difficult to establish....... In dynamic systems such as fermented milk products, the complexity of the food matrix affects detection, identification and quantification of antifungal metabolites, and thereby the understanding of the bacterial-fungal interactions. To ease the identification and quantification of bacterial metabolites (as...... judged by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry) a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) was developed. The medium supported growth of antifungal cultures such as Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium freudenreichii, as well as spoilage moulds and yeasts isolated from...

  18. Evaluation of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides as Topical Anti-Infectives with Broad-Spectrum Activity against Combat-Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    succeeded in developing resistance to a variety of AMPs. 2. Keywords Antimicrobial, peptides, anti-fungal, wounds, burns, bacterial resistance ...against Combat- Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Louis Edward Clemens Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Riptide...Anti-Infectives with Broad- Spectrum Activity against Combat-Related Bacterial and Fungal Wound Infections 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  19. Mate Limitation in Fungal Plant Parasites Can Lead to Cyclic Epidemics in Perennial Host Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravigné, Virginie; Lemesle, Valérie; Walter, Alicia; Mailleret, Ludovic; Hamelin, Frédéric M

    2017-03-01

    Fungal plant parasites represent a growing concern for biodiversity and food security. Most ascomycete species are capable of producing different types of infectious spores both asexually and sexually. Yet the contributions of both types of spores to epidemiological dynamics have still to been fully researched. Here we studied the effect of mate limitation in parasites which perform both sexual and asexual reproduction in the same host. Since mate limitation implies positive density dependence at low population density, we modeled the dynamics of such species with both density-dependent (sexual) and density-independent (asexual) transmission rates. A first simple SIR model incorporating these two types of transmission from the infected compartment, suggested that combining sexual and asexual spore production can generate persistently cyclic epidemics in a significant part of the parameter space. It was then confirmed that cyclic persistence could occur in realistic situations by parameterizing a more detailed model fitting the biology of the Black Sigatoka disease of banana, for which literature data are available. We discuss the implications of these results for research on and management of Sigatoka diseases of banana.

  20. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by fungi, fungal and bacterial laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulčnik, A; Kralj Cigić, I; Pohleven, F

    2013-12-01

    The ability of two white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) to degrade two organochlorine insecticides, lindane and endosulfan, in liquid cultures was studied and dead fungal biomass was examined for adsorption of both insecticides from liquid medium. Lindane and endosulfan were also treated with fungal laccase and bacterial protein CotA, which has laccase activities. The amount of degraded lindane and endosulfan increased with their exposure period in the liquid cultures of both examined white-rot fungi. Endosulfan was transformed to endosulfan sulphate by T. versicolor and P. ostreatus. A small amount of endosulfan ether was also detected and its origin was examined. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by a brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. Mycelial biomasses of all examined fungi have been found to adsorb lindane and endosulfan and adsorption onto fungal biomass should therefore be considered as a possible mechanism of pollutant removal when fungal degradation potentials are studied. Bacterial protein CotA performed more efficient degradation of lindane and endosulfan than fungal laccase and has shown potential for bioremediation of organic pollutants.

  1. The effect of silver nanoparticles on seasonal change in arctic tundra bacterial and fungal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Palmer, Gerald R; Shah, Vishal; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-01-01

    The impact of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) on bacterial and fungal assemblages was studied in soils collected from a low arctic site. Two different concentrations (0.066% and 6.6%) of Ag NPs and Ag MPs were tested in microcosms that were exposed to temperatures mimicking a winter to summer transition. Toxicity was monitored by differential respiration, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. Notwithstanding the effect of Ag MPs, nanosilver had an obvious, additional impact on the microbial community, underscoring the importance of particle size in toxicity. This impact was evidenced by levels of differential respiration in 0.066% Ag NP-treated soil that were only half that of control soils, a decrease in signature bacterial fatty acids, and changes in both richness and evenness in bacterial and fungal DNA sequence assemblages. Prominent after Ag NP-treatment were Hypocreales fungi, which increased to 70%, from only 1% of fungal sequences under control conditions. Genera within this Order known for their antioxidant properties (Cordyceps/Isaria) dominated the fungal assemblage after NP addition. In contrast, sequences attributed to the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobiales bacteria appeared vulnerable to Ag NP-mediated toxicity. This combination of physiological, biochemical and molecular studies clearly demonstrate that Ag NPs can severely disrupt the natural seasonal progression of tundra assemblages.

  2. Indoor Fungal and Bacterial Contaminations on Household Environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Suaad S

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)

  3. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Margot, Jonas; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Maillard, Julien; Blánquez, Paqui; Barry, David Andrew; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes vers...

  4. Synthesis, Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Fungal Evaluation of Pyrazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin D. Panchal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Series of N-(5-(Substituted phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine compounds were prepared by reaction of 4-amino-1,2,4-Triazole with Acetyl Chloride followed by different aromatic aldehydes and cyclization with hydrazine hydrate. The structures of new compounds were confirmed by IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. Anti-bacterial and Anti-fungal activities were evaluated and compared with the standard drugs, some compounds of the series exhibited promising anti-microbial and anti-fungal activity compared to standard drugs.

  5. Evaluation of Bacterial and Parasitic Load of Clarias species from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitic examination of the fishes revealed the presence of: Entamoeba sp, Trichodina sp, Ichthiopthrius sp, Gyrodactylus sp, and Neobenedenia melleni. Entamoeba sp (84.0%) was the most prevalent parasite encountered while the least was Gyrodactylus species and Neobenedenia species (4.0%) respectively.

  6. Water Bacterial and Fungal Community Compositions Associated with Urban Lakes, Xi’an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban lakes play a vital role in the sustainable development of urbanized areas. In this freshwater ecosystem, massive microbial communities can drive the recycling of nutrients and regulate the water quality. However, water bacterial and fungal communities in the urban lakes are not well understood. In the present work, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPPs and Illumina Miseq sequence techniques to determine the diversity and composition of the water bacterial and fungal community in three urban lakes, namely Xingqing lake (LX, Geming lake (LG and Lianhu lake (LL, located in Xi’an City (Shaanxi Province, China. The results showed that these three lakes were eutrophic water bodies. The highest total nitrogen (TN was observed in LL, with a value of 12.1 mg/L, which is 2 times higher than that of LG. The permanganate index (CODMn concentrations were 21.6 mg/L, 35.4 mg/L and 28.8 mg/L in LG, LL and LX, respectively (p < 0.01. Based on the CLPPs test, the results demonstrated that water bacterial communities in the LL and LX urban lakes had higher carbon source utilization ability. A total of 62,742 and 55,346 high quality reads were grouped into 894 and 305 operational taxonomic units (OTUs for bacterial and fungal communities, respectively. Water bacterial and fungal community was distributed across 14 and 6 phyla. The most common phyla were Proteobacteriaand Cyanobacteria. Cryptomycota was particularly dominant in LL, while Chytridiomycota and Entomophthormycota were the most abundant fungal phyla, accounting for 95% of the population in the LL and 56% in the LG. Heat map and redundancy analysis (RDA highlighted the dramatic differences of water bacterial communities among three urban lakes. Meanwhile, the profiles of fungal communities were significantly correlated with the water quality parameters (e.g., CODMn and total nitrogen, TN. Several microbes (Legionella sp. and Streptococcus

  7. Caterpillars and fungal pathogens: two co-occurring parasites of an ant-plant mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Roux

    Full Text Available In mutualisms, each interacting species obtains resources from its partner that it would obtain less efficiently if alone, and so derives a net fitness benefit. In exchange for shelter (domatia and food, mutualistic plant-ants protect their host myrmecophytes from herbivores, encroaching vines and fungal pathogens. Although selective filters enable myrmecophytes to host those ant species most favorable to their fitness, some insects can by-pass these filters, exploiting the rewards supplied whilst providing nothing in return. This is the case in French Guiana for Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae as Pseudocabima guianalis caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae can colonize saplings before the installation of their mutualistic Azteca ants. The caterpillars shelter in the domatia and feed on food bodies (FBs whose production increases as a result. They delay colonization by ants by weaving a silk shield above the youngest trichilium, where the FBs are produced, blocking access to them. This probable temporal priority effect also allows female moths to lay new eggs on trees that already shelter caterpillars, and so to occupy the niche longer and exploit Cecropia resources before colonization by ants. However, once incipient ant colonies are able to develop, they prevent further colonization by the caterpillars. Although no higher herbivory rates were noted, these caterpillars are ineffective in protecting their host trees from a pathogenic fungus, Fusarium moniliforme (Deuteromycetes, that develops on the trichilium in the absence of mutualistic ants. Therefore, the Cecropia treelets can be parasitized by two often overlooked species: the caterpillars that shelter in the domatia and feed on FBs, delaying colonization by mutualistic ants, and the fungal pathogen that develops on old trichilia. The cost of greater FB production plus the presence of the pathogenic fungus likely affect tree growth.

  8. Genetic engineering for increasing fungal and bacterial disease resistance in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wally, Owen; Punja, Zamir K

    2010-01-01

    We review the current and future potential of genetic engineering strategies used to make fungal and bacterial pathogen-resistant GM crops, illustrating different examples of the technologies and the potential benefits and short-falls of the strategies. There are well- established procedures for the production of transgenic plants with resistance towards these pathogens and considerable progress has been made using a range of new methodologies. There are no current commercially available transgenic plant species with increased resistance towards fungal and bacterial pathogens; only plants with increased resistance towards viruses are available. With an improved understanding of plant signaling pathways in response to a range of other pathogens, such as fungi, additional candidate genes for achieving resistance are being investigated. The potential for engineering plants for resistance against individual devastating diseases or for plants with resistance towards multiple pathogens is discussed in detail.

  9. Ozone killing action against bacterial and fungal species; microbiological testing of a domestic ozone generator.

    OpenAIRE

    Dyas, A; Boughton, B J; Das, B C

    1983-01-01

    The action of ozone generated from a small domestic device was examined with a view to using it in clinical isolation units accommodating immunosuppressed patients. Over a six-hour period in an average size room the device did not generate sufficient ozone to suppress bacterial and fungal growth. A useful bactericidal action, against a variety of human pathogens was achieved with ozone concentrations between 0.3 to 0.9 ppm. Bactericidal ozone concentrations are close to the limit permitted fo...

  10. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R; Bates, Scott T; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  11. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Neher

    Full Text Available Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here

  12. Species-specific ant brain manipulation by a specialized fungal parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Quevillon, Lauren E; Smith, Philip B; Fleming, Kimberly R; Ghosh, Debashis; Patterson, Andrew D; Hughes, David P

    2014-08-29

    A compelling demonstration of adaptation by natural selection is the ability of parasites to manipulate host behavior. One dramatic example involves fungal species from the genus Ophiocordyceps that control their ant hosts by inducing a biting behavior. Intensive sampling across the globe of ants that died after being manipulated by Ophiocordyceps suggests that this phenomenon is highly species-specific. We advance our understanding of this system by reconstructing host manipulation by Ophiocordyceps parasites under controlled laboratory conditions and combining this with field observations of infection rates and a metabolomics survey. We report on a newly discovered species of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato from North America that we use to address the species-specificity of Ophiocordyceps-induced manipulation of ant behavior. We show that the fungus can kill all ant species tested, but only manipulates the behavior of those it infects in nature. To investigate if this could be explained at the molecular level, we used ex vivo culturing assays to measure the metabolites that are secreted by the fungus to mediate fungus-ant tissue interactions. We show the fungus reacts heterogeneously to brains of different ant species by secreting a different array of metabolites. By determining which ion peaks are significantly enriched when the fungus is grown alongside brains of its naturally occurring host, we discovered candidate compounds that could be involved in behavioral manipulation by O. unilateralis s.l.. Two of these candidates are known to be involved in neurological diseases and cancer. The integrative work presented here shows that ant brain manipulation by O. unilateralis s.l. is species-specific seemingly because the fungus produces a specific array of compounds as a reaction to the presence of the host brain it has evolved to manipulate. These studies have resulted in the discovery of candidate compounds involved in establishing behavioral manipulation

  13. Dandruff is associated with disequilibrium in the proportion of the major bacterial and fungal populations colonizing the scalp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Clavaud

    Full Text Available The bacterial and fungal communities associated with dandruff were investigated using culture-independent methodologies in the French subjects. The major bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the scalp subject's were identified by cloning and sequencing of the conserved ribosomal unit regions (16S for bacterial and 28S-ITS for fungal and were further quantified by quantitative PCR. The two main bacterial species found on the scalp surface were Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while Malassezia restricta was the main fungal inhabitant. Dandruff was correlated with a higher incidence of M. restricta and S. epidermidis and a lower incidence of P. acnes compared to the control population (p<0.05. These results suggested for the first time using molecular methods, that dandruff is linked to the balance between bacteria and fungi of the host scalp surface.

  14. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jonas; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Maillard, Julien; Blánquez, Paqui; Barry, David A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-10-24

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step.

  15. Diversity of endophytic fungal and bacterial communities in Ilex paraguariensis grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Laura; Collavino, Mónica Mariana; Sansberro, Pedro Alfonso; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Galdeano, Ernestina

    2016-04-01

    The composition and diversity of the endophytic community associated with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) was investigated using culture-depending methods. Fungi were identified based on their micromorphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis; for bacteria 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used. Fungal and bacterial diversity did not show significant differences between organ age. The highest fungal diversity was registered during fall season and the lowest in winter. Bacterial diversity was higher in stems and increased from summer to winter, in contrast with leaves, which decreased. The most frequently isolated fungus was Fusarium, followed by Colletotrichum; they were both present in all the sampling seasons and organ types assayed. Actinobacteria represented 57.5 % of all bacterial isolates. The most dominant bacterial taxa were Curtobacterium and Microbacterium. Other bacteria frequently found were Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Herbiconiux and Bacillus. Nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization activity, ACC deaminase production and antagonism against plant fungal pathogens were assayed in endophytic bacterial strains. In the case of fungi, strains of Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus were assayed for antagonism against pathogenic Fusarium sp. All microbial isolates assayed showed at least one growth promoting activity. Strains of Bacillus, Pantoea, Curtobacterium, Methylobacterium, Brevundimonas and Paenibacillus had at least two growth-promoting activities, and Bacillus, Paenibacillus and the three endophytic fungi showed high antagonistic activity against Fusarium sp. In this work we have made a wide study of the culturable endophytic community within yerba mate plants and found that several microbial isolates could be considered as potential inoculants useful for improving yerba mate production.

  16. Plant domestication and the assembly of bacterial and fungal communities associated with strains of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Jonathan W; Lynch, Ryan C; Kane, Nolan C; Fierer, Noah

    2017-04-01

    Root and rhizosphere microbial communities can affect plant health, but it remains undetermined how plant domestication may influence these bacterial and fungal communities. We grew 33 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) strains (n = 5) that varied in their extent of domestication and assessed rhizosphere and root endosphere bacterial and fungal communities. We also assessed fungal communities in the sunflower seeds to investigate the degree to which root and rhizosphere communities were influenced by vertical transmission of the microbiome through seeds. Neither root nor rhizosphere bacterial communities were affected by the extent of sunflower domestication, but domestication did affect the composition of rhizosphere fungal communities. In particular, more modern sunflower strains had lower relative abundances of putative fungal pathogens. Seed-associated fungal communities strongly differed across strains, but several lines of evidence suggest that there is minimal vertical transmission of fungi from seeds to the adult plants. Our results indicate that plant-associated fungal communities are more strongly influenced by host genetic factors and plant breeding than bacterial communities, a finding that could influence strategies for optimizing microbial communities to improve crop yields. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Dysbiotic bacterial and fungal communities not restricted to clinically affected skin sites in dandruff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Cardoso Soares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dandruff is a prevalent chronic inflammatory skin condition of the scalp that has been associated with Malassezia yeasts. However, the microbial role has not been elucidated yet, and the etiology of the disorder remains poorly understood. Using high-throughput 16S rDNA and ITS1 sequencing, we characterized cutaneous bacterial and fungal microbiotas from healthy and dandruff subjects, comparing scalp and forehead (lesional and non-lesional skin sites. Bacterial and fungal communities from dandruff analyzed at genus level differed in comparison with healthy ones, presenting higher diversity and greater intragroup variation. The microbial shift was observed also in non-lesional sites from dandruff subjects, suggesting that dandruff is related to a systemic process that is not restricted to the site exhibiting clinical symptoms. In contrast, Malassezia microbiota analyzed at species level did not differ according to health status. A 2-step OTU assignment using combined databases substantially increased fungal assigned sequences, and revealed the presence of highly prevalent uncharacterized Malassezia organisms (>37% of the reads. Although clinical symptoms of dandruff manifest locally, microbial dysbiosis beyond clinically affected skin sites suggests that subjects undergo systemic alterations, which could be considered for redefining therapeutic approaches.

  18. Fungal and bacterial growth in floor dust at elevated relative humidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, K C; Weschler, C J; Peccia, J

    2017-03-01

    Under sustained, elevated building moisture conditions, bacterial and fungal growth occurs. The goal of this study was to characterize microbial growth in floor dust at variable equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) levels. Floor dust from one home was embedded in coupons cut from a worn medium-pile nylon carpet and incubated at 50%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, and 100% ERH levels. Quantitative PCR and DNA sequencing of ribosomal DNA for bacteria and fungi were used to quantify growth and community shifts. Over a 1-wk period, fungal growth occurred above 80% ERH. Growth rates at 85% and 100% ERH were 1.1 × 10 4 and 1.5 × 10 5 spore equivalents d -1 mg dust -1 , respectively. Bacterial growth occurred only at 100% ERH after 1 wk (9.0 × 10 4 genomes d -1 mg dust -1 ). Growth resulted in significant changes in fungal (Pbacterial community structure (Pbacterial species that were attributable to elevated ERH. Resuspension modeling indicated that more than 50% of airborne microbes could originate from the resuspension of fungi grown at ERH levels of 85% and above. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinshan; Wang, Wei; Hu, Jianqing; Xie, Denghui; Gerhard, Ethan; Nisic, Merisa; Shan, Dingying; Qian, Guoying; Zheng, Siyang; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections in the use of surgical devices and medical implants remain a major concern. Traditional bioadhesives fail to incorporate anti-microbial properties, necessitating additional anti-microbial drug injection. Herein, by the introduction of the clinically used and inexpensive anti-fungal agent, 10-undecylenic acid (UA), into our recently developed injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives (iCMBAs), a new family of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal iCMBAs (AbAf iCs) was developed. AbAf iCs not only showed strong wet tissue adhesion strength, but also exhibited excellent in vitro cyto-compatibility, fast degradation, and strong initial and considerable long-term anti-bacterial and anti-fungal ability. For the first time, the biocompatibility and anti-microbial ability of sodium metaperiodate (PI), an oxidant used as a cross-linking initiator in the AbAf iCs system, was also thoroughly investigated. Our results suggest that the PI-based bioadhesives showed better anti-microbial properties compared to the unstable silver-based bioadhesive materials. In conclusion, AbAf iCs family can serve as excellent anti-bacterial and anti-fungal bioadhesive candidates for tissue/wound closure, wound dressing, and bone regeneration, especially when bacterial or fungal infections are a major concern. PMID:26874283

  20. Bacterial and fungal chitinase chiJ orthologs evolve under different selective constraints following horizontal gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubhayasekera Wimal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain bacteria from the genus Streptomyces are currently used as biological control agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Hydrolytic enzymes that degrade fungal cell wall components, such as chitinases, are suggested as one possible mechanism in biocontrol interactions. Adaptive evolution of chitinases are previously reported for plant chitinases involved in defence against fungal pathogens, and in fungal chitinases involved in fungal-fungal interactions. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of chitinase chiJ in the bacterial genus Streptomyces. In addition, as chiJ orthologs are previously reported in certain fungal species as a result from horizontal gene transfer, we conducted a comparative study of differences in evolutionary patterns between bacterial and fungal taxa. Findings ChiJ contained three sites evolving under strong positive selection and four groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid diversity were predicted to be surface-exposed and associated with coil regions that connect certain α-helices and β-strands in the family 18 chitinase TIM barrel structure, but not associated with the catalytic cleft. The comparative study with fungal ChiJ orthologs identified three regions that display signs of type 1 functional divergence, where unique adaptations in the bacterial and fungal taxa are driven by positive selection. Conclusions The identified surface-exposed regions of chitinase ChiJ where sequence diversification is driven by positive selection may putatively be related to functional divergence between bacterial and fungal orthologs. These results show that ChiJ orthologs have evolved under different selective constraints following the horizontal gene transfer event.

  1. Cophylogeny and biogeography of the fungal parasite Cyttaria and its host Nothofagus, southern beech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristin R; Pfister, Donald H; Bell, Charles D

    2010-01-01

    The obligate, biotrophic association among species of the fungal genus Cyttaria and their hosts in the plant genus Nothofagus often is cited as a classic example of cophylogeny and is one of the few cases in which the biogeography of a fungus is commonly mentioned or included in biogeographic analyses. In this study molecular and morphological data are used to examine hypotheses regarding the cophylogeny and biogeography of the 12 species of Cyttaria and their hosts, the 11 species of Nothofagus subgenera Lophozonia and Nothofagus. Our results indicate highly significant overall cophylogenetic structure, despite the fact that the associations between species of Cyttaria and Nothofagus usually do not correspond in a simple one to one relationship. Two major lineages of Cyttaria are confined to a single Nothofagus subgenus, a specificity that might account for a minimum of two codivergences. We hypothesize other major codivergences. Numerous extinction also are assumed, as are an independent parasite divergence followed by host switching to account for C. berteroi. Considering the historical association of Cyttaria and Nothofagus, our hypothesis may support the vicariance hypothesis for the trans-Antarctic distribution between Australasian and South American species of Cyttaria species hosted by subgenus Lophozonia. It also supports the hypothesis of transoceanic long distance dispersal to account for the relatively recent relationship between Australian and New Zealand Cyttaria species, which we estimate to have occurred 44.6-28.5 mya. Thus the history of these organisms is not only a reflection of the breakup of Gondwana but also of other events that have contributed to the distributions of many other southern hemisphere plants and fungi.

  2. Light structures phototroph, bacterial and fungal communities at the soil surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence O Davies

    Full Text Available The upper few millimeters of soil harbour photosynthetic microbial communities that are structurally distinct from those of underlying bulk soil due to the presence of light. Previous studies in arid zones have demonstrated functional importance of these communities in reducing soil erosion, and enhancing carbon and nitrogen fixation. Despite being widely distributed, comparative understanding of the biodiversity of the soil surface and underlying soil is lacking, particularly in temperate zones. We investigated the establishment of soil surface communities on pasture soil in microcosms exposed to light or dark conditions, focusing on changes in phototroph, bacterial and fungal communities at the soil surface (0-3 mm and bulk soil (3-12 mm using ribosomal marker gene analyses. Microbial community structure changed with time and structurally similar phototrophic communities were found at the soil surface and in bulk soil in the light exposed microcosms suggesting that light can influence phototroph community structure even in the underlying bulk soil. 454 pyrosequencing showed a significant selection for diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Nostoc punctiforme and Anabaena spp., in addition to the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The soil surface also harboured distinct heterotrophic bacterial and fungal communities in the presence of light, in particular, the selection for the phylum Firmicutes. However, these light driven changes in bacterial community structure did not extend to the underlying soil suggesting a discrete zone of influence, analogous to the rhizosphere.

  3. Current advances in aptamer-assisted technologies for detecting bacterial and fungal toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, N; Memar, M Y; Mehramuz, B; Abibiglou, S S; Hemmati, F; Samadi Kafil, H

    2018-03-01

    Infectious diseases are among the common leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Associated with the emergence of new infectious diseases, the increasing number of antimicrobial-resistant isolates presents a serious threat to public health and hospitalized patients. A microbial pathogen may elicit several host responses and use a variety of mechanisms to evade host defences. These methods and mechanisms include capsule, lipopolysaccharides or cell wall components, adhesions and toxins. Toxins inhibit phagocytosis, cause septic shock and host cell damages by binding to host surface receptors and invasion. Bacterial and fungal pathogens are able to apply many different toxin-dependent mechanisms to disturb signalling pathways and the structural integrity of host cells for establishing and maintaining infections Initial techniques for analysis of bacterial toxins were based on in vivo or in vitro assessments. There is a permanent demand for appropriate detection methods which are affordable, practical, careful, rapid, sensitive, efficient and economical. Aptamers are DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are selected by systematic evolution of ligands using exponential enrichment (SELEX) methods and can be applied in diagnostic applications. This review provides an overview of aptamer-based methods as a novel approach for detecting toxins in bacterial and fungal pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Colonization on Plastic Debris in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tender, Caroline; Devriese, Lisa I; Haegeman, Annelies; Maes, Sara; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Cattrijsse, André; Dawyndt, Peter; Ruttink, Tom

    2017-07-05

    Despite growing evidence that biofilm formation on plastic debris in the marine environment may be essential for its biodegradation, the underlying processes have yet to be fully understood. Thus, far, bacterial biofilm formation had only been studied after short-term exposure or on floating plastic, yet a prominent share of plastic litter accumulates on the seafloor. In this study, we explored the taxonomic composition of bacterial and fungal communities on polyethylene plastic sheets and dolly ropes during long-term exposure on the seafloor, both at a harbor and an offshore location in the Belgian part of the North Sea. We reconstructed the sequence of events during biofilm formation on plastic in the harbor environment and identified a core bacteriome and subsets of bacterial indicator species for early, intermediate, and late stages of biofilm formation. Additionally, by implementing ITS2 metabarcoding on plastic debris, we identified and characterized for the first time fungal genera on plastic debris. Surprisingly, none of the plastics exposed to offshore conditions displayed the typical signature of a late stage biofilm, suggesting that biofilm formation is severely hampered in the natural environment where most plastic debris accumulates.

  5. Water Bacterial and Fungal Community Compositions Associated with Urban Lakes, Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihan; Wang, Yue; Chen, Shengnan; Zhao, Zhenfang; Feng, Ji; Zhang, Zhonghui; Lu, Kuanyu; Jia, Jingyu

    2018-03-07

    Urban lakes play a vital role in the sustainable development of urbanized areas. In this freshwater ecosystem, massive microbial communities can drive the recycling of nutrients and regulate the water quality. However, water bacterial and fungal communities in the urban lakes are not well understood. In the present work, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) and Illumina Miseq sequence techniques to determine the diversity and composition of the water bacterial and fungal community in three urban lakes, namely Xingqing lake (LX), Geming lake (LG) and Lianhu lake (LL), located in Xi'an City (Shaanxi Province, China). The results showed that these three lakes were eutrophic water bodies. The highest total nitrogen (TN) was observed in LL, with a value of 12.1 mg/L, which is 2 times higher than that of LG. The permanganate index (COD Mn ) concentrations were 21.6 mg/L, 35.4 mg/L and 28.8 mg/L in LG, LL and LX, respectively ( p accounting for 95% of the population in the LL and 56% in the LG. Heat map and redundancy analysis (RDA) highlighted the dramatic differences of water bacterial communities among three urban lakes. Meanwhile, the profiles of fungal communities were significantly correlated with the water quality parameters (e.g., COD Mn and total nitrogen, TN). Several microbes ( Legionella sp. and Streptococcus sp.) related to human diseases, such as infectious diseases, were also found. The results from this study provides useful information related to the water quality and microbial community compositions harbored in the aquatic ecosystems of urban lakes.

  6. Imaging of Bacterial and Fungal Cells Using Fluorescent Carbon Dots Prepared from Carica papaya Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasibabu, Betha Saineelima B; D'souza, Stephanie L; Jha, Sanjay; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we have described a simple hydrothermal method for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) using Carica papaya juice as a precursor. The synthesized C-dots show emission peak at 461 nm with a quantum yield of 7.0 %. The biocompatible nature of C-dots was confirmed by a cytotoxicity assay on E. coli. The C-dots were used as fluorescent probes for imaging of bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) and fungal (Aspergillus aculeatus) cells and emitted green and red colors under different excitation wavelengths, which indicates that the C-dots can be used as a promising material for cell imaging.

  7. Ozone killing action against bacterial and fungal species; microbiological testing of a domestic ozone generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, A; Boughton, B J; Das, B C

    1983-10-01

    The action of ozone generated from a small domestic device was examined with a view to using it in clinical isolation units accommodating immunosuppressed patients. Over a six-hour period in an average size room the device did not generate sufficient ozone to suppress bacterial and fungal growth. A useful bactericidal action, against a variety of human pathogens was achieved with ozone concentrations between 0.3 to 0.9 ppm. Bactericidal ozone concentrations are close to the limit permitted for human exposure however and further experiments are indicated.

  8. Plectasin, a Fungal Defensin, Targets the Bacterial Cell Wall Precursor Lipid II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Tanja; Kruse, Thomas; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Host defense peptides such as defensins are components of innate immunity and have retained antibiotic activity throughout evolution. Their activity is thought to be due to amphipathic structures, which enable binding and disruption of microbial cytoplasmic membranes. Contrary to this, we show...... that plectasin, a fungal defensin, acts by directly binding the bacterial cell-wall precursor Lipid II. A wide range of genetic and biochemical approaches identify cell-wall biosynthesis as the pathway targeted by plectasin. In vitro assays for cell-wall synthesis identified Lipid II as the specific cellular...

  9. Fungal parasites infect marine diatoms in the upwelling ecosystem of the Humboldt current system off central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Jara, Ana M; Pantoja, Silvio

    2016-05-01

    This is the first report of fungal parasitism of diatoms in a highly productive coastal upwelling ecosystem, based on a year-round time series of diatom and parasitic Chytridiomycota abundance in the Humboldt Current System off Chile (36°30.80'S-73°07.70'W). Our results show co-variation in the presence of Skeletonema, Thalassiosira and Chaetoceros diatoms with attached and detached chytrid sporangia. High abundance of attached sporangia was observed during the austral spring, coinciding with a predominance of Thalassiosira and Skeletonema under active upwelling conditions. Towards the end of austral spring, a decreasing proportion of attached sporangia was accompanied by a decline in abundance of Skeletonema and Thalassiosira and the predominance of Chaetoceros, suggesting specificity and host density dependence of chytrid infection. The new findings on fungal parasitism of diatoms provide further support for the inclusion of Fungi in the current model of the role played by the marine microbial community in the coastal ocean. We propose a conceptual model where Fungi contribute to controlling the dynamics of phytoplankton populations, as well as the release of organic matter and the transfer of organic carbon through the pelagic trophic web in coastal upwelling ecosystems. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Communities during the Outbreak and Decline of an Algal Bloom in a Drinking Water Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihan; Jia, Jingyu; Chen, Shengnan; Huang, Tinglin; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Zhenfang; Feng, Ji; Hao, Huiyan; Li, Sulin; Ma, Xinxin

    2018-02-18

    The microbial communities associated with algal blooms play a pivotal role in organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in freshwater ecosystems. However, there have been few studies focused on unveiling the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities during the outbreak and decline of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs. To address this issue, the compositions of bacterial and fungal communities were assessed in the Zhoucun drinking water reservoir using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing techniques. The results showed the algal bloom was dominated by Synechococcus, Microcystis, and Prochlorothrix. The bloom was characterized by a steady decrease of total phosphorus (TP) from the outbreak to the decline period (p water bacterial and fungal community structure. During the bloom, the dominant bacterial genus were Acinetobacter sp., Limnobacter sp., Synechococcus sp., and Roseomonas sp. The relative size of the fungal community also changed with algal bloom and its composition mainly contained Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Heat map profiling indicated that algal bloom had a more consistent effect upon fungal communities at genus level. Redundancy analysis (RDA) also demonstrated that the structure of water bacterial communities was significantly correlated to conductivity and ammonia nitrogen. Meanwhile, water temperature, Fe and ammonia nitrogen drive the dynamics of water fungal communities. The results from this work suggested that water bacterial and fungal communities changed significantly during the outbreak and decline of algal bloom in Zhoucun drinking water reservoir. Our study highlights the potential role of microbial diversity as a driving force for the algal bloom and biogeochemical cycling of reservoir ecology.

  11. Sequence-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal compositions of multiple kombucha (tea fungus) samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Alan J; O'Sullivan, Orla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    Kombucha is a sweetened tea beverage that, as a consequence of fermentation, contains ethanol, carbon dioxide, a high concentration of acid (gluconic, acetic and lactic) as well as a number of other metabolites and is thought to contain a number of health-promoting components. The sucrose-tea solution is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulosic pellicle, which forms a floating mat in the tea, and generates a new layer with each successful fermentation. The specific identity of the microbial populations present has been the focus of attention but, to date, the majority of studies have relied on culture-based analyses. To gain a more comprehensive insight into the kombucha microbiota we have carried out the first culture-independent, high-throughput sequencing analysis of the bacterial and fungal populations of 5 distinct pellicles as well as the resultant fermented kombucha at two time points. Following the analysis it was established that the major bacterial genus present was Gluconacetobacter, present at >85% in most samples, with only trace populations of Acetobacter detected (kombucha, also being revealed. The yeast populations were found to be dominated by Zygosaccharomyces at >95% in the fermented beverage, with a greater fungal diversity present in the cellulosic pellicle, including numerous species not identified in kombucha previously. Ultimately, this study represents the most accurate description of the microbiology of kombucha to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stacking of antimicrobial genes in potato transgenic plants confers increased resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Mercedes; Furman, Nicolás; Mencacci, Nicolás; Picca, Pablo; Toum, Laila; Lentz, Ezequiel; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Mentaberry, Alejandro

    2012-01-20

    Solanum tuberosum plants were transformed with three genetic constructions expressing the Nicotiana tabacum AP24 osmotine, Phyllomedusa sauvagii dermaseptin and Gallus gallus lysozyme, and with a double-transgene construction expressing the AP24 and lysozyme sequences. Re-transformation of dermaseptin-transformed plants with the AP24/lysozyme construction allowed selection of plants simultaneously expressing the three transgenes. Potato lines expressing individual transgenes or double- and triple-transgene combinations were assayed for resistance to Erwinia carotovora using whole-plant and tuber infection assays. Resistance levels for both infection tests compared consistently for most potato lines and allowed selection of highly resistant phenotypes. Higher resistance levels were found in lines carrying the dermaseptin and lysozyme sequences, indicating that theses proteins are the major contributors to antibacterial activity. Similar results were obtained in tuber infection tests conducted with Streptomyces scabies. Plant lines showing the higher resistance to bacterial infections were challenged with Phytophthora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. Considerable levels of resistance to each of these pathogens were evidenced employing semi-quantitative tests based in detached-leaf inoculation, fungal growth inhibition and in vitro plant inoculation. On the basis of these results, we propose that stacking of these transgenes is a promising approach to achieve resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Disseminated candidiasis secondary to fungal and bacterial peritonitis in a young dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Catherine L; Gibson, Christopher; Mitchell, Susan L; Keating, John H; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2009-04-01

    To describe a severe case of bacterial sepsis and disseminated candidiasis in a previously healthy dog. Fungal sepsis was identified in a 2-year-old dog following intestinal dehiscence 4 days after abdominal surgery. Septic peritonitis was identified at admission and evidence of dehiscence at the previous enterotomy site was found during an exploratory laparotomy. Both gram-positive cocci and Candida albicans were cultured from the abdominal cavity. Candida sp. was also subsequently cultured from a central venous catheter. Euthanasia was performed due to failure to respond to therapy. Fungal organisms, morphologically consistent with Candida spp., were found in the lungs and kidney on postmortem histopathologic examination indicating disseminated candidiasis. Candida peritonitis is a well-recognized entity in humans and contributes to morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Abdominal surgery, intestinal perforation, presence of central venous catheters, and administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics are all considered to be suspected risk factors. This report describes the first known case of systemic candidiasis occurring secondary to Candida peritonitis and bacterial sepsis in a critically ill dog.

  14. Survey of Bacterial and Fungal Contaminations in Iranian Alginate, Foreign Alginate and Speedex Used for Impression in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Falah Tafti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Since impression materials usually contact with saliva, blood, and oral soft tissues, their microbial contamination are harmful in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial and fungal contamination in common impression materials. Materials and Methods: In current lab trial study, 5 different samples from each 4 impression materials were homogenized in 1 ml Tween 80 and then 100µl of each sample were cultured onto blood agar, EMB, or sabouraud dextrose agar. Bacterial and fungal cultures were incubated at 37º C and 30º C, respectively. The isolated bacterial and fungal colonies were enumerated and identified using specific diagnostic media and tests. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Totally 75% of samples had one or several bacterial contaminations. Iranian alginate and Speedex (putty were the most contaminated samples. On the other hand, Speedex (light body and foreign alginate showed lower contamination. Species of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacilluses, Corynebacteria, gram negative Citrobacter, Actinomycetes and Neisseria were isolated from the analyzed impression materials. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Sepdonium were the fungi isolated from impression materials. Statistical significant difference was shown between bacterial contamination of Iranian and foreign alginates (P=0.001. There was no statistical significant differences between the bacterial and fungal isolated colonies (CFU/gr of 4 tested impression materials (P=0.21. Conclusion: Several opportunistic bacteria and fungi were isolated from impression materials especially from Iranian alginate and Speedex putty which indicated their contamination.

  15. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism and susceptibility to herbivory: Consequences for fungi and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gehring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other’s abundance, diversity and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of mistletoe parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation tree species of the southwestern United States, pinyon pine (Pinus edulis, and described how these changes feed back to affect host plant performance. We found that drought and all three of the biotic interactions studied resulted in similar shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition, demonstrating a convergence of the community towards dominance by a few closely related fungal taxa. Ectomycorrhizal fungi responded similarly to each of these stressors resulting in a predictable trajectory of community disassembly, consistent with ecological theory. Although we predicted that the fungal communities associated with trees stressed by drought, herbivory, competition, and parasitism would be poor mutualists, we found the opposite pattern in field studies. Our results suggest that climate change and the increased importance of herbivores, competitors and parasites that can be associated with it, may ultimately lead to reductions in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but that the remaining fungal community may be beneficial to host trees under the current climate and the warmer, drier climate predicted for the future.

  16. Seasonal variability in bacterial and fungal diversity of the near-surface atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Robert M; Clements, Nicholas; Emerson, Joanne B; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Hannigan, Michael P; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's lower atmosphere where they often represent an important component of atmospheric aerosols with the potential to impact human health and atmospheric dynamics. However, the diversity, composition, and spatiotemporal dynamics of these airborne microbes remain poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes across two aerosol size fractions at urban and rural sites in the Colorado Front Range over a 14-month period. Coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter samples were collected at weekly intervals with both bacterial and fungal diversity assessed via high-throughput sequencing. The diversity and composition of the airborne communities varied across the sites, between the two size fractions, and over time. Bacteria were the dominant type of bioaerosol in the collected air samples, while fungi and plants (pollen) made up the remainder, with the relative abundances of fungi peaking during the spring and summer months. As bacteria made up the majority of bioaerosol particles, we analyzed the bacterial communities in greater detail using a bacterial-specific 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach. Overall, bacterial taxonomic richness and the relative abundances of specific bacterial taxa exhibited significant patterns of seasonality. Likewise, airborne bacterial communities varied significantly between sites and across aerosol size fractions. Source-tracking analyses indicate that soils and leaves represented important sources of bacteria to the near-surface atmosphere across all locations with cow fecal bacteria also representing an important source of bioaerosols at the more rural sites during early fall and early spring. Together, these data suggest that a complex set of environmental factors, including changes in atmospheric conditions and shifts in the relative importance of available microbial sources, act to control the composition of microbial bioaerosols in rural and

  17. What determines species richness of parasitic organisms? A meta-analysis across animal, plant and fungal hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tsukushi; O'Dwyer, Katie; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Poulin, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Although a small set of external factors account for much of the spatial variation in plant and animal diversity, the search continues for general drivers of variation in parasite species richness among host species. Qualitative reviews of existing evidence suggest idiosyncrasies and inconsistent predictive power for all proposed determinants of parasite richness. Here, we provide the first quantitative synthesis of the evidence using a meta-analysis of 62 original studies testing the relationship between parasite richness across animal, plant and fungal hosts, and each of its four most widely used presumed predictors: host body size, host geographical range size, host population density, and latitude. We uncover three universal predictors of parasite richness across host species, namely host body size, geographical range size and population density, applicable regardless of the taxa considered and independently of most aspects of study design. A proper match in the primary studies between the focal predictor and both the spatial scale of study and the level at which parasite species richness was quantified (i.e. within host populations or tallied across a host species' entire range) also affected the magnitude of effect sizes. By contrast, except for a couple of indicative trends in subsets of the full dataset, there was no strong evidence for an effect of latitude on parasite species richness; where found, this effect ran counter to the general latitude gradient in diversity, with parasite species richness tending to be higher further from the equator. Finally, the meta-analysis also revealed a negative relationship between the magnitude of effect sizes and the year of publication of original studies (i.e. a time-lag bias). This temporal bias may be due to the increasing use of phylogenetic correction in comparative analyses of parasite richness over time, as this correction yields more conservative effect sizes. Overall, these findings point to common underlying

  18. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen.

