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Sample records for bacterial effector binding

  1. Bacterial effector binding to ribosomal protein s3 subverts NF-kappaB function.

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    Xiaofei Gao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Enteric bacterial pathogens cause food borne disease, which constitutes an enormous economic and health burden. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC causes a severe bloody diarrhea following transmission to humans through various means, including contaminated beef and vegetable products, water, or through contact with animals. EHEC also causes a potentially fatal kidney disease (hemolytic uremic syndrome for which there is no effective treatment or prophylaxis. EHEC and other enteric pathogens (e.g., enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS to inject virulence proteins (effectors into host cells. While it is known that T3SS effectors subvert host cell function to promote diarrheal disease and bacterial transmission, in many cases, the mechanisms by which these effectors bind to host proteins and disrupt the normal function of intestinal epithelial cells have not been completely characterized. In this study, we present evidence that the E. coli O157:H7 nleH1 and nleH2 genes encode T3SS effectors that bind to the human ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3, a subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB transcriptional complexes. NleH1 and NleH2 co-localized with RPS3 in the cytoplasm, but not in cell nuclei. The N-terminal region of both NleH1 and NleH2 was required for binding to the N-terminus of RPS3. NleH1 and NleH2 are autophosphorylated Ser/Thr protein kinases, but their binding to RPS3 is independent of kinase activity. NleH1, but not NleH2, reduced the nuclear abundance of RPS3 without altering the p50 or p65 NF-kappaB subunits or affecting the phosphorylation state or abundance of the inhibitory NF-kappaB chaperone IkappaBalpha NleH1 repressed the transcription of a RPS3/NF-kappaB-dependent reporter plasmid, but did not inhibit the transcription of RPS3-independent reporters. In contrast, NleH2 stimulated RPS3-dependent transcription, as well

  2. Molecular basis for the binding and modulation of V-ATPase by a bacterial effector protein.

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    Jianhua Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogenic bacteria evade the immune response by replicating within host cells. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' Disease, makes use of numerous effector proteins to construct a niche supportive of its replication within phagocytic cells. The L. pneumophila effector SidK was identified in a screen for proteins that reduce the activity of the proton pumping vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. SidK is secreted by L. pneumophila in the early stages of infection and by binding to and inhibiting the V-ATPase, SidK reduces phagosomal acidification and promotes survival of the bacterium inside macrophages. We determined crystal structures of the N-terminal region of SidK at 2.3 Å resolution and used single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM to determine structures of V-ATPase:SidK complexes at ~6.8 Å resolution. SidK is a flexible and elongated protein composed of an α-helical region that interacts with subunit A of the V-ATPase and a second region of unknown function that is flexibly-tethered to the first. SidK binds V-ATPase strongly by interacting via two α-helical bundles at its N terminus with subunit A. In vitro activity assays show that SidK does not inhibit the V-ATPase completely, but reduces its activity by ~40%, consistent with the partial V-ATPase deficiency phenotype its expression causes in yeast. The cryo-EM analysis shows that SidK reduces the flexibility of the A-subunit that is in the 'open' conformation. Fluorescence experiments indicate that SidK binding decreases the affinity of V-ATPase for a fluorescent analogue of ATP. Together, these results reveal the structural basis for the fine-tuning of V-ATPase activity by SidK.

  3. Investigation of binding-site homology between mushroom and bacterial tyrosinases by using aurones as effectors.

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    Haudecoeur, Romain; Gouron, Aurélie; Dubois, Carole; Jamet, Hélène; Lightbody, Mark; Hardré, Renaud; Milet, Anne; Bergantino, Elisabetta; Bubacco, Luigi; Belle, Catherine; Réglier, Marius; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2014-06-16

    Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme found in plants and bacteria, as well as in humans, where it is involved in the biosynthesis of melanin-type pigments. Tyrosinase inhibitors have attracted remarkable research interest as whitening agents in cosmetology, antibrowning agents in food chemistry, and as therapeutics. In this context, commercially available tyrosinase from mushroom (TyM) is frequently used for the identification of inhibitors. This and bacterial tyrosinase (TyB) have been the subjects of intense biochemical and structural studies, including X-ray diffraction analysis, and this has led to the identification of structural homology and divergence among enzymes from different sources. To better understand the behavior of potential inhibitors of TyM and TyB, we selected the aurone family-previously identified as potential inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis in human melanocytes. In this study, a series of 24 aurones with different hydroxylation patterns at the A- and B-rings were evaluated on TyM and TyB. The results show that, depending on the hydroxylation pattern of A- and B-rings, aurones can behave as inhibitors, substrates, and activators of both enzymes. Computational analysis was performed to identify residues surrounding the aurones in the active sites of both enzymes and to rationalize the interactions. Our results highlight similarities and divergence in the behavior of TyM and TyB toward the same set of molecules. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Breaking the DNA-binding code of Ralstonia solanacearum TAL effectors provides new possibilities to generate plant resistance genes against bacterial wilt disease.

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    de Lange, Orlando; Schreiber, Tom; Schandry, Niklas; Radeck, Jara; Braun, Karl Heinz; Koszinowski, Julia; Heuer, Holger; Strauß, Annett; Lahaye, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating bacterial phytopathogen with a broad host range. Ralstonia solanacearum injected effector proteins (Rips) are key to the successful invasion of host plants. We have characterized Brg11(hrpB-regulated 11), the first identified member of a class of Rips with high sequence similarity to the transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors of Xanthomonas spp., collectively termed RipTALs. Fluorescence microscopy of in planta expressed RipTALs showed nuclear localization. Domain swaps between Brg11 and Xanthomonas TAL effector (TALE) AvrBs3 (avirulence protein triggering Bs3 resistance) showed the functional interchangeability of DNA-binding and transcriptional activation domains. PCR was used to determine the sequence of brg11 homologs from strains infecting phylogenetically diverse host plants. Brg11 localizes to the nucleus and activates promoters containing a matching effector-binding element (EBE). Brg11 and homologs preferentially activate promoters containing EBEs with a 5' terminal guanine, contrasting with the TALE preference for a 5' thymine. Brg11 and other RipTALs probably promote disease through the transcriptional activation of host genes. Brg11 and the majority of homologs identified in this study were shown to activate similar or identical target sequences, in contrast to TALEs, which generally show highly diverse target preferences. This information provides new options for the engineering of plants resistant to R. solanacearum. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Post-translational Mechanisms of Host Subversion by Bacterial Effectors.

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    Scott, Nichollas E; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial effector proteins are a specialized class of secreted proteins that are translocated directly into the host cytoplasm by bacterial pathogens. Effector proteins have diverse activities and targets, and many mediate post-translational modifications of host proteins. Effector proteins offer potential in novel biotechnological and medical applications as enzymes that may modify human proteins. Here, we discuss the mechanisms used by effectors to subvert the human host through blocking, blunting, or subverting immune mechanisms. This capacity allows bacteria to control host cell function to support pathogen survival, replication and dissemination to other hosts. In addition, we highlight that knowledge of effector protein activity may be used to develop chemical inhibitors as a new approach to treat bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial Effectors and Their Functions in the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Insight from the Modes of Substrate Recognition

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    Minsoo Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination plays indispensable roles in the regulation of cell homeostasis and pathogenesis of neoplastic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given the importance of this modification, it is to be expected that several pathogenic bacteria have developed the ability to utilize the host ubiquitin system for their own benefit. Modulation of the host ubiquitin system by bacterial effector proteins inhibits innate immune responses and hijacks central signaling pathways. Bacterial effectors mimic enzymes of the host ubiquitin system, but may or may not be structurally similar to the mammalian enzymes. Other effectors bind and modify components of the host ubiquitin system, and some are themselves subject to ubiquitination. This review will describe recent findings, based on structural analyses, regarding how pathogens use post-translational modifications of proteins to establish an infection.

  7. Bacterial effectors and their functions in the ubiquitin-proteasome system: insight from the modes of substrate recognition.

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    Kim, Minsoo; Otsubo, Ryota; Morikawa, Hanako; Nishide, Akira; Takagi, Kenji; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Mizushima, Tsunehiro

    2014-08-18

    Protein ubiquitination plays indispensable roles in the regulation of cell homeostasis and pathogenesis of neoplastic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given the importance of this modification, it is to be expected that several pathogenic bacteria have developed the ability to utilize the host ubiquitin system for their own benefit. Modulation of the host ubiquitin system by bacterial effector proteins inhibits innate immune responses and hijacks central signaling pathways. Bacterial effectors mimic enzymes of the host ubiquitin system, but may or may not be structurally similar to the mammalian enzymes. Other effectors bind and modify components of the host ubiquitin system, and some are themselves subject to ubiquitination. This review will describe recent findings, based on structural analyses, regarding how pathogens use post-translational modifications of proteins to establish an infection.

  8. Novel cyclic di-GMP effectors of the YajQ protein family control bacterial virulence.

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    Shi-qi An

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bis-(3',5' cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (K(d∼2 µM. Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence.

  9. Structural and Functional Studies Indicate That the EPEC Effector, EspG, Directly Binds p21-Activated Kinase

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    Germane, Katherine L.; Spiller, Benjamin W. (Vanderbilt)

    2011-09-20

    Bacterial pathogens secrete effectors into their hosts that subvert host defenses and redirect host processes. EspG is a type three secretion effector with a disputed function that is found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Here we show that EspG is structurally similar to VirA, a Shigella virulence factor; EspG has a large, conserved pocket on its surface; EspG binds directly to the amino-terminal inhibitory domain of human p21-activated kinase (PAK); and mutations to conserved residues in the surface pocket disrupt the interaction with PAK.

  10. Subversion of the Endocytic and Secretory Pathways by Bacterial Effector Proteins

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    Mary M. Weber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacteria have developed numerous strategies to hijack host vesicular trafficking pathways to form their unique replicative niches. To promote intracellular replication, the bacteria must interact with host organelles and modulate host signaling pathways to acquire nutrients and membrane for the growing parasitophorous vacuole all while suppressing activation of the immune response. To facilitate host cell subversion, bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial virulence factors, termed effectors, into the host cell that mimic, agonize, and/or antagonize the function of host proteins. In this review we will discuss how bacterial effector proteins from Coxiella burnetii, Brucella abortus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Orientia tsutsugamushi manipulate the endocytic and secretory pathways. Understanding how bacterial effector proteins manipulate host processes not only gives us keen insight into bacterial pathogenesis, but also enhances our understanding of how eukaryotic membrane trafficking is regulated.

  11. Subversion of the Endocytic and Secretory Pathways by Bacterial Effector Proteins.

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    Weber, Mary M; Faris, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Intracellular bacteria have developed numerous strategies to hijack host vesicular trafficking pathways to form their unique replicative niches. To promote intracellular replication, the bacteria must interact with host organelles and modulate host signaling pathways to acquire nutrients and membrane for the growing parasitophorous vacuole all while suppressing activation of the immune response. To facilitate host cell subversion, bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial virulence factors, termed effectors, into the host cell that mimic, agonize, and/or antagonize the function of host proteins. In this review we will discuss how bacterial effector proteins from Coxiella burnetii, Brucella abortus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia trachomatis , and Orientia tsutsugamushi manipulate the endocytic and secretory pathways. Understanding how bacterial effector proteins manipulate host processes not only gives us keen insight into bacterial pathogenesis, but also enhances our understanding of how eukaryotic membrane trafficking is regulated.

  12. Repetitive N-WASP-binding elements of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli effector EspF(U synergistically activate actin assembly.

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    Kenneth G Campellone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC generate F-actin-rich adhesion pedestals by delivering effector proteins into mammalian cells. These effectors include the translocated receptor Tir, along with EspF(U, a protein that associates indirectly with Tir and contains multiple peptide repeats that stimulate actin polymerization. In vitro, the EspF(U repeat region is capable of binding and activating recombinant derivatives of N-WASP, a host actin nucleation-promoting factor. In spite of the identification of these important bacterial and host factors, the underlying mechanisms of how EHEC so potently exploits the native actin assembly machinery have not been clearly defined. Here we show that Tir and EspF(U are sufficient for actin pedestal formation in cultured cells. Experimental clustering of Tir-EspF(U fusion proteins indicates that the central role of the cytoplasmic portion of Tir is to promote clustering of the repeat region of EspF(U. Whereas clustering of a single EspF(U repeat is sufficient to bind N-WASP and generate pedestals on cultured cells, multi-repeat EspF(U derivatives promote actin assembly more efficiently. Moreover, the EspF(U repeats activate a protein complex containing N-WASP and the actin-binding protein WIP in a synergistic fashion in vitro, further suggesting that the repeats cooperate to stimulate actin polymerization in vivo. One explanation for repeat synergy is that simultaneous engagement of multiple N-WASP molecules can enhance its ability to interact with the actin nucleating Arp2/3 complex. These findings define the minimal set of bacterial effectors required for pedestal formation and the elements within those effectors that contribute to actin assembly via N-WASP-Arp2/3-mediated signaling pathways.

  13. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    Expression of HpaGXoo, a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaGXoo can act together to provide better results in crop improvement ...

  14. Subversion of actin dynamics by EspM effectors of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens

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    Arbeloa, Ana; Bulgin, Richard R; MacKenzie, Georgina; Shaw, Robert K; Pallen, Mark J; Crepin, Valerie F; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad

    2008-01-01

    Rho GTPases are common targets of bacterial toxins and type III secretion system effectors. IpgB1 and IpgB2 of Shigella and Map of enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli were recently grouped together on the basis that they share a conserved WxxxE motif. In this study, we characterized six WxxxE effectors from attaching and effacing pathogens: TrcA and EspM1 of EPEC strain B171, EspM1 and EspM2 of EHEC strain Sakai and EspM2 and EspM3 of Citrobacter rodentium. W...

  15. Bacterial Internalization, Localization, and Effectors Shape the Epithelial Immune Response during Shigella flexneri Infection.

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    Lippmann, Juliane; Gwinner, Frederik; Rey, Camille; Tamir, Uyanga; Law, Helen K W; Schwikowski, Benno; Enninga, Jost

    2015-09-01

    Intracellular pathogens are differentially sensed by the compartmentalized host immune system. Nevertheless, gene expression studies of infected cells commonly average the immune responses, neglecting the precise pathogen localization. To overcome this limitation, we dissected the transcriptional immune response to Shigella flexneri across different infection stages in bulk and single cells. This identified six distinct transcriptional profiles characterizing the dynamic, multilayered host response in both bystander and infected cells. These profiles were regulated by external and internal danger signals, as well as whether bacteria were membrane bound or cytosolic. We found that bacterial internalization triggers a complex, effector-independent response in bystander cells, possibly to compensate for the undermined host gene expression in infected cells caused by bacterial effectors, particularly OspF. Single-cell analysis revealed an important bacterial strategy to subvert host responses in infected cells, demonstrating that OspF disrupts concomitant gene expression of proinflammatory, apoptosis, and stress pathways within cells. This study points to novel mechanisms through which bacterial internalization, localization, and injected effectors orchestrate immune response transcriptional signatures. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Structure of the effector-binding domain of deoxyribonucleoside regulator DeoR from Bacillus subtilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škerlová, Jana; Fábry, Milan; Hubálek, Martin; Otwinowski, Z.; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 18 (2014), s. 4280-4292 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : dimeric interface * effector binding * Schiff base * transcription repressor * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2014

  17. Bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factors SopE-like and WxxxE effectors.

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    Bulgin, Richard; Raymond, Benoit; Garnett, James A; Frankel, Gad; Crepin, Valerie F; Berger, Cedric N; Arbeloa, Ana

    2010-04-01

    Subversion of Rho family small GTPases, which control actin dynamics, is a common infection strategy used by bacterial pathogens. In particular, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) translocate type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins to modulate the Rho GTPases RhoA, Cdc42, and Rac1, which trigger formation of stress fibers, filopodia, and lamellipodia/ruffles, respectively. The Salmonella effector SopE is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rac1 and Cdc42, which induce "the trigger mechanism of cell entry." Based on a conserved Trp-xxx-Glu motif, the T3SS effector proteins IpgB1 and IpgB2 of Shigella, SifA and SifB of Salmonella, and Map of EPEC and EHEC were grouped together into a WxxxE family; recent studies identified the T3SS EPEC and EHEC effectors EspM and EspT as new family members. Recent structural and functional studies have shown that representatives of the WxxxE effectors share with SopE a 3-D fold and GEF activity. In this minireview, we summarize contemporary findings related to the SopE and WxxxE GEFs in the context of their role in subverting general host cell signaling pathways and infection.

  18. A bacterial toxin-antitoxin module is the origin of inter-bacterial and inter-kingdom effectors of Bartonella.

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    Alexander Harms

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Host-targeting type IV secretion systems (T4SS evolved from conjugative T4SS machineries that mediate interbacterial plasmid transfer. However, the origins of effectors secreted by these virulence devices have remained largely elusive. Previous work showed that some effectors exhibit homology to toxins of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules, but the evolutionary trajectories underlying these ties had not been resolved. We previously reported that FicT toxins of FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules disrupt cellular DNA topology via their enzymatic FIC (filamentation induced by cAMP domain. Intriguingly, the FIC domain of the FicT toxin VbhT of Bartonella schoenbuchensis is fused to a type IV secretion signal-the BID (Bep intracellular delivery domain-similar to the Bartonella effector proteins (Beps that are secreted into eukaryotic host cells via the host-targeting VirB T4SS. In this study, we show that the VbhT toxin is an interbacterial effector protein secreted via the conjugative Vbh T4SS that is closely related to the VirB T4SS and encoded by plasmid pVbh of B. schoenbuchensis. We therefore propose that the Vbh T4SS together with its effector VbhT represent an evolutionary missing link on a path that leads from a regular conjugation system and FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules to the VirB T4SS and the Beps. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the fusion of FIC and BID domains has probably occurred independently in VbhT and the common ancestor of the Beps, suggesting parallel evolutionary paths. Moreover, several other examples of TA module toxins that are bona fide substrates of conjugative T4SS indicate that their recruitment as interbacterial effectors is prevalent and serves yet unknown biological functions in the context of bacterial conjugation. We propose that the adaptation for interbacterial transfer favors the exaptation of FicT and other TA module toxins as inter-kingdom effectors and may thus constitute an important stepping

  19. A bacterial toxin-antitoxin module is the origin of inter-bacterial and inter-kingdom effectors of Bartonella.

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    Harms, Alexander; Liesch, Marius; Körner, Jonas; Québatte, Maxime; Engel, Philipp; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    Host-targeting type IV secretion systems (T4SS) evolved from conjugative T4SS machineries that mediate interbacterial plasmid transfer. However, the origins of effectors secreted by these virulence devices have remained largely elusive. Previous work showed that some effectors exhibit homology to toxins of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules, but the evolutionary trajectories underlying these ties had not been resolved. We previously reported that FicT toxins of FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules disrupt cellular DNA topology via their enzymatic FIC (filamentation induced by cAMP) domain. Intriguingly, the FIC domain of the FicT toxin VbhT of Bartonella schoenbuchensis is fused to a type IV secretion signal-the BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain-similar to the Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) that are secreted into eukaryotic host cells via the host-targeting VirB T4SS. In this study, we show that the VbhT toxin is an interbacterial effector protein secreted via the conjugative Vbh T4SS that is closely related to the VirB T4SS and encoded by plasmid pVbh of B. schoenbuchensis. We therefore propose that the Vbh T4SS together with its effector VbhT represent an evolutionary missing link on a path that leads from a regular conjugation system and FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules to the VirB T4SS and the Beps. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the fusion of FIC and BID domains has probably occurred independently in VbhT and the common ancestor of the Beps, suggesting parallel evolutionary paths. Moreover, several other examples of TA module toxins that are bona fide substrates of conjugative T4SS indicate that their recruitment as interbacterial effectors is prevalent and serves yet unknown biological functions in the context of bacterial conjugation. We propose that the adaptation for interbacterial transfer favors the exaptation of FicT and other TA module toxins as inter-kingdom effectors and may thus constitute an important stepping stone in the

  20. A bacterial toxin-antitoxin module is the origin of inter-bacterial and inter-kingdom effectors of Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesch, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Host-targeting type IV secretion systems (T4SS) evolved from conjugative T4SS machineries that mediate interbacterial plasmid transfer. However, the origins of effectors secreted by these virulence devices have remained largely elusive. Previous work showed that some effectors exhibit homology to toxins of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules, but the evolutionary trajectories underlying these ties had not been resolved. We previously reported that FicT toxins of FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules disrupt cellular DNA topology via their enzymatic FIC (filamentation induced by cAMP) domain. Intriguingly, the FIC domain of the FicT toxin VbhT of Bartonella schoenbuchensis is fused to a type IV secretion signal–the BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain—similar to the Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) that are secreted into eukaryotic host cells via the host-targeting VirB T4SS. In this study, we show that the VbhT toxin is an interbacterial effector protein secreted via the conjugative Vbh T4SS that is closely related to the VirB T4SS and encoded by plasmid pVbh of B. schoenbuchensis. We therefore propose that the Vbh T4SS together with its effector VbhT represent an evolutionary missing link on a path that leads from a regular conjugation system and FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules to the VirB T4SS and the Beps. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the fusion of FIC and BID domains has probably occurred independently in VbhT and the common ancestor of the Beps, suggesting parallel evolutionary paths. Moreover, several other examples of TA module toxins that are bona fide substrates of conjugative T4SS indicate that their recruitment as interbacterial effectors is prevalent and serves yet unknown biological functions in the context of bacterial conjugation. We propose that the adaptation for interbacterial transfer favors the exaptation of FicT and other TA module toxins as inter-kingdom effectors and may thus constitute an important stepping stone in the

  1. Subversion of plant cellular functions by bacterial type-III effectors: beyond suppression of immunity.

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    Macho, Alberto P

    2016-04-01

    Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins directly inside plant cells. These T3Es manipulate host cellular processes in order to create a permissive niche for bacterial proliferation, allowing development of the disease. An important role of T3Es in plant pathogenic bacteria is the suppression of plant immune responses. However, in recent years, research has uncovered T3E functions different from direct immune suppression, including the modulation of plant hormone signaling, metabolism or organelle function. This insight article discusses T3E functions other than suppression of immunity, which may contribute to the modulation of plant cells in order to promote bacterial survival, nutrient release, and bacterial replication and dissemination. © 2015 The Author. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Characterization and DNA-binding specificities of Ralstonia TAL-like effectors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lixin

    2013-07-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. have been used as customizable DNA-binding modules for genome-engineering applications. Ralstonia solanacearum TALE-like proteins (RTLs) exhibit similar structural features to TALEs, including a central DNA-binding domain composed of 35 amino acid-long repeats. Here, we characterize the RTLs and show that they localize in the plant cell nucleus, mediate DNA binding, and might function as transcriptional activators. RTLs have a unique DNA-binding architecture and are enriched in repeat variable di-residues (RVDs), which determine repeat DNA-binding specificities. We determined the DNA-binding specificities for the RVD sequences ND, HN, NP, and NT. The RVD ND mediates highly specific interactions with C nucleotide, HN interacts specifically with A and G nucleotides, and NP binds to C, A, and G nucleotides. Moreover, we developed a highly efficient repeat assembly approach for engineering RTL effectors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that RTLs are unique DNA-targeting modules that are excellent alternatives to be tailored to bind to user-selected DNA sequences for targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. These findings will facilitate research concerning RTL molecular biology and RTL roles in the pathogenicity of Ralstonia spp. © 2013 The Author.

  3. Vibrio type III effector VPA1380 is related to the cysteine protease domain of large bacterial toxins.

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    Thomas Calder

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium and one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Its genome harbors two Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2, but only T3SS2 is required for enterotoxicity seen in animal models. Effector proteins secreted from T3SS2 have been previously shown to promote colonization of the intestinal epithelium, invasion of host cells, and destruction of the epithelial monolayer. In this study, we identify VPA1380, a T3SS2 effector protein that is toxic when expressed in yeast. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that VPA1380 is highly similar to the inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6-inducible cysteine protease domains of several large bacterial toxins. Mutations in conserved catalytic residues and residues in the putative IP6-binding pocket abolished toxicity in yeast. Furthermore, VPA1380 was not toxic in IP6 deficient yeast cells. Therefore, our findings suggest that VPA1380 is a cysteine protease that requires IP6 as an activator.

  4. Vibrio Type III Effector VPA1380 Is Related to the Cysteine Protease Domain of Large Bacterial Toxins

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    Calder, Thomas; Kinch, Lisa N.; Fernandez, Jessie; Salomon, Dor; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium and one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Its genome harbors two Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2), but only T3SS2 is required for enterotoxicity seen in animal models. Effector proteins secreted from T3SS2 have been previously shown to promote colonization of the intestinal epithelium, invasion of host cells, and destruction of the epithelial monolayer. In this study, we identify VPA1380, a T3SS2 effector protein that is toxic when expressed in yeast. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that VPA1380 is highly similar to the inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6)-inducible cysteine protease domains of several large bacterial toxins. Mutations in conserved catalytic residues and residues in the putative IP6-binding pocket abolished toxicity in yeast. Furthermore, VPA1380 was not toxic in IP6 deficient yeast cells. Therefore, our findings suggest that VPA1380 is a cysteine protease that requires IP6 as an activator. PMID:25099122

  5. Ubiquitination independent of E1 and E2 enzymes by bacterial effectors

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    Qiu, Jiazhang; Sheedlo, Michael J.; Yu, Kaiwen; Tan, Yunhao; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Das, Chittaranjan; Liu, Xiaoyun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2016-04-06

    Signaling by ubiquitination regulates virtually every cellular process in eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate is catalyzed by the E1, E2 and E3 three-enzyme cascade 1, which links the C terminus of ubiquitin via an isopeptide bond mostly to the ε-amino group of a lysine of the substrate. Given the essential roles of ubiquitination in the regulation of the immune system, it is not surprising that the ubiquitination network is a common target for diverse infectious agents 2. For example, many bacterial pathogens exploit ubiquitin signaling using virulence factors that function as E3 ligases, deubiquitinases 3 or as enzymes that directly attack ubiquitin 4. The bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila utilizes approximately 300 effectors that modulate diverse host processes to create a niche permissive for its replication in phagocytes 5. Here we demonstrate that members of the SidE effector family (SidEs) of L. pneumophila ubiquitinate multiple Rab small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, we show that these proteins are capable of catalyzing ubiquitination without the need for the E1 and E2 enzymes. The E1/E2-independent ubiquitination catalyzed by these enzymes requires NAD but not ATP and Mg2+. A putative mono ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) motif critical for the ubiquitination activity is also essential for the role of SidEs in intracellular bacterial replication in a protozoan host. These results establish that ubiquitination can be catalyzed by a single enzyme.

  6. Subversion of actin dynamics by EspM effectors of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeloa, Ana; Bulgin, Richard R; MacKenzie, Georgina; Shaw, Robert K; Pallen, Mark J; Crepin, Valerie F; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad

    2008-07-01

    Rho GTPases are common targets of bacterial toxins and type III secretion system effectors. IpgB1 and IpgB2 of Shigella and Map of enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli were recently grouped together on the basis that they share a conserved WxxxE motif. In this study, we characterized six WxxxE effectors from attaching and effacing pathogens: TrcA and EspM1 of EPEC strain B171, EspM1 and EspM2 of EHEC strain Sakai and EspM2 and EspM3 of Citrobacter rodentium. We show that EspM2 triggers formation of global parallel stress fibres, TrcA and EspM1 induce formation of localized parallel stress fibres and EspM3 triggers formation of localized radial stress fibres. Using EspM2 and EspM3 as model effectors, we report that while substituting the conserved Trp with Ala abolished activity, conservative Trp to Tyr or Glu to Asp substitutions did not affect stress-fibre formation. We show, using dominant negative constructs and chemical inhibitors, that the activity of EspM2 and EspM3 is RhoA and ROCK-dependent. Using Rhotekin pull-downs, we have shown that EspM2 and EspM3 activate RhoA; translocation of EspM2 and EspM3 triggered phosphorylation of cofilin. These results suggest that the EspM effectors modulate actin dynamics by activating the RhoA signalling pathway.

  7. Copper Is a Host Effector Mobilized to Urine during Urinary Tract Infection To Impair Bacterial Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyre, Amanda N; Kavanagh, Kylie; Kock, Nancy D; Donati, George L; Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan

    2017-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major global infectious disease affecting millions of people annually. Human urinary copper (Cu) content is elevated during UTI caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC upregulates the expression of Cu efflux genes during clinical UTI in patients as an adaptive response to host-derived Cu. Whether Cu is mobilized to urine as a host response to UTI and its role in protection against UTI remain unresolved. To address these questions, we tested the hypothesis that Cu is a host effector mobilized to urine during UTI to limit bacterial growth. Our results reveal that Cu is mobilized to urine during UTI caused by the major uropathogens Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae , in addition to UPEC, in humans. Ceruloplasmin, a Cu-containing ferroxidase, is found at higher levels in UTI urine than in healthy control urine and serves as the molecular source of urinary Cu during UTI. Our results demonstrate that ceruloplasmin decreases the bioavailability of iron in urine by a transferrin-dependent mechanism. Experimental UTI with UPEC in nonhuman primates recapitulates the increased urinary Cu content observed during clinical UTI. Furthermore, Cu-deficient mice are highly colonized by UPEC, indicating that Cu is involved in the limiting of bacterial growth within the urinary tract. Collectively, our results indicate that Cu is a host effector that is involved in protection against pathogen colonization of the urinary tract. Because urinary Cu levels are amenable to modulation, augmentation of the Cu-based host defense against UTI represents a novel approach to limiting bacterial colonization during UTI. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. PI(4,5)P2-binding effector proteins for vesicle exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2014-01-01

    PI(4,5)P2 participates directly in priming and possibly fusion steps of Ca2+-triggered vesicle exocytosis. High concentration nanodomains of PI(4,5)P2 reside on the plasma membrane of neuroendocrine cells. A subset of vesicles that co-localize with PI(4,5)P2 domains appear to undergo preferential exocytosis in stimulated cells. PI(4,5)P2 directly regulates vesicle exocytosis by recruiting and activating PI(4,5)P2-binding proteins that regulate SNARE protein function including CAPS, Munc13-1/2, synaptotagmin-1, and other C2 domain-containing proteins. These PI(4,5)P2 effector proteins are coincidence detectors that engage in multiple interactions at vesicle exocytic sites. The SNARE protein syntaxin-1 also binds to PI(4,5)P2, which promotes clustering, but an activating role for PI(4,5)P2 in syntaxin-1 function remains to be fully characterized. Similar principles underlie polarized constitutive vesicle fusion mediated in part by the PI(4,5)P2-binding subunits of the exocyst complex (Sec3, Exo70). Overall, focal vesicle exocytosis occurs at sites landmarked by PI(4,5)P2, which serves to recruit and/or activate multifunctional PI(4,5)P2-binding proteins. PMID:25280637

  9. Fungal effector Ecp6 outcompetes host immune receptor for chitin binding through intrachain LysM dimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombrink, Anja; Hansen, Guido; Valkenburg, Dirk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    While host immune receptors detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns to activate immunity, pathogens attempt to deregulate host immunity through secreted effectors. Fungi employ LysM effectors to prevent recognition of cell wall-derived chitin by host immune receptors, although the mechanism to compete for chitin binding remained unclear. Structural analysis of the LysM effector Ecp6 of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum reveals a novel mechanism for chitin binding, mediated by intrachain LysM dimerization, leading to a chitin-binding groove that is deeply buried in the effector protein. This composite binding site involves two of the three LysMs of Ecp6 and mediates chitin binding with ultra-high (pM) affinity. Intriguingly, the remaining singular LysM domain of Ecp6 binds chitin with low micromolar affinity but can nevertheless still perturb chitin-triggered immunity. Conceivably, the perturbation by this LysM domain is not established through chitin sequestration but possibly through interference with the host immune receptor complex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00790.001 PMID:23840930

  10. The Bacterial Effector HopX1 Targets JAZ Transcriptional Repressors to Activate Jasmonate Signaling and Promote Infection in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Boter, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Chini, Andrea; Rathjen, John P.; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae is dependent on a type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of virulence effector proteins into the host cytoplasm, and the production of a number of toxins such as coronatine (COR), which is a mimic of the plant hormone jasmonate-isoleuce (JA-Ile). Inside the plant cell, effectors target host molecules to subvert the host cell physiology and disrupt defenses. However, despite the fact that elucidating effector action is essential to understanding bacterial pathogenesis, the molecular function and host targets of the vast majority of effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we found that effector HopX1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) 11528, a strain that does not produce COR, interacts with and promotes the degradation of JAZ proteins, a key family of JA-repressors. We show that hopX1 encodes a cysteine protease, activity that is required for degradation of JAZs by HopX1. HopX1 associates with JAZ proteins through its central ZIM domain and degradation occurs in a COI1-independent manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of HopX1 in Arabidopsis induces the expression of JA-dependent genes, represses salicylic acid (SA)-induced markers, and complements the growth of a COR-deficient P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 strain during natural bacterial infections. Furthermore, HopX1 promoted susceptibility when delivered by the natural type III secretion system, to a similar extent as the addition of COR, and this effect was dependent on its catalytic activity. Altogether, our results indicate that JAZ proteins are direct targets of bacterial effectors to promote activation of JA-induced defenses and susceptibility in Arabidopsis. HopX1 illustrates a paradigm of an alternative evolutionary solution to COR with similar physiological outcome. PMID:24558350

  11. Structure and thermodynamics of effector molecule binding to the nitrogen signal transduction PII protein GlnZ from Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truan, Daphné; Bjelić, Saša; Li, Xiao-Dan; Winkler, Fritz K

    2014-07-29

    The trimeric PII signal transduction proteins regulate the function of a variety of target proteins predominantly involved in nitrogen metabolism. ATP, ADP and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) are key effector molecules influencing PII binding to targets. Studies of PII proteins have established that the 20-residue T-loop plays a central role in effector sensing and target binding. However, the specific effects of effector binding on T-loop conformation have remained poorly documented. We present eight crystal structures of the Azospirillum brasilense PII protein GlnZ, six of which are cocrystallized and liganded with ADP or ATP. We find that interaction with the diphosphate moiety of bound ADP constrains the N-terminal part of the T-loop in a characteristic way that is maintained in ADP-promoted complexes with target proteins. In contrast, the interactions with the triphosphate moiety in ATP complexes are much more variable and no single predominant interaction mode is apparent except for the ternary MgATP/2-OG complex. These conclusions can be extended to most investigated PII proteins of the GlnB/GlnK subfamily. Unlike reported for other PII proteins, microcalorimetry reveals no cooperativity between the three binding sites of GlnZ trimers for any of the three effectors under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure of the effector-binding domain of the arabinose repressor AraR from Bacillus subtilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Kateřina; Čermáková, Kateřina; Pachl, Petr; Sieglová, Irena; Fábry, Milan; Otwinowski, Z.; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2012), s. 176-185 ISSN 0907-4449 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : repressor * dimerization * effector binding * isothermal titration calorimetry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 14.103, year: 2012

  13. A Legionella pneumophila effector protein encoded in a region of genomic plasticity binds to Dot/Icm-modified vacuoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Ninio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. In the environment, L. pneumophila is found in fresh water reservoirs in a large spectrum of environmental conditions, where the bacteria are able to replicate within a variety of protozoan hosts. To survive within eukaryotic cells, L. pneumophila require a type IV secretion system, designated Dot/Icm, that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. In recent years, a number of Dot/Icm substrate proteins have been identified; however, the function of most of these proteins remains unknown, and it is unclear why the bacterium maintains such a large repertoire of effectors to promote its survival. Here we investigate a region of the L. pneumophila chromosome that displays a high degree of plasticity among four sequenced L. pneumophila strains. Analysis of GC content suggests that several genes encoded in this region were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Protein translocation studies establish that this region of genomic plasticity encodes for multiple Dot/Icm effectors. Ectopic expression studies in mammalian cells indicate that one of these substrates, a protein called PieA, has unique effector activities. PieA is an effector that can alter lysosome morphology and associates specifically with vacuoles that support L. pneumophila replication. It was determined that the association of PieA with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila requires modifications to the vacuole mediated by other Dot/Icm effectors. Thus, the localization properties of PieA reveal that the Dot/Icm system has the ability to spatially and temporally control the association of an effector with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila through activities mediated by other effector proteins.

  14. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  15. An effector of RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis is an ARGONAUTE 4- and RNA-binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Jian; Hsu, Yi-Feng; Zhu, Shihua; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T.; Pontes, Olga; Pikaard, Craig S.; Liu, Hai-Liang; Wang, Co-Shine; Jin, Hailing; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Summary DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark in plants and mammals. In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation can be triggered by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) through an RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Here we report the identification of a new RdDM effector, RDM3/KTF1. Loss-of-function mutations in RDM3/KTF1 reduce DNA methylation and release the silencing of RdDM target loci without abolishing the siRNA triggers. KTF1 has similarity to the transcription elongation factor SPT5 and contains a C-terminal extension rich in GW/WG repeats. KTF1 colocalizes with ARGONAUTE 4 (AGO4) in punctate nuclear foci, and binds AGO4 and RNA transcripts. Our results suggest KTF1 as an adaptor protein that binds scaffold transcripts generated by Pol V and recruits AGO4 and AGO4-bound siRNAs to form an RdDM effector complex. The dual interaction of an effector protein with AGO and small RNA target transcripts may be a general feature of RNA silencing effector complexes. PMID:19410546

  16. Steady state kinetic model for the binding of substrates and allosteric effectors to Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl-diphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Larsen, Sine

    2000-01-01

    the apparent cooperativity of Pi activation. At unsaturating Pi concentrations partial substrate inhibition by ribose 5-phosphate was observed. Together these results suggest that saturation of the enzyme with Pi directs the subsequent ordered binding of Mg2+ and substrates via a fast pathway, whereas...... saturation with ribose 5-phosphate leads to the binding of Mg2+ and substrates via a slow pathway where Pi binds to the enzyme last. The random mechanism for Pi binding was further supported by studies with competitive inhibitors of Mg2+, MgATP, and ribose 5-phosphate that all appeared noncompetitive when...... varying Pi at either saturating or unsaturating ribose 5-phosphate concentrations. Furthermore, none of the inhibitors induced inhibition at increasing Pi concentrations. Results from ADP inhibition of Pi activation suggest that these effectors compete for binding to a common regulatory site....

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides with Differential Bacterial Binding Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    wherein each residue in the sequence is systematically replaced with alanine to produce a set of well-defined mutations, and 3) sequence generation...peptide sequences with differential binding behavior toward select microorganisms .  viii    Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Mr. Steven...A., Sandri, L., & Giangaspero, A. (2000). Amphipathic, α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptides. Biopolymers , 55, 4-30.  2 Epand, R. M., & Vogel, H. J. (1999

  18. Exploitation of eukaryotic ubiquitin signaling pathways by effectors translocated by bacterial type III and type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Angot

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific and covalent addition of ubiquitin to proteins, known as ubiquitination, is a eukaryotic-specific modification central to many cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, and hormone signaling. Polyubiquitination is a signal for the 26S proteasome to destroy earmarked proteins, but depending on the polyubiquitin chain topology, it can also result in new protein properties. Both ubiquitin-orchestrated protein degradation and modification have also been shown to be essential for the host's immune response to pathogens. Many animal and plant pathogenic bacteria utilize type III and/or type IV secretion systems to inject effector proteins into host cells, where they subvert host signaling cascades as part of their infection strategy. Recent progress in the determination of effector function has taught us that playing with the host's ubiquitination system seems a general tactic among bacteria. Here, we discuss how bacteria exploit this system to control the timing of their effectors' action by programming them for degradation, to block specific intermediates in mammalian or plant innate immunity, or to target host proteins for degradation by mimicking specific ubiquitin/proteasome system components. In addition to analyzing the effectors that have been described in the literature, we screened publicly available bacterial genomes for mimicry of ubiquitin proteasome system subunits and detected several new putative effectors. Our understanding of the intimate interplay between pathogens and their host's ubiquitin proteasome system is just beginning. This exciting research field will aid in better understanding this interplay, and may also provide new insights into eukaryotic ubiquitination processes.

  19. A bacterial type III secretion assay for delivery of fungal effector proteins into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Mago, Rohit; Staskawicz, Brian J; Ayliffe, Michael A; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-03-01

    Large numbers of candidate effectors from fungal pathogens are being identified through whole-genome sequencing and in planta expression studies. Although Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression has enabled high-throughput functional analysis of effectors in dicot plants, this assay is not effective in cereal leaves. Here, we show that a nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens engineered to express the type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. syringae and the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens can deliver fusion proteins containing T3SS signals from P. syringae (AvrRpm1) and X. campestris (AvrBs2) avirulence (Avr) proteins, respectively, into wheat leaf cells. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter protein was delivered effectively into wheat and barley by both bacteria. Absence of any disease symptoms with P. fluorescens makes it more suitable than X. translucens for detecting a hypersensitive response (HR) induced by an effector protein with avirulence activity. We further modified the delivery system by removal of the myristoylation site from the AvrRpm1 fusion to prevent its localization to the plasma membrane which could inhibit recognition of an Avr protein. Delivery of the flax rust AvrM protein by the modified delivery system into transgenic tobacco leaves expressing the corresponding M resistance protein induced a strong HR, indicating that the system is capable of delivering a functional rust Avr protein. In a preliminary screen of effectors from the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, we identified one effector that induced a host genotype-specific HR in wheat. Thus, the modified AvrRpm1:effector-Pseudomonas fluorescens system is an effective tool for large-scale screening of pathogen effectors for recognition in wheat.

  20. Activation of PAK by a bacterial type III effector EspG reveals alternative mechanisms of GTPase pathway regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyunin, Andrey S; Alto, Neal M

    2011-07-01

    Small Rho GTPases regulate a diverse range of cellular behavior within a cell. Their ability to function as molecular switches in response to a bound nucleotide state allows them to regulate multiple dynamic processes, including cytoskeleton organization and cellular adhesion. Because the activation of downstream Rho GTPase signaling pathways relies on conserved structural features of target effector proteins (i.e., CRIB domain), these pathways are particularly vulnerable to microbial pathogenic attack. Here, we discuss new findings for how the bacterial virulence factor EspG from EHEC O157:H7 exploits a CRIB-independent activation mechanism of the Rho GTPase effector PAK. We also compare this mechanism to that of EHEC EspFU, a bacterial virulence factor that directly activates N-WASP. While both virulence factors break the inhibitory interaction between the autoinhibitory and activity-bearing domains of PAK or WASP, the underlying mechanics are very distinct from endogenous Cdc42/Rac GTPase regulation. The ability of bacterial proteins to identify novel regulatory principles of host signaling enzymes highlights the multi-level nature of protein activation, and makes them effective tools to study mammalian Rho GTPase signaling pathways.

  1. Human tandem-repeat-type galectins bind bacterial non-βGal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knirel, Yu A.; Gabius, H.-J.; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are multifunctional effectors, for example acting as regulators of cell growth via protein-glycan interactions. The observation of capacity to kill bacteria for two tandem-repeat-type galectins, which target histo-blood epitopes toward this end (Stowell et al. Nat. Med. 16:295-301, 2010......), prompted us to establish an array with bacterial polysaccharides. We addressed the question whether sugar determinants other than β-galactosides may be docking sites, using human galectins-4, -8, and -9. Positive controls with histo-blood group ABH-epitopes and the E. coli 086 polysaccharide ascertained...... the suitability of the set-up. Significant signal generation, depending on type of galectin and polysacchride, was obtained. Presence of cognate β-galactoside-related epitopes within a polysaccharide chain or its branch will not automatically establish binding properties, and structural constellations lacking...

  2. Bacterial effector NleL promotes enterohemorrhagic E. coli-induced attaching and effacing lesions by ubiquitylating and inactivating JNK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiangpeng; You, Qing; Zhu, Hongnian; Chang, ZeNan; Li, Qingrun; Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongyan; Hui, Lijian; Du, Chongtao; Xie, Xiaoduo; Zeng, Rong; Lin, Anning; Shi, Dongfang; Ruan, Kangcheng; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George Fu; Shao, Feng; Hu, Ronggui

    2017-07-01

    As a major diarrheagenic human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) produce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, characterized by the formation of actin pedestals, on mammalian cells. A bacterial T3SS effector NleL from EHEC O157:H7 was recently shown to be a HECT-like E3 ligase in vitro, but its biological functions and host targets remain elusive. Here, we report that NleL is required to effectively promote EHEC-induced A/E lesions and bacterial infection. Furthermore, human c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) were identified as primary substrates of NleL. NleL-induced JNK ubiquitylation, particularly mono-ubiquitylation at the Lys 68 residue of JNK, impairs JNK's interaction with an upstream kinase MKK7, thus disrupting JNK phosphorylation and activation. This subsequently suppresses the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1), which modulates the formation of the EHEC-induced actin pedestals. Moreover, JNK knockdown or inhibition in host cells complements NleL deficiency in EHEC infection. Thus, we demonstrate that the effector protein NleL enhances the ability of EHEC to infect host cells by targeting host JNK, and elucidate an inhibitory role of ubiquitylation in regulating JNK phosphorylation.

  3. Bacterial effector NleL promotes enterohemorrhagic E. coli-induced attaching and effacing lesions by ubiquitylating and inactivating JNK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangpeng Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a major diarrheagenic human pathogen, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC produce attaching and effacing (A/E lesions, characterized by the formation of actin pedestals, on mammalian cells. A bacterial T3SS effector NleL from EHEC O157:H7 was recently shown to be a HECT-like E3 ligase in vitro, but its biological functions and host targets remain elusive. Here, we report that NleL is required to effectively promote EHEC-induced A/E lesions and bacterial infection. Furthermore, human c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs were identified as primary substrates of NleL. NleL-induced JNK ubiquitylation, particularly mono-ubiquitylation at the Lys 68 residue of JNK, impairs JNK's interaction with an upstream kinase MKK7, thus disrupting JNK phosphorylation and activation. This subsequently suppresses the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1, which modulates the formation of the EHEC-induced actin pedestals. Moreover, JNK knockdown or inhibition in host cells complements NleL deficiency in EHEC infection. Thus, we demonstrate that the effector protein NleL enhances the ability of EHEC to infect host cells by targeting host JNK, and elucidate an inhibitory role of ubiquitylation in regulating JNK phosphorylation.

  4. Mathematical model of the binding of allosteric effectors to the Escherichia coli PII signal transduction protein GlnB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Ricardo Alves; Weschenfelder, Thiago André; de Castilhos, Fernanda; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2013-04-16

    PII proteins are important regulators of nitrogen metabolism in a wide variety of organisms: the binding of the allosteric effectors ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) to PII proteins affects their ability to interact with target proteins. We modeled the simultaneous binding of ATP, ADP, and 2-OG to one PII protein, namely GlnB of Escherichia coli, using a modeling approach that allows the prediction of the proportions of individual binding states. Four models with different binding rules were compared. We selected one of these models (that assumes that the binding of the first nucleotide to GlnB makes it harder for subsequent nucleotides to bind) and used it to explore how physiological concentrations of ATP, ADP, and 2-OG would affect the proportions of those states of GlnB that interact with the target proteins ATase and NtrB. Our simulations indicate that GlnB can, as suggested by previous researchers, act as a sensor of both 2-OG and the ATP:ADP ratio. We conclude that our modeling approach will be an important tool in future studies concerning the PII binding states and their interactions with target proteins.

  5. Structural insight into gene transcriptional regulation and effector binding by the Lrp/AsnC family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaw, P.; Sedelnikova, S.E.; Muranova, T.; Wiese, S.; Ayora, S.; Alonso, J.C.; Brinkman, A.B.; Akerboom, A.P.; Oost, van der J.; Rafferty, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins is found in both archaea and bacteria. Members of the family influence cellular metabolism in both a global (Lrp) and specific (AsnC) manner, often in response to exogenous amino acid effectors. In the present study we have determined both

  6. Human IgG lacking effector functions demonstrate lower FcRn-binding and reduced transplacental transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Nigel M; Armstrong-Fisher, Sylvia S; Andersen, Jan Terje; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Porter, Charlene; Page, Kenneth R; Falconer, Donald; de Haas, Masja; Williamson, Lorna M; Clark, Michael R; Vidarsson, Gestur; Armour, Kathryn L

    2018-03-01

    We have previously generated human IgG1 antibodies that were engineered for reduced binding to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγRI-III) and C1q, thereby eliminating their destructive effector functions (constant region G1Δnab). In their potential use as blocking agents, favorable binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is important to preserve the long half-life typical of IgG. An ability to cross the placenta, which is also mediated, at least in part, by FcRn is desirable in some indications, such as feto-maternal alloimmune disorders. Here, we show that G1Δnab mutants retain pH-dependent binding to human FcRn but that the amino acid alterations reduce the affinity of the IgG1:FcRn interaction by 2.0-fold and 1.6-fold for the two antibodies investigated. The transport of the modified G1Δnab mutants across monolayers of human cell lines expressing FcRn was approximately 75% of the wild-type, except that no difference was observed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells. G1Δnab mutation also reduced transport in an ex vivo placenta model. In conclusion, we demonstrate that, although the G1Δnab mutations are away from the FcRn-binding site, they have long-distance effects, modulating FcRn binding and transcellular transport. Our findings have implications for the design of therapeutic human IgG with tailored effector functions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Searching for the Bacterial Effector: The Example of the Multi-Skilled Commensal Bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Martín

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Faecalibacterium prausnitzii represents approximately 5% of the total fecal microbiota in healthy adults being one of the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. Furthermore, this bacterium has been proposed to be a sensor and a major actor of the human intestinal health because of its importance in the gut ecosystem. In this context, F. prausnitzii population levels have been found to be reduced in patients suffering from several syndromes and diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. These diseases are characterized by a breakage of the intestinal homeostasis called dysbiosis and the use of F. prausnitzii as a next generation probiotic (also called live biotherapeutics has been proposed as a natural tool to restore such dysbiosis within the gut. Nevertheless, despite the potential importance of this bacterium in human health, little is known about its main effectors underlying its beneficial effects. In this perspective note, we aim to present the actual state in the research about F. prausnitzii effectors and the future milestones in this field.

  8. GTP Binding and Oncogenic Mutations May Attenuate Hypervariable Region (HVR)-Catalytic Domain Interactions in Small GTPase K-Ras4B, Exposing the Effector Binding Site*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyong; Banerjee, Avik; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras4B, a frequently mutated oncogene in cancer, plays an essential role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Its C-terminal membrane-associated hypervariable region (HVR) is required for full biological activity. In the active GTP-bound state, the HVR interacts with acidic plasma membrane (PM) headgroups, whereas the farnesyl anchors in the membrane; in the inactive GDP-bound state, the HVR may interact with both the PM and the catalytic domain at the effector binding region, obstructing signaling and nucleotide exchange. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR, we aim to figure out the effects of nucleotides (GTP and GDP) and frequent (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13D, and Q61H) and infrequent (E37K and R164Q) oncogenic mutations on full-length K-Ras4B. The mutations are away from or directly at the HVR switch I/effector binding site. Our results suggest that full-length wild-type GDP-bound K-Ras4B (K-Ras4BWT-GDP) is in an intrinsically autoinhibited state via tight HVR-catalytic domain interactions. The looser association in K-Ras4BWT-GTP may release the HVR. Some of the oncogenic mutations weaken the HVR-catalytic domain association in the K-Ras4B-GDP/-GTP bound states, which may facilitate the HVR disassociation in a nucleotide-independent manner, thereby up-regulating oncogenic Ras signaling. Thus, our results suggest that mutations can exert their effects in more than one way, abolishing GTP hydrolysis and facilitating effector binding. PMID:26453300

  9. GTP Binding and Oncogenic Mutations May Attenuate Hypervariable Region (HVR)-Catalytic Domain Interactions in Small GTPase K-Ras4B, Exposing the Effector Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyong; Banerjee, Avik; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-11-27

    K-Ras4B, a frequently mutated oncogene in cancer, plays an essential role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Its C-terminal membrane-associated hypervariable region (HVR) is required for full biological activity. In the active GTP-bound state, the HVR interacts with acidic plasma membrane (PM) headgroups, whereas the farnesyl anchors in the membrane; in the inactive GDP-bound state, the HVR may interact with both the PM and the catalytic domain at the effector binding region, obstructing signaling and nucleotide exchange. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR, we aim to figure out the effects of nucleotides (GTP and GDP) and frequent (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13D, and Q61H) and infrequent (E37K and R164Q) oncogenic mutations on full-length K-Ras4B. The mutations are away from or directly at the HVR switch I/effector binding site. Our results suggest that full-length wild-type GDP-bound K-Ras4B (K-Ras4B(WT)-GDP) is in an intrinsically autoinhibited state via tight HVR-catalytic domain interactions. The looser association in K-Ras4B(WT)-GTP may release the HVR. Some of the oncogenic mutations weaken the HVR-catalytic domain association in the K-Ras4B-GDP/-GTP bound states, which may facilitate the HVR disassociation in a nucleotide-independent manner, thereby up-regulating oncogenic Ras signaling. Thus, our results suggest that mutations can exert their effects in more than one way, abolishing GTP hydrolysis and facilitating effector binding. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Effective prediction of bacterial type IV secreted effectors by combined features of both C-termini and N-termini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Yanzhi; Pu, Xuemei; Li, Menglong

    2017-11-01

    Various bacterial pathogens can deliver their secreted substrates also called as effectors through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) into host cells and cause diseases. Since T4SS secreted effectors (T4SEs) play important roles in pathogen-host interactions, identifying them is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of T4SSs. A few computational methods using machine learning algorithms for T4SEs prediction have been developed by using features of C-terminal residues. However, recent studies have shown that targeting information can also be encoded in the N-terminal region of at least some T4SEs. In this study, we present an effective method for T4SEs prediction by novelly integrating both N-terminal and C-terminal sequence information. First, we collected a comprehensive dataset across multiple bacterial species of known T4SEs and non-T4SEs from literatures. Then, three types of distinctive features, namely amino acid composition, composition, transition and distribution and position-specific scoring matrices were calculated for 50 N-terminal and 100 C-terminal residues. After that, we employed information gain represent to rank the importance score of the 150 different position residues for T4SE secretion signaling. At last, 125 distinctive position residues were singled out for the prediction model to classify T4SEs and non-T4SEs. The support vector machine model yields a high receiver operating curve of 0.916 in the fivefold cross-validation and an accuracy of 85.29% for the independent test set.

  11. Bartonella henselae: subversion of vascular endothelial cell functions by translocated bacterial effector proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliainen, Arto Tapio; Dehio, Christoph

    2009-03-01

    Bartonella henselae (Bh) is a worldwide distributed zoonotic pathogen. Depending on the immune status of the infected individual this bacterium can cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from cat scratch disease (CSD) to bacillary angiomatosis (BA) and bacillary peliosis (BP). BA and BP are characterized by tumor-like lesions at the skin or in the inner organs, respectively. These structures display pathological sprouting of capillaries with enlarged and hyperproliferated vascular endothelial cells (ECs) that are frequently found in close association with bacteria. Here we review the cellular changes observed upon Bh infection of ECs in vitro and outline the role of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS) and its translocated effector proteins in the modulation of EC signalling cascades. The current model how this virulence system could contribute to the vasoproliferative activity of Bh is described.

  12. Soybean NDR1-like proteins bind pathogen effectors and regulate resistance signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selote, Devarshi; Shine, M B; Robin, Guillaume P; Kachroo, Aardra

    2014-04-01

    Nonrace specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1) is a conserved downstream regulator of resistance (R) protein-derived signaling. We identified two NDR1-like sequences (GmNDR1a, b) from soybean, and investigated their roles in R-mediated resistance and pathogen effector detection. Silencing GmNDR1a and b in soybean shows that these genes are required for resistance derived from the Rpg1-b, Rpg3, and Rpg4 loci, against Pseudomonas syringae (Psg) expressing avrB, avrB2 and avrD1, respectively. Immunoprecipitation assays show that the GmNDR1 proteins interact with the AvrB2 and AvrD1 Psg effectors. This correlates with the enhanced virulence of Psg avrB2 and Psg avrD1 in GmNDR1-silenced rpg3 rpg4 plants, even though these strains are not normally more virulent on plants lacking cognate R loci. The GmNDR1 proteins interact with GmRIN4 proteins, but not with AvrB, or its cognate R protein Rpg1-b. However, the GmNDR1 proteins promote AvrB-independent activation of Rpg1-b when coexpressed with a phosphomimic derivative of GmRIN4b. The role of GmNDR1 proteins in Rpg1-b activation, their direct interactions with AvrB2/AvrD1, and a putative role in the virulence activities of Avr effectors, provides the first experimental evidence in support of the proposed role for NDR1 in transducing extracellular pathogen-derived signals. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. In silico engineering and optimization of Transcription Activator-Like Effectors and their derivatives for improved DNA binding predictions.

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Marek J.

    2015-12-01

    Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) can be used as adaptable DNAbinding modules to create site-specific chimeric nucleases or synthetic transcriptional regulators. The central repeat domain mediates specific DNA binding via hypervariable repeat di-residues (RVDs). This DNA-Binding Domain can be engineered to bind preferentially to any user-selected DNA sequence if engineered appropriately. Therefore, TALEs and their derivatives have become indispensable molecular tools in site-specific manipulation of genes and genomes. This thesis revolves around two problems: in silico design and improved binding site prediction of TALEs. In the first part, a study is shown where TALEs are successfully designed in silico and validated in laboratory to yield the anticipated effects on selected genes. Software is developed to accompany the process of designing and prediction of binding sites. I expanded the functionality of the software to be used as a more generic set of tools for the design, target and offtarget searching. Part two contributes a method and associated toolkit developed to allow users to design in silico optimized synthetic TALEs with user-defined specificities for various experimental purposes. This method is based on a mutual relationship of three consecutive tandem repeats in the DNA-binding domain. This approach revealed positional and compositional bias behind the binding of TALEs to DNA. In conclusion, I developed methods, approaches, and software to enhance the functionality of synthetic TALEs, which should improve understanding of TALEs biology and will further advance genome-engineering applications in various organisms and cell types.

  14. Using weakly conserved motifs hidden in secretion signals to identify type-III effectors from bacterial pathogen genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobao Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As one of the most important virulence factor types in gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, type-III effectors (TTEs play a crucial role in pathogen-host interactions by directly influencing immune signaling pathways within host cells. Based on the hypothesis that type-III secretion signals may be comprised of some weakly conserved sequence motifs, here we used profile-based amino acid pair information to develop an accurate TTE predictor. RESULTS: For a TTE or non-TTE, we first used a hidden Markov model-based sequence searching method (i.e., HHblits to detect its weakly homologous sequences and extracted the profile-based k-spaced amino acid pair composition (HH-CKSAAP from the N-terminal sequences. In the next step, the feature vector HH-CKSAAP was used to train a linear support vector machine model, which we designate as BEAN (Bacterial Effector ANalyzer. We compared our method with four existing TTE predictors through an independent test set, and our method revealed improved performance. Furthermore, we listed the most predictive amino acid pairs according to their weights in the established classification model. Evolutionary analysis shows that predictive amino acid pairs tend to be more conserved. Some predictive amino acid pairs also show significantly different position distributions between TTEs and non-TTEs. These analyses confirmed that some weakly conserved sequence motifs may play important roles in type-III secretion signals. Finally, we also used BEAN to scan one plant pathogen genome and showed that BEAN can be used for genome-wide TTE identification. The webserver and stand-alone version of BEAN are available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn:8080/bean/.

  15. Bacterial effector HopF2 interacts with AvrPto and suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity at the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pathogenic bacteria inject a cocktail of effector proteins into host plant cells to modulate the host immune response, thereby promoting pathogenicity. How or whether these effectors work cooperatively is largely unknown. The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses the host plan...

  16. Requirements for capsid-binding and an effector function in TRIMCyp-mediated restriction of HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Vandegraaff, Nick; Li Yuan; McGee-Estrada, Kathleen; Stremlau, Matthew; Welikala, Sohanya; Si Zhihai; Engelman, Alan; Sodroski, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    In owl monkeys, a retrotransposition event replaced the gene encoding the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5α with one encoding TRIMCyp, a fusion between the RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains of TRIM5 and cyclophilin A. TRIMCyp restricts human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection by a mechanism dependent on the interaction of the cyclophilin A moiety and the HIV-1 capsid protein. Here, we show that infection by retroviruses other than HIV-1 can be restricted by TRIMCyp, providing an explanation for the evolutionary retention of the TRIMCyp gene in owl monkey lineages. The TRIMCyp-mediated block to HIV-1 infection occurs before the earliest step of reverse transcription. TRIMCyp-mediated restriction involves at least two functions: (1) capsid binding, which occurs most efficiently for trimeric TRIMCyp proteins that retain the coiled-coil and cyclophilin A domains, and (2) an effector function that depends upon the B-box 2 domain

  17. A Bacterial Parasite Effector Mediates Insect Vector Attraction in Host Plants Independently of Developmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovskis, Zigmunds; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites can take over their hosts and trigger dramatic changes in host appearance and behavior that are typically interpreted as extended phenotypes that promote parasite survival and fitness. For example, Toxoplasma gondii is thought to manipulate the behaviors of infected rodents to aid transmission to cats and parasitic trematodes of the genus Ribeiroia alter limb development in their amphibian hosts to facilitate predation of the latter by birds. Plant parasites and pathogens also reprogram host development and morphology. However, whereas some parasite-induced morphological alterations may have a direct benefit to the fitness of the parasite and may therefore be adaptive, other host alterations may be side effects of parasite infections having no adaptive effects on parasite fitness. Phytoplasma parasites of plants often induce the development of leaf-like flowers (phyllody) in their host plants, and we previously found that the phytoplasma effector SAP54 generates these leaf-like flowers via the degradation of plant MADS-box transcription factors (MTFs), which regulate all major aspects of development in plants. Leafhoppers prefer to reproduce on phytoplasma-infected and SAP54-trangenic plants leading to the hypothesis that leafhopper vectors are attracted to plants with leaf-like flowers. Surprisingly, here we show that leafhopper attraction occurs independently of the presence of leaf-like flowers. First, the leafhoppers were also attracted to SAP54 transgenic plants without leaf-like flowers and to single leaves of these plants. Moreover, leafhoppers were not attracted to leaf-like flowers of MTF-mutant plants without the presence of SAP54. Thus, the primary role of SAP54 is to attract leafhopper vectors, which spread the phytoplasmas, and the generation of leaf-like flowers may be secondary or a side effect of the SAP54-mediated degradation of MTFs. PMID:27446117

  18. A Bacterial Parasite Effector Mediates Insect Vector Attraction in Host Plants Independently of Developmental Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovskis, Zigmunds; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2016-01-01

    Parasites can take over their hosts and trigger dramatic changes in host appearance and behavior that are typically interpreted as extended phenotypes that promote parasite survival and fitness. For example, Toxoplasma gondii is thought to manipulate the behaviors of infected rodents to aid transmission to cats and parasitic trematodes of the genus Ribeiroia alter limb development in their amphibian hosts to facilitate predation of the latter by birds. Plant parasites and pathogens also reprogram host development and morphology. However, whereas some parasite-induced morphological alterations may have a direct benefit to the fitness of the parasite and may therefore be adaptive, other host alterations may be side effects of parasite infections having no adaptive effects on parasite fitness. Phytoplasma parasites of plants often induce the development of leaf-like flowers (phyllody) in their host plants, and we previously found that the phytoplasma effector SAP54 generates these leaf-like flowers via the degradation of plant MADS-box transcription factors (MTFs), which regulate all major aspects of development in plants. Leafhoppers prefer to reproduce on phytoplasma-infected and SAP54-trangenic plants leading to the hypothesis that leafhopper vectors are attracted to plants with leaf-like flowers. Surprisingly, here we show that leafhopper attraction occurs independently of the presence of leaf-like flowers. First, the leafhoppers were also attracted to SAP54 transgenic plants without leaf-like flowers and to single leaves of these plants. Moreover, leafhoppers were not attracted to leaf-like flowers of MTF-mutant plants without the presence of SAP54. Thus, the primary role of SAP54 is to attract leafhopper vectors, which spread the phytoplasmas, and the generation of leaf-like flowers may be secondary or a side effect of the SAP54-mediated degradation of MTFs.

  19. Emerging roles for RNA-binding proteins as effectors and regulators of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Ruben G; Rabelink, Ton J; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van der Veer, Eric P

    2017-05-07

    The cardiovascular system comprises multiple cell types that possess the capacity to modulate their phenotype in response to acute or chronic injury. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms play a key role in the regulation of remodelling and regenerative responses to damaged cardiovascular tissues. Simultaneously, insufficient regulation of cellular phenotype is tightly coupled with the persistence and exacerbation of cardiovascular disease. Recently, RNA-binding proteins such as Quaking, HuR, Muscleblind, and SRSF1 have emerged as pivotal regulators of these functional adaptations in the cardiovascular system by guiding a wide-ranging number of post-transcriptional events that dramatically impact RNA fate, including alternative splicing, stability, localization and translation. Moreover, homozygous disruption of RNA-binding protein genes is commonly associated with cardiac- and/or vascular complications. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the versatile role of RNA-binding proteins in regulating the transcriptome during phenotype switching in cardiovascular health and disease. We also detail existing and potential DNA- and RNA-based therapeutic approaches that could impact the treatment of cardiovascular disease in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis of the Bacterial Arginine Glycosyltransferase Effector NleB1 from Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Fok Lung, Tania; Giogha, Cristina; Creuzburg, Kristina; Ong, Sze Ying; Pollock, Georgina L; Zhang, Ying; Fung, Ka Yee; Pearson, Jaclyn S; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2016-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) interferes with host cell signaling by injecting virulence effector proteins into enterocytes via a type III secretion system (T3SS). NleB1 is a novel T3SS glycosyltransferase effector from EPEC that transfers a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moiety in an N-glycosidic linkage to Arg(117) of the Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD). GlcNAcylation of FADD prevents the assembly of the canonical death-inducing signaling complex and inhibits Fas ligand (FasL)-induced cell death. Apart from the DXD catalytic motif of NleB1, little is known about other functional sites in the enzyme. In the present study, members of a library of 22 random transposon-based, in-frame, linker insertion mutants of NleB1 were tested for their ability to block caspase-8 activation in response to FasL during EPEC infection. Immunoblot analysis of caspase-8 cleavage showed that 17 mutant derivatives of NleB1, including the catalytic DXD mutant, did not inhibit caspase-8 activation. Regions of interest around the insertion sites with multiple or single amino acid substitutions were examined further. Coimmunoprecipitation studies of 34 site-directed mutants showed that the NleB1 derivatives with the E253A, Y219A, and PILN(63-66)AAAA (in which the PILN motif from residues 63 to 66 was changed to AAAA) mutations bound to but did not GlcNAcylate FADD. A further mutant derivative, the PDG(236-238)AAA mutant, did not bind to or GlcNAcylate FADD. Infection of mice with the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium expressing NleBE253A and NleBY219A showed that these strains were attenuated, indicating the importance of residues E253 and Y219 in NleB1 virulence in vivo In summary, we identified new amino acid residues critical for NleB1 activity and confirmed that these are required for the virulence function of NleB1. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Bacterial binding to extracellular proteins - in vitro adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, C.; Fiehn, N.-E.

    1999-01-01

    Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis......Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis...

  2. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Type III Secretome of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Reveals an Expanded Effector Repertoire for Attaching/Effacing Bacterial Pathogens*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanyin; Yu, Hong B.; de Hoog, Carmen L.; Stoynov, Nikolay; Li, Yuling; Foster, Leonard J.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2012-01-01

    Type III secretion systems are central to the pathogenesis and virulence of many important Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and elucidation of the secretion mechanism and identification of the secreted substrates are critical to our understanding of their pathogenic mechanisms and developing potential therapeutics. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-based mass spectrometry is a quantitative and highly sensitive proteomics tool that we have previously used to successfully analyze the type III secretomes of Citrobacter rodentium and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this report, stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture was used to analyze the type III secretome of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), an important human pathogen, which, together with enterohemorrhagic E. coli and C. rodentium, represents the family of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens. We not only confirmed all 25 known EPEC type III-secreted proteins and effectors previously identified by conventional molecular and bioinformatical techniques but also identified several new type III-secreted proteins, including two novel effectors, C_0814/NleJ and LifA, that were shown to be translocated into host cells. LifA is a known virulence factor believed to act as a toxin as well as an adhesin, but its mechanism of secretion and function is not understood. With a predicted molecular mass of 366 kDa, LifA is the largest type III effector identified thus far in any pathogen. We further demonstrated that Efa1, ToxB, and Z4332 (homologs of LifA in enterohemorrhagic E. coli) are also type III effectors. This study has comprehensively characterized the type III secretome of EPEC, expanded the repertoire of type III-secreted effectors for the attaching and effacing pathogens, and provided new insights into the mode of function for LifA/Efa1/ToxB/Z4332, an important family of virulence factors. PMID:22661456

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of type III secretome of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli reveals an expanded effector repertoire for attaching/effacing bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanyin; Yu, Hong B; de Hoog, Carmen L; Stoynov, Nikolay; Li, Yuling; Foster, Leonard J; Finlay, B Brett

    2012-09-01

    Type III secretion systems are central to the pathogenesis and virulence of many important Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and elucidation of the secretion mechanism and identification of the secreted substrates are critical to our understanding of their pathogenic mechanisms and developing potential therapeutics. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-based mass spectrometry is a quantitative and highly sensitive proteomics tool that we have previously used to successfully analyze the type III secretomes of Citrobacter rodentium and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this report, stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture was used to analyze the type III secretome of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), an important human pathogen, which, together with enterohemorrhagic E. coli and C. rodentium, represents the family of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens. We not only confirmed all 25 known EPEC type III-secreted proteins and effectors previously identified by conventional molecular and bioinformatical techniques but also identified several new type III-secreted proteins, including two novel effectors, C_0814/NleJ and LifA, that were shown to be translocated into host cells. LifA is a known virulence factor believed to act as a toxin as well as an adhesin, but its mechanism of secretion and function is not understood. With a predicted molecular mass of 366 kDa, LifA is the largest type III effector identified thus far in any pathogen. We further demonstrated that Efa1, ToxB, and Z4332 (homologs of LifA in enterohemorrhagic E. coli) are also type III effectors. This study has comprehensively characterized the type III secretome of EPEC, expanded the repertoire of type III-secreted effectors for the attaching and effacing pathogens, and provided new insights into the mode of function for LifA/Efa1/ToxB/Z4332, an important family of virulence factors.

  4. Guanylate binding protein 1 is a novel effector of EGFR-driven invasion in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Mukasa, Akitake; Inda, Maria del-Mar; Zhang, Jianhua; Chin, Lynda; Cavenee, Webster; Furnari, Frank

    2011-12-19

    Although GBP1 (guanylate binding protein 1) was among the first interferon-inducible proteins identified, its function is still largely unknown. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation by amplification or mutation is one of the most frequent genetic lesions in a variety of human tumors. These include glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which is characterized by independent but interrelated features of extensive invasion into normal brain parenchyma, rapid growth, necrosis, and angiogenesis. In this study, we show that EGFR activation promoted GBP1 expression in GBM cell lines through a signaling pathway involving Src and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, we identified YY1 (Yin Yang 1) as the downstream transcriptional regulator regulating EGFR-driven GBP1 expression. GBP1 was required for EGFR-mediated MMP1 (matrix metalloproteinase 1) expression and glioma cell invasion in vitro. Although deregulation of GBP1 expression did not affect glioma cell proliferation, overexpression of GBP1 enhanced glioma cell invasion through MMP1 induction, which required its C-terminal helical domain and was independent of its GTPase activity. Reducing GBP1 levels by RNA interference in invasive GBM cells also markedly inhibited their ability to infiltrate the brain parenchyma of mice. GBP1 expression was high and positively correlated with EGFR expression in human GBM tumors and cell lines, particularly those of the neural subtype. Together, these findings establish GBP1 as a previously unknown link between EGFR activity and MMP1 expression and nominate it as a novel potential therapeutic target for inhibiting GBM invasion.

  5. The Yersinia enterocolitica type 3 secretion system (T3SS) as toolbox for studying the cell biological effects of bacterial Rho GTPase modulating T3SS effector proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölke, Stefan; Ackermann, Nikolaus; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2011-09-01

    The bacterial effector proteins IpgB(1) and IpgB(2) of Shigella and Map of Escherichia coli activate the Rho GTPases Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42, respectively, whereas YopE and YopT of Yersinia inhibit these Rho family GTPases. We established a Yersinia toolbox which allows to study the cellular effects of these effectors in different combinations in the context of Yersinia type 3 secretion system (Ysc)-T3SS-mediated injection into HeLa cells. For this purpose hybrid proteins were constructed by fusion of YopE with the effector protein of interest. As expected, injected hybrid proteins induced membrane ruffles and Yersinia uptake for IpgB(1) , stress fibres for IpgB(2) and microspikes for Map. By co-infection experiments we could demonstrate (i) IpgB(2) -mediated and ROCK-dependent inhibition of IpgB(1) -mediated Rac1 effects, (ii) YopT-mediated suppression of IpgB(1) -induced Yersinia invasion and (iii) failure of YopE-mediated suppression of IpgB(1) -induced Yersinia invasion, presumably due to preferential inhibition of RhoG by YopE GAP function. By infecting polarized MDCK cells we could demonstrate that Map or IpgB(1) but not IpgB(2) affects cell monolayer integrity. In summary, the Yersinia toolbox is suitable to study cellular effects of effector proteins of diverse bacterial species separately or in combination in the context of bacterial T3SS-mediated injection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Structural Basis of Host Autophagy-related Protein 8 (ATG8) Binding by the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen Effector Protein PexRD54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Abbas; Hughes, Richard K; Dagdas, Yasin F; Tregidgo, Nicholas; Zess, Erin; Belhaj, Khaoula; Round, Adam; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Kamoun, Sophien; Banfield, Mark J

    2016-09-16

    Filamentous plant pathogens deliver effector proteins to host cells to promote infection. The Phytophthora infestans RXLR-type effector PexRD54 binds potato ATG8 via its ATG8 family-interacting motif (AIM) and perturbs host-selective autophagy. However, the structural basis of this interaction remains unknown. Here, we define the crystal structure of PexRD54, which includes a modular architecture, including five tandem repeat domains, with the AIM sequence presented at the disordered C terminus. To determine the interface between PexRD54 and ATG8, we solved the crystal structure of potato ATG8CL in complex with a peptide comprising the effector's AIM sequence, and we established a model of the full-length PexRD54-ATG8CL complex using small angle x-ray scattering. Structure-informed deletion of the PexRD54 tandem domains reveals retention of ATG8CL binding in vitro and in planta This study offers new insights into structure/function relationships of oomycete RXLR effectors and how these proteins engage with host cell targets to promote disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Fungal effector Ecp6 outcompetes host immune receptor for chitin binding through intrachain LysM dimerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Vallet, A.; Saleem-Batcha, R.; Kombrink, A.; Hansen, G.; Valkenburg, D.J.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Mesters, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    While host immune receptors detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns to activate immunity, pathogens attempt to deregulate host immunity through secreted effectors. Fungi employ LysM effectors to prevent recognition of cell wall-derived chitin by host immune receptors, although the mechanism to

  8. T3SS effector ExoY reduces inflammasome-related responses by suppressing bacterial motility and delaying activation of NF-κB and caspase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jisu; Kim, Yong-Jae; Shin, Heesung; Ha, Un-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Type III-secreted effectors are essential for modulating host immune responses during the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Little is known about the impact of one of the effectors, ExoY, on inflammasome activation, which results in IL-1β production and pyroptotic cell death. In this study, we found that transcriptional expression of Il-1β was induced to a lesser extent in response to an exoY-harboring strain than to a deleted mutant. This suppressive effect of ExoY was verified by complementation assay as well as by direct translocation of exoY into host cells. In addition to the production of IL-1β, pyroptotic cell death was also diminished in response to an exoY-harboring strain. These inflammasome responses were mediated by the adenylate cyclase activity of ExoY, which plays a role in delaying the activation of NF-κB and caspase-1, a key component of inflammasome-mediated responses. Moreover, the negative effects of ExoY on these responses were in part conferred by the suppression of bacterial motility, which could reduce the degree of bacterial contact with cells. Together, these results demonstrate that the adenylate cyclase activity of P. aeruginosa ExoY can reduce inflammasome-related responses by influencing both the host and the bacterium itself by delaying the activation of inflammatory pathways and suppressing bacterial motility. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Binding and entry of DNA in bacterial transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    Bacterial transformation in relation to DNA transport and competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called Diplococcus pneumoniae) is discussed. This species will serve as a model with which to compare transformation in other bacterial species, particularly Bacillus subtilis and Haemophilus influenzae, with emphasis on the many similarities as well as differences.

  10. Activation of PAK by a bacterial type III effector EspG reveals alternative mechanisms of GTPase pathway regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Selyunin, Andrey S; Alto, Neal M

    2011-01-01

    Small Rho GTPases regulate a diverse range of cellular behavior within a cell. Their ability to function as molecular switches in response to a bound nucleotide state allows them to regulate multiple dynamic processes, including cytoskeleton organization and cellular adhesion. Because the activation of downstream Rho GTPase signaling pathways relies on conserved structural features of target effector proteins (i.e., CRIB domain), these pathways are particularly vulnerable to microbial pathoge...

  11. The Salmonella effectors SseF and SseG inhibit Rab1A-mediated autophagy to facilitate intracellular bacterial survival and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhao-Zhong; Jiang, An-Jie; Mao, An-Wen; Feng, Yuhan; Wang, Weinan; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xing, Ke; Peng, Xue

    2018-04-02

    In mammalian cells, autophagy plays crucial roles in restricting further spread of invading bacterial pathogens. Previous studies have established that the Salmonella virulence factors SseF and SseG are required for intracellular bacterial survival and replication. However, the underlying mechanism by which these two effectors facilitate bacterial infection remains elusive. Here, we report that SseF and SseG secreted by Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inhibit autophagy in host cells and thereby establish a replicative niche for the bacteria in the cytosol. Mechanistically, SseF and SseG impaired autophagy initiation by directly interacting with the small GTPase Rab1A in the host cell. This interaction abolished Rab1A activation by disrupting the interaction with its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), the TRAPPIII ( abbreviation for the transport protein particle III ) complex. This disruption of Rab1A signaling blocked the recruitment and activation of Unc51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and decreased phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate biogenesis, which ultimately impeded autophagosome formation. Furthermore, SseF or SseG deficient bacterial strains exhibited reduced survival and growth in both mammalian cell lines and mouse infection models, and Rab1A depletion could rescue these defects. These results reveal that virulence factor dependent inactivation of the small GTPase Rab1A represents a previously unrecognized strategy of S. Typhimurium to evade autophagy and the host defense system. Copyright © 2018, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. SseK3 Is a Salmonella Effector That Binds TRIM32 and Modulates the Host's NF-κB Signalling Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yang

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium employs an array of type III secretion system effectors that facilitate intracellular survival and replication during infection. The Salmonella effector SseK3 was originally identified due to amino acid sequence similarity with NleB; an effector secreted by EPEC/EHEC that possesses N-acetylglucoasmine (GlcNAc transferase activity and modifies death domain containing proteins to block extrinsic apoptosis. In this study, immunoprecipitation of SseK3 defined a novel molecular interaction between SseK3 and the host protein, TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The conserved DxD motif within SseK3, which is essential for the GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB, was required for TRIM32 binding and for the capacity of SseK3 to suppress TNF-stimulated activation of NF-κB pathway. However, we did not detect GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 by SseK3, nor did the SseK3-TRIM32 interaction impact on TRIM32 ubiquitination that is associated with its activation. In addition, lack of sseK3 in Salmonella had no effect on production of the NF-κB dependent cytokine, IL-8, in HeLa cells even though TRIM32 knockdown suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activity. Ectopically expressed SseK3 partially co-localises with TRIM32 at the trans-Golgi network, but SseK3 is not recruited to Salmonella induced vacuoles or Salmonella induced filaments during Salmonella infection. Our study has identified a novel effector-host protein interaction and suggests that SseK3 may influence NF-κB activity. However, the lack of GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 suggests that SseK3 has further, as yet unidentified, host targets.

  13. Context-dependent protein folding of a virulence peptide in the bacterial and host environments: structure of an SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujanac, Milos; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2013-01-01

    The structure of a SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex from Yersinia reveals the bacterial state of a protein that adopts different folds in the host and pathogen environments. Yersinia pestis injects numerous bacterial proteins into host cells through an organic nanomachine called the type 3 secretion system. One such substrate is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which requires an interaction with a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively injected. Here, the first crystal structure of a SycH–YopH complex is reported, determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals the presence of (i) a nonglobular polypeptide in YopH, (ii) a so-called β-motif in YopH and (iii) a conserved hydrophobic patch in SycH that recognizes the β-motif. Biochemical studies establish that the β-motif is critical to the stability of this complex. Finally, since previous work has shown that the N-terminal portion of YopH adopts a globular fold that is functional in the host cell, aspects of how this polypeptide adopts radically different folds in the host and in the bacterial environments are analysed

  14. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  15. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  16. De novo-engineered transcription activator-like effector (TALE) hybrid nuclease with novel DNA binding specificity creates double-strand breaks

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2011-01-24

    Site-specific and rare cutting nucleases are valuable tools for genome engineering. The generation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) promotes homologous recombination in eukaryotes and can facilitate gene targeting, additions, deletions, and inactivation. Zinc finger nucleases have been used to generate DSBs and subsequently, for genome editing but with low efficiency and reproducibility. The transcription activator-like family of type III effectors (TALEs) contains a central domain of tandem repeats that could be engineered to bind specific DNA targets. Here, we report the generation of a Hax3-based hybrid TALE nuclease with a user-selected DNA binding specificity. We show that the engineered TALE nuclease can bind to its target sequence in vitro and that the homodimeric TALE nuclease can cleave double-stranded DNA in vitro if the DNA binding sites have the proper spacing and orientation. Transient expression assays in tobacco leaves suggest that the hybrid nuclease creates DSB in its target sequence, which is subsequently repaired by nonhomologous end-joining repair. Taken together, our data show the feasibility of engineering TALE-based hybrid nucleases capable of generating site-specific DSBs and the great potential for site-specific genome modification in plants and eukaryotes in general.

  17. Steady state kinetic model for the binding of substrates and allosteric effectors to Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl-diphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Larsen, Sine

    2000-01-01

    A steady state kinetic investigation of the Pi activation of 5-phospho-D-ribosyl α-1-diphosphate synthase from Escherichia coli suggests that Pi can bind randomly to the enzyme either before or after an ordered addition of free Mg2+ and substrates. Unsaturation with ribose 5-phosphate increased...... the apparent cooperativity of Pi activation. At unsaturating Pi concentrations partial substrate inhibition by ribose 5-phosphate was observed. Together these results suggest that saturation of the enzyme with Pi directs the subsequent ordered binding of Mg2+ and substrates via a fast pathway, whereas...... saturation with ribose 5-phosphate leads to the binding of Mg2+ and substrates via a slow pathway where Pi binds to the enzyme last. The random mechanism for Pi binding was further supported by studies with competitive inhibitors of Mg2+, MgATP, and ribose 5-phosphate that all appeared noncompetitive when...

  18. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 (angstrom) above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational

  19. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the

  20. Expression of the bacterial type III effector DspA/E in Saccharomyces cerevisiae down-regulates the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway leading to growth arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamer, Sabrina; Guillas, Isabelle; Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Kunz, Caroline; Hall, Michael N; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2014-06-27

    Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium responsible for fire blight, relies on a type III secretion system and a single injected effector, DspA/E, to induce disease in host plants. DspA/E belongs to the widespread AvrE family of type III effectors that suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial growth following infection. Ectopic expression of DspA/E in plant or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic, indicating that DspA/E likely targets a cellular process conserved between yeast and plant. To unravel the mode of action of DspA/E, we screened the Euroscarf S. cerevisiae library for mutants resistant to DspA/E-induced growth arrest. The most resistant mutants (Δsur4, Δfen1, Δipt1, Δskn1, Δcsg1, Δcsg2, Δorm1, and Δorm2) were impaired in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Exogenously supplied sphingolipid precursors such as the long chain bases (LCBs) phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine also suppressed the DspA/E-induced yeast growth defect. Expression of DspA/E in yeast down-regulated LCB biosynthesis and induced a rapid decrease in LCB levels, indicating that serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was repressed. SPT down-regulation was mediated by dephosphorylation and activation of Orm proteins that negatively regulate SPT. A Δcdc55 mutation affecting Cdc55-PP2A protein phosphatase activity prevented Orm dephosphorylation and suppressed DspA/E-induced growth arrest. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Cooperative Binding and Activation of Fibronectin by a Bacterial Surface Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjenberg, Zoe R.; Ellis, Ian R.; Hagan, Robert M.; Prabhakaran, Sabitha; Höök, Magnus; Talay, Susanne R.; Potts, Jennifer R.; Staunton, David; Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Integrin-dependent cell invasion of some pathogenic bacteria is mediated by surface proteins targeting the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN). Although the structural basis for bacterial FN recognition is well understood, it has been unclear why proteins such as streptococcal SfbI contain several FN-binding sites. We used microcalorimetry to reveal cooperative binding of FN fragments to arrays of binding sites in SfbI. In combination with thermodynamic analyses, functional cell-based assays show that SfbI induces conformational changes in the N-terminal 100-kDa region of FN (FN100kDa), most likely by competition with intramolecular interactions defining an inactive state of FN100kDa. This study provides insights into how long range conformational changes resulting in FN activation may be triggered by bacterial pathogens. PMID:21059652

  2. Identification of cognate host targets and specific ubiquitylation sites on the Salmonella SPI-1 effector SopB/SigD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, Lindsay D; Kristensen, Anders R; Boyle, Erin C

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen responsible for enteritis and typhoid fever. Virulence is linked to two Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 and SPI-2) on the bacterial chromosome, each of which encodes a type III secretion system. While both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 systems secrete......B alone can alter Cdc42 activity. This approach is also widely applicable to identify binding partners to other bacterial effectors....

  3. The innate immune protein Nod2 binds directly to MDP, a bacterial cell wall fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Catherine Leimkuhler; Ariyananda, Lushanti De Zoysa; Melnyk, James E; O'Shea, Erin K

    2012-08-22

    Mammalian Nod2 is an intracellular protein that is implicated in the innate immune response to the bacterial cell wall and is associated with the development of Crohn's disease, Blau syndrome, and gastrointestinal cancers. Nod2 is required for an immune response to muramyl dipeptide (MDP), an immunostimulatory fragment of bacterial cell wall, but it is not known whether MDP binds directly to Nod2. We report the expression and purification of human Nod2 from insect cells. Using novel MDP self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), we provide the first biochemical evidence for a direct, high-affinity interaction between Nod2 and MDP.

  4. Simple molecular model for the binding of antibiotic molecules to bacterial ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafé, Salvador; Ramírez, Patricio; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2003-10-01

    A molecular model aimed at explaining recent experimental data by Nestorovich et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9789 (2002)] on the interaction of ampicillin molecules with the constriction zone in a channel of the general bacterial porin, OmpF (outer membrane protein F), is presented. The model extends T. L. Hill's theory for intermolecular interactions in a pair of binding sites [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 3330 (1956)] by incorporating two binding ions and two pairs of interacting sites. The results provide new physical insights on the role of the complementary pattern of the charge distributions in the ampicillin molecule and the narrowest part of the channel pore. Charge matching of interacting sites facilitates drug binding. The dependence of the number of ampicillin binding events per second with the solution pH and salt concentration is explained qualitatively using a reduced number of fundamental concepts.

  5. The Recombinant Sea Urchin Immune Effector Protein, rSpTransformer-E1, Binds to Phosphatidic Acid and Deforms Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Man Lun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, possesses a sophisticated innate immune system that functions without adaptive capabilities and responds to pathogens effectively by expressing the highly diverse SpTransformer gene family (formerly the Sp185/333 gene family. The swift gene expression response and the sequence diversity of SpTransformer cDNAs suggest that the encoded proteins have immune functions. Individual sea urchins can express up to 260 distinct SpTransformer proteins, and their diversity suggests that different versions may have different functions. Although the deduced proteins are diverse, they share an overall structure of a hydrophobic leader, a glycine-rich N-terminal region, a histidine-rich region, and a C-terminal region. Circular dichroism analysis of a recombinant SpTransformer protein, rSpTransformer-E1 (rSpTrf-E1 demonstrates that it is intrinsically disordered and transforms to α helical in the presence of buffer additives and binding targets. Although native SpTrf proteins are associated with the membranes of perinuclear vesicles in the phagocyte class of coelomocytes and are present on the surface of small phagocytes, they have no predicted transmembrane region or conserved site for glycophosphatidylinositol linkage. To determine whether native SpTrf proteins associate with phagocyte membranes through interactions with lipids, when rSpTrf-E1 is incubated with lipid-embedded nylon strips, it binds to phosphatidic acid (PA through both the glycine-rich region and the histidine-rich region. Synthetic liposomes composed of PA and phosphatidylcholine show binding between rSpTrf-E1 and PA by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, which is associated with leakage of luminal contents suggesting changes in lipid organization and perhaps liposome lysis. Interactions with liposomes also change membrane curvature leading to liposome budding, fusion, and invagination, which is associated with PA clustering induced

  6. The Recombinant Sea Urchin Immune Effector Protein, rSpTransformer-E1, Binds to Phosphatidic Acid and Deforms Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Cheng Man; Samuel, Robin L; Gillmor, Susan D; Boyd, Anthony; Smith, L Courtney

    2017-01-01

    The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus , possesses a sophisticated innate immune system that functions without adaptive capabilities and responds to pathogens effectively by expressing the highly diverse SpTransformer gene family (formerly the Sp185/333 gene family). The swift gene expression response and the sequence diversity of SpTransformer cDNAs suggest that the encoded proteins have immune functions. Individual sea urchins can express up to 260 distinct SpTransformer proteins, and their diversity suggests that different versions may have different functions. Although the deduced proteins are diverse, they share an overall structure of a hydrophobic leader, a glycine-rich N-terminal region, a histidine-rich region, and a C-terminal region. Circular dichroism analysis of a recombinant SpTransformer protein, rSpTransformer-E1 (rSpTrf-E1) demonstrates that it is intrinsically disordered and transforms to α helical in the presence of buffer additives and binding targets. Although native SpTrf proteins are associated with the membranes of perinuclear vesicles in the phagocyte class of coelomocytes and are present on the surface of small phagocytes, they have no predicted transmembrane region or conserved site for glycophosphatidylinositol linkage. To determine whether native SpTrf proteins associate with phagocyte membranes through interactions with lipids, when rSpTrf-E1 is incubated with lipid-embedded nylon strips, it binds to phosphatidic acid (PA) through both the glycine-rich region and the histidine-rich region. Synthetic liposomes composed of PA and phosphatidylcholine show binding between rSpTrf-E1 and PA by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, which is associated with leakage of luminal contents suggesting changes in lipid organization and perhaps liposome lysis. Interactions with liposomes also change membrane curvature leading to liposome budding, fusion, and invagination, which is associated with PA clustering induced by rSpTrf-E1

  7. Structure and specificity of the bacterial cysteine methyltransferase effector NleE suggests a novel substrate in human DNA repair pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC and related enterobacteria rely on a type III secretion system (T3SS effector NleE to block host NF-κB signaling. NleE is a first in class, novel S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM-dependent methyltransferase that methylates a zinc-coordinating cysteine in the Npl4-like Zinc Finger (NZF domains in TAB2/3 adaptors in the NF-κB pathway, but its mechanism of action and other human substrates are unknown. Here we solve crystal structure of NleE-SAM complex, which reveals a methyltransferase fold different from those of known ones. The SAM, cradled snugly at the bottom of a deep and narrow cavity, adopts a unique conformation ready for nucleophilic attack by the methyl acceptor. The substrate NZF domain can be well docked into the cavity, and molecular dynamic simulation indicates that Cys673 in TAB2-NZF is spatially and energetically favorable for attacking the SAM. We further identify a new NleE substrate, ZRANB3, that functions in PCNA binding and remodeling of stalled replication forks at the DNA damage sites. Specific inactivation of the NZF domain in ZRANB3 by NleE offers a unique opportunity to suggest that ZRANB3-NZF domain functions in DNA repair processes other than ZRANB3 recruitment to DNA damage sites. Our analyses suggest a novel and unexpected link between EPEC infection, virulence proteins and genome integrity.

  8. Galectin-3 directs antimicrobial guanylate binding proteins to vacuoles furnished with bacterial secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Eric M; Pilla-Moffett, Danielle M; Zwack, Erin E; Piro, Anthony S; Finethy, Ryan; Kolb, Joseph P; Martinez, Jennifer; Brodsky, Igor E; Coers, Jörn

    2017-02-28

    Many invasive bacteria establish pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as intracellular niches for microbial growth. Immunity to these infections is dependent on the ability of host cells to recognize PVs as targets for host defense. The delivery of several host defense proteins to PVs is controlled by IFN-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs), which themselves dock to PVs through poorly characterized mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that GBPs detect the presence of bacterial protein secretion systems as "patterns of pathogenesis" associated with PVs. We report that the delivery of GBP2 to Legionella -containing vacuoles is dependent on the bacterial Dot/Icm secretion system, whereas the delivery of GBP2 to Yersinia- containing vacuoles (YCVs) requires hypersecretion of Yersinia translocon proteins. We show that the presence of bacterial secretion systems directs cytosolic carbohydrate-binding protein Galectin-3 to PVs and that the delivery of GBP1 and GBP2 to Legionella- containing vacuoles or YCVs is substantially diminished in Galectin-3-deficient cells. Our results illustrate that insertion of bacterial secretion systems into PV membranes stimulates Galectin-3-dependent recruitment of antimicrobial GBPs to PVs as part of a coordinated host defense program.

  9. The bacterial DnaA-trio replication origin element specifies single-stranded DNA initiator binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Tomas T; Harran, Omar; Murray, Heath

    2016-06-16

    DNA replication is tightly controlled to ensure accurate inheritance of genetic information. In all organisms, initiator proteins possessing AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) domains bind replication origins to license new rounds of DNA synthesis. In bacteria the master initiator protein, DnaA, is highly conserved and has two crucial DNA binding activities. DnaA monomers recognize the replication origin (oriC) by binding double-stranded DNA sequences (DnaA-boxes); subsequently, DnaA filaments assemble and promote duplex unwinding by engaging and stretching a single DNA strand. While the specificity for duplex DnaA-boxes by DnaA has been appreciated for over 30 years, the sequence specificity for single-strand DNA binding has remained unknown. Here we identify a new indispensable bacterial replication origin element composed of a repeating trinucleotide motif that we term the DnaA-trio. We show that the function of the DnaA-trio is to stabilize DnaA filaments on a single DNA strand, thus providing essential precision to this binding mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis detects DnaA-trios in replication origins throughout the bacterial kingdom, indicating that this element is part of the core oriC structure. The discovery and characterization of the novel DnaA-trio extends our fundamental understanding of bacterial DNA replication initiation, and because of the conserved structure of AAA+ initiator proteins these findings raise the possibility of specific recognition motifs within replication origins of higher organisms.

  10. New players in the same old game: a system level in silico study to predict type III secretion system and effector proteins in bacterial genomes reveals common themes in T3SS mediated pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Vineet; Datta, Sunando; Arunachalam, Manonmani

    2013-07-26

    Type III secretion system (T3SS) plays an important role in virulence or symbiosis of many pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria [CHM 2:291-294, 2007; Physiology (Bethesda) 20:326-339, 2005]. T3SS acts like a tunnel between a bacterium and its host through which the bacterium injects 'effector' proteins into the latter [Nature 444:567-573, 2006; COSB 18:258-266, 2008]. The effectors spatially and temporally modify the host signalling pathways [FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:1100-1125, 2011; Cell Host Microbe5:571-579, 2009]. In spite its crucial role in host-pathogen interaction, the study of T3SS and the associated effectors has been limited to a few bacteria [Cell Microbiol 13:1858-1869, 2011; Nat Rev Microbiol 6:11-16, 2008; Mol Microbiol 80:1420-1438, 2011]. Before one set out to perform systematic experimental studies on an unknown set of bacteria it would be beneficial to identify the potential candidates by developing an in silico screening algorithm. A system level study would also be advantageous over traditional laboratory methods to extract an overriding theme for host-pathogen interaction, if any, from the vast resources of data generated by sequencing multiple bacterial genomes. We have developed an in silico protocol in which the most conserved set of T3SS proteins was used as the query against the entire bacterial database with increasingly stringent search parameters. It enabled us to identify several uncharacterized T3SS positive bacteria. We adopted a similar strategy to predict the presence of the already known effectors in the newly identified T3SS positive bacteria. The huge resources of biochemical data [FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:1100-1125, 2011; Cell Host Microbe 5:571-579, 2009; BMC Bioinformatics 7(11):S4, 2010] on the T3SS effectors enabled us to search for the common theme in T3SS mediated pathogenesis. We identified few cellular signalling networks in the host, which are manipulated by most of the T3SS containing pathogens. We went on to look for

  11. Structure of the C-terminal effector-binding domain of AhrC bound to its corepressor l-arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.; Phillips, Simon E. V.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain hexameric core of AhrC, with bound corepressor (l-arginine), has been solved at 1.95 Å resolution. Binding of l-arginine results in a rotation between the two trimers of the hexamer, leading to the activation of the DNA-binding state. The arginine repressor/activator protein (AhrC) from Bacillus subtilis belongs to a large family of multifunctional transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of bacterial arginine metabolism. AhrC interacts with operator sites in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons, acting as a transcriptional repressor at biosynthetic sites and an activator of transcription at catabolic sites. AhrC is a hexamer of identical subunits, each having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core of the protein and are involved in oligomerization and l-arginine binding. The N-terminal domains lie on the outside of the compact core and play a role in binding to 18 bp DNA operators called ARG boxes. The C-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized, and also crystallized as a hexamer with the bound corepressor l-arginine. Here, the crystal structure refined to 1.95 Å is presented

  12. A Common Structural Motif in the Binding of Virulence Factors to Bacterial Secretion Chaperones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic,M.; Vujanac, M.; Stebbins, C.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella invasion protein A (SipA) is translocated into host cells by a type III secretion system (T3SS) and comprises two regions: one domain binds its cognate type III secretion chaperone, InvB, in the bacterium to facilitate translocation, while a second domain functions in the host cell, contributing to bacterial uptake by polymerizing actin. We present here the crystal structures of the SipA chaperone binding domain (CBD) alone and in complex with InvB. The SipA CBD is found to consist of a nonglobular polypeptide as well as a large globular domain, both of which are necessary for binding to InvB. We also identify a structural motif that may direct virulence factors to their cognate chaperones in a diverse range of pathogenic bacteria. Disruption of this structural motif leads to a destabilization of several chaperone-substrate complexes from different species, as well as an impairment of secretion in Salmonella.

  13. Binding of Hg by bacterial extracellular polysaccharide: a possible role in Hg tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kimberly; Guézennec, Jean; Barkay, Tamar

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria employ adaptive mechanisms of mercury (Hg) tolerance to survive in environments containing elevated Hg concentrations. The potential of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production by bacteria as a mechanism of Hg tolerance has not been previously investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine if bacterial EPS sorb Hg, and if so does sorption provide protection against Hg toxicity. Purified EPS with different chemical compositions produced by bacterial isolates from microbial mats in French Polynesian atolls and deep-sea hydrothermal vents were assessed for Hg sorption. The data showed that EPS sorbed up to 82% of Hg from solution, that this sorption was dependent on EPS composition, and that sorption was a saturable mechanism. Hg uptake capacities ranged from 0.005 to 0.454 mmol Hg/g for the different EPS. To determine if EPS production could alter bacterial Hg tolerance, Escherichia coli K-12 strains and their EPS defective mutants were tested by the disc inhibition assay. Mercury inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner with wild-type strains having smaller (~1 mm), but statistically significant, zones of inhibition than various mutants and this difference was related to a 2-fold decline in the amount of EPS produced by the mutants relative to cell biomass. These experiments identified colanic acid and hexosamine as Hg-binding moieties in EPS. Together these data indicate that binding of Hg to EPS affords a low level of resistance to the producing bacteria.

  14. Engineered Bacterial Metal-binding Proteins for Nanoscale Self-assembly and heavy Metal Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Sedlak, Ruth Amanda

    Implementing biological principles in material synthesis and assembly is one way to expand our abilities to efficiently assemble nanoscale materials and devices. Specifically, recent advances in identifying peptides that bind inorganic materials with high affinity and specificity has spurred investigation of protein models for nanoscale inorganic assembly. This dissertation presents the results of my studies of several E. coli proteins engineered to bind inorganic materials through simple peptide motifs. I demonstrate that these proteins modulate the self-assembly of DNA-based nanostructures and can introduce heavy metal tolerance into metal-sensitive bacteria. Chapter 2 explores use of the engineered F plasmid DNA relaxase/helicase TraI for the self-assembly of complex DNA-protein-gold nanostructures. The full-length protein is engineered with a gold binding motif at an internal permissive site (TraI369GBP1-7x), while a truncated version of TraI is engineered with the same gold binding motif at the C-terminus (TraI361GBP1-7x). Both constructs bind gold nanoparticles while maintaining their DNA binding activity, and transmission electron microscopy reveals TraI369GBP1-7x utilizes its non-specific DNA binding activity to decorate single-stranded and double-stranded DNA with gold nanoparticles. The self assembly principles demonstrated in this work will be fundamental to constructing higher ordered hybrid nanostructures through DNA-protein-nanoparticle interactions. Chapter 3 studies the effects of expressing inorganic binding peptides within cells. I identified a silver binding peptide that, when fused to the periplasmic maltose binding protein, protects E. coli from silver toxicity in batch culture and reduces silver ions to silver nanoparticles within the bacterial periplasm. Engineered metal-ion tolerant microorganisms such as this E. coli could potentially be used in applications ranging from remediation to interrogation of biomolecule-metal interactions in vivo

  15. Identification of a novel bacterial outer membrane interleukin-1Β-binding protein from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

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    Annamari Paino

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative opportunistic oral pathogen. It is frequently associated with subgingival biofilms of both chronic and aggressive periodontitis, and the diseased sites of the periodontium exhibit increased levels of the proinflammatory mediator interleukin (IL-1β. Some bacterial species can alter their physiological properties as a result of sensing IL-1β. We have recently shown that this cytokine localizes to the cytoplasm of A. actinomycetemcomitans in co-cultures with organotypic gingival mucosa. However, current knowledge about the mechanism underlying bacterial IL-1β sensing is still limited. In this study, we characterized the interaction of A. actinomycetemcomitans total membrane protein with IL-1β through electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The interacting protein, which we have designated bacterial interleukin receptor I (BilRI, was identified through mass spectrometry and was found to be Pasteurellaceae specific. Based on the results obtained using protein function prediction tools, this protein localizes to the outer membrane and contains a typical lipoprotein signal sequence. All six tested biofilm cultures of clinical A. actinomycetemcomitans strains expressed the protein according to phage display-derived antibody detection. Moreover, proteinase K treatment of whole A. actinomycetemcomitans cells eliminated BilRI forms that were outer membrane specific, as determined through immunoblotting. The protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli in both the outer membrane-associated form and a soluble cytoplasmic form. When assessed using flow cytometry, the BilRI-overexpressing E. coli cells were observed to bind 2.5 times more biotinylated-IL-1β than the control cells, as detected with avidin-FITC. Overexpression of BilRI did not cause binding of a biotinylated negative control protein. In a microplate assay, soluble BilRI bound to IL-1β, but this binding was not specific, as a control

  16. Rheb Protein Binds CAD (Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase 2, Aspartate Transcarbamoylase, and Dihydroorotase) Protein in a GTP- and Effector Domain-dependent Manner and Influences Its Cellular Localization and Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase (CPSase) Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J.; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-01

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. PMID:25422319

  17. Rheb protein binds CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase) protein in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner and influences its cellular localization and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-09

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Genetic Interaction between Arabidopsis Qpm3.1 Locus and Bacterial Effector Gene hopW1-1 Underlies Natural Variation in Quantitative Disease Resistance to Pseudomonas Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Liu, Wei-Wei; Pan, Ke-Di; Peng, You-Liang; Fan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Wide quantitative variation in plant disease resistance across Arabidopsis wild populations has been documented and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. To investigate the genetic and molecular basis of this variation, Arabidopsis recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Aa-0 × Col-0 and Gie-0 × Col-0 crosses were constructed and used for inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pathovars maculicola ES4326 (ES4326) and tomato DC3000 (DC3000). Bacterial growth assays revealed continuous distribution across the large differences between the most and the least susceptible lines in the RILs. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses identified a number of QTLs underpinning the variance in disease resistance, among which Qpm3.1, a major QTL on chromosome III from both Aa-0 and Gie-0 accessions, preferentially restricted the growth of ES4326. A genetic screen for the ES4326 gene selectively leading to bacterial growth inhibition on accession Aa-0 uncovered the effector gene hopW1-1. Further QTL analysis of disease in RILs inoculated with DC3000 carrying hopW1-1 showed that the genetic interaction between Qpm3.1 and hopW1-1 determined Arabidopsis resistance to bacterial infection. These findings illustrate the complexity of Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas interaction and highlight the importance of pathogen effectors in delineating genetic architectures of quantitative variation in plant disease resistance. PMID:28523008

  19. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology.

  20. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Serapio-Palacios, Antonio; Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology. PMID:23509714

  1. Re-evaluation of a bacterial antifreeze protein as an adhesin with ice-binding activity.

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    Shuaiqi Guo

    Full Text Available A novel role for antifreeze proteins (AFPs may reside in an exceptionally large 1.5-MDa adhesin isolated from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis. MpAFP was purified from bacterial lysates by ice adsorption and gel electrophoresis. We have previously reported that two highly repetitive sequences, region II (RII and region IV (RIV, divide MpAFP into five distinct regions, all of which require mM Ca(2+ levels for correct folding. Also, the antifreeze activity is confined to the 322-residue RIV, which forms a Ca(2+-bound beta-helix containing thirteen Repeats-In-Toxin (RTX-like repeats. RII accounts for approximately 90% of the mass of MpAFP and is made up of ∼120 tandem 104-residue repeats. Because these repeats are identical in DNA sequence, their number was estimated here by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Structural homology analysis by the Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine (Phyre2 server indicates that the 104-residue RII repeat adopts an immunoglobulin beta-sandwich fold that is typical of many secreted adhesion proteins. Additional RTX-like repeats in RV may serve as a non-cleavable signal sequence for the type I secretion pathway. Immunodetection shows both repeated regions are uniformly distributed over the cell surface. We suggest that the development of an AFP-like domain within this adhesin attached to the bacterial outer surface serves to transiently bind the host bacteria to ice. This association would keep the bacteria within the upper reaches of the water column where oxygen and nutrients are potentially more abundant. This novel envirotactic role would give AFPs a third function, after freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance: that of transiently binding an organism to ice.

  2. The effector AvrRxo1 phosphorylates NAD in planta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Shidore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals employ type III secreted effectors to suppress innate immunity. Most characterized effectors work through modification of host proteins or transcriptional regulators, although a few are known to modify small molecule targets. The Xanthomonas type III secreted avirulence factor AvrRxo1 is a structural homolog of the zeta toxin family of sugar-nucleotide kinases that suppresses bacterial growth. AvrRxo1 was recently reported to phosphorylate the central metabolite and signaling molecule NAD in vitro, suggesting that the effector might enhance bacterial virulence on plants through manipulation of primary metabolic pathways. In this study, we determine that AvrRxo1 phosphorylates NAD in planta, and that its kinase catalytic sites are necessary for its toxic and resistance-triggering phenotypes. A global metabolomics approach was used to independently identify 3'-NADP as the sole detectable product of AvrRxo1 expression in yeast and bacteria, and NAD kinase activity was confirmed in vitro. 3'-NADP accumulated upon transient expression of AvrRxo1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and in rice leaves infected with avrRxo1-expressing strains of X. oryzae. Mutation of the catalytic aspartic acid residue D193 abolished AvrRxo1 kinase activity and several phenotypes of AvrRxo1, including toxicity in yeast, bacteria, and plants, suppression of the flg22-triggered ROS burst, and ability to trigger an R gene-mediated hypersensitive response. A mutation in the Walker A ATP-binding motif abolished the toxicity of AvrRxo1, but did not abolish the 3'-NADP production, virulence enhancement, ROS suppression, or HR-triggering phenotypes of AvrRxo1. These results demonstrate that a type III effector targets the central metabolite and redox carrier NAD in planta, and that this catalytic activity is required for toxicity and suppression of the ROS burst.

  3. Microbial interactions chapter: binding and entry of DNA in bacterial transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Genetic transformation of bacteria by DNA released from cells of a related strain is discussed. The mechanism by which the giant information-bearing molecules of DNA are transported into the bacterial cell was investigated. It was concluded that the overall process of DNA uptake consists of two main steps, binding of donor DNA to the outside of the cell and entry of the bound DNA into the cell. Each step is discussed in detail. Inasmuch as these phenomena occur at the cell surface, they are related to structures and functions of the cell wall and membrane. In addition, the development of competence, that is the formation of cell surface structures allowing DNA uptake, is examined from both a physiological and evolutionary point of view. Genetic transfer mediated by free DNA is an obvious and important form of cellular interaction. The development of competence involves another, quite distinct system of interaction between bacterial cells. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, and Hemophilus influenzae were used as the test organisms. 259 references.