  19. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Ohm, Robin A; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior

  20. Variations in bacterial and fungal community composition along the soil depth profiles determined by pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, D.; Yoo, G.; Jun, S. C.; Yun, S. T.; Chung, H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play key roles in nutrient cycling, and are distributed throughout the soil profile. Currently, there is little information about the characteristics of the microbial communities along the soil depth because most studies focus on microorganisms inhabiting the soil surface. To better understand the functions and composition of microbial communities and the biogeochemical factors that shape them at different soil depth, we analyzed soil microbial activities and bacterial and fungal community composition in a soil profile of a fallow field located in central Korea. Soil samples were taken using 120-cm soil cores. To analyze the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, barcoded pyrosequnecing analysis of 16S rRNA genes (bacteria) and ITS region (fungi) was conducted. Among the bacterial groups, the abundance of Proteobacteria (38.5, 23.2, 23.3, 26.1 and 17.5%, at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-cm depth, respectively) and Firmicutes (12.8, 11.3, 8.6, 4.3 and 0.4%, at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-cm depth, respectively) decreased with soil depth. On the other hand, the abundance of Ascomycota (51.2, 48.6, 65.7, 46.1, and 45.7%, at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-cm depth, respectively), a dominant fungal group at this site, showed no significant difference along the soil profile. To examine the vertical difference of microbial activities, activity of five extracellular enzymes that take part in cycling of C, N, and P in soil ecosystems, beta-1,4-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-1,4-xylosidase, beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and acid phosphatase were analyzed. The soil enzyme activity declined with soil depth. For example, acid phosphatase activity was 88.5 (± 14.6 (± 1 SE)), 30.0 (± 5.9), 18.0 (± 3.5), 14.1 (± 3.7), and 10.7 (± 3.8) nmol g-1 hr-1, at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-cm depth, respectively. These metagenomics studies, along with other studies on microbial functions, are expected to enhance our understanding on the complexity of

  1. Fungal and Bacterial Infection Mitigation with Antibiotic and Antifungal Loaded Biopolymer Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Cox

    Musculoskeletal injuries are some of the most prevalent injuries in both civilian and military populations and their infections can be difficult to treat, often resulting in multiple surgeries and increased costs. In both previous and recent military operations, extremity injuries have been the most common battlefield injuries and many involve complex, open fractures. These extremity injuries are especially susceptible to multiple pathogenic, and sometimes drug resistant, bacteria and fungi. Fungal infections have recently become increasingly problematic in both military and civilian populations and have significantly higher amputation rates than those from bacterial infections. Many of these bacterial and fungal strains adhere to tissue and implanted orthopaedic hardware within wounds, forming biofilms. These problematic, often polymicrobial, infections threaten the health of the patient, but the risk also exists of spreading within hospitals to become prominent resistant infections. Local antimicrobial delivery releases high levels of antimicrobials directly to injured wound tissue, overcoming sub-bactericidal or subfungicidal antimicrobial levels present in the avascular wound zones. This research will determine the ability of modified chitosan sponges, buffered with sodium acetate or blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), to act as short term adjunctive therapies to initial surgical treatment for delivering both antibiotics and/or antifungals for early abatement of infection. The objective of this work was to evaluate both types of modified sponges for in vitro and in vivo material characteristics and device functionality. In vitro analysis demonstrated both the buffered and PEG modified chitosan sponges exhibited increased degradation and functional cytocompatibility. The chitosan/PEG sponges were able to be loaded with hydrophobic antifungals and the sponges released in vitro biologically active concentrations, alone or in combination with the antibiotic

  2. An EPA pilot study characterizing fungal and bacterial populations at homes after flooding events at the Martin Peña Channel community-Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this program is to characterize fungal and bacterial populations in the MPC residences in San Juan, Puerto Rico, following flooding events. These profiles will be generated by comparing the fungal and bacterial populations in two groups of residences: hom...

  3. Subversion of the B-cell compartment during parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Borhis, Gwenoline; Richard, Yolande

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractRecent studies on HIV infection have identified new human B-cell subsets with a potentially important impact on anti-viral immunity. Current work highlights the occurrence of similar B-cell alterations in other viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, suggesting that common strategies have been developed by pathogens to counteract protective immunity. For this review, we have selected key examples of human infections for which B-cell alterations have been de...

  4. Effects of antibiotic resistance alleles on bacterial evolutionary responses to viral parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Sánchez, Flor I; Hall, Alex R

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance has wide-ranging effects on bacterial phenotypes and evolution. However, the influence of antibiotic resistance on bacterial responses to parasitic viruses remains unclear, despite the ubiquity of such viruses in nature and current interest in therapeutic applications. We experimentally investigated this by exposing various Escherichia coli genotypes, including eight antibiotic-resistant genotypes and a mutator, to different viruses (lytic bacteriophages). Across 960 populations, we measured changes in population density and sensitivity to viruses, and tested whether variation among bacterial genotypes was explained by their relative growth in the absence of parasites, or mutation rate towards phage resistance measured by fluctuation tests for each phage. We found that antibiotic resistance had relatively weak effects on adaptation to phages, although some antibiotic-resistance alleles impeded the evolution of resistance to phages via growth costs. By contrast, a mutator allele, often found in antibiotic-resistant lineages in pathogenic populations, had a relatively large positive effect on phage-resistance evolution and population density under parasitism. This suggests costs of antibiotic resistance may modify the outcome of phage therapy against pathogenic populations previously exposed to antibiotics, but the effects of any co-occurring mutator alleles are likely to be stronger. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Solar and photocatalytic disinfection of protozoan, fungal and bacterial microbes in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnen, J; Kilvington, S; Kehoe, S C; Al-Touati, F; McGuigan, K G

    2005-03-01

    The ability of solar disinfection (SODIS) and solar photocatalytic (TiO(2)) disinfection (SPC-DIS) batch-process reactors to inactivate waterborne protozoan, fungal and bacterial microbes was evaluated. After 8 h simulated solar exposure (870 W/m(2) in the 300 nm-10 microm range, 200 W/m(2) in the 300-400 nm UV range), both SPC-DIS and SODIS achieved at least a 4 log unit reduction in viability against protozoa (the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba polyphaga), fungi (Candida albicans, Fusarium solani) and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli). A reduction of only 1.7 log units was recorded for spores of Bacillus subtilis. Both SODIS and SPC-DIS were ineffective against the cyst stage of A. polyphaga.

  6. Bacterial and fungal community composition and functioning of two different peatlands in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Tian, Jianqing; Bu, Zhaojun; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are important carbon sinks which store one third of the global soil carbon ( 550 Gt) with only 3% of the land surface. The slow rate of organic matter decomposition associated with low microbial diversity and limited functioning under cold, acidic and anoxic condition is of critical importance in controlling biogeochemical cycles in northern peatlands. To evaluate the variation in microbial community composition and functionality can advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the biogeochemical processes and interactions. However, there is still a lack of information for Chinese peatlands. Here, we sampled peat profiles at three different depths (10-20, 30-40 and 60-70 cm) from two typical peatlands in China: a rich fen in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and a poor fen in the Changbai Mountains (CBM). We investigated the bacterial (16S rRNA) and fungal (ITS2) community composition and diversity with high-throughput sequencing and predicted the metagenome functioning with PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States). The results showed that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla in the upper peat layer (10-20 cm) for both sites, with increasing abundance of Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes down to the saturated zone (60-70 cm in CMB; 30-40 and 60-70 cm in QTP). For fungi, Ascomycota, Ciliophora and Basidiomycota were the most abundant phyla in both sites, with decreasing Ciliophora abundance down to the saturated zone. The α-diversity of both bacterial and fungal showed a decreasing trend with depth in QTP, with the largest diversity occurring at the depth of 30-40 cm in CMB. Regardless of sampling sites, the bacterial communities at the depth of 60-70 cm were more similar than the other depths. The fungal community was clustered into two groups, corresponding to two sampling sites. The variation in fungal community with depth was larger in QTP than in

  7. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrey Silvia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum. The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines. Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.

  8. Activating biochar by manipulating the bacterial and fungal microbiome through pre-conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit K; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie; Graber, Ellen R; Frenkel, Omer

    2018-02-08

    Biochar can enhance plant growth and reduce diseases, but frequently the optimal doses for these two benefits do not coincide. An approach is needed that will extend the range of biochar doses resulting in a concurrence of maximum benefits for both plant productivity and disease suppression. A biochar-amended growth medium was pre-conditioned by pre-planting fertigation in order to enhance the indigenous microbial community structure and activity. Cucumber plant performance and resistance against damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum were monitored. Soil microbial activity, as well as bacterial and fungal community structure, were assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA and ITS1 gene amplicon sequencing. Pre-conditioning enhanced the efficacy of biochar for improving plant performance and suppressing soilborne disease through enriching the medium in beneficial soil microorganisms, increasing microbial and fungal diversity and activity, and eliminating biochar phytotoxic compounds. The pre-conditioning process brought dose-response curves for both growth and disease resistance into sync, resulting in maximum benefits for both. These findings suggest that pre-conditioning should be incorporated as an important stage during biochar application in soil and soilless media. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Flight behaviour of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers is altered by initial infections of the fungal parasite Nosema apis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosselli, Ryan; Grassl, Julia; Carson, Andrew; Simmons, Leigh W.; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities. To do this, we infected workers with the widespread fungal pathogen Nosema apis, which is recognised and killed by the honey bee immune system. We compared their survival and flight behaviour with non-infected individuals from the same cohort and colony using radio frequency identification tags (RFID). We found that over a time frame of four days post infection, Nosema did not increase mortality but workers quickly altered their flight behaviour and performed more flights of shorter duration. We conclude that parasitic infections influence foraging activities, which could reduce foraging ranges of colonies and impact their ability to provide pollination services. PMID:27827404

  10. Flight behaviour of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers is altered by initial infections of the fungal parasite Nosema apis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosselli, Ryan; Grassl, Julia; Carson, Andrew; Simmons, Leigh W; Baer, Boris

    2016-11-09

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities. To do this, we infected workers with the widespread fungal pathogen Nosema apis, which is recognised and killed by the honey bee immune system. We compared their survival and flight behaviour with non-infected individuals from the same cohort and colony using radio frequency identification tags (RFID). We found that over a time frame of four days post infection, Nosema did not increase mortality but workers quickly altered their flight behaviour and performed more flights of shorter duration. We conclude that parasitic infections influence foraging activities, which could reduce foraging ranges of colonies and impact their ability to provide pollination services.

  11. Bacterial and fungal communities respond differently to varying tillage depth in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Anderson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In arable cropping systems, reduced or conservation tillage practices are linked with improved soil quality, C retention and higher microbial biomass, but most long-term studies rarely focus on depths greater than 15 cm nor allow comparison of microbial community responses to agricultural practices. We investigated microbial community structure in a long-term field trial (12-years, Lincoln, New Zealand established in a silt-loam soil over four depth ranges down to 30 cm. Our objectives were to investigate the degree of homogenisation of soil biological and chemical properties with depth, and to determine the main drivers of microbial community response to tillage. We hypothesised that soil microbiological responses would depend on tillage depth, observed by a homogenisation of microbial community composition within the tilled zone. Tillage treatments were mouldboard plough and disc harrow, impacting soil to ∼20 and ∼10 cm depth, respectively. These treatments were compared to a no-tillage treatment and two control treatments, both permanent pasture and permanent fallow. Bacterial and fungal communities collected from the site were not impacted by the spatial location of sampling across the study area but were affected by physicochemical changes associated with tillage induced soil homogenisation and plant presence. Tillage treatment effects on both species richness and composition were more evident for bacterial communities than fungal communities, and were greater at depths <15 cm. Homogenisation of soil and changing land management appears to redistribute both microbiota and nutrients deeper in the soil profile while consequences for soil biogeochemical functioning remain poorly understood.

  12. Co-variation of bacterial and fungal communities in different sorghum cultivars and growth stages is soil dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlemper, T.R.; van Veen, J.A.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Rhizosphere microbial community composition can be influenced by different biotic and abiotic factors. We investigated the composition and co-variation of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities from two sorghum genotypes (BRS330 and SRN-39) in three different plant growth stages (emergence of

  13. antiSMASH : rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Blin, Kai; Cimermancic, Peter; de Jager, Victor; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Fischbach, Michael A.; Weber, Tilmann; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide

  14. antiSMASH: rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Blin, K.; Cimermancic, P.; Jager, de V.C.L.; Zakrzewski, P.; Fischbach, M.A.; Weber, T.; Takano, E.; Breitling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide

  15. Exploring the potential of fungal-bacterial consortium for low-cost biodegradation and detoxification of textile effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lade Harshad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the enrichment and isolation of textile effluent decolorizing bacteria were carried out in wheat bran (WB medium. The isolated bacterium Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 was then tested for decolorization of textile effluent in consortium with a dyestuff degrading fungus Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM 1146. Decolorization study suggests that A. ochraceus NCIM 1146 and P. rettgeri strain HSL1 alone re moves only 6 and 32% of textile effluent American Dye Manufacturing Institute respectively in 30 h at 30 ±0.2°C of microaerophilic incubation, while the fungal-bacterial consortium does 92% ADMI removal within the same time period. The fungal-bacterial consortium exhibited enhanced decolorization rate due to the induction in activities of catalytic enzymes laccase (196%, lignin peroxidase (77%, azoreductase (80% and NADH-DCIP reductase (84%. The HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of textile effluent into various metabolites. Detoxification studies of textile effluent before and after treatment with fungal-bacterial consortium revealed reduced toxicity of degradation metabolites. The efficient degradation and detoxification by fungal-bacterial consortium pre-grown in agricultural based medium thus suggest a promising approach in designing low-cost treatment technologies for textile effluent.

  16. Studies on antimicrobial and antifungal activities of ziziphus mauritiana human clinical bacterial and fungal pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.; Shah, S.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of crude extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves were investigated against six selected bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one fungal pathogen (Aspel-gillus niger). The crude extract was further fractionated in butanol, choloroform, n-hexane and methanol. Agar well diffusion and agar dilution assay were employed for determination of zones of inhibition and MICs, respectively, whereas MBC was determined using broth dilution test. The butanol fraction presented encouraging antimicrobial activity (15.0%0.02), while methanol (7.03:1:0.05) and chloroform (7.0%0,05) fractions emerged with significantly low susceptibility. The n-hexane fraction was recorded as almost inactive (0%0) against all bacterial pathogens. Unlike the antibacterial activities, all fractions possessed momentous antifungal activities except the methanol fraction (0%0). The n-hexane fraction showed widest zone of inhibition (11:1:0.05) followed by butanol (8.0%0.02) and chloroform (7.0%0.02). (author)

  17. Parasitic and bacterial contamination in collards using effluent from treated domestic wastewater in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawvichit, R; Wongworapat, K; Putsyainant, P; Silprasert, A; Karnchanawong, S

    2001-01-01

    Thailand often has inadequate water supply for agriculture during the dry season. The reuse of treated wastewater treatment plants could solve this problem. Treatment of domestic wastewater of Chiang Mai municipality by the aerated lagoon system (AL) releases more than 25,000 m3 of treated water everyday. The reuse of wastewater in agriculture is an efficient use of water, especially in tropical countries or in drought zones. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of using treated wastewater in growing edible vegetables, ie collards (kale), without pathogenic parasite and bacterial contamination. Collards (Brassica oleracea var acephala) were grown using either the treated wastewater from the aerated lagoon system (AL) or ground water (GW). Three cropping times were scheduled in February, May and July, 2000. Samples of water from AL system and GW were taken two times per month (the consecutive weeks) from February to July and examined for bacteria and parasites. Irrigation water (IW) that was normally used in agriculture was also collected, at the same time of the AL and GW collection, for bacteria and parasite investigation. A soil sample was taken before and after each crop for parasite examination. Collards were also collected at the end of the crop for parasite investigation. The results showed that GW seems to be a clean water since no pathogenic bacteria were found although small amount of Escherichia coli was noted in May. For AL and IW, similar number and types of bacteria were found. They were Aeromonas sobria, A. hydrophila, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, non-pathogenic type of Vibrio cholerae. The small number of Salmonella enteritidis gr E was found in AL in April. After investigating 12 samples in 6 months of each kind of water, ie GW, Al, and IW, no parasite was found. Only unidentified free living nematodes were found in IW but those parasites are non pathogenic. A small number of unidentified free

  18. Cophylogeny and Biogeography of the Fungal Parasite Cyttaria and Its Host Nothofagus, Southern Beech

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Kristin R.; Pfister, Donald H.; Bell, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    The obligate, biotrophic association among species of the fungal genus Cyttaria and their hosts in the plant genus Nothofagus often is cited as a classic example of cophylogeny and is one of the few cases in which the biogeography of a fungus is commonly mentioned or included in biogeographic analyses. In this study molecular and morphological data are used to examine hypotheses regarding the cophylogeny and biogeography of the 12 species of Cyttaria and their hosts, the 11 species of Nothof...

  19. Convergent use of RhoGAP toxins by eukaryotic parasites and bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Colinet

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of host Rho GTPases is a widespread strategy employed by bacterial pathogens to manipulate mammalian cellular functions and avoid immune defenses. Some bacterial toxins mimic eukaryotic Rho GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs to inactivate mammalian GTPases, probably as a result of evolutionary convergence. An intriguing question remains whether eukaryotic pathogens or parasites may use endogenous GAPs as immune-suppressive toxins to target the same key genes as bacterial pathogens. Interestingly, a RhoGAP domain-containing protein, LbGAP, was recently characterized from the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and shown to protect parasitoid eggs from the immune response of Drosophila host larvae. We demonstrate here that LbGAP has structural characteristics of eukaryotic RhoGAPs but that it acts similarly to bacterial RhoGAP toxins in mammals. First, we show by immunocytochemistry that LbGAP enters Drosophila immune cells, plasmatocytes and lamellocytes, and that morphological changes in lamellocytes are correlated with the quantity of LbGAP they contain. Demonstration that LbGAP displays a GAP activity and specifically interacts with the active, GTP-bound form of the two Drosophila Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2, both required for successful encapsulation of Leptopilina eggs, was then achieved using biochemical tests, yeast two-hybrid analysis, and GST pull-down assays. In addition, we show that the overall structure of LbGAP is similar to that of eukaryotic RhoGAP domains, and we identify distinct residues involved in its interaction with Rac GTPases. Altogether, these results show that eukaryotic parasites can use endogenous RhoGAPs as virulence factors and that despite their differences in sequence and structure, eukaryotic and bacterial RhoGAP toxins are similarly used to target the same immune pathways in insects and mammals.

  20. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Khalaf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanideratum. The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169 exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73 of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169 of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl and 62% (104/169 secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated

  1. Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

  2. Diversity of the bacterial and fungal microflora from the midgut and cuticle of phlebotomine sand flies collected in North-Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhoundi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the leishmaniases, parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania spp. Little is known about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly microflora colonizing the midgut or the cuticle. Particularly, there is little information on the fungal diversity. This information is important for development of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FIVE SAND FLY SPECIES: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. kandelakii, P. perfiliewi and P. halepensis were caught in Bileh Savar and Kaleybar in North-Western Iran that are located in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis. A total of 35 specimens were processed. Bacterial and fungal strains were identified by routine microbiological methods. We characterized 39 fungal isolates from the cuticle and/or the midgut. They belong to six different genera including Penicillium (17 isolates, Aspergillus (14, Acremonium (5, Fusarium (1, Geotrichum (1 and Candida (1. We identified 33 Gram-negative bacteria: Serratia marcescens (9 isolates, Enterobacter cloacae (6, Pseudomonas fluorescens (6, Klebsiella ozaenae (4, Acinetobacter sp. (3, Escherichia coli (3, Asaia sp. (1 and Pantoea sp. (1 as well as Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (5 and Micrococcus luteus (5 in 10 isolates. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides new data on the microbiotic diversity of field-collected sand flies and for the first time, evidence of the presence of Asaia sp. in sand flies. We have also found a link between physiological stages (unfed, fresh fed, semi gravid and gravid of sand flies and number of bacteria that they carry. Interestingly Pantoea sp. and Klebsiella ozaenae have been isolated in Old World sand fly species. The presence of latter species on sand fly cuticle and in the female midgut suggests a role for this arthropod in dissemination of these pathogenic bacteria in endemic areas. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial

  3. Diversity of the bacterial and fungal microflora from the midgut and cuticle of phlebotomine sand flies collected in North-Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Bakhtiari, Rounak; Guillard, Thomas; Baghaei, Ahmad; Tolouei, Reza; Sereno, Denis; Toubas, Dominique; Depaquit, Jérôme; Abyaneh, Mehdi Razzaghi

    2012-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the leishmaniases, parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania spp. Little is known about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly microflora colonizing the midgut or the cuticle. Particularly, there is little information on the fungal diversity. This information is important for development of vector control strategies. FIVE SAND FLY SPECIES: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. kandelakii, P. perfiliewi and P. halepensis were caught in Bileh Savar and Kaleybar in North-Western Iran that are located in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis. A total of 35 specimens were processed. Bacterial and fungal strains were identified by routine microbiological methods. We characterized 39 fungal isolates from the cuticle and/or the midgut. They belong to six different genera including Penicillium (17 isolates), Aspergillus (14), Acremonium (5), Fusarium (1), Geotrichum (1) and Candida (1). We identified 33 Gram-negative bacteria: Serratia marcescens (9 isolates), Enterobacter cloacae (6), Pseudomonas fluorescens (6), Klebsiella ozaenae (4), Acinetobacter sp. (3), Escherichia coli (3), Asaia sp. (1) and Pantoea sp. (1) as well as Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (5) and Micrococcus luteus (5) in 10 isolates. Our study provides new data on the microbiotic diversity of field-collected sand flies and for the first time, evidence of the presence of Asaia sp. in sand flies. We have also found a link between physiological stages (unfed, fresh fed, semi gravid and gravid) of sand flies and number of bacteria that they carry. Interestingly Pantoea sp. and Klebsiella ozaenae have been isolated in Old World sand fly species. The presence of latter species on sand fly cuticle and in the female midgut suggests a role for this arthropod in dissemination of these pathogenic bacteria in endemic areas. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial role (passive or active) of sand flies.

  4. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boknam Jung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting.

  5. Bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of male donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Carla L; Donahue, J Michael; Marteniuk, Judith V; Sells, Stephen F; Timoney, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of a population of healthy male donkeys in the state of Michigan, USA. The aim was to identify and determine the frequency of occurrence of these microorganisms using seven different isolation media and standard microbiological procedures. The sites (urethral fossa [fossa glandis], dorsal diverticulum of the urethral sinus, distal urethra, and penile surface) in the distal reproductive tract were cultured and each isolated microorganism identified. Ten different genera of gram-positive bacteria, eight different genera of gram-negative bacteria, and two genera of fungi were isolated from the external genitalia of the 43 donkeys in this study. All 43 donkeys yielded gram-positive bacteria (2-8 species) from all four sites sampled. Arcanobacterium spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were the most frequently isolated gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria were cultured from 16 (37.2%) of the 43 donkeys, with Acinetobacterlwoffii (16.3%), Oligella urethralis (11.6%), and Taylorellaasinigenitalis (9.3%), the most frequently isolated. Fungi were cultured from only 5 (11.6%) of the 43 donkeys, with Rhizopus spp. isolated from 3 (7.0%) and Cladosporium spp. from 2 (4.7%) individuals. The testes and epididymides collected from 40 donkeys at time of castration were culture negative. Few differences were found in the bacterial flora between prepubertal and mature intact and castrated donkeys. Of notable interest was the scarcity of known equine pathogens across the population tested and isolation of T. asinigenitalis from normal donkeys, especially prepubertal individuals and previously castrated males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined analyses of bacterial, fungal and nematode communities in andosolic agricultural soils in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhihua; Ikunaga, Yoko; Matsushita, Yuko; Morimoto, Sho; Takada-Hoshino, Yuko; Okada, Hiroaki; Oba, Hirosuke; Takemoto, Shuhei; Niwa, Shigeru; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Chika; Nagaoka, Kazunari; Takenaka, Makoto; Urashima, Yasufumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kushida, Atsuhiko; Toyota, Koki; Saito, Masanori; Tsushima, Seiya

    2012-01-01

    We simultaneously examined the bacteria, fungi and nematode communities in Andosols from four agro-geographical sites in Japan using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and statistical analyses to test the effects of environmental factors including soil properties on these communities depending on geographical sites. Statistical analyses such as Principal component analysis (PCA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the compositions of the three soil biota communities were strongly affected by geographical sites, which were in turn strongly associated with soil characteristics such as total C (TC), total N (TN), C/N ratio and annual mean soil temperature (ST). In particular, the TC, TN and C/N ratio had stronger effects on bacterial and fungal communities than on the nematode community. Additionally, two-way cluster analysis using the combined DGGE profile also indicated that all soil samples were classified into four clusters corresponding to the four sites, showing high site specificity of soil samples, and all DNA bands were classified into four clusters, showing the coexistence of specific DGGE bands of bacteria, fungi and nematodes in Andosol fields. The results of this study suggest that geography relative to soil properties has a simultaneous impact on soil microbial and nematode community compositions. This is the first combined profile analysis of bacteria, fungi and nematodes at different sites with agricultural Andosols.

  7. Prospecting fungal parasites of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida using a rapid screening technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooliyottil, Rinu; Dandurand, Louise-Marie; Knudsen, Guy R

    2017-05-01

    Seven filamentous fungal species were isolated from individual eggs of Globodera pallida cysts collected from infested fields in Shelley Idaho, USA and identified as Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium tricinctum, Microdochium bolleyi, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Their ability to reduce infection by G. pallida in planta were assessed in simple, reproducible micro-rhizosphere chambers (micro-ROCs). All fungi reduced G. pallida infection in potato, but greatest reduction was observed with C. globosum at an average reduction of 76%. Further non-destructive methods were developed to rapidly assess biological control potential of putative fungal strains by staining the infectious second stage juveniles of G. pallida with the live fluorescent stain PKH26. In comparisons between the standard, invasive acid fuchsin method and use of the live stain PKH26, no significant difference in infection level of G. pallida was observed whether roots were stained with PKH26 or acid fuchsin. For both methods, a similar reduction (77% for acid fuchsin, and 78% for PKH26 stain) in invasion of infectious stage of G. pallida was observed when potato plants were inoculated with C. globosum compared to non-inoculated potato. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterization and heterologous expression of an age-dependent fungal/bacterial type chitinase of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Eva; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Miskei, M; Barna, Teréz; Pócsi, I

    2008-09-01

    Under carbon starvation, Aspergillus nidulans produced a fungal/bacterial type chitinase, ChiB. The chiB gene was cloned and subcloned into pJC40 expression vector containing a 10XHis fusion tag, and the ChiB protein was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. Recombinant and native ChiB enzymes shared the same optimal pH ranges and showed similar substrate specificities with endo-acting cleavage patterns.

  9. A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure of the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, Migun [ORNL; Gottel, Neil R [ORNL; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Yang, Zamin [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Bonito, Gregory [Duke University; Vilgalys, Rytas [Duke University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host- health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to it s associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be

  10. Characterization of the bacterial and fungal microbiome in indoor dust and outdoor air samples: a pilot study���

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Blake; Zhou, Yanjiao; Bautista, Eddy J.; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Silverman, Frances; Muilenberg, Michael; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Gold, Diane R.; Sordillo, Joanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental microbes have been associated with both protective and adverse health effects in children and adults. Epidemiological studies often rely on broad biomarkers of microbial exposure (i.e. endotoxin, 1���3, Beta-D glucan), but fail to identify the taxonomic composition of the microbial community. Our aim was to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiome in different types of environmental samples collected in studies of human health effects. We determined the composition of mi...

  11. A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure in the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migun Shakya

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings, host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers, season (Spring vs. Fall and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%. Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50% while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%. While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina and seasons (Spring vs. Fall. SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities

  12. Blue light (470 nm) effectively inhibits bacterial and fungal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, A J; Carter-Wientjes, C; Williams, K A; Bhatnagar, D

    2012-12-01

    Blue light (470 nm) LED antimicrobial properties were studied alone against bacteria and with or without the food grade photosensitizer, erythrosine (ERY) against filamentous fungi. Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM), Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) aliquots were exposed on nutrient agar plates to Array 1 (AR1, 0·2 mW cm(-2)) or Array 2 (AR2, 80 mW cm(-2)), which emitted impure or pure blue light (0-300 J cm(-2)), respectively. Inoculated control (room light only) plates were incubated (48 h) and colonies enumerated. The antifungal properties of blue light combined with ERY (11·4 and 22·8 μmol l(-1)) on Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Fusarium graminearum (FG) conidia were determined. Conidial controls consisted of: no light, room light-treated conidia and ERY plus room light. Light-treated (ERY + blue light) conidial samples were exposed only to AR2 (0-100 J cm(-2)), aliquots spread on potato dextrose agar plates, incubated (48 h, 30°C) and colonies counted. Blue light alone significantly reduced bacterial and FG viability. Combined with ERY, it significantly reduced PD viability. Blue light is lethal to bacteria and filamentous fungi although effectiveness is dependent on light purity, energy levels and microbial genus. Light from two arrays of different blue LEDs significantly reduced bacterial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus atrophaeus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) viabilities. Significant in vitro viability loss was observed for the filamentous fungi, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium graminearum when exposed to pure blue light only plus a photosensitizer. F. graminearum viability was significantly reduced by blue light alone. Results suggest that (i) the amount of significant loss in bacterial viability observed for blue light that is pure or with traces of other wavelengths is genus dependent and (ii) depending on fungal genera, pure blue light is fungicidal with or without a photosensitizer. © 2012 The Society for

  13. Parasites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-06

    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  14. A survey of bacterial, fungal and plant metabolites against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), the vector of yellow and dengue fevers and Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. Some bacterial, fungal and plant metabolites including Amaryllidaceae alkaloids belonging to different chemical subgroups, including anthracenes, azoxymethoxytetrahydropy...

  15. Effect of Pre-weaning Diet on the Ruminal Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Communities of Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Juliana; Marcondes, Marcos I; Noronha, Melline F; Resende, Rafael T; Machado, Fernanda S; Mantovani, Hilário C; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Suen, Garret

    2017-01-01

    At birth, calves display an underdeveloped rumen that eventually matures into a fully functional rumen as a result of solid food intake and microbial activity. However, little is known regarding the gradual impact of pre-weaning diet on the establishment of the rumen microbiota. Here, we employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the effects of the inclusion of starter concentrate (M: milk-fed vs. MC: milk plus starter concentrate fed) on archaeal, bacterial and anaerobic fungal communities in the rumens of 45 crossbred dairy calves across pre-weaning development (7, 28, 49, and 63 days). Our results show that archaeal, bacterial, and fungal taxa commonly found in the mature rumen were already established in the rumens of calves at 7 days old, regardless of diet. This confirms that microbiota colonization occurs in the absence of solid substrate. However, diet did significantly impact some microbial taxa. In the bacterial community, feeding starter concentrate promoted greater diversity of bacterial taxa known to degrade readily fermentable carbohydrates in the rumen (e.g., Megasphaera, Sharpea , and Succinivribrio ). Shifts in the ruminal bacterial community also correlated to changes in fermentation patterns that favored the colonization of Methanosphaera sp. A4 in the rumen of MC calves. In contrast, M calves displayed a bacterial community dominated by taxa able to utilize milk nutrients (e.g., Lactobacillus, Bacteroides , and Parabacteroides ). In both diet groups, the dominance of these milk-associated taxa decreased with age, suggesting that diet and age simultaneously drive changes in the structure and abundance of bacterial communities in the developing rumen. Changes in the composition and abundance of archaeal communities were attributed exclusively to diet, with more highly abundant Methanosphaera and less abundant Methanobrevibacter in MC calves. Finally, the fungal community was dominated by members of the genus SK3 and Caecomyces . Relative

  16. Effect of Pre-weaning Diet on the Ruminal Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Communities of Dairy Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Juliana; Marcondes, Marcos I.; Noronha, Melline F.; Resende, Rafael T.; Machado, Fernanda S.; Mantovani, Hilário C.; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A.; Suen, Garret

    2017-01-01

    At birth, calves display an underdeveloped rumen that eventually matures into a fully functional rumen as a result of solid food intake and microbial activity. However, little is known regarding the gradual impact of pre-weaning diet on the establishment of the rumen microbiota. Here, we employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the effects of the inclusion of starter concentrate (M: milk-fed vs. MC: milk plus starter concentrate fed) on archaeal, bacterial and anaerobic fungal communities in the rumens of 45 crossbred dairy calves across pre-weaning development (7, 28, 49, and 63 days). Our results show that archaeal, bacterial, and fungal taxa commonly found in the mature rumen were already established in the rumens of calves at 7 days old, regardless of diet. This confirms that microbiota colonization occurs in the absence of solid substrate. However, diet did significantly impact some microbial taxa. In the bacterial community, feeding starter concentrate promoted greater diversity of bacterial taxa known to degrade readily fermentable carbohydrates in the rumen (e.g., Megasphaera, Sharpea, and Succinivribrio). Shifts in the ruminal bacterial community also correlated to changes in fermentation patterns that favored the colonization of Methanosphaera sp. A4 in the rumen of MC calves. In contrast, M calves displayed a bacterial community dominated by taxa able to utilize milk nutrients (e.g., Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides). In both diet groups, the dominance of these milk-associated taxa decreased with age, suggesting that diet and age simultaneously drive changes in the structure and abundance of bacterial communities in the developing rumen. Changes in the composition and abundance of archaeal communities were attributed exclusively to diet, with more highly abundant Methanosphaera and less abundant Methanobrevibacter in MC calves. Finally, the fungal community was dominated by members of the genus SK3 and Caecomyces. Relative

  17. Characterization and Molecular Epidemiology of a Fungal Infection of Edible Crabs (Cancer pagurus) and Interaction of the Fungus with the Dinoflagellate Parasite Hematodinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda L.; Hamilton, Kristina M.; Hirschle, Lucy; Wootton, Emma C.; Vogan, Claire L.; Pope, Edward C.; Eastwood, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on an emerging fungal disease of the edible crab, Cancer pagurus. Juvenile (prerecruit) crabs were found to be subject to this disease condition during the months of May to September at two intertidal sites in South Wales, United Kingdom. Histopathology revealed that the fungi overwhelm the host response in the tissues, leading to progressive septicemia. The causative agent of this infection was isolated and grown in pure culture and was identified as a member of the Ophiocordyceps clade by sequencing of the small subunit of the fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Of the crabs naturally infected with the fungus, 94% had a coinfection with the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium species. To determine if there was any interaction between the two disease-causing agents, apparently fungus-free crabs, both with and without natural Hematodinium infections, were challenged with the fungal isolate. The presence of Hematodinium caused a significant reduction in fungal multiplication in the hemocoel of the crabs in comparison to that in Hematodinium-free individuals. Histopathology of coinfected crabs showed a systemic multiplication of Hematodinium within host tissues, leading to a rapid death, while Hematodinium-free crabs experimentally infected with the fungal isolate died due to fungal sepsis (septicemia) with the same characteristic pathology as seen in natural infections. PMID:23160130

  18. Bacterial symbiont sharing in Megalomyrmex social parasites and their fungus-growing ant hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberti, Joanito; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Hansen, Lars H.

    2015-01-01

    intensities and are distantly related. We used tag-encoded FLX 454 pyrosequencing and diagnostic PCR to map bacterial symbiont diversity across the Megalomyrmex phylogenetic tree, which also contains free-living generalist predators. We show that social parasites and hosts share a subset of bacterial...... symbionts, primarily consisting of Entomoplasmatales, Bartonellaceae, Acinetobacter, Wolbachia and Pseudonocardia and that Entomoplasmatales and Bartonellaceae can co-infect specifically associated combinations of hosts and social parasites with identical 16S rRNA genotypes. We reconstructed in more detail...

  19. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Narusaka

    Full Text Available Housaku Monogatari (HM is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

  20. Bacterial and Fungal Communities in a Degraded Ombrotrophic Peatland Undergoing Natural and Managed Re-Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David R.; Caporn, Simon J. M.; Nwaishi, Felix; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Sen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The UK hosts 15–19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare

  1. Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Elliott

    Full Text Available The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6 and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals. Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in

  2. A coexisting fungal-bacterial community stabilizes soil decomposition activity in a microcosm experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Ushio

    Full Text Available How diversity influences the stability of a community function is a major question in ecology. However, only limited empirical investigations of the diversity-stability relationship in soil microbial communities have been undertaken, despite the fundamental role of microbial communities in driving carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we conducted a microcosm experiment to investigate the relationship between microbial diversity and stability of soil decomposition activities against changes in decomposition substrate quality by manipulating microbial community using selective biocides. We found that soil respiration rates and degradation enzyme activities by a coexisting fungal and bacterial community (a taxonomically diverse community are more stable against changes in substrate quality (plant leaf materials than those of a fungi-dominated or a bacteria-dominated community (less diverse community. Flexible changes in the microbial community composition and/or physiological state in the coexisting community against changes in substrate quality, as inferred by the soil lipid profile, may be the mechanism underlying this positive diversity-stability relationship. Our experiment demonstrated that the previously found positive diversity-stability relationship could also be valid in the soil microbial community. Our results also imply that the functional/taxonomic diversity and community ecology of soil microbes should be incorporated into the context of climate-ecosystem feedbacks. Changes in substrate quality, which could be induced by climate change, have impacts on decomposition process and carbon dioxide emission from soils, but such impacts may be attenuated by the functional diversity of soil microbial communities.

  3. Screening of strains of soil micromycetes – antagonists of fungal and bacterial plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Drehval

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antagonistic activity of 23 strains of micromycetes belonging to different taxonomic groups, against phythopathogenic bacteria and fungi was studied. The antagonistic activity of the micromycetes was tested by agar diffusion (the method of blocks. For the determination of the influence of the micromycetes on plants, spring barley seeds were treated by cultural liquid of fungi (dilution 1 : 10 for 24 hours and germinated in Petri dishes on moist filter paper. Two strains Trichoderma longibrachiatum 17 and T. lignorum 14 showed the highest antagonistic activity against the phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. T. longibrachiatum 17 actively suppressed the growth of fungi Fusarium oxysporum 54201, F. culmorum 50716, F. oxysporum 12, F. moniliforme 23, Cladosporium herbarum 16878, Alternaria alternata 16, Aspergillus niger 25 and bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens 8628, Xanthomonas campestris 8003b, Pectobacterium carotovorum 8982, Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens 8254, P. syringae pv. lachrymans 7595, zones inhibition of growth were 20.7–38.3 and 14.7–24.7 mm, respectively. The strain of T. lignorum 14 inhibited the growth of fungi F. culmorum 50716, C. herbarum 16878, F. moniliforme 23, A. alternata 16, A. niger 25 and bacteria A. tumefaciens 8628, P. carotovorum 8982, P. syringae pv. atrofaciens 8254, P. syringae pv. lachrymans 7595, zones of inhibition of growth were 14.0–38.7 and 12.3–23.3 mm, respectively. Treatment of spring barley seeds by T. longibrachiatum 17 cultural liquid showed a positive effect on seed germination, both strains T. longibrachiatum 17 and T. lignorum 14 increased the dry weight of the roots (by 17.5% and 22.0%, respectively and the stems (by 8.0% of spring barley plants compared with the water-treated controls. The results presented in this article indicate that the strains T. longibrachiatum 17 and T. lignorum 14 can be recommended as promising microbial agents to protect plants from fungal and

  4. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, Mark T.

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  5. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal aerosols during the autumn haze days in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Fu, Honglei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Meng, Qinglong; Wang, Wenke

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, haze pollution has become one of the most critical environmental issues in Xi'an, China, with particular matter (PM) being one of the top pollutants. As an important fraction of PM, bioaerosols may have adverse effects on air quality and human health. In this study, to better understand the characteristics of such biological aerosols, airborne microbial samples were collected by using an Andersen six-stage sampler in Xi'an from October 8th to 22nd, 2014. The concentration, size distribution and genera of airborne viable bacteria and fungi were comparably investigated during the haze days and non-haze days. Correlations of bioaerosol levels with meteorological parameters and PM concentrations were also examined. The results showed that the daily average concentrations of airborne viable bacteria and fungi during the haze days, 1102.4-1736.5 and 1466.2-1703.9 CFU/m3, respectively, were not only much higher than those during the non-haze days, but also exceeded the recommended permissible limit values. Comparing to size distributions during the non-haze days, slightly different patterns for bacterial aerosols and similar single-peak distribution pattern for fungal aerosols were observed during the haze days. Moreover, more allergic and infectious genera (e.g. Neisseria, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces) in bioaerosols were identified during the haze days than during non-haze days. The present results reveal that bioaerosols may have more significant effects on public health and urban air quality during the haze days than during non-haze days.