  4. Maf-dependent bacterial flagellin glycosylation occurs before chaperone binding and flagellar T3SS export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer L; Lowry, Rebecca C; Couto, Narciso A S; Wright, Phillip C; Stafford, Graham P; Shaw, Jonathan G

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial swimming is mediated by rotation of a filament that is assembled via polymerization of flagellin monomers after secretion via a dedicated flagellar Type III secretion system. Several bacteria decorate their flagellin with sialic acid related sugars that is essential for motility. Aeromonas caviae is a model organism for this process as it contains a genetically simple glycosylation system and decorates its flagellin with pseudaminic acid (Pse). The link between flagellin glycosylation and export has yet to be fully determined. We examined the role of glycosylation in the export and assembly process in a strain lacking Maf1, a protein involved in the transfer of Pse onto flagellin at the later stages of the glycosylation pathway. Immunoblotting, established that glycosylation is not required for flagellin export but is essential for filament assembly since non-glycosylated flagellin is still secreted. Maf1 interacts directly with its flagellin substrate in vivo, even in the absence of pseudaminic acid. Flagellin glycosylation in a flagellin chaperone mutant (flaJ) indicated that glycosylation occurs in the cytoplasm before chaperone binding and protein secretion. Preferential chaperone binding to glycosylated flagellin revealed its crucial role, indicating that this system has evolved to favour secretion of the polymerization competent glycosylated form. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Structural variation and inhibitor binding in polypeptide deformylase from four different bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathrine J; Petit, Chantal M; Aubart, Kelly; Smyth, Martin; McManus, Edward; Jones, Jo; Fosberry, Andrew; Lewis, Ceri; Lonetto, Michael; Christensen, Siegfried B

    2003-02-01

    Polypeptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the deformylation of polypeptide chains in bacteria. It is essential for bacterial cell viability and is a potential antibacterial drug target. Here, we report the crystal structures of polypeptide deformylase from four different species of bacteria: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Escherichia coli. Comparison of these four structures reveals significant overall differences between the two Gram-negative species (E. coli and H. influenzae) and the two Gram-positive species (S. pneumoniae and S. aureus). Despite these differences and low overall sequence identity, the S1' pocket of PDF is well conserved among the four enzymes studied. We also describe the binding of nonpeptidic inhibitor molecules SB-485345, SB-543668, and SB-505684 to both S. pneumoniae and E. coli PDF. Comparison of these structures shows similar binding interactions with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species. Understanding the similarities and subtle differences in active site structure between species will help to design broad-spectrum polypeptide deformylase inhibitor molecules.

  6. Novel T3SS effector EseK in Edwardsiella piscicida is chaperoned by EscH and EscS to express virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huifang; Yang, Cuiting; Quan, Shu; Hu, Tianjian; Zhang, Lingzhi; Zhang, Yuanxing; Yang, Dahai; Liu, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Bacterium usually utilises type III secretion systems (T3SS) to deliver effectors directly into host cells with the aids of chaperones. Hence, it is very important to identify bacterial T3SS effectors and chaperones for better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Edwardsiella piscicida is an invasive enteric bacterium, which infects a wide range of hosts from fish to human. Given E. piscicida encodes a functional T3SS to promote infection, very few T3SS effectors and chaperones have been identified in this bacterium so far. Here, we reported that EseK is a new T3SS effector protein translocated by E. piscicida. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that escH and escS encode two putative class I T3SS chaperones. Further investigation indicated that EscH and EscS can enhance the secretion and translocation of EseK. EscH directly binds EseK through undetermined binding domains, whereas EscS binds EseK via its N-terminal α-helix. We also found that EseK has an N-terminal chaperone-binding domain, which binds EscH and EscS to form a ternary complex. Zebrafish infection experiments showed that EseK and its chaperones EscH and EscS are necessary for bacterial colonisation in zebrafish. This work identified a new T3SS effector, EseK, and its two T3SS chaperones, EscH and EscS, in E. piscicida, which enriches our knowledge of bacterial T3SS effector-chaperone interaction and contributes to our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. From bacterial avirulence genes to effector functions via the hrp delivery system: an overview of 25 years of progress in our understanding of plant innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, John W

    2009-11-01

    Cloning the first avirulence (avr) gene has led not only to a deeper understanding of gene-for-gene interactions in plant disease, but also to fundamental insights into the suppression of basal defences against microbial attack. This article (focusing on Pseudomonas syringae) charts the development of ideas and research progress over the 25 years following the breakthrough achieved by Staskawicz and coworkers. Advances in gene cloning technology underpinned the identification of both avr and hrp genes, the latter being required for the activation of the defensive hypersensitive reaction (HR) and pathogenicity. The delivery of Avr proteins through the type III secretion machinery encoded by hrp gene clusters was demonstrated, and the activity of the proteins inside plant cells as elicitors of the HR was confirmed. Key roles for avr genes in pathogenic fitness have now been established. The rebranding of Avr proteins as effectors, proteins that suppress the HR and cell wall-based defences, has led to the ongoing search for their targets, and is generating new insights into the co-ordination of plant resistance against diverse microbes. Bioinformatics-led analysis of effector gene distribution in genomes has provided a remarkable view of the interchange of effectors and also their functional domains, as the arms race of attack and defence drives the evolution of microbial pathogenicity. The application of our accrued knowledge for the development of disease control strategies is considered.

  8. Extra! Extracellular Effector Delivery into Host Cells via the Type 3 Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Melissa M

    2017-05-02

    The type three secretion system (T3SS) is critical for the virulence of diverse bacterial pathogens. Pathogens use the T3SS to deliver effector proteins into host cells and manipulate host signaling pathways. The prevailing mechanism is that effectors translocate from inside the T3SS directly into the host cell. Recent studies reveal an alternative mechanism of effector translocation, in which an effector protein located outside the bacterial cell relies on the T3SS for delivery into host cells. Tejeda-Dominguez et al. (F. Tejeda-Dominguez, J. Huerta-Cantillo, L. Chavez-Dueñas, and F. Navarro-Garcia, mBio 8:e00184-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00184-17) demonstrate that the EspC effector of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is translocated by binding to the outside of the T3SS and subsequently gains access to the host cell cytoplasm through the T3SS pore embedded within the host cell membrane. This work reveals a novel mechanism of translocation that is likely relevant for a variety of other pathogens that use the T3SS as part of their virulence arsenal. Copyright © 2017 Kendall.

  9. Lectin pathway effector enzyme mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 can activate native complement C3 in absence of C4 and/or C2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaseen, Sadam; Demopulos, Gregory; Dudler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    All 3 activation pathways of complement-the classic pathway (CP), the alternative pathway, and the lectin pathway (LP)- converge into a common central event: the cleavage and activation of the abundant third complement component, C3,viaformation of C3-activating enzymes (C3 convertases). The four......., Sacks, S., Garred, P., Andrew, P., Sim, R. B., Lachmann, P. J., Wallis, R., Lynch, N., Schwaeble, W. J. Lectin pathway effector enzyme mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 can activate native complement C3 in absence of C4 and/or C2....

  10. Crystal structure of bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yukie; Ochiai, Akihito; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bacterial alginate-binding Algp7 is similar to component EfeO of Fe 2+ transporter. → We determined the crystal structure of Algp7 with a metal-binding motif. → Algp7 consists of two helical bundles formed through duplication of a single bundle. → A deep cleft involved in alginate binding locates around the metal-binding site. → Algp7 may function as a Fe 2+ -chelated alginate-binding protein. -- Abstract: A gram-negative Sphingomonas sp. A1 directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm via the cell-surface pit and ABC transporter. A cell-surface alginate-binding protein, Algp7, functions as a concentrator of the polysaccharide in the pit. Based on the primary structure and genetic organization in the bacterial genome, Algp7 was found to be homologous to an M75 peptidase motif-containing EfeO, a component of a ferrous ion transporter. Despite the presence of an M75 peptidase motif with high similarity, the Algp7 protein purified from recombinant Escherichia coli cells was inert on insulin B chain and N-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide, both of which are substrates for a typical M75 peptidase, imelysin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The X-ray crystallographic structure of Algp7 was determined at 2.10 A resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. Although a metal-binding motif, HxxE, conserved in zinc ion-dependent M75 peptidases is also found in Algp7, the crystal structure of Algp7 contains no metal even at the motif. The protein consists of two structurally similar up-and-down helical bundles as the basic scaffold. A deep cleft between the bundles is sufficiently large to accommodate macromolecules such as alginate polysaccharide. This is the first structural report on a bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif.

  11. Crystal structure of bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yukie; Ochiai, Akihito [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Laboratory of Applied Structural Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hashimoto, Wataru [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murata, Kousaku, E-mail: kmurata@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Bacterial alginate-binding Algp7 is similar to component EfeO of Fe{sup 2+} transporter. {yields} We determined the crystal structure of Algp7 with a metal-binding motif. {yields} Algp7 consists of two helical bundles formed through duplication of a single bundle. {yields} A deep cleft involved in alginate binding locates around the metal-binding site. {yields} Algp7 may function as a Fe{sup 2+}-chelated alginate-binding protein. -- Abstract: A gram-negative Sphingomonas sp. A1 directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm via the cell-surface pit and ABC transporter. A cell-surface alginate-binding protein, Algp7, functions as a concentrator of the polysaccharide in the pit. Based on the primary structure and genetic organization in the bacterial genome, Algp7 was found to be homologous to an M75 peptidase motif-containing EfeO, a component of a ferrous ion transporter. Despite the presence of an M75 peptidase motif with high similarity, the Algp7 protein purified from recombinant Escherichia coli cells was inert on insulin B chain and N-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide, both of which are substrates for a typical M75 peptidase, imelysin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The X-ray crystallographic structure of Algp7 was determined at 2.10 A resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. Although a metal-binding motif, HxxE, conserved in zinc ion-dependent M75 peptidases is also found in Algp7, the crystal structure of Algp7 contains no metal even at the motif. The protein consists of two structurally similar up-and-down helical bundles as the basic scaffold. A deep cleft between the bundles is sufficiently large to accommodate macromolecules such as alginate polysaccharide. This is the first structural report on a bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif.

  12. The Bordetella Secreted Regulator BspR Is Translocated into the Nucleus of Host Cells via Its N-Terminal Moiety: Evaluation of Bacterial Effector Translocation by the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Abe

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica is genetically related to B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, which cause respiratory tract infections in humans. These pathogens possess a large number of virulence factors, including the type III secretion system (T3SS, which is required for the delivery of effectors into the host cells. In a previous study, we identified a transcriptional regulator, BspR, that is involved in the regulation of the T3SS-related genes in response to iron-starved conditions. A unique feature of BspR is that this regulator is secreted into the extracellular milieu via the T3SS. To further characterize the role of BspR in extracellular localization, we constructed various truncated derivatives of BspR and investigated their translocation into the host cells using conventional translocation assays. In this study, the effector translocation was evaluated by the T3SS of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, since the exogenous expression of BspR triggers severe repression of the Bordetella T3SS expression. The results of the translocation assays using the EPEC T3SS showed that the N-terminal 150 amino acid (aa residues of BspR are sufficient for translocation into the host cells in a T3SS-dependent manner. In addition, exogenous expression of BspR in HeLa cells demonstrated that the N-terminal 100 aa residues are involved in the nuclear localization. In contrast, the N-terminal 54 aa residues are sufficient for the extracellular secretion into the bacterial culture supernatant via the EPEC T3SS. Thus, BspR is not only a transcriptional regulator in bacteria cytosol, but also functions as an effector that translocates into the nuclei of infected host cells.

  13. The Bordetella Secreted Regulator BspR Is Translocated into the Nucleus of Host Cells via Its N-Terminal Moiety: Evaluation of Bacterial Effector Translocation by the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Akio; Nishimura, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Naomichi; Kurushima, Jun; Kuwae, Asaomi

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is genetically related to B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, which cause respiratory tract infections in humans. These pathogens possess a large number of virulence factors, including the type III secretion system (T3SS), which is required for the delivery of effectors into the host cells. In a previous study, we identified a transcriptional regulator, BspR, that is involved in the regulation of the T3SS-related genes in response to iron-starved conditions. A unique feature of BspR is that this regulator is secreted into the extracellular milieu via the T3SS. To further characterize the role of BspR in extracellular localization, we constructed various truncated derivatives of BspR and investigated their translocation into the host cells using conventional translocation assays. In this study, the effector translocation was evaluated by the T3SS of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), since the exogenous expression of BspR triggers severe repression of the Bordetella T3SS expression. The results of the translocation assays using the EPEC T3SS showed that the N-terminal 150 amino acid (aa) residues of BspR are sufficient for translocation into the host cells in a T3SS-dependent manner. In addition, exogenous expression of BspR in HeLa cells demonstrated that the N-terminal 100 aa residues are involved in the nuclear localization. In contrast, the N-terminal 54 aa residues are sufficient for the extracellular secretion into the bacterial culture supernatant via the EPEC T3SS. Thus, BspR is not only a transcriptional regulator in bacteria cytosol, but also functions as an effector that translocates into the nuclei of infected host cells.

  14. Development of Phage-Based Antibody Fragment Reagents for Affinity Enrichment of Bacterial Immunoglobulin G Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säll, Anna; Sjöholm, Kristoffer; Waldemarson, Sofia; Happonen, Lotta; Karlsson, Christofer; Persson, Helena; Malmström, Johan

    2015-11-06

    Disease and death caused by bacterial infections are global health problems. Effective bacterial strategies are required to promote survival and proliferation within a human host, and it is important to explore how this adaption occurs. However, the detection and quantification of bacterial virulence factors in complex biological samples are technically demanding challenges. These can be addressed by combining targeted affinity enrichment of antibodies with the sensitivity of liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-SRM MS). However, many virulence factors have evolved properties that make specific detection by conventional antibodies difficult. We here present an antibody format that is particularly well suited for detection and analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding virulence factors. As proof of concept, we have generated single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies that specifically target the IgG-binding surface proteins M1 and H of Streptococcus pyogenes. The binding ability of the developed scFv is demonstrated against both recombinant soluble protein M1 and H as well as the intact surface proteins on a wild-type S. pyogenes strain. Additionally, the capacity of the developed scFv antibodies to enrich their target proteins from both simple and complex backgrounds, thereby allowing for detection and quantification with LC-SRM MS, was demonstrated. We have established a workflow that allows for affinity enrichment of bacterial virulence factors.

  15. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  16. SVM prediction of ligand-binding sites in bacterial lipoproteins employing shape and physio-chemical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Kiran; Prabhakar, Prashant; Jayaraman, V K

    2012-11-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in various physiological processes including the maintenance of pathogenicity and numbers of them are being considered as potential candidates for generating novel vaccines. In this work, we put forth an algorithm to identify and predict ligand-binding sites in bacterial lipoproteins. The method uses three types of pocket descriptors, namely fpocket descriptors, 3D Zernike descriptors and shell descriptors, and combines them with Support Vector Machine (SVM) method for the classification. The three types of descriptors represent shape-based properties of the pocket as well as its local physio-chemical features. All three types of descriptors, along with their hybrid combinations are evaluated with SVM and to improve classification performance, WEKA-InfoGain feature selection is applied. Results obtained in the study show that the classifier successfully differentiates between ligand-binding and non-binding pockets. For the combination of three types of descriptors, 10 fold cross-validation accuracy of 86.83% is obtained for training while the selected model achieved test Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.534. Individually or in combination with new and existing methods, our model can be a very useful tool for the prediction of potential ligand-binding sites in bacterial lipoproteins.

  17. A common theme in interaction of bacterial immunoglobulin-binding proteins with immunoglobulins illustrated in the equine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melanie J; Meehan, Mary; Owen, Peter; Woof, Jenny M

    2008-06-20

    The M protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi known as fibrinogen-binding protein (FgBP) is a cell wall-associated protein with antiphagocytic activity that binds IgG. Recombinant versions of the seven equine IgG subclasses were used to investigate the subclass specificity of FgBP. FgBP bound predominantly to equine IgG4 and IgG7, with little or no binding to the other subclasses. Competitive binding experiments revealed that FgBP could inhibit the binding of staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G to both IgG4 and IgG7, implicating the Fc interdomain region in binding to FgBP. To identify which of the two IgG Fc domains contributed to the interaction with FgBP, we tested two human IgG1/IgA1 domain swap mutants and found that both domains are required for full binding, with the CH3 domain playing a critical role. The binding site for FgBP was further localized using recombinant equine IgG7 antibodies with single or double point mutations to residues lying at the CH2-CH3 interface. We found that interaction of FgBP with equine IgG4 and IgG7 was able to disrupt C1q binding and antibody-mediated activation of the classical complement pathway, demonstrating an effective means by which S. equi may evade the immune response. The mode of interaction of FgBP with IgG fits a common theme for bacterial Ig-binding proteins. Remarkably, for those interactions studied in detail, it emerges that all the Ig-binding proteins target the CH2-CH3 domain interface, regardless of specificity for IgG or IgA, streptococcal or staphylococcal origin, or host species (equine or human).

  18. Structure, function, and evolution of bacterial ATP-binding cassette systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, A.L.; Dassa, E.; Orelle, C.; Chen, J. (Purdue)

    2010-07-27

    HisP, the proteins suspected to energize these transporters, shared as much as 32% identity in amino acid residues when their sequences were aligned (171). Later, it was found that several bacterial proteins involved in uptake of nutrients, export of toxins, cell division, bacterial nodulation of plants, and DNA repair displayed the same similarity in their sequences (127, 196). This led to the notion that the conserved protein, which had been shown to bind ATP (198, 201), would probably energize the systems mentioned above by coupling the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport. The latter was demonstrated with the maltose and histidine transporters by use of isolated membrane vesicles (105, 379) and purified transporters reconstituted into proteoliposomes (30, 98). The determination of the sequence of the first eukaryotic protein strongly similar to these bacterial transporters (the P-glycoprotein, involved in resistance of cancer cells to multiple drugs) (169, 179) demonstrated that these proteins were not restricted to prokaryotes. Two names, 'traffic ATPases' (15) and the more accepted name 'ABC transporters' (193, 218), were proposed for members of this new superfamily. ABC systems can be divided into three main functional categories, as follows. Importers mediate the uptake of nutrients in prokaryotes. The nature of the substrates that are transported is very wide, including mono- and oligosaccharides, organic and inorganic ions, amino acids, peptides, ironsiderophores, metals, polyamine cations, opines, and vitamins. Exporters are involved in the secretion of various molecules, such as peptides, lipids, hydrophobic drugs, polysaccharides, and proteins, including toxins such as hemolysin. The third category of systems is apparently not involved in transport, with some members being involved in translation of mRNA and in DNA repair. Despite the large, diverse population of substrates handled and the difference in the polarity of transport

  19. Biological characterization of a new radioactive labeling reagent for bacterial penicillin-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, D.A.; Wu, C.Y.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Seitz, D.E.; Halligan, N.G. (Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Radiolabeled penicillin G is widely used as the imaging agent in penicillin-binding protein (PBP) assays. The disadvantages of most forms of labeled penicillin G are instability on storage and the long exposure times usually required for autoradiography or fluorography of electrophoretic gels. We investigated the utility of radioiodinated penicillin V as an alternative reagent. Radioiodination of p-(trimethylstannyl)penicillin V with ({sup 125}I)Na, using a modification of the chloramine-T method, is simple, high yielding, and site specific. We demonstrated the general equivalence of commercially obtained ({sup 3}H)penicillin G and locally synthesized ({sup 125}I)penicillin V (IPV) in their recognition of bacterial PBPs. Profiles of PBPs in membranes from Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Providencia rettgeri, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium labeled with IPV or (3H)penicillin G were virtually identical. Use of IPV as the imaging agent in competition experiments for determination of the affinities of various beta-lactam antibiotics for the PBPs of E. coli yielded results similar to those obtained in experiments with ({sup 3}H)penicillin G. Dried electrophoretic gels from typical PBP experiments, using IPV at 37.3 Ci/mmol and 30 micrograms/ml, exposed X-ray film in 8 to 24 h. The stability of IPV on storage at 4{degrees}C was inversely proportional to specific activity. At 37.3 Ci/mmol and 60 micrograms/ml, IPV retained useful activity for at least 60 days at 4{degrees}C. IPV represents a practical and stable reagent for rapid PBP assays.

  20. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Vlisidou, Isabella; Amos, Matthew R; Yang, Guowei; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Potter, Ursula J; Joyce, Susan A; Ciche, Todd A; Jenkins, A Toby A; Bagby, Stefan; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Waterfield, Nicholas R

    2010-05-12

    Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28 degrees C) and human (37 degrees C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of EPS properties. Despite

  1. Biological characterization of a new radioactive labeling reagent for bacterial penicillin-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.A.; Wu, C.Y.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Seitz, D.E.; Halligan, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    Radiolabeled penicillin G is widely used as the imaging agent in penicillin-binding protein (PBP) assays. The disadvantages of most forms of labeled penicillin G are instability on storage and the long exposure times usually required for autoradiography or fluorography of electrophoretic gels. We investigated the utility of radioiodinated penicillin V as an alternative reagent. Radioiodination of p-(trimethylstannyl)penicillin V with [ 125 I]Na, using a modification of the chloramine-T method, is simple, high yielding, and site specific. We demonstrated the general equivalence of commercially obtained [ 3 H]penicillin G and locally synthesized [ 125 I]penicillin V (IPV) in their recognition of bacterial PBPs. Profiles of PBPs in membranes from Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Providencia rettgeri, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium labeled with IPV or [3H]penicillin G were virtually identical. Use of IPV as the imaging agent in competition experiments for determination of the affinities of various beta-lactam antibiotics for the PBPs of E. coli yielded results similar to those obtained in experiments with [ 3 H]penicillin G. Dried electrophoretic gels from typical PBP experiments, using IPV at 37.3 Ci/mmol and 30 micrograms/ml, exposed X-ray film in 8 to 24 h. The stability of IPV on storage at 4 degrees C was inversely proportional to specific activity. At 37.3 Ci/mmol and 60 micrograms/ml, IPV retained useful activity for at least 60 days at 4 degrees C. IPV represents a practical and stable reagent for rapid PBP assays

  2. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is up-regulated in bacterial endocarditis and binds to components of vegetations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hanna; Renner, Marcus; Helmke, Burkhard M

    2009-01-01

    . The glycoprotein Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein with functions in innate immunity and epithelial differentiation. Because of the aggregating capacity of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1, we hypothesized that an up-regulation in bacterial endocarditis may...... be linked to the development of vegetations. METHODS: Heart tissue of 19 patients with bacterial endocarditis and 10 controls without bacterial endocarditis was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of human recombinant Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 on erythrocyte aggregation was measured using...... an automated red blood cell aggregometer MA1. Binding of human recombinant Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 to erythrocyte membranes, platelets, fibrin, and fibrinogen was analyzed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 expression was up...

  3. Extra! Extracellular Effector Delivery into Host Cells via the Type 3 Secretion System

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type three secretion system (T3SS) is critical for the virulence of diverse bacterial pathogens. Pathogens use the T3SS to deliver effector proteins into host cells and manipulate host signaling pathways. The prevailing mechanism is that effectors translocate from inside the T3SS directly into the host cell. Recent studies reveal an alternative mechanism of effector translocation, in which an effector protein located outside the bacterial cell relies on the T3SS for delivery into...

  4. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Susan A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C and human (37°C temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect

  5. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Robert T

    2010-05-12

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of

  6. A bacterial cytotoxin identifies the RhoA exchange factor Net1 as a key effector in the response to DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Guerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure of adherent cells to DNA damaging agents, such as the bacterial cytolethal distending toxin (CDT or ionizing radiations (IR, activates the small GTPase RhoA, which promotes the formation of actin stress fibers and delays cell death. The signalling intermediates that regulate RhoA activation and promote cell survival are unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that the nuclear RhoA-specific Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF Net1 becomes dephosphorylated at a critical inhibitory site in cells exposed to CDT or IR. Expression of a dominant negative Net1 or Net1 knock down by iRNA prevented RhoA activation, inhibited the formation of stress fibers, and enhanced cell death, indicating that Net1 activation is required for this RhoA-mediated responses to genotoxic stress. The Net1 and RhoA-dependent signals involved activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 and its downstream target MAPK-activated protein kinase 2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight the importance of Net1 in controlling RhoA and p38 MAPK mediated cell survival in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents and illustrate a molecular pathway whereby chronic exposure to a bacterial toxin may promote genomic instability.

  7. Crystal structure of bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukie; Ochiai, Akihito; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2011-02-18

    A gram-negative Sphingomonas sp. A1 directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm via the cell-surface pit and ABC transporter. A cell-surface alginate-binding protein, Algp7, functions as a concentrator of the polysaccharide in the pit. Based on the primary structure and genetic organization in the bacterial genome, Algp7 was found to be homologous to an M75 peptidase motif-containing EfeO, a component of a ferrous ion transporter. Despite the presence of an M75 peptidase motif with high similarity, the Algp7 protein purified from recombinant Escherichia coli cells was inert on insulin B chain and N-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide, both of which are substrates for a typical M75 peptidase, imelysin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The X-ray crystallographic structure of Algp7 was determined at 2.10Å resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. Although a metal-binding motif, HxxE, conserved in zinc ion-dependent M75 peptidases is also found in Algp7, the crystal structure of Algp7 contains no metal even at the motif. The protein consists of two structurally similar up-and-down helical bundles as the basic scaffold. A deep cleft between the bundles is sufficiently large to accommodate macromolecules such as alginate polysaccharide. This is the first structural report on a bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic Identification of Intracellular-Translocated Candidate Effectors in Edwardsiella piscicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzhi Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens inject effectors directly into host cells to target a variety of host cellular processes and promote bacterial dissemination and survival. Identifying the bacterial effectors and elucidating their functions are central to understanding the molecular pathogenesis of these pathogens. Edwardsiella piscicida is a pathogen with a wide host range, and very few of its effectors have been identified to date. Here, based on the genes significantly regulated by macrophage infection, we identified 25 intracellular translocation-positive candidate effectors, including all five previously reported effectors, namely EseG, EseJ, EseH, EseK, and EvpP. A subsequent secretion analysis revealed diverse secretion patterns for the 25 effector candidates, suggesting that multiple transport pathways were involved in the internalization of these candidate effectors. Further, we identified two novel type VI secretion system (T6SS putative effectors and three outer membrane vesicles (OMV-dependent putative effectors among the candidate effectors described above, and further analyzed their contribution to bacterial virulence in a zebrafish model. This work demonstrates an effective approach for screening bacterial effectors and expands the effectors repertoire in E. piscicida.

  9. A Perspective on Reagent Diversity and Non-covalent Binding of Reactive Carbonyl Species (RCS and Effector Reagents in Non-enzymatic Glycation (NEG: Mechanistic Considerations and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Rodnick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This perspective focuses on illustrating the underappreciated connections between reactive carbonyl species (RCS, initial binding in the nonenzymatic glycation (NEG process, and nonenzymatic covalent protein modification (here termed NECPM. While glucose is the central species involved in NEG, recent studies indicate that the initially-bound glucose species in the NEG of human hemoglobin (HbA and human serum albumin (HSA are non-RCS ring-closed isomers. The ring-opened glucose, an RCS structure that reacts in the NEG process, is most likely generated from previously-bound ring-closed isomers undergoing concerted acid/base reactions while bound to protein. The generation of the glucose RCS can involve concomitantly-bound physiological species (e.g., inorganic phosphate, water, etc.; here termed effector reagents. Extant NEG schemes do not account for these recent findings. In addition, effector reagent reactions with glucose in the serum and erythrocyte cytosol can generate RCS (e.g., glyoxal, glyceraldehyde, etc.. Recent research has shown that these RCS covalently modify proteins in vivo via NECPM mechanisms. A general scheme that reflects both the reagent and mechanistic diversity that can lead to NEG and NECPM is presented here. A perspective that accounts for the relationships between RCS, NEG, and NECPM can facilitate the understanding of site selectivity, may help explain overall glycation rates, and may have implications for the clinical assessment/control of diabetes mellitus. In view of this perspective, concentrations of ribose, fructose, Pi, bicarbonate, counter ions, and the resulting RCS generated within intracellular and extracellular compartments may be of importance and of clinical relevance. Future research is also proposed.

  10. A perspective on reagent diversity and non-covalent binding of reactive carbonyl species (RCS) and effector reagents in nonenzymatic glycation (NEG): Mechanistic considerations and implications for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Holman, R. W.; Ropski, Pamela S.; Huang, Mingdong; Swislocki, Arthur L. M.

    2017-06-01

    This perspective focuses on illustrating the underappreciated connections between reactive carbonyl species (RCS), initial binding in the nonenzymatic glycation (NEG) process, and nonenzymatic covalent protein modification (here termed NECPM). While glucose is the central species involved in NEG, recent studies indicate that the initially-bound glucose species in the NEG of human hemoglobin (HbA) and human serum albumin (HSA) are non-RCS ring-closed isomers. The ring-opened glucose, an RCS structure that reacts in the NEG process, is most likely generated from previously-bound ring-closed isomers undergoing concerted acid/base reactions while bound to protein. The generation of the glucose RCS can involve concomitantly-bound physiological species (e.g., inorganic phosphate, water, etc.); here termed effector reagents. Extant NEG schemes do not account for these recent findings. In addition, effector reagent reactions with glucose in the serum and erythrocyte cytosol can generate RCS (e.g., glyoxal, glyceraldehyde, etc.). Recent research has shown that these RCS covalently modify proteins in vivo via NECPM mechanisms. A general scheme that reflects both the reagent and mechanistic diversity that can lead to NEG and NECPM is presented here. A perspective that accounts for the relationships between RCS, NEG, and NECPM can facilitate the understanding of site selectivity, may help explain overall glycation rates, and may have implications for the clinical assessment/control of diabetes mellitus. In view of this perspective, concentrations of ribose, fructose, Pi, bicarbonate, counter ions, and the resulting RCS generated within intracellular and extracellular compartments may be of importance and of clinical relevance. Future research is also proposed.

  11. The IpaC carboxyterminal effector domain mediates Src-dependent actin polymerization during Shigella invasion of epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Mounier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades epithelial cells by locally reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton. Shigella invasion requires actin polymerization dependent on the Src tyrosine kinase and a functional bacterial type III secretion (T3S apparatus. Using dynamic as well as immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that the T3S translocon component IpaC allows the recruitment of the Src kinase required for actin polymerization at bacterial entry sites during the initial stages of Shigella entry. Src recruitment occurred at bacterial-cell contact sites independent of actin polymerization at the onset of the invasive process and was still observed in Shigella strains mutated for translocated T3S effectors of invasion. A Shigella strain with a polar mutation that expressed low levels of the translocator components IpaB and IpaC was fully proficient for Src recruitment and bacterial invasion. In contrast, a Shigella strain mutated in the IpaC carboxyterminal effector domain that was proficient for T3S effector translocation did not induce Src recruitment. Consistent with a direct role for IpaC in Src activation, cell incubation with the IpaC last 72 carboxyterminal residues fused to the Iota toxin Ia (IaC component that translocates into the cell cytosol upon binding to the Ib component led to Src-dependent ruffle formation. Strikingly, IaC also induced actin structures resembling bacterial entry foci that were enriched in activated Src and were inhibited by the Src inhibitor PP2. These results indicate that the IpaC effector domain determines Src-dependent actin polymerization and ruffle formation during bacterial invasion.

  12. Vaccine-Induced Plasma IgA Specific for the C1 Region of the HIV-1 Envelope Blocks Binding and Effector Function of IgG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    demonstrated that plasma IgG against the HIV -1 envelope ( Env ) variable region 1 and 2 inversely correlatedwith risk, whereas HIV -1 Env -specific plasma IgA...uninfected vaccine recipients in RV144. Moreover, Env -specific IgA antibodies from RV144 vaccinees blocked the binding of ADCC-mediating mAb to HIV -1 Env ... HIV -1–infected CD4+ T cells coated with RV144-induced IgG antibodies. We show that monomeric Env -specific IgA, as part of postvaccination poly

  13. Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Shen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6, which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins.

  14. Lateral flow assay-based bacterial detection using engineered cell wall binding domains of a phage endolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsuk; Shin, Joong Ho; Heu, Sunggi; Park, Je-Kyun; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-10-15

    The development of a cost-effective and efficient bacterial detection assay is essential for diagnostic fields, particularly in resource-poor settings. Although antibodies have been widely used for bacterial capture, the production of soluble antibodies is still expensive and time-consuming. Here, we developed a nitrocellulose-based lateral flow assay using cell wall binding domains (CBDs) from phage as a recognition element and colloidal gold nanoparticles as a colorimetric signal for the detection of a model pathogenic bacterium, Bacillus cereus (B. cereus). To improve conjugation efficiency and detection sensitivity, cysteine-glutathione-S-transferase-tagged CBDs and maltose-binding protein-tagged CBDs were produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and incorporated in our assays. The sensitivity of the strip to detect B. cereus was 1×10 4 CFU/mL and the overall assay time was 20min. The assay showed superior results compared to the antibody-based approach, and did not show any significant cross-reactivity. This proof of concept study indicates that the lateral flow assay using engineered CBDs hold considerable promise as simple, rapid, and cost-effective biosensors for whole cell detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A role for the weak DnaA binding sites in bacterial replication origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    between species. In the study by Taylor et al. (2011), new and unexpectedly weak DnaA-boxes were identified within the Caulobacter crescentus origin of replication (Cori). The position of weak and stronger DnaA-boxes follows a pattern seen in Escherichia coli oriC. This raises the possibility...... that bacterial origins might be more alike than previously thought....

  16. Functional analysis of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis RXLR effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel J C Pel

    Full Text Available The biotrophic plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis produces a set of putative effector proteins that contain the conserved RXLR motif. For most of these RXLR proteins the role during infection is unknown. Thirteen RXLR proteins from H. arabidopsidis strain Waco9 were analyzed for sequence similarities and tested for a role in virulence. The thirteen RXLR proteins displayed conserved N-termini and this N-terminal conservation was also found in the 134 predicted RXLR genes from the genome of H. arabidopsidis strain Emoy2. To investigate the effects of single RXLR effector proteins on plant defense responses, thirteen H. arabidopsidis Waco9 RXLR genes were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequently, these plants were screened for altered susceptibility to the oomycetes H. arabidopsidis and Phytophthora capsici, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Additionally, the effect of the RXLR proteins on flg22-triggered basal immune responses was assessed. Multifactorial analysis of results collated from all experiments revealed that, except for RXLR20, all RXLR effector proteins tested affected plant immunity. For RXLR9 this was confirmed using a P. syringae ΔCEL-mediated effector delivery system. Together, the results show that many H. arabidopsidis RXLR effectors have small effects on the plant immune response, suggesting that suppression of host immunity by this biotrophic pathogen is likely to be caused by the combined actions of effectors.

  17. daTALbase: A Database for Genomic and Transcriptomic Data Related to TAL Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Lamy, Léo; Zarate, Carlos A; Cunnac, Sébastien; Doyle, Erin; Bogdanove, Adam; Szurek, Boris; Dereeper, Alexis

    2018-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins found in the genus Xanthomonas of phytopathogenic bacteria. These proteins enter the nucleus of cells in the host plant and can induce the expression of susceptibility genes (S genes), triggering disease. TALEs bind the promoter region of S genes following a specific code, which allows the prediction of binding sites based on TALEs amino acid sequences. New candidate S genes can then be discovered by finding the intersection between genes induced in the presence of TALEs and genes containing predicted effector binding elements. By contrasting differential expression data and binding site predictions across different datasets, patterns of TALE diversification or convergence may be unveiled, but this requires the seamless integration of different genomic and transcriptomic data. With this in mind, we present daTALbase, a curated relational database that integrates TALE-related data including bacterial TALE sequences, plant promoter sequences, predicted TALE binding sites, transcriptomic data of host plants in response to TALE-harboring bacteria, and other associated data. The database can be explored to uncover new candidate S genes as well as to study variation in TALE repertories and their corresponding targets. The first version of the database here presented includes data for Oryza sp.-Xanthomonas pv. oryzae interactions. Future versions of the database will incorporate information for other pathosystems involving TALEs.

  18. Novel Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors Exploit Asp83 and the Intrinsic Flexibility of the DNA Gyrase Binding Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Franco-Ulloa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA gyrases are enzymes that control the topology of DNA in bacteria cells. This is a vital function for bacteria. For this reason, DNA gyrases are targeted by widely used antibiotics such as quinolones. Recently, structural and biochemical investigations identified a new class of DNA gyrase inhibitors called NBTIs (i.e., novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors. NBTIs are particularly promising because they are active against multi-drug resistant bacteria, an alarming clinical issue. Structural data recently demonstrated that these NBTIs bind tightly to a newly identified pocket at the dimer interface of the DNA–protein complex. In the present study, we used molecular dynamics (MD simulations and docking calculations to shed new light on the binding of NBTIs to this site. Interestingly, our MD simulations demonstrate the intrinsic flexibility of this binding site, which allows the pocket to adapt its conformation and form optimal interactions with the ligand. In particular, we examined two ligands, AM8085 and AM8191, which induced a repositioning of a key aspartate (Asp83B, whose side chain can rotate within the binding site. The conformational rearrangement of Asp83B allows the formation of a newly identified H-bond interaction with an NH on the bound NBTI, which seems important for the binding of NBTIs having such functionality. We validated these findings through docking calculations using an extended set of cognate oxabicyclooctane-linked NBTIs derivatives (~150, in total, screened against multiple target conformations. The newly identified H-bond interaction significantly improves the docking enrichment. These insights could be helpful for future virtual screening campaigns against DNA gyrase.

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae Proteins AmiA, AliA, and AliB Bind Peptides Found in Ribosomal Proteins of Other Bacterial Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzy Nasher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nasopharynx is frequently colonized by both commensal and pathogenic bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus. Pneumococcus is an important pathogen responsible for bacterial meningitis and community acquired pneumonia but is also commonly an asymptomatic colonizer of the nasopharynx. Understanding interactions between microbes may provide insights into pathogenesis. Here, we investigated the ability of the three oligopeptide-binding proteins AmiA, AliA, and AliB of an ATP-binding cassette transporter of pneumococcus to detect short peptides found in other bacterial species. We found three possible peptide ligands for AmiA and four each for AliA and AliB of which two for each protein matched ribosomal proteins of other bacterial species. Using synthetic peptides we confirmed the following binding: AmiA binds peptide AKTIKITQTR, matching 50S ribosomal subunit protein L30, AliA binds peptide FNEMQPIVDRQ, matching 30S ribosomal protein S20, and AliB binds peptide AIQSEKARKHN, matching 30S ribosomal protein S20, without excluding the possibility of binding of the other peptides. These Ami–AliA/AliB peptide ligands are found in multiple species in the class of Gammaproteobacteria which includes common colonizers of the nostrils and nasopharynx. Binding such peptides may enable pneumococcus to detect and respond to neighboring species in its environment and is a potential mechanism for interspecies communication and environmental surveillance.

  20. Erwinia amylovora effector protein Eop1 suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity in Malus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea) utilizes a type three secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Several Ea effectors have been identified based on their sequence similarity to plant and animal bacterial pathogen effectors; however, the function of the majority of Ea effecto...

  1. Cooperative Immune Suppression by Escherichia coli and Shigella Effector Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten F; Alto, Neal M

    2018-04-01

    The enteric attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and the invasive pathogens enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella encode type III secretion systems (T3SS) used to inject effector proteins into human host cells during infection. Among these are a group of effectors required for NF-κB-mediated host immune evasion. Recent studies have identified several effector proteins from A/E pathogens and EIEC/ Shigella that are involved in suppression of NF-κB and have uncovered their cellular and molecular functions. A novel mechanism among these effectors from both groups of pathogens is to coordinate effector function during infection. This cooperativity among effector proteins explains how bacterial pathogens are able to effectively suppress innate immune defense mechanisms in response to diverse classes of immune receptor signaling complexes (RSCs) stimulated during infection. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. The substrate-binding protein in bacterial ABC transporters: dissecting roles in the evolution of substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Abbas; Horler, Richard S P; Muller, Axel; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Wilson, Keith S; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, although being ubiquitous in biology, often feature a subunit that is limited primarily to bacteria and archaea. This subunit, the substrate-binding protein (SBP), is a key determinant of the substrate specificity and high affinity of ABC uptake systems in these organisms. Most prokaryotes have many SBP-dependent ABC transporters that recognize a broad range of ligands from metal ions to amino acids, sugars and peptides. Herein, we review the structure and function of a number of more unusual SBPs, including an ABC transporter involved in the transport of rare furanose forms of sugars and an SBP that has evolved to specifically recognize the bacterial cell wall-derived murein tripeptide (Mtp). Both these examples illustrate that subtle changes in binding-site architecture, including changes in side chains not directly involved in ligand co-ordination, can result in significant alteration of substrate range in novel and unpredictable ways. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. Bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, B

    2006-01-01

    by kinase YwqD and phosphatase YwqE. Phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB increased binding almost 200-fold to single-stranded DNA in vitro. Tyrosine phosphorylation of B.subtilis, S.coelicolor and Escherichia coli SSBs occured while they were expressed in E.coli, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation...

  4. Lactoferrin binding protein B - a bi-functional bacterial receptor protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas K H Ostan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB is a bi-lobed outer membrane-bound lipoprotein that comprises part of the lactoferrin (Lf receptor complex in Neisseria meningitidis and other Gram-negative pathogens. Recent studies have demonstrated that LbpB plays a role in protecting the bacteria from cationic antimicrobial peptides due to large regions rich in anionic residues in the C-terminal lobe. Relative to its homolog, transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB, there currently is little evidence for its role in iron acquisition and relatively little structural and biophysical information on its interaction with Lf. In this study, a combination of crosslinking and deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, information-driven computational docking, bio-layer interferometry, and site-directed mutagenesis was used to probe LbpB:hLf complexes. The formation of a 1:1 complex of iron-loaded Lf and LbpB involves an interaction between the Lf C-lobe and LbpB N-lobe, comparable to TbpB, consistent with a potential role in iron acquisition. The Lf N-lobe is also capable of binding to negatively charged regions of the LbpB C-lobe and possibly other sites such that a variety of higher order complexes are formed. Our results are consistent with LbpB serving dual roles focused primarily on iron acquisition when exposed to limited levels of iron-loaded Lf on the mucosal surface and effectively binding apo Lf when exposed to high levels at sites of inflammation.

  5. Antimicrobial Peptide Potency is Facilitated by Greater Conformational Flexibility when Binding to Gram-negative Bacterial Inner Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Sarah-Beth T. A.; Vermeer, Louic S.; Ferguson, Philip M.; Kozlowska, Justyna; Davy, Matthew; Bui, Tam T.; Drake, Alex F.; Lorenz, Christian D.; Mason, A. James

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a key determinant of their abilities to exert diverse bactericidal effects. Here we present a molecular level understanding of the initial target membrane interaction for two cationic α-helical AMPs that share structural similarities but have a ten-fold difference in antibacterial potency towards Gram-negative bacteria. The binding and insertion from solution of pleurocidin or magainin 2 to membranes representing the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, comprising a mixture of 128 anionic and 384 zwitterionic lipids, is monitored over 100 ns in all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the membrane interaction on both the peptide and lipid constituents are considered and compared with new and published experimental data obtained in the steady state. While both magainin 2 and pleurocidin are capable of disrupting bacterial membranes, the greater potency of pleurocidin is linked to its ability to penetrate within the bacterial cell. We show that pleurocidin displays much greater conformational flexibility when compared with magainin 2, resists self-association at the membrane surface and penetrates further into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Conformational flexibility is therefore revealed as a key feature required of apparently α-helical cationic AMPs for enhanced antibacterial potency.

  6. Mevalonate 5-diphosphate mediates ATP binding to the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from the bacterial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Mermoud, James C.; Paul, Lake N.; Steussy, Calvin Nicklaus; Stauffacher, Cynthia V. (Purdue)

    2017-10-12

    The mevalonate pathway produces isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), a building block for polyisoprenoid synthesis, and is a crucial pathway for growth of the human bacterial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The final enzyme in this pathway, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD), acts on mevalonate diphosphate (MVAPP) to produce IPP while consuming ATP. This essential enzyme has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections. Here, we report functional and structural studies on the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from E. faecalis (MDDEF). The MDDEF crystal structure in complex with ATP (MDDEF–ATP) revealed that the phosphate-binding loop (amino acids 97–105) is not involved in ATP binding and that the phosphate tail of ATP in this structure is in an outward-facing position pointing away from the active site. This suggested that binding of MDDEF to MVAPP is necessary to guide ATP into a catalytically favorable position. Enzymology experiments show that the MDDEF performs a sequential ordered bi-substrate reaction with MVAPP as the first substrate, consistent with the isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments. On the basis of ITC results, we propose that this initial prerequisite binding of MVAPP enhances ATP binding. In summary, our findings reveal a substrate-induced substrate-binding event that occurs during the MDDEF-catalyzed reaction. The disengagement of the phosphate-binding loop concomitant with the alternative ATP-binding configuration may provide the structural basis for antimicrobial design against these pathogenic enterococci.

  7. WASp identity theft by a bacterial effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty-Clarke, Karen; Goode, Bruce L

    2008-09-01

    EspF(U), a protein secreted by pathogenic enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), activates N-WASp/WASp to induce actin pedestal formation in host cells. Two recent papers in Nature show that EspF(U) exploits a WASp activation strategy so extreme that it may effectively sequester WASp, blinding it to both autoinhibition and cellular regulation.

  8. Co-ordinate synthesis and protein localization in a bacterial organelle by the action of a penicillin-binding-protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H Velocity; Lisher, John P; Hardy, Gail G; Kysela, David T; Arnold, Randy J; Giedroc, David P; Brun, Yves V

    2013-12-01

    Organelles with specialized form and function occur in diverse bacteria. Within the Alphaproteobacteria, several species extrude thin cellular appendages known as stalks, which function in nutrient uptake, buoyancy and reproduction. Consistent with their specialization, stalks maintain a unique molecular composition compared with the cell body, but how this is achieved remains to be fully elucidated. Here we dissect the mechanism of localization of StpX, a stalk-specific protein in Caulobacter crescentus. Using a forward genetics approach, we identify a penicillin-binding-protein, PbpC, which is required for the localization of StpX in the stalk. We show that PbpC acts at the stalked cell pole to anchor StpX to rigid components of the outer membrane of the elongating stalk, concurrent with stalk synthesis. Stalk-localized StpX in turn functions in cellular responses to copper and zinc, suggesting that the stalk may contribute to metal homeostasis in Caulobacter. Together, these results identify a novel role for a penicillin-binding-protein in compartmentalizing a bacterial organelle it itself helps create, raising the possibility that cell wall-synthetic enzymes may broadly serve not only to synthesize the diverse shapes of bacteria, but also to functionalize them at the molecular level. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Bacterial cell-cell communication in the host via RRNPP peptide-binding regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePerez-Pascual

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human microbiomes are composed of complex and dense bacterial consortia. In these environments, bacteria are able to react quickly to change by coordinating their gene expression at the population level via small signaling molecules. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication is mostly mediated by peptides that are released into the extracellular environment. Cell-cell communication based on these peptides is especially widespread in the group Firmicutes, in which they regulate a wide array of biological processes, including functions related to host-microbe interactions. Among the different agents of communication, the RRNPP family of cytoplasmic transcriptional regulators, together with their cognate re-internalized signaling peptides, represents a group of emerging importance. RRNPP members that have been studied so far are found mainly in species of bacilli, streptococci, and enterococci. These bacteria are characterized as both human commensal and pathogenic, and share different niches in the human body with other microorganisms. The goal of this mini-review is to present the current state of research on the biological relevance of RRNPP mechanisms in the context of the host, highlighting their specific roles in commensalism or virulence.

  10. Coenzyme and effector binding to glutamate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, Alt

    1979-01-01

    Glutamaat-dehydrogenase is een enzym dat de reactie katalyseert van 2-oxoglutaraat (substraat), NAD(P)H (co-enzym) en ammonia naar L-glutaminezuur en NAD(P)+. Het enzym is opgebouwd uit 6 identieke subeenheden. Dit proefschrift beschrijft de bestudering van twee aspecten van dit enzym, nl. 1. de

  11. Genome-scale identification of Legionella pneumophila effectors using a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, David; Zusman, Tal; Degtyar, Elena; Viner, Ram; Segal, Gil; Pupko, Tal

    2009-07-01

    A large number of highly pathogenic bacteria utilize secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into host cells. Using these effectors, the bacteria subvert host cell processes during infection. Legionella pneumophila translocates effectors via the Icm/Dot type-IV secretion system and to date, approximately 100 effectors have been identified by various experimental and computational techniques. Effector identification is a critical first step towards the understanding of the pathogenesis system in L. pneumophila as well as in other bacterial pathogens. Here, we formulate the task of effector identification as a classification problem: each L. pneumophila open reading frame (ORF) was classified as either effector or not. We computationally defined a set of features that best distinguish effectors from non-effectors. These features cover a wide range of characteristics including taxonomical dispersion, regulatory data, genomic organization, similarity to eukaryotic proteomes and more. Machine learning algorithms utilizing these features were then applied to classify all the ORFs within the L. pneumophila genome. Using this approach we were able to predict and experimentally validate 40 new effectors, reaching a success rate of above 90%. Increasing the number of validated effectors to around 140, we were able to gain novel insights into their characteristics. Effectors were found to have low G+C content, supporting the hypothesis that a large number of effectors originate via horizontal gene transfer, probably from their protozoan host. In addition, effectors were found to cluster in specific genomic regions. Finally, we were able to provide a novel description of the C-terminal translocation signal required for effector translocation by the Icm/Dot secretion system. To conclude, we have discovered 40 novel L. pneumophila effectors, predicted over a hundred additional highly probable effectors, and shown the applicability of machine learning algorithms for

  12. Genome-scale identification of Legionella pneumophila effectors using a machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Burstein

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A large number of highly pathogenic bacteria utilize secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into host cells. Using these effectors, the bacteria subvert host cell processes during infection. Legionella pneumophila translocates effectors via the Icm/Dot type-IV secretion system and to date, approximately 100 effectors have been identified by various experimental and computational techniques. Effector identification is a critical first step towards the understanding of the pathogenesis system in L. pneumophila as well as in other bacterial pathogens. Here, we formulate the task of effector identification as a classification problem: each L. pneumophila open reading frame (ORF was classified as either effector or not. We computationally defined a set of features that best distinguish effectors from non-effectors. These features cover a wide range of characteristics including taxonomical dispersion, regulatory data, genomic organization, similarity to eukaryotic proteomes and more. Machine learning algorithms utilizing these features were then applied to classify all the ORFs within the L. pneumophila genome. Using this approach we were able to predict and experimentally validate 40 new effectors, reaching a success rate of above 90%. Increasing the number of validated effectors to around 140, we were able to gain novel insights into their characteristics. Effectors were found to have low G+C content, supporting the hypothesis that a large number of effectors originate via horizontal gene transfer, probably from their protozoan host. In addition, effectors were found to cluster in specific genomic regions. Finally, we were able to provide a novel description of the C-terminal translocation signal required for effector translocation by the Icm/Dot secretion system. To conclude, we have discovered 40 novel L. pneumophila effectors, predicted over a hundred additional highly probable effectors, and shown the applicability of machine

  13. Effectors of Filamentous Plant Pathogens: Commonalities amid Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschetti, Marina; Maqbool, Abbas; Jiménez-Dalmaroni, Maximiliano J; Pennington, Helen G; Kamoun, Sophien; Banfield, Mark J

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and oomycetes are filamentous microorganisms that include a diversity of highly developed pathogens of plants. These are sophisticated modulators of plant processes that secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to target multiple host cell compartments and enable parasitic infection. Genome sequencing revealed complex catalogues of effectors of filamentous pathogens, with some species harboring hundreds of effector genes. Although a large fraction of these effector genes encode secreted proteins with weak or no sequence similarity to known proteins, structural studies have revealed unexpected similarities amid the diversity. This article reviews progress in our understanding of effector structure and function in light of these new insights. We conclude that there is emerging evidence for multiple pathways of evolution of effectors of filamentous plant pathogens but that some families have probably expanded from a common ancestor by duplication and diversification. Conserved folds, such as the oomycete WY and the fungal MAX domains, are not predictive of the precise function of the effectors but serve as a chassis to support protein structural integrity while providing enough plasticity for the effectors to bind different host proteins and evolve unrelated activities inside host cells. Further effector evolution and diversification arise via short linear motifs, domain integration and duplications, and oligomerization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Pneumatic inflatable end effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. H.; Johnston, J. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The invention relates to an end effector device for robot or teleoperated type space vehicle which includes an inflatable balloon member carried on the end of tubular member which has a hollow center or conduit through which a suitable pressurized fluid is supplied. The device may be inserted into a variety of shaped openings or truss-type structures for handling in space.

  15. Complex structure of type VI peptidoglycan muramidase effector and a cognate immunity protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianyu [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ding, Jinjing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Da-Cheng, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1–Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. The results reveal that Tse3 contains a C-terminal catalytic domain that adopts a soluble lytic transglycosylase (SLT) fold in which three calcium-binding sites were surprisingly observed close to the catalytic Glu residue. The electrostatic properties of the substrate-binding groove are also distinctive from those of known structures with a similar fold. All of these features imply that a unique catalytic mechanism is utilized by Tse3 in cleaving glycosidic bonds. Tsi3 comprises a single domain showing a β-sandwich architecture that is reminiscent of the immunoglobulin fold. Three loops of Tsi3 insert deeply into the groove of Tse3 and completely occlude its active site, which forms the structural basis of Tse3 inactivation. This work is the first crystallographic report describing the three-dimensional structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 effector–immunity pair.

  16. 'In-Crystallo' Capture of a Michaelis Complex And Product Binding Modes of a Bacterial Phosphotriesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.J.; Foo, J.-L.; Kim, H.-K.; Carr, P.D.; Liu, J.-W.; Salem, G.; Ollis, D.L.

    2009-05-18

    The mechanism by which the binuclear metallophosphotriesterases (PTEs, E.C. 3.1.8.1) catalyse substrate hydrolysis has been extensively studied. The {mu}-hydroxo bridge between the metal ions has been proposed to be the initiating nucleophile in the hydrolytic reaction. In contrast, analysis of some biomimetic systems has indicated that {mu}-hydroxo bridges are often not themselves nucleophiles, but act as general bases for freely exchangeable nucleophilic water molecules. Herein, we present crystallographic analyses of a bacterial PTE from Agrobacterium radiobacter, OpdA, capturing the enzyme-substrate complex during hydrolysis. This model of the Michaelis complex suggests the alignment of the substrate will favor attack from a solvent molecule terminally coordinated to the {alpha}-metal ion. The bridging of both metal ions by the product, without disruption of the {mu}-hydroxo bridge, is also consistent with nucleophilic attack occurring from the terminal position. When phosphodiesters are soaked into crystals of OpdA, they coordinate bidentately to the {beta}-metal ion, displacing the {mu}-hydroxo bridge. Thus, alternative product-binding modes exist for the PTEs, and it is the bridging mode that appears to result from phosphotriester hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis of the PTE and promiscuous phosphodiesterase activities confirms that the presence of a {mu}-hydroxo bridge during phosphotriester hydrolysis is correlated with a lower pK{sub a} for the nucleophile, consistent with a general base function during catalysis.

  17. Mechanism of host substrate acetylation by a YopJ family effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Ka-Wai; Gao, Linfeng; Hu, Zhenquan; Schwizer, Simon; Ma, Wenbo; Song, Jikui

    2017-07-24

    The Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ) family of bacterial effectors depends on a novel acetyltransferase domain to acetylate signalling proteins from plant and animal hosts. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report the crystal structures of PopP2, a YopJ effector produced by the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, in complex with inositol hexaphosphate (InsP 6 ), acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) and/or substrate Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1 (RRS1-R) WRKY . PopP2 recognizes the WRKYGQK motif of RRS1-R WRKY to position a targeted lysine in the active site for acetylation. Importantly, the PopP2-RRS1-R WRKY association is allosterically regulated by InsP 6 binding, suggesting a previously unidentified role of the eukaryote-specific cofactor in substrate interaction. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the reaction intermediate of PopP2-mediated acetylation, an acetyl-cysteine covalent adduct, lending direct support to the 'ping-pong'-like catalytic mechanism proposed for YopJ effectors. Our study provides critical mechanistic insights into the virulence activity of YopJ class of acetyltransferases.

  18. Deletions in the repertoire of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 type III secretion effector genes reveal functional overlap among effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals disarm and remodel host cells by injecting large repertoires of effectors via the type III secretion system (T3SS). The repertoires of individual strains appear to function as robust systems that can tolerate loss of individual effectors with little or ...

  19. Bivalent ligation of the collagen-binding modules of fibronectin by SFS, a non-anchored bacterial protein of Streptococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjiang; Ma, Hanqing; Fogerty, Frances J; Mosher, Deane F

    2015-02-20

    SFS is a non-anchored protein of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi that causes upper respiratory infection in horses. SFS has been shown to bind to fibronectin (FN) and block interaction of FN with type I collagen. We have characterized interactions of a recombinant 60-mer polypeptide, R1R2, with FN. R1R2 contains two copies of collagen-like 19-residue repeats. Experiments utilizing various FN fragments and epitope-mapped anti-FN monoclonal antibodies located the binding site to (8-9)FNI modules of the gelatin-binding domain. Fluorescence polarization and competitive enzyme-linked assays demonstrated that R1R2 binds preferentially to compact dimeric FN rather than monomeric constructs containing (8-9)FNI or a large dimeric FN construct that is constitutively in an extended conformation. In contrast to bacterial peptides that bind (2-5)FNI in addition to (8-9)FNI, R1R2 did not cause conformational extension of FN as assessed by a conformationally sensitive antibody. Equilibrium and stopped-flow binding assays and size exclusion chromatography were compatible with a two-step binding reaction in which each of the repeats of R1R2 interacts with one of the subunits of dimeric FN, resulting in a stable complex with a slow koff. In addition to not binding to type I collagen, the R1R2·FN complex incorporated less efficiently into extracellular matrix than free FN. Thus, R1R2 binds to FN utilizing features of compact soluble FN and in doing so interferes with the organization of the extracellular matrix. A similar bivalent binding strategy may underlie the collagen-FN interaction. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. SCM, a novel M-like protein from Streptococcus canis, binds (mini)-plasminogen with high affinity and facilitates bacterial transmigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulde, Marcus; Rohde, Manfred; Hitzmann, Angela; Preissner, Klaus T; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric; Nerlich, Andreas; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Bergmann, Simone

    2011-03-15

    Streptococcus canis is an important zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious invasive diseases in domestic animals and humans. In the present paper we report the binding of human plasminogen to S. canis and the recruitment of proteolytically active plasmin on its surface. The binding receptor for plasminogen was identified as a novel M-like protein designated SCM (S. canis M-like protein). SPR (surface plasmon resonance) analyses, radioactive dot-blot analyses and heterologous expression on the surface of Streptococcus gordonii confirmed the plasminogen-binding capability of SCM. The binding domain was located within the N-terminus of SCM, which specifically bound to the C-terminal part of plasminogen (mini-plasminogen) comprising kringle domain 5 and the catalytic domain. In the presence of urokinase, SCM mediated plasminogen activation on the bacterial surface that was inhibited by serine protease inhibitors and lysine amino acid analogues. Surface-bound plasmin effectively degraded purified fibrinogen as well as fibrin clots, resulting in the dissolution of fibrin thrombi. Electron microscopic illustration and time-lapse imaging demonstrated bacterial transmigration through fibrinous thrombi. The present study has led, for the first time, to the identification of SCM as a novel receptor for (mini)-plasminogen mediating the fibrinolytic activity of S. canis.

  1. Oxysterols and Their Cellular Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Nissilä

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR α and γ, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2 have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine.

  2. Identification of a novel calcium binding motif based on the detection of sequence insertions in the animal peroxidase domain of bacterial proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Santamaría-Hernando

    Full Text Available Proteins of the animal heme peroxidase (ANP superfamily differ greatly in size since they have either one or two catalytic domains that match profile PS50292. The orf PP_2561 of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 that we have called PepA encodes a two-domain ANP. The alignment of these domains with those of PepA homologues revealed a variable number of insertions with the consensus G-x-D-G-x-x-[GN]-[TN]-x-D-D. This motif has also been detected in the structure of pseudopilin (pdb 3G20, where it was found to be involved in Ca(2+ coordination although a sequence analysis did not reveal the presence of any known calcium binding motifs in this protein. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that a peptide containing this consensus motif bound specifically calcium ions with affinities ranging between 33-79 µM depending on the pH. Microcalorimetric titrations of the purified N-terminal ANP-like domain of PepA revealed Ca(2+ binding with a K(D of 12 µM and stoichiometry of 1.25 calcium ions per protein monomer. This domain exhibited peroxidase activity after its reconstitution with heme. These data led to the definition of a novel calcium binding motif that we have termed PERCAL and which was abundantly present in animal peroxidase-like domains of bacterial proteins. Bacterial heme peroxidases thus possess two different types of calcium binding motifs, namely PERCAL and the related hemolysin type calcium binding motif, with the latter being located outside the catalytic domains and in their C-terminal end. A phylogenetic tree of ANP-like catalytic domains of bacterial proteins with PERCAL motifs, including single domain peroxidases, was divided into two major clusters, representing domains with and without PERCAL motif containing insertions. We have verified that the recently reported classification of bacterial heme peroxidases in two families (cd09819 and cd09821 is unrelated to these insertions. Sequences matching PERCAL were detected in all kingdoms of

  3. Verticillium dahliae LysM effectors differentially contribute to virulence on plant hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kombrink, Anja; Rovenich, Hanna; Shi-Kunne, Xiaoqian; Rojas-Padilla, Eduardo; van den Berg, Grardy C. M.; Domazakis, Emmanouil; de Jonge, Ronnie; Valkenburg, Dirk-Jan; Sanchez-Vallet, Andrea; Seidl, Michael F.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

    Chitin-binding lysin motif (LysM) effectors contribute to the virulence of various plant-pathogenic fungi that are causal agents of foliar diseases. Here, we report the LysM effectors of the soil-borne fungal vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Comparative genomics revealed three core LysM

  4. Effective non-denaturing purification method for improving the solubility of recombinant actin-binding proteins produced by bacterial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jeong Min; Lee, Sangmin; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial expression is commonly used to produce recombinant and truncated mutant eukaryotic proteins. However, heterologous protein expression may render synthesized proteins insoluble. The conventional method used to express a poorly soluble protein, which involves denaturation and refolding, is time-consuming and inefficient. There are several non-denaturing approaches that can increase the solubility of recombinant proteins that include using different bacterial cell strains, altering the time of induction, lowering the incubation temperature, and employing different detergents for purification. In this study, we compared several non-denaturing protocols to express and purify two insoluble 34 kDa actin-bundling protein mutants. The solubility of the mutant proteins was not affected by any of the approaches except for treatment with the detergent sarkosyl. These results indicate that sarkosyl can effectively improve the solubility of insoluble proteins during bacterial expression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Shigella IpaH Family Effectors as a Versatile Model for Studying Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Via the type III secretion system (T3SS), Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.

  6. Shigella IpaH family effectors as a versatile model for studying pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eAshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis. Via the type III secretion system (T3SS, Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.

  7. TAL effectors specificity stems from negative discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile I M Wicky

    Full Text Available Transcription Activator-Like (TAL effectors are DNA-binding proteins secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria that interfere with native cellular functions by binding to plant DNA promoters. The key element of their architecture is a domain of tandem-repeats with almost identical sequences. Most of the polymorphism is located at two consecutive amino acids termed Repeat Variable Diresidue (RVD. The discovery of a direct link between the RVD composition and the targeted nucleotide allowed the design of TAL-derived DNA-binding tools with programmable specificities that revolutionized the field of genome engineering. Despite structural data, the molecular origins of this specificity as well as the recognition mechanism have remained unclear. Molecular simulations of the recent crystal structures suggest that most of the protein-DNA binding energy originates from non-specific interactions between the DNA backbone and non-variable residues, while RVDs contributions are negligible. Based on dynamical and energetic considerations we postulate that, while the first RVD residue promotes helix breaks--allowing folding of TAL as a DNA-wrapping super-helix--the second provides specificity through a negative discrimination of matches. Furthermore, we propose a simple pharmacophore-like model for the rationalization of RVD-DNA interactions and the interpretation of experimental findings concerning shared affinities and binding efficiencies. The explanatory paradigm presented herein provides a better comprehension of this elegant architecture and we hope will allow for improved designs of TAL-derived biotechnological tools.

  8. Dissecting the role of conformational change and membrane binding by the bacterial cell division regulator MinE in the stimulation of MinD ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Saud H; Cloutier, Adam D; McLeod, Laura J; Foo, Alexander C Y; Damry, Adam M; Goto, Natalie K

    2017-12-15

    The bacterial cell division regulators MinD and MinE together with the division inhibitor MinC localize to the membrane in concentrated zones undergoing coordinated pole-to-pole oscillation to help ensure that the cytokinetic division septum forms only at the mid-cell position. This dynamic localization is driven by MinD-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, stimulated by interactions with MinE's anti-MinCD domain. This domain is buried in the 6-β-stranded MinE "closed" structure, but is liberated for interactions with MinD, giving rise to a 4-β-stranded "open" structure through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that MinE-membrane interactions induce a structural change into a state resembling the open conformation. However, MinE mutants lacking the MinE membrane-targeting sequence stimulated higher ATP hydrolysis rates than the full-length protein, indicating that binding to MinD is sufficient to trigger this conformational transition in MinE. In contrast, conformational change between the open and closed states did not affect stimulation of ATP hydrolysis rates in the absence of membrane binding, although the MinD-binding residue Ile-25 is critical for this conformational transition. We therefore propose an updated model where MinE is brought to the membrane through interactions with MinD. After stimulation of ATP hydrolysis, MinE remains bound to the membrane in a state that does not catalyze additional rounds of ATP hydrolysis. Although the molecular basis for this inhibited state is unknown, previous observations of higher-order MinE self-association may explain this inhibition. Overall, our findings have general implications for Min protein oscillation cycles, including those that regulate cell division in bacterial pathogens. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  10. Co-ordinate regulation of distinct host cell signalling pathways by multifunctional enteropathogenic Escherichia coli effector molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Brendan; Ellis, Sarah; Leard, Alan D; Warawa, Jonathan; Mellor, Harry; Jepson, Mark A

    2002-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of paediatric diarrhoea and a model for the family of attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. A/E pathogens encode a type III secretion system to transfer effector proteins into host cells. The EPEC Tir effector protein acts as a receptor for the bacterial surface protein intimin and is involved in the formation of Cdc42-independent, actin-rich pedestal structures beneath the adhered bacteria. In this paper, we demonstrate that EPEC binding to HeLa cells also induces Tir-independent, cytoskeletal rearrangement evidenced by the early, transient formation of filopodia-like structures at sites of infection. Filopodia formation is dependent on expression of the EPEC Map effector molecule - a protein that targets mitochondria and induces their dysfunction. We show that Map-induced filopodia formation is independent of mitochondrial targeting and is abolished by cellular expression of the Cdc42 inhibitory WASP-CRIB domain, demonstrating that Map has at least two distinct functions in host cells. The transient nature of the filopodia is related to an ability of EPEC to downregulate Map-induced cell signalling that, like pedestal formation, was dependent on both Tir and intimin proteins. The ability of Tir to downregulate filopodia was impaired by disrupting a putative GTPase-activating protein (GAP) motif, suggesting that Tir may possess such a function, with its interaction with intimin triggering this activity. Furthermore, we also found that Map-induced cell signalling inhibits pedestal formation, revealing that the cellular effects of Tir and Map must be co-ordinately regulated during infection. Possible implications of the multifunctional nature of EPEC effector molecules in pathogenesis are discussed.

  11. Molecular investigation on the binding of Cd(II) by the binary mixtures of montmorillonite with two bacterial species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Huihui; Qu, ChenChen; Liu, Jing; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Shi, Zhihua; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    Bacteria and phyllosilicate commonly coexist in the natural environment, producing various bacteria–clay complexes that are capable of immobilizing heavy metals, such as cadmium, via adsorption. However, the molecular binding mechanisms of heavy metals on these complex aggregates still remain poorly understood. This study investigated Cd adsorption on Gram-positive B. subtilis, Gram-negative P. putida and their binary mixtures with montmorillonite (Mont) using the Cd K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). We observed a lower adsorptive capacity for P. putida than B. subtilis, whereas P. putida–Mont and B. subtilis–Mont mixtures showed nearly identical Cd adsorption behaviors. EXAFS fits and ITC measurements demonstrated more phosphoryl binding of Cd in P. putida. The decreased coordination of C atoms around Cd and the reduced adsorption enthalpies and entropies for the binary mixtures compared to that for individual bacteria suggested that the bidentate Cd-carboxyl complexes in pure bacteria systems were probably transformed into monodentate complexes that acted as ionic bridging structure between bacteria and motmorillonite. This study clarified the binding mechanism of Cd at the bacteria–phyllosilicate interfaces from a molecular and thermodynamic view, which has an environmental significance for predicting the chemical behavior of trace elements in complex mineral–organic systems.

  12. Fc-Binding Ligands of Immunoglobulin G: An Overview of High Affinity Proteins and Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weonu Choe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing application of antibodies has inspired the development of several novel methods to isolate and target antibodies using smart biomaterials that mimic the binding of Fc-receptors to antibodies. The Fc-binding domain of antibodies is the primary binding site for e.g., effector proteins and secondary antibodies, whereas antigens bind to the Fab region. Protein A, G, and L, surface proteins expressed by pathogenic bacteria, are well known to bind immunoglobulin and have been widely exploited in antibody purification strategies. Several difficulties are encountered when bacterial proteins are used in antibody research and application. One of the major obstacles hampering the use of bacterial proteins is sample contamination with trace amounts of these proteins, which can invoke an immune response in the host. Many research groups actively develop synthetic ligands that are able to selectively and strongly bind to antibodies. Among the reported ligands, peptides that bind to the Fc-domain of antibodies are attractive tools in antibody research. Besides their use as high affinity ligands in antibody purification chromatography, Fc-binding peptides are applied e.g., to localize antibodies on nanomaterials and to increase the half-life of proteins in serum. In this review, recent developments of Fc-binding peptides are presented and their binding characteristics and diverse applications are discussed.

  13. A Conserved EAR Motif Is Required for Avirulence and Stability of the Ralstonia solanacearum Effector PopP2 In Planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Segonzac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of the devastating bacterial wilt disease in many high value Solanaceae crops. R. solanacearum secretes around 70 effectors into host cells in order to promote infection. Plants have, however, evolved specialized immune receptors that recognize corresponding effectors and confer qualitative disease resistance. In the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the paired immune receptors RRS1 (resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1 and RPS4 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae 4 cooperatively recognize the R. solanacearum effector PopP2 in the nuclei of infected cells. PopP2 is an acetyltransferase that binds to and acetylates the RRS1 WRKY DNA-binding domain resulting in reduced RRS1-DNA association thereby activating plant immunity. Here, we surveyed the naturally occurring variation in PopP2 sequence among the R. solanacearum strains isolated from diseased tomato and pepper fields across the Republic of Korea. Our analysis revealed high conservation of popP2 sequence with only three polymorphic alleles present amongst 17 strains. Only one variation (a premature stop codon caused the loss of RPS4/RRS1-dependent recognition in Arabidopsis. We also found that PopP2 harbors a putative eukaryotic transcriptional repressor motif (ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression or EAR, which is known to be involved in the recruitment of transcriptional co-repressors. Remarkably, mutation of the EAR motif disabled PopP2 avirulence function as measured by the development of hypersensitive response, electrolyte leakage, defense marker gene expression and bacterial growth in Arabidopsis. This lack of recognition was partially but significantly reverted by the C-terminal addition of a synthetic EAR motif. We show that the EAR motif-dependent gain of avirulence correlated with the stability of the PopP2 protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated the requirement of the PopP2 EAR motif for PTI

  14. The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system employs diverse effector modules for intraspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, Daniel; Miyata, Sarah T; Bachmann, Verena; Brooks, Teresa M; Mullins, Travis; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Provenzano, Daniele; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that consists of over 200 serogroups with differing pathogenic potential. Only strains that express the virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) are capable of pandemic spread of cholera diarrhoea. Regardless, all V. cholerae strains sequenced to date harbour genes for the type VI secretion system (T6SS) that translocates effectors into neighbouring eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Here we report that the effectors encoded within these conserved gene clusters differ widely among V. cholerae strains, and that immunity proteins encoded immediately downstream from the effector genes protect their host from neighbouring bacteria producing corresponding effectors. As a consequence, strains with matching effector-immunity gene sets can coexist, while strains with different sets compete against each other. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS contributes to the competitive behaviour of this species.

  15. Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David; Grossoehmerb, Nickolas; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Murcin; Derewendaro, Urszula; Lesley, Scott; Wilson, Ian; Giedrocb, David; Derewenda, Zygmunt

    2009-06-06

    The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged helix (WH) DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal, regulatory domains, which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all a-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR{_}C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of the FadR family members, i.e. the E. coli FadR protein and the LldR from C. glutamicum, have been described to date in literature. Here we describe the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain, found in the Thermotoga maritima genome. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator, and contains a buried metal binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, we show that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni{sup 2+} ions, but it is able to bind Zn{sup 2+} with K{sub D} < 70 nM . We conclude that Zn{sup 2+} is the likely physiological metal, where it may perform either or both structural and regulatory roles. Finally, we compare the TM0439 structure to two other FadR family structures recently deposited by Structural Genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors.

  16. Structure of Thermotoga maritima TM0439: implications for the mechanism of bacterial GntR transcription regulators with Zn2+-binding FCD domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meiying; Cooper, David R.; Grossoehme, Nickolas E.; Yu, Minmin; Hung, Li-Wei; Cieslik, Marcin; Derewenda, Urszula; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; Giedroc, David P.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2009-01-01

    Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The GntR superfamily of dimeric transcription factors, with more than 6200 members encoded in bacterial genomes, are characterized by N-terminal winged-helix DNA-binding domains and diverse C-terminal regulatory domains which provide a basis for the classification of the constituent families. The largest of these families, FadR, contains nearly 3000 proteins with all-α-helical regulatory domains classified into two related Pfam families: FadR-C and FCD. Only two crystal structures of FadR-family members, those of Escherichia coli FadR protein and LldR from Corynebacterium glutamicum, have been described to date in the literature. Here, the crystal structure of TM0439, a GntR regulator with an FCD domain found in the Thermotoga maritima genome, is described. The FCD domain is similar to that of the LldR regulator and contains a buried metal-binding site. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Trp fluorescence, it is shown that the recombinant protein contains bound Ni 2+ ions but that it is able to bind Zn 2+ with K d < 70 nM. It is concluded that Zn 2+ is the likely physiological metal and that it may perform either structural or regulatory roles or both. Finally, the TM0439 structure is compared with two other FadR-family structures recently deposited by structural genomics consortia. The results call for a revision in the classification of the FadR family of transcription factors

  17. Shigella IpaH family effectors as a versatile model for studying pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi eAshida; Chihiro eSasakawa; Chihiro eSasakawa; Chihiro eSasakawa

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Via the type III secretion system (T3SS), Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens...

  18. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  19. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  20. Improving a Gripper End Effector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, O Dennis; Smith, Christopher M.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2001-01-31

    This paper discusses the improvement made to an existing four-bar linkage gripping end effector to adapt it for use in a current project. The actuating linkage was modified to yield higher jaw force overall and particularly in the critical range of jaw displacement

  1. The enteropathogenic E. coli effector EspH promotes actin pedestal formation and elongation via WASP-interacting protein (WIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander R C; Raymond, Benoit; Collins, James W; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad

    2012-07-01

    Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are diarrheagenic pathogens that colonize the gut mucosa via attaching-and-effacing lesion formation. EPEC and EHEC utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins that subvert host cell signalling to sustain colonization and multiplication. EspH, a T3SS effector that modulates actin dynamics, was implicated in the elongation of the EHEC actin pedestals. In this study we found that EspH is necessary for both efficient pedestal formation and pedestal elongation during EPEC infection. We report that EspH induces actin polymerization at the bacterial attachment sites independently of the Tir tyrosine residues Y474 and Y454, which are implicated in binding Nck and IRSp53/ITRKS respectively. Moreover, EspH promotes recruitment of neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and the Arp2/3 complex to the bacterial attachment site, in a mechanism involving the C-terminus of Tir and the WH1 domain of N-WASP. Dominant negative of WASP-interacting protein (WIP), which binds the N-WASP WH1 domain, diminished EspH-mediated actin polymerization. This study implicates WIP in EPEC-mediated actin polymerization and pedestal elongation and represents the first instance whereby N-WASP is efficiently recruited to the EPEC attachment sites independently of the Tir:Nck and Tir:IRTKS/IRSp53 pathways. Our study reveals the intricacies of Tir and EspH-mediated actin signalling pathways that comprise of distinct, convergent and synergistic signalling cascades. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA targeting proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Erin L.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Bogdanove, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas. They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide resistance. DNA binding specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats in each protein that correspond one-to-one with different nucleotides. This code has facilitated target identification and opened new avenues for engineering disease resistance. It has also enabled TAL effector customization for targeted gene control, genome editing, and other applications. This article reviews the structural basis for TAL effector-DNA specificity, the impact of the TAL effector-DNA code on plant pathology and engineered resistance, and recent accomplishments and future challenges in TAL effector-based DNA targeting. PMID:23707478

  3. Contribution of the Collagen-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans to Bacterial Colonization of Inflamed Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryota; Ogaya, Yuko; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen of dental caries. Collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) (approximately 120 kDa), termed Cnm and Cbm, are regarded as important cell surface antigens related to the adherence of S. mutans to collagenous tissue. Furthermore, CBP-positive S. mutans strains are associated with various systemic diseases involving bacteremia, such as infective endocarditis. Endodontic infection is considered to be an important cause of bacteremia, but little is known regarding the presence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissue. In the present study, the distribution and virulence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissues were investigated by focusing on CBPs. Adhesion and invasion properties of various S. mutans strains were analyzed using human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPFs). CBP-positive strains had a significantly higher rate of adhesion to HDPFs compared with CBP-defective isogenic mutant strains (Pmutans strains isolated from infected root canal specimens was then analyzed by PCR. We found that approximately 50% of the root canal specimens were positive for S. mutans. Approximately 20% of these strains were Cnm-positive, while no Cbm-positive strains were isolated. The Cnm-positive strains isolated from the specimens showed adhesion to HDPFs. Our results suggest that CBP-positive S. mutans strains exhibit high colonization in dental pulp. This could be a possible virulence factor for various systemic diseases.

  4. Recombinant Fasciola hepatica fatty acid binding protein suppresses toll-like receptor stimulation in response to multiple bacterial ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Benítez, Marcos J; Ruiz-Jiménez, Caleb; Aguayo, Vasti; Espino, Ana M

    2017-07-14

    Recently, we reported that a native Fasciola hepatica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) termed Fh12 is a powerful anti-inflammatory protein capable of suppressing the LPS-induced expression of inflammatory markers in vivo and in vitro. Because the purification of a protein in native form is, in many situations not cost-beneficial and unsuitable for industrial grade scale-up, this study accomplished the task of optimizing the expression and purification of a recombinant form of FABP (Fh15). Additionally, we ascertained whether this molecule could exhibit a similar suppressive effect on TLR-stimulation and inflammatory cytokine expression from macrophages than those previously demonstrated for the native molecule. Results demonstrated that Fh15 suppresses the expression of IL-1β and TNFα in murine macrophages and THP1 Blue CD14 cells. Additionally, Fh15 suppress the LPS-induced TLR4 stimulation. This effect was not impaired by a thermal denaturing process or blocked by the presence of anti-Fh12 antibodies. Fh15 also suppressed the stimulation of various TLRs in response to whole bacteria extracts, suggesting that Fh15 could have a broad spectrum of action. These results support the possibility of using Fh15 as an excellent alternative for an anti-inflammatory drug in preclinical studies in the near future.

  5. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  6. The Lon protease-like domain in the bacterial RecA paralog RadA is required for DNA binding and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masao; Fukui, Kenji; Fujii, Yuki; Nakagawa, Noriko; Yano, Takato; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2017-06-09

    Homologous recombination (HR) plays an essential role in the maintenance of genome integrity. RecA/Rad51 paralogs have been recognized as an important factor of HR. Among them, only one bacterial RecA/Rad51 paralog, RadA, is involved in HR as an accessory factor of RecA recombinase. RadA has a unique Lon protease-like domain (LonC) at its C terminus, in addition to a RecA-like ATPase domain. Unlike Lon protease, RadA's LonC domain does not show protease activity but is still essential for RadA-mediated DNA repair. Reconciling these two facts has been difficult because RadA's tertiary structure and molecular function are unknown. Here, we describe the hexameric ring structure of RadA's LonC domain, as determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure revealed the two positively charged regions unique to the LonC domain of RadA are located at the intersubunit cleft and the central hole of a hexameric ring. Surprisingly, a functional domain analysis demonstrated the LonC domain of RadA binds DNA, with site-directed mutagenesis showing that the two positively charged regions are critical for this DNA-binding activity. Interestingly, only the intersubunit cleft was required for the DNA-dependent stimulation of ATPase activity of RadA, and at least the central hole was essential for DNA repair function. Our data provide the structural and functional features of the LonC domain and their function in RadA-mediated DNA repair. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. High–resolution crystal structure of deoxy hemoglobin complexed with a potent allosteric effector

    OpenAIRE

    Safo, Martin K.; Moure, Carmen M.; Burnett, James C.; Joshi, Gajanan S.; Abraham, Donald J.

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of human deoxy hemoglobin (Hb) complexed with a potent allosteric effector (2-[4-[[(3,5-dimethylanilino)carbonyl]methyl]phenoxy]-2-methylpropionic acid) = RSR-13) is reported at 1.85 Å resolution. Analysis of the hemoglobin:effector complex indicates that two of these molecules bind to the central water cavity of deoxy Hb in a symmetrical fashion, and that each constrains the protein by engaging in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions with three of its four subu...

  8. Isolation of prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein gene and its expression in responding to bacterial and viral infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Li, Jian; Duan, Yafei; Li, Jitao; Sun, Ming; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-04-01

    The pattern recognition proteins (PRPs) play a major role in immune response of crustacean to resist pathogens. In the present study, as one of PRPs, lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) gene in the ridge tail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) ( EcLGBP) was isolated. The full-length cDNA of EcLGBP was 1338 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 366 amino acid residules. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcLGBP shared high similarities with LGBP and BGBP from other crustaceans. Some conservative domains were predicted in EcLGBP sequence. EcLGBP constitutively expressed in most tissues at different levels, and the highest expression was observed in hepatopancreas. With infection time, the cumulative mortality increased gradually followed by the proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The expression of EcLGBP in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection was up-regulated in hemocytes and hepatopancreas, and the up-regulation in hepatopancreas was earlier than that in hemocytes. EcLGBP expression after WSSV infection increased at 3 h, then significantly decreased in both hemocytes and hepatopancreas. The results indicated that EcLGBP was involved in the immune defense against bacterial and viral infections.

  9. The Shigella flexneri OspB effector: an early immunomodulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; Scribano, Daniela; Limongi, Dolores; Petrucca, Andrea; Cannavacciuolo, Sonia; Schippa, Serena; Zagaglia, Carlo; Grossi, Milena; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Through the action of the type three secretion system (T3SS) Shigella flexneri delivers several effectors into host cells to promote cellular invasion, multiplication and to exploit host-cell signaling pathways to modulate the host innate immune response. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of many type III effectors, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the OspB effector is still poorly characterized. In this study we present new evidence that better elucidates the role of OspB as pro-inflammatory factor at very early stages of infection. Indeed, we demonstrate that, during the first hour of infection, OspB is required for full activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Activation of cPLA(2) ultimately leads to the production and secretion of PMN chemoattractant metabolite(s) uncoupled with release of IL-8. Moreover, we also present evidence that OspB is required for the development of the full and promptly inflammatory reaction characteristic of S. flexneri wild-type infection in vivo. Based on OspB and OspF similarity (both effectors share similar transcription regulation, temporal secretion into host cells and nuclear localization) we hypothesized that OspB and OspF effectors may form a pair aimed at modulating the host cell response throughout the infection process, with opposite effects. A model is presented to illustrate how OspB activity would promote S. flexneri invasion and bacterial dissemination at early critical phases of infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Soo Jwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  11. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  12. The cyclic nucleotide monophosphate domain of Xanthomonas campestris global regulator Clp defines a new class of cyclic di-GMP effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fei; He, Ya-Wen; Wu, Dong-Hui; Swarup, Sanjay; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2010-02-01

    The widely conserved second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays a key role in quorum-sensing (QS)-dependent production of virulence factors in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. The detection of QS diffusible signal factor (DSF) by the sensor RpfC leads to the activation of response regulator RpfG, which activates virulence gene expression by degrading c-di-GMP. Here, we show that a global regulator in the X. campestris pv. campestris QS regulatory pathway, Clp, is a c-di-GMP effector. c-di-GMP specifically binds to Clp with high affinity and induces allosteric conformational changes that abolish the interaction between Clp and its target gene promoter. Clp is similar to the cyclic AMP (cAMP) binding proteins Crp and Vfr and contains a conserved cyclic nucleotide monophosphate (cNMP) binding domain. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the cNMP binding domain of Clp contains a glutamic acid residue (E99) that is essential for c-di-GMP binding. Substituting the residue with serine (E99S) resulted in decreased sensitivity to changes in the intracellular c-di-GMP level and attenuated bacterial virulence. These data establish the direct role of Clp in the response to fluctuating c-di-GMP levels and depict a novel mechanism by which QS links the second messenger with the X. campestris pv. campestris virulence regulon.

  13. Type VI Secretion Effectors: Methodologies and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wei Lien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is a nanomachine deployed by many Gram-negative bacteria as a weapon against eukaryotic hosts or prokaryotic competitors. It assembles into a bacteriophage tail-like structure that can transport effector proteins into the environment or target cells for competitive survival or pathogenesis. T6SS effectors have been identified by a variety of approaches, including knowledge/hypothesis-dependent and discovery-driven approaches. Here, we review and discuss the methods that have been used to identify T6SS effectors and the biological and biochemical functions of known effectors. On the basis of the nature and transport mechanisms of T6SS effectors, we further propose potential strategies that may be applicable to identify new T6SS effectors.

  14. Space Station end effector strategy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  15. Identification of Novel Host Interactors of Effectors Secreted by Salmonella and Citrobacter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Niemann, George S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Sanchez, Octavio; Ansong, Charles; Lu, Shao-Yeh; Choi, Hyungwon; Valleau, Dylan; Weitz, Karl K.; Savchenko, Alexei; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2016-07-12

    Many pathogenic bacteria of the familyEnterobacteriaceaeuse type III secretion systems to inject virulence proteins, termed “effectors,” into the host cell cytosol. Although host-cellular activities of several effectors have been demonstrated, the function and host-targeted pathways of most of the effectors identified to date are largely undetermined. To gain insight into host proteins targeted by bacterial effectors, we performed coaffinity purification of host proteins from cell lysates using recombinant effectors from theEnterobacteriaceaeintracellular pathogensSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium andCitrobacter rodentium. We identified 54 high-confidence host interactors for theSalmonellaeffectors GogA, GtgA, GtgE, SpvC, SrfH, SseL, SspH1, and SssB collectively and 21 interactors for theCitrobactereffectors EspT, NleA, NleG1, and NleK. We biochemically validated the interaction between the SrfHSalmonellaprotein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) host protein kinase, which revealed a role for this effector in regulating phosphorylation levels of this enzyme, which plays a central role in signal transduction.

    IMPORTANCEDuring infection, pathogenic bacteria face an adverse environment of factors driven by both cellular and humoral defense mechanisms. To help evade the immune response and ultimately proliferate inside the host, many bacteria evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver effector proteins directly into host cells. Translocated effector proteins function to subvert host defense mechanisms. Numerous pathogenic bacteria use a specialized secretion system called type III secretion to deliver effectors into the host cell cytosol. Here, we identified 75 new host targets ofSalmonellaandCitrobactereffectors, which will help elucidate their mechanisms of

  16. A Salmonella typhimurium-translocated Glycerophospholipid:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Promotes Virulence by Binding to the RhoA Protein Switch Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRock, Doris L.; Brzovic, Peter S.; Levin, Itay; Blanc, Marie-Pierre; Miller, Samuel I.

    2012-08-24

    Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium translocates a glycerophospholipid: cholesterol acyltransferase (SseJ) into the host cytosol after its entry into mammalian cells. SseJ is recruited to the cytoplasmic face of the host cell phagosome membrane where it is activated upon binding the small GTPase, RhoA. SseJ is regulated similarly to cognate eukaryotic effectors, as only the GTP-bound form of RhoA family members stimulates enzymatic activity. Using NMR and biochemistry, this work demonstrates that SseJ competes effectively with Rhotekin, ROCK, and PKN1 in binding to a similar RhoA surface. The RhoA surface that binds SseJ includes the regulatory switch regions that control activation of mammalian effectors. These data were used to create RhoA mutants with altered SseJ binding and activation. This structure-function analysis supports a model in which SseJ activation occurs predominantly through binding to residues within switch region II. We further defined the nature of the interaction between SseJ and RhoA by constructing SseJ mutants in the RhoA binding surface. These data indicate that SseJ binding to RhoA is required for recruitment of SseJ to the endosomal network and for full Salmonella virulence for inbred susceptible mice, indicating that regulation of SseJ by small GTPases is an important virulence strategy of this bacterial pathogen. The dependence of a bacterial effector on regulation by a mammalian GTPase defines further how intimately host pathogen interactions have coevolved through similar and divergent evolutionary strategies.

  17. Salmonella Effectors SseF and SseG Interact with Mammalian Protein ACBD3 (GCP60) To Anchor Salmonella-Containing Vacuoles at the Golgi Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiu-Jun; Liu, Mei; Holden, David W

    2016-07-12

    Following infection of mammalian cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) replicates within membrane-bound compartments known as Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). The Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (SPI-2 T3SS) translocates approximately 30 different effectors across the vacuolar membrane. SseF and SseG are two such effectors that are required for SCVs to localize close to the Golgi network in infected epithelial cells. In a yeast two-hybrid assay, SseG and an N-terminal variant of SseF interacted directly with mammalian ACBD3, a multifunctional cytosolic Golgi network-associated protein. Knockdown of ACBD3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced epithelial cell Golgi network association of wild-type bacteria, phenocopying the effect of null mutations of sseG or sseF Binding of SseF to ACBD3 in infected cells required the presence of SseG. A single-amino-acid mutant of SseG and a double-amino-acid mutant of SseF were obtained that did not interact with ACBD3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae When either of these was produced together with the corresponding wild-type effector by Salmonella in infected cells, they enabled SCV-Golgi network association and interacted with ACBD3. However, these properties were lost and bacteria displayed an intracellular replication defect when cells were infected with Salmonella carrying both mutant genes. Knockdown of ACBD3 resulted in a replication defect of wild-type bacteria but did not further attenuate the growth defect of a ΔsseFG mutant strain. We propose a model in which interaction between SseF and SseG enables both proteins to bind ACBD3, thereby anchoring SCVs at the Golgi network and facilitating bacterial replication. Upon invasion of epithelial cells, the majority of vacuoles containing Salmonella enterica migrate to the perinuclear region-located Golgi network and remain in this region of the cell during the first few rounds of bacterial replication, forming a

  18. Transcriptomic dissection of the horizontally acquired response regulator EsrB reveals its global regulatory roles in the physiological adaptation and activation of T3SS and the cognate effector repertoire in Edwardsiella piscicida during infection toward turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhao, Luyao; Yang, Minjun; Yin, Kaiyu; Zhou, Xiaohui; Leung, Ka Yin; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing; Wang, Qiyao

    2017-10-03

    Edwardsiella piscicida is the leading pathogen threatening worldwide aquaculture industries. The 2-component system (TCS) EsrA-EsrB is essential for the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, little is known about the regulon and regulatory mechanism of EsrA-EsrB or about the factors that mediate the interaction of TCS with bacterial hosts. Here, our RNA-seq analysis indicated that EsrB strongly induces type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS) expression and that it modulates the expression of both physiology- and virulence-associated genes in E. piscicida grown in DMEM. EsrB binds directly to a highly conserved 18-bp DNA motif to regulate the expression of T3SS and other genes. EsrB/DMEM-activated genes include 3 known and 6 novel T3SS-dependent effectors. All these effector genes are highly induced by EsrB during the late stage of in vivo infection in fish. Furthermore, although in vivo colonization by the bacterium relies on EsrB and T3/T6SS expression, it does not require the expression of individual effectors other than EseJ. The mutant lacking these 9 effectors showed significant defects in in vivo colonization and virulence toward turbot, and, more importantly, a high level of protection against challenges by wild-type E. piscicida, suggesting that it may represent a promising live attenuated vaccine. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EsrB plays a global regulatory role in controlling physiologic responses and the expression of T3SS and its cognate effector genes. Our findings will facilitate further work on the mechanism of molecular pathogenesis of this bacterium during infection.

  19. SPRYSEC effector proteins in Globodera rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant pathogens inject so-called effector molecules into the cells of a host plant to promote their growth and reproduction in these hosts. In plant parasitic nematodes, these effector molecules are produced in the salivary glands. The objective of this thesis was to identify and characterize

  20. Harnessing effector-triggered immunity for durable disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meixiang; Coaker, Gitta

    2018-01-01

    Genetic control of plant diseases has traditionally included the deployment of single immune receptors with nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) domain architecture. These NLRs recognize corresponding pathogen effector proteins inside plant cells, resulting in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Although ETI triggers robust resistance, deployment of single NLRs can be rapidly overcome by pathogen populations within a single or a few growing seasons. In order to generate more durable disease resistance against devastating plant pathogens, a multi-tiered strategy that incorporates stacked NLRs combined with other sources of disease resistance is necessary. New genetic and genomic technologies have enabled advancements in identifying conserved pathogen effectors, isolating NLR repertoires from diverse plants, and editing plant genomes to enhance resistance. Significant advancements have also been made in understanding plant immune perception at the receptor level, which has promise for engineering new sources of resistance. Here, we discuss how to utilize recent scientific advancements in a multilayered strategy for developing more durable disease resistance. PMID:28430023

  1. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  2. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original

  3. Effector protein translocation by the Coxiella burnetii Dot/Icm type IV secretion system requires endocytic maturation of the pathogen-occupied vacuole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley J Newton

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Coxiella burnetii encodes a type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm that is essential for intracellular replication. The Dot/Icm system delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cytosol during infection. The effector proteins delivered by C. burnetii are predicted to have important functions during infection, but when these proteins are needed during infection has not been clearly defined. Here, we use a reporter system consisting of fusion proteins that have a β-lactamase enzyme (BlaM fused to C. burnetii effector proteins to study protein translocation by the Dot/Icm system. Translocation of BlaM fused to the effector proteins CBU0077, CBU1823 and CBU1524 was not detected until 8-hours after infection of HeLa cells, which are permissive for C. burnetii replication. Translocation of these effector fusion proteins by the Dot/Icm system required acidification of the Coxiella-containing vacuole. Silencing of the host genes encoding the membrane transport regulators Rab5 or Rab7 interfered with effector translocation, which indicates that effectors are not translocated until bacteria traffic to a late endocytic compartment in the host cell. Similar requirements for effector translocation were discerned in bone marrow macrophages derived from C57BL/6 mice, which are primary cells that restrict the intracellular replication of C. burnetii. In addition to requiring endocytic maturation of the vacuole for Dot/Icm-mediated translocation of effectors, bacterial transcription was required for this process. Thus, translocation of effector proteins by the C. burnetii Dot/Icm system occurs after acidification of the CCV and maturation of this specialized organelle to a late endocytic compartment. This indicates that creation of the specialized vacuole in which C. burnetii replicates represents a two-stage process mediated initially by host factors that regulate endocytic maturation and then by bacterial effectors delivered into

  4. Computational approach to predict species-specific type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors using single and multiple genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Christopher K; Porter, Vanessa L; Stow, Maxwell L S; Siame, Bupe A; Tsang, Herbert H; Leung, Ka Yin

    2016-12-19

    Many gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effector proteins into host cells. T3SS effectors can give some bacteria a competitive edge over others within the same environment and can help bacteria to invade the host cells and allow them to multiply rapidly within the host. Therefore, developing efficient methods to identify effectors scattered in bacterial genomes can lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions and ultimately to important medical and biotechnological applications. We used 21 genomic and proteomic attributes to create a precise and reliable T3SS effector prediction method called Genome Search for Effectors Tool (GenSET). Five machine learning algorithms were trained on effectors selected from different organisms and a trained (voting) algorithm was then applied to identify other effectors present in the genome testing sets from the same (GenSET Phase 1) or different (GenSET Phase 2) organism. Although a select group of attributes that included the codon adaptation index, probability of expression in inclusion bodies, N-terminal disorder, and G + C content (filtered) were better at discriminating between positive and negative sets, algorithm performance was better when all 21 attributes (unfiltered) were used. Performance scores (sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve) from GenSET Phase 1 were better than those reported for six published methods. More importantly, GenSET Phase 1 ranked more known effectors (70.3%) in the top 40 ranked proteins and predicted 10-80% more effectors than three available programs in three of the four organisms tested. GenSET Phase 2 predicted 43.8% effectors in the top 40 ranked proteins when tested on four related or unrelated organisms. The lower prediction rates from GenSET Phase 2 may be due to the presence of different translocation signals in effectors from different T3SS families. The species-specific GenSET Phase 1 method offers an alternative

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  6. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2015-07-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057-6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion system is a weapon that

  7. Identification of antibody glycosylation structures that predict monoclonal antibody Fc-effector function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy W; Crispin, Max; Pritchard, Laura; Robinson, Hannah; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Yu, Xiaojie; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Ackerman, Margaret E; Scanlan, Chris; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Alter, Galit

    2014-11-13

    To determine monoclonal antibody (mAb) features that predict fragment crystalizable (Fc)-mediated effector functions against HIV. Monoclonal antibodies, derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells or Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized mouse heteromyelomas, with specificity to key regions of the HIV envelope including gp120-V2, gp120-V3 loop, gp120-CD4(+) binding site, and gp41-specific antibodies, were functionally profiled to determine the relative contribution of the variable and constant domain features of the antibodies in driving robust Fc-effector functions. Each mAb was assayed for antibody-binding affinity to gp140(SR162), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and for the ability to bind to FcγRIIa, FcγRIIb and FcγRIIIa receptors. Antibody glycan profiles were determined by HPLC. Neither the specificity nor the affinity of the mAbs determined the potency of Fc-effector function. FcγRIIIa binding strongly predicted ADCC and decreased galactose content inversely correlated with ADCP, whereas N-glycolylneuraminic acid-containing structures exhibited enhanced ADCP. Additionally, the bi-antenary glycan arm onto which galactose was added predicted enhanced binding to FcγRIIIa and ADCC activity, independent of the specificity of the mAb. Our studies point to the specific Fc-glycan structures that can selectively promote Fc-effector functions independently of the antibody specificity. Furthermore, we demonstrated antibody glycan structures associated with enhanced ADCP activity, an emerging Fc-effector function that may aid in the control and clearance of HIV infection.

  8. Neutrophils to the ROScue: Mechanisms of NADPH Oxidase Activation and Bacterial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang T. Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by NADPH oxidase play an important role in antimicrobial host defense and inflammation. Their deficiency in humans results in recurrent and severe bacterial infections, while their unregulated release leads to pathology from excessive inflammation. The release of high concentrations of ROS aids in clearance of invading bacteria. Localization of ROS release to phagosomes containing pathogens limits tissue damage. Host immune cells, like neutrophils, also known as PMNs, will release large amounts of ROS at the site of infection following the activation of surface receptors. The binding of ligands to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, toll-like receptors, and cytokine receptors can prime PMNs for a more robust response if additional signals are encountered. Meanwhile, activation of Fc and integrin directly induces high levels of ROS production. Additionally, GPCRs that bind to the bacterial-peptide analog fMLP, a neutrophil chemoattractant, can both prime cells and trigger low levels of ROS production. Engagement of these receptors initiates intracellular signaling pathways, resulting in activation of downstream effector proteins, assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex, and ultimately, the production of ROS by this complex. Within PMNs, ROS released by the NADPH oxidase complex can activate granular proteases and induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. Additionally, ROS can cross the membranes of bacterial pathogens and damage their nucleic acids, proteins, and cell membranes. Consequently, in order to establish infections, bacterial pathogens employ various strategies to prevent restriction by PMN-derived ROS or downstream consequences of ROS production. Some pathogens are able to directly prevent the oxidative burst of phagocytes using secreted effector proteins or toxins that interfere with translocation of the NADPH oxidase complex or signaling pathways needed for its activation

  9. Impact on bacterial community in midguts of the Asian corn borer larvae by transgenic Trichoderma strain overexpressing a heterologous chit42 gene with chitin-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Li

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H and the Simpson (1-D indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.

  10. Functional differences and interactions between the Escherichia coli type III secretion system effectors NleH1 and NleH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh H; Gao, Xiaofei; Tsai, Karen; Olsen, Rachel; Wan, Fengyi; Hardwidge, Philip R

    2012-06-01

    The human pathogens enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC), as well as the related mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject multiple effector proteins into host cells. The E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 carries two copies of non-locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded protein H, designated NleH1 and NleH2, both of which bind to the human ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), a subunit of NF-κB transcriptional complexes. In this study, we describe significant functional differences between NleH1 and NleH2 in their ability to regulate the host NF-κB pathway. We show that the EHEC and EPEC NleH effectors are functionally equivalent in their ability to affect RPS3 nuclear translocation. NleH1, but not NleH2, inhibited NF-κB activity without altering the kinetics of IκBα phosphorylation/degradation. We also determined that the class I PSD-95/Disc Large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-binding domain of NleH was important for its activity in the NF-κB pathway. In addition to binding RPS3, we found that NleH1 and NleH2 are able to bind to each other in vitro and in vivo, suggesting an additional mechanism by which the E. coli NleH effectors may regulate the extent and duration of NF-κB activation after their T3SS-dependent translocation. We also performed mouse infection experiments and established that mouse mortality and Citrobacter colonization were reduced in mice infected with ΔnleH. Complementing ΔnleH with NleH1 restored Citrobacter virulence and colonization to wild-type levels, whereas complementing with NleH2 reduced them. Taken together, our data show that NleH1 and NleH2 have pronounced functional differences in their ability to alter host transcriptional responses to bacterial infection.

  11. Structural basis of eukaryotic cell targeting by type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Tommaso; Pflug, Alexander; Discola, Karen F; Neves, David; Dessen, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are macromolecular complexes that translocate a wide number of effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Once within the cytoplasm, many T3SS effectors mimic the structure and/or function of eukaryotic proteins in order to manipulate signaling cascades, and thus play pivotal roles in colonization, invasion, survival and virulence. Structural biology techniques have played key roles in the unraveling of bacterial strategies employed for mimicry and targeting. This review provides an overall view of our current understanding of structure and function of T3SS effectors, as well as of the different classes of eukaryotic proteins that are targeted and the consequences for the infected cell. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Salmonella SPI2 effector SseI mediates long-term systemic infection by modulating host cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M McLaughlin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Host-adapted strains of Salmonella enterica cause systemic infections and have the ability to persist systemically for long periods of time despite the presence of a robust immune response. Chronically infected hosts are asymptomatic and transmit disease to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria, thereby serving as a critical reservoir for disease. We show that the bacterial effector protein SseI (also called SrfH, which is translocated into host cells by the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2 type III secretion system (T3SS, is required for Salmonella typhimurium to maintain a long-term chronic systemic infection in mice. SseI inhibits normal cell migration of primary macrophages and dendritic cells (DC in vitro, and such inhibition requires the host factor IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1, an important regulator of cell migration. SseI binds directly to IQGAP1 and co-localizes with this factor at the cell periphery. The C-terminal domain of SseI is similar to PMT/ToxA, a bacterial toxin that contains a cysteine residue (C1165 that is critical for activity. Mutation of the corresponding residue in SseI (C178A eliminates SseI function in vitro and in vivo, but not binding to IQGAP1. In addition, infection with wild-type (WT S. typhimurium suppressed DC migration to the spleen in vivo in an SseI-dependent manner. Correspondingly, examination of spleens from mice infected with WT S. typhimurium revealed fewer DC and CD4(+ T lymphocytes compared to mice infected with Delta sseI S. typhimurium. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SseI inhibits normal host cell migration, which ultimately counteracts the ability of the host to clear systemic bacteria.

  13. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  14. Rapid turnover of effectors in grass powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, Fabrizio; Praz, Coraline R; Wicker, Thomas; Keller, Beat

    2017-10-31

    Grass powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, Ascomycota) is a major pathogen of cereal crops and has become a model organism for obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens of plants. The sequenced genomes of two formae speciales (ff.spp.), B.g. hordei and B.g. tritici (pathogens of barley and wheat), were found to be enriched in candidate effector genes (CEGs). Similar to other filamentous pathogens, CEGs in B. graminis are under positive selection. Additionally, effectors are more likely to have presence-absence polymorphisms than other genes among different strains. Here we identified effectors in the genomes of three additional host-specific lineages of B. graminis (B.g. poae, B.g. avenae and B.g. infecting Lolium) which diverged between 24 and 5 million years ago (Mya). We found that most CEGs in B. graminis are clustered in families and that most families are present in both reference genomes (B.g. hordei and B.g. tritici) and in the genomes of all three newly annotated lineages. We identified conserved protein domains including a novel lipid binding domain. The phylogenetic analysis showed that frequent gene duplications and losses shaped the diversity of the effector repertoires of the different lineages through their evolutionary history. We observed several lineage-specific expansions where large clades of CEGs originated in only one lineage from a single gene through repeated gene duplications. When we applied a birth-death model we found that the turnover rate (the rate at which genes are deleted and duplicated) of CEG families is much higher than for non-CEG families. The analysis of genomic context revealed that the immediate surroundings of CEGs are enriched in transposable elements (TE) which could play a role in the duplication and deletion of CEGs. The CEG repertoires of related pathogens diverged dramatically in short evolutionary times because of rapid turnover and of positive selection fixing non-synonymous mutations. While signatures of positive

  15. Bacterial-Chromatin Structural Proteins Regulate the Bimodal Expression of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE Pathogenicity Island in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Leh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons (LEE1 to LEE5, with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1, encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator, an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli. One key regulator of bimodal LEE1 and LEE5 expression is ler expression, which fluctuates in response to different growth conditions. Under conditions in vitro considered to be equivalent to nonoptimal conditions for virulence, the opposing regulatory effects of H-NS and Ler can lead to the emergence of two bacterial subpopulations. H-NS and Ler share nucleation binding sites in the LEE5 promoter region, but H-NS binding results in local DNA structural modifications distinct from those generated through Ler binding, at least in vitro. Thus, we show how two nucleoid-binding proteins can contribute to the epigenetic regulation of bacterial virulence and lead to opposing bacterial fates. This finding implicates for the first time bacterial-chromatin structural proteins in the bimodal regulation of gene expression.

  16. Systematic analysis and prediction of type IV secreted effector proteins by machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Yang, Bingjiao; An, Yi; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana; Leier, André; Wilksch, Jonathan; Hong, Qingyang; Zhang, Yang; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Webb, Geoffrey I; Strugnell, Richard A; Song, Jiangning; Lithgow, Trevor

    2017-11-27

    In the course of infecting their hosts, pathogenic bacteria secrete numerous effectors, namely, bacterial proteins that pervert host cell biology. Many Gram-negative bacteria, including context-dependent human pathogens, use a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to translocate effectors directly into the cytosol of host cells. Various type IV secreted effectors (T4SEs) have been experimentally validated to play crucial roles in virulence by manipulating host cell gene expression and other processes. Consequently, the identification of novel effector proteins is an important step in increasing our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we train and compare six machine learning models, namely, Naïve Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), support vector machines (SVMs) and multilayer perceptron (MLP), for the identification of T4SEs using 10 types of selected features and 5-fold cross-validation. Our study shows that: (1) including different but complementary features generally enhance the predictive performance of T4SEs; (2) ensemble models, obtained by integrating individual single-feature models, exhibit a significantly improved predictive performance and (3) the 'majority voting strategy' led to a more stable and accurate classification performance when applied to predicting an ensemble learning model with distinct single features. We further developed a new method to effectively predict T4SEs, Bastion4 (Bacterial secretion effector predictor for T4SS), and we show our ensemble classifier clearly outperforms two recent prediction tools. In summary, we developed a state-of-the-art T4SE predictor by conducting a comprehensive performance evaluation of different machine learning algorithms along with a detailed analysis of single- and multi-feature selections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The machinery at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites contributes to spatial regulation of multiple Legionella effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andree Hubber

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dot/Icm system of the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila has the capacity to deliver over 270 effector proteins into host cells during infection. Important questions remain as to spatial and temporal mechanisms used to regulate such a large array of virulence determinants after they have been delivered into host cells. Here we investigated several L. pneumophila effector proteins that contain a conserved phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P-binding domain first described in the effector DrrA (SidM. This PI4P binding domain was essential for the localization of effectors to the early L. pneumophila-containing vacuole (LCV, and DrrA-mediated recruitment of Rab1 to the LCV required PI4P-binding activity. It was found that the host cell machinery that regulates sites of contact between the plasma membrane (PM and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER modulates PI4P dynamics on the LCV to control localization of these effectors. Specifically, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase IIIα (PI4KIIIα was important for generating a PI4P signature that enabled L. pneumophila effectors to localize to the PM-derived vacuole, and the ER-associated phosphatase Sac1 was involved in metabolizing the PI4P on the vacuole to promote the dissociation of effectors. A defect in L. pneumophila replication in macrophages deficient in PI4KIIIα was observed, highlighting that a PM-derived PI4P signature is critical for biogenesis of a vacuole that supports intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila. These data indicate that PI4P metabolism by enzymes controlling PM-ER contact sites regulate the association of L. pneumophila effectors to coordinate early stages of vacuole biogenesis.