  6. Microbial players involved in the decline of filamentous and colonial cyanobacterial blooms with a focus on fungal parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerphagnon, Mélanie; Macarthur, Deborah J; Latour, Delphine; Gachon, Claire M M; Van Ogtrop, Floris; Gleason, Frank H; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2015-08-01

    In the forthcoming decades, it is widely believed that the dominance of colonial and filamentous bloom-forming cyanobacteria (e.g. Microcystis, Planktothrix, Anabaena and Cylindrospermopsis) will increase in freshwater systems as a combined result of anthropogenic nutrient input into freshwater bodies and climate change. While the physicochemical parameters controlling bloom dynamics are well known, the role of biotic factors remains comparatively poorly studied. Morphology and toxicity often - but not always - limit the availability of cyanobacteria to filter feeding zooplankton (e.g. cladocerans). Filamentous and colonial cyanobacteria are widely regarded as trophic dead-ends mostly inedible for zooplankton, but substantial evidence shows that some grazers (e.g. copepods) can bypass this size constraint by breaking down filaments, making the bloom biomass available to other zooplankton species. A wide range of algicidal bacteria (mostly from the Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium/Cytophaga group and Pseudomonas) and viruses (Podoviridae, Siphoviridae and Myoviridae) may also contribute to bloom control, via their lytic activity underpinned by a diverse array of mechanisms. Fungal parasitism by the Chytridiomycota remains the least studied. While each of these biotic factors has traditionally been studied in isolation, emerging research consistently point to complex interwoven interactions between biotic and environmental factors. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluating the Impact of DNA Extraction Method on the Representation of Human Oral Bacterial and Fungal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesty, Anna; Biswas, Kristi; Taylor, Michael W; Gear, Kim; Douglas, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    The application of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing technologies has greatly improved our understanding of the human oral microbiome. While deciphering this diverse microbial community using such approaches is more accurate than traditional culture-based methods, experimental bias introduced during critical steps such as DNA extraction may compromise the results obtained. Here, we systematically evaluate four commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods (MoBio PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit, Zymo Bacterial/Fungal DNA Mini PrepTM, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation) based on the following criteria: DNA quality and yield, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 region of fungi. Our results indicate that DNA quality and yield varied significantly with DNA extraction method. Representation of bacterial genera in plaque and saliva samples did not significantly differ across DNA extraction methods and DNA extraction method showed no effect on the recovery of fungal genera from plaque. By contrast, fungal diversity from saliva was affected by DNA extraction method, suggesting that not all protocols are suitable to study the salivary mycobiome.

  8. Fungal biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate and toxicity of its breakdown products on the basis of fungal and bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, M; Torres, J L; Rodríguez-Pastrana, B R; Soriano-Santos, J; Díaz-Godínez, G; Díaz, R; Tlecuitl-Beristain, S; Sánchez, C

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid that give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride. Diverse studies have reported that these compounds might be carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or teratogenic. Radial growth rate, biomass, hyphal thickness of Neurospora sitophyla, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger, grown in two different concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) (500 and 1,000 mg/l) in agar and in submerged fermentation were studied. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the constant of biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate in Escherichia coli cultures were used to evaluate toxicity. The radial growth rate and thickness of the hypha were positively correlated with the concentration of phthalate. The pH of the cultures decreased as the fermentation proceeded. It is shown that these fungi are able to degrade DBP to non-toxic compounds and that these can be used as sole carbon and energy sources by this bacterium. It is demonstrated that the biodegradation of the DBP is directly correlated with the IC50. This is the first study that reports a method to determine the biodegradation of DBP on the basis of the IC50 and fungal growth, and the effect of this phthalate on the growth and thickness of hyphae of filamentous fungi in agar and in submerged fermentation.

  9. Parasitic and Bacterial Infections of Myocastor coypus in a Metropolitan Area of Northwestern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio A; Di Cerbo, Annarita; Gazzonis, Alessia L; Epis, Sara; Invernizzi, Anna; Tagliabue, Silvia; Manfredi, Maria T

    2016-01-01

    Coypus (Myocastor coypus) are widespread throughout Europe. In northern Italy, they are abundant in the flatland areas, and their high population densities can cause economic loss and ecosystem damage. We examined 153 coypus for selected parasitic and bacterial infections. We found Strongyloides myopotami (63.4% prevalence), Trichostrongylus duretteae (28.1%), Eimeria coypi (86.3%), and Eimeria seideli (6.8%), but did not find Giardia duodenalis or Cryptosporidium spp. We also isolated Staphylococcus aureus (10.1%), Escherichia coli (4.5%), and Streptococcus spp. (3.4%) from lung samples; no Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples. Coypus had antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (28.9%) and to four serovars of Leptospira interrogans (44.9%); Australis/Bratislava was the serovar most frequently detected. It is clear that coypu can be infected with pathogens of human and veterinary importance.

  10. Subversion of the B-cell compartment during parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhis, Gwenoline; Richard, Yolande

    2015-03-26

    Recent studies on HIV infection have identified new human B-cell subsets with a potentially important impact on anti-viral immunity. Current work highlights the occurrence of similar B-cell alterations in other viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, suggesting that common strategies have been developed by pathogens to counteract protective immunity. For this review, we have selected key examples of human infections for which B-cell alterations have been described, to highlight the similarities and differences in the immune responses to a variety of pathogens. We believe that further comparisons between these models will lead to critical progress in the understanding of B-cell mechanisms and will open new target avenues for therapeutic interventions.

  11. Effects of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasitism on the survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) parasitism on survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri was studied. Fish were exposed to E. ictaluri one day prior to Ich in the following treatments: 1)- infected by...

  12. Biocontrol of Sugarcane Smut Disease by Interference of Fungal Sexual Mating and Hyphal Growth Using a Bacterial Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyin; Lin, Nuoqiao; Chen, Yumei; Liang, Zhibin; Liao, Lisheng; Lv, Mingfa; Chen, Yufan; Tang, Yingxin; He, Fei; Chen, Shaohua; Zhou, Jianuan; Zhang, Lianhui

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane smut is a fungal disease caused by Sporisorium scitamineum , which can cause severe economic losses in sugarcane industry. The infection depends on the mating of bipolar sporida to form a dikaryon and develops into hyphae to penetrate the meristematic tissue of sugarcane. In this study, we set to isolate bacterial strains capable of blocking the fungal mating and evaluate their potential in control of sugarcane smut disease. A bacterial isolate ST4 from rhizosphere displayed potent inhibitory activity against the mating of S. scitamineum bipolar sporida and was selected for further study. Phylogenetic analyses and biochemical characterization showed that the isolate was most similar to Pseudomonas guariconensis . Methanol extracts from minimum and potato dextrose agar (PDA) agar medium, on which strain ST4 has grown, showed strong inhibitory activity on the sexual mating of S. scitamineum sporida, without killing the haploid cells MAT-1 or MAT-2. Further analysis showed that only glucose, but not sucrose, maltose, and fructose, could support strain ST4 to produce antagonistic chemicals. Consistent with the above findings, greenhouse trials showed that addition of 2% glucose to the bacterial inoculum significantly increased the strain ST4 biocontrol efficiency against sugarcane smut disease by 77% than the inoculum without glucose. The results from this study depict a new strategy to screen for biocontrol agents for control and prevention of the sugarcane smut disease.

  13. Plant growth-promoting activities for bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plant of Teucrium polium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad El-Din Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal endophytes are widespread inhabitants inside plant tissues and have been shown to assist plant growth and health. However, little is known about plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE of medicinal plants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify bacterial and fungal endophytes of Teucrium polium and to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP properties of these endophytes. Seven bacterial endophytes were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, where five endophytic fungi were obtained and assigned to Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium crustosum. The isolated endophytes differentially produced indole acetic acid (IAA and ammonia, and in addition to their enzymatic and antimicrobial activities, they exhibited variable capacity for phosphate solubilization. In order to investigate the effect of endophytes on plant growth, four representative endophytes and their consortiums were selected concerning to their potential ability to promote plant growth. The results indicated that microbial endophytes isolated from medicinal plants possessing a vital role to improve plant growth and could be used as inoculants to establish a sustainable crop production system.

  14. Plant growth-promoting activities for bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plant of Teucrium polium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saad El-Din

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial and fungal endophytes are widespread inhabitants inside plant tissues and have been shown to assist plant growth and health. However, little is known about plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) of medicinal plants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify bacterial and fungal endophytes of Teucrium polium and to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of these endophytes. Seven bacterial endophytes were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis , where five endophytic fungi were obtained and assigned to Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium crustosum . The isolated endophytes differentially produced indole acetic acid (IAA) and ammonia, and in addition to their enzymatic and antimicrobial activities, they exhibited variable capacity for phosphate solubilization. In order to investigate the effect of endophytes on plant growth, four representative endophytes and their consortiums were selected concerning to their potential ability to promote plant growth. The results indicated that microbial endophytes isolated from medicinal plants possessing a vital role to improve plant growth and could be used as inoculants to establish a sustainable crop production system.

  15. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha−1 yr−1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  16. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depths and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Mueller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0-0.5 cm or 0-10 cm across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7 and 15 kg ha-1 yr-1. We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  17. Biomarker-based classification of bacterial and fungal whole-blood infections in a genome-wide expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eDix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by bacteria or fungi. Early knowledge on the nature of the causative agent is a prerequisite for targeted anti-microbial therapy. Besides currently used detection methods like blood culture and PCR-based assays, the analysis of the transcriptional response of the host to infecting organisms holds great promise. In this study, we aim to examine the transcriptional footprint of infections caused by the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a human whole-blood model. Moreover, we use the expression information to build a random forest classifier to classify if a sample contains a bacterial, fungal, or mock-infection. After normalizing the transcription intensities using stably expressed reference genes, we filtered the gene set for biomarkers of bacterial or fungal blood infections. This selection is based on differential expression and an additional gene relevance measure. In this way, we identified 38 biomarker genes, including IL6, SOCS3, and IRG1 which were already associated to sepsis by other studies. Using these genes, we trained the classifier and assessed its performance. It yielded a 96% accuracy (sensitivities >93%, specificities >97% for a 10-fold stratified cross-validation and a 92% accuracy (sensitivities and specificities >83% for an additional test dataset comprising Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Furthermore, the classifier is robust to Gaussian noise, indicating correct class predictions on datasets of new species. In conclusion, this genome-wide approach demonstrates an effective feature selection process in combination with the construction of a well-performing classification model. Further analyses of genes with pathogen-dependent expression patterns can provide insights into the systemic host responses, which may lead to new anti-microbial therapeutic advances.

  18. Epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics of recurrent bacterial and fungal meningitis in the Netherlands, 1988-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Joris J.; Bekker, Vincent; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van der Ende, Arie; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Patients may experience multiple episodes of bacterial meningitis. Information from large studies of recurrent meningitis is limited. We evaluated the incidence of recurrent bacterial meningitis and the distribution of causative organisms in The Netherlands. Methods. Data for patients

  19. Conversion of ammonia-pretreated switchgrass to biofuel precursors by bacterial-fungal consortia under solid-state and submerged-state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Pelle, H S; Baughman, W H; Henson, J M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate bacterial-fungal communities to deconstruct switchgrass to biofuel precursors. Bacterial-fungal consortia, mesophilic (25°C) and thermophilic (50°C), were enriched from switchgrass bales from which enzyme mixtures were used to deconstruct delignified switchgrass (DSG). The bacterial-fungal consortia were able to produce enzymes including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, xylosidase and pectinase to convert DSG to soluble carbohydrates. 454 pyrosequencing revealed that Paenibacillus and Streptomyces were the dominant bacteria in the mesophilic and thermophilic consortia respectively. Penicillium and Acremonium were the dominant fungi in the mesophilic consortia, whereas Aspergillus and Penicillium were the dominant fungi present in the thermophilic consortia. The results show that the state of cultivation, solid-state or submerged-state, affects the community structure as well as enzyme activities produced by these bacterial-fungal consortia. The enzyme mixture produced by the bacterial-fungal consortia released a higher amount of xylose than glucose during saccharification of DSG. The study provides a novel approach to produce enzymes for conversion of lignocellulolytic feedstocks to soluble sugars which can be used to produce biofuel precursors. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO 2 by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula

  1. Rumen bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity of dairy cows in response to ingestion of lauric or myristic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Callaway, T R; Lee, C; Dowd, S E

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this experiment, part of a larger study, was to investigate changes in rumen bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity in cows fed medium-chain saturated fatty acids. In the main study, 6 lactating dairy cows were dosed intraruminally with 240 g/(cow · d) of stearic (SA, control), lauric (LA), or myristic (MA) acid in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Experimental periods were 28 d, and cows were transfaunated between periods. Lauric acid decreased protozoal counts in the rumen by 96% compared with SA and MA (compared with SA, MA had no effect on ruminal protozoa). Whole ruminal contents samples were collected 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 18, and 24 h after the morning feeding on d 23 of each experimental period, stored frozen, and later composited by cow and period for microbial profile analyses, which involved tag-encoded flexible (FLX) amplicon pyrosequencing to provide diversity analyses of gastrointestinal bacterial, archaeal, and fungal populations of the cattle. The LA treatment, either directly or through its effect on protozoa, had a profound effect on the microbial ecology of the rumen. Ruminal populations of Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Enterorhabdus were decreased (P = 0.04 to P < 0.001) by more than 2-fold in LA treatments compared with SA, and Clostridium populations were decreased (P = 0.01) in LA- compared with MA-treated cows. The proportion of Ruminococcus was not affected by treatment, although the LA treatment had the least proportion of Ruminococcus. Proportions of Eubacterium, Butyrivibrio, Olsenella, and Lactobacillus genera were increased (P = 0.03 to 0.01) by LA compared with MA or SA. The LA treatment, possibly through its effect on protozoa physically associated with archaea, resulted in an increase (P = 0.01) in the archaeal methanogenic genus Methanosphaera and a decrease (P = 0.01) in Methanobrevibacter. Few changes in fungal populations caused by treatment were detected. Collectively, results indicate that LA

  2. Effects of forest management practices in temperate beech forests on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Jariyavidyanont, Katalee; Kaunzner, Jennifer; Juncheed, Kantida; Uengwetwanit, Tanaporn; Rudloff, Renate; Schulz, Elke; Hofrichter, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Krüger, Dirk; Buscot, François

    2015-05-01

    Forest management practices (FMPs) significantly influence important ecological processes and services in Central European forests, such as leaf litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Changes in leaf litter diversity, and thus, its quality as well as microbial community structure and function induced by different FMPs were hypothesized to be the main drivers causing shifts in decomposition rates and nutrient release in managed forests. In a litterbag experiment lasting 473 days, we aimed to investigate the effects of FMPs (even-aged timber management, selective logging and unmanaged) on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation over time. Our results showed that microbial communities in leaf litter were strongly influenced by both FMPs and sampling date. The results from nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination revealed distinct patterns of bacterial and fungal successions over time in leaf litter. We demonstrated that FMPs and sampling dates can influence a range of factors, including leaf litter quality, microbial macronutrients, and pH, which significantly correlate with microbial community successions.

  3. Soil bacterial and fungal diversity differently correlated with soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems in response to environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Dong, Shikui; Gao, Qingzhu; Liu, Shiliang; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wang, Xuexia; Su, Xukun; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-01

    To understand effects of soil microbes on soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems under environmental changes, we explored relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, available nitrogen and phosphorus, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in alpine meadow, alpine steppe and cultivated grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau under three-year warming, enhanced precipitation and yak overgrazing. Soil total nitrogen, organic carbon and NH4-N were little affected by overgrazing, warming or enhanced precipitation in three types of alpine grasslands. Soil microbial biomass carbon and phosphorus along with the sucrase and phosphatase activities were generally stable under different treatments. Soil NO3-N, available phosphorus, urease activity and microbial biomass nitrogen were increased by overgrazing in the cultivated grassland. Soil bacterial diversity was positively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity negatively with soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities. Soil bacterial diversity was negatively correlated with, while soil fungal diversity positively with soil available nutrients. Our findings indicated soil bacteria and fungi played different roles in affecting soil nutrients and microbiological activities that might provide an important implication to understand why soil biochemistry was generally stable under environmental changes in alpine grassland ecosystems.

  4. Common and distinguishing features of the bacterial and fungal communities in biological soil crusts and shrub root zone soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial communities in dryland ecosystems play important roles as root associates of the widely spaced plants and as the dominant members of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) colonizing the plant interspaces. We employed rRNA gene sequencing (bacterial 16S/fungal large subunit) and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to compare the microbial communities inhabiting the root zones of the dominant shrub, Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), and the interspace biocrusts in a Mojave desert shrubland within the Nevada Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Most of the numerically abundant bacteria and fungi were present in both the biocrusts and root zones, although the proportional abundance of those members differed significantly between habitats. Biocrust bacteria were predominantly Cyanobacteria while root zones harbored significantly more Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Pezizomycetes fungi dominated the biocrusts while Dothideomycetes were highest in root zones. Functional gene abundances in metagenome sequence datasets reflected the taxonomic differences noted in the 16S rRNA datasets. For example, functional categories related to photosynthesis, circadian clock proteins, and heterocyst-associated genes were enriched in the biocrusts, where populations of Cyanobacteria were larger. Genes related to potassium metabolism were also more abundant in the biocrusts, suggesting differences in nutrient cycling between biocrusts and root zones. Finally, ten years of elevated atmospheric CO2 did not result in large shifts in taxonomic composition of the bacterial or fungal communities or the functional gene inventories in the shotgun metagenomes.

  5. Sequencing-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal composition of kefir grains and milks from multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Alan J; O'Sullivan, Orla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk-based beverage to which a number of health-promoting properties have been attributed. The microbes responsible for the fermentation of milk to produce kefir consist of a complex association of bacteria and yeasts, bound within a polysaccharide matrix, known as the kefir grain. The consistency of this microbial population, and that present in the resultant beverage, has been the subject of a number of previous, almost exclusively culture-based, studies which have indicated differences depending on geographical location and culture conditions. However, culture-based identification studies are limited by virtue of only detecting species with the ability to grow on the specific medium used and thus culture-independent, molecular-based techniques offer the potential for a more comprehensive analysis of such communities. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the microbial population, both bacterial and fungal, of kefir, using high-throughput sequencing to analyse 25 kefir milks and associated grains sourced from 8 geographically distinct regions. This is the first occasion that this technology has been employed to investigate the fungal component of these populations or to reveal the microbial composition of such an extensive number of kefir grains or milks. As a result several genera and species not previously identified in kefir were revealed. Our analysis shows that the bacterial populations in kefir are dominated by 2 phyla, the Firmicutes and the Proteobacteria. It was also established that the fungal populations of kefir were dominated by the genera Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces and Naumovozyma, but that a variable sub-dominant population also exists.

  6. Sequencing-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal composition of kefir grains and milks from multiple sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Marsh

    Full Text Available Kefir is a fermented milk-based beverage to which a number of health-promoting properties have been attributed. The microbes responsible for the fermentation of milk to produce kefir consist of a complex association of bacteria and yeasts, bound within a polysaccharide matrix, known as the kefir grain. The consistency of this microbial population, and that present in the resultant beverage, has been the subject of a number of previous, almost exclusively culture-based, studies which have indicated differences depending on geographical location and culture conditions. However, culture-based identification studies are limited by virtue of only detecting species with the ability to grow on the specific medium used and thus culture-independent, molecular-based techniques offer the potential for a more comprehensive analysis of such communities. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the microbial population, both bacterial and fungal, of kefir, using high-throughput sequencing to analyse 25 kefir milks and associated grains sourced from 8 geographically distinct regions. This is the first occasion that this technology has been employed to investigate the fungal component of these populations or to reveal the microbial composition of such an extensive number of kefir grains or milks. As a result several genera and species not previously identified in kefir were revealed. Our analysis shows that the bacterial populations in kefir are dominated by 2 phyla, the Firmicutes and the Proteobacteria. It was also established that the fungal populations of kefir were dominated by the genera Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces and Naumovozyma, but that a variable sub-dominant population also exists.

  7. Hybrid combinations containing natural products and antimicrobial drugs that interfere with bacterial and fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchino, Susana A; Butassi, Estefanía; Cordisco, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A

    2017-12-15

    works respectively. Regarding combinations against bacterial biofilms, in vitro studies were performed in all works by using several different methods of higher variety than the used against fungal biofilms. Biofilms of both the gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria were prepared, although biofilm of Staphylococcus spp. were the most used in the collected works. Among the discovered potentiators of antibacterial drugs, 75% were terpenes, including mono, di- and triterpenes, and, among the atibacterial drugs, several structurally diverse types were used in the combinations: aminoglycosides, β-lactams, glucopeptides and fluoroquinolones. The potentiating capacity of natural products, mainly terpenes, on the antibiofilm effect of antimicrobial drugs opens a wide range of possibilities for the combination antimicrobial therapy. More in vivo studies on combinations of natural products with antimicrobial drugs acting against biofilms are highly required to cope the difficult to treat biofilm-associated infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Airborne fungal and bacterial components in PM1 dust from biofuel plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Schlünssen, Vivi; Olsen, Tina; Sigsgaard, Torben; Avci, Hediye

    2009-10-01

    Fungi grown in pure cultures produce DNA- or RNA-containing particles smaller than spore size ( 3)-beta-D-glucans. In the 29 PM(1) samples, cultivable fungi were found in six samples and with a median concentration below detection level. Using microscopy, fungal spores were identified in 22 samples. The components NAGase and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans, which are mainly associated with fungi, were present in all PM(1) samples. Thermophilic actinomycetes were present in 23 of the 29 PM(1) samples [average = 739 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3)]. Cultivable and 'total bacteria' were found in average concentrations of, respectively, 249 CFU m(-3) and 1.8 x 10(5) m(-3). DNA- and RNA-containing particles of different lengths were counted by microscopy and revealed a high concentration of particles with a length of 0.5-1.5 microm and only few particles >1.5 microm. The number of cultivable fungi and beta-glucan in the total dust correlated significantly with the number of DNA/RNA-containing particles with lengths of between 1.0 and 1.5 microm, with DNA/RNA-containing particles >1.5 microm, and with other fungal components in PM(1) dust. Airborne beta-glucan and NAGase were found in PM(1) samples where no cultivable fungi were present, and beta-glucan and NAGase were found in higher concentrations per fungal spore in PM(1) dust than in total dust. This indicates that fungal particles smaller than fungal spore size are present in the air at the plants. Furthermore, many bacteria, including actinomycetes, were present in PM(1) dust. Only 0.2% of the bacteria in PM(1) dust were cultivable.

  9. Species of root-knot nematodes and fungal egg parasites recovered from vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier; Stchigel, Alberto Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería—M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode ...

  10. Structural and functional diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities following woody plant encroachment in the southern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, Emily B [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Ansley, R J [Texas A& M University; Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University

    2010-01-01

    In the southern Great Plains (USA), encroachment of grassland ecosystems by Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite) is widespread. Mesquite encroachment alters net primary productivity, enhances stores of C and N in plants and soil, and leads to increased levels of soil microbial biomass and activity. While mesquite's impact on the biogeochemistry of the region is well established, it effects on soil microbial diversity and function are unknown. In this study, soils associated with four plant types (C{sub 3} perennial grasses, C{sub 4} midgrasses, C{sub 4} shortgrasses, and mesquite) from a mesquite-encroached mixed grass prairie were surveyed to in an attempt to characterize the structure, diversity, and functional capacity of their soil microbial communities. rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used in conjunction with the GeoChip functional gene array to evaluate these potential differences. Mesquite soil supported increased bacterial and fungal diversity and harbored a distinct fungal community relative to other plant types. Despite differences in composition and diversity, few significant differences were detected with respect to the potential functional capacity of the soil microbial communities. These results may suggest that a high level of functional redundancy exists within the bacterial portion of the soil communities; however, given the bias of the GeoChip toward bacterial functional genes, potential functional differences among soil fungi could not be addressed. The results of this study illustrate the linkages shared between above- and belowground communities and demonstrate that soil microbial communities, and in particular soil fungi, may be altered by the process of woody plant encroachment.

  11. A Bacterial Parasite Effector Mediates Insect Vector Attraction in Host Plants Independently of Developmental Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Orlovskis, Zigmunds; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites can take over their hosts and trigger dramatic changes in host appearance and behavior that are typically interpreted as extended phenotypes that promote parasite survival and fitness. For example, Toxoplasma gondii is thought to manipulate the behaviors of infected rodents to aid transmission to cats and parasitic trematodes of the genus Ribeiroia alter limb development in their amphibian hosts to facilitate predation of the latter by birds. Plant parasites and pathogens also repro...

  12. Characterization of the bacterial and fungal microbiome in indoor dust and outdoor air samples: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Blake; Zhou, Yanjiao; Bautista, Eddy J; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Silverman, Frances; Muilenberg, Michael; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Gold, Diane R; Sordillo, Joanne E

    2016-06-15

    Environmental microbes have been associated with both protective and adverse health effects in children and adults. Epidemiological studies often rely on broad biomarkers of microbial exposure (i.e. endotoxin, 1 → 3-beta-d-glucan), but fail to identify the taxonomic composition of the microbial community. Our aim was to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiome in different types of environmental samples collected in studies of human health effects. We determined the composition of microbial communities present in home, school and outdoor air samples by amplifying and sequencing regions of rRNA genes from bacteria (16S) and fungi (18S and ITS). Samples for this pilot study included indoor settled dust (from both a Boston area birth cohort study on Home Allergens and Asthma (HAA) (n = 12) and a study of school exposures and asthma symptoms (SICAS) (n = 1)), as well as fine and coarse concentrated outdoor ambient particulate (CAP) samples (n = 9). Sequencing of amplified 16S, 18S, and ITS regions was performed on the Roche-454 Life Sciences Titanium pyrosequencing platform. Indoor dust samples were dominated by Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria); the most abundant bacterial genera were those related to human flora (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Lactobacillus). Outdoor CAPs were dominated by Gram-negative Proteobacteria from water and soil sources, in particular the genera Acidovorax, and Brevundimonas (which were present at very low levels or entirely absent in indoor dust). Phylum-level fungal distributions identified by 18S or ITS regions showed very similar findings: a predominance of Ascomycota in indoor dust and Basidiomycota in outdoor CAPs. ITS sequencing of fungal genera in indoor dust showed significant proportions of Aureobasidium and Leptosphaerulina along with some contribution from Cryptococcus, Epicoccum, Aspergillus and the human commensal Malassezia. ITS sequencing detected more than 70 fungal genera

  13. Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial, Archaeal, and Fungal Communities Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Alpine Forest Soils: What Are the Driving Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, José A; Margesin, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Shifts in soil microbial communities over altitudinal gradients and the driving factors are poorly studied. Their elucidation is indispensable to gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of ecosystems to global climate change. Here, we investigated soil archaeal, bacterial, and fungal communities at four Alpine forest sites representing a climosequence, over an altitudinal gradient from 545 to 2000 m above sea level (asl), regarding abundance and diversity by using qPCR and Illumina sequencing, respectively. Archaeal community was dominated by Thaumarchaeota, and no significant shifts were detected in abundance or community composition with altitude. The relative bacterial abundance increased at higher altitudes, which was related to increasing levels of soil organic matter and nutrients with altitude. Shifts in bacterial richness and diversity as well as community structure (comprised basically of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) significantly correlated with several environmental and soil chemical factors, especially soil pH. The site at the lowest altitude harbored the highest bacterial richness and diversity, although richness/diversity community properties did not show a monotonic decrease along the gradient. The relative size of fungal community also increased with altitude and its composition comprised Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota. Changes in fungal richness/diversity and community structure were mainly governed by pH and C/N, respectively. The variation of the predominant bacterial and fungal classes over the altitudinal gradient was the result of the environmental and soil chemical factors prevailing at each site.

  14. Are bacterial volatile compounds poisonous odors to a fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, alarm signals to Arabidopsis seedlings for eliciting induced resistance, or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Min eRyu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological control (biocontrol agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR. Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Emerging data suggest that bacterial VOCs also can directly inhibit fungal and plant growth. The aim of the current study was to differentiate direct and indirect mechanisms of bacterial VOC effects against Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis. Volatile emissions from Bacillus subtilis GB03 successfully protected Arabidopsis seedlings against B. cinerea. First, we investigated the direct effects of bacterial VOCs on symptom development and different phenological stages of B. cinerea including spore germination, mycelial attachment to the leaf surface, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro and in planta. Volatile emissions inhibited hyphal growth in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and interfered with fungal attachment on the hydrophobic leaf surface. Second, the optimized bacterial concentration that did not directly inhibit fungal growth successfully protected Arabidopsis from fungal infection, which indicates that bacterial VOC-elicited plant ISR has a more important role in biocontrol than direct inhibition of fungal growth on Arabidopsis. We performed qRT-PCR to investigate the priming of the defense-related genes PR1, PDF1.2, and ChiB at 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours post-infection and 14 days after the start of plant exposure to bacterial VOCs. The results indicate that bacterial VOCs potentiate expression of PR1 and PDF1.2 but not ChiB, which stimulates SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways in plant ISR and protects plants against pathogen

  15. Size Matters: Assessing Optimum Soil Sample Size for Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure Analyses Using High Throughput Sequencing of rRNA Gene Amplicons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ryan Penton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of different soil sample sizes obtained from an agricultural field, under a single cropping system uniform in soil properties and aboveground crop responses, on bacterial and fungal community structure and microbial diversity indices. DNA extracted from soil sample sizes of 0.25, 1, 5 and 10 g using MoBIO kits and from 10 and 100 g sizes using a bead-beating method (SARDI were used as templates for high-throughput sequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA gene amplicons for bacteria and fungi, respectively, on the Illumina MiSeq and Roche 454 platforms. Sample size significantly affected overall bacterial and fungal community structure, replicate dispersion and the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs retrieved. Richness, evenness and diversity were also significantly affected. The largest diversity estimates were always associated with the 10 g MoBIO extractions with a corresponding reduction in replicate dispersion. For the fungal data, smaller MoBIO extractions identified more unclassified Eukaryota incertae sedis and unclassified glomeromycota while the SARDI method retrieved more abundant OTUs containing unclassified Pleosporales and the fungal genera Alternaria and Cercophora. Overall, these findings indicate that a 10 g soil DNA extraction is most suitable for both soil bacterial and fungal communities for retrieving optimal diversity while still capturing rarer taxa in concert with decreasing replicate variation.

  16. Assessment and determinants of airborne bacterial and fungal concentrations in different indoor environments: Homes, child day-care centres, primary schools and elderly care centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João Cavaleiro; Pereira, Cristiana; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    Until now the influence of risk factors resulting from exposure to biological agents in indoor air has been far less studied than outdoor pollution; therefore the uncertainty of health risks, and how to effectively prevent these, remains. This study aimed (i) to quantify airborne cultivable bacterial and fungal concentrations in four different types of indoor environment as well as to identify the recovered fungi; (ii) to assess the impact of outdoor bacterial and fungal concentrations on indoor air; (iii) to investigate the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and relative humidity on bacterial and fungal concentrations; and (iv) to estimate bacterial and fungal dose rate for children (3-5 years old and 8-10 years old) in comparison with the elderly. Air samples were collected in 68 homes, 9 child day-care centres, 20 primary schools and 22 elderly care centres, in a total of 264 rooms with a microbiological air sampler and using tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar culture media for bacteria and fungi growth, respectively. For each building, one outdoor representative location were identified and simultaneously studied. The results showed that child day-care centres were the indoor microenvironment with the highest median bacterial and fungal concentrations (3870 CFU/m3 and 415 CFU/m3, respectively), whereas the lowest median concentrations were observed in elderly care centres (222 CFU/m3 and 180 CFU/m3, respectively). Indoor bacterial concentrations were significantly higher than outdoor concentrations (p occupancy and insufficient ventilation. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most frequently occurring fungi. Children's had two times higher dose rate to biological pollutants when compared to adult individuals. Thus, due to children's susceptibility, special attention should be given to educational settings in order to guarantee their healthy future development.

  17. Inhibition of bacterial and filamentous fungal growth in high moisture, nonsterile corn with intermittent pumping of trans-2-hexenal vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Anthony J; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Boué, Stephen M; Lovisa, Mary P; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2013-07-01

    Trans-2-hexenal (T2H), a plant-produced aldehyde, was intermittently pumped over a 7 d period into a small, bench top model of stored corn (nonsterile, moisture content about 23%). Naturally occurring bacteria and fungi, including added Aspergillus flavus, grew rapidly on corn not treated with T2H vapor. However, intermittently pumped T2H (30 min per 2 h or 30 min per 12 h) significantly reduced bacterial and fungal viable populations, with nearly 100% fungal viability loss observed after either (1) one day of pumping at the 30 min per 2 h rate or (2) pumping cycles of 30 min per 12 h period over the initial 48 to 72 h of incubation. Data suggest that short-term intermittent fumigation of stored corn with T2H could prevent growth of bacteria and mycotoxigenic fungi such as A. flavus. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  18. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tardy

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland. Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health.

  19. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed; Heuer, Holger; Hallmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  20. Structure and composition of bacterial and fungal community in soil under soybean monoculture in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D Bresolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important oilseed cultivated in the world and Brazil is the second major producer. Expansion of soybean cultivation has direct and indirect impacts on natural habitats of high conservation value, such as the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado. In addition to deforestation, land conversion includes the use of fertilizers and pesticides and can lead to changes in the soil microbial communities. This study evaluated the soil bacterial and fungal communities and the microbial biomass C in a native Cerrado and in a similar no-tillage soybean monoculture area using PCR-DGGE and sequencing of bands. Compared to the native area, microbial biomass C was lower in the soybean area and cluster analysis indicated that the structure of soil microbial communities differed. 16S and 18S rDNA dendrograms analysis did not show differences between row and inter-row samples, but microbial biomass C values were higher in inter-rows during soybean fructification and harvest. The study pointed to different responses and alterations in bacterial and fungal communities due to soil cover changes (fallow x growth period and crop development. These changes might be related to differences in the pattern of root exudates affecting the soil microbial community. Among the bands chosen for sequencing there was a predominance of actinobacteria, y-proteobacteria and ascomycetous divisions. Even under no-tillage management methods, the soil microbial community was affected due to changes in the soil cover and crop development, hence warning of the impacts caused by changes in land use.

  1. Wholly Rickettsia! Reconstructed Metabolic Profile of the Quintessential Bacterial Parasite of Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Driscoll

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reductive genome evolution has purged many metabolic pathways from obligate intracellular Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiaceae. While some aspects of host-dependent rickettsial metabolism have been characterized, the array of host-acquired metabolites and their cognate transporters remains unknown. This dearth of information has thwarted efforts to obtain an axenic Rickettsia culture, a major impediment to conventional genetic approaches. Using phylogenomics and computational pathway analysis, we reconstructed the Rickettsia metabolic and transport network, identifying 51 host-acquired metabolites (only 21 previously characterized needed to compensate for degraded biosynthesis pathways. In the absence of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, cell envelope glycoconjugates are synthesized from three imported host sugars, with a range of additional host-acquired metabolites fueling the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fatty acid and glycerophospholipid pathways also initiate from host precursors, and import of both isoprenes and terpenoids is required for the synthesis of ubiquinone and the lipid carrier of lipid I and O-antigen. Unlike metabolite-provisioning bacterial symbionts of arthropods, rickettsiae cannot synthesize B vitamins or most other cofactors, accentuating their parasitic nature. Six biosynthesis pathways contain holes (missing enzymes; similar patterns in taxonomically diverse bacteria suggest alternative enzymes that await discovery. A paucity of characterized and predicted transporters emphasizes the knowledge gap concerning how rickettsiae import host metabolites, some of which are large and not known to be transported by bacteria. Collectively, our reconstructed metabolic network offers clues to how rickettsiae hijack host metabolic pathways. This blueprint for growth determinants is an important step toward the design of axenic media to rescue rickettsiae from the eukaryotic cell.

  2. Bacterial and parasitic zoonoses encountered at slaughter in Maiduguri abattoir, Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Emmanuel Garba

    Full Text Available An abattoir survey to determine the prevalence of zoonotic diseases encountered at postmortem examination of organs and carcasses was conducted in Maiduguri municipality, Nigeria, between 2000 and 2009. A total of 1,378,066 animals were examined and slaughtered from which 403,560 were cattle, 381,601 goats, 373,567 sheep and 219,308 camels. Out of these numbers, a total of 14,944 bacterial and parasitic zoonotic diseases were diagnosed which included tuberculosis (67.6%, dermatophilosis (15.8%, mange (16.7%, fascioliasis (1.5% and hydatidosis (4.3%. Occurrence of the diseases based on sex, species of animals and season of the year did not show any significant difference (P>0.05. It was not possible to get the exact records on breed and age for each slaughtered animal due to poor recording systems at the abattoir. With regards to the type of animals brought for slaughter, almost all animals come from the traditional sector and it was difficult to precisely trace back the geographical origins of all animals slaughtered due to lack of reliable animal identification method and so relating the finding of the study to a particular locality becomes difficult. Species-specific prevalence of tuberculosis was 1.6%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.3% for cattle, sheep, goats and camels respectively with a 0.7% crude prevalence. Analysis of the tuberculosis cases showed a high rate of occurrence in cattle (P<0.05 and the most affected organs were the lungs (55.1% and associated lymph nodes (27.7% (P<0.05. It was concluded that zoonotic diseases such as tuberculosis, dermatophilosis and mange are endemic in the study area. Abattoir records are invaluable in epidemiological surveillance and other aspects of disease control and prevention strategies. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 437-443

  3. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial and fungal biomass and carbon dioxide production in Louisiana coastal swamp forest sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal and bacterial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production/emission was determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, + 100, + 250 and + 400 mV) covering the anaerobic range found in wetland soil and sediment. Carbon dioxide production was determined by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition method. Cycloheximide (C 15 H 23 NO 4 ) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C 21 H 39 N 7 O 12 ) as the bacterial inhibitor. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > + 250 mV), fungi contributed more than bacteria to the CO 2 production. Under highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), bacteria contributed more than fungi to the total CO 2 production. The fungi/bacteria (F/B) ratios varied between 0.71-1.16 for microbial biomass C, and 0.54-0.94 for microbial biomass N. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the F/B ratios for microbial biomass C and N were higher than that for highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV). In moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 13.54-14.26) was slightly higher than for bacteria (C/N: 9.61-12.07). Under highly reducing redox conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 10.79-12.41) was higher than for bacteria (C/N: 8.21-9.14). For bacteria and fungi, the C/N microbial biomass ratios under moderately reducing conditions were higher than that in highly reducing conditions. Fungal CO 2 production from swamp forest could be of greater ecological significance under moderately reducing sediment conditions contributing to the greenhouse effect (GHE) and the global warming potential (GWP). However, increases in coastal submergence associated with global sea level rise and resultant decrease in sediment redox potential from increased flooding would likely shift CO 2 production to bacteria

  4. The bacterial-fungal energy channel concept challenged by enormous functional versatility of soil protists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Protists (=protozoa) are commonly treated as bacterivores that control the bacterial energy channel in soil food webs. This ecologist’s perspective is, however, challenged by taxonomic studies showing that a range of protists feed on fungi, other protists and even nematodes. Recently, it was

  5. The bacterial-fungal energy channel concept challenged by enormous functional versatility of soil protists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protists (=protozoa) are commonly treated as bacterivores that control the bacterial energy channel in soil food webs. This ecologist’s perspective is, however, challenged by taxonomic studies showing that a range of protists feed on fungi, other protists and even nematodes. Recently, it

  6. Upscaling of fungal-bacterial interactions: from the lab to the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.

    2017-01-01

    Fungal–bacterial interactions (FBI) are an integral component of microbial community networks in terrestrial ecosystems. During the last decade, the attention for FBI has increased tremendously. For a wide variety of FBI, information has become available on the mechanisms and functional responses.

  7. Fungal innate immunity induced by bacterial microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ip Cho, Simon; Sundelin, Thomas; Erbs, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    generation, transport, amino acid production, secondary metabolism, and especially iron uptake were detected for all three. Half of the genes related to iron uptake were predicted MirA type transporters that potentially take up bacterial siderophores. These quick responses can be viewed as a preparation...

  8. Fungal and bacterial metabolites of stored maize (Zea mays, L.) from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Modupeade; Atanda, Olusegun; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Warth, Benedikt; Beltrán, Eduardo; Krska, Rudolf; Obadina, Olusegun; Bakare, Adegoke; Chilaka, Cynthia A

    2014-05-01

    Seventy composite samples of maize grains stored in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Nigeria where maize is predominantly produced were evaluated for the presence of microbial metabolites with the LC-MS/MS technique. The possible relationships between the storage structures and levels of mycotoxin contamination were also evaluated. Sixty-two fungal and four bacterial metabolites were extracted from the grains, 54 of which have not been documented for maize in Nigeria. Aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 were quantified in 67.1 and 92.9% of the grains, while 64.1 and 57.1% exceeded the European Union Commission maximum acceptable limit (MAL) for aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins, respectively. The concentration of deoxynivalenol was, however, below the MAL with occurrence levels of 100 and 10% for its masked metabolite, deoxynivalenol glucoside. The bacterial metabolites had low concentrations and were not a source of concern. The storage structures significantly correlated positively or negatively (p may therefore expose the population to mycotoxin contamination. There is need for an immediate action plan for mycotoxin mitigation in Nigeria, especially in the Derived Savannah zone, in view of the economic and public health importance of the toxins.