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Bsa type III secretion system effectors using hypersecreting mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Broek, Charles W; Chalmers, Kevin J; Stevens, Mark P; Stevens, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. One of the virulence factors critical for early stages of infection is the Burkholderia secretion apparatus (Bsa) Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS), a molecular syringe that injects bacterial proteins, called effectors, into eukaryotic cells where they subvert cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Although the Bsa T3SS itself is known to be important for invasion, intracellular replication, and virulence, only a few genuine effector proteins have been identified and the complete repertoire of proteins secreted by the system has not yet been fully characterized. We constructed a mutant lacking bsaP, a homolog of the T3SS "gatekeeper" family of proteins that exert control over the timing and magnitude of effector protein secretion. Mutants lacking BsaP, or the T3SS translocon protein BipD, were observed to hypersecrete the known Bsa effector protein BopE, providing evidence of their role in post-translational control of the Bsa T3SS and representing key reagents for the identification of its secreted substrates. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ), a gel-free quantitative proteomics technique, was used to compare the secreted protein profiles of the Bsa T3SS hypersecreting mutants of B. pseudomallei with the isogenic parent strain and a bsaZ mutant incapable of effector protein secretion. Our study provides one of the most comprehensive core secretomes of B. pseudomallei described to date and identified 26 putative Bsa-dependent secreted proteins that may be considered candidate effectors. Two of these proteins, BprD and BapA, were validated as novel effector proteins secreted by the Bsa T3SS of B. pseudomallei. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Structure and mechanism of a bacterial haloalcohol dehalogenase : a new variation of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase fold without an NAD(P)H binding site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.M.de; Tiesinga, J.J.W.; Rozeboom, H.J.; Kalk, K.H.; Janssen, D.B.; Dijkstra, B.W.

    2003-01-01

    Haloalcohol dehalogenases are bacterial enzymes that catalyze the cofactor-independent dehalogenation of vicinal haloalcohols such as the genotoxic environmental pollutant 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol, thereby producing an epoxide, a chloride ion and a proton. Here we present X-ray structures of the

  20. Antimicrobial effectors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: an outgroup to the Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Katja; Yang, Wentao; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-05-26

    Nematodes and arthropods likely form the taxon Ecdysozoa. Information on antimicrobial effectors from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans may thus shed light on the evolutionary origin of these defences in arthropods. This nematode species possesses an extensive armory of putative antimicrobial effector proteins, such as lysozymes, caenopores (or saposin-like proteins), defensin-like peptides, caenacins and neuropeptide-like proteins, in addition to the production of reactive oxygen species and autophagy. As C. elegans is a bacterivore that lives in microbe-rich environments, some of its effector peptides and proteins likely function in both digestion of bacterial food and pathogen elimination. In this review, we provide an overview of C. elegans immune effector proteins and mechanisms. We summarize the experimental evidence of their antimicrobial function and involvement in the response to pathogen infection. We further evaluate the microbe-induced expression of effector genes using WormExp, a recently established database for C. elegans gene expression analysis. We emphasize the need for further analysis at the protein level to demonstrate an antimicrobial activity of these molecules both in vitro and in vivoThis article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Christina

    2014-10-17

    Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6), thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ΔspvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated.

  2. Structural basis for sequence-specific recognition of DNA by TAL effectors

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Dong

    2012-01-05

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors, secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria, recognize host DNA sequences through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat comprises 33 to 35 conserved amino acids and targets a specific base pair by using two hypervariable residues [known as repeat variable diresidues (RVDs)] at positions 12 and 13. Here, we report the crystal structures of an 11.5-repeat TAL effector in both DNA-free and DNA-bound states. Each TAL repeat comprises two helices connected by a short RVD-containing loop. The 11.5 repeats form a right-handed, superhelical structure that tracks along the sense strand of DNA duplex, with RVDs contacting the major groove. The 12th residue stabilizes the RVD loop, whereas the 13th residue makes a base-specific contact. Understanding DNA recognition by TAL effectors may facilitate rational design of DNA-binding proteins with biotechnological applications.

  3. Host Cell Targeting by Enteropathogenic Bacteria T3SS Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Laurie; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Phalipon, Armelle

    2018-04-01

    Microbial pathogens possess a diversity of weapons that disrupt host homeostasis and immune defenses, thus resulting in the establishment of infection. The best-characterized system mediating bacterial protein delivery into target eukaryotic cells is the type III secretion system (T3SS) expressed by Gram-negative bacteria, including the human enteric pathogens Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic/enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC). The emerging global view is that these T3SS-bearing pathogens share similarities in their ability to target key cellular pathways such as the cell cytoskeleton, trafficking, cell death/survival, and the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In particular, multiple host proteins are targeted in a given pathway, and different T3SS effectors from various pathogens share functional similarities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conformational changes of the bacterial type I ATP-binding cassette importer HisQMP2 at distinct steps of the catalytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuveling, Johanna; Frochaux, Violette; Ziomkowska, Joanna; Wawrzinek, Robert; Wessig, Pablo; Herrmann, Andreas; Schneider, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotic solute binding protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette import systems are divided into type I and type II and mechanistic differences in the transport process going along with this classification are under intensive investigation. Little is known about the conformational dynamics during the catalytic cycle especially concerning the transmembrane domains. The type I transporter for positively charged amino acids from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (LAO-HisQMP2) was studied by limited proteolysis in detergent solution in the absence and presence of co-factors including ATP, ADP, LAO/arginine, and Mg(2+) ions. Stable peptide fragments could be obtained and differentially susceptible cleavage sites were determined by mass spectrometry as Lys-258 in the nucleotide-binding subunit, HisP, and Arg-217/Arg-218 in the transmembrane subunit, HisQ. In contrast, transmembrane subunit HisM was gradually degraded but no stable fragment could be detected. HisP and HisQ were equally resistant under pre- and post-hydrolysis conditions in the presence of arginine-loaded solute-binding protein LAO and ATP/ADP. Some protection was also observed with LAO/arginine alone, thus reflecting binding to the transporter in the apo-state and transmembrane signaling. Comparable digestion patterns were obtained with the transporter reconstituted into proteoliposomes and nanodiscs. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy confirmed the change of HisQ(R218) to a more apolar microenvironment upon ATP binding and hydrolysis. Limited proteolysis was subsequently used as a tool to study the consequences of mutations on the transport cycle. Together, our data suggest similar conformational changes during the transport cycle as described for the maltose ABC transporter of Escherichia coli, despite distinct structural differences between both systems. © 2013.

  5. Preparation and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of crystals of bacterial flagellar sigma factor σ28 in complex with the σ28-binding region of its antisigma factor, FlgM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kengo; Ichihara, Hisako; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ishihama, Akira; Hakoshima, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    A complex of E. coli flagellar and chemotaxis-specific sigma factor σ 28 bound to the σ 28 -binding region of its antisigma factor FlgM was crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 Å. The sigma 28 kDa (σ 28 ) factor is a transcription factor specific for the expression of bacterial flagellar and chemotaxis genes. Its antisigma factor, FlgM, binds σ 28 factor and inhibits its activity as a transcription factor. In this study, crystals of the complex between Escherichia coli σ 28 and the C-terminal σ 28 -binding region of FlgM were obtained. The crystals belong to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 106.7 (2), c = 51.74 (3) Å, containing one complex in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. An X-ray intensity data set was collected to a resolution of 2.7 Å

  6. Enavatuzumab, a Humanized Anti-TWEAK Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Exerts Antitumor Activity through Attracting and Activating Innate Immune Effector Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enavatuzumab is a humanized IgG1 anti-TWEAK receptor monoclonal antibody that was evaluated in a phase I clinical study for the treatment of solid malignancies. The current study was to determine whether and how myeloid effector cells were involved in postulated mechanisms for its potent antitumor activity in xenograft models. The initial evidence for a role of effector cells was obtained in a subset of tumor xenograft mouse models whose response to enavatuzumab relied on the binding of Fc of the antibody to Fcγ receptor. The involvement of effector cells was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which revealed strong infiltration of CD45+ effector cells into tumor xenografts in responding models, but minimal infiltration in nonresponders. Consistent with the xenograft studies, human effector cells preferentially migrated toward in vivo-responsive tumor cells treated by enavatuzumab in vitro, with the majority of migratory cells being monocytes. Conditioned media from enavatuzumab-treated tumor cells contained elevated levels of chemokines, which might be responsible for enavatuzumab-triggered effector cell migration. These preclinical studies demonstrate that enavatuzumab can exert its potent antitumor activity by actively recruiting and activating myeloid effectors to kill tumor cells. Enavatuzumab-induced chemokines warrant further evaluation in clinical studies as potential biomarkers for such activity.

  7. Coiled-coil domains enhance the membrane association of Salmonella type III effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodler, Leigh A; Ibarra, J Antonio; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Yip, Calvin K; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2011-10-01

    Coiled-coil domains in eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins contribute to diverse structural and regulatory functions. Here we have used in silico analysis to predict which proteins in the proteome of the enteric pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, harbour coiled-coil domains. We found that coiled-coil domains are especially prevalent in virulence-associated proteins, including type III effectors. Using SopB as a model coiled-coil domain type III effector, we have investigated the role of this motif in various aspects of effector function including chaperone binding, secretion and translocation, protein stability, localization and biological activity. Compared with wild-type SopB, SopB coiled-coil mutants were unstable, both inside bacteria and after translocation into host cells. In addition, the putative coiled-coil domain was required for the efficient membrane association of SopB in host cells. Since many other Salmonella effectors were predicted to contain coiled-coil domains, we also investigated the role of this motif in their intracellular targeting in mammalian cells. Mutation of the predicted coiled-coil domains in PipB2, SseJ and SopD2 also eliminated their membrane localization in mammalian cells. These findings suggest that coiled-coil domains represent a common membrane-targeting determinant for Salmonella type III effectors. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Probing the 3-D Structure, Dynamics, and Stability of Bacterial Collagenase Collagen Binding Domain (apo- versus holo-) by Limited Proteolysis MALDI-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Cynthia R.; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O.; Philominathan, Sagaya Theresa Leena; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua

    2012-03-01

    Pairing limited proteolysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to probe clostridial collagenase collagen binding domain (CBD) reveals the solution dynamics and stability of the protein, as these factors are crucial to CBD effectiveness as a drug-delivery vehicle. MS analysis of proteolytic digests indicates initial cleavage sites, thereby specifying the less stable and highly accessible regions of CBD. Modulation of protein structure and stability upon metal binding is shown through MS analysis of calcium-bound and cobalt-bound CBD proteolytic digests. Previously determined X-ray crystal structures illustrate that calcium binding induces secondary structure transformation in the highly mobile N-terminal arm and increases protein stability. MS-based detection of exposed residues confirms protein flexibility, accentuates N-terminal dynamics, and demonstrates increased global protein stability exported by calcium binding. Additionally, apo- and calcium-bound CBD proteolysis sites correlate well with crystallographic B-factors, accessibility, and enzyme specificity. MS-observed cleavage sites with no clear correlations are explained either by crystal contacts of the X-ray crystal structures or by observed differences between Molecules A and B in the X-ray crystal structures. The study newly reveals the absence of the βA strand and thus the very dynamic N-terminal linker, as corroborated by the solution X-ray scattering results. Cobalt binding has a regional effect on the solution phase stability of CBD, as limited proteolysis data implies the capture of an intermediate-CBD solution structure when cobalt is bound.

  9. Posttranscriptional Control of T Cell Effector Function by Aerobic Glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Maggi, Leonard B.; Faubert, Brandon; Villarino, Alejandro V.; O’Sullivan, David; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; van der Windt, Gerritje J.W.; Blagih, Julianna; Qiu, Jing; Weber, Jason D.; Pearce, Edward J.; Jones, Russell G.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A “switch” from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of T cell activation and is thought to be required to meet the metabolic demands of proliferation. However, why proliferating cells adopt this less efficient metabolism, especially in an oxygen-replete environment, remains incompletely understood. We show here that aerobic glycolysis is specifically required for effector function in T cells but that this pathway is not necessary for proliferation or survival. When activated T cells are provided with costimulation and growth factors but are blocked from engaging glycolysis, their ability to produce IFN-γ is markedly compromised. This defect is translational and is regulated by the binding of the glycolysis enzyme GAPDH to AU-rich elements within the 3′ UTR of IFN-γ mRNA. GAPDH, by engaging/disengaging glycolysis and through fluctuations in its expression, controls effector cytokine production. Thus, aerobic glycolysis is a metabolically regulated signaling mechanism needed to control cellular function. PMID:23746840

  10. Heme Synthesis and Acquisition in Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Choby, Jacob E.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens require the iron-containing cofactor heme to cause disease. Heme is essential to the function of hemoproteins, which are involved in energy generation by the electron transport chain, detoxification of host immune effectors, and other processes. During infection, bacterial pathogens must synthesize heme or acquire heme from the host; however, host heme is sequestered in high-affinity hemoproteins. Pathogens have evolved elaborate strategies to acquire heme from host source...

  11. Improved somatic mutagenesis in zebrafish using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finola E Moore

    Full Text Available Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs made by Context-Dependent Assembly (CoDA and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs provide robust and user-friendly technologies for efficiently inactivating genes in zebrafish. These designer nucleases bind to and cleave DNA at particular target sites, inducing error-prone repair that can result in insertion or deletion mutations. Here, we assess the relative efficiencies of these technologies for inducing somatic DNA mutations in mosaic zebrafish. We find that TALENs exhibited a higher success rate for obtaining active nucleases capable of inducing mutations than compared with CoDA ZFNs. For example, all six TALENs tested induced DNA mutations at genomic target sites while only a subset of CoDA ZFNs exhibited detectable rates of mutagenesis. TALENs also exhibited higher mutation rates than CoDA ZFNs that had not been pre-screened using a bacterial two-hybrid assay, with DNA mutation rates ranging from 20%-76.8% compared to 1.1%-3.3%. Furthermore, the broader targeting range of TALENs enabled us to induce mutations at the methionine translation start site, sequences that were not targetable using the CoDA ZFN platform. TALENs exhibited similar toxicity to CoDA ZFNs, with >50% of injected animals surviving to 3 days of life. Taken together, our results suggest that TALEN technology provides a robust alternative to CoDA ZFNs for inducing targeted gene-inactivation in zebrafish, making it a preferred technology for creating targeted knockout mutants in zebrafish.

  12. Induction of Xa10-like Genes in Rice Cultivar Nipponbare Confers Disease Resistance to Rice Bacterial Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tian, Dongsheng; Gu, Keyu; Yang, Xiaobei; Wang, Lanlan; Zeng, Xuan; Yin, Zhongchao

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases throughout the major rice-growing regions in the world. The rice disease resistance (R) gene Xa10 confers race-specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the corresponding transcription activator-like (TAL) effector AvrXa10. Upon bacterial infection, AvrXa10 binds specifically to the effector binding element in the promoter of the R gene and activates its expression. Xa10 encodes an executor R protein that triggers hypersensitive response and activates disease resistance. 'Nipponbare' rice carries two Xa10-like genes in its genome, of which one is the susceptible allele of the Xa23 gene, a Xa10-like TAL effector-dependent executor R gene isolated recently from 'CBB23' rice. However, the function of the two Xa10-like genes in disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains has not been investigated. Here, we designated the two Xa10-like genes as Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni and characterized their function for disease resistance to rice bacterial blight. Both Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni provided disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the matching artificially designed TAL effectors (dTALE). Transgenic rice plants containing Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni under the Xa10 promoter provided specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver AvrXa10. Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni knock-out mutants abolished dTALE-dependent disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Heterologous expression of Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni in Nicotiana benthamiana triggered cell death. The 19-amino-acid residues at the N-terminal regions of XA10 or XA10-Ni are dispensable for their function in inducing cell death in N. benthamiana and the C-terminal regions of XA10, XA10-Ni, and XA23-Ni are interchangeable among each other without affecting their function. Like XA10, both XA10-Ni and XA23-Ni locate to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane

  13. Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bacterial Keratitis Sections What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ... Lens Care Bacterial Keratitis Treatment What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Bacteriana? ...

  14. Crystal structure and DNA-binding property of the ATPase domain of bacterial mismatch repair endonuclease MutL from Aquifex aeolicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Kenji; Iino, Hitoshi; Baba, Seiki; Kumasaka, Takashi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yano, Takato

    2017-09-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects mismatched bases that are generated mainly by DNA replication errors. The repair system excises the error-containing single-stranded region and enables the re-synthesis of the strand. In the early reactions of MMR, MutL endonuclease incises the newly-synthesized/error-containing strand of the duplex to initiate the downstream excision reaction. MutL endonuclease consists of the N-terminal ATPase and C-terminal endonuclease domains. In this study, we report the crystal structure of the ATPase domain of MutL endonuclease from Aquifex aeolicus. The overall structure of the domain was similar to those of human MutL homologs and Escherichia coli MutL, although E. coli MutL has no endonuclease activity. The ATPase domain was comprised of two subdomains: the N-terminal ATP-binding subdomain and the C-terminal α-β sandwich subdomain. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment identified DNA-interacting eight basic amino acid residues, which were distributed across both the two subdomains and formed a DNA-binding cleft. Docking simulation between the structures of the ATPase and endonuclease domains generated a reliable model structure for the full-length A. aeolicus MutL, which satisfies our previous result of small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. On the basis of the model structure and further experimental results, we concluded that the two separate DNA-binding sites in the full-length A. aeolicus MutL simultaneously bind a dsDNA molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of calculated and experimental isotope edited FTIR difference spectra for purple bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers with different quinones incorporated into the QA binding site.

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    Nan eZhao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that ONIOM type (QM/MM calculations can be used to simulate isotope edited FTIR difference spectra for neutral ubiquinone in the QA binding site in Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction centers. Here we considerably extend upon this previous work by calculating isotope edited FTIR difference spectra for reaction centers with a variety of unlabeled and 18O labeled foreign quinones incorporated into the QA binding site. Isotope edited spectra were calculated for reaction centers with 2,3-dimethoxy-5,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (MQ0, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (duroquinone, DQ, and 2,3-dimethyl-l,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ incorporated, and compared to corresponding experimental spectra. The calculated and experimental spectra agree well, further demonstrating the utility and applicability of our ONIOM approach for calculating the vibrational properties of pigments in protein binding sites.The normal modes that contribute to the bands in the calculated spectra, their composition, frequency and intensity, and how these quantities are modified upon 18O labeling, are presented. This computed information leads to a new and more detailed understanding/interpretation of the experimental FTIR difference spectra. Hydrogen bonding to the carbonyl groups of the incorporated quinones is shown to be relatively weak. It is also shown that there is some asymmetry in hydrogen bonding, accounting for 10-13 cm-1 separation in the frequencies of the carbonyl vibrational modes of the incorporated quinones. The extent of asymmetry H-bonding could only be established by considering the spectra for various types of quinones incorporated into the QA binding site. The quinones listed above are tail-less. Spectra were also calculated for reaction centers with corresponding tail containing quinones incorporated, and it is found that replacement of the quinone methyl group by a phytyl or prenyl chain does not alter ONIOM calculated s

  16. Structure of thrombospondin type 3 repeats in bacterial outer membrane protein A reveals its intra-repeat disulfide bond-dependent calcium-binding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shuyan; Sun, Cancan; Tan, Kemin; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang

    2017-09-01

    Eukaryotic thrombospondin type 3 repeat (TT3R) is an efficient calcium ion (Ca2+) binding motif only found in mammalian thrombospondin family. TT3R has also been found in prokaryotic cellulase Cel5G, which was thought to forfeit the Ca2+-binding capability due to the formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, instead of the inter-repeat ones possessed by eukaryotic TT3Rs. In this study, we have identified an enormous number of prokaryotic TT3R-containing proteins belonging to several different protein families, including outer membrane protein A (OmpA), an important structural protein connecting the outer membrane and the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer in gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic region of OmpA from Capnocytophaga gingivalis, which contains a linker region comprising five consecutive TT3Rs. The structure of OmpA-TT3R exhibits a well-ordered architecture organized around two tightly-coordinated Ca2+ and confirms the presence of abnormal intra-repeat disulfide bonds. Further mutagenesis studies showed that the Ca2+-binding capability of OmpA-TT3R is indeed dependent on the proper formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, which help to fix a conserved glycine residue at its proper position for Ca2+ coordination. Additionally, despite lacking inter repeat disulfide bonds, the interfaces between adjacent OmpA-TT3Rs are enhanced by both hydrophobic and conserved aromatic-proline interactions.

  17. Shigella Manipulates Host Immune Responses by Delivering Effector Proteins with Specific Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium deploys multiple defense systems against microbial infection to sense bacterial components and danger alarms, as well as to induce intracellular signal transduction cascades that trigger both the innate and the adaptive immune systems, which are pivotal for bacterial elimination. However, many enteric bacterial pathogens, including Shigella, deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) via the type III secretion system (T3SS) that enable bacterial evasion from host immune systems; consequently, these pathogens are able to efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. In this review, we present and select recently discovered examples of interactions between Shigella and host immune responses, with particular emphasis on strategies that bacteria use to manipulate inflammatory outputs of host-cell responses such as cell death, membrane trafficking, and innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:25999954

  18. Shigella manipulates host immune responses by delivering effector proteins with specific roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eAshida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium deploys multiple defense systems against microbial infection to sense bacterial components and danger alarms, as well as to induce intracellular signal transduction cascades that trigger both the innate and adaptive immune system, which are pivotal for bacterial elimination. However, many enteric bacterial pathogens, including Shigella, deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors via the type III secretion system (T3SS that enable bacterial evasion from host immune systems; consequently, these pathogens are able to efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. In this review, we present select recently discovered examples of interactions between Shigella and host immune responses, with particular emphasis on strategies that bacteria use to manipulate inflammatory outputs of host cell responses such as cell death, membrane trafficking, and innate and adaptive immune responses.

  19. Bacterial-Chromatin Structural Proteins Regulate the Bimodal Expression of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) Pathogenicity Island in EnteropathogenicEscherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Hervé; Khodr, Ahmad; Bouger, Marie-Christine; Sclavi, Bianca; Rimsky, Sylvie; Bury-Moné, Stéphanie

    2017-08-08

    In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons ( LEE1 to LEE5 ), with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1 , encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator), an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein) paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli. One key regulator of bimodal LEE1 and LEE5 expression is ler expression, which fluctuates in response to different growth conditions. Under conditions in vitro considered to be equivalent to nonoptimal conditions for virulence, the opposing regulatory effects of H-NS and Ler can lead to the emergence of two bacterial subpopulations. H-NS and Ler share nucleation binding sites in the LEE5 promoter region, but H-NS binding results in local DNA structural modifications distinct from those generated through Ler binding, at least in vitro Thus, we show how two nucleoid-binding proteins can contribute to the epigenetic regulation of bacterial virulence and lead to opposing bacterial fates. This finding implicates for the first time bacterial-chromatin structural proteins in the bimodal regulation of gene expression. IMPORTANCE Gene expression stochasticity is an emerging phenomenon in microbiology. In certain contexts, gene expression stochasticity can shape bacterial epigenetic regulation. In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the interplay between H-NS (a nucleoid structuring protein) and Ler (an H-NS paralog) is required for bimodal LEE5 and LEE1 expression, leading to the emergence of two bacterial subpopulations (with low and high states of expression). The two proteins share mutual nucleation binding sites in the LEE5 promoter region. In vitro , the binding of H

  20. Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Binds Pro-Inflammatory Bacterial Compounds and Prevents Immune Activation in an Intestinal Co-Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Horgan, Alan; Henderson, Abigail L.; Petschow, Bryon W.; Warner, Christopher D.; Maas, Kenneth J.; Weaver, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is associated with chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation and diseases such as IBD and IBS. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) is a specially formulated protein preparation (>90%) for oral administration. The composition of SBI is greater than 60% immunoglobulin including contributions from IgG, IgA, and IgM. Immunoglobulin within the lumen of the gut has been recognized to have anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in maintaining gut homeostasis. The binding of common intestinal antigens (LPS and Lipid A) and the ligand Pam3CSK4, by IgG, IgA, and IgM in SBI was shown using a modified ELISA technique. Each of these antigens stimulated IL-8 and TNF-α cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes. Immune exclusion occurred as SBI (≤50 mg/mL) bound free antigen in a dose dependent manner that inhibited cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes in response to 10 ng/mL LPS or 200 ng/mL Lipid A. Conversely, Pam3CSK4 stimulation of THP-1 monocytes was unaffected by SBI/antigen binding. A co-culture model of the intestinal epithelium consisted of a C2BBe1 monolayer separating an apical compartment from a basal compartment containing THP-1 monocytes. The C2BBe1 monolayer was permeabilized with dimethyl palmitoyl ammonio propanesulfonate (PPS) to simulate a damaged epithelial barrier. Results indicate that Pam3CSK4 was able to translocate across the PPS-damaged C2BBe1 monolayer. However, binding of Pam3CSK4 by immunoglobulins in SBI prevented Pam3CSK4 translocation across the damaged C2BBe1 barrier. These results demonstrated steric exclusion of antigen by SBI which prevented apical to basal translocation of antigen due to changes in the physical properties of Pam3CSK4, most likely as a result of immunoglobulin binding. This study demonstrates that immunoglobulins in SBI can reduce antigen-associated inflammation through immune and steric exclusion mechanisms and furthers the mechanistic understanding of how SBI

  1. Cytosolic Access of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens: The Shigella Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Enninga, Jost

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes bacillary dysentery in humans. A crucial step of Shigella infection is its invasion of epithelial cells. Using a type III secretion system, Shigella injects several bacterial effectors ultimately leading to bacterial internalization within a vacuole. Then, Shigella escapes rapidly from the vacuole, it replicates within the cytosol and spreads from cell-to-cell. The molecular mechanism of vacuolar rupture used by Shigella has been studied in some detail during the recent years and new paradigms are emerging about the underlying molecular events. For decades, bacterial effector proteins were portrayed as main actors inducing vacuolar rupture. This includes the effector/translocators IpaB and IpaC. More recently, this has been challenged and an implication of the host cell in the process of vacuolar rupture has been put forward. This includes the bacterial subversion of host trafficking regulators, such as the Rab GTPase Rab11. The involvement of the host in determining bacterial vacuolar integrity has also been found for other bacterial pathogens, particularly for Salmonella. Here, we will discuss our current view of host factor and pathogen effector implications during Shigella vacuolar rupture and the steps leading to it.

  2. Cytosolic access of intracellular bacterial pathogens: the Shigella paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora eMellouk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes bacillary dysentery in humans. A crucial step of Shigella infection is its invasion of epithelial cells. Using a type III secretion system, Shigella injects several bacterial effectors ultimately leading to bacterial internalization within a vacuole. Then, Shigella escapes rapidly from the vacuole, it replicates within the cytosol and spreads from cell-to-cell. The molecular mechanism of vacuolar rupture used by Shigella has been studied in some detail during the recent years and new paradigms are emerging about the underlying molecular events. For decades, bacterial effector proteins were portrayed as main actors inducing vacuolar rupture. This includes the effector/translocators IpaB and IpaC. More recently, this has been challenged and an implication of the host cell in the process of vacuolar rupture has been put forward. This includes the bacterial subversion of host trafficking regulators, such as the Rab GTPase Rab11. The involvement of the host in determining bacterial vacuolar integrity has also been found for other bacterial pathogens, particularly for Salmonella. Here, we will discuss our current view of host factor and pathogen effector implications during Shigella vacuolar rupture and the steps leading to it.

  3. Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2 is a conserved RxLR effector that promotes infection in soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-12-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts.

  4. Molecular Binding Mechanism of TtgR Repressor to Antibiotics and Antimicrobials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Fernandez-Escamilla

    Full Text Available A disturbing phenomenon in contemporary medicine is the prevalence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Efflux pumps contribute strongly to this antimicrobial drug resistance, which leads to the subsequent failure of clinical treatments. The TtgR protein of Pseudomonas putida is a HTH-type transcriptional repressor that controls expression of the TtgABC efflux pump, which is the main contributor to resistance against several antimicrobials and toxic compounds in this microbe. One of the main strategies to modulate the bacterial resistance is the rational modification of the ligand binding target site. We report the design and characterization of four mutants-TtgRS77A, TtgRE78A, TtgRN110A and TtgRH114A - at the active ligand binding site. The biophysical characterization of the mutants, in the presence and in the absence of different antimicrobials, revealed that TtgRN110A is the variant with highest thermal stability, under any of the experimental conditions tested. EMSA experiments also showed a different dissociation pattern from the operator for TtgRN110A, in the presence of several antimicrobials, making it a key residue in the TtgR protein repression mechanism of the TtgABC efflux pump. We found that TtgRE78A stability is the most affected upon effector binding. We also probe that one mutation at the C-terminal half of helix-α4, TtgRS77A, provokes a severe protein structure distortion, demonstrating the important role of this residue in the overall protein structure and on the ligand binding site. The data provide new information and deepen the understanding of the TtgR-effector binding mechanism and consequently the TtgABC efflux pump regulation mechanism in Pseudomonas putida.

  5. Dormant intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium discriminates among Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 effectors to persist inside fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Hernández, Cristina; Alonso, Ana; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; Casadesús, Josep; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica uses effector proteins delivered by type III secretion systems (TTSS) to colonize eukaryotic cells. Recent in vivo studies have shown that intracellular bacteria activate the TTSS encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI-2) to restrain growth inside phagocytes. Growth attenuation is also observed in vivo in bacteria colonizing nonphagocytic stromal cells of the intestinal lamina propria and in cultured fibroblasts. SPI-2 is required for survival of nongrowing bacteria persisting inside fibroblasts, but its induction mode and the effectors involved remain unknown. Here, we show that nongrowing dormant intracellular bacteria use the two-component system OmpR-EnvZ to induce SPI-2 expression and the PhoP-PhoQ system to regulate the time at which induction takes place, 2 h postentry. Dormant bacteria were shown to discriminate the usage of SPI-2 effectors. Among the effectors tested, SseF, SseG, and SseJ were required for survival, while others, such as SifA and SifB, were not. SifA and SifB dispensability correlated with the inability of intracellular bacteria to secrete these effectors even when overexpressed. Conversely, SseJ overproduction resulted in augmented secretion and exacerbated bacterial growth. Dormant bacteria produced other effectors, such as PipB and PipB2, that, unlike what was reported for epithelial cells, did not to traffic outside the phagosomal compartment. Therefore, permissiveness for secreting only a subset of SPI-2 effectors may be instrumental for dormancy. We propose that the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium nonproliferative intracellular lifestyle is sustained by selection of SPI-2 effectors that are produced in tightly defined amounts and delivered to phagosome-confined locations.

  6. Diverse toxic effectors are harbored by vgrG islands for interbacterial antagonism in type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiale; Sun, Min; Pan, Zihao; Lu, Chengping; Yao, Huochun

    2018-04-16

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is considered as one of the key competition strategies by injecting toxic effectors for intestinal pathogens to acquire optimal colonization in host gut, a microenviroment with high-density polymicrobial community where bacteria compete for niches and resources. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a major cause of infectious diarrhea in human and animals, widely encode T6SS clusters in their genomes. In this report, we first identified VT1, a novel amidase effector in ETEC, significantly hydrolyzed D-lactyl-L-Ala crosslinks between N-acetylmuramoyl and L-Ala in peptidoglycan. Further study showed that the VT1/VTI1 effector/immunity pair is encoded within a typical vgrG island, and plays a critical role for the successful establishment of ETEC in host gut. Numerous putative effectors with diverse toxin domains were found by retrieving vgrG islands in pathogenic E. coli, and designated as VT modules. Therein, VT5, a lysozyme-like effector widely encoded in ETEC, was confirmed to effectively kill adjacent cells, suggesting that VT toxin modules may be critical for pathogenic E. coli to seize a significantly competitive advantage for optimal intestinal colonization. To expand our analyses for large-scale search of VT antibacterial effectors based on vgrG island, >200 predicted effectors from 20 bacterial species were found and classified into 11 predicted toxins. This work reports a new retrieval strategy for screening T6SS effectors, and provides an example how pathogenic bacteria antagonize and displace commensal microbiome to successfully colonize in the host niches through a T6SS-dependent manner. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. In silico identification and characterization of effector catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    Many characterized fungal effector proteins are small secreted proteins. Effectors are defined as those proteins that alter host cell structure and/or function by facilitating pathogen infection. The identification of effectors by molecular and cell biology techniques is a difficult task. However, with the availability of whole-genome sequences, these proteins can now be predicted in silico. Here, we describe in detail how to identify and characterize effectors from a defined fungal proteome using in silico techniques.

  8. In silico identification and characterization of effector catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.

    2012-01-01

    Many characterized fungal effector proteins are small secreted proteins. Effectors are defined as those proteins that alter host cell structure and/or function by facilitating pathogen infection. The identification of effectors by molecular and cell biology techniques is a difficult task. However,

  9. Mining the human gut microbiota for effector strains that shape the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Philip P; Faith, Jeremiah J; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2014-06-19

    The gut microbiota codevelops with the immune system beginning at birth. Mining the microbiota for bacterial strains responsible for shaping the structure and dynamic operations of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system represents a formidable combinatorial problem but one that needs to be overcome to advance mechanistic understanding of microbial community and immune system coregulation and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that promote health. Here, we discuss a scalable, less biased approach for identifying effector strains in complex microbial communities that impact immune function. The approach begins by identifying uncultured human fecal microbiota samples that transmit immune phenotypes to germ-free mice. Clonally arrayed sequenced collections of bacterial strains are constructed from representative donor microbiota. If the collection transmits phenotypes, effector strains are identified by testing randomly generated subsets with overlapping membership in individually housed germ-free animals. Detailed mechanistic studies of effector strain-host interactions can then be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of the Dissociation-Equilibrium Constants for Low Affinity Antibiotic Binding Interaction with Bacterial Ribosomes by the T2 (CPMG) and Line-Broadening Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, L.; Gharbi-Benarous, J.; Bertho, G.; Mauvais, P.; Girault, J.-P.

    1999-10-01

    In this study the dissociation constants of the low antibiotic-ribosomes interaction were determined by the T2 (CPMG), the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-echo decay rate and the line-broadening methods. Three MLSB antibiotics were studied, a macrolide roxithromycin, a ketolide HMR 3647 and a lincosamide clindamycin for their weak interaction with three bacterial ribosomes, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensitive and resistant to erythromycin. Nous avons mesuré la constante de dissociation, Kd correspondant à l'interaction faible antibiotique-ribosome bactérien pour des antibiotiques de différentes classes, un macrolide (roxithromycine), un kétolide (HMR 3647) et une lincosamide (clindamycine) avec des ribosomes de différentes souches bactériennes (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensible ou résistant à l'erythromycin) par deux méthodes : l'une basée sur la variation des largeurs de raies et l'autre sur les temps de relaxation transversaux T2 en utilisant une séquence CPMG.

  11. A multifunctional region of the Shigella type 3 effector IpgB1 is important for secretion from bacteria and membrane targeting in eukaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C P Costa

    Full Text Available Type 3 secretion systems are complex nanomachines used by many Gram-negative bacteria to deliver tens of proteins (effectors directly into host cells. Once delivered into host cells, effectors often target to specific cellular loci where they usurp host cell processes to their advantage. Here, using the yeast model system, we identify the membrane localization domain (MLD of IpgB1, a stretch of 20 amino acids enriched for hydrophobic residues essential for the targeting of this effector to the plasma membrane. Embedded within these residues are ten that define the IpgB1 chaperone-binding domain for Spa15. As observed with dedicated class IA chaperones that mask hydrophobic MLDs, Spa15, a class IB chaperone, promotes IpgB1 stability by binding this hydrophobic region. However, despite being stable, an IpgB1 allele that lacks the MLD is not recognized as a secreted substrate. Similarly, deletion of the chaperone binding domains of IpgB1 and three additional Spa15-dependent effectors result in alleles that are no longer recognized as secreted substrates despite the presence of intact N-terminal secretion signal sequences. This is in contrast with MLD-containing effectors that bind class IA dedicated chaperones, as deletion of the MLD of these effectors alleviates the chaperone requirement for secretion. These observations indicate that at least for substrates of class IB chaperones, the chaperone-effector complex plays a major role in defining type 3 secreted proteins and highlight how a single region of an effector can play important roles both within prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  12. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria......-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial...

  13. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  14. Activity of a bacterial cell envelope stress response is controlled by the interaction of a protein binding domain with different partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    The bacterial phage shock protein (Psp) system is a highly conserved cell envelope stress response required for virulence in Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica. In non-inducing conditions the transcription factor PspF is inhibited by an interaction with PspA. In contrast, PspA associates with the cytoplasmic membrane proteins PspBC during inducing conditions. This has led to the proposal that PspBC exists in an OFF state, which cannot recruit PspA, or an ON state, which can. However, nothing was known about the difference between these two states. Here, we provide evidence that it is the C-terminal domain of Y. enterocolitica PspC (PspC(CT)) that interacts directly with PspA, both in vivo and in vitro. Site-specific photocross-linking revealed that this interaction occurred only during Psp-inducing conditions in vivo. Importantly, we have also discovered that PspC(CT) can interact with the C-terminal domain of PspB (PspC(CT)·PspB(CT)). However, the PspC(CT)·PspB(CT) and PspC(CT)·PspA interactions were mutually exclusive in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo, PspC(CT) contacted PspB(CT) in the OFF state, whereas it contacted PspA in the ON state. These findings provide the first description of the previously proposed PspBC OFF and ON states and reveal that the regulatory switch is centered on a PspC(CT) partner-switching mechanism. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. T Cell factor 1 represses CD8+ effector T cell formation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemessen, Machteld M; Baert, Miranda R M; Kok, Lianne; van Eggermond, Marja C J A; van den Elsen, Peter J; Arens, Ramon; Staal, Frank J T

    2014-12-01

    The Wnt-responsive transcription factor T cell factor 1 (Tcf1) is well known for its role in thymic T cell development and the formation of memory CD8(+) T cells. However, its role in the initial phases of CD8(+) T effector cell formation has remained unexplored. We report that high levels of Wnt signaling and Tcf1 are operational in naive and memory CD8(+) T cells, whereas Wnt signaling and Tcf1 were low in effector CD8(+) T cells. CD8(+) T cells deficient in Tcf1 produce IFN-γ more rapidly, coinciding with increased demethylation of the IFN-γ enhancer and higher expression of the transcription factors Tbet and Blimp1. Moreover, virus-specific Tcf1(-/-) CD8(+) T cells show accelerated expansion in acute infection, which is associated with increased IFN-γ and TNF production and lower viral load. Genetic complementation experiments with various Tcf1 isoforms indicate that Tcf1 dosage and protein stability are critical in suppressing IFN-γ production. Isoforms lacking the β-catenin binding domain are equally effective in inhibiting CD8(+) effector T cell formation. Thus, Tcf1 functions as a repressor of CD8(+) effector T cell formation in a β-catenin/Wnt-independent manner. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Impact of end effector technology on telemanipulation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Szakaly, Z.; Ohm, T.

    1990-01-01

    Generic requirements for end effector design are briefly summarized as derived from generic functional and operational requirements. Included is a brief summary of terms and definitions related to end effector technology. The second part contains a brief overview of end effector technology work as JPL during the past ten years, with emphasis on the evolution of new mechanical, sensing and control capabilities of end effectors. The third and major part is devoted to the description of current end effector technology. The ongoing work addresses mechanical, sensing and control details with emphasis on mechanical ruggedness, increased resolution in sensing, and close electronic and control integration with overall telemanipulator control system.

  17. Nck adaptors, besides promoting N-WASP mediated actin-nucleation activity at pedestals, influence the cellular levels of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Tir effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Pelegrin, Elvira; Kenny, Brendan; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) binding to human intestinal cells triggers the formation of disease-associated actin rich structures called pedestals. The latter process requires the delivery, via a Type 3 secretion system, of the translocated Intimin receptor (Tir) protein into the host plasma membrane where binding of a host kinase-modified form to the bacterial surface protein Intimin triggers pedestal formation. Tir-Intimin interaction recruits the Nck adaptor to a Tir tyrosine phosphorylated residue where it activates neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP); initiating the major pathway to actin polymerization mediated by the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex. Previous studies with Nck-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) identified a key role for Nck in pedestal formation, presumed to reflect a lack of N-WASP activation. Here, we show the defect relates to reduced amounts of Tir within Nck-deficient cells. Indeed, Tir delivery and, thus, pedestal formation defects were much greater for MEFs than HeLa (human epithelial) cells. Crucially, the levels of two other effectors (EspB/EspF) within Nck-deficient MEFs were not reduced unlike that of Map (Mitochondrial associated protein) which, like Tir, requires CesT chaperone function for efficient delivery. Interestingly, drugs blocking various host protein degradation pathways failed to increase Tir cellular levels unlike an inhibitor of deacetylase activity (Trichostatin A; TSA). Treatments with TSA resulted in significant recovery of Tir levels, potentiation of actin polymerization and improvement in bacterial attachment to cells. Our findings have important implications for the current model of Tir-mediated actin polymerization and opens new lines of research in this area.

  18. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Deng, Xin [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ma, Mi [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyz@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  19. Characterization of Rabbit Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain 1 (NOD1 and the Role of NOD1 Signaling Pathway during Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjiao Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1 is the most prominent of all NOD-like receptors, which in the mammalian innate immune system, serve as intracellular receptors for pathogens and endogenous molecules during tissue injury. From rabbit kidney cells, we cloned rabbit NOD1 (rNOD1 and identified an N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain, a central NACHT domain, and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domains. rNOD1 was expressed in all tested tissues; infection with Escherichia coli induced significantly higher expression in the spleen, liver, and kidney compared to other tissues. The overexpression of rNOD1 induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines Il1b, Il6, Il8, Ifn-γ, and Tnf and defensins, including Defb124, Defb125, Defb128, Defb135, and Np5 via activation of the nuclear factor (NF-κB pathway. Overexpression of rNOD1 inhibited the growth of E. coli, whereas knockdown of rNOD1 or inhibition of the NF-κB pathway promoted the growth of E. coli. rNOD1 colocalized with LC3, upregulated autophagy pathway protein LC3-II, and increased autolysosome formation in RK-13 cells infected with E. coli. In summary, our results explain the primary signaling pathway and antibacterial ability of rNOD1, as well as the induction of autophagy that it mediates. Such findings suggest that NOD1 could contribute to therapeutic strategies such as targets of new vaccine adjuvants or drugs.

  20. Backbone dynamics of a bacterially expressed peptide from the receptor binding domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilin strain PAK from heteronuclear 1H-15N NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A. Patricia [University of Washington, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy (United States); Spyracopoulos, Leo [Department of Biochemistry (Canada); Irvin, Randall T. [University of Alberta, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology (Canada); Sykes, Brian D. [Department of Biochemistry (Canada)

    2000-07-15

    The backbone dynamics of a {sup 15}N-labeled recombinant PAK pilin peptide spanning residues 128-144 in the C-terminal receptor binding domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilin protein strain PAK (Lys{sup 128}-Cys-Thr-Ser-Asp-Gln-Asp-Glu-Gln-Phe-Ile-Pro-Lys-Gly-Cys-Ser-Lys{sup 144}) were probed by measurements of {sup 15}N NMR relaxation. This PAK(128-144) sequence is a target for the design of a synthetic peptide vaccine effective against multiple strains of P. aeruginosa infection. The {sup 15}N longitudinal (T{sub 1}) and transverse (T{sub 2}) relaxation rates and the steady-state heteronuclear {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}-{sup 15}N NOE were measured at three fields (7.04, 11.74 and 14.1 Tesla), five temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C ) and at pH 4.5 and 7.2. Relaxation data was analyzed using both the 'model-free' formalism [Lipari, G. and Szabo, A. (1982) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 104, 4546-4559 and 4559-4570] and the reduced spectral density mapping approach [Farrow, N.A., Szabo, A., Torchia, D.A. and Kay, L.E. (1995) J. Biomol. NMR, 6, 153-162]. The relaxation data, spectral densities and order parameters suggest that the type I and type II {beta}-turns spanning residues Asp{sup 134}-Glu-Gln-Phe{sup 137} and Pro{sup 139}-Lys-Gly-Cys{sup 142}, respectively, are the most ordered and structured regions of the peptide. The biological implications of these results will be discussed in relation to the role that backbone motions play in PAK pilin peptide immunogenicity, and within the framework of developing a pilin peptide vaccine capable of conferring broad immunity across P. aeruginosa strains.

  1. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Xin; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  2. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  3. Aminoacyl-tRNA-charged eukaryotic elongation factor 1A is a bona fide substrate for Legionelle pneumophila effector glucosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzivelekidis, Tina; Jank, Thomas; Pohl, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, which is the causative organism of Legionnaires disease, translocates numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytosol by a type IV secretion system during infection. Among the most potent effector proteins of Legionella are glucosyltransferases (Lgt’s), which...... selectively modify eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF) 1A at Ser-53 in the GTP binding domain. Glucosylation results in inhibition of protein synthesis. Here we show that in vitro glucosylation of yeast and mouse eEF1A by Lgt3 in the presence of the factors Phe-tRNAPhe and GTP was enhanced 150 and 590-fold...

  4. Shigella flexneri T3SS effector IpaH4.5 modulates the host inflammatory response via interaction with NF-κB p65 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Jiang, Zheng; Li, Yan; He, Xiang; Zhao, Jiangli; Yang, Xinlong; Zhu, Li; Yin, Zhitao; Li, Xuelian; Wang, Xuesong; Liu, Wei; Shang, Wei; Yang, Zhan; Wang, Simiao; Zhen, Qing; Zhang, Zhuangnian; Yu, Yaqin; Zhong, Hui; Ye, Qinong; Huang, Liuyu; Yuan, Jing

    2013-03-01

    Shigella species possess a type III secretion system (T3SS), which is required for human infection and that delivers effector proteins into target host cells. Here, we show that the effector, IpaH4.5 dampens the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. In both the Sereny test and a murine lung infection model, the Shigella ΔipaH4.5 mutant strain caused more severe inflammatory responses and significantly induced higher pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (MIP-2 and TNF-α) in the lung homogenates of wild type-infected mice. Moreover, there was a threefold decrease in bacterial colonization of the mutant compared with the WT and ΔipaH4.5/ipaH4.5-rescued strains. Yeast two-hybrid screening showed that IpaH4.5 specifically interacts with the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Ten truncated versions of IpaH4.5 and p65 spanning different regions were constructed and expressed to further map the IpaH binding sites with p65. The results revealed thatthe p65 region spanning amino acids 1-190 of p65 interacted with the IpaH4.5/1-293 N-terminal region. In vitro, IpaH4.5 displayed ubiquitin ligase activity towards ubiquitin and p65. Furthermore, the transcriptional activity of NF-κB was shown to be inhibited by IpaH4.5 utilizing a dual-luciferase reporter gene detection system containing NF-κB promoter response elements. Thus, we conclude that the IpaH4.5 protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase capable of directly regulating the host inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB signalling pathway. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Engineering Barriers to Infection by Undermining Pathogen Effector Function or by Gaining Effector Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Mclellan, Hazel; Aguilar, Geziel Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews potential disease control strategies by employing the current understanding of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and their receptors, as well as effectors and their targets. It discusses how effectoromics, i.e. surveying which, and to what level, effectors......-LRR transcript regulation that involves small RNAs is currently emerging and could potentially be explored in the search for more durable and/or broad-spectrum pathogen resistance. The chapter suggests ways that can be used to undermine effector function and be exploited to engineer resistant plants...... in the future. It further illustrates how a mechanistic understanding of a pathogen's stealth strategies may allow new approaches to engineer resistance....

  6. High-resolution crystal structure of deoxy hemoglobin complexed with a potent allosteric effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safo, M K; Moure, C M; Burnett, J C; Joshi, G S; Abraham, D J

    2001-05-01

    The crystal structure of human deoxy hemoglobin (Hb) complexed with a potent allosteric effector (2-[4-[[(3,5-dimethylanilino)carbonyl]methyl]phenoxy]-2-methylpropionic acid) = RSR-13) is reported at 1.85 A resolution. Analysis of the hemoglobin:effector complex indicates that two of these molecules bind to the central water cavity of deoxy Hb in a symmetrical fashion, and that each constrains the protein by engaging in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions with three of its four subunits. Interestingly, we also find that water-mediated interactions between the bound effectors and the protein make significant contributions to the overall binding. Physiologically, the interaction of RSR-13 with Hb results in increased oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Thus, this compound has potential therapeutic application in the treatment of hypoxia, ischemia, and trauma-related blood loss. Currently, RSR-13 is in phase III clinical trials as a radiosensitizing agent in the treatment of brain tumors. A detailed structural analysis of this compound complexed with deoxy Hb has important implications for the rational design of future analogs.

  7. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  8. Identification and characterization of Brucella effector proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Brucella-bacteriën gebruiken de eiwitten VceB en VceC om het immuunsysteem van humane gastheercellen te omzeilen, blijkt uit het promotieonderzoek van Maarten de Jong. Dit biedt nieuwe aanknopingspunten voor de bestrijding van deze gevaarlijke bacterie. Brucellose is een wereldwijd voorkomende

  9. Antimicrobial activities of heparin-binding peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emma; Rydengård, Victoria; Sonesson, Andreas; Mörgelin, Matthias; Björck, Lars; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are effector molecules of the innate immune system. We recently showed that the human antimicrobial peptides alpha-defensin and LL-37 bind to glycosaminoglycans (heparin and dermatan sulphate). Here we demonstrate the obverse, i.e. structural motifs associated with heparin affinity (cationicity, amphipaticity, and consensus regions) may confer antimicrobial properties to a given peptide. Thus, heparin-binding peptides derived from laminin isoforms, von Willebrand factor...

  10. A multi-layered mechanistic modelling approach to understand how effector genes extend beyond phytoplasma to modulate plant hosts, insect vectors and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Melissa; Kliot, Adi; Marée, Athanasius Fm; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2018-03-13

    Members of the Candidatus genus Phytoplasma are small bacterial pathogens that hijack their plant hosts via the secretion of virulence proteins (effectors) leading to a fascinating array of plant phenotypes, such as witch's brooms (stem proliferations) and phyllody (retrograde development of flowers into vegetative tissues). Phytoplasma depend on insect vectors for transmission, and interestingly, these insect vectors were found to be (in)directly attracted to plants with these phenotypes. Therefore, phytoplasma effectors appear to reprogram plant development and defence to lure insect vectors, similarly to social engineering malware, which employs tricks to lure people to infected computers and webpages. A multi-layered mechanistic modelling approach will enable a better understanding of how phytoplasma effector-mediated modulations of plant host development and insect vector behaviour contribute to phytoplasma spread, and ultimately to predict the long reach of phytoplasma effector genes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The role of type III effectors from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in virulence and suppression of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Cesar Augusto; Reyes, Paola Andrea; Trujillo, Cesar Augusto; Gonzalez, Juan Luis; Bejarano, David Alejandro; Montenegro, Nathaly Andrea; Jacobs, Jonathan M; Joe, Anna; Restrepo, Silvia; Alfano, James R; Bernal, Adriana

    2018-03-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) causes cassava bacterial blight, the most important bacterial disease of cassava. Xam, like other Xanthomonas species, requires type III effectors (T3Es) for maximal virulence. Xam strain CIO151 possesses 17 predicted T3Es belonging to the Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) class. This work aimed to characterize nine Xop effectors present in Xam CIO151 for their role in virulence and modulation of plant immunity. Our findings demonstrate the importance of XopZ, XopX, XopAO1 and AvrBs2 for full virulence, as well as a redundant function in virulence between XopN and XopQ in susceptible cassava plants. We tested their role in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) using heterologous systems. AvrBs2, XopR and XopAO1 are capable of suppressing PTI. ETI suppression activity was only detected for XopE4 and XopAO1. These results demonstrate the overall importance and diversity in functions of major virulence effectors AvrBs2 and XopAO1 in Xam during cassava infection. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Long-Term Live Cell Imaging Reveals New Roles For Salmonella Effector Proteins SseG and SteA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Sarah E.; Young, Alexandra M.; Silva-Herzog, Eugenia; Bunker, Eric; Hernandez, Mateo; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Liu, Xuedong; Detweiler, Corrella S.; Palmer, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Salmonella Typhimurium is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects both epithelial cells and macrophages. Salmonella effector proteins, which are translocated into the host cell and manipulate host cell components, control the ability to replicate and/or survive in host cells. Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of Salmonella infections, there is growing recognition of the need for single cell and live-cell imaging approaches to identify and characterize the diversity of cellular phenotypes and how they evolve over time. Here we establish a pipeline for long-term (16 hours) live-cell imaging of infected cells and subsequent image analysis methods. We apply this pipeline to track bacterial replication within the Salmonella-containing vacuole in epithelial cells, quantify vacuolar replication versus survival in macrophages, and investigate the role of individual effector proteins in mediating these parameters. This approach revealed that dispersed bacteria can coalesce at later stages of infection, that the effector protein SseG influences the propensity for cytosolic hyperreplication in epithelial cells, and that while SteA only has a subtle effect on vacuolar replication in epithelial cells, it has a profound impact on infection parameters in immunocompetent macrophages, suggesting differential roles for effector proteins in different infection models. PMID:27376507

  13. PIP kinases define PI4,5P₂signaling specificity by association with effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suyong; Thapa, Narendra; Tan, Xiaojun; Hedman, Andrew C; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P₂) is an essential lipid messenger with roles in all eukaryotes and most aspects of human physiology. By controlling the targeting and activity of its effectors, PI4,5P₂modulates processes, such as cell migration, vesicular trafficking, cellular morphogenesis, signaling and gene expression. In cells, PI4,5P₂has a much higher concentration than other phosphoinositide species and its total content is largely unchanged in response to extracellular stimuli. The discovery of a vast array of PI4,5P₂ binding proteins is consistent with data showing that the majority of cellular PI4,5P₂is sequestered. This supports a mechanism where PI4,5P₂functions as a localized and highly specific messenger. Further support of this mechanism comes from the de novo synthesis of PI4,5P₂which is often linked with PIP kinase interaction with PI4,5P₂effectors and is a mechanism to define specificity of PI4,5P₂signaling. The association of PI4,5P₂-generating enzymes with PI4,5P₂effectors regulate effector function both temporally and spatially in cells. In this review, the PI4,5P₂effectors whose functions are tightly regulated by associations with PI4,5P₂-generating enzymes will be discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcription activator-like effector hybrids for conditional control and rewiring of chromosomal transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Moore, Richard; Guinn, Michael; Bleris, Leonidas

    2012-01-01

    The ability to conditionally rewire pathways in human cells holds great therapeutic potential. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of naturally occurring specific DNA binding proteins that can be used to introduce targeted genome modifications or control gene expression. Here we present TALE hybrids engineered to respond to endogenous signals and capable of controlling transgenes by applying a predetermined and tunable action at the single-cell level. Specifically, we first demonstrate that combinations of TALEs can be used to modulate the expression of stably integrated genes in kidney cells. We then introduce a general purpose two-hybrid approach that can be customized to regulate the function of any TALE either using effector molecules or a heterodimerization reaction. Finally, we demonstrate the successful interface of TALEs to specific endogenous signals, namely hypoxia signaling and microRNAs, essentially closing the loop between cellular information and chromosomal transgene expression.