  9. Effect of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone on the activity and stability of alpha-amylase: a comparative study on bacterial, fungal, and mammalian enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Larijani, Bagher; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was recently introduced as an activator of mammalian alpha-amylase. In the current study, the effect of NHDC has been investigated on bacterial and fungal alpha-amylases. Enzyme assays and kinetic analysis demonstrated the capability of NHDC to significantly activate both tested alpha-amylases. The ligand activation pattern was found to be more similar between the fungal and mammalian enzyme in comparison with the bacterial one. Further, thermostability experiments indicated a stability increase in the presence of NHDC for the bacterial enzyme. In silico (docking) test locates a putative binding site for NHDC on alpha-amylase surface in domain B. This domain shows differences in various alpha-amylase types, and the different behavior of the ligand toward the studied enzymes may be attributed to this fact. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Isotope Effects Associated with N2O Production by Fungal and Bacterial Nitric Oxide Reductases: Implications for Enzyme Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, E. L.; Yang, H.; Gandhi, H.; McQuarters, A.; Lehnert, N.; Ostrom, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is both a powerful greenhouse gas and a key participant in ozone destruction. Microbial activity accounts for over 70% of the N2O produced annually, and the atmospheric concentration of N2O continues to rise. Because the fungal and bacterial denitrification pathways are major contributors to microbial N2O production, understanding the mechanism by which NO is reduced to N2O will contribute to both N2O source tracing and quantification. Our strategy utilizes stable isotopes to probe the enzymatic mechanism of microbial N2O production. Although the use of stable isotopes to study enzyme mechanisms is not new, our approach is distinct in that we employ both measurements of isotopic preferences of purified enzyme and DFT calculations, thereby providing a synergistic combination of experimental and computational approaches. We analyzed δ18O, δ15Nα (central N atom in N2O), and δ15Nβ (terminal N atom) of N2O produced by purified fungal cytochrome P450 nitric oxide reductase (P450nor) from Histoplasma capsulatum as well as bacterial cytochrome c dependent nitric oxide reductase (cNOR) from Paracoccus denitrificans. P450nor exhibits an inverse kinetic isotope effect for Nβ (KIE = 0.9651) but a normal isotope effect for both Nα (KIE = 1.0127) and the oxygen atom (KIE = 1.0264). These results suggest a mechanism where NO binds to the ferric heme in the P450nor active site and becomes Nβ. Analysis of the NO-binding step indicated a greater difference in zero point energy in the transition state than the ground state, resulting in the inverse KIE observed for Nβ. Following protonation and rearrangement, it is speculated that this complex forms a FeIV-NHOH- species as a key intermediate. Our data are consistent with the second NO (which becomes Nα and O in the N2O product) attacking the FeIV-NHOH- species to generate a FeIII-N2O2H2 complex that enzymatically (as opposed to abiotically) breaks down to release N2O. Conversely, our preliminary data

  11. Identification of airborne bacterial and fungal species in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a university teaching hospital employing ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and gene sequencing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yuriko; Walker, Jim; Loughrey, Anne; Millar, Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin; Rooney, Paul; Elborn, Stuart; Moore, John

    2009-06-01

    Universal or "broad-range" PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27/30 (90%) of total bacterial species, consisting of seven genera and included (in descending order of frequency) Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter and Rothia. Gram-negative organisms were less frequently isolated 3/30 (10%) and comprised three genera, including Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Haloanella. Eight fungal genera were identified among the 28 fungal organisms isolated, including (in descending order of frequency) Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Thanatephorus, Absidia, Eurotium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Tritirachium, with Cladosporium accounting for 10/28 (35.7%) of the total fungal isolates. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of 10 bacterial and eight fungal genera in the air within the laboratory sampled. Although this reflected diversity of the microorganisms present, none of these organisms have been described previously as having an inhalational route of laboratory-acquired infection. Therefore, we believe that the species of organisms identified and the concentration levels of these airborne contaminants determined, do not pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompotent laboratory personnel and visitors.

  12. A Bacterial Parasite Effector Mediates Insect Vector Attraction in Host Plants Independently of Developmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovskis, Zigmunds; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites can take over their hosts and trigger dramatic changes in host appearance and behavior that are typically interpreted as extended phenotypes that promote parasite survival and fitness. For example, Toxoplasma gondii is thought to manipulate the behaviors of infected rodents to aid transmission to cats and parasitic trematodes of the genus Ribeiroia alter limb development in their amphibian hosts to facilitate predation of the latter by birds. Plant parasites and pathogens also reprogram host development and morphology. However, whereas some parasite-induced morphological alterations may have a direct benefit to the fitness of the parasite and may therefore be adaptive, other host alterations may be side effects of parasite infections having no adaptive effects on parasite fitness. Phytoplasma parasites of plants often induce the development of leaf-like flowers (phyllody) in their host plants, and we previously found that the phytoplasma effector SAP54 generates these leaf-like flowers via the degradation of plant MADS-box transcription factors (MTFs), which regulate all major aspects of development in plants. Leafhoppers prefer to reproduce on phytoplasma-infected and SAP54-trangenic plants leading to the hypothesis that leafhopper vectors are attracted to plants with leaf-like flowers. Surprisingly, here we show that leafhopper attraction occurs independently of the presence of leaf-like flowers. First, the leafhoppers were also attracted to SAP54 transgenic plants without leaf-like flowers and to single leaves of these plants. Moreover, leafhoppers were not attracted to leaf-like flowers of MTF-mutant plants without the presence of SAP54. Thus, the primary role of SAP54 is to attract leafhopper vectors, which spread the phytoplasmas, and the generation of leaf-like flowers may be secondary or a side effect of the SAP54-mediated degradation of MTFs. PMID:27446117

  13. A Bacterial Parasite Effector Mediates Insect Vector Attraction in Host Plants Independently of Developmental Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovskis, Zigmunds; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2016-01-01

    Parasites can take over their hosts and trigger dramatic changes in host appearance and behavior that are typically interpreted as extended phenotypes that promote parasite survival and fitness. For example, Toxoplasma gondii is thought to manipulate the behaviors of infected rodents to aid transmission to cats and parasitic trematodes of the genus Ribeiroia alter limb development in their amphibian hosts to facilitate predation of the latter by birds. Plant parasites and pathogens also reprogram host development and morphology. However, whereas some parasite-induced morphological alterations may have a direct benefit to the fitness of the parasite and may therefore be adaptive, other host alterations may be side effects of parasite infections having no adaptive effects on parasite fitness. Phytoplasma parasites of plants often induce the development of leaf-like flowers (phyllody) in their host plants, and we previously found that the phytoplasma effector SAP54 generates these leaf-like flowers via the degradation of plant MADS-box transcription factors (MTFs), which regulate all major aspects of development in plants. Leafhoppers prefer to reproduce on phytoplasma-infected and SAP54-trangenic plants leading to the hypothesis that leafhopper vectors are attracted to plants with leaf-like flowers. Surprisingly, here we show that leafhopper attraction occurs independently of the presence of leaf-like flowers. First, the leafhoppers were also attracted to SAP54 transgenic plants without leaf-like flowers and to single leaves of these plants. Moreover, leafhoppers were not attracted to leaf-like flowers of MTF-mutant plants without the presence of SAP54. Thus, the primary role of SAP54 is to attract leafhopper vectors, which spread the phytoplasmas, and the generation of leaf-like flowers may be secondary or a side effect of the SAP54-mediated degradation of MTFs.

  14. Immunoglobulin (Ig) D in Labeo rohita is widely expressed and differentially modulated in viral, bacterial and parasitic antigenic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Madhubanti; Lenka, Saswati S; Paichha, Mahismita; Swain, Banikalyan; Patel, Bhakti; Banerjee, Rajanya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das, Surajit; Samanta, Mrinal

    2016-10-15

    Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in protecting host against diverse pathogenic invasion and diseases. Among all Ig isotypes, IgD is the most recently-evolved and enigmatic molecule detected in all vertebrates species except birds. In South-East Asia, Labeo rohita (rohu) is the leading candidate fish species for freshwater aquaculture, and this article describes about IgD gene expression in rohu following viral, bacterial and parasitic antigenic challenges. The partial cDNA (761bp) of Labeo rohita-IgD (LrIgD) was cloned and submitted in the GenBank with the accession no KT883581. Phylogenetically, LrIgD was closely related to grass carp IgD. Analysis of LrIgD gene expression in juveniles by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay revealed gradual increase in IgD expression with the advancement of time. In the healthy rohu fingerlings, LrIgD expression occurred predominantly in kidney followed by liver and spleen. In response to rhabdoviral antigenic stimulation, LrIgD expression was significantly enhanced in all tested tissues. In bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) infection, transcripts of LrIgD increased more dramatically in liver followed by kidney and gill. In parasitic (Argulus) infection, most significant expression of IgD was noted in the skin, followed by kidney, liver, spleen and gill. These results collectively suggest the key role of IgD in the immune response of rohu during viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Overlapping Podospora anserina transcriptional responses to bacterial and fungal non self indicate a multilayered innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eLamacchia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI, a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the

  16. Overlapping Podospora anserina Transcriptional Responses to Bacterial and Fungal Non Self Indicate a Multilayered Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamacchia, Marina; Dyrka, Witold; Breton, Annick; Saupe, Sven J; Paoletti, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI), a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR) immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most

  17. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species.

  18. Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

  19. Reactivity of bacterial and fungal laccases with lignin under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Raquel; Saastamoinen, Päivi; Hernández, Manuel; Suurnäkki, Anna; Arias, Enriqueta; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa

    2011-11-01

    The ability of Streptomyces ipomoea laccase to polymerize secoisolariciresinol lignan and technical lignins was assessed. The reactivity of S. ipomoea laccase was also compared to that of low redox fungal laccase from Melanocarpus albomyces using low molecular mass p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acid as well as natural (acetosyringone) and synthetic 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) mediators as substrates. Oxygen consumption measurement, MALDI-TOF MS and SEC were used to follow the enzymatic reactions at pH 7, 8, 9 and 10 at 30°C and 50°C. Polymerization of lignins and lignan by S. ipomoea laccase under alkaline reaction conditions was observed, and was enhanced in the presence of acetosyringone almost to the level obtained with M. albomyces laccase without mediator. Reactivities of the enzymes towards acetosyringone and TEMPO were similar, suggesting exploitation of the compounds and low redox laccase in lignin valorization under alkaline conditions. The results have scientific impact on basic research of laccases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of ectomycorrhizosphere on the functional diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities from a forest stand in relation to nutrient mobilization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, Christophe; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Frey-Klett, Pascale

    2007-10-01

    The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis alters the physicochemical and biological conditions in the surrounding soil, thus creating a particular environment called ectomycorrhizosphere, which selects microbial communities suspected to play a role in gross production and nutrient cycling. To assess the ectomycorrhizosphere effect on the structure of microbial communities potentially involved in the mobilization of nutrients from the soil minerals in a poor-nutrient environment, we compared the functional diversity of soil and ectomycorrhizosphere bacterial communities in a forest stand. Two hundred and sixty-four bacterial strains and 107 fungal strains were isolated from the bulk soil of an oak (Quercus petraea) stand and from oak-Scleroderma citrinum ectomycorrhizosphere and ectomycorrhizae, in two soil organo-mineral horizons (0 to 3 cm and 5 to 10 cm). They were characterized using two in vitro tests related to their capacities to mobilize iron and phosphorus. We demonstrated that the oak-S. citrinum ectomycorrhizosphere significantly structures the culturable bacterial communities in the two soil horizons by selecting very efficient strains for phosphorus and iron mobilization. This effect was also observed on the diversity of the phosphate-solubilizing fungal communities in the lower soil horizon. A previous study already demonstrated that Laccaria bicolor-Douglas fir ectomycorrhizosphere structures the functional diversity of Pseudomonas fluorescens population in a forest nursery soil. Comparing to it, our work highlights the consistency of the mycorrhizosphere effect on the functional diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in relation to the mineral weathering process, no matter the fungal symbiont, the age and species of the host tree, or the environment (nursery vs forest). We also demonstrated that the intensity of phosphorus and iron mobilization by the ectomycorrhizosphere bacteria isolated from the lower soil horizon was significantly higher compared to

  1. Persistence of Innate Immune Pathways in Late Stage Human Bacterial and Fungal Keratitis: Results from a Comparative Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Jaya D; Kannambath, Shichina; Srikanthi, Palepu; Shah, Manisha; Lalitha, Prajna; Elakkiya, Shanmugam; Bauer, Julien; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V; Holland, Martin J; Burton, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    Microbial keratitis (MK) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Despite adequate antimicrobial treatment, tissue damage can ensue. We compared the human corneal transcriptional profile in late stage MK to normal corneal tissue to identify pathways involved in pathogenesis. Total RNA from MK tissue and normal cadaver corneas was used to determine transcriptome profiles with Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 beadchips. We performed differential expression and network analysis of genes in bacterial keratitis (BK) and fungal keratitis (FK) compared with control (C) samples. Results were validated by RTqPCR for 45 genes in an independent series of 183 MK patients. For the microarray transcriptome analysis, 27 samples were used: 12 controls, 7 BK culture positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae ( n = 6), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( n = 1), and 8 FK, culture positive for Fusarium sp. ( n = 5), Aspergillus sp. ( n = 2), or Lasiodiplodia sp. ( n = 1). There were 185 unique differentially expressed genes in BK, 50 in FK, and 339 common to both [i.e., genes with fold-change (FC) < -4 or ≥4 and false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted P < 0.05]. MMP9 had the highest FC in BK (91 FC, adj p = 3.64 E-12) and FK (FC 64, adj. p = 6.10 E-11), along with other MMPs ( MMP1, MMP7, MMP10, MMP12 ), pro-inflammatory cytokines ( IL1B, TNF) , and PRRs ( TLR2, TLR4) . HIF1A and its induced genes were upregulated uniquely in BK. Immune/defense response and extracellular matrix terms were the most enriched Gene Ontology terms in both BK and FK. In the network analysis, chemokines were prominent for FK, and actin filament reorganization for BK. Microarray and RTqPCR results were highly correlated for the same samples tested with both assays, and with the larger RTqPCR series. In conclusion, we found a great deal of overlap in the gene expression profile of late stage BK and FK, however genes unique to fungal infection highlighted a corneal epithelial wound healing response and for bacterial infection the

  2. Nanolitre real-time PCR detection of bacterial, parasitic, and viral agents from patients with diarrhoea in Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Goldfarb

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about the microbiology of diarrhoeal disease in Canada's Arctic regions. There are a number of limitations of conventional microbiology testing techniques for diarrhoeal pathogens, and these may be further compromised in the Arctic, given the often long distances for specimen transport. Objective. To develop a novel multiple-target nanolitre real-time reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR platform to simultaneously test diarrhoeal specimens collected from residents of the Qikiqtani (Baffin Island Region of Nunavut, Canada, for a wide range of bacterial, parasitic and viral agents. Study design/methods. Diarrhoeal stool samples submitted for bacterial culture to Qikiqtani General Hospital in Nunavut over an 18-month period were tested with a multiple-target nanolitre real-time PCR panel for major diarrhoeal pathogens including 8 bacterial, 6 viral and 2 parasitic targets. Results. Among 86 stool specimens tested by PCR, a total of 50 pathogens were detected with 1 or more pathogens found in 40 (46.5% stool specimens. The organisms detected comprised 17 Cryptosporidium spp., 5 Clostridium difficile with toxin B, 6 Campylobacter spp., 6 Salmonella spp., 4 astroviruses, 3 noroviruses, 1 rotavirus, 1 Shigella spp. and 1 Giardia spp. The frequency of detection by PCR and bacterial culture was similar for Salmonella spp., but discrepant for Campylobacter spp., as Campylobacter was detected by culture from only 1/86 specimens. Similarly, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in multiple samples by PCR but was not detected by microscopy or enzyme immunoassay. Conclusions. Cryptosporidium spp., Campylobacter spp. and Clostridium difficile may be relatively common but possibly under-recognised pathogens in this region. Further study is needed to determine the regional epidemiology and clinical significance of these organisms. This method appears to be a useful tool for gastrointestinal pathogen research and may also be helpful for clinical

  3. Rhizoctonia solani infection reduced by bacterial and fungal combination of biofertilizer inoculums on organic potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Orsolya; Biro, Borbala; Abod, Eva; Jung, Timea; Tirczka, Imre; Drexler, Dora

    2017-04-01

    Soil biological functioning and proper agrotechnical management are of key importance in organic agriculture. Beneficial microbial inoculums are used either as plant strengthening products (psp) or also as plant protecting products (ppp). Question is, which type of microbes should be applied to certain soil-plant systems to improve yield or reduce the damage of soil-born plant pathogens? Objective of present study was to compare the effect of inoculums 1 (PPS) with plant growth promoting bacterium strains (PGPR) and inoculums 2 (TPB) with potential biocontrol-agents, including both fungi and bacteria in organic potato production. Field experiment was conducted at the Organic Research Station of the Szent István University (Babatpuszta, Hungary). Growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Demon) was studied in the two microbial treatments and control, in four replicates. The PPS inoculums included Pseudomonas protegens, Ps. jessenii and Strenotrophomonas maltophylia, with plant growth promoting (PGPR) effect. TPB inoculums consisted of Trichoderma hartianum, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis strains with main biocontrol effects of fungal and bacterium combination. Strains were incubated for 24 hours at 28 oC in a rotary shaker (140 rpm/min) up till cell-number about 1010 cell.ml-1 in Nutrient broth substrate, and mixed to prepare combined inoculums. Each potato tuber was treated by 10 ml inoculums that was added to 100 ml water respectively with only water at the controls. Yield of potato (10 plants/plot) and tuber quality, i.e. the percentage ratio of scabbiness (Streptomyces scabies), Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium sp. infection was estimated. Abundance of total aerob and anaerob heterotrophs, total microscopic fungi, pseudomonads bacteria and some sporeforming microorganisms was assessed by the most probable number (MPN) method in soil samples, collected four times during vegetation. Soil enzyme, dehydrogenase (DH) and fluorescein diacetate

  4. A bacterial type III secretion assay for delivery of fungal effector proteins into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Mago, Rohit; Staskawicz, Brian J; Ayliffe, Michael A; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-03-01

    Large numbers of candidate effectors from fungal pathogens are being identified through whole-genome sequencing and in planta expression studies. Although Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression has enabled high-throughput functional analysis of effectors in dicot plants, this assay is not effective in cereal leaves. Here, we show that a nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens engineered to express the type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. syringae and the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens can deliver fusion proteins containing T3SS signals from P. syringae (AvrRpm1) and X. campestris (AvrBs2) avirulence (Avr) proteins, respectively, into wheat leaf cells. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter protein was delivered effectively into wheat and barley by both bacteria. Absence of any disease symptoms with P. fluorescens makes it more suitable than X. translucens for detecting a hypersensitive response (HR) induced by an effector protein with avirulence activity. We further modified the delivery system by removal of the myristoylation site from the AvrRpm1 fusion to prevent its localization to the plasma membrane which could inhibit recognition of an Avr protein. Delivery of the flax rust AvrM protein by the modified delivery system into transgenic tobacco leaves expressing the corresponding M resistance protein induced a strong HR, indicating that the system is capable of delivering a functional rust Avr protein. In a preliminary screen of effectors from the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, we identified one effector that induced a host genotype-specific HR in wheat. Thus, the modified AvrRpm1:effector-Pseudomonas fluorescens system is an effective tool for large-scale screening of pathogen effectors for recognition in wheat.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Illeghems

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni. Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

  7. Effects of stand age and soil properties on soil bacterial and fungal community composition in Chinese pine plantations on the Loess Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dang

    Full Text Available The effects of Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis on soil variables after afforestation have been established, but microbial community changes still need to be explored. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we analyzed bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity in soils from three stands of different-aged, designated 12-year-old (PF1, 29-year-old (PF2, and 53-year-old (PF3, on a Chinese pine plantation and from a natural secondary forest (NSF stand that was almost 80 years old. Abandoned farmland (BL was also analyzed. Shannon index values of both bacterial and fungal community in PF1 were greater than those in PF2, PF3 and NSF. Proteobacteria had the lowest abundance in BL, and the abundance increased with stand age. The abundance of Actinobacteria was greater in BL and PF1 soils than those in other sites. Among fungal communities, the dominant taxa were Ascomycota in BL and PF1 and Basidiomycota in PF2, PF3 and NSF, which reflected the successional patterns of fungal communities during the development of Chinese pine plantations. Therefore, the diversity and dominant taxa of soil microbial community in stands 12 and 29 years of age appear to have undergone significant changes; afterward, the soil microbial community achieved a relatively stable state. Furthermore, the abundances of the most dominant bacterial and fungal communities correlated significantly with organic C, total N, C:N, available N, and available P, indicating the dependence of these microbes on soil nutrients. Overall, our findings suggest that the large changes in the soil microbial community structure of Chinese pine plantation forests may be attributed to the phyla present (e.g., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota which were affected by soil carbon and nutrients in the Loess Plateau.

  8. Effects of stand age and soil properties on soil bacterial and fungal community composition in Chinese pine plantations on the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Peng; Yu, Xuan; Le, Hien; Liu, Jinliang; Shen, Zhen; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The effects of Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) on soil variables after afforestation have been established, but microbial community changes still need to be explored. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we analyzed bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity in soils from three stands of different-aged, designated 12-year-old (PF1), 29-year-old (PF2), and 53-year-old (PF3), on a Chinese pine plantation and from a natural secondary forest (NSF) stand that was almost 80 years old. Abandoned farmland (BL) was also analyzed. Shannon index values of both bacterial and fungal community in PF1 were greater than those in PF2, PF3 and NSF. Proteobacteria had the lowest abundance in BL, and the abundance increased with stand age. The abundance of Actinobacteria was greater in BL and PF1 soils than those in other sites. Among fungal communities, the dominant taxa were Ascomycota in BL and PF1 and Basidiomycota in PF2, PF3 and NSF, which reflected the successional patterns of fungal communities during the development of Chinese pine plantations. Therefore, the diversity and dominant taxa of soil microbial community in stands 12 and 29 years of age appear to have undergone significant changes; afterward, the soil microbial community achieved a relatively stable state. Furthermore, the abundances of the most dominant bacterial and fungal communities correlated significantly with organic C, total N, C:N, available N, and available P, indicating the dependence of these microbes on soil nutrients. Overall, our findings suggest that the large changes in the soil microbial community structure of Chinese pine plantation forests may be attributed to the phyla present (e.g., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) which were affected by soil carbon and nutrients in the Loess Plateau.

  9. Design and characterization of synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for direct production of isobutanol from cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minty, Jeremy J; Singer, Marc E; Scholz, Scott A; Bae, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Foster, Clifton E; Liao, James C; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

    2013-09-03

    Synergistic microbial communities are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit appealing features, such as sophisticated metabolic capabilities and robustness. This has inspired fast-growing interest in engineering synthetic microbial consortia for biotechnology development. However, there are relatively few reports of their use in real-world applications, and achieving population stability and regulation has proven to be challenging. In this work, we bridge ecology theory with engineering principles to develop robust synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for efficient biosynthesis of valuable products from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The required biological functions are divided between two specialists: the fungus Trichoderma reesei, which secretes cellulase enzymes to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass into soluble saccharides, and the bacterium Escherichia coli, which metabolizes soluble saccharides into desired products. We developed and experimentally validated a comprehensive mathematical model for T. reesei/E. coli consortia, providing insights on key determinants of the system's performance. To illustrate the bioprocessing potential of this consortium, we demonstrate direct conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and pretreated corn stover to isobutanol. Without costly nutrient supplementation, we achieved titers up to 1.88 g/L and yields up to 62% of theoretical maximum. In addition, we show that cooperator-cheater dynamics within T. reesei/E. coli consortia lead to stable population equilibria and provide a mechanism for tuning composition. Although we offer isobutanol production as a proof-of-concept application, our modular system could be readily adapted for production of many other valuable biochemicals.

  10. Comparison of the efficiency of bacterial and fungal laccases in delignification and detoxification of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, María; Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Eugenio, María E; Blánquez, Alba; Hernández, Manuel; Arias, María E; Ibarra, David

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluates the potential of a bacterial laccase from Streptomyces ipomoeae (SilA) for delignification and detoxification of steam-exploded wheat straw, in comparison with a commercial fungal laccase from Trametes villosa. When alkali extraction followed by SilA laccase treatment was applied to the water insoluble solids fraction, a slight reduction in lignin content was detected, and after a saccharification step, an increase in both glucose and xylose production (16 and 6%, respectively) was observed. These effects were not produced with T. villosa laccase. Concerning to the fermentation process, the treatment of the steam-exploded whole slurry with both laccases produced a decrease in the phenol content by up to 35 and 71% with bacterial and fungal laccases, respectively. The phenols reduction resulted in an improved performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, improving ethanol production rate. This enhancement was more marked with a presaccharification step prior to the SSF process.

  11. How does conversion of natural tropical rainforest ecosystems affect soil bacterial and fungal communities in the Nile river watershed of Uganda?

    OpenAIRE

    Alele, Peter O; Sheil, Douglas; Surget-Groba, Yann; Lingling, Shi; Cannon, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Uganda's forests are globally important for their conservation values but are under pressure from increasing human population and consumption. In this study, we examine how conversion of natural forest affects soil bacterial and fungal communities. Comparisons in paired natural forest and human-converted sites among four locations indicated that natural forest soils consistently had higher pH, organic carbon, nitrogen, and calcium, although variation among sites was large. Despite these diffe...

  12. Sloth hair as a novel source of fungi with potent anti-parasitic, anti-cancer and anti-bacterial bioactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Higginbotham

    Full Text Available The extraordinary biological diversity of tropical forests harbors a rich chemical diversity with enormous potential as a source of novel bioactive compounds. Of particular interest are new environments for microbial discovery. Sloths--arboreal mammals commonly found in the lowland forests of Panama--carry a wide variety of micro- and macro-organisms on their coarse outer hair. Here we report for the first time the isolation of diverse and bioactive strains of fungi from sloth hair, and their taxonomic placement. Eighty-four isolates of fungi were obtained in culture from the surface of hair that was collected from living three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus, Bradypodidae in Soberanía National Park, Republic of Panama. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a diverse group of Ascomycota belonging to 28 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs, several of which are divergent from previously known taxa. Seventy-four isolates were cultivated in liquid broth and crude extracts were tested for bioactivity in vitro. We found a broad range of activities against strains of the parasites that cause malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi, and against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Fifty fungal extracts were tested for antibacterial activity in a new antibiotic profile screen called BioMAP; of these, 20 were active against at least one bacterial strain, and one had an unusual pattern of bioactivity against Gram-negative bacteria that suggests a potentially new mode of action. Together our results reveal the importance of exploring novel environments for bioactive fungi, and demonstrate for the first time the taxonomic composition and bioactivity of fungi from sloth hair.

  13. Methyl syringate: an efficient phenolic mediator for bacterial and fungal laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Tânia; Bernardo, Pedro; Koci, Kamila; Coelho, Ana V; Robalo, M Paula; Martins, Lígia O

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to provide insight into the mechanism of laccase reactions using syringyl-type mediators. We studied the pH dependence and the kinetics of oxidation of syringyl-type phenolics using the low CotA and the high redox potential TvL laccases. Additionally, the efficiency of these compounds as redox mediators for the oxidation of non-phenolic lignin units was tested at different pH values and increasing mediator/non-phenolic ratios. Finally, the intermediates and products of reactions were identified by LC-MS and (1)H NMR. These approaches allow concluding on the (1) mechanism involved in the oxidation of phenolics by bacterial laccases, (2) importance of the chemical nature and properties of phenolic mediators, (3) apparent independence of the enzyme's properties on the yields of non-phenolics conversion, (4) competitive routes involved in the catalytic cycle of the laccase-mediator system with several new C-O coupling type structures being proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parasites and competitors suppress bacterial pathogen synergistically due to evolutionary trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Wei, Zhong; Li, Mei; Wang, Xueqi; Shan, Anqi; Mei, Xinlan; Jousset, Alexandre; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Yangchun; Friman, Ville Petri

    2017-01-01

    Parasites and competitors are important for regulating pathogen densities and subsequent disease dynamics. It is, however, unclear to what extent this is driven by ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we used experimental evolution to study the eco-evolutionary feedbacks among Ralstonia

  15. The application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in food testing for bacterial pathogens and fungal contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Ludwig; Luo, Jie; Denschlag, Carla; Vogel, Rudi F

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens and toxicants, parasites as well as mycotoxin producing fungi are the major biotic factors influencing the safety of food. Moreover, viral infections and prions may be present as quasi biotic challenging factors. A vast array of culture dependent analytical methods and protocols for food safety testing has been developed during the past decades. Presently, protocols involving molecular biological techniques such as PCR-based nucleic acid amplification and hybridization have become available for many of the known pathogens with their major advantages being rapidness, high sensitivity and specificity. However, this type of assays is still quite labor- and cost intensive and mostly cannot be operated directly in the field. Recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA has emerged as an alternative to the use of PCR-based methods not only in food safety testing but also in a wide array of application. Its advantages over PCR-based techniques are even shorter reaction time, no need for specific equipment, high sensitivity and specificity as well as comparably low susceptibility to inhibitors present in sample materials which enables detection of the pathogens in sample materials even without time consuming sample preparation. The present article presents a critical review of the application of LAMP-based methods and their usefulness in detecting and identifying food borne bacterial pathogens and toxicants as well as mycotoxin producing food borne fungi as compared to other methods. Moreover does it elaborate on new developments in the design and automation of LAMP-based assays and their implications for the future developments of food testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappitelli, Francesca [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: francesca.cappitelli@unimi.it; Principi, Pamela [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pedrazzani, Roberta [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, University of Brescia, Via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Toniolo, Lucia [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' Giulio Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20133 Milan (Italy); Sorlini, Claudia [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Surfaces are continuously exposed to physical, chemical and biological degradation. Among the biological agents that cause deterioration, microorganisms are of critical importance. This work is part of a research programme for the characterisation of the alterations of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). Four stone samples of the Milan Cathedral were chemically analysed and the microbiological growth assessed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that calcite was always present in each sample and one sample was also characterised by the chemical form of alteration gypsum. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), it was possible to prove that the samples were consolidated with the synthetic acrylics and epoxy resins. The green-black biological patinas of the specimens were studied using cultivation, microscope observations and a method for single-cell detection. Sampling for fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH), with ribosomal RNA targeted oligonucleotide probes, was also performed using adhesive tapes. The bulk of the prokaryotes were Bacteria but some Archaea were also found. The bacterial cells were further characterised using specific probes for Cyanobacteria, and {alpha}-, {beta}-and {gamma}-Proteobacteria. In addition, black fungi isolated from the stone and the fungi of the standard ASTM G21-96(2002) method were employed to test if the detected synthetic resins could be used as the sole source of carbon and energy. One isolated Cladosporium sp. attacked the freshly dried acrylic resin. Results show that the detected bacteria and fungi can cause severe damage both to the stone monument and its synthetic consolidants.

  17. Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Principi, Pamela; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Toniolo, Lucia; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-10-15

    Surfaces are continuously exposed to physical, chemical and biological degradation. Among the biological agents that cause deterioration, microorganisms are of critical importance. This work is part of a research programme for the characterisation of the alterations of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). Four stone samples of the Milan Cathedral were chemically analysed and the microbiological growth assessed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that calcite was always present in each sample and one sample was also characterised by the chemical form of alteration gypsum. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), it was possible to prove that the samples were consolidated with the synthetic acrylics and epoxy resins. The green-black biological patinas of the specimens were studied using cultivation, microscope observations and a method for single-cell detection. Sampling for fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH), with ribosomal RNA targeted oligonucleotide probes, was also performed using adhesive tapes. The bulk of the prokaryotes were Bacteria but some Archaea were also found. The bacterial cells were further characterised using specific probes for Cyanobacteria, and alpha-, beta-and gamma-Proteobacteria. In addition, black fungi isolated from the stone and the fungi of the standard ASTM G21-96(2002) method were employed to test if the detected synthetic resins could be used as the sole source of carbon and energy. One isolated Cladosporium sp. attacked the freshly dried acrylic resin. Results show that the detected bacteria and fungi can cause severe damage both to the stone monument and its synthetic consolidants.

  18. How does conversion of natural tropical rainforest ecosystems affect soil bacterial and fungal communities in the Nile river watershed of Uganda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O Alele

    Full Text Available Uganda's forests are globally important for their conservation values but are under pressure from increasing human population and consumption. In this study, we examine how conversion of natural forest affects soil bacterial and fungal communities. Comparisons in paired natural forest and human-converted sites among four locations indicated that natural forest soils consistently had higher pH, organic carbon, nitrogen, and calcium, although variation among sites was large. Despite these differences, no effect on the diversity of dominant taxa for either bacterial or fungal communities was detected, using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE. Composition of fungal communities did generally appear different in converted sites, but surprisingly, we did not observe a consistent pattern among sites. The spatial distribution of some taxa and community composition was associated with soil pH, organic carbon, phosphorus and sodium, suggesting that changes in soil communities were nuanced and require more robust metagenomic methods to understand the various components of the community. Given the close geographic proximity of the paired sampling sites, the similarity between natural and converted sites might be due to continued dispersal between treatments. Fungal communities showed greater environmental differentiation than bacterial communities, particularly according to soil pH. We detected biotic homogenization in converted ecosystems and substantial contribution of β-diversity to total diversity, indicating considerable geographic structure in soil biota in these forest communities. Overall, our results suggest that soil microbial communities are relatively resilient to forest conversion and despite a substantial and consistent change in the soil environment, the effects of conversion differed widely among sites. The substantial difference in soil chemistry, with generally lower nutrient quantity in converted

  19. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L.D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection

  20. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadtanapuk, S. [Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Teraarusiri, W. [Central Laboratory, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Nanakorn, W. [The Crown Property Bureau, 173 Nakhonratchasrima Road, Dusit, Bangkok 10300 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S., E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  1. A pathogen-inducible patatin-like lipid acyl hydrolase facilitates fungal and bacterial host colonization in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Sylvain; Geoffroy, Pierrette; Samaha, Hala; Ndiaye, Abdoulaye; Rahim, Gwendoline; Legrand, Michel; Heitz, Thierry

    2005-12-01

    Genes and proteins related to patatin, the major storage protein of potato tubers, have been identified in many plant species and shown to be induced by a variety of environmental stresses. The Arabidopsis patatin-like gene family (PLPs) comprises nine members, two of which (PLP2 and PLP7) are strongly induced in leaves challenged with fungal and bacterial pathogens. Here we show that accumulation of PLP2 protein in response to Botrytis cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (avrRpt2) is dependent on jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling, but is not dependent on salicylic acid. Expression of a PLP2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein and analysis of recombinant PLP2 indicates that PLP2 encodes a cytoplasmic lipid acyl hydrolase with wide substrate specificity. Transgenic plants with altered levels of PLP2 protein were generated and assayed for pathogen resistance. Plants silenced for PLP2 expression displayed enhanced resistance to B. cinerea, whereas plants overexpressing PLP2 were much more sensitive to this necrotrophic fungus. We also established a positive correlation between the level of PLP2 expression in transgenic plants and cell death or damage in response to paraquat treatment or infection by avirulent P. syringae. Interestingly, repression of PLP2 expression increased resistance to avirulent bacteria, while PLP2-overexpressing plants multiplied avirulent bacteria close to the titers reached by virulent bacteria. Collectively, the data indicate that PLP2-encoded lipolytic activity can be exploited by pathogens with different lifestyles to facilitate host colonization. In particular PLP2 potentiates plant cell death inflicted by Botrytis and reduces the efficiency of the hypersensitive response in restricting the multiplication of avirulent bacteria. Both effects are possibly mediated by providing fatty acid precursors of bioactive oxylipins.

  2. In vitro screening of mucus and solvent extracts of Eisenia foetida against human bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andleeb, Saiqa; Ejaz, Mubashir; Awan, Uzma Azeem; Ali, Shaukat; Kiyani, Ayesha; Shafique, Irsa; Zafar, Atiya

    2016-05-01

    Earthworms are macro invertebrate and have been widely used as therapeutic drugs for thousands of years. In the current research, experiments viz., the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of mucus and solvent extracts of Eisenia foetida were conducted to investigate for the first time in Pakistan against human infectious pathogens. Antimicrobial activity of E. foetida against human pathogens underwent investigation through an agar disc diffusion method while an ABTS(•+) free radical scavenging method assessed the antioxidant activity. The percentage of bacterial and fungal growth was analyzed statistically with One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the mucus IV of E. foetida produced a strong potent antibacterial and antifungal activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the highest inhibition zone (33.67±1.53 mm), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (30.33±1.53mm), Penicillium notatum (30±0.051), Escherichia coli (29±1 mm), Candida albicans (28.33±0.54 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (27±1mm), Serratia marcescens (25.33±0.58 mm), Aspergillus flavus (25.33±0.58 mm), Staphylococcus epidermidis (24.33±0.58 mm), Streptococcus pyogenes (21.67±1.53 mm), and Aspergillus niger (20.67±0.53 mm). Mucus IV of E. foetida also showed the highest antioxidant activity (99%). The results clearly indicate that the mucus and solvent extracts contain effective antimicrobial properties and bioactive compounds to inhibit the growth of infectious pathogens. We conclude that mucus extracts of earthworm have significant level of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and in future could be potentially used against various infectious pathogens.

  3. The Effects of Cropping Regimes on Fungal and Bacterial Communities of Wheat and Faba Bean in a Greenhouse Pot Experiment Differ between Plant Species and Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Granzow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria and fungi in the plant rhizosphere and endosphere are beneficial to plant nutrient acquisition, health, and growth. Although playing essential roles in ecosystem functioning, our knowledge about the effects of multiple cropping regimes on the plant microbiome and their interactions is still limited. Here, we designed a pot experiment simulating different cropping regimes. For this purpose, wheat and faba bean plants were grown under controlled greenhouse conditions in monocultures and in two intercropping regimes: row and mixed intercropping. Bacterial and fungal communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils as well as in the roots and aerial plant parts were analyzed using large-scale metabarcoding. We detected differences in microbial richness and diversity between the cropping regimes. Generally, observed effects were attributed to differences between mixed and row intercropping or mixed intercropping and monoculture. Bacterial and fungal diversity were significantly higher in bulk soil samples of wheat and faba bean grown in mixed compared to row intercropping. Moreover, microbial communities varied between crop species and plant compartments resulting in different responses of these communities toward cropping regimes. Leaf endophytes were not affected by cropping regime but bacterial and fungal community structures in bulk and rhizosphere soil as well as fungal community structures in roots. We further recorded highly complex changes in microbial interactions. The number of negative inter-domain correlations between fungi and bacteria decreased in bulk and rhizosphere soil in intercropping regimes compared to monocultures due to beneficial effects. In addition, we observed plant species-dependent differences indicating that intra- and interspecific competition between plants had different effects on the plant species and thus on their associated microbial communities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating

  4. Field evaluation of improved cowpea lines for resistance to bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average productivity of cowpea in the existing traditional systems is low due to a complex of biotic and abiotic stresses. The biotic factors include insect pests, parasitic plants, and viral, fungal and bacterial diseases. Concerted efforts are being made to develop improved cowpea varieties with combined resistance to ...

  5. Field evaluation of improved cowpea lines for resistance to bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... The biotic factors include insect pests, parasitic plants, and viral, fungal and bacterial ... There was genotype x environment .... Mean days to maturity grain fodder yields (kg/ha) of cowpea varieties in 2002 and 2003. Days to. Grain. Fodder. Variety. Flowering Maturity. 2002. 2003. Mean (9 environments).

  6. Bacterial and fungal communities, fermentation, and aerobic stability of conventional hybrids and brown midrib hybrids ensiled at low moisture with or without a homo- and heterofermentative inoculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Joo, Y; Park, J; Tiezzi, F; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, E; Castillo, M S

    2018-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of adding a combination inoculant to 4 corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids harvested at low moisture on the nutritive value, fermentation profile, aerobic stability, bacterial and fungal populations, and community structure. The treatment design was the factorial combination of 4 corn hybrids ensiled with (INO) and without (CON) inoculant. The hybrids were TMF2R737 (MCN), F2F817 (MBR), P2089YHR (PCN), and PI144XR (PBR), ensiled at 44.0, 38.1, 42.0, and 41.3% of dry matter, respectively; MBR and PBR were brown midrib mutants. The inoculant contained Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus (4 × 10 5 and 1 × 10 5 cfu/g of fresh corn). The experimental design was a complete randomized design with treatments replicated 6 times. Corn was chopped, treated or not with inoculant, packed into 7.6-L bucket silos, and stored for 100 d. At d 0, we found higher bacterial observed operational taxonomic units in the brown midrib mutants (MBR and PBR) relative to MCN and PCN (654 and 534 vs. 434 and 444 ± 15.5, respectively). The bacterial and fungal families with the highest relative abundance (RA) were Enterobacteriaceae (61.4%) and incertae sedis Tremellales (12.5%). At silo opening, we observed no effects of INO treatment on dry matter recovery (∼94.3 ± 1.07%), but aerobic stability was extended for all INO-treated hybrids (∼217 vs. ∼34.7 h), except for MBR (∼49 ± 38 h), due to a decreased yeast population (3.78 vs. 5.13 ± 0.440 log cfu/g of fresh corn) and increased acetic acid concentration (1.69 vs. 0.51 ± 0.132%) compared with the control. Furthermore, INO treatment reduced bacterial (61.2 vs. 276 ± 8.70) and increased fungal (59.8 vs. 43.6 ± 2.95) observed operational taxonomic units compared with CON. We observed that INO treatment increased the RA of Lactobacillaceae across all hybrids (∼99.1 vs. ∼58.9), and to larger extent MBR (98.3 vs. 34.3 ± 5.29), and decreased Enterobacteriaceae (0.614 vs. 23.5 ± 2.825%) among 4

  7. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L. D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-05-01

    This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  8. Bacterial and Fungal Endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marlene L

    2017-07-01

    Endophthalmitis is a severe eye infection that may result in permanent loss of useful vision in the affected eye. Most cases are exogenous and occur as a complication of cataract surgery, an intravitreal injection, or penetrating ocular trauma. Endogenous endophthalmitis results from hematogenous seeding of the eye by bacteria or fungi, but bacteremia or fungemia may be transient and patients may present without symptoms of systemic infection. Nearly all endophthalmitis patients present with decreased vision, and some also have eye pain. Eye examination usually reveals a hypopyon and intraocular inflammation. Diagnosis is clinical, supported by cultures of the vitreous and/or aqueous or by blood cultures in some endogenous cases. Molecular diagnostic techniques have been used in research laboratories for pathogen identification in endophthalmitis and offer the possibility of rapid diagnosis, including in culture-negative cases. Intravitreal injection of antibiotics is the most important component of treatment; some cases also benefit from surgical debridement of the vitreous by a vitrectomy. The visual outcome depends partly on the pathogen: coagulase-negative staphylococcal endophthalmitis has a better prognosis than does streptococcal endophthalmitis, for example. Endophthalmitis is a medical emergency, and prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for saving vision. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Infectious bacterial pathogens, parasites and pathological correlations of sewage pollution as an important threat to farmed fishes in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; Abdelsalam, Mohamed; Mahdy, Olfat A; El Miniawy, Hala M F; Ahmed, Zakia A M; Osman, Ahmed H; Mohamed, Hussein M H; Khattab, A M; Zaki Ewiss, M A

    2016-12-01

    This paper is a part of a multi-disciplinary research "Application of Decentralized On-Site Water Treatment System in Egypt for Use in Agriculture and Producing Safe Fish and Animal Proteins". The project aimed to investigate the environmental impact of implementing sewage water before and after treatment using the effluent of the on-site decentralized Japanese' Johkasou system, in agriculture and producing fish protein. The aim is to establish such system in Egypt to strengthen the sanitary conditions of water resources. In the present study, the impact of the sewage pollution in some fish farms at El-Fayyum, Port Said and El-Dakahlia governorates in Egypt was carried out. Water and fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Mugil cephalus) samples were collected from private fish farms of such localities. Bacteriological and chemical examination of water samples revealed the existence of coliforms and many other bacterial species of significant human health hazards. The chemical parameters of water showed a marked deviation from normal levels while examination of fish flesh specimens indicated contamination with Streptococcus Sp., Staphylococcus Sp., and Salmonella in all examined localities. Other bacterial isolates of human health importance (Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas cepacia and Enterococcos durans) were identified. The parasitological examination revealed the presence of encysted metacercariae (EMC); Diplostomatidae, Prohemistomatidae and Heterphyidae. Moreover, two protozoan parasites (Mxyoboulus tilapiae and Ichthyophthirius multifilis) were also recorded. The histopathological examination revealed mild tissue reaction in case of bacterial infection and severe pathological lesions in different organs in case of EMC infection. Lamellar hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration in branchial tissue was common findings. In skeletal muscles, atrophy of muscle fibres, myolysis and myophagia were detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Host Specificity for Bacterial, Archaeal and Fungal Communities Determined for High- and Low-Microbial Abundance Sponge Species in Two Genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Chaib De Mares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are engaged in intimate symbioses with a diversity of microorganisms from all three domains of life, namely Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Sponges have been well studied and categorized for their bacterial communities, some displaying a high microbial abundance (HMA, while others show low microbial abundance (LMA. However, the associated Archaea and Eukarya have remained relatively understudied. We assessed the bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic diversities in the LMA sponge species Dysidea avara and Dysidea etheria by deep amplicon sequencing, and compared the results to those in the HMA sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Aplysina cauliformis. D. avara and A. aerophoba are sympatric in the Mediterranean Sea, while D. etheria and A. cauliformis are sympatric in the Caribbean Sea. The bacterial communities followed a host-specific pattern, with host species identity explaining most of the variation among samples. We identified OTUs shared by the Aplysina species that support a more ancient association of these microbes, before the split of the two species studied here. These shared OTUs are suitable targets for future studies of the microbial traits that mediate interactions with their hosts. Even though the archaeal communities were not as rich as the bacterial ones, we found a remarkable diversification and specificity of OTUs of the family Cenarchaeaceae and the genus Nitrosopumilus in all four sponge species studied. Similarly, the differences in fungal communities were driven by sponge identity. The structures of the communities of small eukaryotes such as dinophytes and ciliophores (alveolates, and stramenopiles, could not be explained by either sponge host, sponge genus or geographic location. Our analyses suggest that the host specificity that was previously described for sponge bacterial communities also extends to the archaeal and fungal communities, but not to other microbial eukaryotes.

  11. Arabidopsis nonhost resistance gene PSS1 confers immunity against an oomycete and a fungal pathogen but not a bacterial pathogen that cause diseases in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Rishi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonhost resistance (NHR provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. Three Arabidopsis thaliana PEN (penetration deficient genes, PEN1, 2 and 3 have been shown to provide NHR against the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei at the prehaustorial level. Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We investigated if there is any novel nonhost resistance mechanism in Arabidopsis against the soybean pathogen, P. sojae. Results The P.sojaesusceptible (pss 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Segregation data suggested that PEN1 is not epistatic to PSS1. Responses of pss1 and pen1-1 to P. sojae invasion were distinct and suggest that PSS1 may act at both pre- and post-haustorial levels, while PEN1 acts at the pre-haustorial level against this soybean pathogen. Therefore, PSS1 encodes a new form of nonhost resistance. The pss1 mutant is also infected by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, which causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. However, PSS1 does not play any role in immunity against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, that causes bacterial blight in soybean. We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. Conclusions The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of

  12. Arabidopsis nonhost resistance gene PSS1 confers immunity against an oomycete and a fungal pathogen but not a bacterial pathogen that cause diseases in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumit, Rishi; Sahu, Binod B; Xu, Min; Sandhu, Devinder; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2012-06-13

    Nonhost resistance (NHR) provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. Three Arabidopsis thaliana PEN (penetration deficient) genes, PEN1, 2 and 3 have been shown to provide NHR against the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei at the prehaustorial level. Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We investigated if there is any novel nonhost resistance mechanism in Arabidopsis against the soybean pathogen, P. sojae. The P.sojaesusceptible (pss) 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Segregation data suggested that PEN1 is not epistatic to PSS1. Responses of pss1 and pen1-1 to P. sojae invasion were distinct and suggest that PSS1 may act at both pre- and post-haustorial levels, while PEN1 acts at the pre-haustorial level against this soybean pathogen. Therefore, PSS1 encodes a new form of nonhost resistance. The pss1 mutant is also infected by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, which causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. However, PSS1 does not play any role in immunity against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, that causes bacterial blight in soybean. We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of nonhost resistance against both a hemibiotrophic oomycete

  13. Fate of bacterial indicators, viruses and protozoan parasites in a wastewater multi-component treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, L; Briancesco, R; Cataldo, C; Divizia, M; Donia, D; Panà, A

    2002-10-01

    The extent of reduction in selected microrganisms was tested at a multi-component wastewater treatment plant that treats sewage for a potential re-use in agriculture. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate possible reciprocal correlation among the different microrganisms and to compare the removal of two encysted pathogenic protozoa with that of microbial indicators, Clostridium perfringens spores, enteroviruses and bacteriophages. Samples collected included the raw wastewater, the chlorinated effluent and the effluent after an ultraviolet light treatment. All of the raw sewage samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, as well as for the other microorganisms tested but the bacteriophage B40-8. The data obtained confirm the removal efficiency of the entire process for indicator bacteria but also show the low and variable removal efficiency for the other microbial parameters, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, enteroviruses and Clostridium perfringens spores. Reciprocal correlation between Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts and the other microbial groups was not demonstrated. The results confirm the resistance of Clostridium perfringens spores, enteroviruses and protozoa to chlorination and demonstrate the relative persistence of these organisms in the effluents even during the ultraviolet light treatment. The yields also emphasise the influence of the analytical method for the determination of protozoan parasites.

  14. Bacteria in a woody fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eBruez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interaction have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic, different anatomical part (trunk and cordon and different type of tissues (necrotic or not have been studied. Based on Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP analyses, data showed that (i specific complexes of bacterial microflora colonize the wood of both necrotic and non-necrotic tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic vines, and also that (ii depending on the anatomical part of the plant, cordon or trunk, differences could be observed between the bacterial communities. Such differences were also revealed through the Community-Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP with Biolog Ecoplates™. Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were also isolated from plants samples and then assigned to bacterial species based on the 16S rRNA genes. Although Bacillus spp. and Pantoea agglomerans were the two most commonly isolated species from all kinds of tissues, various other taxa were also isolated. Inoculation of vine cuttings with 14 different bacterial species, and one GTD fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum, showed no impact of these bacteria on the size of the wood necroses caused by N. parvum. This study showed, therefore, that bacterial communities differ according to the anatomical part (trunk or cordon and/or the type of tissue (necrotic or non necrotic of wood of grapevine plants showing external symptoms of esca disease. However, research into bacteria having a role in GTD development needs further studies.

  15. Genes Required for the Anti-Fungal Activity of a Bacterial Endophyte Isolated from a Corn Landrace Grown Continuously by Subsistence Farmers Since 1000 BC

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    Hanan R Shehata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes are known to combat pathogens. The corn (maize landrace Chapalote has been grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, without the use of fungicides, and the crop remains highly valued by farmers, in part for its natural tolerance to pests. We hypothesized that the pathogen tolerance of Chapalote may, in part, be due to assistance from its endophytes. We previously identified a bacterial endophyte from Chapalote seeds, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, for its ability to combat a diversity of crop pathogens, including Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the most important fungal disease of creeping bentgrass, a relative of maize used here as a model system. Strain 3A12 represents a unique opportunity to understand the anti-fungal activities of an endophyte associated with a crop variety grown by subsistence farmers since ancient times. Here, microscopy combined with Tn5-mutagenesis demonstrates that the anti-fungal mode of action of 3A12 involves flagella-dependent swarming towards its pathogen target, attachment and biofilm-mediated microcolony formation. The mutant screen revealed that YajQ, a receptor for the secondary messenger c-di-GMP, is a critical signaling system that mediates this endophytic mobility-based defence for its host. Microbes from the traditional seeds of farmers may represent a new frontier in elucidating host-microbe mutualistic interactions.

  16. Molecular detection of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Ferreira, Andreia; Nunes, Mónica; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

    2014-06-01

    Ticks are important vector arthropods of human and animal pathogens. As information about agents of disease circulating in vectors in Portugal is limited, the aim of the present study was to detect bacteria and parasites with veterinary and zoonotic importance in ticks collected from dogs, cats, and field vegetation. A total of 925 ticks, comprising 888 (96.0%) adults, 8 (0.9%) nymphs, and 29 (3.1%) larvae, were collected in 4 geographic areas (districts) of Portugal. Among those, 620 (67.0%) were removed from naturally infested dogs, 42 (4.5%) from cats, and 263 (28.4%) were questing ticks obtained from field vegetation. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the predominant tick species, and the only one collected from dogs and vegetation, while all Ixodes ricinus specimens (n=6) were recovered from cats. Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii were identified in 35 ticks collected from cats and dogs and in 3 ticks collected from dogs. Among ticks collected from cats or dogs, 4 Rh. sanguineus specimens were detected with Hepatozoon felis, 3 with Anaplasma platys, 2 with Hepatozoon canis, one with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, one with Babesia vogeli, one with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and one with Cercopithifilaria spp. Rickettsia helvetica was detected in one I. ricinus tick collected from a cat. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that Cercopithifilaria spp., Ba. vogeli, H. canis, and H. felis have been detected in ticks from Portugal. The wide range of tick-borne pathogens identified, some of zoonotic concern, suggests a risk for the emergence of tick-borne diseases in domestic animals and humans in Portugal. Further studies on these and other tick-borne agents should be performed to better understand their epidemiological and clinical importance, and to support the implementation of effective control measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial mechanism of copper (II 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2′-bipyridyl complex on bacterial and fungal pathogens

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    S. Chandraleka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper based metallo drugs were prepared and their antibacterial, antifungal, molecular mechanism of [Cu(SAlaPhen]·H2O and [Cu(SAlabpy]·H2O complexes were investigated. The [Cu(SAlaPhen]·H2O and [Cu(SAlabpy]·H2O were derived from the Schiff base alanine salicylaldehyde. [Cu(SAlaPhen]·H2O showed noteworthy antibacterial and antifungal activity than the [Cu(SAlabpy]·H2O and ligand alanine, salicylaldehyde. The [Cu(SAlaPhen]·H2O complex showed significant antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi and the antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in well diffusion assay. The mode of action of copper (II complex was analyzed by DNA cleavage activity and in silico molecular docking. The present findings provide important insight into the molecular mechanism of copper (II complexes in susceptible bacterial and fungal pathogens. These results collectively support the use of [Cu(SAlaPhen]·H2O complex as a suitable drug to treat bacterial and fungal infections.

  18. Inhibition of heparin precipitation, bacterial growth, and fungal growth with a combined isopropanol-ethanol locking solution for vascular access devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Daniel; Laconi, Nicholas S; Alcantar, Norma A; West, Leigh A; Buttice, Audrey L; Patel, Saumil; Kayton, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    Clinical reports of ethanol-lock use for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections have been marked by the occurrence of serious catheter occlusions, particularly among children with mediports. We hypothesized that precipitate forms when ethanol mixes with heparin at the concentrations relevant for vascular access devices, but that the use of a combination of two alcohols, ethanol and isopropanol, would diminish heparin-related precipitation, while retaining anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects. Heparin (0-100units/mL) was incubated in ethanol-water solutions (30%-70% vol/vol) or in an aqueous solution containing equal parts (35% and 35% vol/vol) of isopropanol and ethanol. Precipitation at temperatures from 4 to 40°C was measured in nephelometric turbidity units using a benchtop turbidimeter. Growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans colonies were measured following exposure to solutions of ethanol or isopropanol-ethanol. Groupwise comparisons were performed using analysis of variance with Bonferroni-corrected, post-hoc T-testing. Seventy percent ethanol and heparin exhibit dose-dependent precipitation that is pronounced and significant at the concentrations typically used in mediports (pbacterial and anti-fungal properties. On the other hand, although ethanol solutions under 70% form less precipitate with heparin, such concentrations are also less effective at bacterial colony inhibition than solutions of either 70% ethanol or 35% isopropanol-35% ethanol (pbacterial and fungal growth similarly to 70% ethanol, but results in less precipitate than 70% ethanol when exposed to heparin. Further study of a combined isopropanol-ethanol locking solution for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections should focus on the determination as to whether such a locking solution may reduce the rate of precipitation-related catheter occlusion, and whether it may be administered with low systemic toxicity. Copyright

  19. A Comprehensive Review of Common Bacterial, Parasitic and Viral Zoonoses at the Human-Animal Interface in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M.

    2017-01-01

    Egypt has a unique geographical location connecting the three old-world continents Africa, Asia and Europe. It is the country with the highest population density in the Middle East, Northern Africa and the Mediterranean basin. This review summarizes the prevalence, reservoirs, sources of human infection and control regimes of common bacterial, parasitic and viral zoonoses in animals and humans in Egypt. There is a gap of knowledge conerning the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal interface in different localities in Egypt. Some zoonotic agents are “exotic” for Egypt (e.g., MERS-CoV and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus), others are endemic (e.g., Brucellosis, Schistosomiasis and Avian influenza). Transboundary transmission of emerging pathogens from and to Egypt occurred via different routes, mainly importation/exportation of apparently healthy animals or migratory birds. Control of the infectious agents and multidrug resistant bacteria in the veterinary sector is on the frontline for infection control in humans. The implementation of control programs significantly decreased the prevalence of some zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, in some localities within the country. Sustainable awareness, education and training targeting groups at high risk (veterinarians, farmers, abattoir workers, nurses, etc.) are important to lessen the burden of zoonotic diseases among Egyptians. There is an urgent need for collaborative surveillance and intervention plans for the control of these diseases in Egypt. PMID:28754024

  20. Bacterial, parasitic and viral diseases associated to classical swine cholera in focuses that occurred in the province of Sancti Spiritus in the period 1994-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liván Vergel Álvarez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to determine the main diseases associated to the PPC in Sancti Spiritus province from 1994 to 2009 and the specific objectives is to determine the bacterial, parasitical and viral associated to it. A number of 14999 animal in 77 focus were analysed, macroscopic tests were practiced. Samples for histopathologic studies were colleted in 200 hundred animals, bacteriology 220, parasithology 350, and for virological sutudies, 199 samples were taken. For the statistical processing, several computing programs were used such as Microsoft EXCEL y SWX. Pasteurelosis, Salmonelosis, and Colibacilosis were the most common bacterial diseases, gastrointestinal parasites and Cistecercosis were the parasotosis with most insidence and the Circovirosis and Swine Viral Encefalomiocardítis were the only viral associated diseases to the dianostic PPC during that period.

  1. Study of the effect of the bacterial and fungal communities present in real wastewater effluents on the performance of fungal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Tuomivirta, Tero; Fritze, Hannu; Pennanen, Taina; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2017-02-01

    The use of the ligninolytic fungi Trametes versicolor for the degradation of micropollutants has been widely studied. However, few studies have addressed the treatment of real wastewater containing pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) under non-sterile conditions. The main drawback of performing such treatments is the difficulty for the inoculated fungus to successfully compete with the other microorganisms growing in the bioreactor. In the present study, several fungal treatments were performed under non-sterile conditions in continuous operational mode with two types of real wastewater effluent, namely, a reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from a wastewater treatment plant and a veterinary hospital wastewater (VHW). In all cases, the setup consisted of two parallel reactors: one inoculated with T. versicolor and one non-inoculated, which was used as the control. The main objective of this work was to correlate the operational conditions and traditional monitoring parameters, such as laccase activity, with PhAC removal and the composition of the microbial communities developed inside the bioreactors. For that purpose a variety of biochemical and molecular biology analyses were performed: phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by sequencing. The results show that many indigenous fungi (and not only bacteria, which were the focus of the majority of previously published research) can successfully compete with the inoculated fungi (i.e., Trichoderma asperellum overtook T. versicolor in the ROC treatment). We also showed that the wastewater origin and the operational conditions had a stronger impact on the diversity of microbial communities developed in the bioreactors than the inoculation or not with T. versicolor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Parasitic and fungal infections in synanthropic rodents in an area of urban expansion, Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.19760

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the prevalence of parasitic and fungal infections in rodents in an area of urban expansion, Aracaju, Brazil. Traps were placed in the area from December 2011 to January 2013. Blood samples, faeces and hair were collected from the animals. We collected a total of 47 rodents; 44 were Rattus rattus, and 3 were Mus musculus. Parasitological evaluation revealed the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta infection in both rodent species. The nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata were found in M. musculus, and the commensal Entamoeba coli was found in R. rattus. We observed that 69.2% of the R. rattus and 33.3% of the M. musculus were infected with the haemoparasite Babesia sp. The differential leukocyte count revealed normal (72.3%, neutrophilic (15.9% and lymphocytic (11.4% profiles. The evaluation showed the following species of fungi in the rodents: Aspergillus sp. (77.1%, Penicillium sp. (28.6%, Cladosporium sp. (14.3%, Mucor sp. (14.3%, Curvularia sp. (8.6%, Acremonium sp. (8.6%, Chrysosporium sp. (2.9%, Syncephalostrum sp. (2.9%, Alternaria sp. (2.9%, Trichophyton sp. (2.9% and Scopulariopsis sp. (2.9%. The parasites and fungi found in rodents are potentially zoonotic, and the presence of these household animals demonstrates their potential role as reservoirs and disseminators of fungal and parasitic infections.

  3. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  4. Prevention of bacterial and fungal infections in acute leukemia patients: a new and potent combination of oral norfloxacin and amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Dan, K; Nomura, T

    1993-09-01

    The effect of a combination regimen using norfloxacin (NFLX) and amphotericin B (AMPH-B) for prevention of infections in patients with acute leukemia being treated by remission-induction chemotherapy in a randomized, controlled trial was studied. One hundred and six consecutive, evaluable patients were randomly assigned to receive orally 200 mg of norfloxacin two or four times daily and 200 mg of amphotericin B four times daily, or amphotericin B only. A smaller percentage of patients with bacteriologically-documented infections was observed in the study group compared with the control group (34.6% vs 56.9%; P combination antimicrobial regimen is safe and effective for prevention of gram-negative bacterial as well as fungal infections in patients with acute leukemia being treated with cytotoxic remission-induction chemotherapy.

  5. Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Fungal Activity of Xanthones Obtained via Semi-Synthetic Modification of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana

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    Srinivasan Narasimhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination in food packaging has been a major concern that has paved the way to search for novel, natural anti-microbial agents, such as modified α-mangostin. In the present study, twelve synthetic analogs were obtained through semi-synthetic modification of α-mangostin by Ritter reaction, reduction by palladium-carbon (Pd-C, alkylation, and acetylation. The evaluation of the anti-microbial potential of the synthetic analogs showed higher bactericidal activity than the parent molecule. The anti-microbial studies proved that I E showed high anti-bacterial activity whereas I I showed the highest anti-fungal activity. Due to their microbicidal potential, modified α-mangostin derivatives could be utilized as active anti-microbial agents in materials for the biomedical and food industry.

  6. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  7. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  8. Bacterial and fungal communities in bulk soil and rhizospheres of aluminum-tolerant and aluminum-sensitive maize (Zea mays L.) lines cultivated in unlimed and limed Cerrado soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Mota, Fabio Faria; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; Marriel, Ivanildo Evodio; Paiva, Edilson; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-05-01

    Liming of acidic soils can prevent aluminum toxicity and improve crop production. Some maize lines show aluminum (Al) tolerance, and exudation of organic acids by roots has been considered to represent an important mechanism involved in the tolerance. However, there is no information about the impact of liming on the structures of bacterial and fungal communities in Cerrado soil, nor if there are differences between the microbial communities from the rhizospheres of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive maize lines. This study evaluated the effects of liming on the structure of bacterial and fungal communities in bulk soil and rhizospheres of Al-sensitive and Al-tolerant maize (Zea mays L.) lines cultivated in Cerrado soil by PCR-DGGE, 30 and 90 days after sowing. Bacterial fingerprints revealed that the bacterial communities from rhizospheres were more affected by aluminum stress in soil than by the maize line (Al-sensitive or Al-tolerant). Differences in bacterial communities were also observed over time (30 and 90 days after sowing), and these occurred mainly in the Actinobacteria. Conversely, fungal communities from the rhizosphere were weakly affected either by liming or by the rhizosphere, as observed from the DGGE profiles. Furthermore, only a few differences were observed in the DGGE profiles of the fungal populations during plant development when compared with bacterial communities. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from dominant DGGE bands detected in the bacterial profiles of the Cerrado bulk soil revealed that Actinomycetales and Rhizobiales were among the dominant ribotypes.

  9. Impact of incorporated fresh C-13 potato tissues on the bacterial and fungal community composition of soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; de Cassia Pereira e Silva, Michele; Szturc-Koestsier, Agnieszka E.; Schmitt, Heike; Salles, Joana Falcao; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    Soil microbial communities play a major role in organic matter decomposition, however the importance of the individual species involved is still unclear. To identify the dynamics and identity of bacterial species involved in decomposition of potato tissue as well as the assimilation of carbon from

  10. Quorum signaling mycotoxins: A new risk strategy for bacterial biocontrol of Fusarium verticillioides and other endophytic fungal species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. All bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which...

  11. Fungal Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Fungal Keratitis Sections What is Fungal Keratitis? Fungal Keratitis Causes ... Keratitis Symptoms Fungal Keratitis Treatment What is Fungal Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Fúngica? ...

  12. Overexpression of Rice Wall-Associated Kinase 25 (OsWAK25) Alters Resistance to Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkenrider, Mitch; Sharma, Rita; De Vleesschauwer, David; Tsao, Li; Zhang, Xuting; Chern, Mawsheng; Canlas, Patrick; Zuo, Shimin; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2016-01-01

    Wall-associated kinases comprise a sub-family of receptor-like kinases that function in plant growth and stress responses. Previous studies have shown that the rice wall-associated kinase, OsWAK25, interacts with a diverse set of proteins associated with both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Here, we show that wounding and BTH treatments induce OsWAK25 transcript expression in rice. We generated OsWAK25 overexpression lines and show that these lines exhibit a lesion mimic phenotype and enhanced expression of rice NH1 (NPR1 homolog 1), OsPAL2, PBZ1 and PR10. Furthermore, these lines show resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Magnaporthe oryzae, yet display increased susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Cochliobolus miyabeanus. PMID:26795719

  13. Fungal and bacterial contributions to nitrogen cycling in cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded native sagebrush soils of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth J.; Giguere, Andrew T; Pyke, David A.; Bottomley, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    AimThere is interest in determining how cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) modifies N cycling in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) soils of the western USA.MethodsTo gain insight into the roles of fungi and bacteria in N cycling of cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded sagebrush soils, the fungal protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), and the bacteriocidal compound, bronopol (BRO) were combined with a 15NH4+ isotope pool dilution approach.ResultsCHX reduced gross N mineralization to the same rate in both sagebrush and cheatgrass soils indicating a role for fungi in N mineralization in both soil types. In cheatgrass soils BRO completely inhibited gross N mineralization, whereas, in sagebrush soils a BRO-resistant gross N mineralization rate was detected that was slower than CHX sensitive gross N mineralization, suggesting that the microbial drivers of gross N mineralization were different in sagebrush and cheatgrass soils. Net N mineralization was stimulated to a higher rate in sagebrush than in cheatgrass soils by CHX, implying that a CHX inhibited N sink was larger in the former than the latter soils. Initial gross NH4+ consumption rates were reduced significantly by both CHX and BRO in both soil types, yet, consumption rates recovered significantly between 24 and 48 h in CHX-treated sagebrush soils. The recovery of NH4+ consumption in sagebrush soils corresponded with an increase in the rate of net nitrification.ConclusionsThese results suggest that cheatgrass invasion of sagebrush soils of the northern Great Basin reduces the capacity of the fungal N consumption sink, enhances the capacity of a CHX resistant N sink and alters the contributions of bacteria and fungi to gross N mineralization.

  14. Bacterial and parasitic contaminants of salad vegetables sold in markets in Fako Division, Cameroon and evaluation of hygiene and handling practices of vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Tatsinkou, Bertrand Fossi; Nkengfack, Joseph Mbapngong

    2018-02-06

    Increase in awareness of the health benefits of vegetables has resulted in an increase in consumption. Many vegetables are consumed raw to retain the natural taste and heat labile nutrients. The safety of raw vegetables is a great concern. We investigated the bacteriological and parasitological quality of salad vegetables sold in three major markets in Fako Division Cameroon, the hygiene and preservation practices of vendors and determined the antimicrobial sensitivity of bacterial isolates, to provide data that could be used to improve food safety and safeguard public health. Bacterial contamination was high. Mean aerobic bacteria counts ranged from 2.5 × 10 6 to 15 × 10 6  cfu/g, total coliform counts from 4 to >  2400/g and fecal coliforms practices of vendors were poor and could aggravate contamination. Contamination of fresh salad vegetables with pathogenic bacteria and parasites could be a food safety concern in study area.

  15. Interactive effects of a bacterial parasite and the insecticide carbaryl to life-history and physiology of two Daphnia magna clones differing in carbaryl sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, Dieter I.M.; De Schamphelaere, Karel A.C.; Jansen, Mieke; De Meester, Luc; Janssen, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Interactive effects between a bacterial parasite and an insecticide in Daphnia magna. ► Two D. magna clones differing strongly in their sensitivity to the insecticide. ► Effects studied on various life-history and physiological endpoints. ► Genetic differences in strength and direction of interaction effects. -- Abstract: Natural and chemical stressors occur simultaneously in the aquatic environment. Their combined effects on biota are usually difficult to predict from their individual effects due to interactions between the different stressors. Several recent studies have suggested that synergistic effects of multiple stressors on organisms may be more common at high compared to low overall levels of stress. In this study, we used a three-way full factorial design to investigate whether interactive effects between a natural stressor, the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, and a chemical stressor, the insecticide carbaryl, were different between two genetically distinct clones of Daphnia magna that strongly differ in their sensitivity to carbaryl. Interactive effects on various life-history and physiological endpoints were assessed as significant deviations from the reference Independent Action (IA) model, which was implemented by testing the significance of the two-way carbaryl × parasite interaction term in two-way ANOVA's on log-transformed observational data for each clone separately. Interactive effects (and thus significant deviations from IA) were detected in both the carbaryl-sensitive clone (on survival, early reproduction and growth) and in the non-sensitive clone (on growth, electron transport activity and prophenoloxidase activity). No interactions were found for maturation rate, filtration rate, and energy reserve fractions (carbohydrate, protein, lipid). Furthermore, only antagonistic interactions were detected in the non-sensitive clone, while only synergistic interactions were observed in the carbaryl sensitive clone. Our

  16. Interactive effects of a bacterial parasite and the insecticide carbaryl to life-history and physiology of two Daphnia magna clones differing in carbaryl sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, Dieter I.M., E-mail: Dieter.DeConinck@UGent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Schamphelaere, Karel A.C. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Jansen, Mieke; De Meester, Luc [Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, University of Leuven, Ch. Deberiotstraat 32, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Janssen, Colin R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Interactive effects between a bacterial parasite and an insecticide in Daphnia magna. ► Two D. magna clones differing strongly in their sensitivity to the insecticide. ► Effects studied on various life-history and physiological endpoints. ► Genetic differences in strength and direction of interaction effects. -- Abstract: Natural and chemical stressors occur simultaneously in the aquatic environment. Their combined effects on biota are usually difficult to predict from their individual effects due to interactions between the different stressors. Several recent studies have suggested that synergistic effects of multiple stressors on organisms may be more common at high compared to low overall levels of stress. In this study, we used a three-way full factorial design to investigate whether interactive effects between a natural stressor, the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, and a chemical stressor, the insecticide carbaryl, were different between two genetically distinct clones of Daphnia magna that strongly differ in their sensitivity to carbaryl. Interactive effects on various life-history and physiological endpoints were assessed as significant deviations from the reference Independent Action (IA) model, which was implemented by testing the significance of the two-way carbaryl × parasite interaction term in two-way ANOVA's on log-transformed observational data for each clone separately. Interactive effects (and thus significant deviations from IA) were detected in both the carbaryl-sensitive clone (on survival, early reproduction and growth) and in the non-sensitive clone (on growth, electron transport activity and prophenoloxidase activity). No interactions were found for maturation rate, filtration rate, and energy reserve fractions (carbohydrate, protein, lipid). Furthermore, only antagonistic interactions were detected in the non-sensitive clone, while only synergistic interactions were observed in the carbaryl sensitive clone

  17. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Microbiome in Children with Hirschsprung Disease with and without a History of Enterocolitis: A Multicenter Study.

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    Philip K Frykman

    Full Text Available Development of potentially life-threatening enterocolitis is the most frequent complication in children with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, even after definitive corrective surgery. Intestinal microbiota likely contribute to the etiology of enterocolitis, so the aim of this study was to compare the fecal bacterial and fungal communities of children who developed Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC with HSCR patients who had never had enterocolitis. Eighteen Hirschsprung patients who had completed definitive surgery were enrolled: 9 had a history of HAEC and 9 did not. Fecal DNA was isolated and 16S and ITS-1 regions sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing and data analysis for species identification. The HAEC group bacterial composition showed a modest reduction in Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia with increased Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria compared with the HSCR group. In contrast, the fecal fungi composition of the HAEC group showed marked reduction in diversity with increased Candida sp., and reduced Malassezia and Saccharomyces sp. compared with the HSCR group. The most striking finding within the HAEC group is that the Candida genus segregated into "high burden" patients with 97.8% C. albicans and 2.2% C. tropicalis compared with "low burden" patients 26.8% C. albicans and 73% C. tropicalis. Interestingly even the low burden HAEC group had altered Candida community structure with just two species compared to more diverse Candida populations in the HSCR patients. This is the first study to identify Candida sp. as potentially playing a role in HAEC either as expanded commensal species as a consequence of enterocolitis (or treatment, or possibly as pathobioants contributing to the pathogenesis of HAEC. These findings suggest a dysbiosis in the gut microbial ecosystem of HAEC patients, such that there may be dominance of fungi and bacteria predisposing patients to development of HAEC.

  18. Enhanced Tolerance to Cadmium in Bacterial-Fungal Co-Cultures as a Strategy for Metal Biorecovery from e-Waste

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    Geremia Losa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a microbe-based approach to be used for the biorecovery of valuable metals from e-waste. E-waste is a heterogeneous matrix at the microbial scale. Therefore, this study aims at taking advantage of bacterial-fungal (BF interactions in order to mobilize and immobilize a selected metal present in e-waste. We used cadmium (Cd and a selection of Cd-tolerant microorganisms from our culture collection or isolated from a naturally cadmium-contaminated soil. Several experiments were designed in order to use the synergistic bioremediation capabilities of BF couples to mobilize and immobilize Cd from a culture medium. Initial results showed that the selected synergistic BF couples are more tolerant to Cd concentrations than the organisms alone. However, setting the conditions leading to effective immobilization of this toxic metal still need further work. Using microbial consortia rather than single species represents an innovative alternative to traditional bioremediation approaches for the development of new biotechnological approaches in urban mining.

  19. A survey of bacterial, fungal and plant metabolites against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae, the vector of yellow and dengue fevers and Zika virus

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    Masi Marco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. Some bacterial, fungal and plant metabolites belonging to different chemical subgroups, including Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, anthracenes, azoxymethoxytetrahydropyrans, cytochalasans, 2,5-diketopiperazines, isochromanones, naphthoquinones, organic small acids and their methyl esters, sterols and terpenes including sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, were tested for their larvicidal and adulticidal activity against Ae. aegypti. Out of 23 compounds tested, gliotoxin exhibited mosquitocidal activity in both bioassays with an LC50 value of 0.0257 ± 0.001 µg/µL against 1st instar Ae. aegypti and LD50 value of 2.79 ± 0.1197 µg/mosquito against adult female Ae. aegypti. 2-Methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and cytochalasin A showed LC50 values of 0.0851 ± 0.0012 µg/µL and 0.0854 ± 0.0019 µg/µL, respectively, against Ae. aegypti larvae. In adult bioassays, fusaric acid (LD50= 0.8349 ± 0.0118 µg/mosquito, 3-nitropropionic acid (LD50 = 1.6641 ± 0.0494 µg/mosquito and α-costic acid (LD50 = 2.547 ± 0.0835 µg/mosquito exhibited adulticidal activity. Results from the current study confirm that compounds belonging to cytochalsin, diketopiperazine, naphthoquinone and low molecular weight organic acid groups are active and may stimulate further SAR investigations.

  20. BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL PATHOGENS IN THE TRANSPLANTATION AND DIALYSIS CENTER. ANALYSIS FOR EIGHTEEN YEARS (1998–2015

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    A. V. Vatazin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze the dynamics of the microflora and its sensitivity to antibiotics in patients of dialysis and transplantation center.Materials and methods. We have examined the bacteriological test results of 1282 patients with chronic kidney disease, stage 5 (renal transplant recipients and dialysis patients in 1998–2015: 1998–2003 («2003» period, 2008–2011 («2011» period and 2012–2015 («2015» period. Biomaterial: urine, blood, wound effluent, sputum.Results. The incidence (share of all samples of gram «–», gram «+» and fungi was 38, 56, 7% for «2003» period; 48, 69, 13% for «2011» period; 61, 54, 18% for «2015» period. The incidence of gram «–» in blood has significantly increased: 22% in «2003», 13% in «2011», and 45% in «2015», respectively. The incidence of Candida fungi is growing in sputum and urine: 15, 33, 41% and 8, 14, 18% (in 2003, 2011, 2015 respectively. The species composition of the fl ora has also significantly changed. In «2003» the shares of Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. were 50 and 33%, in «2015» – 34 and 53% respectively. The shares of E. coli, Klebsiella spp., P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were in «2003» 32, 21, 15, 11% respectively, and in «2015» – 17, 32, 9, 22%, respectively. The share of a «problem» genus of Candida: C. glabrata and C. krusei has significantly increased. Their combined share increased from 26 to 38% (2003–2015. There was a significant increase in antibiotic resistance, which is mostly pronounced in Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. All gram «+» bacteria in «2003» were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid, but in «2015» 6% of Enterococcus were resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion. Bacterial profile has significantly changed. Regular analysis of the bacterial fl ora is necessary due to the growing antibiotic resistance. 

  1. The efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by well diffusion method

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    C. Baskaran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, Petroleum ether, hexane, hot water, and extracts of Carica papaya. Methods: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Carica papaya. The antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts of Carica papaya were tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and fungus by observing the zone of inhibition. The Gram-positive bacteria used in the test were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, fungus like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida kefyr. Results: It was observed that ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, aceton, chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane and aquas extracts showed activity against bacteria and fungus. The chloroform extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Micrococcus luteus, zone of diameter 15.17暲0.29mm and acetone extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Candida albicans, zone of diameter 11.23暲0.25mm compared to other solvent extracts. Conclusions: In this study chloroform extract in bacteria and acetone extract in fungus showed a varying degree of inhibition to the growth of tested organism, than Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, Petroleum ether, hexane and hot water extracts. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial and antifungal activity of Carica papaya extract against various human pathogenic bacteria. Presences of phytochemical and antimicrobial activity are confirmed.

  2. Improved Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene (V4 and V4-5) and Fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer Marker Gene Primers for Microbial Community Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, William; Hyde, Embriette R.; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Greg; Parada, Alma; Gilbert, Jack A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Apprill, Amy; Knight, Rob; Bik, Holly

    2015-12-22

    ABSTRACT

    Designing primers for PCR-based taxonomic surveys that amplify a broad range of phylotypes in varied community samples is a difficult challenge, and the comparability of data sets amplified with varied primers requires attention. Here, we examined the performance of modified 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers for archaea/bacteria and fungi, respectively, with nonaquatic samples. We moved primer bar codes to the 5′ end, allowing for a range of different 3′ primer pairings, such as the 515f/926r primer pair, which amplifies variable regions 4 and 5 of the 16S rRNA gene. We additionally demonstrated that modifications to the 515f/806r (variable region 4) 16S primer pair, which improves detection ofThaumarchaeotaand clade SAR11 in marine samples, do not degrade performance on taxa already amplified effectively by the original primer set. Alterations to the fungal ITS primers did result in differential but overall improved performance compared to the original primers. In both cases, the improved primers should be widely adopted for amplicon studies.

    ImportanceWe continue to uncover a wealth of information connecting microbes in important ways to human and environmental ecology. As our scientific knowledge and technical abilities improve, the tools used for microbiome surveys can be modified to improve the accuracy of our techniques, ensuring that we can continue to identify groundbreaking connections between microbes and the ecosystems they populate, from ice caps to the human body. It is important to confirm that modifications to these tools do not cause new, detrimental biases that would inhibit the field rather than continue to move it forward. We therefore demonstrated that two recently modified primer pairs that target taxonomically discriminatory regions of bacterial and fungal genomic DNA do not introduce new biases when used on a variety of sample types, from soil to

  3. Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

    2014-05-01

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential.