  15. Generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases are novel gene-editing platforms contributing to redefine the boundaries of modern biological research. They are composed of a non-specific cleavage domain and a tailor made DNA-binding module, which enables a broad range of genetic modifications by inducing efficient DNA double-strand breaks at desired loci. Among other remarkable uses, these nucleases have been employed to produce gene knockouts in mid-size and large animals, such as rabbits and pigs, respectively. This approach is cost effective, relatively quick, and can produce invaluable models for human disease studies, biotechnology or agricultural purposes. Here we describe a protocol for the efficient generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and a perspective of the field.

  16. Substrate recognition by the zinc metalloprotease effector NleC from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giogha, Cristina; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Mühlen, Sabrina; Pearson, Jaclyn S; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2015-12-01

    Upon infection of epithelial cells, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli suppresses host cell inflammatory signalling in a type III secretion system (T3SS) dependent manner. Two key T3SS effector proteins involved in this response are NleE and NleC. NleC is a zinc metalloprotease effector that degrades the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Although the site of p65 cleavage by NleC is now well described, other areas of interaction have not been precisely defined. Here we constructed overlapping truncations of p65 to identify regions required for NleC cleavage. We determined that NleC cleaved both p65 and p50 within the Rel homology domain (RHD) and that two motifs, E22IIE25 and P177VLS180 , within the RHD of p65 were important for recognition and binding by NleC. Alanine substitution of one or both of these motifs protected p65 from binding and degradation by NleC. The E22IIE25 and P177VLS180 motifs were located within the structurally distinct N-terminal subdomain of the RHD involved in DNA binding by p65 on adjacent, parallel strands. Although these motifs have not been recognized previously, both were needed for the correct localization and function of p65. In summary, this work has identified two regions of p65 within the RHD needed for binding and cleavage by NleC and provides further insight into the molecular basis of substrate recognition by a T3SS effector. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The 3.2 Å resolution structure of a receptor: CheA:CheW signaling complex defines overlapping binding sites and key residue interactions within bacterial chemosensory arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Fleetwood, Aaron D; Bayas, Camille; Bilwes, Alexandrine M; Ortega, Davi R; Falke, Joseph J; Zhulin, Igor B; Crane, Brian R

    2013-06-04

    Bacterial chemosensory arrays are composed of extended networks of chemoreceptors (also known as methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, MCPs), the histidine kinase CheA, and the adaptor protein CheW. Models of these arrays have been developed from cryoelectron microscopy, crystal structures of binary and ternary complexes, NMR spectroscopy, mutational, data and biochemical studies. A new 3.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a Thermotoga maritima MCP protein interaction region in complex with the CheA kinase-regulatory module (P4-P5) and adaptor protein CheW provides sufficient detail to define residue contacts at the interfaces formed among the three proteins. As in a previous 4.5 Å resolution structure, CheA-P5 and CheW interact through conserved hydrophobic surfaces at the ends of their β-barrels to form pseudo 6-fold symmetric rings in which the two proteins alternate around the circumference. The interface between P5 subdomain 1 and CheW subdomain 2 was anticipated from previous studies, whereas the related interface between CheW subdomain 1 and P5 subdomain 2 has only been observed in these ring assemblies. The receptor forms an unexpected structure in that the helical hairpin tip of each subunit has "unzipped" into a continuous α-helix; four such helices associate into a bundle, and the tetramers bridge adjacent P5-CheW rings in the lattice through interactions with both P5 and CheW. P5 and CheW each bind a receptor helix with a groove of conserved hydrophobic residues between subdomains 1 and 2. P5 binds the receptor helix N-terminal to the tip region (lower site), whereas CheW binds the same helix with inverted polarity near the bundle end (upper site). Sequence comparisons among different evolutionary classes of chemotaxis proteins show that the binding partners undergo correlated changes at key residue positions that involve the lower site. Such evolutionary analyses argue that both CheW and P5 bind to the receptor tip at overlapping positions

  18. Complex structure of OspI and Ubc13: the molecular basis of Ubc13 deamidation and convergence of bacterial and host E2 recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panhan Fu

    Full Text Available Ubc13 is an important ubiquitin-conjugating (E2 enzyme in the NF-κB signaling pathway. The Shigella effector OspI targets Ubc13 and deamidates Gln100 of Ubc13 to a glutamic acid residue, leading to the inhibition of host inflammatory responses. Here we report the crystal structure of the OspI-Ubc13 complex at 2.3 Å resolution. The structure reveals that OspI uses two differently charged regions to extensively interact with the α1 helix, L1 loop and L2 loop of Ubc13. The Gln100 residue is bound within the hydrophilic catalytic pocket of OspI. A comparison between Ubc13-bound and wild-type free OspI structures revealed that Ubc13 binding induces notable structural reassembly of the catalytic pocket, suggesting that substrate binding might be involved in the catalysis of OspI. The OspI-binding sites in Ubc13 largely overlap with the binding residues for host ubiquitin E3 ligases and a deubiquitinating enzyme, which suggests that the bacterial effector and host proteins exploit the same surface on Ubc13 for specific recognition. Biochemical results indicate that both of the differently charged regions in OspI are important for the interaction with Ubc13, and the specificity determinants in Ubc13 for OspI recognition reside in the distinct residues in the α1 helix and L2 region. Our study reveals the molecular basis of Ubc13 deamidation by OspI, as well as a convergence of E2 recognition by bacterial and host proteins.

  19. How filamentous plant pathogen effectors are translocated to host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Libera; Kahmann, Regine

    2017-08-01

    The interaction of microbes with "signature" plants is largely governed by secreted effector proteins, which serve to dampen plant defense responses and modulate host cell processes. Secreted effectors can function either in the apoplast or within plant cell compartments. How oomycetes and fungi translocate their effectors to plant cells is still poorly understood and controversial. While most oomycete effectors share a common 'signature' that was proposed to mediate their uptake via endocytosis, fungal effectors display no conserved motifs at the primary amino acid sequence level. Here we summarize current knowledge in the field of oomycete and fungal effector uptake and highlight emerging themes that may unite rather than set apart these unrelated filamentous pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and Initial Characterization of the Effectors of an Anther Smut Fungus and Potential Host Target Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata S. Kuppireddy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae, a parasite on Silene latifolia, is one of the best studied interactions. We are interested in identifying and characterizing effectors of the fungus and possible corresponding host targets; (2 Methods: In silico analysis of the M. lychnidis-dioicae genome and transcriptomes allowed us to predict a pool of small secreted proteins (SSPs with the hallmarks of effectors, including a lack of conserved protein family (PFAM domains and also localized regions of disorder. Putative SSPs were tested for secretion using a yeast secretion trap method. We then used yeast two-hybrid analyses for candidate-secreted effectors to probe a cDNA library from a range of growth conditions of the fungus, including infected plants; (3 Results: Roughly 50 SSPs were identified by in silico analysis. Of these, 4 were studied further and shown to be secreted, as well as examined for potential host interactors. One of the putative effectors, MVLG_01732, was found to interact with Arabidopsis thaliana calcium-dependent lipid binding protein (AtCLB and with cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 orthologues; and (4 Conclusions: The identification of a pool of putative effectors provides a resource for functional characterization of fungal proteins that mediate the delicate interaction between pathogen and host. The candidate targets of effectors, e.g., AtCLB, involved in pollen germination suggest tantalizing insights that could drive future studies.

  1. Gestural Control of Robot End Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mark B.

    1987-03-01

    Most of today's industrial robots do highly repetitive tasks that require no human intervention for extended periods of time. It is, therefore, not too wasteful of operators' time when the destination of the end effector of such a robot must be modified occasionally by reprogramming the robot controller. In contrast, where daily tasks are varied and dependent on operator perception and judgement, robots have been excluded. We are investigating the use of pointing to specify "where" and in "what orientation" a robotic action is to be performed while voice or a keypad is used to determine "which" pre-programmed subroutine is to be executed by the robotic tool at the specified site. We are evaluating the relative advantages of voice and additional gesturesfor modifying "gesture-designated" end-effector position. We believe that the combination of gesture and voice for robot control will allow shop-floor personnel to efficiently and productively supervise multiple robotic tools work-ing on non-repetitive tasks that have previously been resistant to automation.

  2. Bacterial Proteasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab, Jordan B; Darwin, K Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology.

  3. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  4. Metabolic Modulation in Macrophage Effector Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciana Diskin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally cellular respiration or metabolism has been viewed as catabolic and anabolic pathways generating energy and biosynthetic precursors required for growth and general cellular maintenance. However, growing literature provides evidence of a much broader role for metabolic reactions and processes in controlling immunological effector functions. Much of this research into immunometabolism has focused on macrophages, cells that are central in pro- as well as anti-inflammatory responses—responses that in turn are a direct result of metabolic reprogramming. As we learn more about the precise role of metabolic pathways and pathway intermediates in immune function, a novel opportunity to target immunometabolism therapeutically has emerged. Here, we review the current understanding of the regulation of macrophage function through metabolic remodeling.

  5. Computational Prediction of Effector Proteins in Fungi: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humira eSonah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Effector proteins are mostly secretory proteins that stimulate plant infection by manipulating the host response. Identifying fungal effector proteins and understanding their function is of great importance in efforts to curb losses to plant diseases. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have facilitated the availability of several fungal genomes and thousands of transcriptomes. As a result, the growing amount of genomic information has provided great opportunities to identify putative effector proteins in different fungal species. There is little consensus over the annotation and functionality of effector proteins, and mostly small secretory proteins are considered as effector proteins, a concept that tends to overestimate the number of proteins involved in a plant-pathogen interaction. With the characterization of Avr genes, criteria for computational prediction of effector proteins are becoming more efficient. There are hundreds of tools available for the identification of conserved motifs, signature sequences and structural features in the proteins. Many pipelines and online servers, which combine several tools, are made available to perform genome-wide identification of effector proteins. In this review, available tools and pipelines, their strength and limitations for effective identification of fungal effector proteins are discussed. We also present an exhaustive list of classically secreted proteins along with their key conserved motifs found in 12 common plant pathogens (11 fungi and one oomycete through an analytical pipeline.

  6. Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to invade host tissues and extract nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode ...

  7. Bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosdrecht, van M.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it

  8. Phytophthora effector targets a novel component of small RNA pathway in plants to promote infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yongli; Shi, Jinxia; Zhai, Yi; Hou, Yingnan; Ma, Wenbo

    2015-05-05

    A broad range of parasites rely on the functions of effector proteins to subvert host immune response and facilitate disease development. The notorious Phytophthora pathogens evolved effectors with RNA silencing suppression activity to promote infection in plant hosts. Here we report that the Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 1 (PSR1) can bind to an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein containing the aspartate-glutamate-alanine-histidine-box RNA helicase domain in plants. This protein, designated PSR1-Interacting Protein 1 (PINP1), regulates the accumulation of both microRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis. A null mutation of PINP1 causes embryonic lethality, and silencing of PINP1 leads to developmental defects and hypersusceptibility to Phytophthora infection. These phenotypes are reminiscent of transgenic plants expressing PSR1, supporting PINP1 as a direct virulence target of PSR1. We further demonstrate that the localization of the Dicer-like 1 protein complex is impaired in the nucleus of PINP1-silenced or PSR1-expressing cells, indicating that PINP1 may facilitate small RNA processing by affecting the assembly of dicing complexes. A similar function of PINP1 homologous genes in development and immunity was also observed in Nicotiana benthamiana. These findings highlight PINP1 as a previously unidentified component of RNA silencing that regulates distinct classes of small RNAs in plants. Importantly, Phytophthora has evolved effectors to target PINP1 in order to promote infection.

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of Type VI System Clusters and Effectors in Burkholderia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type VI secretion system (T6SS has been discovered in a variety of gram-negative bacteria as a versatile weapon to stimulate the killing of eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic competitors. Type VI secretion effectors (T6SEs are well known as key virulence factors for important pathogenic bacteria. In many Burkholderia species, T6SS has evolved as the most complicated secretion pathway with distinguished types to translocate diverse T6SEs, suggesting their essential roles in this genus. Here we attempted to detect and characterize T6SSs and potential T6SEs in target genomes of plant-associated and environmental Burkholderia species based on computational analyses. In total, 66 potential functional T6SS clusters were found in 30 target Burkholderia bacterial genomes, of which 33% possess three or four clusters. The core proteins in each cluster were specified and phylogenetic trees of three components (i.e., TssC, TssD, TssL were constructed to elucidate the relationship among the identified T6SS clusters. Next, we identified 322 potential T6SEs in the target genomes based on homology searches and explored the important domains conserved in effector candidates. In addition, using the screening approach based on the profile hidden Markov model (pHMM of T6SEs that possess markers for type VI effectors (MIX motif (MIX T6SEs, 57 revealed proteins that were not included in training datasets were recognized as novel MIX T6SE candidates from the Burkholderia species. This approach could be useful to identify potential T6SEs from other bacterial genomes.

  10. Tissue specific heterogeneity in effector immune cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba eTufail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post pathogen invasion, migration of effector T-cell subsets to specific tissue locations is of prime importance for generation of robust immune response. Effector T cells are imprinted with distinct ‘homing codes’ (adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors during activation which regulate their targeted trafficking to specific tissues. Internal cues in the lymph node microenvironment along with external stimuli from food (vitamin A and sunlight (vitamin D3 prime dendritic cells, imprinting them to play centrestage in the induction of tissue tropism in effector T cells. B cells as well, in a manner similar to effector T cells, exhibit tissue tropic migration. In this review, we have focused on the factors regulating the generation and migration of effector T cells to various tissues alongwith giving an overview of tissue tropism in B cells.

  11. Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) Hybrid Nucleases for Genome Engineering Application

    KAUST Repository

    Wibowo, Anjar

    2011-06-06

    Gene targeting is a powerful genome engineering tool that can be used for a variety of biotechnological applications. Genomic double-strand DNA breaks generated by engineered site-specific nucleases can stimulate gene targeting. Hybrid nucleases are composed of DNA binding module and DNA cleavage module. Zinc Finger Nucleases were used to generate double-strand DNA breaks but it suffers from failures and lack of reproducibility. The transcription activator–like effectors (TALEs) from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas contain a unique type of DNA-binding domain that bind specific DNA targets. The purpose of this study is to generate novel sequence specific nucleases by fusing a de novo engineered Hax3 TALE-based DNA binding domain to a FokI cleavage domain. Our data show that the de novo engineered TALE nuclease can bind to its target sequence and create double-strand DNA breaks in vitro. We also show that the de novo engineered TALE nuclease is capable of generating double-strand DNA breaks in its target sequence in vivo, when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that TALE-based hybrid nucleases can be tailored to bind a user-selected DNA sequence and generate site-specific genomic double-strand DNA breaks. TALE-based hybrid nucleases hold much promise as powerful molecular tools for gene targeting applications.

  12. Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B. henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B. henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of

  13. Thermodynamic mapping of effector protein interfaces with RalA and RalB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Louise J; Peppa, Maria; Crabtree, Michael D; Shafiq, Arooj; McGough, Nicholas F; Mott, Helen R; Owen, Darerca

    2015-02-17

    RalA and RalB are members of the Ras family of small G proteins and are activated downstream of Ras via RalGEFs. The RalGEF-Ral axis represents one of the major effector pathways controlled by Ras and as such is an important pharmacological target. RalA and RalB are approximately 80% identical at the amino acid level; despite this, they have distinct roles both in normal cells and in the disease state. We have used our structure of RalB-RLIP76 to guide an analysis of Ral-effector interaction interfaces, creating panels of mutant proteins to probe the energetics of these interactions. The data provide a physical mechanism that underpins the effector selective mutations commonly employed to dissect Ral G protein function. Comparing the energetic landscape of the RalB-RLIP76 and RalB-Sec5 complexes reveals mutations in RalB that lead to differential binding of the two effector proteins. A panel of RLIP76 mutants was used to probe the interaction between RLIP76 and RalA and -B. Despite 100% sequence identity in the RalA and -B contact residues with RLIP76, differences still exist in the energetic profiles of the two complexes. Therefore, we have revealed properties that may account for some of the functional separation observed with RalA and RalB at the cellular level. Our mutations, in both the Ral isoforms and RLIP76, provide new tools that can be employed to parse the complex biology of Ral G protein signaling networks. The combination of these thermodynamic and structural data can also guide efforts to ablate RalA and -B activity with small molecules and peptides.

  14. Immune activation mediated by the late blight resistance protein R1 requires nuclear localization of R1 and the effector AVR1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Yu; Berg, Jeroen; Govers, Francine; Bouwmeester, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    Resistance against oomycete pathogens is mainly governed by intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors that recognize matching avirulence (AVR) proteins from the pathogen, RXLR effectors that are delivered inside host cells. Detailed molecular understanding of how and where

  15. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on dicots and monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; van den Burg, Harrold A; Okmen, Bilal; Beenen, Henriek G; van Liere, Sabine; Kema, Gert H J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2010-04-20

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-triggered immunity in their presence. Here we show that homologs of the C. fulvum Avr4 and Ecp2 effectors are present in other pathogenic fungi of the Dothideomycete class, including Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana. We demonstrate that the Avr4 homolog of M. fijiensis is a functional ortholog of C. fulvum Avr4 that protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases through binding to chitin and, despite the low overall sequence homology, triggers a Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. Furthermore, three homologs of C. fulvum Ecp2 are found in M. fijiensis, one of which induces different levels of necrosis or HR in tomato lines that lack or contain a putative cognate Cf-Ecp2 protein, respectively. In contrast to Avr4, which acts as a defensive virulence factor, M. fijiensis Ecp2 likely promotes virulence by interacting with a putative host target causing host cell necrosis, whereas Cf-Ecp2 could possibly guard the virulence target of Ecp2 and trigger a Cf-Ecp2-mediated HR. Overall our data suggest that Avr4 and Ecp2 represent core effectors that are collectively recognized by single cognate Cf-proteins. Transfer of these Cf genes to plant species that are attacked by fungi containing these cognate core effectors provides unique ways for breeding disease-resistant crops.

  16. The Shigella T3SS needle transmits a signal for MxiC release, which controls secretion of effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Argudo, Isabel; Blocker, Ariel J

    2010-12-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are key determinants of virulence in many Gram-negative bacteria, including animal and plant pathogens. They inject 'effector' proteins through a 'needle' protruding from the bacterial surface directly into eukaryotic cells after assembly of a 'translocator' pore in the host plasma membrane. Secretion is a tightly regulated process, which is blocked until physical contact with a host cell takes place. Host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle 'tip complex' and translocators are secreted before effectors. MxiC, a Shigella T3SS substrate, prevents premature effector secretion. Here, we examine how the different parts of T3SSs work together to allow orderly secretion. We show that T3SS assembly and needle tip composition are not altered in an mxiC mutant. We find that MxiC not only represses effector secretion but that it is also required for translocator release. We provide genetic evidence that MxiC acts downstream of the tip complex and then the needle during secretion activation. Finally, we show that the needle controls MxiC release. Therefore, for the first time, our data allow us to propose a model of secretion activation that goes from the tip complex to cytoplasmic MxiC via the needle. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Rancangan End-effector untuk Robot Pemanen Buah Paprika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Made Subrata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A research on designing an end-effector for a sweet pepper (Capsicum grossum harvesting robot has been conducted. The objectives of this research were to design an end-effector prototype for the sweet pepper harvesting robot and to examine the performance of the end-effector in actuating the harvesting work. The end-effector was constructed in such a way so that enable to perform cutting and gripping motion in one action. The end-effector was designed using aluminum materials in order to get as light mass as possible. It dimension was 28 cm in length, 14 cm in width, and about 90 grams in weight. The field test of the prototype was conducted based on the conditions of plantation inside the greenhouse. Three kinds of inclination slope including 0o, 10o, and 20o were treated for the end-effector installation. The experimental result show that the third installation treatment ie: the end-effector with 20° inclination slope tend to produce the best performance which has the highest number of harvesting succeed.

  18. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  19. Identification of VPA0451 as the specific chaperone for the Vibrio parahaemolyticus chromosome 1 type III-secreted effector VPA0450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Barbara; Southward, Carolyn M; McKenna, Neil; Devinney, Rebekah

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important cause of gastroenteritis resulting from the consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish. The V. parahaemolyticus genome revealed the presence of two type III secretion systems (T3SS); one on each of the two chromosomes. To date, four effectors have been identified as secreted by the chromosome 1 T3SS (T3SS1). For some effectors, efficient secretion requires a cytosolic chaperone that is often encoded in close proximity to its cognate effector. In this study, we identified VPA0451 as the specific chaperone for the T3SS1 effector, VPA0450. VPA0451 is structurally similar to known T3SS chaperones. It is required for efficient VPA0450 secretion while not affecting the secretion of other T3SS1 effectors, suggesting it is a class 1A single cargo chaperone. VPA0450 translocation into the host cell membrane requires VPA0451. VPA0451 binds directly to VPA0450, and amino acids 25-100 contribute to this activity. Taken together, we conclude that VPA0451 is the cognate chaperone for the effector VPA0450 and is the second T3SS1 chaperone identified to date. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A translocator-specific export signal establishes the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy that is important for type III secretion system function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalka, Amanda G.; Stopford, Charles M.; Lee, Pei-Chung; Rietsch, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Summary Type III secretion systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to directly deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. To accomplish this, bacteria secrete translocator proteins that form a pore in the host-cell membrane through which the effector proteins are then introduced into the host cell. Evidence from multiple systems indicates that the pore-forming translocator proteins are exported before effectors, but how this secretion hierarchy is established is unclear. Here we used the P. aeruginosa translocator protein PopD as a model to identify its export signals. The amino-terminal secretion signal and chaperone, PcrH, are required for export under all conditions. Two novel signals in PopD, one proximal to the chaperone-binding site and one at the very C-terminus of the protein, are required for export of PopD before effector proteins. These novel export signals establish the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy, which in turn, is critical for the delivery of effectors into host cells. PMID:23121689

  1. Vibrio cholerae T3SS effector VopE modulates mitochondrial dynamics and innate immune signaling by targeting Miro GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masato; Danilchanka, Olga; Mekalanos, John J

    2014-11-12

    The cellular surveillance-activated detoxification and defenses (cSADD) theory postulates the presence of host surveillance mechanisms that monitor the integrity of common cellular processes and components targeted by pathogen effectors. Being organelles essential for multiple cellular processes, including innate immune responses, mitochondria represent an attractive target for pathogens. We describe a Vibrio cholerae Type 3 secretion system effector VopE that localizes to mitochondria during infection and acts as a specific GTPase-activating protein to interfere with the function of mitochondrial Rho GTPases Miro1 and Miro2. Miro GTPases modulate mitochondrial dynamics and interfering with this functionality effectively blocks innate immune responses that presumably require mitochondria as signaling platforms. Our data indicate that interference with mitochondrial dynamics may be an unappreciated strategy that pathogens use to block host innate immune responses that would otherwise control these bacterial infections. VopE might represent a bacterial effector that targets the cSADD surveillance response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Different effectors of dimorphism in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Herrera, José; Sentandreu, Rafael

    2002-12-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an ascomycete with biotechnological potential. In common media, the fungus grows as a mixture of yeast-like and short mycelial cells. The environmental factors that affect dimorphism in the wild-type strain, W29, and its auxotrophic derivative, PO1a, were analyzed. In both strains, pH was the most important factor regulating the dimorphic transition. Mycelium formation was maximal at pH near neutrality and decreased as pH was lowered to become almost null at pH 3. Carbon and nitrogen sources, namely glucose and ammonium, were also important for mycelium formation; and their effect was antagonized by some alternative carbon and nitrogen sources. Citrate was an important positive effector of mycelium growth. Anaerobic stress induced formation of mycelial cells. The importance of the protein kinase A pathway was suggested by the inhibition of mycelium growth by cAMP. We propose that the interplay of these factors regulates the adaptation of the fungus, to better exploit its natural ecological niches.

  3. Computational investigation of miniature trailing edge effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hak-Tae

    Miniature trailing edge effectors (MiTEs) are small flaps (typically 1% to 5% chord) actuated with deflection angles of up to 90 degrees. The small size, combined with little required power and good control authority, enables the device to be used for high bandwidth control as well as conventional attitude control. However, some of the aerodynamic characteristics of these devices are complex and poorly understood. This research investigated the aerodynamics of MiTEs using incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solvers, INS2D and INS3D. To understand the flow structure and establish a parametric database, two dimensional steady-state computations were performed for MiTEs with various geometries and flow conditions. Time accurate computations were used to resolve the unsteady characteristics including transient response and vortex shedding phenomena. The frequency response was studied to fully identify the dynamics of MiTEs. Three dimensional computations show the change in control effectiveness with respect to the spanwise length of MiTEs as well as the spanwise lift distribution induced by these devices. Based on the CFD results, an approximate vortex panel model was developed for design purposes that reproduces the key characteristics of MiTEs. Two application areas for MiTEs were explored. Flutter suppression was demonstrated by combining a finite element structural model with the vortex panel model. The application of MiTEs to augment maximum lift and improve the post stall behavior of an airfoil was also investigated.

  4. Genomic, Network, and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Oomycete Effector Arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jamie; Fitzpatrick, David A

    2017-01-01

    The oomycetes are a class of microscopic, filamentous eukaryotes within the stramenopiles-alveolate- Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup and include ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens. Oomycetes secrete large arsenals of effector proteins that degrade host cell components, manipulate host immune responses, and induce necrosis, enabling parasitic colonization. This study investigated the expansion and evolution of effectors in 37 oomycete species in 4 oomycete orders, including Albuginales , Peronosporales , Pythiales , and Saprolegniales species. Our results highlight the large expansions of effector protein families, including glycoside hydrolases, pectinases, and necrosis-inducing proteins, in Phytophthora species. Species-specific expansions, including expansions of chitinases in Aphanomyces astaci and Pythium oligandrum , were detected. Novel effectors which may be involved in suppressing animal immune responses in Ap. astaci and Py. insidiosum were also identified. Type 2 necrosis-inducing proteins with an unusual phylogenetic history were also located in a number of oomycete species. We also investigated the "RxLR" effector complement of all 37 species and, as expected, observed large expansions in Phytophthora species numbers. Our results provide in-depth sequence information on all putative RxLR effectors from all 37 species. This work represents an up-to-date in silico catalogue of the effector arsenal of the oomycetes based on the 37 genomes currently available. IMPORTANCE The oomycetes are a class of microscopic, filamentous eukaryotes and include ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens. Oomycetes secrete large arsenals of effector proteins that degrade host cell components, manipulate host immune responses, and induce necrosis, enabling parasitic colonization. In this study, we catalogued the number and evolution of effectors in 37 oomycete species whose genomes have been completely sequenced. Large expansions of effector protein

  5. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures

  6. A translocated effector required for Bartonella dissemination from derma to blood safeguards migratory host cells from damage by co-translocated effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G; Dehio, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ΔbepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ΔbepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ΔbepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ΔbepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that

  7. A translocated effector required for Bartonella dissemination from derma to blood safeguards migratory host cells from damage by co-translocated effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusudan Okujava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs infected with a ΔbepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ΔbepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ΔbepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe. Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d. model for B. tribocorum (Btr infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ΔbepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we

  8. Biological Characterization of a Stable Effector Functionless (SEFL) Monoclonal Antibody Scaffold in Vitro*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Jacobsen, Frederick W.; Everds, Nancy; Zhuang, Yao; Yu, Yan Bin; Li, Nianyu; Clark, Darcey; Nguyen, Mai Phuong; Fort, Madeline; Narayanan, Padma; Kim, Kei; Stevenson, Riki; Narhi, Linda; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Bussiere, Jeanine L.

    2017-01-01

    The stable effector functionLess (SEFL) antibody was designed as an IgG1 antibody with a constant region that lacks the ability to interact with Fcγ receptors. The engineering and stability and pharmacokinetic assessments of the SEFL scaffold is described in the accompanying article (Jacobsen, F. W., Stevenson, R., Li, C., Salimi-Moosavi, H., Liu, L., Wen, J., Luo, Q., Daris, K., Buck, L., Miller, S., Ho, S-Y., Wang, W., Chen, Q., Walker, K., Wypych, J., Narhi, L., and Gunasekaran, K. (2017) J. Biol. Chem. 292). The biological properties of these SEFL antibodies were assessed in a variety of human and cynomolgus monkey in vitro assays. Binding of parent molecules and their SEFL variants to human and cynomolgus monkey FcγRs were evaluated using flow cytometry-based binding assays. The SEFL variants tested showed decreased binding affinity to human and cynomolgus FcγRs compared with the wild-type IgG1 antibody. In addition, SEFL variants demonstrated no antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro against Daudi cells with cynomolgus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and had minimal complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity similar to that of the negative control IgG2 in a CD20+ human Raji lymphoma cell line. SEFL mutations eliminated off-target antibody-dependent monocyte phagocytosis of cynomolgus monkey platelets, and cynomolgus platelet activation in vitro. These experiments demonstrate that the SEFL modifications successfully eliminated Fc-associated effector binding and functions. PMID:27994063

  9. The Bacterial Type III Secretion System as a Target for Developing New Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    McShan, Andrew C.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens requires new targets for developing novel antibacterials. The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is an attractive target for developing antibacterials as it is essential in the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria. The T3SS consists of structural proteins, effectors and chaperones. Over 20 different structural proteins assemble into a complex nanoinjector that punctures a hole on the eukaryotic cell membrane to allow the delivery of effectors ...

  10. Arabidopsis CaM binding protein CBP60g contributes to MAMP-induced SA accumulation and is involved in disease resistance against Pseudomonas syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA-induced defense responses are important factors during effector triggered immunity and microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-induced immunity in plants. This article presents evidence that a member of the Arabidopsis CBP60 gene family, CBP60g, contributes to MAMP-triggered SA accumulation. CBP60g is inducible by both pathogen and MAMP treatments. Pseudomonas syringae growth is enhanced in cbp60g mutants. Expression profiles of a cbp60g mutant after MAMP treatment are similar to those of sid2 and pad4, suggesting a defect in SA signaling. Accordingly, cbp60g mutants accumulate less SA when treated with the MAMP flg22 or a P. syringae hrcC strain that activates MAMP signaling. MAMP-induced production of reactive oxygen species and callose deposition are unaffected in cbp60g mutants. CBP60g is a calmodulin-binding protein with a calmodulin-binding domain located near the N-terminus. Calmodulin binding is dependent on Ca(2+. Mutations in CBP60g that abolish calmodulin binding prevent complementation of the SA production and bacterial growth defects of cbp60g mutants, indicating that calmodulin binding is essential for the function of CBP60g in defense signaling. These studies show that CBP60g constitutes a Ca(2+ link between MAMP recognition and SA accumulation that is important for resistance to P. syringae.

  11. Uncovering the Legionella genus effector repertoire - strength in diversity and numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, David; Amaro, Francisco; Zusman, Tal; Lifshitz, Ziv; Cohen, Ofir; Gilbert, Jack A; Pupko, Tal; Shuman, Howard A; Segal, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila relies on the translocation of ~300 virulence proteins, termed effectors, which manipulate host-cell processes. However, almost no information exists regarding effectors in other Legionella pathogens. Here we sequenced, assembled and characterized the genomes of 38 Legionella species, and predicted their effector repertoire using a previously validated machine-learning approach. This analysis revealed a treasure trove of 5,885 predicted effectors. The effector repertoire of different Legionella species was found to be largely non-overlapping, and only seven core-effectors were shared among all species studied. Species-specific effectors had atypically low GC content, suggesting exogenous acquisition, possibly from their natural protozoan hosts. Furthermore, we detected numerous novel conserved effector domains, and discovered new domain combinations, which allowed inferring yet undescribed effector functions. The effector collection and network of domain architectures described here can serve as a roadmap for future studies of effector function and evolution. PMID:26752266

  12. Gunite Scarifying End Effector. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    The Gunite Scarifying End Effector (GSEE) is designed to remove a layer of the gunite tank walls, which are contaminated with radioactivity. Removing this radioactivity is necessary to close the tank.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii effectors are master regulators of the inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mariane B.; Jensen, Kirk D.C.; Saeij, Jeroen P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma is a highly successful parasite that establishes a life-long chronic infection. To do this it must carefully regulate immune activation and host cell effector mechanisms. Here we review the latest developments in our understanding of how Toxoplasma counteracts the host’s immune response, and in some cases provokes it, through the use of specific parasite effector proteins. An emerging theme from these discoveries is that Toxoplasma effectors are master regulators of the pro-inflammatory response, which elicits many of the host’s toxoplasmacidal mechanisms. We speculate that combinations of these effectors present in certain Toxoplasma strains work to maintain an optimal parasite burden in different hosts to ensure parasite transmission. PMID:21893432

  14. Tight Junction Disruption Induced by Type 3 Secretion System Effectors Injected by Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Gonzalez-Lugo, Octavio; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium consists of a single cell layer, which is a critical selectively permeable barrier to both absorb nutrients and avoid the entry of potentially harmful entities, including microorganisms. Epithelial cells are held together by the apical junctional complexes, consisting of adherens junctions, and tight junctions (TJs), and by underlying desmosomes. TJs lay in the apical domain of epithelial cells and are mainly composed by transmembrane proteins such as occludin, claudins, JAMs, and tricellulin, that are associated with the cytoplasmic plaque formed by proteins from the MAGUK family, such as ZO-1/2/3, connecting TJ to the actin cytoskeleton, and cingulin and paracingulin connecting TJ to the microtubule network. Extracellular bacteria such as EPEC and EHEC living in the intestinal lumen inject effectors proteins directly from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm, where they play a relevant role in the manipulation of the eukaryotic cell functions by modifying or blocking cell signaling pathways. TJ integrity depends on various cell functions such as actin cytoskeleton, microtubule network for vesicular trafficking, membrane integrity, inflammation, and cell survival. EPEC and EHEC effectors target most of these functions. Effectors encoded inside or outside of locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) disrupt the TJ strands. EPEC and EHEC exploit the TJ dynamics to open this structure, for causing diarrhea. EPEC and EHEC secrete effectors that mimic host proteins to manipulate the signaling pathways, including those related to TJ dynamics. In this review, we focus on the known mechanisms exploited by EPEC and EHEC effectors for causing TJ disruption.

  15. The Xanthomonas euvesicatoria type III effector XopAU is an active protein kinase that manipulates plant MAP kinase signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Teper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato. Xe delivers effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion system to promote disease. Here, we show that the Xe effector XopAU, which is conserved in numerous Xanthomonas species, is a catalytically active protein kinase and contributes to the development of disease symptoms in pepper plants. Agrobacterium-mediated expression of XopAU in host and non-host plants activated typical defense responses, including MAP kinase phosphorylation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and elicitation of cell death, that were dependent on the kinase activity of the effector. XopAU-mediated cell death was not dependent on early signaling components of effector-triggered immunity and was also observed when the effector was delivered into pepper leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, but not by Xe. Protein-protein interaction studies in yeast and in planta revealed that XopAU physically interacts with components of plant immunity-associated MAP kinase cascades. Remarkably, XopAU directly phosphorylated MKK2 in vitro and enhanced its phosphorylation at multiple sites in planta. Consistent with the notion that MKK2 is a target of XopAU, silencing of the MKK2 homolog or overexpression of the catalytically inactive mutant MKK2K99R in N. benthamiana plants reduced XopAU-mediated cell death and MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, yeast co-expressing XopAU and MKK2 displayed reduced growth and this phenotype was dependent on the kinase activity of both proteins. Together, our results support the conclusion that XopAU contributes to Xe disease symptoms in pepper plants and manipulates host MAPK signaling through phosphorylation and activation of MKK2.

  16. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brefort

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  17. Heme Synthesis and Acquisition in Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choby, Jacob E; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-28

    Bacterial pathogens require the iron-containing cofactor heme to cause disease. Heme is essential to the function of hemoproteins, which are involved in energy generation by the electron transport chain, detoxification of host immune effectors, and other processes. During infection, bacterial pathogens must synthesize heme or acquire heme from the host; however, host heme is sequestered in high-affinity hemoproteins. Pathogens have evolved elaborate strategies to acquire heme from host sources, particularly hemoglobin, and both heme acquisition and synthesis are important for pathogenesis. Paradoxically, excess heme is toxic to bacteria and pathogens must rely on heme detoxification strategies. Heme is a key nutrient in the struggle for survival between host and pathogen, and its study has offered significant insight into the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  19. Target DNA recognition and cleavage by a reconstituted Type I-G CRISPR-Cas immune effector complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sonali; Ligon, Marianne; Skinner, William Colby; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas immune systems defend prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids. CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) associate with various CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein modules to form structurally and functionally diverse (Type I-VI) crRNP immune effector complexes. Previously, we identified three, co-existing effector complexes in Pyrococcus furiosus -Type I-A (Csa), Type I-G (Cst), and Type III-B (Cmr)-and demonstrated that each complex functions in vivo to eliminate invader DNA. Here, we reconstitute functional Cst crRNP complexes in vitro from recombinant Cas proteins and synthetic crRNAs and investigate mechanisms of crRNP assembly and invader DNA recognition and destruction. All four known Cst-affiliated Cas proteins (Cas5t, Cst1, Cst2, and Cas3) are required for activity, but each subunit plays a distinct role. Cas5t and Cst2 comprise a minimal set of proteins that selectively interact with crRNA. Further addition of Cst1, enables the four subunit crRNP (Cas5t, Cst1, Cst2, crRNA) to specifically bind complementary, double-stranded DNA targets and to recruit the Cas3 effector nuclease, which catalyzes cleavages at specific sites within the displaced, non-target DNA strand. Our results indicate that Type I-G crRNPs selectively bind target DNA in a crRNA and, protospacer adjacent motif dependent manner to recruit a dedicated Cas3 nuclease for invader DNA destruction.

  20. E2~Ub conjugates regulate the kinase activity of Shigella effector OspG during pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneda, Jonathan N. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Smith, F. Donelson [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Daurie, Angela [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS Canada; Swaney, Danielle L. [Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Villén, Judit [Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Scott, John D. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Stadnyk, Andrew W. [Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS Canada; Le Trong, Isolde [Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Stenkamp, Ronald E. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Klevit, Rachel E. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Rohde, John R. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS Canada; Brzovic, Peter S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA

    2014-01-20

    Pathogenic bacteria introduce effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role in this process by helping to suppress the host inflammatory response. OspG has been reported to bind host E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes activated with ubiquitin (E2~Ub), a key enzyme complex in ubiquitin transfer pathways. A cocrystal structure of the OspG/UbcH5c~Ub complex reveals that complex formation has important ramifications for the activity of both OspG and the UbcH5c~Ub conjugate. OspG is a minimal kinase domain containing only essential elements required for catalysis. UbcH5c~Ub binding stabilizes an active conformation of the kinase, greatly enhancing OspG kinase activity. In contrast, interaction with OspG stabilizes an extended, less reactive form of UbcH5c~Ub. Recognizing conserved E2 features, OspG can interact with at least ten distinct human E2s~Ub. Mouse oral infection studies indicate that E2~Ub conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells.

  1. Specificity and Effector Functions of Human RSV-Specific IgG from Bovine Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection is the second most important cause of death in the first year of life, and early RSV infections are associated with the development of asthma. Breastfeeding and serum IgG have been shown to protect against RSV infection. Yet, many infants depend on bovine milk-based nutrition, which at present lacks intact immunoglobulins.To investigate whether IgG purified from bovine milk (bIgG can modulate immune responses against human RSV.ELISAs were performed to analyse binding of bIgG to human respiratory pathogens. bIgG or hRSV was coated to plates to assess dose-dependent binding of bIgG to human Fcγ receptors (FcγR or bIgG-mediated binding of myeloid cells to hRSV respectively. S. Epidermidis and RSV were used to test bIgG-mediated binding and internalisation of pathogens by myeloid cells. Finally, the ability of bIgG to neutralise infection of HEp2 cells by hRSV was evaluated.bIgG recognised human RSV, influenza haemagglutinin and Haemophilus influenza. bIgG bound to FcγRII on neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages, but not to FcγRI and FcγRIII, and could bind simultaneously to hRSV and human FcγRII on neutrophils. In addition, human neutrophils and dendritic cells internalised pathogens that were opsonised with bIgG. Finally, bIgG could prevent infection of HEp2 cells by hRSV.The data presented here show that bIgG binds to hRSV and other human respiratory pathogens and induces effector functions through binding to human FcγRII on phagocytes. Thus bovine IgG may contribute to immune protection against RSV.

  2. Long-term live-cell imaging reveals new roles for Salmonella effector proteins SseG and SteA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Sarah E; Young, Alexandra M; Silva-Herzog, Eugenia; Bunker, Eric; Hernandez, Mateo; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Liu, Xuedong; Detweiler, Corrella S; Palmer, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects both epithelial cells and macrophages. Salmonella effector proteins, which are translocated into the host cell and manipulate host cell components, control the ability to replicate and/or survive in host cells. Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of Salmonella infections, there is growing recognition of the need for single-cell and live-cell imaging approaches to identify and characterize the diversity of cellular phenotypes and how they evolve over time. Here, we establish a pipeline for long-term (17 h) live-cell imaging of infected cells and subsequent image analysis methods. We apply this pipeline to track bacterial replication within the Salmonella-containing vacuole in epithelial cells, quantify vacuolar replication versus survival in macrophages and investigate the role of individual effector proteins in mediating these parameters. This approach revealed that dispersed bacteria can coalesce at later stages of infection, that the effector protein SseG influences the propensity for cytosolic hyper-replication in epithelial cells, and that while SteA only has a subtle effect on vacuolar replication in epithelial cells, it has a profound impact on infection parameters in immunocompetent macrophages, suggesting differential roles for effector proteins in different infection models. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  4. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  5. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  6. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    , the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...

  7. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that coats the walls of the vagina Vaginal discharge with an unpleasant or fishlike odor Vaginal pain or itching Burning during urination Doctors are unsure of the incubation period for bacterial vaginosis. How Is the Diagnosis Made? Your child’s pediatrician can make the diagnosis ...

  8. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  9. A Novel Function for the Streptococcus pneumoniae Aminopeptidase N: Inhibition of T Cell Effector Function through Regulation of TCR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance K. Blevins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn causes a variety of disease states including fatal bacterial pneumonia. Our previous finding that introduction of Spn into an animal with ongoing influenza virus infection resulted in a CD8+ T cell population with reduced effector function gave rise to the possibility of direct regulation by pneumococcal components. Here, we show that treatment of effector T cells with lysate derived from Spn resulted in inhibition of IFNγ and tumor necrosis factor α production as well as of cytolytic granule release. Spn aminopeptidase N (PepN was identified as the inhibitory bacterial component and surprisingly, this property was independent of the peptidase activity found in this family of proteins. Inhibitory activity was associated with reduced activation of ZAP-70, ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, demonstrating the ability of PepN to negatively regulate TCR signaling at multiple points in the cascade. These results reveal a novel immune regulatory function for a bacterial aminopeptidase.

  10. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other...... components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated...

  11. Innate Immune Effectors in Mycobacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Saiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, which is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, remains one of the major bacterial infections worldwide. Host defense against Mtb is mediated by a combination of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the last 15 years, the mechanisms for activation of innate immunity have been elucidated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been revealed to be critical for the recognition of pathogenic microorganisms including mycobacteria. Subsequent studies further revealed that NOD-like receptors and C-type lectin receptors are responsible for the TLR-independent recognition of mycobacteria. Several molecules, such as active vitamin D3, secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, and lipocalin 2, all of which are induced by TLR stimulation, have been shown to direct innate immune responses to mycobacteria. In addition, Irgm1-dependent autophagy has recently been demonstrated to eliminate intracellular mycobacteria. Thus, our understanding of the mechanisms for the innate immune response to mycobacteria is developing.

  12. A robust dual reporter system to visualize and quantify gene expression mediated by transcription activator-like effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhde-Stone Claudia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs are a class of naturally occurring transcription effectors that recognize specific DNA sequences and modulate gene expression. The modularity of TALEs DNA binding domain enables sequence-specific perturbation and offers broad applications in genetic and epigenetic studies. Although the efficient construction of TALEs has been established, robust functional tools to assess their functions remain lacking. Results We established a dual reporter system that was specifically designed for real-time monitoring and quantifying gene expression mediated by TALEs. We validated both sensitivity and specificity of this dual-reporter system in mammalian cells, and demonstrated that this dual reporter system is robust and potentially amenable to high throughput (HTP applications. Conclusion We have designed, constructed and validated a novel dual reporter system for assessing TALE mediated gene regulations. This system offers a robust and easy-to- use tool for real-time monitoring and quantifying gene expression in mammalian cells.

  13. NleB/SseK effectors from Citrobacter rodentium, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica display distinct differences in host substrate specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Qaidi, Samir; Chen, Kangming; Halim, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Factor 2 (TRAF2) ubiquitination. These results provide evidence that members of this highly conserved family of bacterial virulence effectors target different host protein substrates and exhibit distinct cellular modes of action to suppress host responses.......Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use a syringe-like apparatus called a type III secretion system to inject virulence factors into host cells. Some of these effectors are enzymes that modify host proteins to subvert their normal functions. NleB is a glycosyltransferase that modifies host...... proteins with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to inhibit antibacterial and inflammatory host responses. NleB is conserved among the attaching/effacing pathogens enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Citrobacter rodentium. Moreover, Salmonella enterica strains encode up to three Nle...

  14. HIV-specific Fc effector function early in infection predicts the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Simone I; Chung, Amy W; Natarajan, Harini; Mabvakure, Batsirai; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Salim; Moore, Penny L; Ackerman, Margaret E; Alter, Galit; Morris, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    While the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a major goal of HIV vaccination strategies, there is mounting evidence to suggest that antibodies with Fc effector function also contribute to protection against HIV infection. Here we investigated Fc effector functionality of HIV-specific IgG plasma antibodies over 3 years of infection in 23 individuals, 13 of whom developed bNAbs. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), complement deposition (ADCD), cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cellular trogocytosis (ADCT) were detected in almost all individuals with levels of activity increasing over time. At 6 months post-infection, individuals with bNAbs had significantly higher levels of ADCD and ADCT that correlated with antibody binding to C1q and FcγRIIa respectively. In addition, antibodies from individuals with bNAbs showed more IgG subclass diversity to multiple HIV antigens which also correlated with Fc polyfunctionality. Germinal center activity represented by CXCL13 levels and expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was found to be associated with neutralization breadth, Fc polyfunctionality and IgG subclass diversity. Overall, multivariate analysis by random forest classification was able to group bNAb individuals with 85% sensitivity and 80% specificity based on the properties of their antibody Fc early in HIV infection. Thus, the Fc effector function profile predicted the development of neutralization breadth in this cohort, suggesting that intrinsic immune factors within the germinal center provide a mechanistic link between the Fc and Fab of HIV-specific antibodies.

  15. TALE-induced bHLH transcription factors that activate a pectate lyase contribute to water soaking in bacterial spot of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Allison R; Morbitzer, Robert; Lahaye, Thomas; Staskawicz, Brian J

    2017-01-31

    AvrHah1 [avirulence (avr) gene homologous to avrBs3 and hax2, no. 1] is a transcription activator-like (TAL) effector (TALE) in Xanthomonas gardneri that induces water-soaked disease lesions on fruits and leaves during bacterial spot of tomato. We observe that water from outside the leaf is drawn into the apoplast in X. gardneri-infected, but not X. gardneriΔavrHah1 (XgΔavrHah1)-infected, plants, conferring a dark, water-soaked appearance. The pull of water can facilitate entry of additional bacterial cells into the apoplast. Comparing the transcriptomes of tomato infected with X. gardneri vs. XgΔavrHah1 revealed the differential up-regulation of two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors with predicted effector binding elements (EBEs) for AvrHah1. We mined our RNA-sequencing data for differentially up-regulated genes that could be direct targets of the bHLH transcription factors and therefore indirect targets of AvrHah1. We show that two pectin modification genes, a pectate lyase and pectinesterase, are targets of both bHLH transcription factors. Designer TALEs (dTALEs) for the bHLH transcription factors and the pectate lyase, but not for the pectinesterase, complement water soaking when delivered by XgΔavrHah1 By perturbing transcriptional networks and/or modifying the plant cell wall, AvrHah1 may promote water uptake to enhance tissue damage and eventual bacterial egression from the apoplast to the leaf surface. Understanding how disease symptoms develop may be a useful tool for improving the tolerance of crops from damaging disease lesions.

  16. Optimal expression of a Fab-effector fusion protein in Escherichia coli by removing the cysteine residues responsible for an interchain disulfide bond of a Fab molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jung, Mun-Sik; Han, Jae-Kyu; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    Development of novel bi-functional or even tri-functional Fab-effector fusion proteins would have a great potential in the biomedical sciences. However, the expression of Fab-effector fusion proteins in Escherichia coli is problematic especially when a eukaryotic effector moiety is genetically linked to a Fab due to the lack of proper chaperone proteins and an inappropriate physicochemical environment intrinsic to the microbial hosts. We previously reported that a human Fab molecule, referred to as SL335, reactive to human serum albumin has a prolonged in vivo serum half-life in rats. We, herein, tested six discrete SL335-human growth hormone (hGH) fusion constructs as a model system to define an optimal Fab-effector fusion format for E. coli expression. We found that one variant, referred to as HserG/Lser, outperformed the others in terms of a soluble expression yield and functionality in that HserG/Lser has a functional hGH bioactivity and possesses an serum albumin-binding affinity comparable to SL335. Our results clearly demonstrated that the genetic linkage of an effector domain to the C-terminus of Fd (V H +C H1 ) and the removal of cysteine (Cys) residues responsible for an interchain disulfide bond (IDB) ina Fab molecule optimize the periplasmic expression of a Fab-effector fusion protein in E. coli. We believe that our approach can contribute the development of diverse bi-functional Fab-effector fusion proteins by providing a simple strategy that enables the reliable expression of a functional fusion proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Target selection biases from recent experience transfer across effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Target selection is often biased by an observer's recent experiences. However, not much is known about whether these selection biases influence behavior across different effectors. For example, does looking at a red object make it easier to subsequently reach towards another red object? In the current study, we asked observers to find the uniquely colored target object on each trial. Randomly intermixed pre-trial cues indicated the mode of action: either an eye movement or a visually guided reach movement to the target. In Experiment 1, we found that priming of popout, reflected in faster responses following repetition of the target color on consecutive trials, occurred regardless of whether the effector was repeated from the previous trial or not. In Experiment 2, we examined whether an inhibitory selection bias away from a feature could transfer across effectors. While priming of popout reflects both enhancement of the repeated target features and suppression of the repeated distractor features, the distractor previewing effect isolates a purely inhibitory component of target selection in which a previewed color is presented in a homogenous display and subsequently inhibited. Much like priming of popout, intertrial suppression biases in the distractor previewing effect transferred across effectors. Together, these results suggest that biases for target selection driven by recent trial history transfer across effectors. This indicates that representations in memory that bias attention towards or away from specific features are largely independent from their associated actions.

  18. Bacterial lipases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, meaning a sharp increase in lipase activity observed when the substrate starts to form an emulsion, thereby presenting to the enzyme an interfacial area. As a consequence, the kinetics of a lipase rea...

  19. Peripheral tissue homing receptor control of naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cell localization in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, C Colin; Peske, J David; Engelhard, Victor Henry

    2013-01-01

    T cell activation induces homing receptors that bind ligands on peripheral tissue vasculature, programing movement to sites of infection and injury. There are three major types of CD8 effector T cells based on homing receptor expression, which arise in distinct lymphoid organs. Recent publications indicate that naïve, effector, and memory T cell migration is more complex than once thought; while many effectors enter peripheral tissues, some re-enter lymph nodes (LN), and contain central memory precursors. LN re-entry can depend on CD62L or peripheral tissue homing receptors. Memory T cells in LN tend to express the same homing receptors as their forebears, but often are CD62Lneg. Homing receptors also control CD8 T cell tumor entry. Tumor vasculature has low levels of many peripheral tissue homing receptor ligands, but portions of it resemble high endothelial venules (HEV), enabling naïve T cell entry, activation, and subsequent effector activity. This vasculature is associated with positive prognoses in humans, suggesting it may sustain ongoing anti-tumor responses. These findings reveal new roles for homing receptors expressed by naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cells in controlling entry into lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues.

  20. A tetrapod-like repertoire of innate immune receptors and effectors for coelacanths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinot, Pierre; Zou, Jun; Ota, Tatsuya; Buonocore, Francesco; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Canapa, Adriana; Cannon, John; Litman, Gary; Hansen, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The recent availability of both robust transcriptome and genome resources for coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) has led to unique discoveries for coelacanth immunity such as the lack of IgM, a central component of adaptive immunity. This study was designed to more precisely address the origins and evolution of gene families involved in the initial recognition and response to microbial pathogens, which effect innate immunity. Several multigene families involved in innate immunity are addressed, including: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-like receptors (RLRs), the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing proteins (NLRs), diverse immunoglobulin domain-containing proteins (DICP) and modular domain immune-type receptors (MDIRs). Our analyses also include the tripartite motif-containing proteins (TRIM), which are involved in pathogen recognition as well as the positive regulation of antiviral immunity. Finally, this study addressed some of the downstream effectors of the antimicrobial response including IL-1 family members, type I and II interferons (IFN) and IFN-stimulated effectors (ISGs). Collectively, the genes and gene families in coelacanth that effect innate immune functions share characteristics both in content, structure and arrangement with those found in tetrapods but not in teleosts. The findings support the sister group relationship of coelacanth fish with tetrapods.

  1. Special-purpose multifingered robotic end-effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    A number of advanced multifingered robotic end-effectors have been developed recently in which the finger joints are powered from external actuators. Although this gives dexterous performance, there are considerable problems with power transmission, due to the use of flexible tendons between the external actuators and the individual finger joints. If a multifingered robotic end-effector is to be operated in a confined space, local actuation of the fingers needs to be fully considered, even if there is a reduction in hand dexterity over that of an externally mounted actuator system. The University of Southampton has developed a number of end-effectors that incorporate integral finger actuators and mechanisms, two examples of which are discussed in this paper

  2. Diacylglycerol kinases in T cell tolerance and effector function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley S Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs are a family of enzymes that regulate the relative levels of diacylglycerol (DAG and phosphatidic acid (PA in cells by phosphorylating DAG to produce PA. Both DAG and PA are important second messengers cascading T cell receptor (TCR signal by recruiting multiple effector molecules such as RasGRP1, PKC, and mTOR. Studies have revealed important physiological functions of DGKs in the regulation of receptor signaling and the development and activation of immune cells. In this review, we will focus on recent progresses in our understanding of two DGK isoforms,  and , in CD8 T effector and memory cell differentiation, regulatory T cell development and function, and invariant NKT cell development and effector lineage differentiation.

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis patients display altered composition and maturity of neutrophils as well as impaired neutrophil effector functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Yizengaw

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunologically, active visceral leishmaniasis (VL is characterised by profound immunosuppression, severe systemic inflammatory responses and an impaired capacity to control parasite replication. Neutrophils are highly versatile cells, which play a crucial role in the induction as well as the resolution of inflammation, the control of pathogen replication and the regulation of immune responses. Neutrophil functions have been investigated in human cutaneous leishmaniasis, however, their role in human visceral leishmaniasis is poorly understood.In the present study we evaluated the activation status and effector functions of neutrophils in patients with active VL and after successful anti-leishmanial treatment. Our results show that neutrophils are highly activated and have degranulated; high levels of arginase, myeloperoxidase and elastase, all contained in neutrophils’ granules, were found in the plasma of VL patients. In addition, we show that a large proportion of these cells are immature. We also analysed effector functions of neutrophils that are essential for pathogen clearance and show that neutrophils have an impaired capacity to release neutrophil extracellular traps, produce reactive oxygen species and phagocytose bacterial particles, but not Leishmania parasites.Our results suggest that impaired effector functions, increased activation and immaturity of neutrophils play a key role in the pathogenesis of VL.

  4. AvrRxo1 Is a Bifunctional Type III Secreted Effector and Toxin-Antitoxin System Component with Homologs in Diverse Environmental Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R Triplett

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are ubiquitous bacterial systems that may function in genome maintenance and metabolic stress management, but are also thought to play a role in virulence by helping pathogens survive stress. We previously demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola protein AvrRxo1 is a type III-secreted virulence factor that has structural similarities to the zeta family of TA toxins, and is toxic to plants and bacteria in the absence of its predicted chaperone Arc1. In this work, we confirm that AvrRxo1 and its binding partner Arc1 function as a TA system when expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequences of avrRxo1 homologs were culled from published and newly generated phytopathogen genomes, revealing that avrRxo1:arc1 modules are rare or frequently inactivated in some species and highly conserved in others. Cloning and functional analysis of avrRxo1 from Acidovorax avenae, A. citrulli, Burkholderia andropogonis, Xanthomonas translucens, and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria showed that some AvrRxo1 homologs share the bacteriostatic and Rxo1-mediated cell death triggering activities of AvrRxo1 from X. oryzae. Additional distant putative homologs of avrRxo1 and arc1 were identified in genomic or metagenomic sequence of environmental bacteria with no known pathogenic role. One of these distant homologs was cloned from the filamentous soil bacterium Cystobacter fuscus. avrRxo1 from C. fuscus caused watersoaking and triggered Rxo1-dependent cell collapse in Nicotiana benthamiana, but no growth suppression in E. coli was observed. This work confirms that a type III effector can function as a TA system toxin, and illustrates the potential of microbiome data to reveal new environmental origins or reservoirs of pathogen virulence factors.

  5. Novel Vinculin Binding Site of the IpaA Invasin of Shigella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, HaJeung; Valencia-Gallardo, Cesar; Sharff, Andrew; Van Nhieu, Guy Tran; Izard, Tina (Globel Phasing); (Scripps); (CF)

    2012-10-25

    Internalization of Shigella into host epithelial cells, where the bacteria replicates and spreads to neighboring cells, requires a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effector coined IpaA. IpaA binds directly to and activates the cytoskeletal protein vinculin after injection in the host cell cytosol, and this was previously thought to be directed by two amphipathic {alpha}-helical vinculin-binding sites (VBS) found in the C-terminal tail domain of IpaA. Here, we report a third VBS, IpaA-VBS3, that is located N-terminal to the other two VBSs of IpaA and show that one IpaA molecule can bind up to three vinculin molecules. Biochemical in vitro Shigella invasion assays and the 1.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the vinculin {center_dot} IpaA-VBS3 complex showed that IpaA-VBS3 is functionally redundant with the other two IpaA-VBSs in cell invasion and in activating the latent F-actin binding functions of vinculin. Multiple VBSs in IpaA are reminiscent of talin, which harbors 11 VBSs. However, most of the talin VBSs have low affinity and are buried in helix bundles, whereas all three of the VBSs of IpaA are high affinity, readily available, and in close proximity to each other in the IpaA structure. Although deletion of IpaA-VBS3 has no detectable effects on Shigella invasion of epithelial cells, deletion of all three VBSs impaired bacterial invasion to levels found in an ipaA null mutant strain. Thus, IpaA-directed mimicry of talin in activating vinculin occurs through three high affinity VBSs that are essential for Shigella pathogenesis.

  6. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD ampersand E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design

  7. Vitamin D receptor signals regulate effector and memory CD8 T cell responses to infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Baumann, Florian M; Penny, Laura A; Studzinski, George P; Kalia, Vandana; Sarkar, Surojit

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with broad-ranging human disease sequelae such as bone disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, allergy, autoimmune disorders, diabetes, and infectious diseases. Disease risk and severity of a large proportion of the nonskeletal disorders heavily involve the cytotoxic cluster of differentiation (CD) 8 T lymphocyte (CTL) arm of cellular adaptive immunity. Considering the importance of vitamin D in CTL-dependent diseases, there is a critical need for systematic in-depth explorations into the role of vitamin D deficiency in generation and maintenance of CTL immunity during infections and vaccinations. With the use of wild-type (WT) vitamin D-sufficient mice and the vitamin D receptor knockout (Vdr(-/-)) mouse model of in vivo deficiency of vitamin D signaling, we systematically analyzed the impact of vitamin D deficiency on antigen-specific effector and memory CD8 T cell responses to acute viral and bacterial infections. WT and Vdr(-/-) mice were infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, a natural mouse pathogen, and antigen-specific CTL responses were analyzed during priming, expansion, contraction, and memory phases. Magnitude, breadth, cytokine production, and localization of antiviral effector and memory CTLs to lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues were specifically assessed. The absence of vitamin D signals led to 1) aberrant CD8 T cell effector differentiation (∼2-fold lower granzyme B and reduced B cell lymphoma 2; P ≤ 0.05) and enhanced contraction (∼15% increase; P ≤ 0.05) in antigen-specific CTLs; 2) a significantly restricted (P ≤ 0.05) breadth of the antigen-specific CD8 T cell effector and memory repertoire; and 3) preferential localization of effector (∼2.5-fold increase; P ≤ 0.01) and memory (∼5-fold increase; P ≤ 0.001) CD8 T cells to the lymph nodes compared to nonlymphoid tissues. Our data show a previously unrecognized impact of vitamin D deficiency on the quantity, quality, breadth, and

  8. A Bacterial Parasite Effector Mediates Insect Vector Attraction in Host Plants Independently of Developmental Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Orlovskis, Zigmunds; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites can take over their hosts and trigger dramatic changes in host appearance and behavior that are typically interpreted as extended phenotypes that promote parasite survival and fitness. For example, Toxoplasma gondii is thought to manipulate the behaviors of infected rodents to aid transmission to cats and parasitic trematodes of the genus Ribeiroia alter limb development in their amphibian hosts to facilitate predation of the latter by birds. Plant parasites and pathogens also repro...

  9. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    production of various defense compounds, such as chitinase ... seeds. In another group, juvenile seedlings were transferred into nutrition solutions and incubated as described. At 14 d after seed treatment, plant weight was determined. P6854 population in ... were done 5 times, each involving 15 plants, with similar results.

  10. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  11. Bacterial sepsis and chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Takeuchi, Dan; Utsunomiya, Tokuichiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Fujio

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial sepsis causes a high mortality rate when it occurs in patients with compromised host defenses. Severely burned patients, typical immunocompromised hosts, are extremely susceptible to infections from various pathogens, and a local wound infection frequently escalates into sepsis. In these patients, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are familiar pathogens that cause opportunistic infections. Also, polymicrobial sepsis frequently occurs in these patients. In this review, therefore, the roles of chemokines in thermally injured patients infected with these 3 pathogens and polymicrobial sepsis will be discussed. These infections in thermally injured patients may be controlled immunologically, because immunocompetent hosts are resistant to infections with these pathogens. Classically activated macrophages (M1Mphi) are major effector cells for host innate immune responses against these infections. However, M1Mphi are not generated in thermally injured patients whose alternatively activated macrophages (M2Mphi) predominate. M2Mphi appear in patients early after severe burn injuries. M2Mphi inhibit M1Mphi generation through the secretion of CCL17 and IL-10. As a modulator of Mphi, two different subsets of neutrophils (PMN-I, PMN-II) are described. PMN-I direct the polarization of resident Mphi into M1Mphi through the production of CCL3. M2Mphi are induced from resident Mphi by CCL2 released from PMN-II. Therefore, as an inhibitor of CCL2, glycyrrhizin protects individuals infected with S. aureus. Sepsis stemming from P. aeruginosa wound infection is also influenced by CCL2 released from immature myeloid cells. A large number of immature myeloid cells appear in association with burn injuries. Host resistance to S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa or polymicrobial infections may be improved in thermally injured patients through the induction of M1Mphi, elimination of CCL2 and/or depletion of M2Mphi induced by CCL2.

  12. The Anti-sigma Factor RsiV Is a Bacterial Receptor for Lysozyme: Co-crystal Structure Determination and Demonstration That Binding of Lysozyme to RsiV Is Required for σV Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Hastie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available σ factors provide RNA polymerase with promoter specificity in bacteria. Some σ factors require activation in order to interact with RNA polymerase and transcribe target genes. The Extra-Cytoplasmic Function (ECF σ factor, σV, is encoded by several Gram-positive bacteria and is specifically activated by lysozyme. This activation requires the proteolytic destruction of the anti-σ factor RsiV via a process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP. In many cases proteases that cleave at site-1 are thought to directly sense a signal and initiate the RIP process. We previously suggested binding of lysozyme to RsiV initiated the proteolytic destruction of RsiV and activation of σV. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the RsiV-lysozyme complex at 2.3 Å which revealed that RsiV and lysozyme make extensive contacts. We constructed RsiV mutants with altered abilities to bind lysozyme. We find that mutants that are unable to bind lysozyme block site-1 cleavage of RsiV and σV activation in response to lysozyme. Taken together these data demonstrate that RsiV is a receptor for lysozyme and binding of RsiV to lysozyme is required for σV activation. In addition, the co-structure revealed that RsiV binds to the lysozyme active site pocket. We provide evidence that in addition to acting as a sensor for the presence of lysozyme, RsiV also inhibits lysozyme activity. Thus we have demonstrated that RsiV is a protein with multiple functions. RsiV inhibits σV activity in the absence of lysozyme, RsiV binds lysozyme triggering σV activation and RsiV inhibits the enzymatic activity of lysozyme.

  13. The Anti-sigma Factor RsiV Is a Bacterial Receptor for Lysozyme: Co-crystal Structure Determination and Demonstration That Binding of Lysozyme to RsiV Is Required for σV Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Jessica L; Williams, Kyle B; Bohr, Lindsey L; Houtman, Jon C; Gakhar, Lokesh; Ellermeier, Craig D

    2016-09-01

    σ factors provide RNA polymerase with promoter specificity in bacteria. Some σ factors require activation in order to interact with RNA polymerase and transcribe target genes. The Extra-Cytoplasmic Function (ECF) σ factor, σV, is encoded by several Gram-positive bacteria and is specifically activated by lysozyme. This activation requires the proteolytic destruction of the anti-σ factor RsiV via a process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). In many cases proteases that cleave at site-1 are thought to directly sense a signal and initiate the RIP process. We previously suggested binding of lysozyme to RsiV initiated the proteolytic destruction of RsiV and activation of σV. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the RsiV-lysozyme complex at 2.3 Å which revealed that RsiV and lysozyme make extensive contacts. We constructed RsiV mutants with altered abilities to bind lysozyme. We find that mutants that are unable to bind lysozyme block site-1 cleavage of RsiV and σV activation in response to lysozyme. Taken together these data demonstrate that RsiV is a receptor for lysozyme and binding of RsiV to lysozyme is required for σV activation. In addition, the co-structure revealed that RsiV binds to the lysozyme active site pocket. We provide evidence that in addition to acting as a sensor for the presence of lysozyme, RsiV also inhibits lysozyme activity. Thus we have demonstrated that RsiV is a protein with multiple functions. RsiV inhibits σV activity in the absence of lysozyme, RsiV binds lysozyme triggering σV activation and RsiV inhibits the enzymatic activity of lysozyme.

  14. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... movement is powered by insertional polymerization of ParM. Consistently, we find that segregating plasmids are positioned at the ends of extending ParM filaments. Thus, the process of R1 plasmid segregation in E. coli appears to be mechanistically analogous to the actin-based motility operating...

  15. Direct observation of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) protein dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuculis, Luke; Abil, Zhanar; Zhao, Huimin; Schroeder, Charles M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we describe a single molecule assay to probe the site-search dynamics of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins along DNA. In modern genetics, the ability to selectively edit the human genome is an unprecedented development, driven by recent advances in targeted nuclease proteins. Specific gene editing can be accomplished using TALE proteins, which are programmable DNA-binding proteins that can be fused to a nuclease domain. In this way, TALENs are a leading technology that has shown great success in the genomic editing of pluripotent stem cells. A major hurdle facing clinical implementation, however, is the potential for deleterious off-target binding events. For these reasons, a molecular-level understanding of TALE binding and target sequence search on DNA is essential. To this end, we developed a single-molecule fluorescence imaging assay that provides a first-of-its-kind view of the 1-D diffusion of TALE proteins along stretched DNA. Taken together with co-crystal structures of DNA-bound TALEs, our results suggest a rotationally-coupled, major groove tracking model for diffusion. We further report diffusion constants for TALE proteins as a function of salt concentration, consistent with previously described models of 1-D protein diffusion.

  16. Non-host resistance induced by the Xanthomonas effector XopQ is widespread within the genus Nicotiana and functionally depends on EDS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Adlung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria translocate effector proteins (T3Es directly into plant cells via a conserved type III secretion system, which is essential for pathogenicity in susceptible plants. In resistant plants, recognition of some T3Es is mediated by corresponding resistance (R genes or R proteins and induces effector triggered immunity (ETI that often results in programmed cell death reactions. The identification of R genes and understanding their evolution/distribution bears great potential for the generation of resistant crop plants. We focus on T3Es from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease on pepper and tomato plants. Here, 86 Solanaceae lines mainly of the genus Nicotiana were screened for phenotypical reactions after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of 21 different Xcv effectors to (i identify new plant lines for T3E characterization, (ii analyze conservation/evolution of putative R genes and (iii identify promising plant lines as repertoire for R-gene isolation. The effectors provoked different reactions on closely related plant lines indicative of a high variability and evolution rate of potential R genes. In some cases, putative R genes were conserved within a plant species but not within superordinate phylogenetical units. Interestingly, the effector XopQ was recognized by several Nicotiana spp. lines, and Xcv infection assays revealed that XopQ is a host range determinant in many Nicotiana species. Non-host resistance against Xcv and XopQ recognition in N. benthamiana required EDS1, strongly suggesting the presence of a TIR domain-containing XopQ-specific R protein in these plant lines. XopQ is a conserved effector among most xanthomonads, pointing out the XopQ-recognizing RxopQ as candidate for targeted crop improvement.

  17. Dihydroxo-bridged dimeric Cu(II) system containing sandwiched non-coordinating phenylacetate anion: Crystal structure, spectroscopic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and DNA-binding studies of [(phen)(H2O)Cu(OH)2Cu(H2O)(phen)]2L.6H2O: (HL = phenylacetic acid; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Naseer Ali

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, DNA-binding, antibacterial and antifungal studies of a rare dihydroxo-bridged dinuclear copper(II) complex including 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) ligands and phenylacetate (L) anions, [Cu2(Phen)2(OH)2(H2O)2].2L.6H2O. Structural data revealed distorted square-pyramidal geometry for each copper(II) atom with the basal plane formed by the two nitrogen atoms of the phenantroline ligand and the oxygen atoms of two bridging hydroxyl groups. The apical positions are filled by the oxygen atom from a water molecule. This forms a centrosymmetric cationic dimer where the uncoordinated phenylacetate ligands serve to balance the electrical charge. The dimers interact by means of hydrogen bonds aided by the coordinated as well as uncoordinated water molecules and phenyl-acetate moieties in the crystal lattice. The binding ability of the complex with salmon sperm DNA was determined using cyclic voltammetry and absorption spectroscopy yielding binding constants 2.426 × 104 M-1 and 1.399 × 104 M-1, respectively. The complex was screened against two Gram-positive (Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis) and one Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains exhibiting significant activity against all the three strains. The complex exhibited significant, moderate and no activity against fungal strains Mucor piriformis, Helminthosporium solani and Aspergillus Niger, respectively. These preliminary tests indicate the competence of the complex towards the development of a potent biological drug.

  18. How to conquer a tomato plant? Fusarium oxysporum effector targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete small proteins, called effectors, to alter the environment in their host to facilitate infection. The causal agent of Fusarium wilt on tomato, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), secretes these proteins in the xylem sap of infected plants and hence they have been called

  19. Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stotz, H.U.; Mitrousia, G.K.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Fitt, B.D.L.

    2014-01-01

    R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed

  20. Developmental control of integrin expression regulates Th2 effector homing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrin CD18, a component of the LFA-1 complex that also includes CD11a, is essential for Th2, but not Th1, cell homing, but the explanation for this phenomenon remains obscure. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which Th2 effector responses require the LFA-1 complex. CD11a-deficient T ...

  1. Toxoplasma polymorphic effectors determine macrophage polarization and intestinal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, K.D.C.; Wang, Y.; Tait Wonjo, E.D.; Shastri, A.J.; Hu, K.; Cornel, L.; Boedec, E.; Ong, Y.C.; Chien, Y.H.; Hunter, C.A.; Boothroyd, J.C.; Saeij, J.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    European and North American strains of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii belong to three distinct clonal lineages, type I, type II, and type III, which differ in virulence. Understanding the basis of Toxoplasma strain differences and how secreted effectors work to achieve chronic infection is a major

  2. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten; Themaat, Emiel Ver Loren van; McGuffin, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute...

  3. Biosensors of bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlage, Robert S; Tillmann, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Biosensors are devices which utilize both an electrical component (transducer) and a biological component to study an environment. They are typically used to examine biological structures, organisms and processes. The field of biosensors has now become so large and varied that the technology can often seem impenetrable. Yet the principles which underlie the technology are uncomplicated, even if the details of the mechanisms are elusive. In this review we confine our analysis to relatively current advancements in biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells. This includes biosensors which rely on an added labeled component and biosensors which do not have a labeled component and instead detect the binding event or bound structure on the transducer. Methods to concentrate the bacteria prior to biosensor analysis are also described. The variety of biosensor types and their actual and potential uses are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transfer of Motor Learning Is More Pronounced in Proximal Compared to Distal Effectors in Upper Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore K. Aune

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current experiment investigated generalizability of motor learning in proximal versus distal effectors in upper extremities. Twenty-eight participants were divided into three groups: training proximal effectors, training distal effectors, and no training control group (CG. Performance was tested pre- and post-training for specific learning and three learning transfer conditions: (1 bilateral learning transfer between homologous effectors, (2 lateral learning transfer between non-homologous effectors, and (3 bilateral learning transfer between non-homologous effectors. With respect to specific learning, both training groups showed significant, similar improvement for the trained proximal and distal effectors, respectively. In addition, there was significant learning transfer to all three transfer conditions, except for bilateral learning transfer between non-homologous effectors for the distal training group. Interestingly, the proximal training group showed significantly larger learning transfer to other effectors compared to the distal training group. The CG did not show significant improvements from pre- to post-test. These results show that learning is partly effector independent and generalizable to different effectors, even though transfer is suboptimal compared to specific learning. Furthermore, there is a proximal-distal gradient in generalizability, in that learning transfer from trained proximal effectors is larger than from trained distal effectors, which is consistent with neuroanatomical differences in activation of proximal and distal muscles.

  5. Crystallization of the Effector-Binding Domain of Repressor DeoR from Bacillus subtilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písačková, Jana; Procházková, Kateřina; Fábry, Milan; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2013), s. 844-848 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08016; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11205; GA ČR GA203/09/0820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : X-ray crystallography * deoxyribonucleoside regulator * Bacillus subtilis * thermofluor assay Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.558, year: 2013

  6. Ecdysteroids new role - effectors of photosynthetic enzymes (O2 production and CO2 binding)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, T.; Kamlar, M.; Holá, D.; Kohout, Ladislav; Harmatha, Juraj; Kočová, M.; Uhlík, O.; Rothová, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 108, S2 (2014), s112 ISSN 0009-2770. [Conference on Isoprenoids /22./. 07.09.2014-10.09.2014, Praha] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1650 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ecdysteroids * photosynthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Active Flow Effectors for Noise and Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    New flow effector technology for separation control and enhanced mixing is based upon shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) technology. The technology allows for variable shape control of aircraft structures through actively deformable surfaces. The flow effectors are made by embedding shape memory alloy actuator material in a composite structure. When thermally actuated, the flow effector def1ects into or out of the flow in a prescribed manner to enhance mixing or induce separation for a variety of applications, including aeroacoustic noise reduction, drag reduction, and f1ight control. The active flow effectors were developed for noise reduction as an alternative to fixed-configuration effectors, such as static chevrons, that cannot be optimized for airframe installation effects or variable operating conditions and cannot be retracted for off-design or fail-safe conditions. Benefits include: Increased vehicle control, overall efficiency, and reduced noise throughout all f1ight regimes, Reduced flow noise, Reduced drag, Simplicity of design and fabrication, Simplicity of control through direct current stimulation, autonomous re sponse to environmental heating, fast re sponse, and a high degree of geometric stability. The concept involves embedding prestrained SMA actuators on one side of the chevron neutral axis in order to generate a thermal moment and def1ect the structure out of plane when heated. The force developed in the host structure during def1ection and the aerodynamic load is used for returning the structure to the retracted position. The chevron design is highly scalable and versatile, and easily affords active and/or autonomous (environmental) control. The technology offers wide-ranging market applications, including aerospace, automotive, and any application that requires flow separation or noise control.

  8. Bench-to-bedside review: Bacterial virulence and subversion of host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Steven AR; Kahler, Charlene M

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens possess an array of specific mechanisms that confer virulence and the capacity to avoid host defence mechanisms. Mechanisms of virulence are often mediated by the subversion of normal aspects of host biology. In this way the pathogen modifies host function so as to promote the pathogen's survival or proliferation. Such subversion is often mediated by the specific interaction of bacterial effector molecules with host encoded proteins and other molecules. The importance of t...

  9. Virulence contribution and recognition of homologs of the Verticillium dahliae effector Ave1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshoven, Jordi C.

    2017-01-01

    Disease resistance in crops is an important aspect of securing global food security. Resistant plants carry immune receptors that sense pathogen invasion often through the recognition of important pathogen virulence factors, known as effectors. Thus, identification and characterization of effectors

  10. A Family of Salmonella Type III Secretion Effector Proteins Selectively Targets the NF-κB Signaling Pathway to Preserve Host Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Kamanova, Jana; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Galán, Jorge E

    2016-03-01

    Microbial infections usually lead to host innate immune responses and inflammation. These responses most often limit pathogen replication although they can also result in host-tissue damage. The enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium utilizes a type III secretion system to induce intestinal inflammation by delivering specific effector proteins that stimulate signal transduction pathways resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We show here that a family of related Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins PipA, GogA and GtgA redundantly target components of the NF-κB signaling pathway to inhibit transcriptional responses leading to inflammation. We show that these effector proteins are proteases that cleave both the RelA (p65) and RelB transcription factors but do not target p100 (NF-κB2) or p105 (NF-κB1). A Salmonella Typhimurium strain lacking these effectors showed increased ability to stimulate NF-κB and increased virulence in an animal model of infection. These results indicate that bacterial pathogens can evolve determinants to preserve host homeostasis and that those determinants can reduce the pathogen's virulence.

  11. Secretion of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins from a natural Pantoea agglomerans isolate by using PelB and HlyA secretion signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Dawn C; Lampe, David J

    2011-07-01

    The insect-vectored disease malaria is a major world health problem. New control strategies are needed to supplement the current use of insecticides and medications. A genetic approach can be used to inhibit development of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) in the mosquito host. We hypothesized that Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterial symbiont of Anopheles mosquitoes, could be engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins, a strategy termed paratransgenesis. To this end, plasmids that include the pelB or hlyA secretion signals from the genes of related species (pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora and hemolysin A from Escherichia coli, respectively) were created and tested for their efficacy in secreting known anti-Plasmodium effector proteins (SM1, anti-Pbs21, and PLA2) in P. agglomerans and E. coli. P. agglomerans successfully secreted HlyA fusions of anti-Pbs21 and PLA2, and these strains are under evaluation for anti-Plasmodium activity in infected mosquitoes. Varied expression and/or secretion of the effector proteins was observed, suggesting that the individual characteristics of a particular effector may require empirical testing of several secretion signals. Importantly, those strains that secreted efficiently grew as well as wild-type strains under laboratory conditions and, thus, may be expected to be competitive with the native microbiota in the environment of the mosquito midgut.

  12. Secretion of Anti-Plasmodium Effector Proteins from a Natural Pantoea agglomerans Isolate by Using PelB and HlyA Secretion Signals▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Dawn C.; Lampe, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The insect-vectored disease malaria is a major world health problem. New control strategies are needed to supplement the current use of insecticides and medications. A genetic approach can be used to inhibit development of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) in the mosquito host. We hypothesized that Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterial symbiont of Anopheles mosquitoes, could be engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins, a strategy termed paratransgenesis. To this end, plasmids that include the pelB or hlyA secretion signals from the genes of related species (pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora and hemolysin A from Escherichia coli, respectively) were created and tested for their efficacy in secreting known anti-Plasmodium effector proteins (SM1, anti-Pbs21, and PLA2) in P. agglomerans and E. coli. P. agglomerans successfully secreted HlyA fusions of anti-Pbs21 and PLA2, and these strains are under evaluation for anti-Plasmodium activity in infected mosquitoes. Varied expression and/or secretion of the effector proteins was observed, suggesting that the individual characteristics of a particular effector may require empirical testing of several secretion signals. Importantly, those strains that secreted efficiently grew as well as wild-type strains under laboratory conditions and, thus, may be expected to be competitive with the native microbiota in the environment of the mosquito midgut. PMID:21602368

  13. A Phytophthora sojae effector PsCRN63 forms homo-/hetero-dimers to suppress plant immunity via an inverted association manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Chen, Yanyu; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dou, Daolong

    2016-05-31

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of effectors to promote infection. Their mode of action are largely unknown. Here we show that a Phytophthora sojae effector, PsCRN63, suppresses flg22-induced expression of FRK1 gene, a molecular marker in pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). However, PsCRN63 does not suppress upstream signaling events including flg22-induced MAPK activation and BIK1 phosphorylation, indicating that it acts downstream of MAPK cascades. The PsCRN63-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 and oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The callose deposition were suppressed in PsCRN63-transgenic plants compared with the wild-type control plants. Genes involved in PTI were also down-regulated in PsCRN63-transgenic plants. Interestingly, we found that PsCRN63 forms an dimer that is mediated by inter-molecular interactions between N-terminal and C-terminal domains in an inverted association manner. Furthermore, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains required for the dimerization are widely conserved among CRN effectors, suggesting that homo-/hetero-dimerization of Phytophthora CRN effectors is required to exert biological functions. Indeed, the dimerization was required for PTI suppression and cell death-induction activities of PsCRN63.

  14. Analysis of apple (Malus) responses to bacterial pathogens using an oligo microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea induces reactions similar to a hypersensitive response (HR). Type III (T3SS) associated effectors, especially DspA/E, are suspected to ha...

  15. A bacterial pathogen uses distinct type III secretion systems to alternate between host kingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant and animal-pathogenic bacteria utilize phylogenetically distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) that produce needle-like injectisomes or pili for the delivery of effector proteins into host cells. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causative agent of Stewart’s bacterial wilt and...

  16. Bacterial infections in Wegener's granulomatosis : mechanisms potentially involved in autoimmune pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadema, Henko; Heeringa, Peter; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Purpose of review Wegener's granulomatosis is associated with bacterial infection, in particular nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Infection may play a role in the induction of autoimmunity as well as in the effector phase of the disease. Here, the current hypotheses aiming to explain the

  17. T3SS-Independent Uptake of the Short-Trip Toxin-Related Recombinant NleC Effector of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Leads to NF-?B p65 Cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Stolle, Anne-Sophie; Norkowski, Stefanie; K?rner, Britta; Schmitz, J?rgen; L?ken, Lena; Frankenberg, Maj; R?ter, Christian; Schmidt, M. Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Effector proteins secreted by the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of pathogenic bacteria have been shown to precisely modulate important signaling cascades of the host for the benefit of the pathogens. Among others, the non-LEE encoded T3SS effector protein NleC of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a Zn-dependent metalloprotease and suppresses innate immune responses by directly targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Many pathogenic bacteria release potent bacterial toxins of the A-B...

  18. Single-molecule kinetic analysis of HP1-chromatin binding reveals a dynamic network of histone modification and DNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Louise C; Weilandt, Daniel R; Bachmann, Andreas L; Kilic, Sinan; Lechner, Carolin C; Odermatt, Pascal D; Fantner, Georg E; Georgeon, Sandrine; Hantschel, Oliver; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Fierz, Beat

    2017-10-13

    Chromatin recruitment of effector proteins involved in gene regulation depends on multivalent interaction with histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and structural features of the chromatin fiber. Due to the complex interactions involved, it is currently not understood how effectors dynamically sample the chromatin landscape. Here, we dissect the dynamic chromatin interactions of a family of multivalent effectors, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging and computational modeling. We show that the three human HP1 isoforms are recruited and retained on chromatin by a dynamic exchange between histone PTM and DNA bound states. These interactions depend on local chromatin structure, the HP1 isoforms as well as on PTMs on HP1 itself. Of the HP1 isoforms, HP1α exhibits the longest residence times and fastest binding rates due to DNA interactions in addition to PTM binding. HP1α phosphorylation further increases chromatin retention through strengthening of multivalency while reducing DNA binding. As DNA binding in combination with specific PTM recognition is found in many chromatin effectors, we propose a general dynamic capture mechanism for effector recruitment. Multiple weak protein and DNA interactions result in a multivalent interaction network that targets effectors to a specific chromatin modification state, where their activity is required. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Genetic diversity of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus based on two hypervariable effector genes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttamuk, Thamrongjet; Zhou, Lijuan; Thaveechai, Niphone; Zhang, Shouan; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Las) being the most widely distributed around the world, and the only species detected in Thailand. To understand the genetic diversity of Las bacteria in Thailand, we evaluated two closely-related effector genes, lasAI and lasAII, found within the Las prophages from 239 infected citrus and 55 infected psyllid samples collected from different provinces in Thailand. The results indicated that most of the Las-infected samples collected from Thailand contained at least one prophage sequence with 48.29% containing prophage 1 (FP1), 63.26% containing prophage 2 (FP2), and 19.38% containing both prophages. Interestingly, FP2 was found to be the predominant population in Las-infected citrus samples while Las-infected psyllids contained primarily FP1. The multiple banding patterns that resulted from amplification of lasAI imply extensive variation exists within the full and partial repeat sequence while the single band from lasAII indicates a low amount of variation within the repeat sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of Las-infected samples from 22 provinces in Thailand suggested that the bacterial pathogen may have been introduced to Thailand from China and the Philippines. This is the first report evaluating the genetic variation of a large population of Ca. L. asiaticus infected samples in Thailand using the two effector genes from Las prophage regions.

  20. Uptake of the Fusarium Effector Avr2 by Tomato Is Not a Cell Autonomous Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, X.; Gomila, J.; Ma, L.; van den Burg, H.A.; Takken, F.L.W.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete effector proteins to manipulate the host for their own proliferation. Currently it is unclear whether the uptake of effector proteins from extracellular spaces is a host autonomous process. We study this process using the Avr2 effector protein from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.

  1. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Carsten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids, with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids, with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f

  2. End-Effector Development for the PIP Puck Handling Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowley, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    It has been decided that excess, weapons-grade plutonium shall be immobilized to prevent nuclear proliferation. The method of immobilization is to encapsulate the plutonium in a ceramic puck, roughly the size of a hockey puck, using a sintering process. This method has been officially identified as the Plutonium Immobilization Process (PIP). A Can-in-Canister storage method will be used to further immobilize the plutonium. The Can-in-Canister method uses the existing design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister to house the plutonium pucks. the process begins with several pucks being stacked in a stainless steel can. Several of the stainless steel cans are stacked in a cage-like magazine. Several of the magazines are then placed in a DWPF canister. The DWPF canister is then filled with molten glass containing high-level, radioactive waste from the DWPF vitrification process. The Can-in-Canister method makes reclamation of plutonium from the pucks technically difficult and highly undesirable. The mechanical requirements of the Can-in-Canister process, in conjunction with the amount of time required to immobilize the vast quantities of weapons-grade plutonium, will expose personnel to unnecessarily high levels of radiation if the processes were completed manually, in glove boxes. Therefore, automated equipment is designed into the process to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure. Robots are used whenever the automated handling operations become complicated. There are two such operations in the initial stages of the Can-in-Canister process, which required a six-axis robot. The first operation is a press unloading process. The second operation is a tray transfer process. To successfully accomplish the operational tasks described in the two operations, the end-effector of the robot must be versatile, lightweight, and rugged. As a result of these demands, an extensive development process was undertaken to design the optimum end-effector for these puck

  3. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs) in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids), with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids), with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Based on relative

  4. Fructose 1-phosphate is the one and only physiological effector of the Cra (FruR regulator of Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chavarría

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose-1-phosphate (F1P is the preferred effector of the catabolite repressor/activator (Cra protein of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida but its ability to bind other metabolic intermediates in vivo is unclear. The Cra protein of this microorganism (CraPP was submitted to mobility shift assays with target DNA sequences (the PfruB promoter and candidate effectors fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP, glucose 6-phosphate (G6P, and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P. 1 mM F1P was sufficient to release most of the Cra protein from its operators but more than 10 mM of FBP or G6P was required to free the same complex. However, isothermal titration microcalorimetry failed to expose any specific interaction between CraPP and FBP or G6P. To solve this paradox, transcriptional activity of a PfruB-lacZ fusion was measured in wild-type and ΔfruB cells growing on substrates that change the intracellular concentrations of F1P and FBP. The data indicated that PfruB activity was stimulated by fructose but not by glucose or succinate. This suggested that CraPP represses expression in vivo of the cognate fruBKA operon in a fashion dependent just on F1P, ruling out any other physiological effector. Molecular docking and dynamic simulations of the Cra-agonist interaction indicated that both metabolites can bind the repressor, but the breach in the relative affinity of CraPP for F1P vs FBP is three orders of magnitude larger than the equivalent distance in the Escherichia coli protein. This assigns the Cra protein of P. putida the sole role of transducing the presence of fructose in the medium into a variety of direct and indirect physiological responses.

  5. Fructose 1-phosphate is the one and only physiological effector of the Cra (FruR) regulator of Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Max; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Krell, Tino; Santiago, César; Brezovsky, Jan; Damborsky, Jiri; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-1-phosphate (F1P) is the preferred effector of the catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida but its ability to bind other metabolic intermediates in vivo is unclear. The Cra protein of this microorganism (Cra(PP)) was submitted to mobility shift assays with target DNA sequences (the PfruB promoter) and candidate effectors fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). 1 mM F1P was sufficient to release most of the Cra protein from its operators but more than 10 mM of FBP or G6P was required to free the same complex. However, isothermal titration microcalorimetry failed to expose any specific interaction between Cra(PP) and FBP or G6P. To solve this paradox, transcriptional activity of a PfruB-lacZ fusion was measured in wild-type and ΔfruB cells growing on substrates that change the intracellular concentrations of F1P and FBP. The data indicated that PfruB activity was stimulated by fructose but not by glucose or succinate. This suggested that Cra(PP) represses expression in vivo of the cognate fruBKA operon in a fashion dependent just on F1P, ruling out any other physiological effector. Molecular docking and dynamic simulations of the Cra-agonist interaction indicated that both metabolites can bind the repressor, but the breach in the relative affinity of Cra(PP) for F1P vs FBP is three orders of magnitude larger than the equivalent distance in the Escherichia coli protein. This assigns the Cra protein of P. putida the sole role of transducing the presence of fructose in the medium into a variety of direct and indirect physiological responses.

  6. BACTERIAL PLASMIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

  7. Death of effector memory T cells characterizes AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireille, Laforge; Anna, Senik; Marie-Christine, Cumont; Valerie, Monceaux; Bruno, Hurtrel; Jerome, Estaquier

    2009-01-01

    The adaptive effector CD4+ T helper-mediated immune response is highly heterogeneous, based on the development of distinct subsets that are characterized by the expression of different profiles of cell surface markers. Functional impairment of T cells is characteristic of many chronic mouse and human viral infections. Excessive induction of apoptosis in infected and uninfected CD4+ T cells has been proposed as one of the pathogenic mechanisms that may impair the immune response and cause the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Thus, the death of effector/memory CD4+ T cells during both the acute and chronic phase represents one the main characteristic of such viral infection that predicts disease outcome. Improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to the death of memory CD4+ T cells should enable us to improve vaccination protocols and treatments, by combining them with antiretroviral drugs and molecules designed to decrease apoptotic phenomena.

  8. Identification of Novel Type III Effectors Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the six secretion systems identified in Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS plays important roles in the disease development of pathogens. T3SS has attracted a great deal of research interests. However, the secretion mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Especially, the identification of effectors (secreted proteins is an important and challenging task. This paper adopts machine learning methods to identify type III secreted effectors (T3SEs. We extract features from amino acid sequences and conduct feature reduction based on latent semantic information by using latent Dirichlet allocation model. The experimental results on Pseudomonas syringae data set demonstrate the good performance of the new methods.

  9. The Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Effector EspW Triggers Actin Remodeling in a Rac1-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Pamela; Crepin, Valerie F; Drechsler, Hauke; McAinsh, Andrew D; Frankel, Gad; Berger, Cedric N

    2017-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that colonizes the gut mucosa and induces attaching-and-effacing lesions. EHEC employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate 50 effector proteins that hijack and manipulate host cell signaling pathways, which allow bacterial colonization and subversion of immune responses and disease progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the T3SS effector EspW. We found espW in the sequenced O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC strains as well as in Shigella boydii Furthermore, a truncated version of EspW, containing the first 206 residues, is present in EPEC strains belonging to serotype O55:H7. Screening a collection of clinical EPEC isolates revealed that espW is present in 52% of the tested strains. We report that EspW modulates actin dynamics in a Rac1-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of EspW results in formation of unique membrane protrusions. Infection of Swiss cells with an EHEC espW deletion mutant induces a cell shrinkage phenotype that could be rescued by Rac1 activation via expression of the bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factor, EspT. Furthermore, using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the motor protein Kif15 as a potential interacting partner of EspW. Kif15 and EspW colocalized in cotransfected cells, while ectopically expressed Kif15 localized to the actin pedestals following EHEC infection. The data suggest that Kif15 recruits EspW to the site of bacterial attachment, which in turn activates Rac1, resulting in modifications of the actin cytoskeleton that are essential to maintain cell shape during infection. Copyright © 2017 Sandu et al.

  10. CRISPR-mediated control of the bacterial initiation of replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiktor, J.M.; Lesterlin, Christian; Sherratt, David J.; Dekker, C.

    2016-01-01

    Programmable control of the cell cycle has been shown to be a powerful tool in cell-biology studies. Here, we develop a novel system for controlling the bacterial cell cycle, based on binding of CRISPR/dCas9 to the origin-of-replication locus. Initiation of replication of bacterial chromosomes is

  11. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  12. Signs of impaired immunoregulation and enhanced effector T-cell responses in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakiela, B; Iwaniec, T; Plutecka, H; Celinska-Lowenhoff, M; Dziedzina, S; Musial, J

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) is characterized by a deficiency in immunoregulatory pathways, a phenomenon recently implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Serum levels of immunoregulatory (e.g., IL-10 and TGF-β1) and proinflammatory (e.g., IL-17A) cytokines were measured in PAPS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with secondary APS (SAPS), or without APS, and in healthy controls (n = 40 in each group). In a subgroup of PAPS patients we also compared phenotype and function (flow cytometry) of regulatory T-cells (Treg) and cytokine production by effector T-cells. Our major finding was decreased levels of TGF-β1 in PAPS and SAPS as compared to SLE without APS and controls. TGF-β1 was the lowest in PAPS patients showing high levels of aPL IgG with significant negative correlation with the titer. SLE patients were characterized by lower serum levels of IL-2 and increased IL-17A, as compared to the other groups. The numbers of circulating Treg cells and their phenotype (e.g., FoxP3 isoforms) were not disturbed in PAPS. However, surface expression of latency associated peptide (binds TGF-β) in activated FoxP3 + cells and in vitro production of TGF-β1 were decreased in PAPS patients with high titers of aPL IgG. Moreover, frequencies of cytokine producing effector T-helper cells (including Th17) were significantly elevated in this group. PAPS patients with high titers of aPL IgG antibodies were characterized by decreased systemic levels of TGF-β1 and its impaired production in vitro, suggesting impaired immunoregulation and enhanced adaptive autoimmune responses leading to the production of aPL antibodies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Legionella Effector AnkX Disrupts Host Cell Endocytic Recycling in a Phosphocholination-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual C. Allgood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The facultative intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila proliferates within amoebae and human alveolar macrophages, and it is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a life-threatening pneumonia. Within host cells, L. pneumophila establishes a replicative haven by delivering numerous effector proteins into the host cytosol, many of which target membrane trafficking by manipulating the function of Rab GTPases. The Legionella effector AnkX is a phosphocholine transferase that covalently modifies host Rab1 and Rab35. However, a detailed understanding of the biological consequence of Rab GTPase phosphocholination remains elusive. Here, we broaden the understanding of AnkX function by presenting three lines of evidence that it interferes with host endocytic recycling. First, using immunogold transmission electron microscopy, we determined that GFP-tagged AnkX ectopically produced in mammalian cells localizes at the plasma membrane and tubular membrane compartments, sites consistent with targeting the endocytic recycling pathway. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AnkX was responsible for association with the plasma membrane, and we determined that this region was also able to bind the phosphoinositide lipids PI(3P and PI(4P in vitro. Second, we observed that mCherry-AnkX co-localized with Rab35, a regulator of recycling endocytosis and with major histocompatibility class I protein (MHC-I, a key immunoregulatory protein whose recycling from and back to the plasma membrane is Rab35-dependent. Third, we report that during infection of macrophages, AnkX is responsible for the disruption of endocytic recycling of transferrin, and AnkX's phosphocholination activity is critical for this function. These results support the hypothesis that AnkX targets endocytic recycling during host cell infection. Finally, we have demonstrated that the phosphocholination activity of AnkX is also critical for inhibiting fusion of the Legionella

  14. The secreted effector protein EspZ is essential for virulence of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, John Scott; Byrd, Wyatt; Ramamurthy, Shylaja; Ledvina, Hannah E; Khirfan, Khaldoon; Riggs, Michael W; Boedeker, Edgar C; Vedantam, Gayatri; Viswanathan, V K

    2015-03-01

    Attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens adhere intimately to intestinal enterocytes and efface brush border microvilli. A key virulence strategy of A/E pathogens is the type III secretion system (T3SS)-mediated delivery of effector proteins into host cells. The secreted protein EspZ is postulated to promote enterocyte survival by regulating the T3SS and/or by modulating epithelial signaling pathways. To explore the role of EspZ in A/E pathogen virulence, we generated an isogenic espZ deletion strain (ΔespZ) and corresponding cis-complemented derivatives of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and compared their abilities to regulate the T3SS and influence host cell survival in vitro. For virulence studies, rabbits infected with these strains were monitored for bacterial colonization, clinical signs, and intestinal tissue alterations. Consistent with data from previous reports, espZ-transfected epithelial cells were refractory to infection-dependent effector translocation. Also, the ΔespZ strain induced greater host cell death than did the parent and complemented strains. In rabbit infections, fecal ΔespZ strain levels were 10-fold lower than those of the parent strain at 1 day postinfection, while the complemented strain was recovered at intermediate levels. In contrast to the parent and complemented mutants, ΔespZ mutant fecal carriage progressively decreased on subsequent days. ΔespZ mutant-infected animals gained weight steadily over the infection period, failed to show characteristic disease symptoms, and displayed minimal infection-induced histological alterations. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining of intestinal sections revealed increased epithelial cell apoptosis on day 1 after infection with the ΔespZ strain compared to animals infected with the parent or complemented strains. Thus, EspZ-dependent host cell cytoprotection likely prevents epithelial cell death and sloughing and thereby

  15. Transcriptional programming and functional interactions within the Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qunqing; Han, Changzhi; Ferreira, Adriana O; Yu, Xiaoli; Ye, Wenwu; Tripathy, Sucheta; Kale, Shiv D; Gu, Biao; Sheng, Yuting; Sui, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhengguang; Cheng, Baoping; Dong, Suomeng; Shan, Weixing; Zheng, Xiaobo; Dou, Daolong; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2011-06-01

    The genome of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae contains nearly 400 genes encoding candidate effector proteins carrying the host cell entry motif RXLR-dEER. Here, we report a broad survey of the transcription, variation, and functions of a large sample of the P. sojae candidate effectors. Forty-five (12%) effector genes showed high levels of polymorphism among P. sojae isolates and significant evidence for positive selection. Of 169 effectors tested, most could suppress programmed cell death triggered by BAX, effectors, and/or the PAMP INF1, while several triggered cell death themselves. Among the most strongly expressed effectors, one immediate-early class was highly expressed even prior to infection and was further induced 2- to 10-fold following infection. A second early class, including several that triggered cell death, was weakly expressed prior to infection but induced 20- to 120-fold during the first 12 h of infection. The most strongly expressed immediate-early effectors could suppress the cell death triggered by several early effectors, and most early effectors could suppress INF1-triggered cell death, suggesting the two classes of effectors may target different functional branches of the defense response. In support of this hypothesis, misexpression of key immediate-early and early effectors severely reduced the virulence of P. sojae transformants.

  16. Plant-Pathogen Effectors: Cellular Probes Interfering with Plant Defenses in Spatial and Temporal Manners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toruño, Tania Y.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Coaker, Gitta

    2017-01-01

    Plants possess large arsenals of immune receptors capable of recognizing all pathogen classes. To cause disease, pathogenic organisms must be able to overcome physical barriers, suppress or evade immune perception, and derive nutrients from host tissues. Consequently, to facilitate some of these processes, pathogens secrete effector proteins that promote colonization. This review covers recent advances in the field of effector biology, focusing on conserved cellular processes targeted by effectors from diverse pathogens. The ability of effectors to facilitate pathogen entry into the host interior, suppress plant immune perception, and alter host physiology for pathogen benefit is discussed. Pathogens also deploy effectors in a spatial and temporal manner, depending on infection stage. Recent advances have also enhanced our understanding of effectors acting in specific plant organs and tissues. Effectors are excellent cellular probes that facilitate insight into biological processes as well as key points of vulnerability in plant immune signaling networks. PMID:27359369

  17. Ralstonia solanacearum Type III Effector RipAY Is a Glutathione-Degrading Enzyme That Is Activated by Plant Cytosolic Thioredoxins and Suppresses Plant Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Mukaihara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum uses a large repertoire of type III effector proteins to succeed in infection. To clarify the function of effector proteins in host eukaryote cells, we expressed effectors in yeast cells and identified seven effector proteins that interfere with yeast growth. One of the effector proteins, RipAY, was found to share homology with the ChaC family proteins that function as γ-glutamyl cyclotransferases, which degrade glutathione (GSH, a tripeptide that plays important roles in the plant immune system. RipAY significantly inhibited yeast growth and simultaneously induced rapid GSH depletion when expressed in yeast cells. The in vitro GSH degradation activity of RipAY is specifically activated by eukaryotic factors in the yeast and plant extracts. Biochemical purification of the yeast protein identified that RipAY is activated by thioredoxin TRX2. On the other hand, RipAY was not activated by bacterial thioredoxins. Interestingly, RipAY was activated by plant h-type thioredoxins that exist in large amounts in the plant cytosol, but not by chloroplastic m-, f-, x-, y- and z-type thioredoxins, in a thiol-independent manner. The transient expression of RipAY decreased the GSH level in plant cells and affected the flg22-triggered production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and expression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI marker genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These results indicate that RipAY is activated by host cytosolic thioredoxins and degrades GSH specifically in plant cells to suppress plant immunity.

  18. Bacterial pathogenesis of plants: future challenges from a microbial perspective: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilmeier, Sebastian; Caly, Delphine L; Malone, Jacob G

    2016-10-01

    Plant infection is a complicated process. On encountering a plant, pathogenic microorganisms must first adapt to life on the epiphytic surface, and survive long enough to initiate an infection. Responsiveness to the environment is critical throughout infection, with intracellular and community-level signal transduction pathways integrating environmental signals and triggering appropriate responses in the bacterial population. Ultimately, phytopathogens must migrate from the epiphytic surface into the plant tissue using motility and chemotaxis pathways. This migration is coupled with overcoming the physical and chemical barriers to entry into the plant apoplast. Once inside the plant, bacteria use an array of secretion systems to release phytotoxins and protein effectors that fulfil diverse pathogenic functions (Fig. ) (Melotto and Kunkel, ; Phan Tran et al., ). As our understanding of the pathways and mechanisms underpinning plant pathogenicity increases, a number of central research challenges are emerging that will profoundly shape the direction of research in the future. We need to understand the bacterial phenotypes that promote epiphytic survival and surface adaptation in pathogenic bacteria. How do these pathways function in the context of the plant-associated microbiome, and what impact does this complex microbial community have on the onset and severity of plant infections? The huge importance of bacterial signal transduction to every stage of plant infection is becoming increasingly clear. However, there is a great deal to learn about how these signalling pathways function in phytopathogenic bacteria, and the contribution they make to various aspects of plant pathogenicity. We are increasingly able to explore the structural and functional diversity of small-molecule natural products from plant pathogens. We need to acquire a much better understanding of the production, deployment, functional redundancy and physiological roles of these molecules. Type III

  19. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Valois, F.-X.; Pontier, Stéphanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  20. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: think globally, act locally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F-X eCampbell-Valois

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA, which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed.

  1. Bench-to-bedside review: Bacterial virulence and subversion of host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Steven A R; Kahler, Charlene M

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens possess an array of specific mechanisms that confer virulence and the capacity to avoid host defence mechanisms. Mechanisms of virulence are often mediated by the subversion of normal aspects of host biology. In this way the pathogen modifies host function so as to promote the pathogen's survival or proliferation. Such subversion is often mediated by the specific interaction of bacterial effector molecules with host encoded proteins and other molecules. The importance of these mechanisms for bacterial pathogens that cause infections leading to severe community-acquired infections is well established. In contrast, the importance of specialised mechanisms of virulence in the genesis of nosocomial bacterial infections, which occur in the context of local or systemic defects in host immune defences, is less well established. Specific mechanisms of bacterial resistance to host immunity might represent targets for therapeutic intervention. The clinical utility of such an approach for either prevention or treatment of bacterial infection, however, has not been determined.

  2. Characterization of FcγRIIIA effector cells used in in vitro ADCC bioassay: Comparison of primary NK cells with engineered NK-92 and Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Te; Aggarwal, Poonam; Cirelli, David; Gu, Ling; Surowy, Teresa; Mozier, Ned M

    2017-02-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an important mechanism of action (MOA) of several therapeutic antibody drugs and evaluation in ADCC bioassays is important in antibody drug development and maintenance. Three types of effector cells now routinely used in bioassay evaluation of ADCC are natural killer cells from human donors (FcγRIIIA+primary NK), FcγRIIIA engineered NK-92 cells and FcγRIIIA/NFAT-RE/luc2 engineered Jurkat T cells. Engineered effector cells were developed to address need for improved precision and accuracy of classic NK cell ADCC bioassays. The main purpose of our study was to rationalize which of these ADCC effector cells best simulate the expected response in human subjects and to identify which effector cells and assays best fit ADCC bioassay needs during antibody drug development. We characterized differences between the effector cells and compared ADCC biological activities using the well-known humanized IgG1 antibody drug, trastuzumab. The three effector cell types studied expressed either V-158 or F-158 allotype of FcγRIIIA, hence six cell preparations were compared. Our results demonstrate highest surface expression of FcγRIIIA in primary NK and engineered NK-92 (V-158) cells with nearly all expressed on the cell surface. In contrast, expression in engineered Jurkat T cells was low with only a small percentage expressed on the cell surface. Studies evaluating binding of trastuzumab to effector cells demonstrated the highest affinity of FcγRIIIA in primary NK and NK-92 (V-158) cells. ADCC cytotoxicity studies showed greatest trastuzumab potency in primary NK and engineered NK-92 (V-158) cells and negligible cell lysis obtained using engineered Jurkat T cells. In contrast, the engineered Jurkat T (V-158) cells responded as effectively as primary NK (V/V) cells to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT2) activation upon binding of trastuzumab to FcγRIIIA, demonstrating similar ADCC pathway activation in these

  3. Identification and Characterisation CRN Effectors in Phytophthora capsici Shows Modularity and Functional Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Stam

    Full Text Available Phytophthora species secrete a large array of effectors during infection of their host plants. The Crinkler (CRN gene family encodes a ubiquitous but understudied class of effectors with possible but as of yet unknown roles in infection. To appreciate CRN effector function in Phytophthora, we devised a simple Crn gene identification and annotation pipeline to improve effector prediction rates. We predicted 84 full-length CRN coding genes and assessed CRN effector domain diversity in sequenced Oomycete genomes. These analyses revealed evidence of CRN domain innovation in Phytophthora and expansion in the Peronosporales. We performed gene expression analyses to validate and define two classes of CRN effectors, each possibly contributing to infection at different stages. CRN localisation studies revealed that P. capsici CRN effector domains target the nucleus and accumulate in specific sub-nuclear compartments. Phenotypic analyses showed that few CRN domains induce necrosis when expressed in planta and that one cell death inducing effector, enhances P. capsici virulence on Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggest that the CRN protein family form an important class of intracellular effectors that target the host nucleus during infection. These results combined with domain expansion in hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, suggests specific contributions to pathogen lifestyles. This work will bolster CRN identification efforts in other sequenced oomycete species and set the stage for future functional studies towards understanding CRN effector functions.