  4. The Arabidopsis ATAF1, a NAC transcription factor, is a negative regulator of defense responses against necrotrophic fungal and bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao'e; Basnayake, B M Vindhya S; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Guojun; Li, Wei; Virk, Nasar; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Song, Fengming

    2009-10-01

    Transcription factors of the NAC family are known to be involved in various growth or developmental processes and in regulation of response to environmental stresses. In the present study, we report that Arabidopsis ATAF1 is a negative regulator of defense responses against both necrotrophic fungal and bacterial pathogens. Expression of ATAF1 was downregulated after infection with Botrytis cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato or after treatment with salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (the precursor of ethylene biosynthesis). Transgenic plants that overexpress the ATAF1 gene (ATAF1-OE) showed increased susceptibility while expression of an ATAF1 chimeric repressor construct (ATAF1-SRDX) exhibited enhanced resistance to P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, B. cinerea, and Alternaria brassicicola. The ataf1 mutant plants showed no significant resistance against the pathogens tested. After inoculation with B. cinerea or P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, expressions of defense-related genes PR-1, PR-5. and PDF1.2 were upregulated in the ATAF1-SRDX plants but attenuated or unchanged in the ATAF1-OE plants. In ATAF1-OE plants, SA-induced expression of pathogenesis-related genes and disease resistance against P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was partially suppressed. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (i.e., H(2)O(2) and superoxide anion) accumulated only in the ATAF1-OE but not in the ATAF1-SRDX plants after Botrytis spp. infection. Our studies provide direct genetic evidence for the role of ATAF1 as a negative regulator of defense response against different type of pathogens.

  5. Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry; Leducq, Valentin; Aschard, Hugues; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Jegou, Sarah; Landman, Cecilia; Cohen, David; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bourrier, Anne; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Cosnes, Jacques; Seksik, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Skurnik, David; Richard, Mathias L; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Objective The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. Although some data suggest a role of the fungal microbiota in IBD pathogenesis, the available data are scarce. The aim of our study was to characterise the faecal fungal microbiota in patients with IBD. Design Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota of 235 patients with IBD and 38 healthy subjects (HS) was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Qiime pipeline to assess composition and diversity. Bacterial and fungal taxa associated with clinical parameters were identified using multivariate association with linear models. Correlation between bacterial and fungal microbiota was investigated using Spearman's test and distance correlation. Results We observed that fungal microbiota is skewed in IBD, with an increased Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio, a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increased proportion of Candida albicans compared with HS. We also identified disease-specific alterations in diversity, indicating that a Crohn's disease-specific gut environment may favour fungi at the expense of bacteria. The concomitant analysis of bacterial and fungal microbiota showed a dense and homogenous correlation network in HS but a dramatically unbalanced network in IBD, suggesting the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom alterations. Conclusions Besides bacterial dysbiosis, our study identifies a distinct fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD characterised by alterations in biodiversity and composition. Moreover, we unravel here disease-specific inter-kingdom network alterations in IBD, suggesting that, beyond bacteria, fungi might also play a role in IBD pathogenesis. PMID:26843508

  6. Differences in fungal and bacterial physiology alter soil carbon and nitrogen cycling: synthesizing effects of microbial community structure using the Fungi and Bacteria (FAB) model. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, C.; Hawkes, C. V.; Waring, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    Most biogeochemical models of soil carbon and nitrogen cycling include a simplified representation of the soil microbial community as a single pool, despite good evidence that shifts in the composition or relative abundance of microbial taxa can affect process rates. Incorporating a more realistic depiction of the microbial community in these models may increase their predictive accuracy, but this must be balanced against the feasibility of modeling the enormous diversity present in soil. We propose that explicitly including two major microbial functional groups with distinct physiologies, fungi and bacteria, will improve model predictions. To this end, we created the fungi and bacteria (FAB) model, building off previous enzyme-driven biogeochemical models that explicitly represent microbial physiology. We compared this model to a complementary biogeochemical model that does not include microbial community structure (';single-pool'). We also performed a cross-ecosystem meta-analysis of fungi-to-bacteria ratios to determine if model predictions of community structure matched empirical data. There were large differences in process rates and pool sizes between the single-pool and FAB models. In the FAB model, inorganic N pools were reduced by 5-95% depending on the soil C:N ratio due to bacterial immobilization of fungal mineralization products. This nitrogen subsidy also increased microbial biomass at some C:N ratios. Although there were changes in some components of respiration, particularly overflow respiration, there was no net effect of community structure on total respiration fluxes. The FAB model predicted a breakpoint in the relationship between the ratio of fungi to bacteria and soil C:N, after which the fungi-to-bacteria ratio should begin to increase. Break-point analysis of the meta-analysis data set revealed a consistent pattern and matched the slope of the change in F:B with soil C:N, but not the precise breakpoint. We argue that including microbial

  7. Fungal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other illnesses such as the flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal diseases like fungal meningitis and bloodstream ... prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y pruebas Tratamiento Profesionales de la salud Estadísticas Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources ...

  8. Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fungal Infections KidsHealth / For Kids / Fungal Infections What's in this ...

  9. Survey of diseases and parasites of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niweiri, M. A.; El-Sarrag, M. S. A.; Satti, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of the honeybee diseases and parasites including questionnaires were carried out in eight bee areas in Sudan during the season 2002/03. About 117 local colonies and 324 packages of imported colonies of Apis mellifera were inspected, in addition to 25 colonies of Apis florea. All areas were found to be free of most bacterial brood diseases and fungal diseases, except the bacterial brood disease (Serratia marcescens) which was merely detected in 2.6% of Khartoum colonies. However, non infective dysentery was the only adult disease found during this study infecting 18.2% of Kordofan colonies. On the other hand, the parasitic mite (Varroa jacobsoni) was reported as first record in Sudan, detected only in Khartoum State infecting about 75% of colonies in apiaries and 27% of wild colonies. Sudanese honeybees were found to be characterized by hygienic behaviour of colonies which resist most pests and diseases, and no chemicals were used for control.(Author)

  10. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  11. Bacterial and fungal organisms in otitis externa patients without fungal infection risk factors in Erzurum, Turkey Organismos bacterianos e fúngicos em pacientes com otite externa sem fatores de risco para infecção fúngica em Erzurum, Turquia

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    Murat Enoz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To describe the bacterial and fungal organisms in otitis externa patients without other risk factors for fungal infections. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional cohort descriptive study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ear swabs were obtained from 362 patients aged 1 to 55 years old with clinically diagnosed otitis externa in Erzurum, Turkey, between January 2006 and April 2007, and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi, using EMB, 5% sheep's blood, chocolate agar, anaerobic blood agar plate, thioglycollate broth and sabaroud agar using standard microbiological technique to diagnose isolates. RESULTS: 219 cultures were positive and a total of 267 isolates were obtained. Of the isolates, 68.16% (n: 182 were aerobic or facultative bacteria, 1.12 % (3 were anaerobic bacteria, 30.71 % (82 were fungi and 17.5 % (38 were polymicrobial infections. CONCLUSION: Fungal organisms especially Candida species may be isolated from ears of otitis externa patients without fungal infection risk factors such as ear self-cleaning, local antimicrobial, antifungal or corticosteroid drops or systemic antimicrobial or antifungal agents within the preceding week. Bacterial and fungal cultures may be recommended, and anti-fungal agents may be added, to treatment regimens in patients with otitis externa.OBJETIVO: Descrever fungos e bactérias presentes em pacientes com otite externa sem fator de risco para infecções fúngicas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo descritivo de coorte transversal. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Amostras por raspagem de cotonetes (swabs no ouvido foram obtidas de 362 pacientes com idades entre 1 e 55 anos, com diagnóstico clínico de otite externa em Erzurum, Turquia, entre janeiro de 2006 e abril de 2007. Essas amostras foram cultivadas em meio de cultura, 5% de sangue de ovelha, ágar chocolate, ágar sangue anaeróbio, banho em tioglicolato e ágar Saboroud, usando técnicas padrão de microbiologia para identificar os isolados. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos

  12. Fungal keratitis

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    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  13. Fungal Endocarditis: Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid; Lee, Justin Z; Low, See-Wei; Desai, Hem; Lee, Kwan S; Al Mohajer, Mayar

    2016-10-01

    Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth. Fungal endocarditis mandates an aggressive treatment strategy. A medical and surgical combined approach is the cornerstone of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parasite Carbohydrate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurigue, Jonnel A; Seeberger, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is an efficient means of combating infectious disease burden globally. However, routine vaccines for the world's major human parasitic diseases do not yet exist. Vaccines based on carbohydrate antigens are a viable option for parasite vaccine development, given the proven success of carbohydrate vaccines to combat bacterial infections. We will review the key components of carbohydrate vaccines that have remained largely consistent since their inception, and the success of bacterial carbohydrate vaccines. We will then explore the latest developments for both traditional and non-traditional carbohydrate vaccine approaches for three of the world's major protozoan parasitic diseases-malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis. The traditional prophylactic carbohydrate vaccine strategy is being explored for malaria. However, given that parasite disease biology is complex and often arises from host immune responses to parasite antigens, carbohydrate vaccines against deleterious immune responses in host-parasite interactions are also being explored. In particular, the highly abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules specific for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma , and Leishmania spp. are considered exploitable antigens for this non-traditional vaccine approach. Discussion will revolve around the application of these protozoan carbohydrate antigens for vaccines currently in preclinical development.

  15. Host specificity for bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities determined for high- and low-microbial abundance sponge species in two genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, De Maryam Chaib; Sipkema, Detmer; Huang, Sixing; Bunk, Boyke; Overmann, Jörg; Elsas, van Jan Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are engaged in intimate symbioses with a diversity of microorganisms from all three domains of life, namely Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Sponges have been well studied and categorized for their bacterial communities, some displaying a high microbial abundance (HMA), while others show

  16. Pyogenic abscesses and parasitic diseases Abscessos piogênicos e doenças parasitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases which during their course in the host switch the immune system from a T helper 1 to a T helper 2 response may be detrimental to the host, contributing to granuloma formation, eosinophilia, hyper-IgE, and increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. Patients and animals with acute schistosomiasis and hyper-IgE in their serum develop pyogenic liver abscess in the presence of bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The Salmonella-S. mansoni association has also been well documented. The association of tropical pyomyositis (pyogenic muscle abscess and pyogenic liver abscess with Toxocara infection has recently been described in the same context. In tropical countries that may be an interesting explanation for the great morbidity of bacterial diseases. If the association of parasitic infections and pyogenic abscesses and/or fungal diseases are confirmed, there will be a strong case in favor of universal treatment for parasitic diseases to prevent or decrease the morbidity of superinfection with bacteria and fungi.As doenças parasitárias que durante a sua evolução no hospedeiro provocam mudança de uma resposta imune Th1 para uma resposta Th2 podem tornar-se prejudiciais ao hospedeiro, contribuindo para a formação de granulomas, eosinofilia, hiper-IgE, e suscetibilidade aumentada a infecções bacterianas e fúngicas. Demonstrou-se recentemente que animais e pacientes com esquistossomose aguda desenvolvem abscessos hepáticos piogênicos na presença de bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus. A associação da esquistossomose com bactérias do gênero Salmonella também encontra-se bem documentada. A infecção por Toxocara também parece predispor o hospedeiro a piomiosite tropical (abscesso muscular piogênico e abscesso piogênico do fígado. Nos países tropicais essa poderia ser uma explicação para a maior morbidade das doenças bacterianas. Se a associação de doenças parasitárias e infec

  17. Population genetics of fungal diseases of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Tatiana; Enjalbert, Jerome; Fournier, Elisabeth; Delmotte, François; Dutech, Christian Cyril

    2008-01-01

    Although parasitism is one of the most common lifestyles among eukaryotes, population genetics on parasites lag far behind those on free-living organisms. Yet, the advent of molecular markers offers great tools for studying important processes, such as dispersal, mating systems, adaptation to host and speciation. Here we highlight some studies that used molecular markers to address questions about the population genetics of fungal (including oomycetes) plant pathogens. We conclude that popula...

  18. Metals in fungal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwien, Franziska; Skrahina, Volha; Kasper, Lydia; Hube, Bernhard; Brunke, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    Metals are essential for life, and they play a central role in the struggle between infecting microbes and their hosts. In fact, an important aspect of microbial pathogenesis is the 'nutritional immunity', in which metals are actively restricted (or, in an extended definition of the term, locally enriched) by the host to hinder microbial growth and virulence. Consequently, fungi have evolved often complex regulatory networks, uptake and detoxification systems for essential metals such as iron, zinc, copper, nickel and manganese. These systems often differ fundamentally from their bacterial counterparts, but even within the fungal pathogens we can find common and unique solutions to maintain metal homeostasis. Thus, we here compare the common and species-specific mechanisms used for different metals among different fungal species-focusing on important human pathogens such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus or Cryptococcus neoformans, but also looking at model fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or A. nidulans as well-studied examples for the underlying principles. These direct comparisons of our current knowledge reveal that we have a good understanding how model fungal pathogens take up iron or zinc, but that much is still to learn about other metals and specific adaptations of individual species-not the least to exploit this knowledge for new antifungal strategies. © FEMS 2017.

  19. Fungal diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Thomas R; Wickes, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments.

  20. The germin-like protein OsGLP2-1 enhances resistance to fungal blast and bacterial blight in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianyuan; Yan, Shijuan; Zhang, Shaohong; Zhao, Junliang; Wang, Wenjuan; Yang, Tifeng; Wang, Xiaofei; Mao, Xingxue; Dong, Jingfang; Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Bin

    2016-11-01

    This is the first report that GLP gene (OsGLP2-1) is involved in panicle blast and bacterial blight resistance in rice. In addition to its resistance to blast and bacterial blight, OsGLP2-1 has also been reported to co-localize with a QTLs for sheath blight resistance in rice. These suggest that the disease resistance provided by OsGLP2-1 is quantitative and broad spectrum. Its good resistance to these major diseases in rice makes it to be a promising target in rice breeding. Rice (Oryza sativa) blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae are the two most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Germin-like protein (GLP) gene family is one of the important defense gene families which have been reported to be involved in disease resistance in plants. Although GLP proteins have been demonstrated to positively regulate leaf blast resistance in rice, their involvement in resistance to panicle blast and bacterial blight, has not been reported. In this study, we reported that one of the rice GLP genes, OsGLP2-1, was significantly induced by blast fungus. Overexpression of OsGLP2-1 quantitatively enhanced resistance to leaf blast, panicle blast and bacterial blight. The temporal and spatial expression analysis revealed that OsGLP2-1is highly expressed in leaves and panicles and sub-localized in the cell wall. Compared with empty vector transformed (control) plants, the OsGLP2-1 overexpressing plants exhibited higher levels of H 2 O 2 both before and after pathogen inoculation. Moreover, OsGLP2-1 was significantly induced by jasmonic acid (JA). Overexpression of OsGLP2-1 induced three well-characterized defense-related genes which are associated in JA-dependent pathway after pathogen infection. Higher endogenous level of JA was also identified in OsGLP2-1 overexpressing plants than in control plants both before and after pathogen inoculation. Together, these results suggest that OsGLP2-1 functions as a positive regulator to

  1. Codon optimization underpins generalist parasitism in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, Thomas; Peyraud, Remi; Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Derbyshire, Mark; Oliver, Richard P; Barbacci, Adelin; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2017-02-03

    The range of hosts that parasites can infect is a key determinant of the emergence and spread of disease. Yet, the impact of host range variation on the evolution of parasite genomes remains unknown. Here, we show that codon optimization underlies genome adaptation in broad host range parasites. We found that the longer proteins encoded by broad host range fungi likely increase natural selection on codon optimization in these species. Accordingly, codon optimization correlates with host range across the fungal kingdom. At the species level, biased patterns of synonymous substitutions underpin increased codon optimization in a generalist but not a specialist fungal pathogen. Virulence genes were consistently enriched in highly codon-optimized genes of generalist but not specialist species. We conclude that codon optimization is related to the capacity of parasites to colonize multiple hosts. Our results link genome evolution and translational regulation to the long-term persistence of generalist parasitism.

  2. Characterization of Complexes Synthesized Using Schiff Base Ligands and Their Screening for Toxicity Two Fungal and One Bacterial Species on Rice Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mangamamba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordination complexes with metal ions Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, Fe(III, Mn(II, Cr(III, and VO(II with six ligands formed by condensation products using azides and aldehydes or ketones are characterized. Both the ligands and the complexes synthesized are characterized by C, H, N, Cl and metal analyses, IR, UV-Vis, TGA, and magnetic susceptibility for tentative structure proposal. Several of them are screened for their toxicity (i.e., physiological activity against fungal species Rhizoctonia solani and Acrocylindrium oryzae and a bacterium, Xanthomonas oryzae on rice pathogens. The study shows that the observed physiological activity is enhanced for the metal complexes as compared to the simple metal salts or ligands, except in the case of L3 or HAEP ligand, where the free –OH and –NH2 groups on the ligand seemed to have inhibited the activity. It is also observed that the order of activity has a dependence on the increased atomic weight of the metal ion in use. In some cases, especially the VO(II complexes, they are found to be better than the standards in use, both for the fungicides and for the bactericide.

  3. Genetic variation in Asterionella formosa (Bacillariophyceae) is it linked to frequent epidemics of host-specific parasitic fungi?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruin, A.; Ibelings, B.W.; Rijkeboer, M.; Brehm, Michaela; Van Donk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of the genetic basis for susceptibility and resistance is still lacking for most aquatic host-parasite systems, for instance, for phytoplankton and their fungal parasites. Fungal parasites can have significant effects on phytoplankton populations, mainly through their ability to

  4. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  5. Pre-adapting parasitic phages to a pathogen leads to increased pathogen clearance and lowered resistance evolution with Pseudomonas aeruginosacystic fibrosis bacterial isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Soanes-Brown, Daniel; Sierocinski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    and then compared the efficacy of pre-adapted and non-adapted phages against ancestral bacterial strains. We found that evolved phages were more efficient in reducing bacterial densities than ancestral phages. This was primarily because only 50% of bacterial strains were able to evolve resistance to evolved phages......, while all bacteria were able to evolve some level of resistance to ancestral phages. While the rate of resistance evolution did not differ between intermittent and chronic isolates, it incurred a relatively higher growth cost for chronic isolates when measured in the absence of phages. This is likely...

  6. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of the causal agent of Black Sigatoka fungal leaf spot disease of banana and plantain, Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto-Canché, Blondy; Guillén-Maldonado, Diana Karina; Peraza-Echeverría, Leticia; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; James-Kay, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome library of the causal agent of the Black Sigatoka leaf spot disease of banana and plantain, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, has been constructed using a non-sphaeroplasting technique and characterized using both homologous and heterologous probes. After first and a second size selection of PFGE-fractionated DNA, a ligation was obtained using a 1:4 molar ratio (insert:vector). One hundred random clones were analyzed, and the mean insert size was estimated to be 90 kb. The range of the insert sizes was between 40 and 160 kb. The highest percentage of inserts belonged to the range between 80 and 100 kb; 32% of the inserts had 2 or 3 internal NotI sites. This library consists of 1920 clones, if the genomic size is at least 35 Mb, then this represents 4.9 x genome equivalents, which was supported by hybridization results with homologous and heterologous probes.

  7. Social Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Oberholzer, Michael; Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Protozoan parasites cause tremendous human suffering worldwide, but strategies for therapeutic intervention are limited. Recent studies illustrate that the paradigm of microbes as social organisms can be brought to bear on questions about parasite biology, transmission and pathogenesis. This review discusses recent work demonstrating adaptation of social behaviors by parasitic protozoa that cause African sleeping sickness and malaria. The recognition of social behavior and cell-cell communication as a ubiquitous property of bacteria has transformed our view of microbiology, but protozoan parasites have not generally been considered in this context. Works discussed illustrate the potential for concepts of sociomicrobiology to provide insight into parasite biology and should stimulate new approaches for thinking about parasites and parasite-host interactions. PMID:22020108

  8. Chytrid parasitism facilitates trophic transfer between bloom-forming cyanobacteria and zooplankton (Daphnia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Ramsy; Saebelfeld, Manja; Manthey, Christin; Rohrlack, Thomas; Wolinska, Justyna

    2016-10-13

    Parasites are rarely included in food web studies, although they can strongly alter trophic interactions. In aquatic ecosystems, poorly grazed cyanobacteria often dominate phytoplankton communities, leading to the decoupling of primary and secondary production. Here, we addressed the interface between predator-prey and host-parasite interactions by conducting a life-table experiment, in which four Daphnia galeata genotypes were maintained on quantitatively comparable diets consisting of healthy cyanobacteria or cyanobacteria infected by a fungal (chytrid) parasite. In four out of five fitness parameters, at least one Daphnia genotype performed better on parasitised cyanobacteria than in the absence of infection. Further treatments consisting of purified chytrid zoospores and heterotrophic bacteria suspensions established the causes of improved fitness. First, Daphnia feed on chytrid zoospores which trophically upgrade cyanobacterial carbon. Second, an increase in heterotrophic bacterial biomass, promoted by cyanobacterial decay, provides an additional food source for Daphnia. In addition, chytrid infection induces fragmentation of cyanobacterial filaments, which could render cyanobacteria more edible. Our results demonstrate that chytrid parasitism can sustain zooplankton under cyanobacterial bloom conditions, and exemplify the potential of parasites to alter interactions between trophic levels.

  9. Inoculation Effect of N2-Fixer and P-Solubilizer into a Mixture of Fresh Manure and Phosphate Rock Formulated as Organonitrofos Fertilizer on Bacterial and Fungal Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Ghani Nugroho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial N2-fixer and P-solubilizer were innoculated in a mixture of fresh manure and phosphate rock formulated as an Organonitrophos fertilizer. The population dynamics of bacteria and fungi growing during the composting process were observed. The inoculation treatments consisted of: K = mixture of 20% phosphate rock and 80% of fresh manure + decomposers (control, N = mixture of 20% phosphate rock and 80% of fresh manure + decomposers + N2-fixer (Azotobacter and Azospirillum sp. , P = mixture of 20% phosphate rock and 80% of fresh manure + decomposers + P-solubilizer (A. niger and P. fluorescens, and NP = mixture of 20% phosphate rock and 80% of fresh manure + decomposers + N2-fixer + P-solubilizer. The results showed that inoculation of microbial N2-fixer and combination inoculation of N2-fixer and P-solubilizer increased the total bacterial population compared to that of the control as well as the only inoculation of microbial P-solubilizer on the 14th day of observation in which the bacteria reached the highest population. On all the observation days, the population of fungi in the inoculation of microbial P-solubilizer treatment increased significantly compared to that of the control. However, there was no difference between the populations of fungi in the inoculation of N2-fixer and combination inoculation of N2-fixer and Psolubilizer. The genus of fungy identified in the compost of the mixture of fresh manure and phosphate rock were Chytridium sp., Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp., and Fusarium sp.

  10. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  11. Parasitic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis ... and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Various parasites can cause meningitis or can affect the brain or nervous ...

  12. Review article: fungal microbiota and digestive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z K; Yang, Y S; Stefka, A T; Sun, G; Peng, L H

    2014-04-01

    The role of the fungal microbiota in digestive diseases is poorly defined, but is becoming better understood due to advances in metagenomics. To review the gastrointestinal fungal microbiota and its relationship with digestive diseases. Search of the literature using PubMed and MEDLINE databases. Subject headings including 'fungal-bacterial interactions', 'mycotoxins', 'immunity to fungi', 'fungal infection', 'fungal microbiota', 'mycobiome' and 'digestive diseases' were used. The fungal microbiota is an integral part of the gastrointestinal microecosystem with up to 10(6) microorganisms per gram of faeces. Next-generation sequencing of the fungal 18S rRNA gene has allowed better characterisation of the gastrointestinal mycobiome. Numerous interactions between fungi and bacteria and the complex immune response to gastrointestinal commensal or pathogenic fungi all impact on the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal inflammatory entities such as peptic ulcers. Mycotoxins generated as fungal metabolites contribute to disturbances of gastrointestinal barrier and immune functions and are associated with chronic intestinal inflammatory conditions as well as hepatocellular and oesophagogastric cancer. Systemic and gastrointestinal disease can also lead to secondary fungal infections. Fungal genomic databases and methodologies need to be further developed and will allow a much better understanding of the diversity and function of the mycobiome in gastrointestinal inflammation, tumourigenesis, liver cirrhosis and transplantation, and its alteration as a consequence of antibiotic therapy and chemotherapy. The fungal microbiota and its metabolites impact gastrointestinal function and contribute to the pathogenesis of digestive diseases. Further metagenomic analyses of the gastrointestinal mycobiome in health and disease is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

  14. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  15. Interactions among symbionts operate across scales to influence parasite epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Fletcher W; Umbanhowar, James; Mitchell, Charles E

    2017-10-01

    Parasite epidemics may be influenced by interactions among symbionts, which can depend on past events at multiple spatial scales. Within host individuals, interactions can depend on the sequence in which symbionts infect a host, generating priority effects. Across host individuals, interactions can depend on parasite phenology. To test the roles of parasite interactions and phenology in epidemics, we embedded multiple cohorts of sentinel plants, grown from seeds with and without a vertically transmitted symbiont, into a wild host population, and tracked foliar infections caused by three common fungal parasites. Within hosts, parasite growth was influenced by coinfections, but coinfections were often prevented by priority effects among symbionts. Across hosts, parasite phenology altered host susceptibility to secondary infections, symbiont interactions and ultimately the magnitude of parasite epidemics. Together, these results indicate that parasite phenology can influence parasite epidemics by altering the sequence of infection and interactions among symbionts within host individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Evaluation of the NanoCHIP® Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP Test for Simultaneous Detection of Parasitic and Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifra Ken Dror

    Full Text Available Infectious gastroenteritis is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to allow appropriate and timely treatment. Current laboratory stool testing has a long turnaround time (TAT and demands highly qualified personnel and multiple techniques. The need for high throughput and the number of possible enteric pathogens compels the implementation of a molecular approach which uses multiplex technology, without compromising performance requirements. In this work we evaluated the feasibility of the NanoCHIP® Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP (Savyon Diagnostics, Ashdod, IL, a molecular microarray-based screening test, to be used in the routine workflow of our laboratory, a big outpatient microbiology laboratory. The NanoCHIP® GIP test provides simultaneous detection of nine major enteric bacteria and parasites: Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Blastocystis spp. The required high-throughput was obtained by the NanoCHIP® detection system together with the MagNA Pure 96 DNA purification system (Roche Diagnostics Ltd., Switzerland. This combined system has demonstrated a higher sensitivity and detection yield compared to the conventional methods in both, retrospective and prospective samples. The identification of multiple parasites and bacteria in a single test also enabled increased efficiency of detecting mixed infections, as well as reduced hands-on time and work load. In conclusion, the combination of these two automated systems is a proper response to the laboratory needs in terms of improving laboratory workflow, turn-around-time, minimizing human errors and can be efficiently integrated in the routine work of the laboratory.

  17. Molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods: Stool samples from 38 transplant recipients comprising 29 post-renal, two liver and seven bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients presenting with diarrhoea and 50 transplant recipients (42 post-renal transplant, eight BMT without diarrhoea were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by light microscopy using wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining for intestinal coccidia and modified trichrome staining for microsporidia. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species were determined by multilocus genotyping using small subunit ribosomal (SSUrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR as the target genes. Assemblage study for Giardia lamblia was performed using triose phosphate isomerase (TPI as the target gene. Samples were also screened for bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Results: The parasites that were detected included Cryptosporidium species (21%, 8/38, Cystoisospora (Isospora belli (8%, 3, Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%, 2, G. lamblia (11%, 4, Hymenolepis nana (11%, 4, Strongyloides stercoralis (3%, 1 and Blastocystis hominis (3%, 1. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium species at SSUrRNA, COWP and DHFR loci could detect four isolates of C. hominis; two of C. parvum, one of mixed genotype and one could not be genotyped. All the C. hominis isolates were detected in adult post

  18. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  19. Functional and phylogenetic evidence of a bacterial origin for the first enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis in a phylum of eukaryotic protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, John G; Thye, Julie K; Alqaisi, Amjed Q I; Bird, Louise E; Dods, Robert H; Grøftehauge, Morten K; Mosely, Jackie A; Pratt, Steven; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schwarz, Ralph T; Pohl, Ehmke; Denny, Paul W

    2017-07-21

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular eukaryotic apicomplexan protozoan parasite that can cause fetal damage and abortion in both animals and humans. Sphingolipids are essential and ubiquitous components of eukaryotic membranes that are both synthesized and scavenged by the Apicomplexa. Here we report the identification, isolation, and analyses of the Toxoplasma serine palmitoyltransferase, an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis: the condensation of serine and palmitoyl-CoA. In all eukaryotes analyzed to date, serine palmitoyltransferase is a highly conserved heterodimeric enzyme complex. However, biochemical and structural analyses demonstrated the apicomplexan orthologue to be a functional, homodimeric serine palmitoyltransferase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies indicated that it was evolutionarily related to the prokaryotic serine palmitoyltransferase, identified in the Sphingomonadaceae as a soluble homodimeric enzyme. Therefore this enzyme, conserved throughout the Apicomplexa, is likely to have been obtained via lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Evolutionary biology of bacterial and fungal pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassell, Gail H; Gutierrez-Fuentes, Jose A; Barquero, Fernando; Nombela, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    ... and Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathogens * 21 Keith A. Crandall and Marcos Pérez-Losada II. Evolutionary Genetics of Microbial Pathogens 4. Environmental and Social Influences on Infectious Disea...

  1. Impact and control of protozoan parasites in maricultured fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture, including both freshwater and marine production, has on a world scale exhibited one of the highest growth rates within animal protein production during recent decades and is expected to expand further at the same rate within the next 10 years. Control of diseases is one of the most prominent challenges if this production goal is to be reached. Apart from viral, bacterial, fungal and metazoan infections it has been documented that protozoan parasites affect health and welfare and thereby production of fish in marine aquaculture. Representatives within the main protozoan groups such as amoebae, dinoflagellates, kinetoplastid flagellates, diplomonadid flagellates, apicomplexans, microsporidians and ciliates have been shown to cause severe morbidity and mortality among farmed fish. Well studied examples are Neoparamoeba perurans, Amyloodinium ocellatum, Spironucleus salmonicida, Ichthyobodo necator, Cryptobia salmositica, Loma salmonae, Cryptocaryon irritans, Miamiensis avidus and Trichodina jadranica. The present report provides details on the parasites' biology and impact on productivity and evaluates tools for diagnosis, control and management. Special emphasis is placed on antiprotozoan immune responses in fish and a strategy for development of vaccines is presented.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Marine fungal metabolites against clinical pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and identify of marine fungal metabolites against clinical bacterial pathogens. To optimize the production medium for isolated fungus. Method: Marine fungus isolated from water and sediment samples from different places of Sundarbans mangrove, Muttukadu (Chennai and Parangipettai in India. Antimicrobial substance from marine fungi was produced by agar plate method. The potent fungal were inoculated on production medium and extracted was done. The extracted compound was checked for anti bacterial activity. Suitable production medium were optimized. Result: Totally 30 fungal isolates were recovered and morphologically 10 different strains were belongs to the fungal genera such as Fusarium, Aspergillus, Mucor and Penicillium. Preliminary screening results showed 3 fungal isolates showed promising activity. After production of potent fungal SS2 crude extracts showed highest inhibition against the bacterial pathogens out of 3 fungal isolates. The results showed maximum zone in 20mm against E.coli and minimum 10 mm against Vibrio sp. Conclusions: The present study identified Fusarium sp isolated from Sundarbans mangrove water as a potential source for bioactive compounds. Further isolation of active compound from potential fungal isolates will leads to the discovery of effective antimicrobials.

  3. Immune response to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, R D

    1989-01-01

    In general, fungi are saprophytes that are well adapted to grow in nature supported by diverse nutritional substrates. For fungi, in contrast to many other microorganisms that infect humans, parasitism is an accidental phenomenon rather than an obligatory requirement for survival. Thus, with progressive improvement in our capabilities to prolong survival of patients with global defects in host defense mechanisms, clinical experience suggests that human tissues may support growth of numerous species of saprophytic fungi that share the capacity to grow at 37 degrees C. Normally, however, a broad array of natural and acquired host defense mechanisms make the occurrence of progressive, systemic, life-threatening mycoses extremely rare events. When one or another of these host defense mechanisms is compromised, one of a variety of significant fungal infections may then progress. Mycoses may be broadly categorized into those controlled largely by natural cellular defenses vs. acquired cell-mediated immunity. Notwithstanding data that permit such general classification of host factors controlling one or another invasive mycosis, the diverse structural and antigenic properties of individual fungi create unique patterns of infections in individual, characteristic host settings. Thus, while some broad generalizations are possible, definition of predisposing factors for specific individual mycoses (and, ultimately, prospects for corrective immunotherapy) requires careful characterization of diverse features of fungal forms mediating divergent immune responses.

  4. Changes in the Bacteriome of Honey Bees Associated with the Parasite Varroa destructor, and Pathogens Nosema and Lotmaria passim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Bicianova, Martina; Ledvinka, Ondrej; Kamler, Martin; Lester, Philip J; Nesvorna, Marta; Kopecky, Jan; Erban, Tomas

    2017-04-01

    The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is a globally important species that suffers from a variety of pathogens and parasites. These parasites and pathogens may have sublethal effects on their bee hosts via an array of mechanisms, including through a change in symbiotic bacterial taxa. Our aim was to assess the influence of four globally widespread parasites and pathogens on the honey bee bacteriome. We examined the effects of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, the fungal pathogens Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and the trypanosome Lotmaria passim. Varroa was detected by acaricidal treatment, Nosema and L. passim by PCR, and the bacteriome using MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, the 1,858,850 obtained sequences formed 86 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 3 % dissimilarity. Location, time of year, and degree of infestation by Varroa had significant effects on the composition of the bacteriome of honey bee workers. Based on statistical correlations, we found varroosis more important factor than N. ceranae, N. apis, and L. passim infestation influencing the honey bee bacteriome and contributing to the changes in the composition of the bacterial community in adult bees. At the population level, Varroa appeared to modify 20 OTUs. In the colonies with high Varroa infestation levels (varroosis), the relative abundance of the bacteria Bartonella apis and Lactobacillus apis decreased. In contrast, an increase in relative abundance was observed for several taxa including Lactobacillus helsingborgensis, Lactobacillus mellis, Commensalibacter intestini, and Snodgrassella alvi. The results showed that the "normal" bacterial community is altered by eukaryotic parasites as well as displaying temporal changes and changes associated with the geographical origin of the beehive.

  5. Immunological Consequences of Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Matthew L; Limon, Jose J; Bar, Agnieszka S; Leal, Christian A; Gargus, Matthew; Tang, Jie; Brown, Jordan; Funari, Vincent A; Wang, Hanlin L; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Iliev, Iliyan D

    2016-06-08

    Compared to bacteria, the role of fungi within the intestinal microbiota is poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether the presence of a "healthy" fungal community in the gut is important for modulating immune function. Prolonged oral treatment of mice with antifungal drugs resulted in increased disease severity in acute and chronic models of colitis, and also exacerbated the development of allergic airway disease. Microbiota profiling revealed restructuring of fungal and bacterial communities. Specifically, representation of Candida spp. was reduced, while Aspergillus, Wallemia, and Epicoccum spp. were increased. Oral supplementation with a mixture of three fungi found to expand during antifungal treatment (Aspergillus amstelodami, Epicoccum nigrum, and Wallemia sebi) was sufficient to recapitulate the exacerbating effects of antifungal drugs on allergic airway disease. Taken together, these results indicate that disruption of commensal fungal populations can influence local and peripheral immune responses and enhance relevant disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in AIDS patients, HIV seropositive healthy carriers and HIV seronegative individuals in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Zelalem T; Abebe, Gemeda; Mulu, Andargachew

    2008-12-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens. To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among AIDS patients and HIV positive carrier individuals. Cross-sectional study was conducted among AIDS patients, HIV positive healthy carriers and HIV negative individuals in Jimma University Hospital, Mother Theresa Missionary Charity Centre, Medan Acts Projects and Mekdim HIV positive persons and AIDS orphans' national association from January to May, 2004. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 160 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of the patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration, oocyst concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 160 persons enrolled in this study 100 (62.5%) (i.e. 65 male and 35 female) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate 36 (69.2%) of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients, followed by HIV positive healthy carriers 35 (61.4%) of and HIV negative individuals (29 (56.9%). Isospora belli 2 (3.9%), Cryptosporidum parvum 8 (15.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 6 (11.5%) and Blastocystis 2 (3.9%) were found only in HIV/AIDS groups I. belli, C. parvum, S. stercoralis and Blastocystis are the major opportunistic intestinal parasites observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhoea.

  7. Role And Relevance Of Mast Cells In Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit eSaluja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their detrimental role in allergic diseases, mast cells (MCs are well known to be important cells of the innate immune system. In the last decade, they have been shown to contribute significantly to optimal host defense against numerous pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The contribution of MCs to the immune responses in fungal infections, however, is largely unknown. In this review, we first discuss key features of mast cell responses to pathogens in general and then summarize the current knowledge on the function of MCs in the defense against fungal pathogens. We especially focus on the potential and proven mechanisms by which MC can detect fungal infections and on possible MC effector mechanisms in protecting from fungal infections.

  8. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  9. Fungal DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in both natural and human-made environments. They play important roles in the health of plants, animals, and humans, and in broad ecosystem functions. Thus, having an efficient species-level identification system could significantly enhance our ability to treat fungal diseases and to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of fungal distributions and migrations. DNA barcoding is a potent approach for rapid identification of fungal specimens, generating novel species hypothesis, and guiding biodiversity and ecological studies. In this mini-review, I briefly summarize (i) the history of DNA sequence-based fungal identification; (ii) the emergence of the ITS region as the consensus primary fungal barcode; (iii) the use of the ITS barcodes to address a variety of issues on fungal diversity from local to global scales, including generating a large number of species hypothesis; and (iv) the problems with the ITS barcode region and the approaches to overcome these problems. Similar to DNA barcoding research on plants and animals, significant progress has been achieved over the last few years in terms of both the questions being addressed and the foundations being laid for future research endeavors. However, significant challenges remain. I suggest three broad areas of research to enhance the usefulness of fungal DNA barcoding to meet the current and future challenges: (i) develop a common set of primers and technologies that allow the amplification and sequencing of all fungi at both the primary and secondary barcode loci; (ii) compile a centralized reference database that includes all recognized fungal species as well as species hypothesis, and allows regular updates from the research community; and (iii) establish a consensus set of new species recognition criteria based on barcode DNA sequences that can be applied across the fungal kingdom.

  10. Versatile biocatalysis of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Pradeepraj; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Yun, Hyungdon

    2016-07-18

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases, the nature's most versatile biological catalysts have unique ability to catalyse regio-, chemo-, and stereospecific oxidation of a wide range of substrates under mild reaction conditions, thereby addressing a significant challenge in chemocatalysis. Though CYP enzymes are ubiquitous in all biological kingdoms, the divergence of CYPs in fungal kingdom is manifold. The CYP enzymes play pivotal roles in various fungal metabolisms starting from housekeeping biochemical reactions, detoxification of chemicals, and adaptation to hostile surroundings. Considering the versatile catalytic potentials, fungal CYPs has gained wide range of attraction among researchers and various remarkable strategies have been accomplished to enhance their biocatalytic properties. Numerous fungal CYPs with multispecialty features have been identified and the number of characterized fungal CYPs is constantly increasing. Literature reveals ample reviews on mammalian, plant and bacterial CYPs, however, modest reports on fungal CYPs urges a comprehensive review highlighting their novel catalytic potentials and functional significances. In this review, we focus on the diversification and functional diversity of fungal CYPs and recapitulate their unique and versatile biocatalytic properties. As such, this review emphasizes the crucial issues of fungal CYP systems, and the factors influencing efficient biocatalysis.

  11. Parasitic diseases of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

  12. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  13. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  14. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  15. [Allergic fungal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, J R; Lafarga, J; Ronda, J M; Trigueros, M; Sancho, M; Aracil, A

    2000-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis is a recently described clinical entity that has gained increased attention as a cause of chronic sinusitis. Consist in a benign noninvasive sinus disease related to a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens. It should be suspected in any atopic patient with refractory nasal polyps. Computed tomography (CT) findings are characteristics, but not diagnostic. Diagnosis requires show allergic mucin in the histopathologic examination and hiphae in special fungal stains. The suitable treatment includes the allergic mucin removal and sinus aeration accomplished endoscopically, perioperative systemic steroids and immunotherapy with fungal antigens. We present a case of this kind of chronic sinusitis describing the characteristic histopathologic and radiologic findings, the pathogenic theories and recent advances in immunotherapy.

  16. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  17. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 5% of people.Infection can cause discomfor...

  18. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  19. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle ... your blood. Blood tests look for a specific parasite infection; there is no blood test that will look for all parasitic infections. ...

  20. The enigmatic Squamanita odorata (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is parasitic on Hebeloma mesophaeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondiet, Nicolas; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Selosse, Marc-André

    2007-05-01

    Squamanita odorata is an agaric which is parasitic on unrecognizable, previously unidentifiable sporophores of a fungal host that is transformed into galls at the bases of the parasite's sporophore. Amplification and sequencing portions of the nuclear (ITS) and mt rDNA from three samplings originating from two sites (from France and from Switzerland) demonstrate that the galls produce sequences that are identical to that of co-occurring Hebeloma mesophaeum. This demonstrates that S. odorata is a biotrophic parasite on Hebeloma mesophaeum.

  1. Specific antibiotics and nematode trophic groups agree in assessing fungal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Dam, Marie; Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2012-01-01

    There are no methods at hand with a long and proven record for assessing the relative contribution of fungi and bacteria to decomposer activity in soil. Whereas a multitude of methods to determine fungal and bacterial biomass are available, activity assays traditionally relied on the substrate-in...

  2. A parts list for fungal cellulosomes revealed by comparative genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haitjema, Charles H.; Gilmore, Sean P.; Henske, John K.; Solomon, Kevin V.; de Groot, Randall; Kuo, Alan; Mondo, Stephen J.; Salamov, Asaf A.; LaButti, Kurt; Zhao, Zhiying; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Barry, Kerrie; Brewer, Heather M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wright, Aaron T.; Hainaut, Matthieu; Boxma, Brigitte; van Alen, Theo; Hackstein, Johannes H. P.; Henrissat, Bernard; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; O' Malley, Michelle A.

    2017-05-26

    Cellulosomes are large, multi-protein complexes that tether plant biomass degrading enzymes together for improved hydrolysis1. These complexes were first described in anaerobic bacteria where species specific dockerin domains mediate assembly of enzymes onto complementary cohesin motifs interspersed within non-catalytic protein scaffolds1. The versatile protein assembly mechanism conferred by the bacterial cohesin-dockerin interaction is now a standard design principle for synthetic protein-scale pathways2,3. For decades, analogous structures have been reported in the early branching anaerobic fungi, which are known to assemble by sequence divergent non-catalytic dockerin domains (NCDD)4. However, the enzyme components, modular assembly mechanism, and functional role of fungal cellulosomes remain unknown5,6. Here, we describe the comprehensive set of proteins critical to fungal cellulosome assembly, including novel, conserved scaffolding proteins unique to the Neocallimastigomycota. High quality genomes of the anaerobic fungi Anaeromyces robustus, Neocallimastix californiae and Piromyces finnis were assembled with long-read, single molecule technology to overcome their repeat-richness and extremely low GC content. Genomic analysis coupled with proteomic validation revealed an average 320 NCDD-containing proteins per fungal strain that were overwhelmingly carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), with 95 large fungal scaffoldins identified across 4 genera that contain a conserved amino acid sequence repeat that binds to NCDDs. Fungal dockerin and scaffoldin domains have no similarity to their bacterial counterparts, yet several catalytic domains originated via horizontal gene transfer with gut bacteria. Though many catalytic domains are shared with bacteria, the biocatalytic activity of anaerobic fungi is expanded by the inclusion of GH3, GH6, and GH45 enzymes in the enzyme complexes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the fungal cellulosome is an evolutionarily

  3. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as “DongChong XiaCao”, is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats. PMID:27625176

  4. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3-5% of people.Infection can cause discomfort in...

  5. Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bacterial Keratitis Sections What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ... Lens Care Bacterial Keratitis Treatment What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Bacteriana? ...

  6. A dot hybridization assay for the diagnosis of bacterial keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Po-Chiung; Chien, Chun-Chih; Yu, Hun-Ju; Ho, Ren-Wen; Tseng, Shin-Ling; Lai, Yu-Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a bacterial dot hybridization (BDH) assay for the diagnosis of bacterial keratitis (BK). Methods Sixty-one qualified corneal scrapings from 61 patients with suspected microbial keratitis were collected consecutively and prospectively. Among the 61 patients, 16 cases were BK and 45 cases were non-BK, including fungal keratitis, viral keratitis, parasitic keratitis, and non-microbial keratitis. Molecular diagnosis of BK in these corneal scrapes was performed using the BDH assay with three universal bacterial probes (PB1, PB2, and PB3) and three genus-specific probes (Aci, Klb, and Psu) to detect Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas, respectively. Signals were standardized after grayscale image transformation for objective validation using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The standardized intensities for the three universal probes differed statistically significantly between the BK group and the non-BK group. Based on the ROC curves, the sensitivities of PB1, PB2, and PB3 were 81.3%, 81.3%, and 93.8%, and the specificities were 71.1%, 88.9%, and 91.1%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the Psu probe were 92% and 100%, respectively, while those of the Aci and Klb probes could not be estimated because there were no BK cases caused by Acinetobacter spp. or Klebsiella spp. Conclusions The BDH assay is an effective molecular approach to improve the diagnosis of BK. Because the bias from bacterial contamination on the ocular surface can be minimized with signal standardization, the assay has the potential to be adopted for routine clinical practice. PMID:28484310

  7. Mimicry in plant-parasitic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Henry K; Scherm, Harald

    2006-04-01

    Mimicry is the close resemblance of one living organism (the mimic) to another (the model), leading to misidentification by a third organism (the operator). Similar to other organism groups, certain species of plant-parasitic fungi are known to engage in mimetic relationships, thereby increasing their fitness. In some cases, fungal infection can lead to the formation of flower mimics (pseudo flowers) that attract insect pollinators via visual and/or olfactory cues; these insects then either transmit fungal gametes to accomplish outcrossing (e.g. in some heterothallic rust fungi belonging to the genera Puccinia and Uromyces) or vector infectious spores to healthy plants, thereby spreading disease (e.g. in the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum and the mummy berry pathogen Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi). In what is termed aggressive mimicry, some specialized plant-parasitic fungi are able to mimic host structures or host molecules to gain access to resources. An example is M. vaccinii-corymbosi, whose conidia and germ tubes, respectively, mimic host pollen grains and pollen tubes anatomically and physiologically, allowing the pathogen to gain entry into the host's ovary via stigma and style. We review these and other examples of mimicry by plant-parasitic fungi and some of the mechanisms, signals, and evolutionary implications.

  8. Fungal Fourniers Gangrene in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Crowell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's Gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the groin, perianal and perineal region that is often polymicrobial in nature, often averaging 3 species of bacteria per patient. The typical infection can be due to a host of microbes, including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic species including. Many of the causative organisms are found in the normal microbial flora of the perineum. Therefore, Fourniers is an opportunistic infection most commonly affecting the immunosuppressed. The majority of Fournier's gangrene are bacterial; however there have been cases of fungal Fournier's gangrene reported in the literature.

  9. Simultaneous detection and quantification of the unculturable microbe Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum inside its fungal host Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvioli, Alessandra; Lumini, Erica; Anca, Iulia A; Bianciotto, Valeria; Bonfante, Paola

    2008-01-01

    A combined approach based on quantitative and nested polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and nPCR, respectively) has been set up to detect and quantify the unculturable endobacterium Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum inside the spores of its fungal host Gigaspora margarita. Four genes were targeted, two of bacterial origin (23S rRNA gene and rpoB) and two from the fungus (18S rRNA gene and EF1-alpha). The sensitivity of the qPCR protocol has proved to be comparable to that of nPCR, both for the fungal and the bacterial detection. It has been demonstrated that the last detected dilution in qPCR corresponded, in each case, to 10 copies of the target sequences, suggesting that the method is equally sensitive for the detection of both fungal and bacterial targets. As the two targeted bacterial genes are predicted to be in single copy, it can be concluded that the detection limit is of 10 bacterial genomes for each mixture. The protocol was then successfully applied to amplify fungal and bacterial DNA from auxiliary cells and extraradical and intraradical mycelium. For the first time qPCR has been applied to a complex biological system to detect and quantify fungal and bacterial components using single-copy genes, and to monitor the bacterial presence throughout the fungal life cycle.

  10. Immunoregulation in Fungal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Roussey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses specific regulatory mechanisms involved in the host immune response to fungal organisms. We focus on key cells and regulatory pathways involved in these responses, including a brief overview of their broader function preceding a discussion of their specific relevance to fungal disease. Important cell types discussed include dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, with a focus on specific studies relating to their effects on immune responses to fungi. We highlight the interleukin-10, programmed cell death 1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 signaling pathways and emphasize interrelationships between these pathways and the regulatory functions of dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. Throughout our discussion, we identify selected studies best illustrating the role of these cells and pathways in response to specific fungal pathogens to provide a contextual understanding of the tightly-controlled network of regulatory mechanisms critical to determining the outcome of exposure to fungal pathogens. Lastly, we discuss two unique phenomena relating to immunoregulation, protective tolerance and immune reactivation inflammatory syndrome. These two clinically-relevant conditions provide perspective as to the range of immunoregulatory mechanisms active in response to fungi.

  11. Allergic Fungal Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, E M; Woolnough, K; Pashley, C H; Wardlaw, A J

    Fungi are ubiquitous and form their own kingdom. Up to 80 genera of fungi have been linked to type I allergic disease, and yet, commercial reagents to test for sensitization are available for relatively few species. In terms of asthma, it is important to distinguish between species unable to grow at body temperature and those that can (thermotolerant) and thereby have the potential to colonize the respiratory tract. The former, which include the commonly studied Alternaria and Cladosporium genera, can act as aeroallergens whose clinical effects are predictably related to exposure levels. In contrast, thermotolerant species, which include fungi from the Candida, Aspergillus, and Penicillium genera, can cause a persistent allergenic stimulus independent of their airborne concentrations. Moreover, their ability to germinate in the airways provides a more diverse allergenic stimulus, and may result in noninvasive infection, which enhances inflammation. The close association between IgE sensitization to thermotolerant filamentous fungi and fixed airflow obstruction, bronchiectasis, and lung fibrosis suggests a much more tissue-damaging process than that seen with aeroallergens. This review provides an overview of fungal allergens and the patterns of clinical disease associated with exposure. It clarifies the various terminologies associated with fungal allergy in asthma and makes the case for a new term (allergic fungal airway disease) to include all people with asthma at risk of developing lung damage as a result of their fungal allergy. Lastly, it discusses the management of fungirelated asthma.

  12. Thai marine fungal diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Rattaket Choeyklin; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Ittichai Chatmala; Jariya Sakayaroj; Apiradee Pilantanapak; E.B. Gareth Jones

    2006-01-01

    The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  13. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  14. The Fungal Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, B.J.; Crous, P.W.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; James, T.Y.; Gow, N.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi research and knowledge grew rapidly following recent advances in genetics and genomics. This book synthesizes new knowledge with existing information to stimulate new scientific questions and propel fungal scientists on to the next stages of research. This book is a comprehensive guide on

  15. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  16. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  17. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    ... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...

  18. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    .... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...

  19. Current ecological understanding of fungal-like pathogens of fish: what lies beneath?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Elie Gozlan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasingly sophisticated microbiological techniques, and long after the first discovery of microbes, basic knowledge is still lacking to fully appreciate the ecological importance of microbial parasites in fish. This is likely due to the nature of their habitats as many species of fish suffer from living beneath turbid water away from easy recording. However, fishes represent key ecosystem services for millions of people around the world and the absence of a functional ecological understanding of viruses, prokaryotes, and small eukaryotes in the maintenance of fish populations and of their diversity represents an inherent barrier to aquatic conservation and food security. Among recent emerging infectious diseases responsible for severe population declines in plant and animal taxa, fungal and fungal-like microbes have emerged as significant contributors. Here, we review the current knowledge gaps of fungal and fungal-like parasites and pathogens in fish and put them into an ecological perspective with direct implications for the monitoring of fungal fish pathogens in the wild, their phylogeography as well as their associated ecological impact on fish populations. With increasing fish movement around the world for farming, releases into the wild for sport fishing and human-driven habitat changes, it is expected, along with improved environmental monitoring of fungal and fungal-like infections, that the full extent of the impact of these pathogens on wild fish populations will soon emerge as a major threat to freshwater biodiversity.

  20. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay References and ... are given below. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii , a parasite found ... cat feces, soil, and untreated water can lead to severe brain and eye disorders ...

  1. Dihydroxo-bridged dimeric Cu(II) system containing sandwiched non-coordinating phenylacetate anion: Crystal structure, spectroscopic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and DNA-binding studies of [(phen)(H2O)Cu(OH)2Cu(H2O)(phen)]2L.6H2O: (HL = phenylacetic acid; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Naseer Ali

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, DNA-binding, antibacterial and antifungal studies of a rare dihydroxo-bridged dinuclear copper(II) complex including 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) ligands and phenylacetate (L) anions, [Cu2(Phen)2(OH)2(H2O)2].2L.6H2O. Structural data revealed distorted square-pyramidal geometry for each copper(II) atom with the basal plane formed by the two nitrogen atoms of the phenantroline ligand and the oxygen atoms of two bridging hydroxyl groups. The apical positions are filled by the oxygen atom from a water molecule. This forms a centrosymmetric cationic dimer where the uncoordinated phenylacetate ligands serve to balance the electrical charge. The dimers interact by means of hydrogen bonds aided by the coordinated as well as uncoordinated water molecules and phenyl-acetate moieties in the crystal lattice. The binding ability of the complex with salmon sperm DNA was determined using cyclic voltammetry and absorption spectroscopy yielding binding constants 2.426 × 104 M-1 and 1.399 × 104 M-1, respectively. The complex was screened against two Gram-positive (Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis) and one Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains exhibiting significant activity against all the three strains. The complex exhibited significant, moderate and no activity against fungal strains Mucor piriformis, Helminthosporium solani and Aspergillus Niger, respectively. These preliminary tests indicate the competence of the complex towards the development of a potent biological drug.

  2. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.

  3. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan P

    2012-04-01

    Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and pityriasis versicolor are common superficial fungal infections in the pediatric population. • Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection worldwide. In North America, the cause is almost exclusively T tonsurans. Diagnosis of tinea capitis usually can be made by clinical features alone, especially when occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy is present. Skin scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination, or a cotton swab for fungal culture, usually are diagnostic. • Treatment of tinea capitis requires systemic antifungal therapy. Terbinafine and griseofulvin are both effective against T tonsurans and are FDA-approved for this indication in children. • Adjunctive topical therapy for the patient and household contacts decreases transmission of this infection. • Topical antifungal therapy usually is effective for tinea corporis and pityriasis versicolor. However, recurrences of pityriasis versicolor are common.

  4. Does genetic diversity hinder parasite evolution in social insect colonies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Polyandry is often difficult to explain because benefits of the behaviour have proved elusive. In social insects, polyandry increases the genetic diversity of workers within a colony and this has been suggested to improve the resistance of the colony to disease. Here we examine the possible impact...... of host genetic diversity on parasite evolution by carrying out serial passages of a virulent fungal pathogen through leaf-cutting ant workers of known genotypes. Parasite virulence increased over the nine-generation span of the experiment while spore production decreased. The effect of host relatedness...... upon virulence appeared limited. However, parasites cycled through more genetically diverse hosts were more likely to go extinct during the experiment and parasites cycled through more genetically similar hosts had greater spore production. These results indicate that host genetic diversity may indeed...

  5. Evolution of plant parasitism in the phylum Nematoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Casper W; Smant, Geert; Helder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Within the species-rich and trophically diverse phylum Nematoda, at least four independent major lineages of plant parasites have evolved, and in at least one of these major lineages plant parasitism arose independently multiple times. Ribosomal DNA data, sequence information from nematode-produced, plant cell wall-modifying enzymes, and the morphology and origin of the style(t), a protrusible piercing device used to penetrate the plant cell wall, all suggest that facultative and obligate plant parasites originate from fungivorous ancestors. Data on the nature and diversification of plant cell wall-modifying enzymes point at multiple horizontal gene transfer events from soil bacteria to bacterivorous nematodes resulting in several distinct lineages of fungal or oomycete-feeding nematodes. Ribosomal DNA frameworks with sequence data from more than 2,700 nematode taxa combined with detailed morphological information allow for explicit hypotheses on the origin of agronomically important plant parasites, such as root-knot, cyst, and lesion nematodes.

  6. Fungal Microbiota in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Disease and Emerging Relationships with the Host Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract is a complex system that is inhabited by niche-specific communities of microbes including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These complex microbial assemblages are in constant contact with the mucosal immune system and play a critical role in airway health and immune homeostasis. Changes in the composition and diversity of airway microbiota are frequently observed in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS, cystic fibrosis, allergy, and asthma. While the bacterial microbiome of the upper and lower airways has been the focus of many recent studies, the contribution of fungal microbiota to inflammation is an emerging research interest. Within the context of allergic airway disease, fungal products are important allergens and fungi are potent inducers of inflammation. In addition, murine models have provided experimental evidence that fungal microbiota in peripheral organs, notably the gastrointestinal (GI tract, influence pulmonary health. In this review, we explore the role of the respiratory and GI microbial communities in chronic airway inflammatory disease development with a specific focus on fungal microbiome interactions with the airway immune system and fungal-bacterial interactions that likely contribute to inflammatory disease. These findings are discussed in the context of clinical and immunological features of fungal-mediated disease in CRS, allergy, and asthmatic patients. While this field is still nascent, emerging evidence suggests that dysbiotic fungal and bacterial microbiota interact to drive or exacerbate chronic airway inflammatory disease.

  7. The fungal community structure of barley malts from diverse geographical regions correlates with malt quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Bowman, John P; Stewart, Doug C; Evans, David E

    2015-12-23

    Malt is a preferred base for fermentations that produce beer or whisky. Barley for malt is grown under diverse environments in different geographical locations. Malt provides an ecological niche for a varied range of microorganisms with both positive and negative effects on its quality for brewing. Little information exists in the literature on the microbial community structure of Australian malt as well as broader global geographical differences in the associated fungal and bacterial communities. The aims of the present study were to compare the bacterial and fungal community structures of Australian commercial malt with its international counterparts originating from different geographical regions using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) fingerprinting and clone library analyses of ribosomal RNA genes. Further, the relationship between malt associated microbial communities and conventional malt quality parameters was also compared. Results showed that differences in fungal communities of malts from different geographical location were more pronounced than bacterial communities. TRFLP analysis discriminated high quality commercial malts with low fungal loads from malts deliberately infected with fungal inocula (Fusarium/Penicillium). Malt moisture, beta-amylase, α-amylase and limit dextrinase contents showed significant correlations with fungal community structure. This investigation concluded that fungal community structure was more important to subsequent malt quality outcomes than bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  9. Fungal ovicidal activity on Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Nunes Vieira, Juliana; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Stoll, Franciele Elisa; Da Silva Nascente, Patricia; Pötter, Luciana; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Visceral toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxocara canis. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, soil contamination and the resistance of eggs increase human exposure to the disease. Moreover, the difficulties of the control measures justify the need for alternative ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal activity of fungi isolated from soils from public places in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on Toxocara canis. Samples of soil from ten localities were inoculated onto Petri dishes with 2% water-agar (WA) that contained antibiotics, and incubated at 25°C/21 days. Isolated fungi were tested in vitro for ovicidal activity, with five replicates. One mL of an embryonated Toxocara canis egg suspension (10(3) eggs) was poured over the fungal cultures after 10 days of growth. At intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days, 100 eggs were removed from each plaque and evaluated by optical microscopy. Acremonium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Mucor and Trichoderma were isolated from the soil. A significant ovicidal type 3 effect was observed in Trichoderma, Fusarium solani complex and Acremonium. Those isolates from the genus Trichoderma showed their ovicidal effect on the 14th day of fungus-egg interaction. The other fungal genera tested showed a type 2 effect. These results suggest that the use of Trichoderma and Fusarium solani complex in biological control of T. canis is promising; however, further studies should be performed. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrient input influences fungal community composition and size and can stimulate manganese (II) oxidation in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Sarah K; Zorn, Bryan T; Santelli, Cara M; Roble, Leigh A; Carmichael, Mary J; Bräuer, Suzanna L

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the fungal role in biogeochemical cycling in oligotrophic ecosystems. This study compared fungal communities and assessed the role of exogenous carbon on microbial community structure and function in two southern Appalachian caves: an anthropogenically impacted cave and a near-pristine cave. Due to carbon input from shallow soils, the anthropogenically impacted cave had an order of magnitude greater fungal and bacterial quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) gene copy numbers, had significantly greater community diversity, and was dominated by ascomycotal phylotypes common in early phase, labile organic matter decomposition. Fungal assemblages in the near-pristine cave samples were dominated by Basidiomycota typically found in deeper soils (and/or in late phase, recalcitrant organic matter decomposition), suggesting more oligotrophic conditions. In situ carbon and manganese (II) [Mn(II)] addition over 10 weeks resulted in growth of fungal mycelia followed by increased Mn(II) oxidation. A before/after comparison of the fungal communities indicated that this enrichment increased the quantity of fungal and bacterial cells, yet decreased overall fungal diversity. Anthropogenic carbon sources can therefore dramatically influence the diversity and quantity of fungi, impact microbial community function, and stimulate Mn(II) oxidation, resulting in a cascade of changes that can strongly influence nutrient and trace element biogeochemical cycles in karst aquifers. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sexual Reproduction of Human Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958

  12. Increasing productivity accelerates host-parasite coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Pascua, L d C; Buckling, A

    2008-05-01

    Host-parasite coevolution is believed to influence a range of evolutionary and ecological processes, including population dynamics, evolution of diversity, sexual reproduction and parasite virulence. The impact of coevolution on these processes will depend on its rate, which is likely to be affected by the energy flowing through an ecosystem, or productivity. We addressed how productivity affected rates of coevolution during a coevolutionary arms race between experimental populations of bacteria and their parasitic viruses (phages). As hypothesized, the rate of coevolution between bacterial resistance and phage infectivity increased with increased productivity. This relationship can in part be explained by reduced competitiveness of resistant bacteria in low compared with high productivity environments, leading to weaker selection for resistance in the former. The data further suggest that variation in productivity can generate variation in selection for resistance across landscapes, a result that is crucial to the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  13. The fungal biocontrol agent Coniothyrium minitans: production by solid-state fermentation, application and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de T.; Antoine, N.; Buitelaar, R.M.; Oostra, J.; Rinzema, A.; Weber, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Biological control agents (BCAs) are potential alternatives for the chemical fungicides presently used in agriculture to fight plant diseases. Coniothyrium minitans is an example of a promising fungal BCA. It is a naturally occurring parasite of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a wide-spread

  14. Fungal degradation of pesticides - construction of microbial consortia for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea

    of pesticide contaminated soil and water. The objectives of this PhD were to investigate fungal degradation of pesticides and following to construct microbial consortia for bioremediation. In Manuscript I the fungal degradation of the phenylurea herbicide diuron was studied. Isolates of soil fungi of the genus...... with constructing fungal-bacterial consortia and examining whether their degradation would be superior to that of the single strains in unsaturated systems. In Manuscript II a consortium was created for degradation of the pesticide metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM). A consortium with Mortierella sp. LEJ702...... corresponding to 0, 1.7, 5 or 10% of water holding capacity (WHC) to the sand. A faster mineralization of BAM was obtained by the consortium compared to Aminobacter sp. MSH1 alone, especially at the lower moisture contents. These results were supported by chemical analyses of 14C residues extracted from...

  15. THE EVOLUTION OF PARASITES FROM THEIR HOSTS: A CASE STUDY IN THE PARASITIC RED ALGAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Lynda J; Ashen, Jon; Moon, Debra

    1997-08-01

    Morphological similarities of many parasites and their hosts have led to speculation that some groups of plant, animal, fungal, and algal parasites may have evolved directly from their hosts. These parasites, which have been termed adelphoparasites in the botanical literature, and more recently, agastoparasites in the insect literature, may evolve monophyletically from one host and radiate secondarily to other hosts or, these parasites may arise polyphyletically, each arising from its own host. In this study we compare the internal transcribed spacer regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeats of species and formae specialis (host races) included in the red algal parasite genus Asterocolax with its hosts, which all belong to the Phycodrys group of the Delesseriaceae and with closely related nonhost taxa of the Delesseriaceae. These analyses reveal that species of Asterocolax have evolved polyphyletically. Asterocolax erythroglossi from the North Atlantic host Erythroglossum laciniatum appears to have evolved from its host, whereas taxa included in the north Pacific species Asterocolax gardneri have had two independent origins. Asterocolax gardneri from the host Polyneura latissima probably arose directly from this host. In contrast, all other A. gardneri formae specialis appear to have originated from either Phycodrys setchellii or P. isabelliae and radiated secondarily onto other closely related taxa of the Phycodrys group, including Nienburgia andersoniana and Anisocladella pacifica. Gamete crossing experiments confirm that A. gardneri from each host is genetically isolated from both its host, and from other A. gardneri and their hosts. Cross-infection experiments reveal that A. gardneri develops normally only on its natural host, although some abberrant growth may occur on alternate hosts. The ability of red algal parasites to radiate secondarily to other red algal taxa, where they may become isolated genetically and speciate, suggests that this process of

  16. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found...... that the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the associated parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.)....

  17. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  19. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  20. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  1. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  2. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  3. A Review of Occurrence of Fungal Pathogens on Significant Brassicaceous Vegetable Crops and their Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Srivastava; S.K. Gupta, A.P. Saxena, L.A.J. Shittu and S.K. Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are subjected to viral, bacterial as well as fungal attack, which causes a high yield loss. Temperature and moisture conditions, which promote the growth of fungus, are needed to be studied in order for an effective control of the disease to be estimated. The present review gives a brief account of the fungal diseases which have been considered responsible for major economic loss to the Brassica crops. The epidemiological conditions necessary for the occurrence and prevale...

  4. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fung...

  5. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors

  6. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  7. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  8. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-06-01

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  9. Migration of Paraburkholderia terrae BS001 Along Old Fungal Hyphae in Soil at Various pH Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pu; Oliveira da Rocha Calixto, Renata; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2018-01-10

    The movement of bacterial cells along with fungal hyphae in soil (the mycosphere) has been reported in several previous studies. However, how local soil conditions affect bacterial migration direction in the mycosphere has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the influence of two soil parameters, pH and soil moisture content, on the migration, and survival, of Paraburkholderia terrae BS001 in the mycosphere of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten in microcosms containing a loamy sand soil. The data showed that bacterial movement along the hyphal networks took place in both the "forward" and the "backward" directions. Low soil pH strongly restricted bacterial survival, as well as dispersal in both directions, in the mycosphere. The backward movement was weakly correlated with the amount of fungal tissue formed in the old mycelial network. The initial soil moisture content, set at 12 versus 17% (corresponding to 42 and 60% of the soil water holding capacity), also significantly affected the bacterial dispersal along the fungal hyphae. Overall, the presence of fungal hyphae was found to increase the soil pH (under conditions of acidity), which possibly exerted protective effects on the bacterial cells. Finally, we provide a refined model that describes the bacterial migration patterns with fungal hyphae based on the new findings in this study.

  10. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  11. (Cobb) Thorne, parasite de

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lazare

    2012-10-11

    Oct 11, 2012 ... Plant parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms, measuring less than. 1 mm in length (Quénéhervé, 2008). They are obligate parasites that feed mostly on plant roots causing symptoms such as necrosis, lesions and galls on the roots (Sarah et al., 1996; Bridge et al., 1997; De Waele and Romulo, 1998).

  12. Parasites from the Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    will investigate how the diversity of food-borne parasitic infections has changed with cultural and dietary habits, hunting practice and intensity of animal husbandry. This is done by isolating and typing ancient DNA remains from parasite eggs found in archeological samples from across Denmark....

  13. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus can complete its sexual cycle during a pathogenic association with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chaoyang; Tada, Yasuomi; Dong, Xinnian; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-06-14

    Cryptococcus is a globally distributed human fungal pathogen that primarily afflicts immunocompromised individuals. How and why this human fungal pathogen associates with plants and how this environmental niche influences its life cycle remains a mystery. We established Cryptococcus-Arabidopsis and Cryptococcus-Eucalyptus systems and discovered that Cryptococcus proliferates and mates on plant surfaces. Mating efficiency of C. gattii was markedly enhanced on plants and myo-inositol and indole acetic acid were specific plant products that stimulated mating. On Arabidopsis, dwarfing and chlorosis were observed following infection with a fungal mixture of two opposite mating-type strains, but not with either mating-type alone. This infection process is countered by the plant jasmonate-mediated defense mechanism. These findings reveal that Cryptococcus can parasitically interact with plants to complete its sexual cycle, which may impact an understanding of the origin and evolution of both plant and animal fungal pathogens in nature.

  14. Solitary Candida albicans Infection Causing Fournier Gangrene and Review of Fungal Etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tiffany A; Bieniek, Jared M; Sumfest, Joel M

    2014-01-01

    Polymicrobial bacterial infections are commonly found in cases of Fournier gangrene (FG), although fungal growth may occur occasionally. Solitary fungal organisms causing FG have rarely been reported. The authors describe a case of an elderly man with a history of diabetes who presented with a necrotizing scrotal and perineal soft tissue infection. He underwent emergent surgical debridement with findings of diffuse urethral stricture disease and urinary extravasation requiring suprapubic tube placement. Candida albicans was found to be the single causative organism on culture, and the patient recovered well following antifungal treatment. Fungal infections should be considered as rare causes of necrotizing fasciitis and antifungal treatment considered in at-risk immunodeficient individuals.

  15. New subfamilies of major intrinsic proteins in fungi suggest novel transport properties in fungal channels: implications for the host-fungal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ravi Kumar; Prabh, Neel Duti; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2014-08-12

    Aquaporins (AQPs) and aquaglyceroporins (AQGPs) belong to the superfamily of Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs) and are involved in the transport of water and neutral solutes across the membranes. MIP channels play significant role in plant-fungi symbiotic relationship and are believed to be important in host-pathogen interactions in human fungal diseases. In plants, at least five major MIP subfamilies have been identified. Fungal MIP subfamilies include orthodox aquaporins and five subgroups within aquaglyceroporins. XIP subfamily is common to both plants and fungi. In this study, we have investigated the extent of diversity in fungal MIPs and explored further evolutionary relationships with the plant MIP counterparts. We have extensively analyzed the available fungal genomes and examined nearly 400 fungal MIPs. Phylogenetic analysis and homology modeling exhibit the existence of a new MIP cluster distinct from any of the known fungal MIP subfamilies. All members of this cluster are found in microsporidia which are unicellular fungal parasites. Members of this family are small in size, charged and have hydrophobic residues in the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter and these features are shared by small and basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), one of the plant MIP subfamilies. We have also found two new subfamilies (δ and γ2) within the AQGP group. Fungal AQGPs are the most diverse and possess the largest number of subgroups. We have also identified distinguishing features in loops E and D in the newly identified subfamilies indicating their possible role in channel transport and gating. Fungal SIP-like MIP family is distinct from any of the known fungal MIP families including orthodox aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. After XIPs, this is the second MIP subfamily from fungi that may have possible evolutionary link with a plant MIP subfamily. AQGPs in fungi are more diverse and possess the largest number of subgroups. The aromatic/arginine selectivity filter of SIP

  16. Unraveling the role of fungal symbionts in plant abiotic stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lamabam Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fungal symbionts have been found to be associated with every plant studied in the natural ecosystem, where they colonize and reside entirely or partially in the internal tissues of their host plant. Fungal endophytes can express/form a range of different lifestyle/relationships with different host including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic and parasitic in response to host genotype and environmental factors. In mutualistic association fungal endophyte can enhance growth, increase reproductive success and confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to its host plant. Since abiotic stress such as, drought, high soil salinity, heat, cold, oxidative stress and heavy metal toxicity is the common adverse environmental conditions that affect and limit crop productivity worldwide. It may be a promising alternative strategy to exploit fungal endophytes to overcome the limitations to crop production brought by abiotic stress. There is an increasing interest in developing the potential biotechnological applications of fungal endophytes for improving plant stress tolerance and sustainable production of food crops. Here we have described the fungal symbioses, fungal symbionts and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. A putative mechanism of stress tolerance by symbionts has also been covered. PMID:21512319

  17. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The fungal consortium of Andromeda polifolia in bog habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed, Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln, and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er. (2 In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3 A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4 There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others

  19. Rational reprogramming of fungal polyketide first-ring cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuquan; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Zhengfu; Su, Shiyou; Roberts, Sue A; Montfort, William R; Zeng, Jia; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min; Zhan, Jixun; Molnár, István

    2013-04-02

    Resorcylic acid lactones and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid lactones represent important pharmacophores with heat shock response and immune system modulatory activities. The biosynthesis of these fungal polyketides involves a pair of collaborating iterative polyketide synthases (iPKSs): a highly reducing iPKS with product that is further elaborated by a nonreducing iPKS (nrPKS) to yield a 1,3-benzenediol moiety bridged by a macrolactone. Biosynthesis of unreduced polyketides requires the sequestration and programmed cyclization of highly reactive poly-β-ketoacyl intermediates to channel these uncommitted, pluripotent substrates to defined subsets of the polyketide structural space. Catalyzed by product template (PT) domains of the fungal nrPKSs and discrete aromatase/cyclase enzymes in bacteria, regiospecific first-ring aldol cyclizations result in characteristically different polyketide folding modes. However, a few fungal polyketides, including the dihydroxyphenylacetic acid lactone dehydrocurvularin, derive from a folding event that is analogous to the bacterial folding mode. The structural basis of such a drastic difference in the way a PT domain acts has not been investigated until now. We report here that the fungal vs. bacterial folding mode difference is portable on creating hybrid enzymes, and we structurally characterize the resulting unnatural products. Using structure-guided active site engineering, we unravel structural contributions to regiospecific aldol condensations and show that reshaping the cyclization chamber of a PT domain by only three selected point mutations is sufficient to reprogram the dehydrocurvularin nrPKS to produce polyketides with a fungal fold. Such rational control of first-ring cyclizations will facilitate efforts to the engineered biosynthesis of novel chemical diversity from natural unreduced polyketides.

  20. Parasitic Contamination in Commonly- Consumed Vegetables in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Sharif; Bahman Rahimi Esboei; Ahmad Daryani; Fatemeh Hosseini; Abdol sattar Pagheh; Masoumeh Rahimid; Mohtaram Nasrolahei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Raw (fresh) vegetables are an important ingredient of healthy diet. Many enteric bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens could be transmitted by vegetables. Mazandaran province is located in northern Iran with a coastal area and extensive fields for vegetable cultivation. The current study is designed to evaluate the parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables. Methods: A total of 150 samples of fresh vegetables obtained from markets were examined for parasitic infections usi...

  1. Bird brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin

    2013-10-21

    For many animals, the effort to rear their young is considerable. In birds, this often includes building nests, incubating eggs, feeding the chicks, and protecting them from predators. Perhaps for this reason, about 1% of birds (around 100 species) save themselves the effort and cheat instead. They are obligate brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species and leaving the hosts or foster parents to rear the foreign chicks for them. Some birds also cheat on individuals of the same species (intraspecific brood parasitism). Intraspecific brood parasitism has been reported in around 200 species, but is likely to be higher, as it can often only be detected by genetic analyses.

  2. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  3. Bacterial Proteasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab, Jordan B; Darwin, K Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology.

  4. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens. PMID:23717111

  5. Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael D; Spivak, Marla

    2012-01-01

    The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed "social immunity." One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee's immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self-medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB). Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self-medication by increasing the

  6. Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Simone-Finstrom

    Full Text Available The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed "social immunity." One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee's immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self-medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB. Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self

  7. Value of platelet count in the early diagnosis of nosocomial invasive fungal infections in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Chen; Mao, Jian

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a platelet count (PLT) in the early diagnosis of nosocomial invasive fungal infections in premature infants. Based on clinical diagnosis combined with blood culture results, 72 premature infants of 5354 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in the neonatal ward of our hospital between September 2009 and February 2013 were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive fungal infections (fungal infection group). There were 58 premature infants diagnosed with bacterial infections during the same period (bacterial infection group). The control group included 74 premature infants without nosocomial infections who were hospitalized during the same period. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficacy of the PLT and white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in the diagnosis of fungal infections in premature infants. The risk factors for invasive fungal infections included birth weight infection group decreased in the early and acute stages of infection (p infection group decreased in the early and acute stages of infection (p infection group was more significant than the bacterial infection group (p infection group in the early stage of infection (p infection groups in the acute stage of infection (p > 0.05). ROC curve analysis of the WBC and PLT counts and the CRP level in the early diagnosis of fungal infections showed that the area under the curve of the PLT count was 0.912 (95% confidence interval:0.863-0.961), thus indicating a high accuracy with a cutoff PLT count of 157.0 × 10 9 /L. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 77.8% and 94.6%, respectively. We conclude that the PLT count is a convenient, economical, and effective predictor of invasive fungal infections in premature infants and has potential in the early diagnosis of fungal infections.

  8. Who lives in a fungus? The diversity, origins and functions of fungal endobacteria living in Mucoromycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Paola; Desirò, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial interactions with plants and animals have been examined for many years; differently, only with the new millennium the study of bacterial-fungal interactions blossomed, becoming a new field of microbiology with relevance to microbial ecology, human health and biotechnology. Bacteria and fungi interact at different levels and bacterial endosymbionts, which dwell inside fungal cells, provide the most intimate example. Bacterial endosymbionts mostly occur in fungi of the phylum Mucoromycota and include Betaproteobacteria (Burkhoderia-related) and Mollicutes (Mycoplasma-related). Based on phylogenomics and estimations of divergence time, we hypothesized two different scenarios for the origin of these interactions (early vs late bacterial invasion). Sequencing of the genomes of fungal endobacteria revealed a significant reduction in genome size, particularly in endosymbionts of Glomeromycotina, as expected by their uncultivability and host dependency. Similar to endobacteria of insects, the endobacteria of fungi show a range of behaviours from mutualism to antagonism. Emerging results suggest that some benefits given by the endobacteria to their plant-associated fungal host may propagate to the interacting plant, giving rise to a three-level inter-domain interaction.

  9. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  10. Targeting NAD+ metabolism in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K O'Hara

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is an essential metabolite utilized as a redox cofactor and enzyme substrate in numerous cellular processes. Elevated NAD+ levels have been observed in red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but little is known regarding how the parasite generates NAD+. Here, we employed a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to confirm that P. falciparum lacks the ability to synthesize NAD+ de novo and is reliant on the uptake of exogenous niacin. We characterized several enzymes in the NAD+ pathway and demonstrate cytoplasmic localization for all except the parasite nicotinamidase, which concentrates in the nucleus. One of these enzymes, the P. falciparum nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (PfNMNAT, is essential for NAD+ metabolism and is highly diverged from the human homolog, but genetically similar to bacterial NMNATs. Our results demonstrate the enzymatic activity of PfNMNAT in vitro and demonstrate its ability to genetically complement the closely related Escherichia coli NMNAT. Due to the similarity of PfNMNAT to the bacterial enzyme, we tested a panel of previously identified bacterial NMNAT inhibitors and synthesized and screened twenty new derivatives, which demonstrate a range of potency against live parasite culture. These results highlight the importance of the parasite NAD+ metabolic pathway and provide both novel therapeutic targets and promising lead antimalarial compounds.

  11. The interaction between epiphytic algae, a parasitic fungus and Sphagnum as affected by N. and P.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Jeffrey, T.A.G.; Baar, J.; Berendse, F.; Zijlstra, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effects of fertilisation with N and P on the infection of Sphagnum by its fungal parasite Lyophyllum palustre, the expansion of epiphytic algae and the interaction between the latter two from 1998 to 2001. We added 40 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) or 3 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) in a full factorial

  12. DFVF: database of fungal virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Yao, Bo; Zhang, Chi

    2012-01-01

    Fungal pathogens cause various diseases for plant and animal hosts. Despite the extensive impact of fungi on human health and life, the threats posed by emerging fungal pathogens are poorly understood. Specifically, there exist few fungal virulence gene databases, which prevent effective bioinformatics studies on fungal pathogens. Therefore, we constructed a comprehensive online database of known fungal virulence factors, which collected 2058 pathogenic genes produced by 228 fungal strains from 85 genera. This database creates a pivotal platform capable of stimulating and facilitating further bench studies on fungal pathogens. Database URL: http://sysbio.unl.edu/DFVF/ PMID:23092926

  13. Determination of bacterial and fungal numbers in floats of pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... skim milk or 2% Tween 80 were used to detect proteolytic and lipolytic activity, respectively. While the media containing 0, 10, 15 and 25% NaCl were used to count micro-organisms in the main soaking float and the media containing 0, 5 and 10% NaCl for all other pre-tanning processes floats. pH values of ...

  14. Fungal-bacterial interactions and their relevance in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Marios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-10-01

    Cross-kingdom interactions between bacteria and fungi are a common occurrence in the environment. Recent studies have identified various types of interactions that either can take the form of a synergistic relationship or can result in an antagonistic interplay with the subsequent destruction or inhibition of growth of bacteria, fungi or both. This cross-kingdom communication is of particular significance in human health and disease, as bacteria and fungi commonly colonize various human surfaces and their interactions can at times alter the outcome of invasive infections. Moreover, mixed infections from both bacteria and fungi are relatively common among critically ill patients and individuals with weak immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarize our knowledge on the type of interactions between bacteria and fungi and their relevance in human infections. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank O. Aylward; Garret Suen; Peter H. Biedermann; Aaron S. Adams; Jarrod J. Scott; Stephanie A. Malfatti; Tijana Glavina del Rio; Susannah G. Tringe; Michael Poulsen; Kenneth F. Raffa; Kier D. Kelpzig; Cameron R. Currie

    2014-01-01

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite...