  4. Minimal SPI1-T3SS effector requirement for Salmonella enterocyte invasion and intracellular proliferation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaiyi; Riba, Ambre; Nietschke, Monika; Torow, Natalia; Repnik, Urska; Pütz, Andreas; Fulde, Marcus; Dupont, Aline; Hensel, Michael; Hornef, Mathias

    2018-03-01

    Effector molecules translocated by the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)1-encoded type 3 secretion system (T3SS) critically contribute to the pathogenesis of human Salmonella infection. They facilitate internalization by non-phagocytic enterocytes rendering the intestinal epithelium an entry site for infection. Their function in vivo has remained ill-defined due to the lack of a suitable animal model that allows visualization of intraepithelial Salmonella. Here, we took advantage of our novel neonatal mouse model and analyzed various bacterial mutants and reporter strains as well as gene deficient mice. Our results demonstrate the critical but redundant role of SopE2 and SipA for enterocyte invasion, prerequisite for transcriptional stimulation and mucosal translocation in vivo. In contrast, the generation of a replicative intraepithelial endosomal compartment required the cooperative action of SipA and SopE2 or SipA and SopB but was independent of SopA or host MyD88 signaling. Intraepithelial growth had no critical influence on systemic spread. Our results define the role of SPI1-T3SS effector molecules during enterocyte invasion and intraepithelial proliferation in vivo providing novel insight in the early course of Salmonella infection.

  5. The effector AWR5 from the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of the TOR signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Crina; Li, Liang; Gil, Sergio; Tatjer, Laura; Hashii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Coll, Núria S; Ariño, Joaquín; Valls, Marc

    2016-06-03

    Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation. Detailed genetic analysis of these phenotypes in yeast, including suppression of AWR5-induced toxicity by mutation of CDC55 and TPD3, encoding regulatory subunits of the PP2A phosphatase, indicated that AWR5 might exert its function by directly or indirectly inhibiting the TOR pathway upstream PP2A. We present evidence in planta that this T3E caused a decrease in TOR-regulated plant nitrate reductase activity and also that normal levels of TOR and the Cdc55 homologues in plants are required for R. solanacearum virulence. Our results suggest that the TOR pathway is a bona fide T3E target and further prove that yeast is a useful platform for T3E function characterisation.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein mediates LPS detoxification by chylomicrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, Anita C. E.; Rousseau, Corine H.; Hartung, Thomas; Greve, Jan Willem M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Buurman, Wim A.

    2003-01-01

    Chylomicrons have been shown to protect against endotoxin-induced lethality. LPS-binding protein (LBP) is involved in the inactivation of bacterial toxin by lipoproteins. The current study examined the interaction among LBP, chylomicrons, and bacterial toxin. LBP was demonstrated to associate with

  7. Structural and functional similarity between the bacterial type III secretion system needle protein PrgI and the eukaryotic apoptosis Bcl-2 proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Shortridge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional similarity is challenging to identify when global sequence and structure similarity is low. Active-sites or functionally relevant regions are evolutionarily more stable relative to the remainder of a protein structure and provide an alternative means to identify potential functional similarity between proteins. We recently developed the FAST-NMR methodology to discover biochemical functions or functional hypotheses of proteins of unknown function by experimentally identifying ligand binding sites. FAST-NMR utilizes our CPASS software and database to assign a function based on a similarity in the structure and sequence of ligand binding sites between proteins of known and unknown function.The PrgI protein from Salmonella typhimurium forms the needle complex in the type III secretion system (T3SS. A FAST-NMR screen identified a similarity between the ligand binding sites of PrgI and the Bcl-2 apoptosis protein Bcl-xL. These ligand binding sites correlate with known protein-protein binding interfaces required for oligomerization. Both proteins form membrane pores through this oligomerization to release effector proteins to stimulate cell death. Structural analysis indicates an overlap between the PrgI structure and the pore forming motif of Bcl-xL. A sequence alignment indicates conservation between the PrgI and Bcl-xL ligand binding sites and pore formation regions. This active-site similarity was then used to verify that chelerythrine, a known Bcl-xL inhibitor, also binds PrgI.A structural and functional relationship between the bacterial T3SS and eukaryotic apoptosis was identified using our FAST-NMR ligand affinity screen in combination with a bioinformatic analysis based on our CPASS program. A similarity between PrgI and Bcl-xL is not readily apparent using traditional global sequence and structure analysis, but was only identified because of conservation in ligand binding sites. These results demonstrate the unique opportunity

  8. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ type III effector family in Arabidopsis.

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    Jennifer D Lewis

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis.

  9. Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Dezi A; De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2014-07-01

    The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants.

  10. Exploitation of the host cell ubiquitin machinery by microbial effector proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Machner, Matthias P

    2017-06-15

    Pathogenic bacteria are in a constant battle for survival with their host. In order to gain a competitive edge, they employ a variety of sophisticated strategies that allow them to modify conserved host cell processes in ways that favor bacterial survival and growth. Ubiquitylation, the covalent attachment of the small modifier ubiquitin to target proteins, is such a pathway. Ubiquitylation profoundly alters the fate of a myriad of cellular proteins by inducing changes in their stability or function, subcellular localization or interaction with other proteins. Given the importance of ubiquitylation in cell development, protein homeostasis and innate immunity, it is not surprising that this post-translational modification is exploited by a variety of effector proteins from microbial pathogens. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the many ways microbes take advantage of host ubiquitylation, along with some surprising deviations from the canonical theme. The lessons learned from the in-depth analyses of these host-pathogen interactions provide a fresh perspective on an ancient post-translational modification that we thought was well understood.This article is part of a Minifocus on Ubiquitin Regulation and Function. For further reading, please see related articles: 'Mechanisms of regulation and diversification of deubiquitylating enzyme function' by Pawel Leznicki and Yogesh Kulathu ( J. Cell Sci. 130 , 1997-2006). 'Cell scientist to watch - Mads Gyrd-Hansen' ( J. Cell Sci. 130 , 1981-1983). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Msp40 effector of root-knot nematode manipulates plant immunity to facilitate parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Liu, Qian; Chen, Changlong; Guo, Quanxin; Yin, Junmei; Yang, Guangsui; Jian, Heng

    2016-01-22

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are obligate biotrophic parasites that invade plant roots and engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their hosts. Nematode secretions, some of which have immunosuppressing activity, play essential roles in successful parasitism; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the RKN-specific gene MiMsp40, cloned from Meloidogyne incognita, is expressed exclusively in subventral oesophageal gland cells and is strongly upregulated during early parasitic stages. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MiMsp40 were more susceptible to nematode infection than were wild type plants. Conversely, the host-derived MiMsp40 RNAi suppressed nematode parasitism and/or reproduction. Moreover, overexpression of MiMsp40 in plants suppressed the deposition of callose and the expression of marker genes for bacterial elicitor elf18-triggered immunity. Transient expression of MiMsp40 prevented Bax-triggered defence-related programmed cell death. Co-agroinfiltration assays indicated that MiMsp40 also suppressed macroscopic cell death triggered by MAPK cascades or by the ETI cognate elicitors R3a/Avr3a. Together, these results demonstrate that MiMsp40 is a novel Meloidogyne-specific effector that is injected into plant cells by early parasitic stages of the nematode and that plays a role in suppressing PTI and/or ETI signals to facilitate RKN parasitism.

  12. Hacker Within! Ehrlichia chaffeensis Effector Driven Phagocyte Reprogramming Strategy

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    Taslima Taher Lina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME, an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival.

  13. Exact positioning of the robotic arm end effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-07-01

    Orbital service becomes a new challenge of space exploration. The necessity to introduce it is connected first of all with an attractive opportunity to prolong the exploitation terms of expensive commercial satellites by, e.g., refilling of fuel or changing batteries. Other application area is a fight with permanently increasing amount of space litter - defunct satellites, burnt-out rocket stages, discarded trash and other debris. Now more than few tens of thousands orbiting objects larger than 5-10 cm (or about 1 million junks larger than 1 cm) are a huge problem for crucial and costly satellites and manned vehicles. For example, in 2014 the International Space Station had to change three times its orbit to avoid collision with space debris. So the development of the concepts and actions related to removal of space debris or non-operational satellites with use of robotic arm of a servicing satellite is very actual. Such a technology is also applicable for unmanned exploratory missions in solar system, for example for collecting a variety of samples from a celestial body surface. Naturally, the robotic arm movements should be controlled with great accuracy at influence of its non-rigidity, thermal and other factors. In these circumstances often the position of the arm end effector has to be controlled with high accuracy. The possibility of coordinate determination for the robotic arm end effector with use of a low frequency active electromagnetic system has been considered in the presented report. The proposed design of such a system consists of a small magnetic dipole source, which is mounted inside of the arm end effector and two or three 3-component magnetic field sensors mounted on a servicing satellite body. The data from this set of 3-component magnetic field sensors, which are fixed relatively to the satellite body, allows use of the mathematical approach for determination of position and orientation of the magnetic dipole source. The theoretical

  14. A Type III Effector NleF from EHEC Inhibits Epithelial Inflammatory Cell Death by Targeting Caspase-4

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    Ting Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC is a highly pathogenic bacterial strain capable of inducing severe gastrointestinal disease. Here, we show that EHEC uses the T3SS effector NleF to counteract the host inflammatory response by dampening caspase-4-mediated inflammatory epithelial cell death and by preventing the production of IL-1β. The other two inflammatory caspases, caspase-1 and caspase-5, are not involved in EHEC ΔnleF-induced inflammatory cell death. We found that NleF not only interrupted the heterodimerization of caspase-4-p19 and caspase-4-p10, but also inhibited the interaction of caspase-1 and caspase-4. The last four amino acids of the NleF carboxy terminus are essential in inhibiting caspase-4-dependent inflammatory cell death.

  15. A Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals a Group of MocR Bacterial Transcriptional Regulators Linked to a Family of Genes Coding for Membrane Proteins

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    Teresa Milano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The MocR bacterial transcriptional regulators are characterized by an N-terminal domain, 60 residues long on average, possessing the winged-helix-turn-helix (wHTH architecture responsible for DNA recognition and binding, linked to a large C-terminal domain (350 residues on average that is homologous to fold type-I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP dependent enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AAT. These regulators are involved in the expression of genes taking part in several metabolic pathways directly or indirectly connected to PLP chemistry, many of which are still uncharacterized. A bioinformatics analysis is here reported that studied the features of a distinct group of MocR regulators predicted to be functionally linked to a family of homologous genes coding for integral membrane proteins of unknown function. This group occurs mainly in the Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria phyla. An analysis of the multiple sequence alignments of their wHTH and AAT domains suggested the presence of specificity-determining positions (SDPs. Mapping of SDPs onto a homology model of the AAT domain hinted at possible structural/functional roles in effector recognition. Likewise, SDPs in wHTH domain suggested the basis of specificity of Transcription Factor Binding Site recognition. The results reported represent a framework for rational design of experiments and for bioinformatics analysis of other MocR subgroups.

  16. The Molecular Bases of the Dual Regulation of Bacterial Iron Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis by CyaY and IscX

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    Salvatore Adinolfi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IscX (or YfhJ is a protein of unknown function which takes part in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery, a highly specialized and essential metabolic pathway. IscX binds to iron with low affinity and interacts with IscS, the desulfurase central to cluster assembly. Previous studies have suggested a competition between IscX and CyaY, the bacterial ortholog of frataxin, for the same binding surface of IscS. This competition could suggest a link between the two proteins with a functional significance. Using a hybrid approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance, small angle scattering and biochemical methods, we show here that IscX is a modulator of the inhibitory properties of CyaY: by competing for the same site on IscS, the presence of IscX rescues the rates of enzymatic cluster formation which are inhibited by CyaY. The effect is stronger at low iron concentrations, whereas it becomes negligible at high iron concentrations. These results strongly suggest the mechanism of the dual regulation of iron sulfur cluster assembly under the control of iron as the effector.

  17. Principles and applications of TAL effectors for plant physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanove, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in DNA targeting allow unprecedented control over gene function and expression. Targeting based on TAL effectors is arguably the most promising for systems biology and metabolic engineering. Multiple, orthogonal TAL-effector reagents of different types can be used in the same cell. Furthermore, variation in base preferences of the individual structural repeats that make up the TAL effector DNA recognition domain makes targeting stringency tunable. Realized applications range from genome editing to epigenome modification to targeted gene regulation to chromatin labeling and capture. The principles that govern TAL effector DNA recognition make TAL effectors well suited for applications relevant to plant physiology and metabolism. TAL effector targeting has merits that are distinct from those of the RNA-based DNA targeting CRISPR/Cas9 system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Copper metabolism domain-containing 1 represses the mediators involved in the terminal effector pathways of human labour and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Martha

    2016-04-01

    Does Copper Metabolism MURR1 Domain 1 (COMMD1) play a role in regulating the mediators involved in the terminal processes of human labour and delivery? COMMD1 plays a critical role in the termination of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and the control of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators. Inflammation and infection are the biggest aetiological factors associated with preterm birth. NF-κB drives the transcription of pro-inflammatory mediators involved in the terminal effector pathways of human labour and delivery. In non-gestational tissues, COMMD1 is a negative regulator of NF-κB-induced inflammation. The mRNA and/or protein level of COMMD1 was assessed in myometrium (n = 8 per group) and fetal membranes (n = 8 per group) obtained from term non-labouring and labouring women at term, and fetal membranes (n = 8 per group) at preterm with and without histological chorioamnionitis. Primary human myometrial cells were used to determine the effect of pro-inflammatory mediators on COMMD1 level, and the effect of COMMD1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) on pro-labour mediators. Statistical significance was ascribed to a P labour in myometrium; in fetal membranes with histologically confirmed chorioamnionitis and in myometrial cells treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the bacterial product fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide and the viral double stranded RNA analogue polyinosinic polycytidilic acid. Loss-of-function studies revealed an increase in inflammation- and infection-induced TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and/or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA abundance and/or release; and cyclo-oxygenase-2 mRNA level, release of prostaglandin (PG) F2α and mRNA level of the PGF2α receptor FP. In addition, siRNA knockdown of COMMD1 was associated with significantly increased NF-κB activation as evidenced by increased IL-1β-induced IκB-α protein degradation and NF-κB DNA binding activity. The

  19. Innovative technology summary report: Confined sluicing end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    A Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE) was field tested during the summer of 1997 in Tank W-3, one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It should be noted that the specific device used at the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstration was the Sludge Retrieval End-Effector (SREE), although in common usage it is referred to as the CSEE. Deployed by the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) and the Houdini remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the CSEE was used to mobilize and retrieve waste from the tank. After removing the waste, the CSEE was used to scarify the gunite walls of Tank W-3, removing approximately 0.1 in of material. The CSEE uses three rotating water-jets to direct a short-range pressurized jet of water to effectively mobilize the waste. Simultaneously, the water and dislodged tank waste, or scarified materials, are aspirated using a water-jet pump-driven conveyance system. The material is then pumped outside of the tank, where it can be stored for treatment. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed

  20. Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fcγ receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients.

  1. Flight Control Using Distributed Shape-Change Effector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Montgomery, Raymond C.; Green, Lawrence I.; Park, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent discoveries in material science and fluidics have been used to create a variety of novel effector devices that offer great potential to enable new approaches to aerospace vehicle flight control. Examples include small inflatable blisters, shape-memory alloy diaphragms, and piezoelectric patches that may be used to produce distortions or bumps on the surface of an airfoil to generate control moments. Small jets have also been used to produce a virtual shape-change through fluidic means by creating a recirculation bubble on the surface of an airfoil. An advanced aerospace vehicle might use distributed arrays of hundreds of such devices to generate moments for stabilization and maneuver control, either augmenting or replacing conventional ailerons, flaps or rudders. This research demonstrates the design and use of shape-change device arrays for a tailless aircraft in a low-rate maneuvering application. A methodology for assessing the control authority of the device arrays is described, and a suite of arrays is used in a dynamic simulation to illustrate allocation and deployment methodologies. Although the authority of the preliminary shape-change array designs studied in this paper appeared quite low, the simulation results indicate that the effector suite possessed sufficient authority to stabilize and maneuver the vehicle in mild turbulence.

  2. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm sampler end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This sampler end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized

  3. Evaluation of secretion prediction highlights differing approaches needed for oomycete and fungal effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eSperschneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen’s advantage. Proteinaceous effectors are synthesised intracellularly and must be externalised to interact with host cells. Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 (D-score and SignalP 2 perform best. For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. Our assessment of subcellular localisation predictors shows that cytoplasmic effectors are often predicted as not extracellular. This limits the reliability of secretion predictions that depend on these tools. We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes.

  4. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm gripper end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This gripper end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized

  5. BipC, a Predicted Burkholderia pseudomallei Type 3 Secretion System Translocator Protein with Actin Binding Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Vander Broek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. Like other clinically important Gram-negative bacteria, fundamental to B. pseudomallei pathogenesis is the Bsa Type III Secretion System. The Bsa system injects bacterial effector proteins into the cytoplasm of target host cells subverting cellular pathways for the benefit of the bacteria. It is required for invasion of non-phagocytic host cells, escape from the endocytic compartment into the host cell cytoplasm, and for virulence in murine models of melioidosis. We have recently described the repertoire of effector proteins secreted by the B. pseudomallei Bsa system, however the functions of many of these effector proteins remain an enigma. One such protein is BipC, a homolog of the translocator/effector proteins SipC and IpaC from Salmonella spp. and Shigella flexneri respectively. SipC and IpaC each have separate and distinct roles acting both as translocators, involved in creating a pore in the eukaryotic cell membrane through which effector proteins can transit, and as effectors by interacting with and polymerizing host cell actin. In this study, pull-down assays demonstrate an interaction between BipC and actin. Furthermore, we show that BipC directly interacts with actin, preferentially with actin polymers (F-actin and has the ability to polymerize actin in a similar manner as that described for SipC. Yet unlike SipC, BipC does not stabilize F-actin filaments, indicating a functionally distinct interaction with actin. Expression of Myc-tagged BipC in HeLa cells induces the formation of pseudopodia similar to that seen for IpaC. This study explores the effector function of BipC and reveals that actin interaction is conserved within the BipC/SipC/IpaC family of translocator/effector proteins.

  6. Distinct phosphorylation requirements regulate cortactin activation by TirEPEC and its binding to N-WASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Quiles Narcisa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortactin activates the actin-related 2/3 (Arp2/3 complex promoting actin polymerization to remodel cell architecture in multiple processes (e.g. cell migration, membrane trafficking, invadopodia formation etc.. Moreover, it was called the Achilles' heel of the actin cytoskeleton because many pathogens hijack signals that converge on this oncogenic scaffolding protein. Cortactin is able to modulate N-WASP activation in vitro in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Thus Erk-phosphorylated cortactin is efficient in activating N-WASP through its SH3 domain, while Src-phosphorylated cortactin is not. This could represent a switch on/off mechanism controlling the coordinated action of both nucleator promoting factors (NPFs. Pedestal formation by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC requires N-WASP activation. N-WASP is recruited by the cell adapter Nck which binds a major tyrosine-phosphorylated site of a bacterial injected effector, Tir (translocated intimin receptor. Tir-Nck-N-WASP axis defines the current major pathway to actin polymerization on pedestals. In addition, it was recently reported that EPEC induces tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin. Results Here we demonstrate that cortactin phosphorylation is absent on N-WASP deficient cells, but is recovered by re-expression of N-WASP. We used purified recombinant cortactin and Tir proteins to demonstrate a direct interaction of both that promoted Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization in vitro, independently of cortactin phosphorylation. Conclusion We propose that cortactin binds Tir through its N-terminal part in a tyrosine and serine phosphorylation independent manner while SH3 domain binding and activation of N-WASP is regulated by tyrosine and serine mediated phosphorylation of cortactin. Therefore cortactin could act on Tir-Nck-N-WASP pathway and control a possible cycling activity of N-WASP underlying pedestal formation.

  7. Proteomics analysis of cellular imatinib targets and their candidate downstream effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Susanne B; Oppermann, Felix S; Keri, Gyorgy; Grammel, Markus; Daub, Henrik

    2010-11-05

    Inhibition of deregulated protein kinases by small molecule drugs has evolved into a major therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human malignancies. Knowledge about direct cellular targets of kinase-selective drugs and the identification of druggable downstream mediators of oncogenic signaling are relevant for both initial therapy selection and the nomination of alternative targets in case molecular resistance emerges. To address these issues, we performed a proof-of-concept proteomics study designed to monitor drug effects on the pharmacologically tractable subproteome isolated by affinity purification with immobilized, nonselective kinase inhibitors. We applied this strategy to chronic myeloid leukemia cells that express the transforming Bcr-Abl fusion kinase. We used SILAC to measure how cellular treatment with the Bcr-Abl inhibitor imatinib affects protein binding to a generic kinase inhibitor resin and further quantified site-specific phosphorylations on resin-retained proteins. Our integrated approach indicated additional imatinib target candidates, such as flavine adenine dinucleotide synthetase, as well as repressed phosphorylation events on downstream effectors not yet implicated in imatinib-regulated signaling. These included activity-regulating phosphorylations on the kinases Btk, Fer, and focal adhesion kinase, which may qualify them as alternative target candidates in Bcr-Abl-driven oncogenesis. Our approach is rather generic and may have various applications in kinase drug discovery.

  8. GogB Is an Anti-Inflammatory Effector that Limits Tissue Damage during Salmonella Infection through Interaction with Human FBXO22 and Skp1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Ana Victoria C.; Reid-Yu, Sarah A.; Cooper, Colin A.; Mulder, David T.; Coombes, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens often manipulate host immune pathways to establish acute and chronic infection. Many Gram-negative bacteria do this by secreting effector proteins through a type III secretion system that alter the host response to the pathogen. In this study, we determined that the phage-encoded GogB effector protein in Salmonella targets the host SCF E3 type ubiquitin ligase through an interaction with Skp1 and the human F-box only 22 (FBXO22) protein. Domain mapping and functional knockdown studies indicated that GogB-containing bacteria inhibited IκB degradation and NFκB activation in macrophages, which required Skp1 and a eukaryotic-like F-box motif in the C-terminal domain of GogB. GogB-deficient Salmonella were unable to limit NFκB activation, which lead to increased proinflammatory responses in infected mice accompanied by extensive tissue damage and enhanced colonization in the gut during long-term chronic infections. We conclude that GogB is an anti-inflammatory effector that helps regulate inflammation-enhanced colonization by limiting tissue damage during infection. PMID:22761574

  9. Recurrent De Novo Mutations Disturbing the GTP/GDP Binding Pocket of RAB11B Cause Intellectual Disability and a Distinctive Brain Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, I.J.C.; Reijnders, M.R.F.; Venselaar, H.; Kraus, A.; Jansen, S; Vries, B.B.A. de; Houge, G.; Gradek, G.A.; Seo, J.; Choi, M.; Chae, J.H.; Burgt, I. van der; Pfundt, R.P.; Letteboer, S.J.F.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Dusseljee, S.; Brunner, H.G.; Doherty, D.; Kleefstra, T.; Roepman, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Rab GTPase family comprises approximately 70 GTP-binding proteins, functioning in vesicle formation, transport and fusion. They are activated by a conformational change induced by GTP-binding, allowing interactions with downstream effectors. Here, we report five individuals with two recurrent de

  10. Virus-specific regulatory T cells ameliorate encephalitis by repressing effector T cell functions from priming to effector stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the presence of pathogen-specific Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (Treg in infected animals, but little is known about where and how these cells affect the effector T cell responses and whether they are more suppressive than bulk Treg populations. We recently showed the presence of both epitope M133-specific Tregs (M133 Treg and conventional CD4 T cells (M133 Tconv in the brains of mice with coronavirus-induced encephalitis. Here, we provide new insights into the interactions between pathogenic Tconv and Tregs responding to the same epitope. M133 Tregs inhibited the proliferation but not initial activation of M133 Tconv in draining lymph nodes (DLN. Further, M133 Tregs inhibited migration of M133 Tconv from the DLN. In addition, M133 Tregs diminished microglia activation and decreased the number and function of Tconv in the infected brain. Thus, virus-specific Tregs inhibited pathogenic CD4 T cell responses during priming and effector stages, particularly those recognizing cognate antigen, and decreased mortality and morbidity without affecting virus clearance. These cells are more suppressive than bulk Tregs and provide a targeted approach to ameliorating immunopathological disease in infectious settings.

  11. Interactions of the α-subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins with GPCRs, effectors and RGS proteins: a critical review and analysis of interacting surfaces, conformational shifts, structural diversity and electrostatic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltoumas, Fotis A; Theodoropoulou, Margarita C; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2013-06-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest families of membrane receptors in eukaryotes. Heterotrimeric G-proteins, composed of α, β and γ subunits, are important molecular switches in the mediation of GPCR signaling. Receptor stimulation after the binding of a suitable ligand leads to G-protein heterotrimer activation and dissociation into the Gα subunit and Gβγ heterodimer. These subunits then interact with a large number of effectors, leading to several cell responses. We studied the interactions between Gα subunits and their binding partners, using information from structural, mutagenesis and Bioinformatics studies, and conducted a series of comparisons of sequence, structure, electrostatic properties and intermolecular energies among different Gα families and subfamilies. We identified a number of Gα surfaces that may, in several occasions, participate in interactions with receptors as well as effectors. The study of Gα interacting surfaces in terms of sequence, structure and electrostatic potential reveals features that may account for the Gα subunit's behavior towards its interacting partners. The electrostatic properties of the Gα subunits, which in some cases differ greatly not only between families but also between subfamilies, as well as the G-protein interacting surfaces of effectors and regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) suggest that electrostatic complementarity may be an important factor in G-protein interactions. Energy calculations also support this notion. This information may be useful in future studies of G-protein interactions with GPCRs and effectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mutants that fail to bind to plant cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, J L; Colby, S; Matthysse, A G

    1990-01-01

    Transposon insertion mutants of Agrobacterium rhizogenes were screened to obtain mutant bacteria that failed to bind to carrot suspension culture cells. A light microscope binding assay was used. The bacterial isolates that were reduced in binding to carrot cells were all avirulent on Bryophyllum diagremontiana leaves and on carrot root disks. The mutants did not appear to be altered in cellulose production. The composition of the medium affected the ability of the parent and mutant bacteria ...

  13. Binding, tuning and mechanical function of the 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid chromophore in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Michael A; Arents, Jos C; Kort, Remco; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    The bacterial photoreceptor protein photoactive yellow protein (PYP) covalently binds the chromophore 4-hydroxy coumaric acid, tuning (spectral) characteristics of this cofactor. Here, we study this binding and tuning using a combination of pointmutations and chromophore analogs. In all photosensor

  14. Binding, tuning and mechanical function of the 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid chromophore in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.A. van der; Arents, J.C.; Kort, R.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial photoreceptor protein photoactive yellow protein (PYP) covalently binds the chromophore 4-hydroxy coumaric acid, tuning (spectral) characteristics of this cofactor. Here, we study this binding and tuning using a combination of pointmutations and chromophore analogs. In all photosensor

  15. Prediction and identification of the effectors of heterotrimeric G proteins in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuan; Xu, Chaoqun; Huang, Jian; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lina; Wan, Weifeng; Tao, Huan; Li, Ling; Lin, Shoukai; Harrison, Andrew; He, Huaqin

    2017-03-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein signaling cascades are one of the primary metazoan sensing mechanisms linking a cell to environment. However, the number of experimentally identified effectors of G protein in plant is limited. We have therefore studied which tools are best suited for predicting G protein effectors in rice. Here, we compared the predicting performance of four classifiers with eight different encoding schemes on the effectors of G proteins by using 10-fold cross-validation. Four methods were evaluated: random forest, naive Bayes, K-nearest neighbors and support vector machine. We applied these methods to experimentally identified effectors of G proteins and randomly selected non-effector proteins, and tested their sensitivity and specificity. The result showed that random forest classifier with composition of K-spaced amino acid pairs and composition of motif or domain (CKSAAP_PROSITE_200) combination method yielded the best performance, with accuracy and the Mathew's correlation coefficient reaching 74.62% and 0.49, respectively. We have developed G-Effector, an online predictor, which outperforms BLAST, PSI-BLAST and HMMER on predicting the effectors of G proteins. This provided valuable guidance for the researchers to select classifiers combined with different feature selection encoding schemes. We used G-Effector to screen the effectors of G protein in rice, and confirmed the candidate effectors by gene co-expression data. Interestingly, one of the top 15 candidates, which did not appear in the training data set, was validated in a previous research work. Therefore, the candidate effectors list in this article provides both a clue for researchers as to their function and a framework of validation for future experimental work. It is accessible at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/geffector. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cell volume homeostatic mechanisms: effectors and signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2011-01-01

    Cell volume homeostasis and its fine-tuning to the specific physiological context at any given moment are processes fundamental to normal cell function. The understanding of cell volume regulation owes much to August Krogh, yet has advanced greatly over the last decades. In this review, we outline...... the historical context of studies of cell volume regulation, focusing on the lineage started by Krogh, Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen, Hans-Henrik Ussing, and their students. The early work was focused on understanding the functional behaviour, kinetics and thermodynamics of the volume-regulatory ion transport mechanisms....... Later work addressed the mechanisms through which cellular signalling pathways regulate the volume regulatory effectors or flux pathways. These studies were facilitated by the molecular identification of most of the relevant channels and transporters, and more recently also by the increased...

  17. Krebs cycle rewired for macrophage and dendritic cell effector functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Dylan Gerard; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2017-10-01

    The Krebs cycle is an amphibolic pathway operating in the mitochondrial matrix of all eukaryotic organisms. In response to proinflammatory stimuli, macrophages and dendritic cells undergo profound metabolic remodelling to support the biosynthetic and bioenergetic requirements of the cell. Recently, it has been discovered that this metabolic shift also involves the rewiring of the Krebs cycle to regulate cellular metabolic flux and the accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates, notably, citrate, succinate and fumarate. Interestingly, a new role for Krebs cycle intermediates as signalling molecules and immunomodulators that dictate the inflammatory response has begun to emerge. This review will discuss the latest developments in Krebs cycle rewiring and immune cell effector functions, with a particular focus on the regulation of cytokine production. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  19. Hanford Waste End Effector Phase I Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatchell, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mount, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neill, Kevin J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-22

    This test plan describes the Phase 1 testing program of the Hanford Waste End Effector (HWEE) at the Washington River Protection Solutions’ Cold Test Facility (CTF) using a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)-designed testing setup. This effort fulfills the informational needs for initial assessment of the HWEE to support Hanford single-shell tank A-105 retrieval. This task will install the HWEE on a PNNL-designed robotic gantry system at CTF, install and calibrate instrumentation to measure reaction forces and process parameters, prepare and characterize simulant materials, and implement the test program. The tests will involve retrieval of water, sludge, and hardpan simulants to determine pumping rate, dilution factors, and screen fouling rate.

  20. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Department's needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications

  1. Protection after stroke: cellular effectors of neurovascular unit integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Andres Posada-Duque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders are prevalent worldwide. Cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs, which account for 55% of all neurological diseases, are the leading cause of permanent disability, cognitive and motor disorders and dementia. Stroke affects the function and structure of blood-brain barrier, the loss of cerebral blood flow regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and the loss of neural connections. Currently, no gold standard treatments are available outside the acute therapeutic window to improve outcome in stroke patients. Some promising candidate targets have been identified for the improvement of long-term recovery after stroke, such as Rho GTPases, cell adhesion proteins, kinases, and phosphatases. Previous studies by our lab indicated that Rho GTPases (Rac and RhoA are involved in both tissue damage and survival, as these proteins are essential for the morphology and movement of neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells, thus playing a critical role in the balance between cell survival and death. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of RhoA/ROCK blocks the activation of the neurodegeneration cascade. In addition, Rac and synaptic adhesion proteins (p120 catenin and N-catenin play critical roles in protection against cerebral infarction and in recovery by supporting the neurovascular unit and cytoskeletal remodeling activity to maintain the integrity of the brain parenchyma. Interestingly, neuroprotective agents, such as atorvastatin, and CDK5 silencing after cerebral ischemia and in a glutamate-induced excitotoxicity model may act on the same cellular effectors to recover neurovascular unit integrity. Therefore, future efforts must focus on individually targeting the structural and functional roles of each effector of neurovascular unit and the interactions in neural and non-neural cells in the post-ischemic brain and address how to promote the recovery or prevent the loss of homeostasis in the short, medium and long term.

  2. Pointing Hand Stimuli Induce Spatial Compatibility Effects and Effector Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio eNishimura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the automatic influence of perceiving a picture that indicates other’s action on one’s own task performance in terms of spatial compatibility and effector priming. Participants pressed left and right buttons with their left and right hands respectively, depending on the color of a central dot target. Preceding the target, a left or right hand stimulus (pointing either to the left or right with the index or little finger was presented. In Experiment 1, with brief presentation of the pointing hand, a spatial compatibility effect was observed: Responses were faster when the direction of the pointed finger and the response position were spatially congruent than when incongruent. The spatial compatibility effect was larger for the pointing index finger stimulus compared to the pointing little finger stimulus. Experiment 2 employed longer duration of the pointing hand stimuli. In addition to the spatial compatibility effect for the pointing index finger, the effector priming effect was observed: Responses were faster when the anatomical left/right identity of the pointing and response hands matched than when the pointing and response hands differed in left/right identity. The results indicate that with sufficient processing time, both spatial/symbolic and anatomical features of a static body part implying another’s action simultaneously influence different aspects of the perceiver’s own action. Hierarchical coding, according to which an anatomical code is used only when a spatial code is unavailable, may not be applicable if stimuli as well as responses contain anatomical features.

  3. Genotyping of polymorphic effectors of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan apicomplexan and obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of animals and humans. Rhoptry proteins 5 (ROP5, ROP16, ROP18 and dense granules 15 (GRA15 are the important effectors secreted by T. gondii which link to the strain virulence for mice and modulate the host’s response to the parasite. Little has been known about these molecules as well as GRA3 in type Chinese 1 strains that show polymorphism among strains of archetypical genotypes. This study examined the genetic diversity of these effectors and its correlated virulence in mice among T. gondii isolates from China. Results Twenty-one isolates from stray cats were detected, of which 15 belong to Chinese 1, and 6 to ToxoDB #205. Wh6 isolate, a Chinese 1 strain, has an avirulent phenotype. PCR-RFLP results of ROP5 and ROP18 presented few variations among the strains. Genotyping of GRA15 and ROP16 revealed that all the strains belong to type II allele except Xz7 which carries type I allele. ROP16 amino acid alignment at 503 locus demonstrated that 17 isolates are featured as type I or type III (ROP16I/III, and the other 4 as type II (ROP16II. The strains investigated may be divided into four groups based on GRA3 amino acid alignment, and all isolates of type Chinese 1 belong to the μ-1 allele except Wh6 which is identical to type II strain. Conclusions PCR-RFLP and sequence alignment analyses of ROP5, ROP16, ROP18, GRA3, and GRA15 in T. gondii revealed that strains with the same genotype may have variations in some of their key genes. GRA3 variation exhibited by Wh6 strain may be associated with the difference in phenotype and pathogenesis.

  4. Identification of novel DNA binding proteins using DNA affinity chromatography-pulldown

    OpenAIRE

    Jutras, Brandon L; Verma, Ashutosh; Stevenson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Methods are presented through which one may isolate and identify novel bacterial DNA-binding proteins. Briefly, the DNA sequence of interest is affixed to beads, then incubated with bacterial cytoplasmic extract. Washes with buffers containing non-specific DNA and low salt concentrations will remove non-adhering and low-specificity DNA-binding proteins, while subsequent washes with higher salt concentrations will elute more specific DNA-binding proteins. Eluted proteins may then be identified...

  5. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  6. Bacterial Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors SopE-Like and WxxxE Effectors▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgin, Richard; Raymond, Benoit; Garnett, James A.; Frankel, Gad; Crepin, Valerie F.; Berger, Cedric N.; Arbeloa, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Subversion of Rho family small GTPases, which control actin dynamics, is a common infection strategy used by bacterial pathogens. In particular, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) translocate type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins to modulate the Rho GTPases RhoA, Cdc42, and Rac1, which trigger formation of stress fibers, filopodia, and lamellipodia/ruffles, respectively. The Salmonella effector SopE is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rac1 and Cdc42, which induce “the trigger mechanism of cell entry.” Based on a conserved Trp-xxx-Glu motif, the T3SS effector proteins IpgB1 and IpgB2 of Shigella, SifA and SifB of Salmonella, and Map of EPEC and EHEC were grouped together into a WxxxE family; recent studies identified the T3SS EPEC and EHEC effectors EspM and EspT as new family members. Recent structural and functional studies have shown that representatives of the WxxxE effectors share with SopE a 3-D fold and GEF activity. In this minireview, we summarize contemporary findings related to the SopE and WxxxE GEFs in the context of their role in subverting general host cell signaling pathways and infection. PMID:20123714

  7. Interaction of barley powdery mildew effector candidate CSEP0055 with the defence protein PR17c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pedersen, Carsten; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J

    2012-01-01

    A large number of effector candidates have been identified recently in powdery mildew fungi. However, their roles and how they perform their functions remain unresolved. In this study, we made use of host-induced gene silencing and confirmed that the secreted barley powdery mildew effector candid...

  8. Homologous RXLR effectors from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Phytophthora sojae suppress immunity in distantly related plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse pathogens secrete effector proteins into plant cells to manipulate host cellular processes. Oomycete pathogens contain very large complements of predicted effector genes defined by an RXLR host cell entry motif. The genome of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa, downy mildew of Arabidopsis) ...

  9. The Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Induces Conversion of Effector T Cells into Treg Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH has an important role in modulating immunity and homeostasis. The production of IFN-γ by effector T cells is suppressed by α-MSH, while TGF-β production is promoted in the same cells. Such α-MSH-treated T cells have immune regulatory activity and suppress hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejection. Previous characterizations of the α-MSH-induced Treg cells showed that the cells are CD4+ T cells expressing the same levels of CD25 as effector T cells. Therefore, we further analyzed the α-MSH-induced Treg cells for expression of effector and regulatory T-cell markers. Also, we examined the potential for α-MSH-induced Treg cells to be from the effector T-cell population. We found that the α-MSH-induced Treg cells are CD25+  CD4+ T cells that share similar surface markers as effector T cells, except that they express on their surface LAP. Also, the α-MSH treatment augments FoxP3 message in the effector T cells, and α-MSH induction of regulatory activity was limited to the effector CD25+ T-cell population. Therefore, α-MSH converts effector T cells into Treg cells, which suppress immunity targeting specific antigens and tissues.

  10. Type VI secretion system MIX-effectors carry both antibacterial and anti-eukaryotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Schwartz, Nika; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Zhang, Junmei; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2017-11-01

    Most type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) described to date are protein delivery apparatuses that mediate bactericidal activities. Several T6SSs were also reported to mediate virulence activities, although only few anti-eukaryotic effectors have been described. Here, we identify three T6SSs in the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus and show that T6SS1 mediates bactericidal activities under warm marine-like conditions. Using comparative proteomics, we find nine potential T6SS1 effectors, five of which belong to the polymorphic MIX-effector class. Remarkably, in addition to six predicted bactericidal effectors, the T6SS1 secretome includes three putative anti-eukaryotic effectors. One of these is a MIX-effector containing a cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 domain. We demonstrate that T6SS1 can use this MIX-effector to target phagocytic cells, resulting in morphological changes and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. In conclusion, the V. proteolyticus T6SS1, a system homologous to one found in pathogenic vibrios, uses a suite of polymorphic effectors that target both bacteria and eukaryotic neighbors. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Effector identification in the lettuce downy mildew Bremia lactucae by massively parallel transcriptome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, J.H.; Seidl, M.F.; Vergeer, P.W.; Nijman, I.J.; Snel, B.; Cuppen, E.; van den Ackerveken, G.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is a rapidly adapting oomycete pathogen affecting commercial lettuce cultivation. Oomycetes are known to use a diverse arsenal of secreted proteins (effectors) to manipulate their hosts. Two classes of effector are known to be translocated by the host: the

  12. Characterization of naïve, memory and effector T cells in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Romme; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    We characterized naïve, central memory (CM), effector memory (EM) and terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and their expression of CD49d and CD26 in peripheral blood in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls. CD26+ CD28+ CD4+ TEMRA T cells were...

  13. How filamentous pathogens co-opt plants: the ins and outs of fungal effectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on effectors secreted by pathogens during host attack has dominated the field of molecular plant–microbe interactions over recent years. Functional analysis of type III secreted effectors injected by pathogenic bacteria into host cells has significantly advanced the field and demonstrated

  14. Identification of proteins similar to AvrE type III effector proteins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type III effector proteins are injected into host cells through type III secretion systems. Some effectors are similar to host proteins to promote pathogenicity, while others lead to the activation of disease resistance. We used partial least squares alignment-free bioinformatics methods to identify proteins similar to AvrE proteins ...

  15. NleG Type 3 effectors from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli are U-Box E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available NleG homologues constitute the largest family of Type 3 effectors delivered by pathogenic E. coli, with fourteen members in the enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC O157:H7 strain alone. Identified recently as part of the non-LEE-encoded (Nle effector set, this family remained uncharacterised and shared no sequence homology to other proteins including those of known function. The C-terminal domain of NleG2-3 (residues 90 to 191 is the most conserved region in NleG proteins and was solved by NMR. Structural analysis of this structure revealed the presence of a RING finger/U-box motif. Functional assays demonstrated that NleG2-3 as well as NleG5-1, NleG6-2 and NleG9' family members exhibited a strong autoubiquitination activity in vitro; a characteristic usually expressed by eukaryotic ubiquitin E3 ligases. When screened for activity against a panel of 30 human E2 enzymes, the NleG2-3 and NleG5-1 homologues showed an identical profile with only UBE2E2, UBE2E3 and UBE2D2 enzymes supporting NleG activity. Fluorescence polarization analysis yielded a binding affinity constant of 56+/-2 microM for the UBE2D2/NleG5-1 interaction, a value comparable with previous studies on E2/E3 affinities. The UBE2D2 interaction interface on NleG2-3 defined by NMR chemical shift perturbation and mutagenesis was shown to be generally similar to that characterised for human RING finger ubiquitin ligases. The alanine substitutions of UBE2D2 residues Arg5 and Lys63, critical for activation of eukaryotic E3 ligases, also significantly decreased both NleG binding and autoubiquitination activity. These results demonstrate that bacteria-encoded NleG effectors are E3 ubiquitin ligases analogous to RING finger and U-box enzymes in eukaryotes.

  16. XopN-T3SS effector of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae localizes to the plasma membrane and modulates ROS accumulation events during blight pathogenesis in pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rishikesh; Soni, Madhvi; Mondal, Kalyan K

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Xap) is a major disease of pomegranate. Xap secretes effector proteins via type III secretion system (T3SS) to suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered plant immunity (PTI). Previously we reported that XopN, a conserved effector of Xap, modulate in planta bacterial growth, and blight disease. In continuation to that here we report the deletion of XopN from Xap caused higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H 2 O 2 and O 2 - . We quantitatively assessed the higher accumulation of H 2 O 2 in pomegranate leaves infiltrated with Xap ΔxopN compared to Xap wild-type. We analysed that 1.5 to 3.3 fold increase in transcript expression of ROS and flg22-inducible genes, namely FRK1, GST1, WRKY29, PR1, PR2 and PR5 in Arabidopsis when challenged with Xap ΔxopN; contrary, the up-regulation of all the genes were compromised when challenged with either Xap wild-type or Xap ΔxopN+xopN. Further, we demonstrated the plasma-membrane based localization of XopN protein both in its natural and experimental hosts. All together, the present study suggested that XopN-T3SS effector of Xap gets localized in the plasma membrane and suppresses ROS-mediated early defense responses during blight pathogenesis in pomegranate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The WxxxE effector EspT triggers expression of immune mediators in an Erk/JNK and NF-κB-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Benoit; Crepin, Valerie F; Collins, James W; Frankel, Gad

    2011-12-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Citrobacter rodentium colonize their respective hosts while forming attaching and effacing lesions. Their infection strategy relies on translocation of a battery of type III secretion system effectors, including Map, EspM and EspT, which belong to the WxxxE/SopE family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Using the C. rodentium mouse model we found that EspT triggers expression of KC and TNFα in vivo. Indeed, a growing body of evidence suggests that, in addition to subversion of actin dynamics, the SopE and the WxxxE effectors activate signalling pathways involved in immune responses. In this study we found that EspT induces expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) an enzyme involved in production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE2), interleukin (Il)-8 and Il-1β in U937 human macrophages by activating the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. Since EspT modulates the activation of Cdc42 and Rac1, which mediates bacterial invasion into epithelial cells, we investigated the involvement of these Rho GTPases and bacterial invasion on pro-inflammatory responses and found that (i) Rac1, but not Cdc42, is involved in EspT-induced Il-8 and Il-1β secretion and (ii) cytochalasin D inhibits EspT-induced EPEC invasion into U937 but not Il-8 or Il-1β secretion. These results suggest that while EPEC translocates a number of effectors (i.e. NleC, NleD, NleE, NleH) that inhibit inflammation, a subset of strains, which encode EspT, employ an infection strategy that also involves upregulation of immune mediators. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Effector Protein Cig2 Decreases Host Tolerance of Infection by Directing Constitutive Fusion of Autophagosomes with the Coxiella-Containing Vacuole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J. Kohler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii replicates in an acidified lysosome-derived vacuole. Biogenesis of the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV requires bacterial effector proteins delivered into host cells by the Dot/Icm secretion system. Genetic and cell biological analysis revealed that an effector protein called Cig2 promotes constitutive fusion of autophagosomes with the CCV to maintain this compartment in an autolysosomal stage of maturation. This distinguishes the CCV from other pathogen-containing vacuoles that are targeted by the host autophagy pathway, which typically confers host resistance to infection by delivering the pathogen to a toxic lysosomal environment. By maintaining the CCV in an autolysosomal stage of maturation, Cig2 enabled CCV homotypic fusion and enhanced bacterial virulence in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth model of infection by a mechanism that decreases host tolerance. Thus, C. burnetii residence in an autolysosomal organelle alters host tolerance of infection, which indicates that Cig2-dependent manipulation of a lysosome-derived vacuole influences the host response to infection.

  19. Diverse targets of phytoplasma effectors: from plant development to defense against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Akiko; MacLean, Allyson M; Kingdom, Heather N; Grieve, Victoria M; Manimekalai, R; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasma research begins to bloom (75). Indeed, this review shows that substantial progress has been made with the identification of phytoplasma effectors that alter flower development, induce witches' broom, affect leaf shape, and modify plant-insect interactions. Phytoplasmas have a unique life cycle among pathogens, as they invade organisms of two distinct kingdoms, namely plants (Plantae) and insects (Animalia), and replicate intracellularly in both. Phytoplasmas release effectors into host cells of plants and insects to target host molecules, and in plants these effectors unload from the phloem to access distal tissues and alter basic developmental processes. The effectors provide phytoplasmas with a fitness advantage by modulating their plant and insect hosts. We expect that further research on the functional characterization of phytoplasma effectors will generate new knowledge that is relevant to fundamental aspects of plant sciences and entomology, and for agriculture by improving yields of crops affected by phytoplasma diseases. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Hansmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2, a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials.

  1. Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Britta; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Gerstel, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2), a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials.

  2. T3SS-Independent Uptake of the Short-Trip Toxin-Related Recombinant NleC Effector of EnteropathogenicEscherichia coliLeads to NF-κB p65 Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Anne-Sophie; Norkowski, Stefanie; Körner, Britta; Schmitz, Jürgen; Lüken, Lena; Frankenberg, Maj; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Effector proteins secreted by the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of pathogenic bacteria have been shown to precisely modulate important signaling cascades of the host for the benefit of the pathogens. Among others, the non-LEE encoded T3SS effector protein NleC of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a Zn-dependent metalloprotease and suppresses innate immune responses by directly targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Many pathogenic bacteria release potent bacterial toxins of the A-B type, which-in contrast to the direct cytoplasmic injection of T3SS effector proteins-are released first into the environment. In this study, we found that NleC displays characteristics of bacterial A-B toxins, when applied to eukaryotic cells as a recombinant protein. Although lacking a B subunit, that typically mediates the uptake of toxins, recombinant NleC (rNleC) induces endocytosis via lipid rafts and follows the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The conformation of rNleC is altered by low pH to facilitate its escape from acidified endosomes. This is reminiscent of the homologous A-B toxin AIP56 of the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae piscicida ( Phdp ). The recombinant protease NleC is functional inside eukaryotic cells and cleaves p65 of the NF-κB pathway. Here, we describe the endocytic uptake mechanism of rNleC, characterize its intracellular trafficking and demonstrate that its specific activity of cleaving p65 requires activation of host cells e.g., by IL1β. Further, we propose an evolutionary link between some T3SS effector proteins and bacterial toxins from apparently unrelated bacteria. In summary, these properties might suggest rNleC as an interesting candidate for future applications as a potential therapeutic against immune disorders.

  3. T3SS-Independent Uptake of the Short-Trip Toxin-Related Recombinant NleC Effector of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Leads to NF-κB p65 Cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Anne-Sophie; Norkowski, Stefanie; Körner, Britta; Schmitz, Jürgen; Lüken, Lena; Frankenberg, Maj; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M. Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Effector proteins secreted by the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of pathogenic bacteria have been shown to precisely modulate important signaling cascades of the host for the benefit of the pathogens. Among others, the non-LEE encoded T3SS effector protein NleC of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a Zn-dependent metalloprotease and suppresses innate immune responses by directly targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Many pathogenic bacteria release potent bacterial toxins of the A-B type, which—in contrast to the direct cytoplasmic injection of T3SS effector proteins—are released first into the environment. In this study, we found that NleC displays characteristics of bacterial A-B toxins, when applied to eukaryotic cells as a recombinant protein. Although lacking a B subunit, that typically mediates the uptake of toxins, recombinant NleC (rNleC) induces endocytosis via lipid rafts and follows the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The conformation of rNleC is altered by low pH to facilitate its escape from acidified endosomes. This is reminiscent of the homologous A-B toxin AIP56 of the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae piscicida (Phdp). The recombinant protease NleC is functional inside eukaryotic cells and cleaves p65 of the NF-κB pathway. Here, we describe the endocytic uptake mechanism of rNleC, characterize its intracellular trafficking and demonstrate that its specific activity of cleaving p65 requires activation of host cells e.g., by IL1β. Further, we propose an evolutionary link between some T3SS effector proteins and bacterial toxins from apparently unrelated bacteria. In summary, these properties might suggest rNleC as an interesting candidate for future applications as a potential therapeutic against immune disorders. PMID:28451521

  4. The type III effector HsvG of the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans mediates expression of the host gene HSVGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Gal; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Chalupowicz, Laura; Teper, Doron; Yeheskel, Adva; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac

    2012-02-01

    The type III effector HsvG of the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae is a DNA-binding protein that is imported to the host nucleus and involved in host specificity. The DNA-binding region of HsvG was delineated to 266 amino acids located within a secondary structure region near the N-terminus of the protein but did not display any homology to canonical DNA-binding motifs. A binding site selection procedure was used to isolate a target gene of HsvG, named HSVGT, in Gypsophila paniculata. HSVGT is a predicted acidic protein of the DnaJ family with 244 amino acids. It harbors characteristic conserved motifs of a eukaryotic transcription factor, including a bipartite nuclear localization signal, zinc finger, and leucine zipper DNA-binding motifs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that HSVGT transcription is specifically induced in planta within 2 h after inoculation with the wild-type P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae compared with the hsvG mutant. Induction of HSVGT reached a peak of sixfold at 4 h after inoculation and progressively declined thereafter. Gel-shift assay demonstrated that HsvG binds to the HSVGT promoter, indicating that HSVGT is a direct target of HsvG. Our results support the hypothesis that HsvG functions as a transcription factor in gypsophila.

  5. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M; Szabo, Les J; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  6. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane G O Saunders

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i contain a secretion signal, (ii are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv are small and cysteine rich, (v contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii contain internal repeats, and (viii do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  7. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  8. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-08-12

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  9. Using Hierarchical Clustering of Secreted Protein Families to Classify and Rank Candidate Effectors of Rust Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G. O.; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M.; Szabo, Les J.; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components. PMID:22238666

  10. Diverse secreted effectors are required for Salmonella persistence in a mouse infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan S Kidwai

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  11. Bcl-2 Allows Effector and Memory CD8+ T Cells To Tolerate Higher Expression of Bim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Sema; Tripathi, Pulak; Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E.; Sholl, Allyson; Katz, Jonathan D.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Hildeman, David A.

    2014-01-01

    As acute infections resolve, most effector CD8+ T cells die, whereas some persist and become memory T cells. Recent work showed that subsets of effector CD8+ T cells, identified by reciprocal expression of killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) and CD127, have different lifespans. Similar to previous reports, we found that effector CD8+ T cells reported to have a longer lifespan (i.e., KLRG1lowCD127high) have increased levels of Bcl-2 compared with their shorter-lived KLRG1highCD127low counterparts. Surprisingly, we found that these effector KLRG1lowCD127high CD8+ T cells also had increased levels of Bim compared with KLRG1highCD127low cells. Similar effects were observed in memory cells, in which CD8+ central memory T cells expressed higher levels of Bim and Bcl-2 than did CD8+ effector memory T cells. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we found that survival of both subsets of effector and memory CD8+ T cells required Bcl-2 to combat the proapoptotic activity of Bim. Interestingly, inhibition or absence of Bcl-2 led to significantly decreased expression of Bim in surviving effector and memory T cells. In addition, manipulation of Bcl-2 levels by IL-7 or IL-15 also affected expression of Bim in effector CD8+ T cells. Finally, we found that Bim levels were significantly increased in effector CD8+ T cells lacking Bax and Bak. Together, these data indicate that cells having the highest levels of Bim are selected against during contraction of the response and that Bcl-2 determines the level of Bim that effector and memory T cells can tolerate. PMID:21451108