  16. Fungal and bacterial contaminants of six spices and spice products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aijay

    Sci. Technol. rosemary oil had about half the incidence of colon cancer or lung cancer compared with animals not eating ... processing, there is the problem of food contamination caused by people who are carriers of pathogens such as ... five patterns of infection. A.niger, A. fumigatus, and A. nidulans showed a continuous ...

  17. Fungal and bacterial contaminants of six spices and spice products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spices and spice products collectively harboured Aeromonas salmonicida, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter amnigenus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sakazakii, Flavobacterium sp, Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Acinetobacter sp, Pseudomonas cepacia, ...

  18. An abattoir survey of bacterial and fungal infections of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As for fungi infections, Candida and Mucor spp. were observed with a higher prevalence of candidiasis, which varied significantly (P < 0.05) between localities and sex, but was comparable between breeds and different age groups. Mucor spp. Infections were recorded only in vulva, oviducts and ovaries. This study suggest ...

  19. Formation of bacterial and fungal biofilm on conducting polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikušová, N.; Humpolíček, P.; Růžička, J.; Capáková, Z.; Janů, K.; Kašpárková, V.; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Koutný, M.; Filatová, K.; Lehocký, M.; Ponížil, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 505-512 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bacteria * filamentous fungi * biofilm Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  20. Determination of bacterial and fungal numbers in floats of pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at determining the numbers of bacteria and fungi in the floats of main soaking, liming, deliming-bating, degreasing and pickling stages. To this end, the numbers of total aerobic mesophilic, proteolytic, lipolytic and aerobic spore-forming bacteria and, the numbers of total aerobic fungi (yeast and mould), ...

  1. Analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure in replant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... strawberry rhizosphere soil with the method of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DNA of ... fragments above 23 kb in size were isolated well by method 1 (1% CTAB, proteinase K, no PVPP, no bacteriolytic enzyme) and ... in strawberries (RDS) include: reduction in plant vigor, yield and ...

  2. Rheumatological patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatments and parasitic diseases: a review of the literature of clinical cases and perspectives to screen and follow-up active and latent chronic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Silvia; Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, several potent immunosuppressive drugs are available for patients with rheumatologic disorders. In general, these treatments are acceptably well tolerated. Nevertheless, in patients with rheumatic diseases, who are taking immunosuppressive drugs, an increased risk of bacterial, viral and fungal, as well as parasitic infections, exists. We have reviewed literature, on PubMed library, on the topic 'parasitic infections in rheumatic disease patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs, including biological therapies'. We used no language or time restrictions. Search was concluded on January 15th 2014. We grouped all parasitic events among rheumatologic, therapeutically immuosuppressed, patients to estimate the magnitude of this risk. Then we gave our viewpoint in the perspective to screen and follow-up for active and latent chronic parasitoses, developing an hypothetical flow-chart. From data published in the literature the real burden of parasitoses, among patients with rheumatic diseases treated with immunosuppressive treatments, can not be estimated. Nevertheless, a positive trend on publication number exists, probably due to more than one reason: i) the increasing number of patients treated, especially with more than one immunosuppressive treatment, including new biological agents; ii) the increasing number of individuals who move from the north to the south of the world (endemic areas for parasitic infections) and vice versa, due to globalisation, and iii) the fact that more attention is paid for notification/publication of cases. Considering parasitic infections as emerging and potentially serious in their evolution, additional strategies for the prevention, careful screening and follow-up, with a high level of suspicion, identification, and pre-emptive therapy are necessary in candidate patients for biological agents.

  3. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes places like chicken coops and caves. Wear gloves when handling materials such as soil, moss, or ... MMWR: Recommendations and Reports 2000;49:1-128. Top of Page Related Links Fungal Meningitis National Center ...

  4. Bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosdrecht, van M.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it

  5. The fungal biocontrol agent Coniothyrium minitans: production by solid-state fermentation, application and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrije, T; Antoine, N; Buitelaar, R M; Bruckner, S; Dissevelt, M; Durand, A; Gerlagh, M; Jones, E E; Lüth, P; Oostra, J; Ravensberg, W J; Renaud, R; Rinzema, A; Weber, F J; Whipps, J M

    2001-07-01

    Biological control agents (BCAs) are potential alternatives for the chemical fungicides presently used in agriculture to fight plant diseases. Coniothyrium minitans is an example of a promising fungal BCA. It is a naturally occurring parasite of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a wide-spread pathogen which substantially reduces the yield of many crops. This review describes, exemplified by C. minitans, the studies that need to be carried out before a fungal BCA is successfully introduced into the market. The main aspects considered are the biology of C. minitans, the development of a product by mass production of spores using solid-state fermentation technology, its biocontrol activity and marketing of the final product.

  6. Empirical support for optimal virulence in a castrating parasite.

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    Knut Helge Jensen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade-off hypothesis for the evolution of virulence predicts that parasite transmission stage production and host exploitation are balanced such that lifetime transmission success (LTS is maximised. However, the experimental evidence for this prediction is weak, mainly because LTS, which indicates parasite fitness, has been difficult to measure. For castrating parasites, this simple model has been modified to take into account that parasites convert host reproductive resources into transmission stages. Parasites that kill the host too early will hardly benefit from these resources, while postponing the killing of the host results in diminished returns. As predicted from optimality models, a parasite inducing castration should therefore castrate early, but show intermediate levels of virulence, where virulence is measured as time to host killing. We studied virulence in an experimental system where a bacterial parasite castrates its host and produces spores that are not released until after host death. This permits estimating the LTS of the parasite, which can then be related to its virulence. We exposed replicate individual Daphnia magna (Crustacea of one host clone to the same amount of bacterial spores and followed individuals until their death. We found that the parasite shows strong variation in the time to kill its host and that transmission stage production peaks at an intermediate level of virulence. A further experiment tested for the genetic basis of variation in virulence by comparing survival curves of daphniids infected with parasite spores obtained from early killing versus late killing infections. Hosts infected with early killer spores had a significantly higher death rate as compared to those infected with late killers, indicating that variation in time to death was at least in part caused by genetic differences among parasites. We speculate that the clear peak in lifetime reproductive success at intermediate killing times

  7. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  8. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

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    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  9. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

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    Arushdeep Sidana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fusarium sp., and four unidentified species F1, F2, F3, and F5, were grown on the sugarcane bagasse medium which produced remarkable results and competed with standard media like potato dextrose agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar, and cornmeal agar. The designed medium was able to provide nourishment to the fungi as well as prevent the growth of any bacterial or fungal contaminant. The production of spores was more in the sugarcane medium as compared with standard media. Hence, this study led to the discovery of a new and efficient medium for fungal cultures as well as decrease in the waste disposal expenses and efforts.

  10. Geology and Hydrology Drive Benthic Fungal Community Structure in a Lowland River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, I.; Heppell, C. M.; McKew, B.; Dumbrell, A.; Whitby, C. B.; Veresoglou, S.; Leung, G.; Binley, A. M.; Lansdown, K.; Trimmer, M.; Olde, L.; Rillig, M.

    2017-12-01

    Despite their essential roles in ecosystem functioning, exceptionally little is known about fungal communities and the ecological processes regulating their structure. This is particularly true for riverine ecosystems, where almost nothing about the diversity of their fungal communities is known. In this field study, benthic sediment samples and surface water samples were collected seasonally from lowland rivers (Hampshire Avon catchment, UK) underlain by three distinct parent geologies (clay, Greensand and Chalk), across a hydrological gradient of baseflow index ranging from 0.23 to 0.95. Fungal communities were assessed using high-throughput sequencing and community data were analyzed via ordination, variance partitioning and indicator species analysis. We found that distinct fungal communities inhabited the benthic sediments of the differing geologies. Clay sediments were dominated by the yeast Cryptococcus podzolicus, the hyphomycete Pseudeuotium hygrophilum, Mortierella, and unidentified fungi in the class Sordariomycetes - the latter two also common within Greensand sediments along with seasonal spikes in Rhizophydium littoreum, a parasite of green algae. An unidentified fungus from the phylum Ascomycota was numerically dominant at all chalk sites and across all seasons. Spatial variables explained only a negligible proportion of variance between communities, indicating that environmental and biotic processes drive the differences between the observed fungal communities rather than purely spatial mechanisms (e.g. stochastic processes). Season was a highly significant predictor of community structure (p=0.005) and baseflow index explained some of the variance within the fungal community data across seasons. This study demonstrates that deterministic rather than stochastic processes are important for structuring lotic fungal communities, and, for the first time, shows that underlying geology and associated differences in hydrology are drivers of fungal

  11. Microbial minimalism: genome reduction in bacterial pathogens.

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    Moran, Nancy A

    2002-03-08

    When bacterial lineages make the transition from free-living or facultatively parasitic life cycles to permanent associations with hosts, they undergo a major loss of genes and DNA. Complete genome sequences are providing an understanding of how extreme genome reduction affects evolutionary directions and metabolic capabilities of obligate pathogens and symbionts.

  12. Interaction between workers during a short time window is required for bacterial symbiont transmission in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Sarah E; Poulsen, Michael; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián; Currie, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry a Pseudonocardia Actinobacteria exosymbiont on their bodies that produces antifungal compounds that help inhibit specialized parasites of the ants' fungal garden. Major workers emerge from their pupal cases (eclose) symbiont-free, but exhibit visible Actinobacterial coverage within 14 days post-eclosion. Using subcolony experiments, we investigate exosymbiont transmission within Acromyrmex colonies. We found successful transmission to newly eclosed major workers fostered by major workers with visible Actinobacteria in all cases (100% acquiring, n = 19). In contrast, newly eclosed major workers reared without exosymbiont-carrying major workers did not acquire visible Actinobacteria (0% acquiring, n = 73). We further show that the majority of ants exposed to major workers with exosymbionts within 2 hours of eclosion acquired bacteria (60.7% acquiring, n = 28), while normal acquisition did not occur when exposure occurred later than 2 hours post-eclosion (0% acquiring, n = 18). Our findings show that transmission of exosymbionts to newly eclosed major workers occurs through interactions with exosymbiont-covered workers within a narrow time window after eclosion. This mode of transmission likely helps ensure the defensive function within colonies, as well as specificity and partner fidelity in the ant-bacterium association.

  13. Distribution of Parasitic Cestod

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    S Karimi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ligulae intestinalis is a parasitic cestode, which has the economic-health importance in fishery industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of this parasite in Mazandaran. The effects of habitat temperature and kind of pool (sandy-cement were considered as well. Methods: In this study, 103 fish samples were obtained in all stages; the samples (male and female were divided into 3 groups based on length of fish, temperature, origin of cultured fish, kind of pool, height from sea and sex. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were carried out in all stages of the parasite (procercoid, plerocercoid and adult. Chi-square and Pearson's double square tests (P<0.05 were conducted in order to evaluate the prevalence and determination of reliability in six sampling areas, respectively. Results: Total rate of the parasites were 9.7% in all groups. There was significant difference between parasitism rate and height of sea level, kind of pool (maximum in sandy pools and high temperature. The multi analyses regarding to above-mentioned three criteria also indicated meaningful difference between these criteria and parasitism rate. Seasonal conditions enhance the prevalence of ligulae intestinalis. Conclusion: Flexibility in parasite's life cycle and choosing different hosts makes it challenging case in fishery industry; moreover its prevalence could be predicted according to environmental conditions so choosing the minimal at risk place for salmonids farming. Further studies are recommended for evaluating the problems in fish fertility and probable risk for infected fish consumers.

  14. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  15. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and parasitic diseases: A review of the literature of clinical cases and perspectives to screen and follow-up active and latent chronic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Silvia; Fortunato, Simona; Petrini, Mario; Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at substantial risk for a variety of infections depending upon numerous factors, such as degree of immunosuppression, host factors, and period after transplantation. Bacterial, fungal, viral, as well as parasitic infections can occur with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of the occurrence of parasitic infections in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Modalities of transmission, methods of diagnosis, treatment, donor and recipient pre-transplant screening and prevention measures of the most serious parasitic infections have also been discussed. We systematically reviewed literature records on post-transplant (allogeneic HSCT) parasitic infections, identified through PubMed database searching, using no language or time restrictions. Search was concluded on December 31, 2015. In the present review, we only discussed post-transplant parasitic infections in allogeneic HSCT. Only exclusion criteria were absence of sufficient information on the transmission of parasitic infection to the recipient. Autologous HSCT recipients have not been included because of the absence of a proper allogeneic transplantation even in presence of blood or blood product transfusions. The methods and findings of the present review have been reported based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis checklist (PRISMA). Regarding allogeneic HSCT recipients, from data published in the literature the real burden of parasitic infections cannot be really estimated. Nevertheless, a positive trend on publication number exists, probably because of more than one reason: (i) the increasing number of patients transplanted and then treated with immunosuppressive agents, (ii) the "population shift" resulting from immigration and travels to endemic areas, and (iii) the increasing of attention for diagnosis/notification/publication of cases. Considering parasitic

  16. Fungal Infections Increase the Mortality Rate Three-Fold in Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher B; Wesp, Brendan M; Fiore, Nicholas B; Rasane, Rohit K; Torres, Marlon; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ilahi, Obeid N; Punch, Laurie J; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2017-10-01

    Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. Published data suggest NSTIs rarely involve fungal infections in immunocompetent patients. However, because of the recent recognition of fungal infections in our population, we hypothesized that such infections frequently complicate NSTIs and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. A prospectively maintained Acute and Critical Care Surgery (ACCS) database spanning 2008-2015 and including more than 7,000 patients was queried for patients with NSTIs. Microbiologic data, demographics, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Risk factors and outcomes associated with NSTI with positive intra-operative fungal cultures were determined. Frequencies were compared by χ 2 and continuous variables by the Student t-test using SPSS. Because the study included only archived data, no patient permission was needed. A total of 230 patients were found to have NSTIs; 197 had intra-operative cultures, and 21 (10.7%) of these were positive for fungi. Fungal infection was more common in women, patients with higher body mass index (BMI), and patients who had had prior abdominal procedures. There were no significant differences in demographics, co-morbidities, or site of infection. The majority of patients (85.7%) had mixed bacterial and fungal infections; in the remaining patients, fungi were the only species isolated. Most fungal cultures were collected within 48 h of hospital admission, suggesting that the infections were not hospital acquired. Patients with positive fungal cultures required two more surgical interventions and had a three-fold greater mortality rate than patients without fungal infections. This is the largest series to date describing the impact of fungal infection in NSTIs. Our data demonstrate a three-fold increase in the mortality rate and the need for two additional operations

  17. Evaluation of pulmonary fungal diseases in patients with fungal rhino-sinusitis

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    M.Sh. Badawy

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Universal screening for pulmonary fungal infection especially in patients with fungal rhino sinusitis is highly recommended to treat it early, decrease morbidity and mortality of the diseases.

  18. Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal infections in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Brandt, Mary E

    2011-04-01

    Fungal infections are becoming more frequent because of expansion of at-risk populations and the use of treatment modalities that permit longer survival of these patients. Because histopathologic examination of tissues detects fungal invasion of tissues and vessels as well as the host reaction to the fungus, it is and will remain an important tool to define the diagnostic significance of positive culture isolates or results from PCR testing. However, there are very few instances where the morphological characteristics of fungi are specific. Therefore, histopathologic diagnosis should be primarily descriptive of the fungus and should include the presence or absence of tissue invasion and the host reaction to the infection. The pathology report should also include a comment stating the most frequent fungi associated with that morphology as well as other possible fungi and parasites that should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alternate techniques have been used to determine the specific agent present in the histopathologic specimen, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR. In addition, techniques such as laser microdissection will be useful to detect the now more frequently recognized dual fungal infections and the local environment in which this phenomenon occurs.

  19. Histopathologic Diagnosis of Fungal Infections in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Brandt, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Fungal infections are becoming more frequent because of expansion of at-risk populations and the use of treatment modalities that permit longer survival of these patients. Because histopathologic examination of tissues detects fungal invasion of tissues and vessels as well as the host reaction to the fungus, it is and will remain an important tool to define the diagnostic significance of positive culture isolates or results from PCR testing. However, there are very few instances where the morphological characteristics of fungi are specific. Therefore, histopathologic diagnosis should be primarily descriptive of the fungus and should include the presence or absence of tissue invasion and the host reaction to the infection. The pathology report should also include a comment stating the most frequent fungi associated with that morphology as well as other possible fungi and parasites that should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alternate techniques have been used to determine the specific agent present in the histopathologic specimen, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR. In addition, techniques such as laser microdissection will be useful to detect the now more frequently recognized dual fungal infections and the local environment in which this phenomenon occurs. PMID:21482725

  20. Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been infecting humans throughout our evolution. However, not all people suffered with the same species or to the same intensity throughout this time. Our changing way of life has altered the suitability of humans to infection by each type of parasite. This analysis focuses upon the evidence for parasites from archaeological excavations at medieval sites across Europe. Comparison between the patterns of infection in the medieval period allows us to see how changes in sanitation, herding animals, growing and fertilizing crops, the fishing industry, food preparation and migration all affected human susceptibility to different parasites. We go on to explore how ectoparasites may have spread infectious bacterial diseases, and also consider what medieval medical practitioners thought of parasites and how they tried to treat them. While modern research has shown the use of a toilet decreases the risk of contracting certain intestinal parasites, the evidence for past societies presented here suggests that the invention of latrines had no observable beneficial effects upon intestinal health. This may be because toilets were not sufficiently ubiquitous until the last century, or that the use of fresh human faeces for manuring crops still ensured those parasite species were easily able to reinfect the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  2. Influence of salinity on fungal communities in a submerged fixed bed bioreactor for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés-Lorenzo, C.; González-Martínez, A.; Smidt, H.; González-López, J.; Rodelas, B.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is known to influence the performance of biological wastewater treatment plants. While its impact on bacterial communities has been thoroughly studied, its influence on fungal communities has been largely overlooked. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the effect of saline

  3. Growth of chitinolytic dune soil ß-subclass Proteobacteria in response to invading fungal hyphae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    It has frequently been reported that chitinolytic soil bacteria, in particular biocontrol strains, can lyse living fungal hyphae, thereby releasing potential growth substrate. However, the conditions used in such assays (high bacterial density, rich media, fragmented hyphae) make it difficult to

  4. A Fungal Signature in the Gut Microbiota of Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehoud, Christel; Albenberg, Lindsey G.; Judge, Colleen; Hoffmann, Christian; Grunberg, Stephanie; Bittinger, Kyle; Baldassano, Robert N.; Lewis, James D.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Wu, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves dysregulation of mucosal immunity in response to environmental factors such as the gut microbiota. The bacterial microbiota is often altered in IBD, but the connection to disease is not fully clarified, and gut fungi have recently been suggested to play a role as well. In this study, we compared microbes from all three domains of life–bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota–in pediatric patients with IBD and healthy controls. Methods A stool sample was collected from patients with IBD (n=34) or health control subjects (n=90), and bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities were characterized by deep sequencing of rRNA gene segments specific to each domain. Results IBD patients (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis) had lower bacterial diversity and distinctive fungal communities. Two lineages annotating as Candida were significantly more abundant in IBD patients (p = 0.0034 and p=0.00038, respectively) while a lineage annotating as Cladosporium was more abundant in healthy subjects (p=0.0025). There were no statistically significant differences in archaea, which were rare in pediatric samples compared to those from adults. Conclusions Pediatric IBD is associated with reduced diversity in both fungal and bacterial gut microbiota. Specific Candida taxa were increased in abundance in the IBD samples. These data emphasize the potential importance of fungal microbiota signatures as biomarkers of pediatric IBD, supporting their possible role in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26083617

  5. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fungal type III polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nonaka, Takamasa; Fujii, Isao

    2014-10-01

    This article covers the literature on fungal type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) published from 2005 to 2014. Since the first discovery of fungal type III PKS genes in Aspergillus oryzae, reported in 2005, putative genes for type III PKSs have been discovered in fungal genomes. Compared with type I PKSs, type III PKSs are much less abundant in fungi. However, type III PKSs could have some critical roles in fungi. This article summarizes the studies on fungal type III PKS functional analysis, including Neurospora crassa ORAS, Aspergillus niger AnPKS, Botrytis cinerea BPKS and Aspergillus oryzae CsyA and CsyB. It is mostly in vitro analysis using their recombinant enzymes that has revealed their starter and product specificities. Of these, CsyB was found to be a new kind of type III PKS that catalyses the coupling of two β-keto fatty acyl CoAs. Homology modelling reported in this article supports the importance of the capacity of the acyl binding tunnel and active site cavity in fungal type III PKSs.

  7. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

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    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  8. Treatment of lingual traumatic ulcer accompanied with fungal infections

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    Sella Sella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a common form of ulceration occured in oral cavity caused by mechanical trauma, either acute or chronic, resulting in loss of the entire epithelium. Traumatic ulcer often occurs in children that are usually found on buccal mucosa, labial mucosa of upper and lower lip, lateral tongue, and a variety of areas that may be bitten. To properly diagnose the ulcer, dentists should evaluate the history and clinical description in detail. If the lesion is allegedly accompanied by other infections, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infections, microbiological or serological tests will be required. One of the initial therapy given for fungal infection is nystatin which aimed to support the recovery and repair processes of epithelial tissue in traumatic ulcer case. Purpose: This case report is aimed to emphasize the importance of microbiological examination in suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. Case: A 12-year-old girl came to the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia on June 9, 2011 accompanied with her mother. The patient who had a history of geographic tongue came with complaints of injury found in the middle of the tongue. The main diagnosis was ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection based on the results of swab examination. Case management: This traumatic ulcer case was treated with Dental Health Education, oral prophylaxis, as well as prescribing and usage instructions of nystatin. The recovery and repair processes of mucosal epithelium of the tongue then occured after the use of nystatin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that microbiological examination is important to diagnose suspected cases of ulcer accompanied with traumatic fungal infection. The appropriate treatment such as nystatin can be given for traumatic fungal infection.Latar belakang: Ulkus traumatic merupakan bentuk umum dari ulserasi rongga mulut yang terjadi akibat trauma

  9. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals.

  10. Malaria parasites: the great escape

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    Laurent Rénia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle. They alternate between their final mosquito host and their intermediate hosts. The parasite can be either extra- or intracellular, depending on the stage of development. By modifying their shape, motility, and metabolic requirements, the parasite adapts to the different environments in their different hosts. The parasite has evolved to escape the multiple immune mechanisms in the host that try to block parasite development at the different stages of their development. In this article, we describe the mechanisms reported thus far that allow the Plasmodium parasite to evade innate and adaptive immune responses.

  11. Fungal/mycotic diseases of poultry-diagnosis, treatment and control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Shambhu Dayal

    2013-12-01

    Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. In comparison to bacterial and viral diseases, advances in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fungal diseases in poultry has not taken much attention. Recently, molecular biological tools have been explored for rapid and accurate diagnosis of important fungal infections. Effective prevention and control measures include: appropriate hygiene, sanitation and disinfection, strict biosecurity programme and regular surveillance/monitoring of fungal infections as well as following judicious use of anti-fungal drugs. Precautionary measures during crop production, harvesting and storing and in feed mixing plants can help to check the fungal infections including health hazards of mycotoxins/mycotoxicosis. The present review describes the fungal pathogens causing diseases in poultry/birds, especially focusing to their diagnosis, prevention and control measures, which would help in formulating appropriate strategies to have a check and control on these unwanted troubles to the poultry producers/farmers.

  12. Standardization of fungal polymerase chain reaction for the early diagnosis of invasive fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An early initiation of antifungal therapy in invasive fungal infections (IFIs is critical in reducing the high mortality rate. Current diagnosis of fungal infection relies on microscopy, culture, antigen, antibody specific tests and histological diagnosis. However, these tests either lack sensitivity or specificity. There is thus the need for a rapid, specific and accurate diagnostic method. Objective: The aim of our study was to establish PCR for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus species in clinical specimens with improved sensitivity and specificity. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 proven cases of IFI (confirmed by culture were collected. A total of 15 healthy, 15 patients suffering from bacterial sepsis and 15 patients with HIV, HBV viral infections were included as controls. Clinical specimens were subjected to a standardized nested amplification to produce Round I (504 bp and Round II (150 bp amplicons. Restriction digestion was performed on these products for further identification. Results: Analytical sensitivity was determined using 10 6 -10 CFU/ml of cell suspension. The lower detection limit of the assay was 10 CFU/ml of blood. This test was 100% sensitive and specific with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96.7%. Conclusion: The assay was found to be effective for the rapid detection of Candida and Aspergillus in clinical specimens.

  13. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

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    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  14. Directed evolution of fungal laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-04-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary efforts have been made to engineer fungal laccases by directed evolution and semi-rational approaches to improve their functional expression or stability. All these studies have taken advantage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous host, not only to secrete the enzyme but also, to emulate the introduction of genetic diversity through in vivo DNA recombination. Here, we discuss all these endeavours to convert fungal laccases into valuable biomolecular platforms on which new functions can be tailored by directed evolution.

  15. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  16. Factors associated with the suppressiveness of sugarcane soils to plant-parasitic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Graham R.; Rames, Emily; Stirling, A. Marcelle; Hamill, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Observations in three Australian sugarcane fields suggested that the soil just under the trash blanket (the covering of crop residue that remains on the soil surface after crops are harvested) was suppressive to plant-parasitic nematodes. Roots were concentrated in this upper layer of soil but plant-parasitic nematode populations were relatively low and roots showed few signs of nematode damage. Root biomass was much lower 15 cm further down the soil profile, where root health was poor and populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were 3-5 times higher than near the soil surface. A bioassay in which Radopholus similis (a nematode that does not occur in sugarcane soils) was inoculated into heat-sterilized and untreated soils, confirmed that biological factors were limiting nematode populations in some of the soils, with soil from 0-2 cm much more suppressive than soil from 15-17 cm. Surface soil from one site was highly suppressive, as only 16% of R. similis recoverable from heated soil were retrieved from this soil after 8 days. Numerous soil chemical, biochemical, and biological properties were measured, and non-linear regression analysis identified two major groups of factors that were significantly associated with suppressiveness. One group reflected the amount of organic matter in soil (total C, total N, and labile C) and the other was associated with the size of the free-living nematode community (total numbers of free-living nematodes, and numbers of plant associates, bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and carnivores). These results suggested that suppressiveness was biologically mediated and was sustained by C inputs from crop residues and roots. Since nematode-trapping fungi in the test soils could not be quantified using traditional dilution plating methods, their possible role as suppressive agents was assessed by generating TRFLP profiles with Orbiliales-specific primers, and by sequencing cloned PCR products. Although the molecular data were obtained

  17. Nonculture Diagnostics in Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diagnostics that utilize antibody, antigen or nucleic acid detection offer several advantages that supplement traditional culture-based methods. As a group, nonculture assays can help identify patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI) sooner than is possible with culture, are often more sensitive, and can be used to guide early interventions. Challenges associated with these techniques include the possibility for contamination or cross-reactivity as well as the potential for false negative tests. This review summarized the test characteristics and clinical utility of nonculture-based laboratory methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  19. On biomass of parasitic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J H [Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China); Mo, L-F [School of Information Engineering, Zhejiang Forestry College, Lin' an 311300, Zhejiang (China)], E-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ.

  20. On biomass of parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. H.; Mo, L.-F.

    2008-02-01

    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ

  1. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in organ transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  2. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Gets Fungal Infections? People living with HIV/AIDS Organ Transplant Patients Cancer Patients Hospitalized Patients Stem Cell Transplant Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis ...

  3. Pets and Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animals. This is how cats get the toxoplasmosis parasite. Keep your pets away from wild animals or stray pets (which may be unvaccinated or sick). Things to consider Reptiles (such as lizards, snakes, and turtles) carry bacteria (germs) that can make ...

  4. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Novel Biocontrol Bacterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Because bacterial isolates from only a few genera have been developed commercially as biopesticides, discovery and characterization of novel bacterial strains will be a key to market expansion. Our previous screen using plant bioassays identified 24 novel biocontrol isolates representing 12 different genera. In this study, we characterized the 3 isolates showing the best biocontrol activities. The isolates were Pantoea dispersa WCU35, Proteus myxofaciens WCU244, and Exiguobacterium acetylicum WCU292 based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed differential production of extracellular enzymes, antimicrobial activity against various fungal or bacterial plant pathogens, and induced systemic resistance activity against tomato gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. E. acetylicum WCU292 lacked strong in vitro antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, but induced systemic resistance against tomato gray mold disease. These results confirm that the trait of biological control is found in a wide variety of bacterial genera

  6. Specificity of fungal associations of Pyroleae and Monotropa hypopitys during germination and seedling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, V A; Bahram, M; Tedersoo, L; Kõljalg, U; Eriksson, O

    2017-05-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants obtain organic carbon from associated mycorrhizal fungi, fully or partially. Angiosperms with this form of nutrition possess exceptionally small 'dust seeds' which after germination develop 'seedlings' that remain subterranean for several years, fully dependent on fungi for supply of carbon. Mycoheterotrophs which as adults have photosynthesis thus develop from full to partial mycoheterotrophy, or autotrophy, during ontogeny. Mycoheterotrophic plants may represent a gradient of variation in a parasitism-mutualism continuum, both among and within species. Previous studies on plant-fungal associations in mycoheterotrophs have focused on either germination or the adult life stages of the plant. Much less is known about the fungal associations during development of the subterranean seedlings. We investigated germination and seedling development and the diversity of fungi associated with germinating seeds and subterranean seedlings (juveniles) in five Monotropoideae (Ericaceae) species, the full mycoheterotroph Monotropa hypopitys and the putatively partial mycoheterotrophs Pyrola chlorantha, P. rotundifolia, Moneses uniflora and Chimaphila umbellata. Seedlings retrieved from seed sowing experiments in the field were used to examine diversity of fungal associates, using pyrosequencing analysis of ITS2 region for fungal identification. The investigated species varied with regard to germination, seedling development and diversity of associated fungi during juvenile ontogeny. Results suggest that fungal host specificity increases during juvenile ontogeny, most pronounced in the fully mycoheterotrophic species, but a narrowing of fungal associates was found also in two partially mycoheterotrophic species. We suggest that variation in specificity of associated fungi during seedling ontogeny in mycoheterotrophs represents ongoing evolution along a parasitism-mutualism continuum. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  8. Intrahepatic ascariasis – Common parasite at an uncommon site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udit Chauhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections of the biliary tree are common infections of the biliary system which frequently lead to life-threatening sepsis. Parasitic infections of the biliary tree like ascariasis are not uncommon. Most adult worms reside into the extrahepatic biliary system. Intrahepatic existence is not commonly described. Urgent recognition of the intrahepatic existence of this common parasite is of paramount importance in order to start timely treatment of this lifethreatening infection. Authors described a case of intrahepatic ascariasis in a young male who was diagnosed radiologically and thereafter managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and antibiotics.

  9. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Krista L; Payne, Sara G; Palmer, Matthew I; Gillikin, Caitlyn M; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A; Massmann, Audrey L; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

  10. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  11. Hidden killers: human fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, G.D.; Denning, D.W.; Gow, N.A.; Levitz, S.M.; Netea, M.G.; White, T.C.

    2012-01-01

    Although fungal infections contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality, the impact of these diseases on human health is not widely appreciated. Moreover, despite the urgent need for efficient diagnostic tests and safe and effective new drugs and vaccines, research into the

  12. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamisope S. Bamisile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  13. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamisile, Bamisope S.; Dash, Chandra K.; Akutse, Komivi S.; Keppanan, Ravindran; Wang, Liande

    2018-01-01

    The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  14. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  15. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  16. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  17. Immune Recognition of Fungal Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan D. Snarr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections has dramatically increased in recent years, in large part due to increased use of immunosuppressive medications, as well as aggressive medical and surgical interventions that compromise natural skin and mucosal barriers. There are relatively few currently licensed antifungal drugs, and rising resistance to these agents has led to interest in the development of novel preventative and therapeutic strategies targeting these devastating infections. One approach to combat fungal infections is to augment the host immune response towards these organisms. The polysaccharide-rich cell wall is the initial point of contact between fungi and the host immune system, and therefore, represents an important target for immunotherapeutic approaches. This review highlights the advances made in our understanding of the mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes and interacts with exopolysaccharides produced by four of the most common fungal pathogens: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Work to date suggests that inner cell wall polysaccharides that play an important structural role are the most conserved across diverse members of the fungal kingdom, and elicit the strongest innate immune responses. The immune system senses these carbohydrates through receptors, such as lectins and complement proteins. In contrast, a greater diversity of polysaccharides is found within the outer cell walls of pathogenic fungi. These glycans play an important role in immune evasion, and can even induce anti-inflammatory host responses. Further study of the complex interactions between the host immune system and the fungal polysaccharides will be necessary to develop more effective therapeutic strategies, as well as to explore the use of immunosuppressive polysaccharides as therapeutic agents to modulate inflammation.

  18. Airborne bacterial communities in residences: similarities and differences with fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of indoor air has uncovered a rich microbial presence, but rarely have both the bacterial and fungal components been examined in the same samples. Here we present a study that examined the bacterial component of passively settled microbes from both indoor and outdoor air over a discrete time period and for which the fungal component has already been reported. Dust was allowed to passively settle in five common locations around a home - living room, bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, and balcony - at different dwellings within a university-housing complex for a one-month period at two time points, once in summer and again in winter. We amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in these samples and analyzed them with high-throughput sequencing. Like fungal OTU-richness, bacterial OTU-richness was higher outdoors then indoors and was invariant across different indoor room types. While fungal composition was structured largely by season and residential unit, bacterial composition varied by residential unit and room type. Bacteria from putative outdoor sources, such as Sphingomonas and Deinococcus, comprised a large percentage of the balcony samples, while human-associated taxa comprised a large percentage of the indoor samples. Abundant outdoor bacterial taxa were also observed indoors, but the reverse was not true; this is unlike fungi, in which the taxa abundant indoors were also well-represented outdoors. Moreover, there was a partial association of bacterial composition and geographic distance, such that samples separated by even a few hundred meters tended have greater compositional differences than samples closer together in space, a pattern also observed for fungi. These data show that while the outdoor source for indoor bacteria and fungi varies in both space and time, humans provide a strong and homogenizing effect on indoor bacterial bioaerosols, a pattern not observed in fungi.

  19. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  20. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  1. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  2. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    , the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...

  3. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that coats the walls of the vagina Vaginal discharge with an unpleasant or fishlike odor Vaginal pain or itching Burning during urination Doctors are unsure of the incubation period for bacterial vaginosis. How Is the Diagnosis Made? Your child’s pediatrician can make the diagnosis ...

  4. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  5. Molecular diversity of fungal phylotypes co-amplified alongside nematodes from coastal and deep-sea marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punyasloke Bhadury

    Full Text Available Nematodes and fungi are both ubiquitous in marine environments, yet few studies have investigated relationships between these two groups. Microbial species share many well-documented interactions with both free-living and parasitic nematode species, and limited data from previous studies have suggested ecological associations between fungi and nematodes in benthic marine habitats. This study aimed to further document the taxonomy and distribution of fungal taxa often co-amplified from nematode specimens. A total of 15 fungal 18S rRNA phylotypes were isolated from nematode specimens representing both deep-sea and shallow water habitats; all fungal isolates displayed high pairwise sequence identities with published data in Genbank (99-100% and unpublished high-throughput 454 environmental datasets (>95%. BLAST matches indicate marine fungal sequences amplified in this study broadly represent taxa within the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and several phylotypes showed robust groupings with known taxa in phylogenetic topologies. In addition, some fungal phylotypes appeared to be present in disparate geographic habitats, suggesting cosmopolitan distributions or closely related species complexes in at least some marine fungi. The present study was only able to isolate fungal DNA from a restricted set of nematode taxa; further work is needed to fully investigate the taxonomic scope and function of nematode-fungal interactions.

  6. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other...... components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated...

  7. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  8. The risk factors and outcome of fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the risk factors and outcome of fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients over a 7-year period. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 30 cases of fungal peritonitis in CAPD patients during a 7-year period (2000-2007. The diagnosis was based on elevated CAPD effluent count and isolation of fungi. Patients were evaluated for previous episode of bacterial peritonitis. Results: The incidence of fungal peritonitis was 16.2%. Age varied between 8 and 75 years, with a mean age of 57 years. Twenty-three were males (76.7% and seven were females (23.3%. Seventeen patients (56.6% had previous episodes of bacterial peritonitis that was treated with multiple antibiotics. The common fungus was Candida species (50%. CAPD catheter removal and initiation of antifungal therapy was done for all patients. Reinsertion was done for three (10% patients. Mortality rate was 20%. Conclusion: Patients with previous bacterial peritonitis and antibiotic usage are at greater risk of developing fungal peritonitis.

  9. Alfalfa snakin-1 prevents fungal colonization and probably coevolved with rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Araceli Nora; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Fox, Ana Romina; Gómez, María Cristina; Diéguez, María José; Pagano, Elba María; Berini, Carolina Andrea; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo; Soto, Gabriela

    2014-09-17

    The production of antimicrobial peptides is a common defense strategy of living cells against a wide range of pathogens. Plant snakin peptides inhibit bacterial and fungal growth at extremely low concentrations. However, little is known of their molecular and ecological characteristics, including origin, evolutionary equivalence, specific functions and activity against beneficial microbes. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize snakin-1 from alfalfa (MsSN1). Phylogenetic analysis showed complete congruence between snakin-1 and plant trees. The antimicrobial activity of MsSN1 against bacterial and fungal pathogens of alfalfa was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Transgenic alfalfa overexpressing MsSN1 showed increased antimicrobial activity against virulent fungal strains. However, MsSN1 did not affect nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains only when these had an alfalfa origin. The results reported here suggest that snakin peptides have important and ancestral roles in land plant innate immunity. Our data indicate a coevolutionary process, in which alfalfa exerts a selection pressure for resistance to MsSN1 on rhizobial bacteria. The increased antimicrobial activity against virulent fungal strains without altering the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis observed in MsSN1-overexpressing alfalfa transgenic plants opens the way to the production of effective legume transgenic cultivars for biotic stress resistance.

  10. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France-both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  11. Fungal contamination in white medical coats of dentistry professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benicio Barros Brandão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The white medical coats used by health professionals may serve as a source of infection in health services because it is a potential vehicle for transmission of microorganisms. There are several studies that warn of the inherent dangers in bacterial contamination in lab coats, but there are few reports of fungal contamination in this personal protection equipment. Aims: The study aims to identify fungi in dental lab coats. Method: Samples were collected from ten dentists from a dentistry-school clinic of a higher education institution of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using sterile swab, soaked in saline contained in a test tube. Each sample was inoculated on chloramphenicol-containing Saboroud Dextrose agar and incubated at room temperature for fungal growth. Phenotypic and biochemical methods were used to identify the colonies. Results: Fungal growth was observed in all samples of the lab coats, and 19 isolates were counted. The genera Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most frequent in this study. The results emphasize the role of fungi as contaminants in lab coats; and, as an effective means of transmission of pathogens in the community. Conclusions: This study suggests a methodology for the proper washing and decontamination of the lab coat and advocates the need to implement more rigid norms in concern to the use of lab coats, as well as educational campaigns to guide dentists about the correct use of this Personal Protection Equipment (PPE. Keywords: Individual Protection Equipment. Fungi. Cross infection.

  12. Integrated parasite management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Van, Phan Thi

    2015-01-01

    communities at risk through mass drug administration. However, we argue that treatment alone will not reduce the risk from eating infected fish and that sustainable effective control must adopt an integrated FZT control approach based on education, infrastructure improvements, and management practices...... that target critical control points in the aquaculture production cycle identified from a thorough understanding of FZT and host biology and epidemiology. We present recommendations for an integrated parasite management (IPM) program for aquaculture farms....

  13. Of parasites and men

    OpenAIRE

    Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Thomas, Frédéric; Renaud, François

    2013-01-01

    The living world has evolved and is evolving through interspecific relationships between organisms. The diversity of these interactions is enormous going from mutualism to parasitism. Humans live with a multitude of microorganisms, essential for their biology. However, interactions are not always advantageous. Indeed, many organisms might become pathogens, such as the Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria. Like many other microorganisms, they are > in their capacity to elaborate...

  14. Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadip Mahapatra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs.

  15. Fungal Dysbiosis in Mucosa-associated Microbiota of Crohn’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giuseppina; Lamas, Bruno; Richard, Mathias L.; Brandi, Giovanni; da Costa, Gregory; Hoffmann, Thomas W.; Di Simone, Massimo Pierluigi; Calabrese, Carlo; Poggioli, Gilberto; Langella, Philippe; Campieri, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Gut microbiota is involved in many physiological functions and its imbalance is associated with several diseases, particularly with inflammatory bowel diseases. Mucosa-associated microbiota could have a key role in induction of host immunity and in inflammatory process. Although the role of fungi has been suggested in inflammatory disease pathogenesis, the fungal microbiota has not yet been deeply explored. Here we analysed the bacterial and fungal composition of the muco